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  1. Blockade of interleukin-6 receptor enhances the anti-arthritic effect of glucocorticoids without decreasing bone mineral density in mice with collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Yoshida, H; Hashizume, M; Tanaka, K; Matsumoto, Y

    2015-11-01

    In a mouse arthritis model, we investigated whether interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) blockade would enhance the anti-arthritic effect of glucocorticoids (GCs). DBA/1J mice were immunized with type II collagen (CII), and were treated with prednisolone (PSL) and/or anti-mouse IL-6R antibody (MR16-1). Also, the effects of IL-6 on gene expression and the nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) were examined in cultured cells treated with dexamethasone (DEX). PSL reduced the arthritis score dose-dependently in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. The arthritis score in the PSL (3 mg/kg) + MR16-1 group was lower than in the PSL (3 mg/kg) group, and at the same level as in the PSL (6 mg/kg) group. Lumbar vertebra bone mineral density (BMD) was decreased significantly in CIA mice and was higher in the PSL (3 mg/kg) + MR16-1 group than in the PSL (6 mg/kg) group. In the in-vitro synovial cells, IL-6 pretreatment attenuated the inhibitory effect of DEX on cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and inhibited the nuclear translocation of GR induced by DEX. In contrast, in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, IL-6 pretreatment exacerbated the decrease in expression of osteocalcin and the increase in expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) by DEX. We demonstrated that IL-6 signalling blockade by an anti-IL-6R antibody can augment the anti-arthritic effect of GCs and inhibit the bone loss they cause. PMID:26201536

  2. Decreased Incentive Motivation Following Knockout or Acute Blockade of the Serotonin Transporter: Role of the 5-HT2C Receptor.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caleb J; Fletcher, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    Acute pharmacological elevation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) activity decreases operant responding for primary reinforcers, suggesting that 5-HT reduces incentive motivation. The mechanism by which 5-HT alters incentive motivation is unknown, but parallel evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists also reduce responding for primary reinforcers implicates this receptor as a potential candidate. These experiments examined whether chronic and acute disruptions of serotonin transporter (SERT) activity altered incentive motivation, and whether the 5-HT2C receptor mediated the effects of elevated 5-HT on behavior. To assess incentive motivation, we measured responding for three different reinforcers: a primary reinforcer (saccharin), a conditioned reinforcer (CRf), and an unconditioned sensory reinforcer (USRf). In the chronic condition, responding was compared between SERT knockout (SERT-KO) mice and their wild-type littermates. In the acute condition, responding was examined in wild-type mice following treatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg citalopram, or its vehicle. The ability of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242084 to prevent the effects of SERT-KO and citalopram on responding was subsequently examined. Both SERT-KO and citalopram reduced responding for saccharin, a CRf, and a USRf. Treatment with SB 242084 enhanced responding for a CRf and a USRf in SERT-KO mice and blocked the effects of citalopram on CRf and USRf responding. However, SB 242084 was unable to prevent the effects of SERT-KO or citalopram on responding for saccharin. These results support a powerful inhibitory function for 5-HT in the control of incentive motivation, and indicate that the 5-HT2C receptor mediates these effects of 5-HT in a reinforcer-dependent manner. PMID:27125304

  3. Pharmacological blockade of the cold receptor TRPM8 attenuates autonomic and behavioral cold defenses and decreases deep body temperature.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M Camila; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Soriano, Renato N; Rao, Sara; Wang, Weiya; Wang, Judy; Tamayo, Nuria; Oliveira, Daniela L; Nucci, Tatiane B; Aryal, Prafulla; Garami, Andras; Bautista, Diana; Gavva, Narender R; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2012-02-01

    We studied N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(4-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxybenzyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide hydrochloride (M8-B), a selective and potent antagonist of the transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) channel. In vitro, M8-B blocked cold-induced and TRPM8-agonist-induced activation of rat, human, and murine TRPM8 channels, including those on primary sensory neurons. In vivo, M8-B decreased deep body temperature (T(b)) in Trpm8(+/+) mice and rats, but not in Trpm8(-/-) mice, thus suggesting an on-target action. Intravenous administration of M8-B was more effective in decreasing T(b) in rats than intrathecal or intracerebroventricular administration, indicating a peripheral action. M8-B attenuated cold-induced c-Fos expression in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, thus indicating a site of action within the cutaneous cooling neural pathway to thermoeffectors, presumably on sensory neurons. A low intravenous dose of M8-B did not affect T(b) at either a constantly high or a constantly low ambient temperature (T(a)), but the same dose readily decreased T(b) if rats were kept at a high T(a) during the M8-B infusion and transferred to a low T(a) immediately thereafter. These data suggest that both a successful delivery of M8-B to the skin (high cutaneous perfusion) and the activation of cutaneous TRPM8 channels (by cold) are required for the hypothermic action of M8-B. At tail-skin temperatures <23°C, the magnitude of the M8-B-induced decrease in T(b) was inversely related to skin temperature, thus suggesting that M8-B blocks thermal (cold) activation of TRPM8. M8-B affected all thermoeffectors studied (thermopreferendum, tail-skin vasoconstriction, and brown fat thermogenesis), thus suggesting that TRPM8 is a universal cold receptor in the thermoregulation system.

  4. Angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockade decreases CTGF/CCN2-mediated damage and fibrosis in normal and dystrophic skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Morales, María Gabriela; Cabrera, Daniel; Vio, Carlos P; Brandan, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN-2) is mainly involved in the induction of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The levels of CTGF correlate with the degree and severity of fibrosis in many tissues, including dystrophic skeletal muscle. The CTGF overexpression in tibialis anterior skeletal muscle using an adenoviral vector reproduced many of the features observed in dystrophic muscles including muscle damage and regeneration, fibrotic response and decrease in the skeletal muscle strength. The renin–angiotensin system is involved in the genesis and progression of fibrotic diseases through its main fibrotic components angiotensin-II and its transducer receptor AT-1. The use of AT-1 receptor blockers (ARB) has been shown to decrease fibrosis. In this paper, we show the effect of AT-1 receptor blockade on CTGF-dependent biological activity in skeletal muscle cells as well as the response to CTGF overexpression in normal skeletal muscle. Our results show that in myoblasts ARB decreased CTGF-mediated increase of ECM protein levels, extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK-1/2) phosphorylation and stress fibres formation. In tibialis anterior muscle overexpressing CTGF using an adenovirus, ARB treatment decreased CTGF-mediated increase of ECM molecules, α-SMA and ERK-1/2 phosphorylation levels. Quite remarkable, ARB was able to prevent the loss of contractile force of tibialis anterior muscles overexpressing CTGF. Finally, we show that ARB decreased the levels of fibrotic proteins, CTGF and ERK-1/2 phosphorylation augmented in a dystrophic skeletal muscle from mdx mice. We propose that ARB is a novel pharmacological tool that can be used to decrease the fibrosis induced by CTGF in skeletal muscle associated with muscular dystrophies. PMID:21645240

  5. P2X7 receptor blockade protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by decreasing the activities of inflammasome components, oxidative stress and caspase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Fahuan; Cao, Xuejiao; Zhai, Zhifang; Gang Huang; Du, Xiang; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Jingbo; Huang, Yunjian; Zhao, Jinghong; Hou, Weiping

    2014-11-15

    Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. The purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the expression of P2X7R in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after P2X7R blockade in vivo using an antagonist A-438079. Moreover, we measured the changes of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRP3) inflammasome components, oxidative stress, and proapoptotic genes in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity after treatment with A-438079. We found that the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated in the renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity compared with that of the normal control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-438079 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury while lightening the histological damage, inflammatory response and apoptosis in renal tissue, and improved the renal function. These effects were associated with the significantly reduced levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components, oxidative stress, p53 and caspase-3 in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusions, our studies suggest that the upregulated activity of P2X7R might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and P2X7R blockade might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease. - Highlights: • The P2X7R expression was markedly upregulated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. • P2X7R blockade significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury. • P2X7R blockade reduced activities of NLRP3 inflammasome components in renal tissue. • P2X7R blockade

  6. The blockade of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase decreases symptoms and central sequelae in the medial prefrontal cortex of neuropathic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain is a chronic disease resulting from dysfunction within the "pain matrix". The basolateral amygdala (BLA) can modulate cortical functions and interactions between this structure and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are important for integrating emotionally salient information. In this study, we have investigated the involvement of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the morphofunctional changes occurring in the pre-limbic/infra-limbic (PL/IL) cortex in neuropathic rats. Results The effect of N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT), a hybrid FAAH inhibitor and TPRV1 channel antagonist, was tested on nociceptive behaviour associated with neuropathic pain as well as on some phenotypic changes occurring on PL/IL cortex pyramidal neurons. Those neurons were identified as belonging to the BLA-mPFC pathway by electrical stimulation of the BLA followed by hind-paw pressoceptive stimulus application. Changes in their spontaneous and evoked activity were studied in sham or spared nerve injury (SNI) rats before or after repeated treatment with AA-5-HT. Consistently with the SNI-induced changes in PL/IL cortex neurons which underwent profound phenotypic reorganization, suggesting a profound imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory responses in the mPFC neurons, we found an increase in extracellular glutamate levels, as well as the up-regulation of FAAH and TRPV1 in the PL/IL cortex of SNI rats. Daily treatment with AA-5-HT restored cortical neuronal activity, normalizing the electrophysiological changes associated with the peripheral injury of the sciatic nerve. Finally, a single acute intra-PL/IL cortex microinjection of AA-5-HT transiently decreased allodynia more effectively than URB597 or I-RTX, a selective FAAH inhibitor or a TRPV1 blocker, respectively. Conclusion These data suggest a possible involvement of endovanilloids in the cortical plastic changes

  7. Blockade of Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM) Bombesin Receptor Type 1 Decreases Blood Pressure and Sympathetic Activity in Anesthetized Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Izabella S.; Mourão, Aline A.; da Silva, Elaine F.; Camargo, Amanda S.; Marques, Stefanne M.; Gomes, Karina P.; Fajemiroye, James O.; da Silva Reis, Angela A.; Rebelo, Ana C. S.; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L.; Rosa, Daniel A.; Freiria-Oliveira, André H.; Castro, Carlos H.; Colombari, Eduardo; Colugnati, Diego B.; Pedrino, Gustavo R.

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal injection of bombesin (BBS) promoted hypertensive and sympathoexcitatory effects in normotensive (NT) rats. However, the involvement of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in these responses is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated: (1) the effects of BBS injected bilaterally into RVLM on cardiorespiratory and sympathetic activity in NT and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); (2) the contribution of RVLM BBS type 1 receptors (BB1) to the maintenance of hypertension in SHR. Urethane-anesthetized rats (1.2 g · kg−1, i.v.) were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure (MAP), diaphragm (DIA) motor, and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). In NT rats and SHR, BBS (0.3 mM) nanoinjected into RVLM increased MAP (33.9 ± 6.6 and 37.1 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively; p < 0.05) and RSNA (97.8 ± 12.9 and 84.5 ± 18.1%, respectively; p < 0.05). In SHR, BBS also increased DIA burst amplitude (115.3 ± 22.7%; p < 0.05). BB1 receptors antagonist (BIM-23127; 3 mM) reduced MAP (–19.9 ± 4.4 mmHg; p < 0.05) and RSNA (−17.7 ± 3.8%; p < 0.05) in SHR, but not in NT rats (−2.5 ± 2.8 mmHg; −2.7 ± 5.6%, respectively). These results show that BBS can evoke sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses by activating RVLM BB1 receptors. This pathway might be involved in the maintenance of high levels of arterial blood pressure in SHR. PMID:27313544

  8. Blockade of Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM) Bombesin Receptor Type 1 Decreases Blood Pressure and Sympathetic Activity in Anesthetized Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Izabella S; Mourão, Aline A; da Silva, Elaine F; Camargo, Amanda S; Marques, Stefanne M; Gomes, Karina P; Fajemiroye, James O; da Silva Reis, Angela A; Rebelo, Ana C S; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Rosa, Daniel A; Freiria-Oliveira, André H; Castro, Carlos H; Colombari, Eduardo; Colugnati, Diego B; Pedrino, Gustavo R

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal injection of bombesin (BBS) promoted hypertensive and sympathoexcitatory effects in normotensive (NT) rats. However, the involvement of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in these responses is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated: (1) the effects of BBS injected bilaterally into RVLM on cardiorespiratory and sympathetic activity in NT and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); (2) the contribution of RVLM BBS type 1 receptors (BB1) to the maintenance of hypertension in SHR. Urethane-anesthetized rats (1.2 g · kg(-1), i.v.) were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure (MAP), diaphragm (DIA) motor, and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). In NT rats and SHR, BBS (0.3 mM) nanoinjected into RVLM increased MAP (33.9 ± 6.6 and 37.1 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively; p < 0.05) and RSNA (97.8 ± 12.9 and 84.5 ± 18.1%, respectively; p < 0.05). In SHR, BBS also increased DIA burst amplitude (115.3 ± 22.7%; p < 0.05). BB1 receptors antagonist (BIM-23127; 3 mM) reduced MAP (-19.9 ± 4.4 mmHg; p < 0.05) and RSNA (-17.7 ± 3.8%; p < 0.05) in SHR, but not in NT rats (-2.5 ± 2.8 mmHg; -2.7 ± 5.6%, respectively). These results show that BBS can evoke sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses by activating RVLM BB1 receptors. This pathway might be involved in the maintenance of high levels of arterial blood pressure in SHR. PMID:27313544

  9. Duration of opioid receptor blockade determines biotherapeutic response.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Patricia J; Zagon, Ian S

    2015-10-01

    Historically, studies on endogenous and exogenous opioids and their receptors focused on the mediation of pain, with excess opiate consumption leading to addiction. Opioid antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone blocked these interactions, and still are widely used to reverse drug and alcohol overdose. Although specific opioid antagonists have been designed for mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors, the general antagonists remain the most effective. With the discovery of the opioid growth factor (OGF)-OGF receptor (OGFr) axis as a novel biological pathway involved in homeostasis of replicating cells and tissues, the role of opioid receptor antagonists was expanded. An intermittent OGFr blockade by low dosages of naltrexone resulted in depressed cell replication, whereas high (or sustained) dosages of naltrexone that conferred a continuous OGFr blockade resulted in enhanced growth. More than 3 decades of research have confirmed that the duration of opioid receptor blockade, not specifically the dosage, by general opioid antagonists determines the biotherapeutic outcome. Dysregulation of the OGF-OGFr pathway is apparent in a number of human disorders including diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and cancer, and thus opioid antagonist disruption of interaction prevails as a therapeutic intervention. We review evidence that the duration of opioid receptor blockade is correlated with the magnitude and direction of response, and discuss the potential therapeutic effectiveness of continuous receptor blockade for treatment of diabetic complications such as corneal defects and skin wounds, and of intermittent receptor blockade by low dosages of naltrexone for treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer. PMID:26119823

  10. Assessment of Methods for the Intracellular Blockade of GABAA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Laura A; Burnell, Erica S; Mellor, Jack R

    2016-01-01

    Selective blockade of inhibitory synaptic transmission onto specific neurons is a useful tool for dissecting the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of ongoing network activity. To achieve this, intracellular recording with a patch solution capable of blocking GABAA receptors has advantages over other manipulations, such as pharmacological application of GABAergic antagonists or optogenetic inhibition of populations of interneurones, in that the majority of inhibitory transmission is unaffected and hence the remaining network activity preserved. Here, we assess three previously described methods to block inhibition: intracellular application of the molecules picrotoxin, 4,4'-dinitro-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DNDS) and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). DNDS and picrotoxin were both found to be ineffective at blocking evoked, monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) onto mouse CA1 pyramidal cells. An intracellular solution containing DIDS and caesium fluoride, but lacking nucleotides ATP and GTP, was effective at decreasing the amplitude of IPSCs. However, this effect was found to be independent of DIDS, and the absence of intracellular nucleotides, and was instead due to the presence of fluoride ions in this intracellular solution, which also blocked spontaneously occurring IPSCs during hippocampal sharp waves. Critically, intracellular fluoride ions also caused a decrease in both spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic currents and precluded the inclusion of nucleotides in the intracellular solution. Therefore, of the methods tested, only fluoride ions were effective for intracellular blockade of IPSCs but this approach has additional cellular effects reducing its selectivity and utility. PMID:27501143

  11. Brain temperature responses to salient stimuli persist during dopamine receptor blockade despite a blockade of locomotor responses.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2008-12-01

    We examined how an acute dopamine (DA) receptor blockade affects locomotor and brain (nucleus accumbens or NAcc), muscle and skin temperature responses to three arousing stimuli (procedure of sc injection, tail-pinch and social interaction with another male rat) and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). DA receptor blockade was induced by mixture of D1- (SCH23390) and D-2 selective (eticlopride) DA antagonists at 0.2 mg/kg doses. Each arousing stimulus and cocaine caused locomotor activation, prolonged increase in NAcc and muscle temperature (0.6-1.0 degrees C for 20-50 min) and transient skin hypothermia (-0.6 degrees C for 1-3 min) in drug-naive conditions. DA receptor blockade strongly decreased basal locomotor activity, but moderately increased brain, muscle and skin temperatures. Therefore, selective interruption of DA transmission does not inhibit the brain, making it more metabolically active and warmer despite skin vasodilatation and the enhanced heat loss to the body and the external environment. DA antagonists strongly decreased locomotor responses to all stimuli and cocaine, had no effects on acute skin vasoconstriction, but differentially affected stimuli- and drug-induced changes in NAcc and muscle temperatures. While brain and muscle temperatures induced by cocaine were fully blocked and both temperatures slightly decreased, temperature increases induced by tail-pinch and social interaction, despite a significant attenuation, persisted during DA receptor blockade. These data are discussed to define the role of the DA system in regulating the central activation processes and behavioral responsiveness to natural arousing and drug stimuli. PMID:18727935

  12. Assessment of Methods for the Intracellular Blockade of GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Laura A.; Burnell, Erica S.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    Selective blockade of inhibitory synaptic transmission onto specific neurons is a useful tool for dissecting the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of ongoing network activity. To achieve this, intracellular recording with a patch solution capable of blocking GABAA receptors has advantages over other manipulations, such as pharmacological application of GABAergic antagonists or optogenetic inhibition of populations of interneurones, in that the majority of inhibitory transmission is unaffected and hence the remaining network activity preserved. Here, we assess three previously described methods to block inhibition: intracellular application of the molecules picrotoxin, 4,4’-dinitro-stilbene-2,2’-disulphonic acid (DNDS) and 4,4’-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2’-disulphonic acid (DIDS). DNDS and picrotoxin were both found to be ineffective at blocking evoked, monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) onto mouse CA1 pyramidal cells. An intracellular solution containing DIDS and caesium fluoride, but lacking nucleotides ATP and GTP, was effective at decreasing the amplitude of IPSCs. However, this effect was found to be independent of DIDS, and the absence of intracellular nucleotides, and was instead due to the presence of fluoride ions in this intracellular solution, which also blocked spontaneously occurring IPSCs during hippocampal sharp waves. Critically, intracellular fluoride ions also caused a decrease in both spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic currents and precluded the inclusion of nucleotides in the intracellular solution. Therefore, of the methods tested, only fluoride ions were effective for intracellular blockade of IPSCs but this approach has additional cellular effects reducing its selectivity and utility. PMID:27501143

  13. P2X1 receptor blockade inhibits whole kidney autoregulation of renal blood flow in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, David A.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro experiments demonstrate that P2X1 receptor activation is important for normal afferent arteriolar autoregulatory behavior, but direct in vivo evidence for this relationship occurring in the whole kidney is unavailable. Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that P2X1 receptors are important for autoregulation of whole kidney blood flow. Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats before and during P2 receptor blockade with PPADS, P2X1 receptor blockade with IP5I, or A1 receptor blockade with DPCPX. Both P2X1 and A1 receptor stimulation with α,β-methylene ATP and CPA, respectively, caused dose-dependent decreases in RBF. Administration of either PPADS or IP5I significantly blocked P2X1 receptor stimulation. Likewise, administration of DPCPX significantly blocked A1 receptor activation to CPA. Autoregulatory behavior was assessed by measuring RBF responses to reductions in renal perfusion pressure. In vehicle-infused rats, as pressure was decreased from 120 to 100 mmHg, there was no decrease in RBF. However, in either PPADS- or IP5I-infused rats, each decrease in pressure resulted in a significant decrease in RBF, demonstrating loss of autoregulatory ability. In DPCPX-infused rats, reductions in pressure did not cause significant reductions in RBF over the pressure range of 100–120 mmHg, but the autoregulatory curve tended to be steeper than vehicle-infused rats over the range of 80–100 mmHg, suggesting that A1 receptors may influence RBF at lower pressures. These findings are consistent with in vitro data from afferent arterioles and support the hypothesis that P2X1 receptor activation is important for whole kidney autoregulation in vivo. PMID:20335318

  14. Blockade of central delta-opioid receptors inhibits salt appetite in sodium-depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A I R; Ferreira, H S; Cerqueira, D R; Fregoneze, J B

    2014-05-01

    Various studies have investigated the role of central opioid peptides in feeding behavior; however, only a few have addressed the participation of opioids in the control of salt appetite. The present study investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular injections of the δ-opioid antagonist, naltrindole (5, 10 and 20 nmol/rat) and the agonist, deltorphin II (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 nmol/rat) on salt intake. Two protocols for inducing salt intake were used: sodium-depletion and the central injection of angiotensin II. In addition, the effect of a central δ-opioid receptor blockade on locomotor activity, on palatable solution intake (0.1% saccharin) and on blood pressure was also studied. The blockade of central δ-opioid receptors inhibits salt intake in sodium-depleted rats, while the pharmacological stimulation of these receptors increases salt intake in sodium-replete animals. Furthermore, the blockade of central δ-opioid receptors inhibits salt intake induced by central angiotensinergic stimulation. These data suggest that during sodium-depletion activation of the δ-opioid receptors regulates salt appetite to correct the sodium imbalance and it is possible that an interaction between opioidergic and angiotensinergic brain system participates in this control. Under normonatremic conditions, δ-opioid receptors may be necessary to modulate sodium intake, a response that could be mediated by angiotensin II. The decrease in salt intake following central δ-opioid receptors blockade does not appear to be due to a general inhibition of locomotor activity, changes in palatability or in blood pressure.

  15. Identification and specific blockade of two receptors for histamine in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Powell, J R; Brody, M J

    1976-01-01

    Histamine caused a fall in blood pressure in anesthetized dogs and cats which was only partially attenuated by mepyramine (pyrilamine), a histamine type H1-receptor antagonist. Further treatment with burimide or metiamide, type H2-receptor antagonists, caused nearly complete attenuation of the response to histamine. Burimamide alone had no effect on vasodilatation produced by histamine in the dog gracilis muscle whereas mepyramine alone caused a partial attenuation. An H2-receptor agonist, 4-methylhistamine and an H1-receptor agonist, 2-(2-pyridyl)ethylamine, both produced vasodilatation which was blocked by metiamide and mepyramine, respectively. Constriction of the saphenous vein produced by histamine was found to involve interaction with H1-receptors only. In the intact dog, histamine increased heart rate and decreased left ventricular dp/dt through direct effects. Mepyramine prevented the increase in heart rate but did not affect the chronotropic actions of isoproterenol and glyceryl trinitrate. H1-receptor blockade did not alter inotropic effects whereas subsequent H2-receptor blockade prevented the negative inotropic effect of histamine. It is concluded that both peripheral vascular and cardiac responses to histamine are mediated through activation of H1- and H2-histamine receptors.

  16. Chloride dysregulation and inhibitory receptor blockade yield equivalent disinhibition of spinal neurons yet are differentially reversed by carbonic anhydrase blockade.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan Yeop; Prescott, Steven A

    2015-12-01

    Synaptic inhibition plays a key role in processing somatosensory information. Blocking inhibition at the spinal level is sufficient to produce mechanical allodynia, and many neuropathic pain conditions are associated with reduced inhibition. Disinhibition of spinal neurons can arise through decreased GABAA/glycine receptor activation or through dysregulation of intracellular chloride. We hypothesized that these distinct disinhibitory mechanisms, despite all causing allodynia, are differentially susceptible to therapeutic intervention. Specifically, we predicted that reducing bicarbonate efflux by blocking carbonic anhydrase with acetazolamide (ACTZ) would counteract disinhibition caused by chloride dysregulation without affecting normal inhibition or disinhibition caused by GABAA/glycine receptor blockade. To test this, responses to innocuous tactile stimulation were recorded in vivo from rat superficial dorsal horn neurons before and after different forms of pharmacological disinhibition and again after application of ACTZ. Blocking GABAA or glycine receptors caused hyperresponsiveness equivalent to that caused by blocking the potassium chloride cotransporter KCC2, but, consistent with our predictions, only disinhibition caused by KCC2 blockade was counteracted by ACTZ. ACTZ did not alter responses of neurons with intact inhibition. As pathological downregulation of KCC2 is triggered by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, we also confirmed that ACTZ was effective against brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced hyperresponsiveness. Our results argue that intrathecal ACTZ has antiallodynic effects only if allodynia arises through chloride dysregulation; therefore, behavioral evidence that ACTZ is antiallodynic in nerve-injured animals affirms the contribution of chloride dysregulation as a key pathological mechanism. Although different disinhibitory mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, these results demonstrate that their relative contribution dictates which

  17. Activity blockade and GABAA receptor blockade produce synaptic scaling through chloride accumulation in embryonic spinal motoneurons and interneurons.

    PubMed

    Lindsly, Casie; Gonzalez-Islas, Carlos; Wenner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic scaling represents a process whereby the distribution of a cell's synaptic strengths are altered by a multiplicative scaling factor. Scaling is thought to be a compensatory response that homeostatically controls spiking activity levels in the cell or network. Previously, we observed GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic spinal motoneurons following in vivo blockade of either spiking activity or GABAA receptors (GABAARs). We had determined that activity blockade triggered upward GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, thus increasing the driving force for these currents. To determine whether chloride accumulation also underlies GABAergic scaling following GABAAR blockade we have developed a new technique. We expressed a genetically encoded chloride-indicator, Clomeleon, in the embryonic chick spinal cord, which provides a non-invasive fast measure of intracellular chloride. Using this technique we now show that chloride accumulation underlies GABAergic scaling following blockade of either spiking activity or the GABAAR. The finding that GABAAR blockade and activity blockade trigger scaling via a common mechanism supports our hypothesis that activity blockade reduces GABAAR activation, which triggers synaptic scaling. In addition, Clomeleon imaging demonstrated the time course and widespread nature of GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, as it was also observed in spinal interneurons. This suggests that homeostatic scaling via chloride accumulation is a common feature in many neuronal classes within the embryonic spinal cord and opens the possibility that this process may occur throughout the nervous system at early stages of development.

  18. ETA receptor blockade potentiates the bronchoconstrictor response to ET-1 in the guinea pig airway.

    PubMed

    Polakowski, J S; Opgenorth, T J; Pollock, D M

    1996-08-01

    The effect of ETA receptor blockade on the bronchopulmonary response to endothelin-1 was determined in the airway of the anesthetized, spontaneously breathing guinea pig. Endothelin-1 administered as an aerosol increased lung resistance and decreased dynamic lung compliance. Delivery of the ETA receptor antagonist, FR139317, 5 min prior to giving endothelin-1 greatly potentiated these changes. A lower dose of endothelin-1 that had no effect on resistance or compliance produced large and significant changes when pretreated with FR139317. In contrast, aerosolized FR139317 had no effect on the bronchopulmonary response to intravenously administered endothelin-1. These data suggest a non-contractile function of ETA receptors accessible from the airways that serve to buffer the constrictor effects of non-ETA receptors.

  19. Mononuclear cell complement receptor blockade in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aghbar, M N; Neuberger, J; Williams, R; Eddleston, A L

    1985-01-01

    Peripheral blood monocyte and lymphocyte receptors for Fc and C3b fragments were examined in vitro in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases using sheep red blood cells coated with anti-SRBC IgG1 (to detect Fc receptors) and with anti-SRBC IgM and complement (to detect C3b receptors). The number of C3b receptors detected on 100 monocytes was significantly lower in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (23.0 +/- 12.0, mean +/- 1 SD) compared with normal controls (57.4 +/- 16.9) and other chronic liver disease (HBsAg negative chronic active hepatitis 62.0 +/- 17.0, alcoholic cirrhosis 50.9 +/- 4.0), while the number of Fc receptors detected on 100 monocytes was not significantly different in all the groups (primary biliary cirrhosis 72.8 +/- 28.6, chronic active hepatitis 74.7 +/- 14.0, alcoholic cirrhosis 58.0 +/- 13.5 and normal controls 69.6 +/- 19.9). When mononuclear cells isolated from normal individuals were pre-incubated with serum from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis before testing their receptor function there was a significant reduction in the number of C3b receptors detected per 100 monocytes (27.6 +/- 10.8) compared with pre-incubation with normal serum (72.0 +/- 18.0). This reduction in C3b-receptor function was again observed when the serum used for pre-incubation was depleted of circulating immune complexes; but when complement was further depleted from these sera, the number of C3b-receptors detected after pre-incubation was similar to normal values (64.0 +/- 11.8). Lymphocyte receptors showed a similar pattern of results. This implies a specific C3b receptor blockade on monocytes and lymphocytes from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis which appears to be because of blocking by serum factor(s) including complement fragments. PMID:3155513

  20. Influence of antiseptics on microcirculation after neuronal and receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Ole; Hirsch, Tobias; Ring, Andrej; Muehlberger, Thomas; Steinau, Hans U; Tilkorn, Daniel; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Homann, Heinz H

    2011-08-01

    The topical application of the antiseptics octenidine and polyhexanide on wounds seems to improve microcirculation. These two antiseptics were tested in combination with neuronal inhibition and sympathethic receptor blockade to verify these findings, explore the influence of β blockers on these microcirculative effects, and find out the principle of operation. Investigations were carried out on a standardised cremaster muscle model in rats (n = 66). The tested antiseptics, octenidine and polyhexanide were investigated alone (n = 12) and in combination with bupivacaine (n = 12), metoprolol (n = 12), phentolamine (n = 12) and surgical denervation (n = 12). Physiological saline was used for control (n = 6). The arteriolar diameter and functional capillary density (FCD) were investigated via trans-illumination microscopy before, as well as 60 and 120 minutes after application. Polyhexanide caused a significant increase in arteriolar diameter (86·5 ± 3·8 µm versus 100·0 ± 3·6 µm) and, like octenidine (7·2 ± 0·7 n/0·22 mm(2) versus 11·6 ± 0·6 n/0·22 mm(2) ), in FCD (9·2 ± 0·5 versus 12·6 ± 0·9) as well. When the antiseptics are used in combination with bupivacaine, metoprolol, phentolamine or surgical sympathectomy, these effects were eliminated or inverted. Assessing the results of the different blockades in combination with polyhexanide, we surmise that the antiseptic polyhexanide acts on the microcirculation mainly by blocking α receptors. This study shows that polyhexanide and octenidine improve muscular perfusion. Interestingly, the benefit of polyhexanide and octenidine on muscular perfusion is eliminated when the antiseptics are combined with other vasoactive agents, especially β blockers.

  1. The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Pamenter, Matthew E.; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A.; Powell, Frank L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839–1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antagonism remain unknown in awake rats. To evaluate this, we exposed rats to room air or chronic sustained hypobaric hypoxia (CSH, PiO2 = 70 Torr) for 7–9 days. On the experimental day, we microinjected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF: sham) and then a “cocktail” of the GluR antagonists MK‐801 and DNQX into the NTS. The location of injection sites in the NTS was confirmed by glutamate injections on a day before the experiment and with histology following the experiment. Ventilation was measured in awake, unrestrained rats breathing normoxia or acute hypoxia (10% O2) in 15‐min intervals using barometric pressure plethysmography. In control (CON) rats, acute hypoxia increased ventilation; NTS microinjections of GluR antagonists, but not ACSF, significantly decreased ventilation and breathing frequency in acute hypoxia but not normoxia (P <0.05). CSH increased ventilation in hypoxia and acute normoxia. In CSH‐conditioned rats, GluR antagonists in the NTS significantly decreased ventilation in normoxia and breathing frequency in hypoxia. A persistent HVR after combined GluR blockade in the NTS contrasts with the effect of individual GluR blockade and also with results in anesthetized rats. Our findings support the hypotheses that GluRs in the NTS contribute to, but cannot completely explain, VAH in awake rats. PMID:25107985

  2. The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Pamenter, Matthew E; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A; Powell, Frank L

    2014-08-01

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839-1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antagonism remain unknown in awake rats. To evaluate this, we exposed rats to room air or chronic sustained hypobaric hypoxia (CSH, PiO2 = 70 Torr) for 7-9 days. On the experimental day, we microinjected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF: sham) and then a "cocktail" of the GluR antagonists MK-801 and DNQX into the NTS. The location of injection sites in the NTS was confirmed by glutamate injections on a day before the experiment and with histology following the experiment. Ventilation was measured in awake, unrestrained rats breathing normoxia or acute hypoxia (10% O2) in 15-min intervals using barometric pressure plethysmography. In control (CON) rats, acute hypoxia increased ventilation; NTS microinjections of GluR antagonists, but not ACSF, significantly decreased ventilation and breathing frequency in acute hypoxia but not normoxia (P < 0.05). CSH increased ventilation in hypoxia and acute normoxia. In CSH-conditioned rats, GluR antagonists in the NTS significantly decreased ventilation in normoxia and breathing frequency in hypoxia. A persistent HVR after combined GluR blockade in the NTS contrasts with the effect of individual GluR blockade and also with results in anesthetized rats. Our findings support the hypotheses that GluRs in the NTS contribute to, but cannot completely explain, VAH in awake rats.

  3. The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Pamenter, Matthew E; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A; Powell, Frank L

    2014-08-01

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839-1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antagonism remain unknown in awake rats. To evaluate this, we exposed rats to room air or chronic sustained hypobaric hypoxia (CSH, PiO2 = 70 Torr) for 7-9 days. On the experimental day, we microinjected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF: sham) and then a "cocktail" of the GluR antagonists MK-801 and DNQX into the NTS. The location of injection sites in the NTS was confirmed by glutamate injections on a day before the experiment and with histology following the experiment. Ventilation was measured in awake, unrestrained rats breathing normoxia or acute hypoxia (10% O2) in 15-min intervals using barometric pressure plethysmography. In control (CON) rats, acute hypoxia increased ventilation; NTS microinjections of GluR antagonists, but not ACSF, significantly decreased ventilation and breathing frequency in acute hypoxia but not normoxia (P < 0.05). CSH increased ventilation in hypoxia and acute normoxia. In CSH-conditioned rats, GluR antagonists in the NTS significantly decreased ventilation in normoxia and breathing frequency in hypoxia. A persistent HVR after combined GluR blockade in the NTS contrasts with the effect of individual GluR blockade and also with results in anesthetized rats. Our findings support the hypotheses that GluRs in the NTS contribute to, but cannot completely explain, VAH in awake rats. PMID:25107985

  4. Ventral Midbrain NMDA Receptor Blockade: From Enhanced Reward and Dopamine Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Giovanni; Cossette, Marie-Pierre; Shizgal, Peter; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate stimulates ventral midbrain (VM) N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR) to initiate dopamine (DA) burst firing activity, a mode of discharge associated with enhanced DA release and reward. Blockade of VM NMDAR, however, enhances brain stimulation reward (BSR), the results can be explained by a reduction in the inhibitory drive on DA neurons that is also under the control of glutamate. In this study, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in anesthetized animals to determine whether this enhancement is associated with a change in phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens. Rats were implanted with a stimulation electrode in the dorsal-raphe (DR) and bilateral cannulae above the VM and trained to self-administer trains of electrical stimulation. The curve-shift method was used to evaluate the effect of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5 μl/side) of the NMDAR antagonist, (2R,4S)-4-(3-Phosphopropyl)-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid (PPPA), on reward. These animals were then anesthetized and DA release was measured during delivery of electrical stimulation before and after VM microinjection of the vehicle followed by PPPA. As expected, phasic DA release and operant responding depended similarly on the frequency of rewarding electrical stimulation. As anticipated, PPPA produced a significant reward enhancement. Unexpectedly, PPPA produced a decrease in the magnitude of DA transients at all tested frequencies. To test whether this decrease resulted from excessive activation of DA neurons, we injected apomorphine 20 min after PPPA microinjection. At a dose (100 μg s.c.) sufficient to reduce DA firing under control conditions, apomorphine restored electrical stimulation-induced DA transients. These findings show that combined electrical stimulation and VM NMDARs blockade induce DA inactivation, an effect that indirectly demonstrates that VM NMDARs blockade enhances reward by potentiating stimulation-induced excitation in the mesoaccumbens DA pathway. PMID:27616984

  5. Ventral Midbrain NMDA Receptor Blockade: From Enhanced Reward and Dopamine Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Giovanni; Cossette, Marie-Pierre; Shizgal, Peter; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate stimulates ventral midbrain (VM) N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR) to initiate dopamine (DA) burst firing activity, a mode of discharge associated with enhanced DA release and reward. Blockade of VM NMDAR, however, enhances brain stimulation reward (BSR), the results can be explained by a reduction in the inhibitory drive on DA neurons that is also under the control of glutamate. In this study, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in anesthetized animals to determine whether this enhancement is associated with a change in phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens. Rats were implanted with a stimulation electrode in the dorsal-raphe (DR) and bilateral cannulae above the VM and trained to self-administer trains of electrical stimulation. The curve-shift method was used to evaluate the effect of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5 μl/side) of the NMDAR antagonist, (2R,4S)-4-(3-Phosphopropyl)-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid (PPPA), on reward. These animals were then anesthetized and DA release was measured during delivery of electrical stimulation before and after VM microinjection of the vehicle followed by PPPA. As expected, phasic DA release and operant responding depended similarly on the frequency of rewarding electrical stimulation. As anticipated, PPPA produced a significant reward enhancement. Unexpectedly, PPPA produced a decrease in the magnitude of DA transients at all tested frequencies. To test whether this decrease resulted from excessive activation of DA neurons, we injected apomorphine 20 min after PPPA microinjection. At a dose (100 μg s.c.) sufficient to reduce DA firing under control conditions, apomorphine restored electrical stimulation-induced DA transients. These findings show that combined electrical stimulation and VM NMDARs blockade induce DA inactivation, an effect that indirectly demonstrates that VM NMDARs blockade enhances reward by potentiating stimulation-induced excitation in the mesoaccumbens DA pathway. PMID:27616984

  6. Ventral Midbrain NMDA Receptor Blockade: From Enhanced Reward and Dopamine Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Giovanni; Cossette, Marie-Pierre; Shizgal, Peter; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate stimulates ventral midbrain (VM) N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR) to initiate dopamine (DA) burst firing activity, a mode of discharge associated with enhanced DA release and reward. Blockade of VM NMDAR, however, enhances brain stimulation reward (BSR), the results can be explained by a reduction in the inhibitory drive on DA neurons that is also under the control of glutamate. In this study, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in anesthetized animals to determine whether this enhancement is associated with a change in phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens. Rats were implanted with a stimulation electrode in the dorsal-raphe (DR) and bilateral cannulae above the VM and trained to self-administer trains of electrical stimulation. The curve-shift method was used to evaluate the effect of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5 μl/side) of the NMDAR antagonist, (2R,4S)-4-(3-Phosphopropyl)-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid (PPPA), on reward. These animals were then anesthetized and DA release was measured during delivery of electrical stimulation before and after VM microinjection of the vehicle followed by PPPA. As expected, phasic DA release and operant responding depended similarly on the frequency of rewarding electrical stimulation. As anticipated, PPPA produced a significant reward enhancement. Unexpectedly, PPPA produced a decrease in the magnitude of DA transients at all tested frequencies. To test whether this decrease resulted from excessive activation of DA neurons, we injected apomorphine 20 min after PPPA microinjection. At a dose (100 μg s.c.) sufficient to reduce DA firing under control conditions, apomorphine restored electrical stimulation-induced DA transients. These findings show that combined electrical stimulation and VM NMDARs blockade induce DA inactivation, an effect that indirectly demonstrates that VM NMDARs blockade enhances reward by potentiating stimulation-induced excitation in the mesoaccumbens DA pathway.

  7. Selective endothelin-A receptor blockade attenuates endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Endothelin-1 is a potent mediator of sepsis-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The pulmonary vascular effects of selective blockade of endothelin receptor subtype A (ETAR) during endotoxemia remain unknown. We hypothesized that selective ETAR antagonism attenuates endotoxin-induced PH and improves pulmonary artery (PA) vasoreactivity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–450 g) received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Salmonella typhimurium; 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle 6 hours before hemodynamic assessment and tissue harvest. The selective ETAR antagonist sitaxsentan (10 or 20 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intravenously 3 hours after receipt of LPS. Right ventricular systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), oxygenation (P/F ratio), and serum bicarbonate were measured. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell differential and lung wet-to-dry ratios were obtained. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxations were determined in isolated PA rings. PA interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured. LPS caused PH, decreased MAP, CO, and serum bicarbonate, and increased PA IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and iNOS mRNA. Sitaxsentan attenuated sepsis-induced PH and increased MAP. The P/F ratio, CO, serum bicarbonate, and BAL neutrophilia were not affected by sitaxsentan. In isolated PA rings, while not affecting phenylephrine-induced vasocontraction or endothelium-dependent relaxation, sitaxsentan dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced alterations in endothelium-independent relaxation. PA cytokine mRNA levels were not significantly attenuated by ETAR blockade. We conclude that ETAR blockade attenuates endotoxin-induced alterations in systemic and PA pressures without negatively affecting oxygenation. This protective effect appears to be mediated not by attenuation of sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, acidosis, or alveolar

  8. Genetic deletion and pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors modulates anxiety in the shock-probe burying test.

    PubMed

    Degroot, Aldemar; Nomikos, George G

    2004-08-01

    Cannabinoids affect various behavioral processes, including emotion, learning and memory, which may be specifically regulated through the CB1 receptors. The exact role CB1 receptors play in anxiety remains unclear. Both genetic and pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors have produced inconsistent effects on anxiety. However, these studies examined passive avoidance as an index of anxiety. In the present study, both active and passive avoidance were examined using the shock-probe burying test while CB1 receptors were blocked genetically or pharmacologically. In the shock-probe burying test, anxiety is reflected by increased burying (increased active avoidance) and increased freezing (increased passive avoidance). In addition, probe-contacts may reflect cognitive performance and/or passive avoidance. As there have been few studies examining mouse behavior in the shock-probe burying test, experiment 1 was designed to pharmacologically validate this model in mice. Our results indicated that administration (i.p.) of chlordiazepoxide (4 mg/kg) or FG7412 (5 mg/kg) decreased and increased burying behavior, respectively, without affecting freezing or the number of probe contacts. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that both CB1 knockout mice and mice injected (i.p.) with 3 or 10 mg/kg, but not 1 mg/kg, of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A had lower burying scores, fewer contacts with the probe and similar freezing times compared with wild-type mice and mice injected with vehicle (experiments 2 and 3). Collectively, these results suggest that CB1 receptor blockade reduces some, but not all, aspects of anxiety. The decrease in probe contacts induced by CB1 receptor blockade may be due to enhanced cognition.

  9. Blockade of orexin-1 receptors attenuates orexin-2 receptor antagonism-induced sleep promotion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dugovic, Christine; Shelton, Jonathan E; Aluisio, Leah E; Fraser, Ian C; Jiang, Xiaohui; Sutton, Steven W; Bonaventure, Pascal; Yun, Sujin; Li, Xiaorong; Lord, Brian; Dvorak, Curt A; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Lovenberg, Timothy W

    2009-07-01

    Orexins are peptides produced by lateral hypothalamic neurons that exert a prominent role in the maintenance of wakefulness by activating orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptor located in wake-active structures. Pharmacological blockade of both receptors by the dual OX1/2R antagonist (2R)-2-[(1S)-6,7-dimethoxy-1-{2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl]-N-methyl-2-phenylethanamide (almorexant) has been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans during their active period. However, the selective distribution of OX1R and OX2R in distinct neuronal circuits may result in a differential impact of these receptors in sleep-wake modulation. The respective role of OX1R and OX2R on sleep in correlation with monoamine release was evaluated in rats treated with selective antagonists alone or in combination. When administered in either phase of the light/dark cycle, the OX2R antagonist 1-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-3-[(4S,5S)-2,2-dimethyl-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl]urea (JNJ-10397049) decreased the latency for persistent sleep and increased nonrapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep time. Almorexant produced less hypnotic activity, whereas the OX1R antagonist 1-(6,8-difluoro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]urea (SB-408124) had no effect. Microdialysis studies showed that either OX2R or OX1/2R antagonism decreased extracellular histamine concentration in the lateral hypothalamus, whereas both OX1R and OX1/2R antagonists increased dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, coadministration of the OX1R with the OX2R antagonist greatly attenuated the sleep-promoting effects of the OX2R antagonist. These results indicate that blockade of OX2R is sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, consistent with the hypothesis of a deactivation of the histaminergic system. In addition, it is suggested that simultaneous inhibition of OX1R attenuates the sleep-promoting effects mediated by selective OX2R blockade, possibly correlated

  10. [Pulmonary hemodynamics following experimental myocardial ischemia after the blockade of adrenergic receptors].

    PubMed

    Evlakhov, V I; Poiasov, I Z

    2015-01-01

    In acute experiments in anesthetized rabbits the changes of the pulmonary hemodynamics following 60 s myocardial ischemia in the region of the descendent left coronary artery were studied in control animals and after the blockade of α-adrenoreceptors by phentolamine or β-adrenoreceptors by propranolol. Following myocardial ischemia in control animals the pulmonary artery pressure and flow decreased, the pulmonary vascular resistance did not change, the left atrial pressure elevated; the cardiac output decreased more than pulmonary artery flow. Following myocardial ischemia after the blockade of β-adrenoreceptors the pulmonary artery pressure decreased more than in control animals, the pulmonary artery flow was decreased in the same level as in the last case. The pulmonary vascular resistance was diminished, the left atrial pressure increased; the pulmonary artery flow and cardiac output decreased in the same level. Following myocardial ischemia after the blockade of β-adrenoreceptors the pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance decreased more than after the blockade of α-adrenoreceptors, the left atrial pressure did not change. In both cases the pulmonary artery flow decreased in the same level and its changes were correlated with venous return shifts. The differences of the pulmonary artery changes following myocardial ischemia after the blockade of α- and β-adrenoreceptors are caused not only the different pulmonary vascular resistance changes, but also the left atrial pressure.

  11. Continuous neuromuscular blockade is associated with decreased mortality in post-cardiac arrest patients

    PubMed Central

    Salciccioli, Justin D.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Ornato, Joseph P.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Gaieski, David F.; Clore, John; Gautam, Shiva; Giberson, Tyler; Callaway, Clifton W.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Neuromuscular blockade may improve outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. In post-cardiac arrest patients receiving therapeutic hypothermia, neuromuscular blockade is often used to prevent shivering. Our objective was to determine whether neuromuscular blockade is associated with improved outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods A post-hoc analysis of a prospective observational study of comatose adult (> 18 years) out-of-hospital cardiac arrest at 4 tertiary cardiac arrest centers. The primary exposure of interest was neuromuscular blockade for 24 hours following return of spontaneous circulation and primary outcomes were in-hospital survival and neurologically intact survival. Secondary outcomes were evolution of oxygenation (PaO2:FiO2), and change in lactate. We tested the primary outcomes of in-hospital survival and neurologically intact survival with multivariable logistic regression. Secondary outcomes were tested with multivariable linear mixed-models. Results A total of 111 patients were analyzed. In patients with 24 hours of sustained neuromuscular blockade, the crude survival rate was 14/18 (78%) compared to 38/93 (41%) in patients without sustained neuromuscular blockade (p = 0.004). After multivariable adjustment, neuromuscular blockade was associated with survival (adjusted OR: 7.23, 95% CI: 1.56 –33.38). There was a trend toward improved functional outcome with neuromuscular blockade (50% vs. 28%; p = 0.07). Sustained neuromuscular blockade was associated with improved lactate clearance (adjusted p = 0.01). Conclusions We found that early neuromuscular blockade for a 24-hour period is associated with an increased probability of survival. Secondarily, we found that early, sustained neuromuscular blockade is associated with improved lactate clearance. PMID:23796602

  12. ACTIVIN IIB RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DYSTROPHIC PATHOLOGY IN A MOUSE MODEL OF DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Morine, Kevin J.; Bish, Lawrence T.; Selsby, Joshua T.; Gazzara, Jeffery A.; Pendrak, Klara; Sleeper, Meg M.; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Lee, Se-Jin; Sweeney, H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling to promote muscle growth holds tremendous promise for the muscular dystrophies and other disorders involving the loss of functional muscle mass. Previous studies have focused on the TGF-β family member myostatin and demonstrated that inhibition of myostatin leads to muscle growth in normal and dystrophic mice. We describe a unique method of systemic inhibition of activin IIB receptor signaling via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer of a soluble form of the extracellular domain of the activin IIB receptor to the liver. Treatment of mdx mice with activin IIB receptor blockade led to increased skeletal muscle mass, increased force production in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and reduced serum creatine kinase. No effect on heart mass or function was observed. Our results indicate that activin IIB receptor blockade represents a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for the muscular dystrophies. PMID:20730876

  13. Adenosine Receptor Blockade by Caffeine Inhibits Carotid Sinus Nerve Chemosensory Activity in Chronic Intermittent Hypoxic Animals.

    PubMed

    Sacramento, J F; Gonzalez, C; Gonzalez-Martin, M C; Conde, S V

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a key excitatory neurotransmitter at the synapse between O(2)-sensing chemoreceptor cells-carotid sinus nerve (CSN) endings in the carotid body (CB). Herein, we have investigated the significance of adenosine, through the blockade of its receptors with caffeine, on the CB hypoxic sensitization induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in the rat. CIH animals were obtained by submitting rats during 15 days from 8:00 to 16:00 to 10 %O(2) for 40 s and 20 % O(2) for 80 s (i.e., 30 episodes/h). Caffeine (1 mM) was tested in spontaneous and 5 %O(2) evoked-CSN chemosensory activity in normoxic and CIH animals. CIH decreased basal spontaneous activity but increased significantly CSN activity evoked by acute hypoxia. Caffeine did not modify basal spontaneous activity in normoxic rats, but decreased significantly by 47.83 % basal activity in CIH animals. In addition, acute application of caffeine decreased 49.31 % and 56.01 % the acute hypoxic response in normoxic and CIH animals, respectively. We demonstrate that adenosine contributes to fix CSN basal activity during CIH, being also involved in hypoxic CB chemotransduction. It is concluded that adenosine participates in CB sensitization during CIH. PMID:26303475

  14. Blockade of glucocorticoid receptors improves cutaneous wound healing in stressed mice.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Taís Fontoura; de Castro Pires, Taiza; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2016-02-01

    Stress is an important condition of modern life. The successful wound healing requires the execution of three major overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling, and stress can disturb this process. Chronic stress impairs wound healing through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and the glucocorticoids (GCs) hormones have been shown to delay wound closure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a GC receptor antagonist (RU486) treatment on cutaneous healing in chronically stressed mice. Male mice were submitted to rotational stress, whereas control animals were not subjected to stress. Stressed and control animals were treated with RU486. A full-thickness excisional lesion was generated, and seven days later, lesions were recovered. The RU486 treatment improves wound healing since contraction takes place earlier in RU486-treated in comparison to non-treated mice, and the RU486 treatment also improves the angiogenesis in Stress+RU486 mice when compared to stressed animals. The Stress+RU486 group showed a decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration and in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression; meanwhile, there was an increase in myofibroblasts quantity. In conclusion, blockade of GC receptors with RU486 partially ameliorates stress-impaired wound healing, suggesting that stress inhibits healing through more than one functional pathway.

  15. Blockade of glucocorticoid receptors improves cutaneous wound healing in stressed mice

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Taís Fontoura; de Castro Pires, Taiza

    2016-01-01

    Stress is an important condition of modern life. The successful wound healing requires the execution of three major overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling, and stress can disturb this process. Chronic stress impairs wound healing through the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, and the glucocorticoids (GCs) hormones have been shown to delay wound closure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a GC receptor antagonist (RU486) treatment on cutaneous healing in chronically stressed mice. Male mice were submitted to rotational stress, whereas control animals were not subjected to stress. Stressed and control animals were treated with RU486. A full-thickness excisional lesion was generated, and seven days later, lesions were recovered. The RU486 treatment improves wound healing since contraction takes place earlier in RU486-treated in comparison to non-treated mice, and the RU486 treatment also improves the angiogenesis in Stress+RU486 mice when compared to stressed animals. The Stress+RU486 group showed a decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration and in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression; meanwhile, there was an increase in myofibroblasts quantity. In conclusion, blockade of GC receptors with RU486 partially ameliorates stress-impaired wound healing, suggesting that stress inhibits healing through more than one functional pathway. PMID:26515142

  16. mGlu3 receptor blockade inhibits proliferation and promotes astrocytic phenotype in glioma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kun; Song, Yechun; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Chunqing; Shu, Haifeng; Yang, Hui; Wang, Bin

    2014-04-01

    We have characterised, using both in vivo and in vitro methods, the effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGlu3) antagonist (LY341495) and agonist (LY379268) on the proliferation and differentiation of glioma stem cells (GSC). For in vitro studies, a CCK-8 assay was used to determine the cell proliferation, flow cytometry was performed to determine cell cycle phases, and immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy were employed to detect CD133 expression. For in vivo studies, GSCs were injected into nude mice treated with either LY379268 or LY341495 and the growth of the tumours was measured after 3 weeks. When compared with controls, the proliferation rates and proportion of cells in S phase within the LY341495 treated group decreased in a time-dependent manner. In the presence of differentiation medium containing LY341495, GSC differentiation was diverted into an astrocyte rather than neuronal phenotype. The growth rate and volume of tumours injected into nude mice was reduced in LY341495 treated mice compared with controls. Thus pharmacological blockade of mGlu3 receptor signalling pathway significantly inhibits the growth and proliferation of GSCs both in vitro and in vivo while promoting differentiation to astrocytes. These results further implicate mGlu3 in the biology of glioma and as a target for continued research. PMID:24482010

  17. Blockade of Urotensin II Receptor Prevents Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Ae; Lee, Dong Gil; Yi, Kyu Yang; Lee, Byung Ho; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Urotensin II (UII) is a potent vasoactive peptide and mitogenic agent to induce proliferation of various cells including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we examined the effects of a novel UII receptor (UT) antagonist, KR-36676, on vasoconstriction of aorta and proliferation of aortic SMCs. In rat aorta, UII-induced vasoconstriction was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner. In primary human aortic SMCs (hAoSMCs), UII-induced cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, KR-36676 decreased UII-induced phosphorylation of ERK, and UII-induced cell proliferation was also significantly inhibited by a known ERK inhibitor U0126. In mouse carotid ligation model, intimal thickening of carotid artery was dramatically suppressed by oral treatment with KR-36676 (30 mg/ kg/day) for 4 weeks compared to vehicle-treated group. From these results, it is indicated that KR-36676 suppress UII-induced proliferation of VSMCs at least partially through inhibition of ERK activation, and that it also attenuates UII-induced vasoconstriction and vascular neointima formation. Our study suggest that KR-36676 may be an attractive candidate for the pharmacological management of vascular dysfunction. PMID:27582556

  18. Blockade of Urotensin II Receptor Prevents Vascular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ae; Lee, Dong Gil; Yi, Kyu Yang; Lee, Byung Ho; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2016-09-01

    Urotensin II (UII) is a potent vasoactive peptide and mitogenic agent to induce proliferation of various cells including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we examined the effects of a novel UII receptor (UT) antagonist, KR-36676, on vasoconstriction of aorta and proliferation of aortic SMCs. In rat aorta, UII-induced vasoconstriction was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner. In primary human aortic SMCs (hAoSMCs), UII-induced cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, KR-36676 decreased UII-induced phosphorylation of ERK, and UII-induced cell proliferation was also significantly inhibited by a known ERK inhibitor U0126. In mouse carotid ligation model, intimal thickening of carotid artery was dramatically suppressed by oral treatment with KR-36676 (30 mg/ kg/day) for 4 weeks compared to vehicle-treated group. From these results, it is indicated that KR-36676 suppress UII-induced proliferation of VSMCs at least partially through inhibition of ERK activation, and that it also attenuates UII-induced vasoconstriction and vascular neointima formation. Our study suggest that KR-36676 may be an attractive candidate for the pharmacological management of vascular dysfunction. PMID:27582556

  19. Orexin-1 receptor blockade dysregulates REM sleep in the presence of orexin-2 receptor antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Dugovic, Christine; Shelton, Jonathan E.; Yun, Sujin; Bonaventure, Pascal; Shireman, Brock T.; Lovenberg, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the prominent role of orexins in the maintenance of wakefulness via activation of orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptors, various dual OX1/2R antagonists have been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans. While selective blockade of OX2R seems to be sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, the beneficial effect of additional inhibition of OX1R remains controversial. The relative contribution of OX1R and OX2R to the sleep effects induced by a dual OX1/2R antagonist was further investigated in the rat, and specifically on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep since a deficiency of the orexin system is associated with narcolepsy/cataplexy based on clinical and pre-clinical data. As expected, the dual OX1/2R antagonist SB-649868 was effective in promoting non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep following oral dosing (10 and 30 mg/kg) at the onset of the dark phase. However, a disruption of REM sleep was evidenced by a more pronounced reduction in the onset of REM as compared to NREM sleep, a marked enhancement of the REM/total sleep ratio, and the occurrence of a few episodes of direct wake to REM sleep transitions (REM intrusion). When administered subcutaneously, the OX2R antagonist JNJ-10397049 (10 mg/kg) increased NREM duration whereas the OX1R antagonist GSK-1059865 (10 mg/kg) did not alter sleep. REM sleep was not affected either by OX2R or OX1R blockade alone, but administration of the OX1R antagonist in combination with the OX2R antagonist induced a significant reduction in REM sleep latency and an increase in REM sleep duration at the expense of the time spent in NREM sleep. These results indicate that additional blockade of OX1R to OX2R antagonism elicits a dysregulation of REM sleep by shifting the balance in favor of REM sleep at the expense of NREM sleep that may increase the risk of adverse events. Translation of this hypothesis remains to be tested in the clinic. PMID:24592208

  20. Inflammatory cytokine receptor blockade in a rodent model of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Perez-Polo, J R; Rea, H C; Johnson, K M; Parsley, M A; Unabia, G C; Xu, G-Y; Prough, D; DeWitt, D S; Paulucci-Holthauzen, A A; Werrbach-Perez, K; Hulsebosch, C E

    2016-01-01

    In rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), both Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels increase early after injury to return later to basal levels. We have developed and characterized a rat mild fluid percussion model of TBI (mLFP injury) that results in righting reflex response times (RRRTs) that are less than those characteristic of moderate to severe LFP injury and yet increase IL-1α/β and TNFα levels. Here we report that blockade of IL-1α/β and TNFα binding to IL-1R and TNFR1, respectively, reduced neuropathology in parietal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus and improved outcome. IL-1β binding to the type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1) can be blocked by a recombinant form of the endogenous IL-1R antagonist IL-1Ra (Kineret). TNFα binding to the TNF receptor (TNFR) can be blocked by the recombinant fusion protein etanercept, made up of a TNFR2 peptide fused to an Fc portion of human IgG1. There was no benefit from the combined blockades compared with individual blockades or after repeated treatments for 11 days after injury compared with one treatment at 1 hr after injury, when measured at 6 hr or 18 days, based on changes in neuropathology. There was also no further enhancement of blockade benefits after 18 days. Given that both Kineret and etanercept given singly or in combination showed similar beneficial effects and that TNFα also has a gliotransmitter role regulating AMPA receptor traffic, thus confounding effects of a TNFα blockade, we chose to focus on a single treatment with Kineret. PMID:26172557

  1. Dopamine D2-receptor blockade enhances decoding of prefrontal signals in humans.

    PubMed

    Kahnt, Thorsten; Weber, Susanna C; Haker, Helene; Robbins, Trevor W; Tobler, Philippe N

    2015-03-01

    The prefrontal cortex houses representations critical for ongoing and future behavior expressed in the form of patterns of neural activity. Dopamine has long been suggested to play a key role in the integrity of such representations, with D2-receptor activation rendering them flexible but weak. However, it is currently unknown whether and how D2-receptor activation affects prefrontal representations in humans. In the current study, we use dopamine receptor-specific pharmacology and multivoxel pattern-based functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that blocking D2-receptor activation enhances prefrontal representations. Human subjects performed a simple reward prediction task after double-blind and placebo controlled administration of the D2-receptor antagonist amisulpride. Using a whole-brain searchlight decoding approach we show that D2-receptor blockade enhances decoding of reward signals in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Examination of activity patterns suggests that amisulpride increases the separation of activity patterns related to reward versus no reward. Moreover, consistent with the cortical distribution of D2 receptors, post hoc analyses showed enhanced decoding of motor signals in motor cortex, but not of visual signals in visual cortex. These results suggest that D2-receptor blockade enhances content-specific representations in frontal cortex, presumably by a dopamine-mediated increase in pattern separation. These findings are in line with a dual-state model of prefrontal dopamine, and provide new insights into the potential mechanism of action of dopaminergic drugs.

  2. Dopamine D2-receptor blockade enhances decoding of prefrontal signals in humans.

    PubMed

    Kahnt, Thorsten; Weber, Susanna C; Haker, Helene; Robbins, Trevor W; Tobler, Philippe N

    2015-03-01

    The prefrontal cortex houses representations critical for ongoing and future behavior expressed in the form of patterns of neural activity. Dopamine has long been suggested to play a key role in the integrity of such representations, with D2-receptor activation rendering them flexible but weak. However, it is currently unknown whether and how D2-receptor activation affects prefrontal representations in humans. In the current study, we use dopamine receptor-specific pharmacology and multivoxel pattern-based functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that blocking D2-receptor activation enhances prefrontal representations. Human subjects performed a simple reward prediction task after double-blind and placebo controlled administration of the D2-receptor antagonist amisulpride. Using a whole-brain searchlight decoding approach we show that D2-receptor blockade enhances decoding of reward signals in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Examination of activity patterns suggests that amisulpride increases the separation of activity patterns related to reward versus no reward. Moreover, consistent with the cortical distribution of D2 receptors, post hoc analyses showed enhanced decoding of motor signals in motor cortex, but not of visual signals in visual cortex. These results suggest that D2-receptor blockade enhances content-specific representations in frontal cortex, presumably by a dopamine-mediated increase in pattern separation. These findings are in line with a dual-state model of prefrontal dopamine, and provide new insights into the potential mechanism of action of dopaminergic drugs. PMID:25740537

  3. Chronic blockade of endothelin A and B receptors using macitentan in experimental renovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Tullos, Nathan A.; Stewart, Nicholas J.; Davidovich, Ryan; Chade, Alejandro R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging research has identified the endothelin (ET)-1 pathway as a potential target for novel renoprotective therapies. We recently showed that selective ET-A receptor antagonism in chronic renovascular disease (RVD) improves renal function and reduces renal injury. Although ET-A and -B have opposing roles, in some clinical situations they may induce similar effects. Thus, we hypothesized that simultaneous blockade of the ET-A and -B receptors would protect the kidney during RVD. Methods Unilateral RVD was induced in pigs. After 6 weeks, single-kidney function was quantified in vivo using multi-detector computer tomography. Pigs were subsequently divided into untreated (RVD, n = 7) or daily-treated with the dual ET-A/B receptor antagonist macitentan (RVD + macitentan, n = 6) for 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, in vivo studies were repeated, then pigs were euthanized and ex vivo studies performed in the stenotic kidney to quantify inflammation, fibrosis, microvascular density and remodeling. Results Four weeks of macitentan therapy modestly improved renal blood flow (29%, P = 0.06 versus pre-treatment) and showed protective effects on the renal parenchyma by attenuating inflammation and glomerulosclerosis, reducing apoptosis and tubular casts and improving albuminuria and cortical microvessel density. No overt adverse effects were observed. Conclusion Possibly by inducing a pro-survival renal microenvironment, macitentan increased renal microvascular density, promoted cell survival and decreased injury, which in turn improved stenotic kidney hemodynamics in our model. Our results further support the safety of using macitentan in patients with concomitant chronic renal disease and supported the feasibility of a new strategy that may preserve the stenotic kidney in RVD. PMID:25438341

  4. Dissociable effects of CB1 receptor blockade on anxiety-like and consummatory behaviors in the novelty-induced hypophagia test in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamble-George, Joyonna C.; Conger, Jordan R.; Hartley, Nolan D.; Gupta, Prerna; Sumislawski, Joshua J.; Patel, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Central CB1 cannabinoid receptors regulate anxiety-like and appetitive consummatory behaviors. Pharmacological antagonism/inverse-agonism of CB1 receptors increases anxiety and decreases appetitive behaviors; however, neither well-defined dose- nor context-dependence of these effects has been simultaneously assessed in one behavioral assay. Objectives We sought to determine the context- and dose-dependence of the effects of CB1 receptor blockade on anxiety-like and consummatory behaviors in a model that allowed for simultaneous detection of anxiety-like and consummatory related behaviors. Methods We determined the effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse-agonist, rimonabant, in the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) assay in juvenile male ICR mice. Results Rimonabant dose-dependently decreased consumption of a palatable reward solution completely independent of contextual novelty. Grooming and scratching behavior was also increased by rimonabant in a context-independent manner. In contrast, rimonabant increased feeding latency, a measure of anxiety-like behaviors, only in a novel, mildly anxiogenic context. The effects of rimonabant were specific since no effects of rimonabant on despair-like behavior were observed in the tail suspension assay. Blockade of CB2 receptors had no effect on novelty-induced increases in feeding latency or palatable food consumption. Conclusions Our findings indicate that CB1 receptor blockade decreases the hedonic value of palatable food irrespective of environmental novelty, whereas the anxiogenic-like effects are highly context dependent. Blockade of CB2 receptors does not regulate either anxiety-like or consummatory behaviors in the NIH assay. These findings suggest rimonabant modulates distinct and dissociable neural processes regulating anxiety and consummatory behavior to sculpt complex and context-dependent behavioral repertories. PMID:23483200

  5. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition…

  6. Ventral hippocampal α7 and α4β2 nicotinic receptor blockade and clozapine effects on memory in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Pocivavsek, Ana; Icenogle, Laura; Levin, Edward D.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Nicotinic systems in the hippocampus play important roles in memory function. Decreased hippocampal nicotinic receptor concentration is associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Methods We modeled in rats the cognitive effects of chronic decrease in hippocampal α7 or α4β2 receptors with 4-week continuous bilateral local infusions of the α7 nicotinic antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) or the α4β2 antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE). The working memory effects of these infusions were assessed by performance on the radial-arm maze. To test the effect of antipsychotic medication, we gave acute injections of clozapine and to determine the impact of nicotine, which is widely used by people with schizophrenia approximately half of the rats received chronic systemic infusions of nicotine. Results Chronic ventral hippocampal DHβE infusion caused a significant (p<0.001) working memory impairment. Acute systemic clozapine (2.5 mg/kg) caused a significant (p<0.005) working memory impairment in rats given control aCSF hippocampal infusions. Clozapine significantly (p<0.025) attenuated the memory deficit caused by chronic hippocampal DHβE infusions. Chronic ventral hippocampal infusions with MLA did not significantly affect the working memory performance in the radial-arm maze, but it did significantly (p<0.05) potentiate the memory impairment caused by 1.25 mg/kg of clozapine. Chronic systemic nicotine did not significantly interact with these effects. Conclusions The state of nicotinic receptor activation in the ventral hippocampus significantly affected the impact of clozapine on working memory with blockade of α7 nicotinic receptors potentiating clozapine-induced memory impairment and blockade of α4β2 receptors reversing the clozapine effect from impairing to improving memory. PMID:16715255

  7. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system mediates hypophagic and anxiety-like effects of CB1 receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Bellocchio, Luigi; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Quarta, Carmelo; Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Cardinal, Pierre; Binder, Elke; Cannich, Astrid; Delamarre, Anna; Häring, Martin; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Vega, David; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Bartsch, Dusan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Chaouloff, Francis; Pagotto, Uberto; Guzman, Manuel; Cota, Daniela; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Complex interactions between periphery and the brain regulate food intake in mammals. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are potent hypophagic agents, but the sites where this acute action is exerted and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To dissect the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effect of CB1 receptor blockade, we combined the acute injection of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant with the use of conditional CB1-knockout mice, as well as with pharmacological modulation of different central and peripheral circuits. Fasting/refeeding experiments revealed that CB1 receptor signaling in many specific brain neurons is dispensable for the acute hypophagic effects of rimonabant. CB1 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia was fully abolished by peripheral blockade of β-adrenergic transmission, suggesting that this effect is mediated by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Consistently, we found that rimonabant increases gastrointestinal metabolism via increased peripheral β-adrenergic receptor signaling in peripheral organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Blockade of both visceral afferents and glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii abolished rimonabant-induced hypophagia. Importantly, these mechanisms were specifically triggered by lipid-deprivation, revealing a nutrient-specific component acutely regulated by CB1 receptor blockade. Finally, peripheral blockade of sympathetic neurotransmission also blunted central effects of CB1 receptor blockade, such as fear responses and anxiety-like behaviors. These data demonstrate that, independently of their site of origin, important effects of CB1 receptor blockade are expressed via activation of peripheral sympathetic activity. Thus, CB1 receptors modulate bidirectional circuits between the periphery and the brain to regulate feeding and other behaviors. PMID:23487769

  8. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system mediates hypophagic and anxiety-like effects of CB₁ receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Bellocchio, Luigi; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Quarta, Carmelo; Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Cardinal, Pierre; Binder, Elke; Cannich, Astrid; Delamarre, Anna; Häring, Martin; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Vega, David; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Bartsch, Dusan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Chaouloff, Francis; Pagotto, Uberto; Guzman, Manuel; Cota, Daniela; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2013-03-19

    Complex interactions between periphery and the brain regulate food intake in mammals. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are potent hypophagic agents, but the sites where this acute action is exerted and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To dissect the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effect of CB1 receptor blockade, we combined the acute injection of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant with the use of conditional CB1-knockout mice, as well as with pharmacological modulation of different central and peripheral circuits. Fasting/refeeding experiments revealed that CB1 receptor signaling in many specific brain neurons is dispensable for the acute hypophagic effects of rimonabant. CB1 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia was fully abolished by peripheral blockade of β-adrenergic transmission, suggesting that this effect is mediated by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Consistently, we found that rimonabant increases gastrointestinal metabolism via increased peripheral β-adrenergic receptor signaling in peripheral organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Blockade of both visceral afferents and glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii abolished rimonabant-induced hypophagia. Importantly, these mechanisms were specifically triggered by lipid-deprivation, revealing a nutrient-specific component acutely regulated by CB1 receptor blockade. Finally, peripheral blockade of sympathetic neurotransmission also blunted central effects of CB1 receptor blockade, such as fear responses and anxiety-like behaviors. These data demonstrate that, independently of their site of origin, important effects of CB1 receptor blockade are expressed via activation of peripheral sympathetic activity. Thus, CB1 receptors modulate bidirectional circuits between the periphery and the brain to regulate feeding and other behaviors.

  9. Posttraining D1 receptor blockade impairs odor conditioning in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Weldon, D A; Travis, M L; Kennedy, D A

    1991-06-01

    Rat pups that were exposed to a novel anise odor paired with tactile stimulation (stroking the skin with a paint brush) received injections of either saline or the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (+/-)-SKF 83566 (0.1 mg/kg) before conditioning or immediately after conditioning. Animals that received the drug either before or after training showed less approach to the conditioned odor during the testing period 24 hr later than did animals that received the vehicle. Posttraining administration of the D2 receptor antagonist spiperone (0.1 mg/kg) did not affect subsequent approach to the conditioned odor, suggesting a selective effect of D1 receptor blockade. The impairment in learning by the administration of (+/-)-SKF 83566 before conditioning was reversed by the injection of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg) immediately after conditioning. Posttraining D1 receptor activation appears necessary for normal odor conditioning in rat pups. PMID:1863365

  10. Combined unilateral blockade of cholinergic, peptidergic, and serotonergic receptors in the ventral respiratory column does not affect breathing in awake or sleeping goats

    PubMed Central

    Muere, Clarissa; Neumueller, Suzanne; Olesiak, Samantha; Miller, Justin; Langer, Thomas; Hodges, Matthew R.; Pan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Previous work in intact awake and sleeping goats has found that unilateral blockade of excitatory inputs in the ventral respiratory column (VRC) elicits changes in the concentrations of multiple neurochemicals, including serotonin (5-HT), substance P, glycine, and GABA, while increasing or having no effect on breathing. These findings are consistent with the concept of interdependence between neuromodulators, whereby attenuation of one modulator elicits compensatory changes in other modulators to maintain breathing. Because there is a large degree of redundancy and multiplicity of excitatory inputs to the VRC, we herein tested the hypothesis that combined unilateral blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh), neurokinin-1 (NK1, the receptor for substance P), and 5-HT2A receptors would elicit changes in multiple neurochemicals, but would not change breathing. We unilaterally reverse-dialyzed a cocktail of antagonists targeting these receptors into the VRC of intact adult goats. Breathing was continuously monitored while effluent fluid from dialysis was collected for quantification of neurochemicals. We found that neither double blockade of mACh and NK1 receptors, nor triple blockade of mACh, NK1, and 5-HT2A receptors significantly affected breathing (P ≥ 0.05) in goats that were awake or in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, both double and triple blockade increased the effluent concentration of substance P (P < 0.001) and decreased GABA concentrations. These findings support our hypothesis and, together with past data, suggest that both in wakefulness and NREM sleep, multiple neuromodulator systems collaborate to stabilize breathing when a deficit in one or multiple excitatory neuromodulators exists. PMID:26023224

  11. Adenosine A2A Receptor Blockade Prevents Rotenone-Induced Motor Impairment in a Rat Model of Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Fathalla, Ahmed M.; Soliman, Amira M.; Ali, Mohamed H.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological studies implicate the blockade of adenosine receptorsas an effective strategy for reducing Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms. The objective of this study is to elucidate the possible protective effects of ZM241385 and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine, two selective A2A and A1 receptor antagonists, on a rotenone rat model of PD. Rats were split into four groups: vehicle control (1 ml/kg/48 h), rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/48 h, s.c.), ZM241385 (3.3 mg/kg/day, i.p) and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine (5 mg/kg/day, i.p). After that, animals were subjected to behavioral (stride length and grid walking) and biochemical (measuring concentration of dopamine levels using high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC). In the rotenone group, rats displayed a reduced motor activity and disturbed movement coordination in the behavioral tests and a decreased dopamine concentration as foundby HPLC. The effect of rotenone was partially prevented in the ZM241385 group, but not with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine administration. The administration of ZM241385 improved motor function and movement coordination (partial increase of stride length and partial decrease in the number of foot slips) and an increase in dopamine concentration in the rotenone-injected rats. However, the 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and rotenone groups were not significantly different. These results indicate that selective A2A receptor blockade by ZM241385, but not A1 receptor blockadeby 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, may treat PD motor symptoms. This reinforces the potential use of A2A receptor antagonists as a treatment strategy for PD patients. PMID:26973484

  12. Androgen receptor blockade using flutamide skewed sex ratio of litters in mice.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Vojgani, Mehdi; Akbarinejad, Vahid; Rafiee, Ghazaleh

    2016-01-01

    Maternal testosterone has been indicated to affect sex ratio of offspring. The present study was conducted to elucidate the role of androgen receptor in this regard by blockade of androgen receptor using flutamide in female mice. Mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups. Mice in the control (n = 20) and treatment (n = 20) groups received 8 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection (8 IU) 47 hr later. In addition, mice in the control and treatment groups received four injections of ethanol-saline vehicle and flutamide solution (2.50 mg), respectively, started from 1 hr before eCG injection until hCG injection at 12-hr intervals. Conception rate was not different between the treatment (18/20: 90.00%) and control (19/20: 95.00%) groups (p > 0.05). Litter size was higher in the treatment (8.22 ± 0.26) than control (7.21 ± 0.28) group (p < 0.05). Male sex ratio was lower in the flutamide-treated mice (67/148: 45.30%) as compared with the untreated ones (80/137: 58.40%; odds ratio = 1.69; p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed that androgen receptor blockade could skew sex ratio of offspring toward females implying that the effect of testosterone on sex ratio might be through binding to androgen receptor. In addition, the blockade of androgen receptor using flutamide appeared to enhance litter size. PMID:27482363

  13. Androgen receptor blockade using flutamide skewed sex ratio of litters in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Vojgani, Mehdi; Akbarinejad, Vahid; Rafiee, Ghazaleh

    2016-01-01

    Maternal testosterone has been indicated to affect sex ratio of offspring. The present study was conducted to elucidate the role of androgen receptor in this regard by blockade of androgen receptor using flutamide in female mice. Mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups. Mice in the control (n = 20) and treatment (n = 20) groups received 8 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection (8 IU) 47 hr later. In addition, mice in the control and treatment groups received four injections of ethanol-saline vehicle and flutamide solution (2.50 mg), respectively, started from 1 hr before eCG injection until hCG injection at 12-hr intervals. Conception rate was not different between the treatment (18/20: 90.00%) and control (19/20: 95.00%) groups (p > 0.05). Litter size was higher in the treatment (8.22 ± 0.26) than control (7.21 ± 0.28) group (p < 0.05). Male sex ratio was lower in the flutamide-treated mice (67/148: 45.30%) as compared with the untreated ones (80/137: 58.40%; odds ratio = 1.69; p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed that androgen receptor blockade could skew sex ratio of offspring toward females implying that the effect of testosterone on sex ratio might be through binding to androgen receptor. In addition, the blockade of androgen receptor using flutamide appeared to enhance litter size. PMID:27482363

  14. Oncogenic fingerprint of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway and emerging epidermal growth factor receptor blockade resistance in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sobani, Zain A; Sawant, Ashwin; Jafri, Mikram; Correa, Amit Keith; Sahin, Ibrahim Halil

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been an attractive target for treatment of epithelial cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Evidence from clinical trials indicates that cetuximab and panitumumab (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies) have clinical activity in patients with metastatic CRC. The discovery of intrinsic EGFR blockade resistance in Kirsten RAS (KRAS)-mutant patients led to the restriction of anti-EGFR antibodies to KRAS wild-type patients by Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency. Studies have since focused on the evaluation of biomarkers to identify appropriate patient populations that may benefit from EGFR blockade. Accumulating evidence suggests that patients with mutations in EGFR downstream signaling pathways including KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and PTEN could be intrinsically resistant to EGFR blockade. Recent whole genome studies also suggest that dynamic alterations in signaling pathways downstream of EGFR leads to distinct oncogenic signatures and subclones which might have some impact on emerging resistance in KRAS wild-type patients. While anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies have a clear potential in the management of a subset of patients with metastatic CRC, further studies are warranted to uncover exact mechanisms related to acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. PMID:27777877

  15. Continuous blockade of brain glucocorticoid receptors facilitates spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Oitzl, M S; Fluttert, M; Sutanto, W; de Kloet, E R

    1998-12-01

    Previously, a corticosterone surge associated with a learning task was shown to facilitate cognitive processes through brain glucocorticoid receptors (GR) while chronic overexposure to this stress hormone impaired cognition. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that opposing effects on learning and memory might also occur after either phasic or continuous blockade of brain GR by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the GR antagonist RU38486 (aGR). We used a Morris water maze procedure to assess spatial learning and memory abilities in male Wistar rats. The effect of phasic brain GR blockade was studied following daily pretraining administration of 10 and 100 ng/microL aGR i.c.v. on 3 consecutive days. This repetitive aGR treatment impaired spatial learning and memory dose-dependently in comparison with vehicle controls. For continuous brain GR blockade, animals received an i.c.v., infusion of aGR (10 and 100 ng/0.5 microL per h or vehicle) over 10 days. Infusion of 100 ng aGR per hour resulted in a long-lasting facilitation of spatial performance. The 10 ng aGR infusion also caused initially a facilitating effect, which was, however, transient and performance became impaired during retest. Possible anxiolytic properties of the drugs were excluded in view of the animals' behaviour in the elevated plus maze. Both doses of aGR infusion reduced the number of mineralocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus, but only the high dose of aGR resulted in a significant reduction of available GR sites. In conclusion, continuous administration of GR antagonist improves cognitive function, while phasic blockade of brain GR function causes a cognitive deficit.

  16. Histamine H2 receptor blockade augments blood pressure responses to acute submaximal exercise in males.

    PubMed

    Doh, Hyung-Woo; Stebbins, Charles L; Choi, Hyun-Min; Park, Joonsung; Nho, Hosung; Kim, Jong-Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Histamine is a potent vasodilator that has been found to increase during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that histamine would attenuate blood pressure (BP), cardiac output (CO), and vascular resistance responses to short-term, submaximal dynamic exercise during H2 receptor blockade. Fourteen healthy men (20-29 years of age) were studied. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) BP and heart rate (HR) were assessed at rest and during the last minute of 10 min of submaximal cycling exercise (60% of peak oxygen consumption) in the absence and presence of histamine H2 receptor blockade (ranitidine, 300 mg). Stroke volume (SV) (impedance cardiography) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) were measured, and CO, rate × pressure product (RPP), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated. Plasma levels of histamine were also measured. H2 blockade had no effects on any variables at rest. During exercise, SBP (184 ± 3 mm Hg vs. 166 ± 2 mm Hg), MAP (121 ± 2 mm Hg vs. 112 ± 5 mm Hg), and RPP (25.9 ± 0.8 × 10(3) mm Hg·beats/min vs. 23.5 ± 0.8 × 10(3) mm Hg/beats·min) were greater during blocked conditions (P < 0.05), and an interaction was observed for TPR. SV, DBP, HR, and NE levels were unaffected by blockade. Plasma histamine increased from 1.83 ± 0.14 ng/mL at rest to 2.33 ± 0.23 ng/mL during exercise (P < 0.05) and was not affected by H2 blockade (1.56 ± 0.23 ng/mL vs. 1.70 ± 0.24 ng/mL). These findings suggest that, during submaximal exercise, histamine attenuates BP, vascular resistance, and the work of the heart via activation of H2 receptors and that these effects occurred primarily in the vasculature and not in the myocardium.

  17. Histamine H2 receptor blockade augments blood pressure responses to acute submaximal exercise in males.

    PubMed

    Doh, Hyung-Woo; Stebbins, Charles L; Choi, Hyun-Min; Park, Joonsung; Nho, Hosung; Kim, Jong-Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Histamine is a potent vasodilator that has been found to increase during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that histamine would attenuate blood pressure (BP), cardiac output (CO), and vascular resistance responses to short-term, submaximal dynamic exercise during H2 receptor blockade. Fourteen healthy men (20-29 years of age) were studied. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) BP and heart rate (HR) were assessed at rest and during the last minute of 10 min of submaximal cycling exercise (60% of peak oxygen consumption) in the absence and presence of histamine H2 receptor blockade (ranitidine, 300 mg). Stroke volume (SV) (impedance cardiography) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) were measured, and CO, rate × pressure product (RPP), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated. Plasma levels of histamine were also measured. H2 blockade had no effects on any variables at rest. During exercise, SBP (184 ± 3 mm Hg vs. 166 ± 2 mm Hg), MAP (121 ± 2 mm Hg vs. 112 ± 5 mm Hg), and RPP (25.9 ± 0.8 × 10(3) mm Hg·beats/min vs. 23.5 ± 0.8 × 10(3) mm Hg/beats·min) were greater during blocked conditions (P < 0.05), and an interaction was observed for TPR. SV, DBP, HR, and NE levels were unaffected by blockade. Plasma histamine increased from 1.83 ± 0.14 ng/mL at rest to 2.33 ± 0.23 ng/mL during exercise (P < 0.05) and was not affected by H2 blockade (1.56 ± 0.23 ng/mL vs. 1.70 ± 0.24 ng/mL). These findings suggest that, during submaximal exercise, histamine attenuates BP, vascular resistance, and the work of the heart via activation of H2 receptors and that these effects occurred primarily in the vasculature and not in the myocardium. PMID:27191340

  18. Chronic activation of 5-HT4 receptors or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors improve memory performances.

    PubMed

    Quiedeville, Anne; Boulouard, Michel; Hamidouche, Katia; Da Silva Costa-Aze, Virginie; Nee, Gerald; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick; Fabis, Frédéric; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine

    2015-10-15

    5-HT4 and 5-HT6 serotonergic receptors are located in brain structures involved in memory processes. Neurochemical and behavioural studies have demonstrated that acute activation of 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors (5-HT6R) improves memory. To evaluate the potential of these two receptors as targets in the treatment of memory disorders encountered in several situations (ageing, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, etc.), it is necessary to assess whether their beneficial effects occur after chronic administration, and if such treatment induces adverse effects. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of chronic 5-HT4R or 5-HT6R modulation on recognition memory, and to observe the possible manifestation of side effects (modification of weight gain, locomotor activity or exploratory behaviour, etc.). Mice were treated for 14 days with a 5-HT4R partial agonist (RS-67333) or a 5-HT6R antagonist (SB-271046) at increasing doses. Memory performances, locomotor activity, and exploration were assessed. Both chronic 5-HT4R activation and 5-HT6R blockade extended memory traces in an object recognition test, and were not associated with any adverse effects in the parameters assessed. Chronic modulation of one or both of these receptors thus seems promising as a potential strategy for the treatment memory deficits.

  19. VEGF receptor blockade markedly reduces retinal microglia/macrophage infiltration into laser-induced CNV.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hu; Parlier, Rachel; Shen, Ji-Kui; Lutty, Gerard A; Vinores, Stanley A

    2013-01-01

    Although blocking VEGF has a positive effect in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the effect of blocking its receptors remains unclear. This was an investigation of the effect of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1 and/or 2 blockade on retinal microglia/macrophage infiltration in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a model of wet AMD. CNV lesions were isolated by laser capture microdissection at 3, 7, and 14 days after laser and analyzed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining for mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Neutralizing antibodies for VEGFR1 or R2 and the microglia inhibitor minocycline were injected intraperitoneally (IP). Anti-CD11b, CD45 and Iba1 antibodies were used to confirm the cell identity of retinal microglia/macrophage, in the RPE/choroidal flat mounts or retinal cross sections. CD11b(+), CD45(+) or Iba1(+) cells were counted. mRNA of VEGFR1 and its three ligands, PlGF, VEGF-A (VEGF) and VEGF-B, were expressed at all stages, but VEGFR2 were detected only in the late stage. PlGF and VEGF proteins were expressed at 3 and 7 days after laser. Anti-VEGFR1 (MF1) delivered IP 3 days after laser inhibited infiltration of leukocyte populations, largely retinal microglia/macrophage to CNV, while anti-VEGFR2 (DC101) had no effect. At 14 days after laser, both MF1 and DC101 antibodies markedly inhibited retinal microglia/macrophage infiltration into CNV. Therefore, VEGFR1 and R2 play differential roles in the pathogenesis of CNV: VEGFR1 plays a dominant role at 3 days after laser; but both receptors play pivotal roles at 14 days after laser. In vivo imaging demonstrated accumulation of GFP-expressing microglia into CNV in both CX3CR1(gfp/gfp) and CX3CR1(gfp/+) mice. Minocycline treatment caused a significant increase in lectin(+) cells in the sub-retinal space anterior to CNV and a decrease in dextran-perfused neovessels compared to controls. Targeting the chemoattractant molecules that regulate trafficking of retinal microglia

  20. Further characterization of the putative 5-HT receptor which mediates blockade of neurogenic plasma extravasation in rat dura mater.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M G; Moskowitz, M A; Peroutka, S J; Byun, B

    1991-06-01

    1. We describe the effects of pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on neurogenically-mediated plasma protein extravasation ([125I]-albumin) in rat dura mater and in extracranial tissues (temporalis muscle fascia, conjunctiva, eyelid and lip) induced by electrical stimulation of the right trigeminal ganglion. 2. Leakage of [125I]-bovine serum albumin from blood vessels in dura mater following high intensity stimulation (1.2 mA, 5 ms, 5 Hz for 5 min) was significantly reduced by the intravenous administration of drugs active at 5-HT receptors with some selectivity for the 5-HT1 receptor subtypes: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (threshold dose, 1 ng kg-1); 5-benzyloxytryptamine (5-BT) (10, 30 or 100 micrograms kg-1); 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (300 micrograms kg-1); and as previously reported, sumatriptan (100 micrograms kg-1), dihydroergotamine (DHE) (50 micrograms kg-1); ergotamine tartrate (100 micrograms kg-1) and chronically administered methysergide (1 mg kg-1). 3. The putative 5-HT receptor antagonist, metergoline 100 micrograms kg-1, inhibited partially the effect of sumatriptan in dura mater providing additional evidence for a 5-HT1 receptor subtype-mediated mechanism, although it was not effective against 5-CT (1 ng kg-1). Methiothepin (300 micrograms kg-1) did not affect the response to sumatriptan. When administered at high concentrations (1 mg kg-1) methiothepin and metergoline decreased plasma protein extravasation in rat dura mater. 4. Pretreatment with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists pizotifen, 300pugkg 1, or ketanserin, 300,ugkg ', or the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists MDL 72222, 300,ugkg-1, or ICS 205-930, 300pgkg-1, did not affect plasma protein leakage following electrical trigeminal stimulation. Blockade by sumatriptan of plasma protein extravasation was not inhibited by pizotifen (300,ug kg-1) or MDL 72222 (300pg kg- '). 5. The 5-HT receptor(s) mediating this response were present only on

  1. The role of adrenergic receptor blockade in serotonin-induced changes in the pulmonary circulation.

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, E; Rolston, W A; Stern, S

    1977-01-01

    1. In dogs i.v. injection of serotonin caused a rise in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary arteriocapillary resistance that persisted even after alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade; pulmonary venous resistance also increased, but this was abolished by pretreatment with either propranolol or phenoxybenzamine. 2. The injection of serotonin into the ascending aorta produced an immediate rise in systemic, pulmonary arterial and pulmonary venous pressures and pulmonary venous resistance. After phenoxybenzmine, the rise in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures remained unchanged, but previously observed increases in pulmonary venous pressure and resistance were blocked. In contrast, propranolol failed to abolish the rise in pulmonary venous resistance after serotonin injection into the ascending aorta. 3. These results confirm the observation that the vasoconstrictor effect attributed to intravenously injected serotonin on the arterial side of the pulmonary circulation is independent of the known sympathetic pathways. The data suggest that the pulmonary venoconstriction induced by intravenous serotonin is of reflex origin, abolished by alpha and beta receptor blockade, whereas the efferent arm of the reflex pulmonary venoconstriction following injection of serotonin into the ascending aorta is mediated via alpha-adrenergic receptors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:599427

  2. Blockade of brain mineralocorticoid receptors or Na+ channels prevents sympathetic hyperactivity and improves cardiac function in rats post-MI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing S; Leenen, Frans H H

    2005-05-01

    In rats post-myocardial infarction (MI), sympathetic hyperactivity can be prevented by blockade of brain mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). Stimulatory responses to central infusion of aldosterone can be blocked by benzamil and therefore appear to be mediated via Na+ channels, presumably epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC), in the brain. To evaluate this concept of endogenous mineralocorticoids in Wistar rats post-MI, we examined effects of blockade of MR and Na+ channels in the brain. At 3 days after coronary artery ligation, intracerebroventricular infusions were started with spironolactone (400 ng.kg(-1).h(-1)) or its vehicle, or with benzamil (4 microg.kg(-1).h(-1)) or its vehicle, using osmotic minipumps. Rats with sham ligation served as control. After 4 wk, in conscious rats, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity were recorded at rest and in response to air-jet stress, intracerebroventricular injection of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist guanabenz, and intravenous infusion of phenylephrine and nitroprusside for baroreflex function. MI size was similar among the four groups of rats (approximately 31%). In rats treated post-MI with vehicles, cardiac function was decreased, sympathetic reactivity was enhanced, and baroreflex function was impaired. Blockade of brain Na+ channels or brain MR similarly prevented sympathetic hyperactivity and impairment of baroreflex function and improved cardiac function. These findings suggest that in rats post-MI, increased binding of endogenous agonists to MR increases ENaC activity in the brain and thereby leads to sympathetic hyperactivity and progressive left ventricular dysfunction.

  3. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  4. Blockade of lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPAR1/3 ameliorates lung fibrosis induced by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Lu; Xue, Jian-Xin; Li, Xin; Liu, De-Song; Ge, Yan; Ni, Pei-Yan; Deng, Lin; Lu, You; Jiang, Wei

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels and its receptors LPAR1/3 transcripts were elevated during the development of radiation-induced lung fibrosis. {yields} Lung fibrosis was obviously alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. {yields} VPC12249 administration effectively inhibited radiation-induced fibroblast accumulation in vivo, and suppressed LPA-induced fibroblast proliferation in vitro. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling regulated TGF{beta}1 and CTGF expressions in radiation-challenged lungs, but only influenced CTGF expression in cultured fibroblasts. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling induced fibroblast proliferation through a CTGF-dependent pathway, rather than through TGF{beta}1 activation. -- Abstract: Lung fibrosis is a common and serious complication of radiation therapy for lung cancer, for which there are no efficient treatments. Emerging evidence indicates that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors (LPARs) are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Here, we reported that thoracic radiation with 16 Gy in mice induced development of radiation lung fibrosis (RLF) accompanied by obvious increases in LPA release and LPAR1 and LPAR3 (LPAR1/3) transcripts. RLF was significantly alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. VPC12249 administration effectively prolonged animal survival, restored lung structure, inhibited fibroblast accumulation and reduced collagen deposition. Moreover, profibrotic cytokines in radiation-challenged lungs obviously decreased following administration of VPC12249, including transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). In vitro, LPA induced both fibroblast proliferation and CTGF expression in a dose-dependent manner, and both were suppressed by blockade of LPAR1/3. The pro-proliferative activity of LPA on fibroblasts was inhibited by siRNA directed against CTGF. Together, our data suggest that the LPA-LPAR1

  5. Dopamine-2 receptor blockade potentiates the renal effects of nitric oxide inhibition in humans.

    PubMed

    Montanari, A; Tateo, E; Fasoli, E; Donatini, A; Cimolato, B; Perinotto, P; Dall'Aglio, P

    1998-01-01

    In eight young healthy subjects on a 240 mM Na diet mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal hemodynamics and renal handling of Na and exogenous Li were measured at baseline and during acute nitric oxide (NO) inhibition with 90-minute infusion of 3.0 microg/kg x min(-1) of N(G)-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The same experiment was repeated with infusion of 50 microg/kg x min(-1) of DA2 receptor blocker L-Sulpiride (L-SULP) alone and, finally, with simultaneous infusion of both L-NAME and L-SULP. L-SULP alone did not elicit any effect. L-NAME alone produced no changes in MAP from 0 to 45 minutes (P1) and a 6.6% increase at 45 to 90 minutes (P2) of infusion. Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF, PAH clearance) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance) declined by 10.2% and 7.6%, respectively, in P1 and by 15.3% and 11.5% in P2. Filtration Fraction (FF) rose by 4.2% in P2. Calculated renal vascular resistance (RVR) increased by 13.0% to 25.6%. Fractional excretion of Na (FENa) and Li (FELi) fell by 20.0% and by 16.0%, respectively, in P1 and by 40.0% and 25.1% in P2. All these variations, except for MAP and GFR, were significantly greater during coinfusion of L-NAME and L-SULP. ERPF declined by 17.8% to 33.7%, FENa by 26.7% to 53.3%, FELi by 13.8% to 34.8%, while RVR rose by 22.5% to 59.1% and FF by 10.1% to 29.3%. The present data confirm that NO blockade with low-dose systemic infusion of L-NAME produces renal vasoconstriction, reduced GFR with slight increase in FF, and enhanced tubular Li, and Na reabsorption. Since increase in RVR and FF and decrease in FENa and FELi are markedly potentiated by the simultaneous infusion of DA2 blocker L-SULP, which exerts no effects by itself, we suggest that DA interactions between DA system at the level of DA2 receptors and basal NO production play a physiological role in the regulation of renal function in humans.

  6. Beta-Adrenergic Blockade Does not Prevent Polycythemia or Decrease in Plasma Volume in Men at 4300 m Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grover, R. F.; Selland, M. A.; McCullough, R. G.; Dahms, T. E.; Wolfel, E. E.; Butterfield, G. E.; Reeves, J. T.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    When humans ascend to high altitude (ALT) their plasma volume (PV) and total blood volume (BV) decrease during the first few days. With continued residence over several weeks, the hypoxia-induced stimulation of erythropoietin increases red cell production which tends to restore BV. Because hypoxia also activates the beta-adrenergic system, which stimulates red blood cell production, we investigated the effect of adrenergic beta-receptor inhibition with propranolol on fluid volumes and the polycythemic response in 11 healthy unacclimatized men (21-33 years old exposed to an ALT of 4300 m (barometric pressure 460 Torr) for 3 weeks on Pikes Peak, Colorado. PV was determined by the Evans blue dye method (PV(sub EB)), BV by the carbon monoxide method (BV(sub CO)), red cell volume (RCV)was calculated from hematocrit (Hct) and BV(sub CO), and serum erythropoietin concentration ([EPO]) and reticulocyte count, were also determined. All determinations were made at sea level and after 9-11 (ALT-10) and 9-20 (ALT-20) days at ALT. At sea level and ALT, six men received propranolol (pro, 240 mg/day), and five received a placebo (pla). Effective beta-blockade did not modify the mean (SE) maximal values of [EPO] [pla: 24.9 (3.5) vs pro: 24.5 (1.5) mU/ml] or reticulocyte count [pla: 2.7 (0.7) vs pro: 2.2 (0.5)%]; nor changes in PV(sub EB)[pla: -15.8 (3.8) vs pro: -19.9 (2.8)%], RCV(sub CO) [pla: +7.0 (6.7) vs pro: +10.1 (6.1)%], or BV(sub CO) [pla: -7.3 (2.3) vs pro: -7.1 (3.9)%]. In the absence of weight loss, a redistribution of body water with no net loss is implied. Hence, activation of the beta-adrenergic system did not appear to affect the hypovolemic or polycythemic responses that occurred during 3 weeks at 4300 m ALT in these subjects.

  7. NMDA receptor blockade alters stress-induced dendritic remodeling in medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kathryn P; Wellman, Cara L

    2011-10-01

    The development and relapse of many psychopathologies can be linked to both stress and prefrontal cortex dysfunction. Glucocorticoid stress hormones target medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and either chronic stress or chronic administration of glucocorticoids produces dendritic remodeling in prefrontal pyramidal neurons. Exposure to stress also causes an increase in the release of the excitatory amino acid glutamate, which binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which are plentiful in mPFC. NMDA receptor activation is crucial for producing hippocampal dendritic remodeling due to stress and for dendritic reorganization in frontal cortex after cholinergic deafferentation. Thus, NMDA receptors could mediate stress-induced dendritic retraction in mPFC. To test this hypothesis, dendritic morphology of pyramidal cells in mPFC was assessed after blocking NMDA receptors with the competitive NMDA antagonist ±3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) during restraint stress. Administration of CPP prevented stress-induced dendritic atrophy. Instead, CPP-injected stressed rats showed hypertrophy of apical dendrites compared with controls. These results suggest that NMDA activation is crucial for stress-induced dendritic atrophy in mPFC. Furthermore, NMDA receptor blockade uncovers a new pattern of stress-induced dendritic changes, suggesting that other neurohormonal changes in concert with NMDA receptor activation underlie the net dendritic retraction seen after chronic stress.

  8. GABAB receptor blockade enhances theta and gamma rhythms in the hippocampus of behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Stan; Shen, Bixia

    2007-01-01

    The participation of GABA(B) receptors in hippocampal EEG generation was studied by intracerebroventricular (icv) and intracerebral infusions of GABA(B) receptor antagonist p-(3-aminopropyl)-p-diethoxymethyl-phosphinic acid (CGP35348) in freely behaving rats. During awake-immobility, icv CGP35348 induced a theta rhythm and increased gamma waves (30-100 Hz) in the hippocampus. The immobility theta peaked at 6-7 Hz and had a theta phase in CA1 stratum radiatum of approximately 160 degrees with reference to the theta at the alveus, when compared with approximately 130 degrees during walking. Immobility theta power peaks at 6-7 Hz was also found in normal rats, and it was detected in 27% of the EEG segments during immobility. Incidence of immobility theta increased to 87.5% after 480 nmol of CGP35348 icv. Muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (5 mg/kg, ip) suppressed the induction of immobility theta and the gamma power increase after icv CGP35348. CGP35348 icv did not significantly change the hippocampal theta power at 7-8 Hz during walking (theta fundamental), but it increased power at 12-15 Hz, at the second harmonic of theta. CGP35348 icv also increased 30-50 Hz gamma power during walking. Medial septal infusion of CGP35348 (12 nmol in 0.4 microl) increased the power and the frequency of the hippocampal theta second harmonic during walking, but did not increase gamma activity. Infusion of CGP35348 (8 nmol in 0.4 microl) in the hippocampus increased the local gamma activity at 30-100 Hz, but did not induce immobility theta or affect the walking theta rhythm. In conclusion, icv GABA(B) receptor blockade increased an atropine-sensitive input that generated an immobility theta rhythm, while GABA(B) receptor blockade of the medial septum increased atropine-resistant theta harmonics possibly generated by apical dendritic spikes. GABA(B) receptor blockade may enhance cognitive task performance by activating hippocampal theta and gamma rhythms in behaving rats.

  9. Differential effects of dopamine and opioid receptor blockade on motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior and associated changes in brain, skin and muscle temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, E A

    2010-05-01

    Although pharmacological blockade of both dopamine (DA) and opiate receptors has an inhibiting effect on appetitive motivated behaviors, it is still unclear which physiological mechanisms affected by these treatments underlie the behavioral deficit. To clarify this issue, we examined how pharmacological blockade of either DA (SCH23390+eticlopride at 0.2 mg/kg each) or opioid receptors (naloxone 1 mg/kg) affects motor activity and temperature fluctuations in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), temporal muscle, and facial skin associated with motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior in rats. In drug-free conditions, presentation of a cup containing 5 ml of Coca-Cola induced locomotor activation and rapid NAcc temperature increases, which both transiently decreased during drinking, and phasically increased again after the cup was emptied. Muscle temperatures followed this pattern, but increases were weaker and more delayed than those in the NAcc. Skin temperature rapidly dropped after cup presentation, remained at low levels during consumption, and slowly restored during post-consumption behavioral activation. By itself, DA receptor blockade induced robust decrease in spontaneous locomotion, moderate increases in brain and muscle temperatures, and a relative increase in skin temperatures, suggesting metabolic activation coupled with adynamia. Following this treatment (approximately 180 min), motor activation to cup presentation and Coca-Cola consumption were absent, but rats showed NAcc and muscle temperature increases following cup presentation comparable to control. Therefore, DA receptor blockade does not affect significantly central and peripheral autonomic responses to appetitive stimuli, but eliminates their behavior-activating effects, thus disrupting appetitive behavior and blocking consumption. Naloxone alone slightly decreased brain and muscle temperatures and increased skin temperatures, pointing at the enhanced heat loss and possible minor inhibition of basal

  10. Initial evidence that GLP-1 receptor blockade fails to suppress postprandial satiety or promote food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Melhorn, Susan J; Tyagi, Vidhi; Smeraglio, Anne; Roth, Christian L; Schur, Ellen A

    2014-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has incretin effects that are well-documented, but the independent role of GLP-1 action in human satiety perception is debated. We hypothesized that blockade of GLP-1 receptors would suppress postprandial satiety and increase voluntary food intake. After an overnight fast, eight normal weight participants (seven men, BMI 19-24.7 kg/m(2), age 19-29 year) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study of the GLP-1 antagonist Exendin-[9-39] (Ex-9) to determine if the satiating effects of a meal are dependent on GLP-1 signaling in humans. Following a fasting blood draw, iv infusion of Ex-9 (600-750 pmol/kg/min) or saline began. Thirty minutes later, subjects consumed a standardized breakfast followed 90 min later (at the predicted time of maximal endogenous circulating GLP-1) by an ad libitum buffet meal to objectively measure satiety. Infusions ended once the buffet meal was complete. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger and fullness and serial assessments of plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 concentrations were done throughout the experiment. Contrary to the hypothesis, during Ex-9 infusion subjects reported a greater decrease in hunger due to consumption of the breakfast (Ex-9 -62 ± 5; placebo -41 ± 9; P=0.01) than during placebo. There were no differences in ad libitum caloric intake between Ex-9 and placebo. Ex-9 increased glucose, insulin, and endogenous GLP-1, which may have counteracted any effects of Ex-9 infusion to block satiety signaling. Blockade of GLP-1 receptors failed to suppress subjective satiety following a standardized meal or increase voluntary food intake in healthy, normal-weight subjects.

  11. Glutamate receptor blockade at cortical synapses disrupts development of thalamocortical and columnar organization in somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, K; Schlaggar, B L; Glazewski, S; O'Leary, D D

    1996-01-01

    The segregation of thalamocortical inputs into eye-specific stripes in the developing cat or monkey visual cortex is prevented by manipulations that perturb or abolish neural activity in the visual pathway. Such findings show that proper development of the functional organization of visual cortex is dependent on normal patterns of neural activity. The generalisation of this conclusion to other sensory cortices has been questioned by findings that the segregation of thalamocortical afferents into a somatotopic barrel pattern in developing rodent primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is not prevented by activity blockade. We show that a temporary block of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptors in rat S1 during the critical period for barrel development disrupts the topographic refinement of thalamocortical connectivity and columnar organization. These effects are evident well after the blockade is ineffective and thus may be permanent. Our findings show that neural activity and specifically the activation of postsynaptic cortical neurons has a prominent role in establishing the primary sensory map in S1, as well as the topographic organization of higher order synaptic connections. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8643619

  12. Atrophy of submandibular gland by the duct ligation and a blockade of SP receptor in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hishida, Sumiyo; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Honda, Takashi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru; Hibi, Hideharu; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the mechanisms underlying the submandibular gland atrophies associated with ptyalolithiasis, morphological changes were examined in the rat submandibular gland following either surgical intervention of the duct or functional blockade at substance P receptors (SPRs). Progressive acinar atrophy was observed after duct ligation or avulsion of periductal tissues. This suggested that damage to periductal tissue involving nerve fibers might contribute to ligation-associated acinar atrophy. Immunohistochemically labeled-substance P positive nerve fibers (SPFs) coursed in parallel with the main duct and were distributed around the interlobular, striated, granular and intercalated duct, and glandular acini. Strong SPR immunoreactivity was observed in the duct. Injection into the submandibular gland of a SPR antagonist induced marked acinar atrophy. The results revealed that disturbance of SPFs and SPRs might be involved in the atrophy of the submandibular gland associated with ptyalolithiasis. PMID:27303108

  13. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan L; Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A; Rice, Kenner C; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2016-07-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. PMID:27189970

  14. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H.; McCurdy, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. PMID:27189970

  15. Muscle-Type Nicotinic Receptor Blockade by Diethylamine, the Hydrophilic Moiety of Lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Alberola-Die, Armando; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; González-Ros, José M; Ivorra, Isabel; Morales, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Lidocaine bears in its structure both an aromatic ring and a terminal amine, which can be protonated at physiological pH, linked by an amide group. Since lidocaine causes multiple inhibitory actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), this work was aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of diethylamine (DEA), a small molecule resembling the hydrophilic moiety of lidocaine, on Torpedo marmorata nAChRs microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes. Similarly to lidocaine, DEA reversibly blocked acetylcholine-elicited currents (I ACh ) in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 close to 70 μM), but unlike lidocaine, DEA did not affect I ACh desensitization. I ACh inhibition by DEA was more pronounced at negative potentials, suggesting an open-channel blockade of nAChRs, although roughly 30% inhibition persisted at positive potentials, indicating additional binding sites outside the pore. DEA block of nAChRs in the resting state (closed channel) was confirmed by the enhanced I ACh inhibition when pre-applying DEA before its co-application with ACh, as compared with solely DEA and ACh co-application. Virtual docking assays provide a plausible explanation to the experimental observations in terms of the involvement of different sets of drug binding sites. So, at the nAChR transmembrane (TM) domain, DEA and lidocaine shared binding sites within the channel pore, giving support to their open-channel blockade; besides, lidocaine, but not DEA, interacted with residues at cavities among the M1, M2, M3, and M4 segments of each subunit and also at intersubunit crevices. At the extracellular (EC) domain, DEA and lidocaine binding sites were broadly distributed, which aids to explain the closed channel blockade observed. Interestingly, some DEA clusters were located at the α-γ interphase of the EC domain, in a cavity near the orthosteric binding site pocket; by contrast, lidocaine contacted with all α-subunit loops conforming the ACh binding site, both in α-γ and α-δ and

  16. Muscle-Type Nicotinic Receptor Blockade by Diethylamine, the Hydrophilic Moiety of Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Alberola-Die, Armando; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; González-Ros, José M.; Ivorra, Isabel; Morales, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Lidocaine bears in its structure both an aromatic ring and a terminal amine, which can be protonated at physiological pH, linked by an amide group. Since lidocaine causes multiple inhibitory actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), this work was aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of diethylamine (DEA), a small molecule resembling the hydrophilic moiety of lidocaine, on Torpedo marmorata nAChRs microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes. Similarly to lidocaine, DEA reversibly blocked acetylcholine-elicited currents (IACh) in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 close to 70 μM), but unlike lidocaine, DEA did not affect IACh desensitization. IACh inhibition by DEA was more pronounced at negative potentials, suggesting an open-channel blockade of nAChRs, although roughly 30% inhibition persisted at positive potentials, indicating additional binding sites outside the pore. DEA block of nAChRs in the resting state (closed channel) was confirmed by the enhanced IACh inhibition when pre-applying DEA before its co-application with ACh, as compared with solely DEA and ACh co-application. Virtual docking assays provide a plausible explanation to the experimental observations in terms of the involvement of different sets of drug binding sites. So, at the nAChR transmembrane (TM) domain, DEA and lidocaine shared binding sites within the channel pore, giving support to their open-channel blockade; besides, lidocaine, but not DEA, interacted with residues at cavities among the M1, M2, M3, and M4 segments of each subunit and also at intersubunit crevices. At the extracellular (EC) domain, DEA and lidocaine binding sites were broadly distributed, which aids to explain the closed channel blockade observed. Interestingly, some DEA clusters were located at the α-γ interphase of the EC domain, in a cavity near the orthosteric binding site pocket; by contrast, lidocaine contacted with all α-subunit loops conforming the ACh binding site, both in α-γ and α-δ and

  17. Muscle-Type Nicotinic Receptor Blockade by Diethylamine, the Hydrophilic Moiety of Lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Alberola-Die, Armando; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; González-Ros, José M; Ivorra, Isabel; Morales, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Lidocaine bears in its structure both an aromatic ring and a terminal amine, which can be protonated at physiological pH, linked by an amide group. Since lidocaine causes multiple inhibitory actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), this work was aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of diethylamine (DEA), a small molecule resembling the hydrophilic moiety of lidocaine, on Torpedo marmorata nAChRs microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes. Similarly to lidocaine, DEA reversibly blocked acetylcholine-elicited currents (I ACh ) in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 close to 70 μM), but unlike lidocaine, DEA did not affect I ACh desensitization. I ACh inhibition by DEA was more pronounced at negative potentials, suggesting an open-channel blockade of nAChRs, although roughly 30% inhibition persisted at positive potentials, indicating additional binding sites outside the pore. DEA block of nAChRs in the resting state (closed channel) was confirmed by the enhanced I ACh inhibition when pre-applying DEA before its co-application with ACh, as compared with solely DEA and ACh co-application. Virtual docking assays provide a plausible explanation to the experimental observations in terms of the involvement of different sets of drug binding sites. So, at the nAChR transmembrane (TM) domain, DEA and lidocaine shared binding sites within the channel pore, giving support to their open-channel blockade; besides, lidocaine, but not DEA, interacted with residues at cavities among the M1, M2, M3, and M4 segments of each subunit and also at intersubunit crevices. At the extracellular (EC) domain, DEA and lidocaine binding sites were broadly distributed, which aids to explain the closed channel blockade observed. Interestingly, some DEA clusters were located at the α-γ interphase of the EC domain, in a cavity near the orthosteric binding site pocket; by contrast, lidocaine contacted with all α-subunit loops conforming the ACh binding site, both in α-γ and α-δ and

  18. The non-competitive blockade of GABAA receptors by an aqueous extract of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) tubers.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Goulart, Camila; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; McCollum, Isabelle; Gardner, Dale R

    2015-12-15

    Water hemlocks (Cicuta spp.) are acutely toxic members of the Umbellierae family; the toxicity is due to the presence of C17-polyacetylenes such as cicutoxin. There is only limited evidence of noncompetitive antagonism by C17-polyacetylenes at GABAA receptors. In this work with WSS-1 cells, we documented the noncompetitive blockade of GABAA receptors by an aqueous extract of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) and modulated the actions of the extract with a pretreatment of 10 μM midazolam. PMID:26415905

  19. Behavioral effects of cannabinoids show differential sensitivity to cannabinoid receptor blockade and tolerance development.

    PubMed

    De Vry, J; Jentzsch, K R; Kuhl, E; Eckel, G

    2004-02-01

    This study compared the potency and efficacy of the cannabinoids delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-THC), HU-210, WIN 55,212-2 and CP 55,940 in suppressing food-reinforced operant behavior, increasing reaction latency in a hot-plate test and inducing hypothermia, and tested whether these behavioral effects induced by CP 55,940 showed differential sensitivity to the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, and to tolerance development. After acute i.p. administration to rats, operant behavior was more potently affected than reaction latency and body temperature, but the order of potency of the different drugs was similar across the tests: HU-210receptor agonist is situated at the left-hand side of the dose-spectrum, the more the effect is resistant to blockade by a cannabinoid receptor antagonist and to the development of tolerance. The possible consequence of this observation for the therapeutic use of cannabinoids is discussed.

  20. [Effects of blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors on the development of pentylenetetrazole kindling in mice].

    PubMed

    Lukomskaia, N Ia; Lavrent'eva, V V; Starshinova, L A; Zhabko, E P; Gorbunova, L V; Tikhonova, T B; Gmiro, V E; Magazanik, L G

    2005-11-01

    Effects of mono- and dicationic derivatives of adamantane and phenylcyclohexyl on the petyleneterazole-induced (35 mg/kg i. p.) kindling were studied in the experiments on mice. Monocationic derivative of phenylcyclohexyl IEM-1921, effectively retarded the development of kindling beginning the dose 0.0001 microM/kg. Memantine: derivative of adamantane (derivative of adamatane) produced the same effect with 100-fold increased dose. Dicationic derivative ofphenylcyclohexyl: IEM-1925, is able to block equally the open channels of both NMDA and subtype of Ca-permeable AMPA receptors. Its effect on kindling differed markedly from selective NMDA antagonists (IEM-1921 and memantine) in more complicated dose-dependence. The retardation of kindling IEM-1925 was induced at 0.001 microM/kg. On the contrary, a 10-time lower dose: 0.0001 microM/kg, facilitated the development of kindling. The observed difference in the activity of selective NMDA antagonists and the drugs combining anti-NMDA and anti-AMPA potency indicates that both types of ionotropic glutamate receptors are involved in the mechanism of petyleneterazole-induced kindling. The integral effect of channel blockade evoked by drugs seems to be dependent not only upon the ratio of the receptor types but on the kinetics of drug action, too.

  1. BLOCKADE OF PGE2, PGD2 RECEPTORS CONFERS PROTECTION AGAINST PREPATENT SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN MICE.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghany, Rasha; Rabia, Ibrahim; El-Ahwany, Eman; Saber, Sameh; Gamal, Rasha; Nagy, Faten; Mahmoud, Olaa; Hamad, Rabab Salem; Barakat, Walled

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease with considerable social impact. Despite the availability of affordable chemotherapy, drug treatment has not significantly reduced the overall number of disease cases. Among other mechanisms, the parasite produces PGE2 and PGD2 to evade host immune defenses. To investigate the role of PGE2 and PGD2 in schistosomiasis, we evaluated the effects of L-161,982, Ah6809 (PGE2 receptor antagonists alone of combined with each other) and MK-0524 (PGD2 receptor antagonist) during prepatent Schistosoma mansoni infection. Drugs were administered intraperitoneally an hour before and 24 hours after infection of C57BL/6 mice with 100 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. L-161,982, Ah6809, their combination and MK-0524 caused partial protection against pre-patent S. mansoni infection which was mediated by biasing the immune response towards Th1 phenotype. These results showed that blockade of PGE2 and PGD2 receptors confers partial protection against pre-patent S. mansoni infection in mice and that they may be useful as adjunctive therapy to current anti-schistosomal drugs or vaccines. PMID:26939228

  2. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise. PMID:25605289

  3. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors in the posterior cingulate cortex facilitates memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Grace S; Mello e Souza, Tadeu; Vinadé, Elsa R C; Choi, Humberto; Rodrigues, Cristina; Battastini, Ana M O; Izquierdo, Iván; Sarkis, João J F; Bonan, Carla D

    2002-02-22

    Male Wistar rats were bilaterally implanted with indwelling cannulae in the caudal region of the posterior cingulate cortex. After recovery, animals were trained in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task (3.0-s, 0.4-mA foot shock) and received, immediately after training, a 0.5-microl infusion of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 1, 50 or 100 nM) or of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 1, 25 or 50 nM). Animals were tested twice, 1.5 h and, again, 24 h after training, in order to examine the effects of these agents on short- and long-term memory, respectively. Only 50-nM DPCPX was effective in altering memory, promoting a facilitation. These results suggest that adenosine A1 receptors in the posterior cingulate cortex inhibit memory consolidation in a way that their blockade facilitates memory for inhibitory avoidance in rats.

  4. Dual Endothelin Receptor Blockade Abrogates Right Ventricular Remodeling and Biventricular Fibrosis in Isolated Elevated Right Ventricular Afterload

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Eva Amalie; Sun, Mei; Honjo, Osami; Hjortdal, Vibeke E.; Redington, Andrew N.; Friedberg, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension is usually fatal due to right ventricular failure and is frequently associated with co-existing left ventricular dysfunction. Endothelin-1 is a powerful pro-fibrotic mediator and vasoconstrictor that is elevated in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Endothelin receptor blockers are commonly used as pulmonary vasodilators, however their effect on biventricular injury, remodeling and function, despite elevated isolated right ventricular afterload is unknown. Methods Elevated right ventricular afterload was induced by progressive pulmonary artery banding. Seven rabbits underwent pulmonary artery banding without macitentan; 13 received pulmonary artery banding + macitentan; and 5 did not undergo inflation of the pulmonary artery band (sham-operated controls). Results: Right and left ventricular collagen content was increased with pulmonary artery banding compared to sham-operated controls and ameliorated by macitentan. Right ventricular fibrosis signaling (connective tissue growth factor and endothelin-1 protein levels); extra-cellular matrix remodeling (matrix-metalloproteinases 2 and 9), apoptosis and apoptosis-related peptides (caspases 3 and 8) were increased with pulmonary artery banding compared with sham-operated controls and decreased with macitentan. Conclusion Isolated right ventricular afterload causes biventricular fibrosis, right ventricular apoptosis and extra cellular matrix remodeling, mediated by up-regulation of endothelin-1 and connective tissue growth factor signaling. These pathological changes are ameliorated by dual endothelin receptor blockade despite persistent elevated right ventricular afterload. PMID:26765263

  5. Blockade of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor signaling reverses LPS-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Iris U; Ruzza, Chiara; Asth, Laila; Guerrini, Remo; Romão, Pedro R T; Gavioli, Elaine C; Calo, Girolamo

    2015-10-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ is the natural ligand of a Gi-protein coupled receptor named NOP. This peptidergic system is involved in the regulation of mood states and inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to investigate the consequences of blocking NOP signaling in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness and depressive-like behaviors in mice. LPS 0.8mg/kg, ip, significantly induced sickness signs such as weight loss, decrease of water and food intake and depressive-like behavior in the tail suspension test. Nortriptyline (ip, 60min prior the test) reversed the LPS-induced depressive states. The NOP receptor antagonist SB-612111, 30min prior LPS, did not modify LPS-induced sickness signs and depressive-like behavior. However, when injected 24h after LPS, NOP antagonists (UFP-101, icv, and SB-612111, ip) significantly reversed the mood effects of LPS. LPS evoked similar sickness signs and significantly increased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels 6h post-injection in wild-type ((NOP(+/+)) and NOP knockout ((NOP(-/-)) mice. However, LPS treatment elicited depressive-like effects in NOP(+/+) but not in NOP(-/-) mice. In conclusion, the pharmacological and genetic blockade of NOP signaling does not affect LPS evoked sickness signs while reversing depressive-like behavior. PMID:26028163

  6. Inhibition of β2-adrenergic receptor reduces triple-negative breast cancer brain metastases: The potential benefit of perioperative β-blockade.

    PubMed

    Choy, Cecilia; Raytis, John L; Smith, David D; Duenas, Matthew; Neman, Josh; Jandial, Rahul; Lew, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    In response to recent studies, we investigated an association between perioperative β-blockade and breast cancer metastases. First, a retrospective study examining perioperative β-blocker use and cancer recurrence and metastases was conducted on 1,029 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at the City of Hope Cancer Center between 2000 and 2010. We followed the clinical study and examined proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro of primary and brain-metastatic breast cancer cells in response to β2-activation and inhibition. We also investigated in vivo the metastatic potential of propranolol-treated metastatic cells. For stage II breast cancer patients, perioperative β-blockade was associated with decreased cancer recurrence using Cox regression analysis (hazard's ratio =0.51; 95% CI: 0.23-0.97; p=0.041). Triple-negative (TN) brain-metastatic cells were found to have increased β2-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein expression relative to TN primary cells. In response to β2-adrenergic receptor activation, TN brain-metastatic cells also exhibited increased cell proliferation and migration relative to the control. These effects were abrogated by propranolol. Propranolol decreased β2-adrenergic receptor-activated invasion. In vivo, propranolol treatment of TN brain-metastatic cells decreased establishment of brain metastases. Our results suggest that stress and corresponding β2-activation may promote the establishment of brain metastases of TN breast cancer cells. In addition, our data suggest a benefit to perioperative β-blockade during surgery-induced stress with respect to breast cancer recurrence and metastases.

  7. Sustained in vivo blockade of α₁-adrenergic receptors prevented some of stress-triggered effects on steroidogenic machinery in Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, Natasa J; Janjic, Marija M; Baburski, Aleksandar Z; Mihajlovic, Aleksandar I; Drljaca, Dragana M; Sokanovic, Srdjan J; Bjelic, Maja M; Kostic, Tatjana S; Andric, Silvana A

    2013-07-15

    This study was designed to systematically analyze and evaluate the effects of in vivo blockade of α₁-adrenergic receptors (α₁-ADRs) on the stress-induced disturbance of steroidogenic machinery in Leydig cells. Parameters followed 1) steroidogenic enzymes/proteins, transcription factors, and cAMP/testosterone production; 2) the main hallmarks of stress (epinephrine, glucocorticoids); and 3) transcription profiles of ADRs and oxidases with high affinity to inactivate glucocorticoids. Results showed that sustained blockade of α₁-ADRs prevented stress-induced 1) decrease of the transcripts/proteins for main steroidogenic CYPs (CYP11A1, CYP17A1); 2) decrease of Scarb1 and Hsd3b1 transcripts; 3) decrease of transcript for Nur77, one of the main activator of the steroidogenic expression; and 4) increase of Dax1 and Arr19, the main steroidogenic repressors in Leydig cells. In the same cells, the expression of steroidogenic stimulatory factor Creb1, StAR, and androgen receptor increased. In this signaling scenario, stress-induced stimulation of Adra1a/Adra1b/Adrbk1 and Hsd11b2 (the unidirectional oxidase with high affinity to inactivate glucocorticoids) was not changed. Blockade additionally stimulated stress-increased transcription of the most abundantly expressed ADRs Adra1d/Adrb1/Adrb2 in Leydig cells. In the same cells, stress-decreased testosterone production, the main marker of Leydig cells functionality, was completely prevented, while reduction of cAMP, the main regulator of androgenesis, was partially prevented. Accordingly, the presented data provide a new molecular/transcriptional base for "fight/adaptation" of steroidogenic cells and new molecular insights into the role of α₁-ADRs in stress-impaired Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The results are important in term of wide use of α₁-ADR selective antagonists, alone/in combination, to treat high blood pressure, nightmares associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, and disrupted sexual health.

  8. NMDA receptor blockade with memantine attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia.

    PubMed

    Manning, Simon M; Talos, Delia M; Zhou, Chengwen; Selip, Debra B; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Chang-Joo; Volpe, Joseph J; Jensen, Frances E

    2008-06-25

    Hypoxia-ischemia (H/I) in the premature infant leads to white matter injury termed periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the leading cause of subsequent neurological deficits. Glutamatergic excitotoxicity in white matter oligodendrocytes (OLs) mediated by cell surface glutamate receptors (GluRs) of the AMPA subtype has been demonstrated as one factor in this injury. Recently, it has been shown that rodent OLs also express functional NMDA GluRs (NMDARs), and overactivation of these receptors can mediate excitotoxic OL injury. Here we show that preterm human developing OLs express NMDARs during the PVL period of susceptibility, presenting a potential therapeutic target. The expression pattern mirrors that seen in the immature rat. Furthermore, the uncompetitive NMDAR antagonist memantine attenuates NMDA-evoked currents in developing OLs in situ in cerebral white matter of immature rats. Using an H/I rat model of white matter injury, we show in vivo that post-H/I treatment with memantine attenuates acute loss of the developing OL cell surface marker O1 and the mature OL marker MBP (myelin basic protein), and also prevents the long-term reduction in cerebral mantle thickness seen at postnatal day 21 in this model. These protective doses of memantine do not affect normal myelination or cortical growth. Together, these data suggest that NMDAR blockade with memantine may provide an effective pharmacological prevention of PVL in the premature infant.

  9. Angiotensin receptor blockade attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung injury and rescues lung architecture in mice.

    PubMed

    Podowski, Megan; Calvi, Carla; Metzger, Shana; Misono, Kaori; Poonyagariyagorn, Hataya; Lopez-Mercado, Armando; Ku, Therese; Lauer, Thomas; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon; Berger, Alan; Cheadle, Christopher; Tuder, Rubin; Dietz, Harry C; Mitzner, Wayne; Wise, Robert; Neptune, Enid

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent smoking-related disease for which no disease-altering therapies currently exist. As dysregulated TGF-β signaling associates with lung pathology in patients with COPD and in animal models of lung injury induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), we postulated that inhibiting TGF-β signaling would protect against CS-induced lung injury. We first confirmed that TGF-β signaling was induced in the lungs of mice chronically exposed to CS as well as in COPD patient samples. Importantly, key pathological features of smoking-associated lung disease in patients, e.g., alveolar injury with overt emphysema and airway epithelial hyperplasia with fibrosis, accompanied CS-induced alveolar cell apoptosis caused by enhanced TGF-β signaling in CS-exposed mice. Systemic administration of a TGF-β-specific neutralizing antibody normalized TGF-β signaling and alveolar cell death, conferring improved lung architecture and lung mechanics in CS-exposed mice. Use of losartan, an angiotensin receptor type 1 blocker used widely in the clinic and known to antagonize TGF-β signaling, also improved oxidative stress, inflammation, metalloprotease activation and elastin remodeling. These data support our hypothesis that inhibition of TGF-β signaling through angiotensin receptor blockade can attenuate CS-induced lung injury in an established murine model. More importantly, our findings provide a preclinical platform for the development of other TGF-β-targeted therapies for patients with COPD.

  10. Blockade of cannabinoid 1 receptor improves GLP-1R mediated insulin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Kim, Wook; Rouse, Michael; Egan, Josephine M

    2016-03-01

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1) is an important regulator of energy metabolism. Reports of in vivo and in vitro studies give conflicting results regarding its role in insulin secretion, possibly due to circulatory factors, such as incretins. We hypothesized that this receptor may be a regulator of the entero-insular axis. We found that despite lower food consumption and lower body weight postprandial GLP-1 plasma concentrations were increased in CB1(-/-) mice compared to CB1(+/+) mice administered a standard diet or high fat/sugar diet. Upon exogenous GLP-1 treatment, CB1(-/-) mice had increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In mouse insulinoma cells, cannabinoids reduced GLP-1R-mediated intracellular cAMP accumulation and subsequent insulin secretion. Importantly, such effects were also evident in human islets, and were prevented by pharmacologic blockade of CB1. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel mechanism in which endocannabinoids are negative modulators of incretin-mediated insulin secretion. PMID:26724516

  11. The Effect of Opioid Receptor Blockade on the Neural Processing of Thermal Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Schoell, Eszter D.; Bingel, Ulrike; Eippert, Falk; Yacubian, Juliana; Christiansen, Kerrin; Andresen, Hilke; May, Arne; Buechel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system represents one of the principal systems in the modulation of pain. This has been demonstrated in studies of placebo analgesia and stress-induced analgesia, where anti-nociceptive activity triggered by pain itself or by cognitive states is blocked by opioid antagonists. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of opioid receptor blockade on the physiological processing of painful thermal stimulation in the absence of cognitive manipulation. We therefore measured BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) signal responses and intensity ratings to non-painful and painful thermal stimuli in a double-blind, cross-over design using the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. On the behavioral level, we observed an increase in intensity ratings under naloxone due mainly to a difference in the non-painful stimuli. On the neural level, painful thermal stimulation was associated with a negative BOLD signal within the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, and this deactivation was abolished by naloxone. PMID:20811582

  12. Modulation of stress hormones in rainbow trout by means of anesthesia, sensory deprivation and receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Gerwick, L; Demers, N E; Bayne, C J

    1999-11-01

    Sympathetic activation leading to increased levels of blood catecholamines, and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary inter-renal axis leading to increased cortisol, are difficult to avoid when handling animals. Yet, in research on effects of acute stress, elicitation of such responses must be minimized in the control groups. The work examines means to achieve a minimally disturbed state in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Level of arousal was determined by adrenaline and cortisol concentrations in plasma, and by the spleen:somatic index. Fish were prepared for bleeding by rapid capture and concussion, by infusion of anesthetic into the undisturbed home tank, by confinement in black boxes, or by being fed alpha- and beta-receptor antagonists. Even when done quickly, netting and concussion yielded fish with ca. 200-pmol adrenaline/ml plasma. Cortisol was elevated (to > 10 ng/ml) within 30 s of stress initiation. Surreptitious infusion of anesthetic (2-phenoxyethanol, PE) into tanks yielded fish with lower adrenaline levels (means 19.34 and 19.58 pmols/ml in home tank and black boxes, respectively). Among fish given phentolamine and propranolol, spleen:somatic indices and plasma adrenaline were higher than in diet controls, whether undisturbed or stressed, indicative of successful receptor blockade. Since careful infusion of 2-PE yielded the lowest adrenaline levels, and requires no special apparatus, it is the method of choice for obtaining minimally stressed fish.

  13. Rapid decrease in tumor perfusion following VEGF blockade predicts long-term tumor growth inhibition in preclinical tumor models.

    PubMed

    Eichten, Alexandra; Adler, Alexander P; Cooper, Blerta; Griffith, Jennifer; Wei, Yi; Yancopoulos, George D; Lin, Hsin Chieh; Thurston, Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key upstream mediator of tumor angiogenesis, and blockade of VEGF can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and decrease tumor growth. However, not all tumors respond well to anti-VEGF therapy. Despite much effort, identification of early response biomarkers that correlate with long-term efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy has been difficult. These difficulties arise in part because the functional effects of VEGF inhibition on tumor vessels are still unclear. We therefore assessed rapid molecular, morphologic and functional vascular responses following treatment with aflibercept (also known as VEGF Trap or ziv-aflibercept in the United States) in preclinical tumor models with a range of responses to anti-VEGF therapy, including Colo205 human colorectal carcinoma (highly sensitive), C6 rat glioblastoma (moderately sensitive), and HT1080 human fibrosarcoma (resistant), and correlated these changes to long-term tumor growth inhibition. We found that an overall decrease in tumor vessel perfusion, assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US), and increases in tumor hypoxia correlated well with long-term tumor growth inhibition, whereas changes in vascular gene expression and microvessel density did not. Our findings support previous clinical studies showing that decreased tumor perfusion after anti-VEGF therapy (measured by DCE-US) correlated with response. Thus, measuring tumor perfusion changes shortly after treatment with VEGF inhibitors, or possibly other anti-angiogenic therapies, may be useful to predict treatment efficacy. PMID:23238831

  14. Role of dopamine receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blockade in the antiapomorphine action of neuroleptics

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Langel, Yu.L.; Chereshka, K.S.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1987-08-01

    The authors analyze the role of dopamine and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blocking components in the antistereotypic action of neuroleptics with different chemical structure. To determine dopamine-blocking activity in vitro, binding of /sup 3/H-spiperone with membranes of the rat striatum was measured. To study the blocking action of the substances on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, binding of /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzylate with brain membranes was chosen.

  15. The blockade of GABAA receptors attenuates the inhibitory effect of orexin type 1 receptors antagonist on morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Mahnaz; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Semnanian, Saeed

    2016-03-23

    The aim of present study was to investigate the involvement of orexin-A neuropeptide in naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome via modulating neurons bearing GABAA receptors. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a sensitive site for expression of the somatic aspects of morphine withdrawal. Intra-LC microinjection of GABAA receptor agonist attenuates morphine withdrawal signs in rats. Here we studied the influence of LC orexin type 1 receptors blockade by SB-334867 in presence of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 250-300 g, were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of increasing morphine doses (6, 16, 26, 36, 46, 56 and 66 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg) at set intervals of 24 h for 7 days. On 8th day, naloxone (3 mg/kg, s.c.) was injected and the somatic signs of morphine withdrawal were evaluated. Intra-LC microinjections (0.2 μl) of either bicuculline (15 μM) or SB-334867 (3 mM) or a combination of both chemicals were done immediately before naloxone injection. Intra-LC microinjection of bicuculline (15 μM) had no significant effect on morphine withdrawal signs, whereas intra-LC microinjection of SB-334867 considerably attenuated morphine withdrawal signs. However, the effect of SB-334867 in attenuating naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs was blocked in presence of bicuculline. This finding, for the first time, indicated that orexin-A may participate in expression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome partly through decreasing the activity of neurons bearing GABAA receptors.

  16. IL-1 Receptor Blockade Alleviates Graft-versus-Host Disease through Downregulation of an Interleukin-1β-Dependent Glycolytic Pathway in Th17 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Jung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Sung-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Jong Young; Cho, Mi-La

    2015-01-01

    T helper (Th) 17 cells are a subset of Th cells expressing interleukin- (IL-) 17 and initiating an inflammatory response in autoimmune diseases. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an immune inflammatory disease caused by interactions between the adaptive immunity of donor and recipient. The Th17 lineage exhibits proinflammatory activity and is believed to be a central player in GVHD. IL-1 performs a key function in immune responses and induces development of Th17 cells. Here, we show that blockade of IL-1 signaling suppresses Th17 cell differentiation and alleviates GVHD severity. We hypothesized that the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) would suppress Th17 cell differentiation in vitro via inhibition of glycolysis-related genes. Blockade of IL-1 using IL-1Ra downregulated Th17 cell differentiation, an alloreactive T cell response, and expression of genes of the glycolysis pathway. Severity of GVHD was reduced in mice with a transplant of IL-Ra-treated cells, in comparison with control mice. To clarify the mechanisms via which IL-1Ra exerts the therapeutic effect, we demonstrated in vivo that IL-1Ra decreased the proportion of Th17 cells, increased the proportion of FoxP3-expressing T regulatory (Treg) cells, and inhibited expression of glycolysis-related genes and suppressed Th17 cell development and B-cell activation. These results suggest that blockade of IL-1 signaling ameliorates GVHD via suppression of excessive T cell-related inflammation. PMID:26798206

  17. Improvement of skin wound healing in diabetic mice by kinin B2 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Desposito, Dorinne; Chollet, Catherine; Taveau, Christopher; Descamps, Vincent; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Roussel, Ronan; Bouby, Nadine; Waeckel, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Impaired skin wound healing is a major medical problem in diabetic subjects. Kinins exert a number of vascular and other actions limiting organ damage in ischaemia or diabetes, but their role in skin injury is unknown. We investigated, through pharmacological manipulation of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1R and B2R respectively), the role of kinins in wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Using two mouse models of diabetes (streptozotocin-induced and db/db mice) and non-diabetic mice, we assessed the effect of kinin receptor activation or inhibition by subtype-selective pharmacological agonists (B1R and B2R) and antagonist (B2R) on healing of experimental skin wounds. We also studied effects of agonists and antagonist on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. Levels of Bdkrb1 (encoding B1R) and Bdkrb2 (encoding B2R) mRNAs increased 1-2-fold in healthy and wounded diabetic skin compared with in non-diabetic skin. Diabetes delayed wound healing. The B1R agonist had no effect on wound healing. In contrast, the B2R agonist impaired wound repair in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice, inducing skin disorganization and epidermis thickening. In vitro, B2R activation unbalanced fibroblast/keratinocyte proliferation and increased keratinocyte migration. These effects were abolished by co-administration of B2R antagonist. Interestingly, in the two mouse models of diabetes, the B2R antagonist administered alone normalized wound healing. This effect was associated with the induction of Ccl2 (encoding monocyte chemoattractant protein 1)/Tnf (encoding tumour necrosis factor α) mRNAs. Thus stimulation of kinin B2 receptor impairs skin wound healing in mice. B2R activation occurs in the diabetic skin and delays wound healing. B2R blockade improves skin wound healing in diabetic mice and is a potential therapeutic approach to diabetic ulcers.

  18. Appraising the instantaneous secretory rates of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in response to selective mu opiate receptor blockade in late pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Mauras, N; Rogol, A D; Veldhuis, J D

    1987-01-01

    The pulsatile properties of gonadotropin and testosterone release were examined before and after chronic mu opiate receptor blockade with naltrexone, 50 mg every other day, in four normal boys in late puberty (ages 14 8/12 to 15 1/12 years). The nature of spontaneous secretory events was appraised for immunoactive LH and testosterone in blood withdrawn every 20 minutes for 24 hours, using a novel, discrete deconvolution algorithm to estimate apparent instantaneous secretory rates. The application of this methodology revealed that the frequency of discrete LH instantaneous secretory rates increased after mu opiate receptor blockade (P = 0.011). More strikingly, all parameters of testosterone secretory events responded significantly to mu opiate receptor blockade, including increases in mean estimated secretory rate (+47%, P = 0.02), testosterone pulse frequency (+ 64%, P less than 0.001) and amplitude (+ 20%, P = 0.027). Correspondingly, decreases in testosterone interpulse secretory intervals (-35%, P = 0.001), secretory pulse duration (-19%, P = 0.042) and interpulse valley duration (-35%, P = 0.006) also were noted. There was a prominent diurnal rhythm in testosterone secretion with maximal values in the morning and late evening, and marked reductions in the afternoon, sometimes to prepubertal levels. This variation in the testosterone secretory profile paralleled that of LH. In response to naltrexone, the FSH concentration series showed a significant increase in the mean FSH concentration (+ 18%) P = 0.003) and mean peak amplitude (+ 15%, P = 0.002). These data provide indirect evidence of functional coupling of the opiate system with the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3040654

  19. Effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on kidney ischemia/reperfusion; a gender-related difference

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Fatemeh; Taheri, Pegah; Azimipoor, Mahdis; Ramtin, Sina; Hashemianfar, Mostafa; Momeni- Ashjerdi, Ali; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nasri, Hamid; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury may be related to activity of reninangiotensin system (RAS), which is gender-related. In this study, it was attempted to compare the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor type 1 (AT1R) blockade; losartan in I/R injury in male and female rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female Wistar rats were assigned as sham surgery, control I/R groups treated with vehicle, and case I/R groups treated with losartan (30 mg/kg). Vehicle and losartan were given 2 hours before bilateral kidney ischemia induced by clamping renal arteries for 45 minutes followed by 24 hours of renal reperfusion. Results: The I/R injury significantly increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), and kidney tissue damage score in both genders. However, losartan decreased these values in female rats significantly (P < 0.05). This was not observed in male rats. Conclusion: Losartan protects the kidney from I/R injury in female but not in male rats possibly because of gender-related difference of RAS. PMID:27689110

  20. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-01

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  1. Functional and Morphological Improvement of Dystrophic Muscle by Interleukin 6 Receptor Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Laura; Berardinelli, Maria Grazia; De Pasquale, Loredana; Nicoletti, Carmine; D'Amico, Adele; Carvello, Francesco; Moneta, Gian Marco; Catizone, Angela; Bertini, Enrico; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Musarò, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory agents glucocorticoids (GC) are the only available treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, long-term GC treatment causes muscle atrophy and wasting. Thus, targeting specific mediator of inflammatory response may be more specific, more efficacious, and with fewer side effects. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 6 is overproduced in patients with DMD and in the muscle of mdx, the animal model for human DMD. We tested the ability of inhibition of IL6 activity, using an interleukin-6 receptor (Il6r) neutralizing antibody, to ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype. Blockade of endogenous Il6r conferred on dystrophic muscle resistance to degeneration and alleviated both morphological and functional consequences of the primary genetic defect. Pharmacological inhibition of IL6 activity leaded to changes in the dystrophic muscle environment, favoring anti-inflammatory responses and improvement in muscle repair. This resulted in a functional homeostatic maintenance of dystrophic muscle. These data provide an alternative pharmacological strategy for treatment of DMD and circumvent the major problems associated with conventional therapy. PMID:26137572

  2. Functional and Morphological Improvement of Dystrophic Muscle by Interleukin 6 Receptor Blockade.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Laura; Berardinelli, Maria Grazia; De Pasquale, Loredana; Nicoletti, Carmine; D'Amico, Adele; Carvello, Francesco; Moneta, Gian Marco; Catizone, Angela; Bertini, Enrico; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Musarò, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory agents glucocorticoids (GC) are the only available treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, long-term GC treatment causes muscle atrophy and wasting. Thus, targeting specific mediator of inflammatory response may be more specific, more efficacious, and with fewer side effects. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 6 is overproduced in patients with DMD and in the muscle of mdx, the animal model for human DMD. We tested the ability of inhibition of IL6 activity, using an interleukin-6 receptor (Il6r) neutralizing antibody, to ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype. Blockade of endogenous Il6r conferred on dystrophic muscle resistance to degeneration and alleviated both morphological and functional consequences of the primary genetic defect. Pharmacological inhibition of IL6 activity leaded to changes in the dystrophic muscle environment, favoring anti-inflammatory responses and improvement in muscle repair. This resulted in a functional homeostatic maintenance of dystrophic muscle. These data provide an alternative pharmacological strategy for treatment of DMD and circumvent the major problems associated with conventional therapy.

  3. The effect of AMPA receptor blockade on spatial information acquisition, consolidation and expression in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Tzakis, Nikolaos; Bosnic, Tim; Ritchie, Thomas; Dixon, Kaylyn; Holahan, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    Improvement on spatial tasks in rats is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (post-natal day (PND) 18 - PND 20). The developmental emergence of this spatial function occurs in conjunction with hippocampal connectivity changes and enhanced hippocampal-AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. The current work investigated the effect of AMPAr blockade on the emergence and long-term storage of spatial information in juvenile rats and associated neural activity patterns in the dorsal hippocampus CA1 region. Male, Long Evans rats between the ages of PND 18 and PND 20 were systemically (i.p.) administered the AMPAr antagonist, NBQX, (0, 5 or 10mg/kg) every day prior to hidden platform water maze training (PND 18, 19 and 20), every day immediately post-training or immediately before the probe test (PND 41). NBQX administration prior to training prolonged latencies, pathlength and increased thigmotaxis during the acquisition phase. Administration of NBQX immediately posttraining had no effect on the day-to-day performance. When given a probe test 3weeks later, the saline group across all conditions spent more time in the target quadrant. Rats treated with pretraining 5mg NBQX dose showed a preference for the target quadrant while the posttraining and pretesting 5mg NBQX doses impaired the target quadrant preference. Groups injected with 10mg of NBQX pretraining, posttraining or pretesting did not show a preference for the target quadrant. c-Fos labeling in the CA1 reflected these differences in probe performance in that groups showing greater than chance dwell time in the target quadrant showed more c-Fos labeling in the CA1 region than groups that did not show a target quadrant preference. These findings provide support for the critical role of AMPA receptor-mediated function in the organization and long-term storage of spatial memories acquired during the juvenile period. PMID:27353718

  4. Glucose intolerance induced by blockade of central FGF receptors is linked to an acute stress response

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Jennifer M.; Matsen, Miles E.; Mundinger, Thomas O.; Morton, Gregory J.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Taborsky, Gerald J.; Schwartz, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Central administration of ligands for fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) such as fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) and FGF21 exert glucose-lowering effects in rodent models of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Conversely, intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of the non-selective FGFR inhibitor (FGFRi) PD173074 causes glucose intolerance, implying a physiological role for neuronal FGFR signaling in glucose homeostasis. The current studies were undertaken to identify neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the glucose intolerance induced by pharmacological blockade of central FGFRs. Methods Overnight fasted, lean, male, Long-Evans rats received icv injections of either PD173074 or vehicle (Veh) followed 30 min later by performance of a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Minimal model analysis of glucose and insulin data from the FSIGT was performed to estimate insulin-dependent and insulin-independent components of glucose disposal. Plasma levels of lactate, glucagon, corticosterone, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA) and catecholamines were measured before and after intravenous (iv) glucose injection. Results Within 20 min of icv PD173074 injection (prior to the FSIGT), plasma levels of lactate, norepinephrine and epinephrine increased markedly, and each returned to baseline rapidly (within 8 min) following the iv glucose bolus. In contrast, plasma glucagon levels were not altered by icv FGFRi at either time point. Consistent with a previous report, glucose tolerance was impaired following icv PD173074 compared to Veh injection and, based on minimal model analysis of FSIGT data, this effect was attributable to reductions of both insulin secretion and the basal insulin effect (BIE), consistent with the inhibitory effect of catecholamines on pancreatic β-cell secretion. By comparison, there were no changes in glucose effectiveness at zero insulin (GEZI) or the insulin sensitivity index (SI). To determine if

  5. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors prevents protein phosphorylation in the striatum induced by cortical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, César; Gomes, Catarina; Pak, Arlene C; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Goldberg, Steven R; Hope, Bruce T; Ferré, Sergi

    2006-10-18

    Previous studies have shown that cortical stimulation selectively activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and immediate early gene expression in striatal GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons. In the present study, we demonstrate that blockade of adenosine A2A receptors with caffeine or a selective A2A receptor antagonist counteracts the striatal activation of cAMP-protein kinase A cascade (phosphorylation of the Ser845 residue of the glutamate receptor 1 subunit of the AMPA receptor) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 phosphorylation) induced by the in vivo stimulation of corticostriatal afferents. The results indicate that A2A receptors strongly modulate the efficacy of glutamatergic synapses on striatal enkephalinergic neurons.

  6. Combined, but not individual, blockade of ASIC3, P2X, and EP4 receptors attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Copp, Steven W; Kim, Joyce S; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-12-01

    In healthy humans, tests of the hypothesis that lactic acid, PGE2, or ATP plays a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex proved controversial. The findings in humans resembled ours in decerebrate rats that individual blockade of the receptors to lactic acid, PGE2, and ATP had only small effects on the exercise pressor reflex provided that the muscles were freely perfused. This similarity between humans and rats prompted us to test the hypothesis that in rats with freely perfused muscles combined receptor blockade is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex. We first compared the reflex before and after injecting either PPADS (10 mg/kg), a P2X receptor antagonist, APETx2 (100 μg/kg), an activating acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC) channel antagonist, or L161982 (2 μg/kg), an EP4 receptor antagonist, into the arterial supply of the hindlimb of decerebrated rats. We then examined the effects of combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the exercise pressor reflex using the same doses, intra-arterial route, and time course of antagonist injections as those used for individual blockade. We found that neither PPADS (n = 5), APETx2 (n = 6), nor L161982 (n = 6) attenuated the reflex. In contrast, combined blockade of these receptors (n = 7) attenuated the peak (↓27%, P < 0.019) and integrated (↓48%, P < 0.004) pressor components of the reflex. Combined blockade injected intravenously had no effect on the reflex. We conclude that combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the endings of thin fiber muscle afferents is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimbs.

  7. Combined, but not individual, blockade of ASIC3, P2X, and EP4 receptors attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Copp, Steven W; Kim, Joyce S; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-12-01

    In healthy humans, tests of the hypothesis that lactic acid, PGE2, or ATP plays a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex proved controversial. The findings in humans resembled ours in decerebrate rats that individual blockade of the receptors to lactic acid, PGE2, and ATP had only small effects on the exercise pressor reflex provided that the muscles were freely perfused. This similarity between humans and rats prompted us to test the hypothesis that in rats with freely perfused muscles combined receptor blockade is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex. We first compared the reflex before and after injecting either PPADS (10 mg/kg), a P2X receptor antagonist, APETx2 (100 μg/kg), an activating acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC) channel antagonist, or L161982 (2 μg/kg), an EP4 receptor antagonist, into the arterial supply of the hindlimb of decerebrated rats. We then examined the effects of combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the exercise pressor reflex using the same doses, intra-arterial route, and time course of antagonist injections as those used for individual blockade. We found that neither PPADS (n = 5), APETx2 (n = 6), nor L161982 (n = 6) attenuated the reflex. In contrast, combined blockade of these receptors (n = 7) attenuated the peak (↓27%, P < 0.019) and integrated (↓48%, P < 0.004) pressor components of the reflex. Combined blockade injected intravenously had no effect on the reflex. We conclude that combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the endings of thin fiber muscle afferents is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimbs. PMID:26472871

  8. Activation of the Cardiac Renin-Angiotensin System in High Oxygen-Exposed Newborn Rats: Angiotensin Receptor Blockade Prevents the Developmental Programming of Cardiac Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolli, Mariane; Dios, Anne; Béland-Bonenfant, Sarah; Gascon, Gabrielle; Sutherland, Megan; Lukaszewski, Marie-Amélie; Cloutier, Anik; Paradis, Pierre; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Nuyt, Anne Monique

    2016-04-01

    Newborn rats exposed to high oxygen (O2), mimicking preterm birth-related neonatal stress, develop later in life cardiac hypertrophy, dysfunction, fibrosis, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Cardiac renin-angiotensin system activation in O2-exposed adult rats is characterized by an imbalance in angiotensin (Ang) receptors type 1/2 (AT1/2), with prevailing AT1 expression. To study the role of renin-angiotensin system in the developmental programming of cardiac dysfunction, we assessed Ang receptor expression during neonatal high O2 exposure and whether AT1 receptor blockade prevents cardiac alterations in early adulthood. Sprague-Dawley newborn rats were kept with their mother in 80% O2 or room air (control) from days 3 to 10 (P3-P10) of life. Losartan or water was administered by gavage from P8 to P10 (n=9/group). Rats were studied at P3 (before O2 exposure), P5, P10 (end of O2), and P28. Losartan treatment had no impact on growth or kidney development. AT1 and Ang type 2 receptors were upregulated in the left ventricle by high O2 exposure (P5 and P10), which was prevented by Losartan treatment at P10. Losartan prevented the cardiac AT1/2 imbalance at P28. Losartan decreased cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and improved left ventricle fraction of shortening in P28 O2-exposed rats, which was associated with decreased oxidation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, inhibition of the transforming growth factor-β/SMAD3 pathway, and upregulation of cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. In conclusion, short-term Ang II blockade during neonatal high O2 prevents the development of cardiac alterations later in life in rats. These findings highlight the key role of neonatal renin-angiotensin system activation in the developmental programming of cardiac dysfunction induced by deleterious neonatal conditions.

  9. Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin system improves insulin receptor signaling and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport in burn injury.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Sherry O; Phillips, Erin E; Castle, Scott M; Daley, Brian J; Enderson, Blaine L; Karlstad, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury is associated with a decline in glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity due to alterations in postreceptor insulin signaling pathways. We have reported that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker, improves whole body insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism after burn injury. This study examines whether losartan improves insulin signaling pathways and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle in burn-injured rats. Rats were injured by a 30% full-skin-thickness scalding burn and treated with losartan or placebo for 3 days after burn. Insulin signaling pathways were investigated in rectus abdominus muscle taken before and 90 s after intraportal insulin injection (10 U·kg). Insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate 1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and plasma membrane-associated GLUT4 transporter were substantially increased with losartan treatment in burn-injured animals (59% above sham). Serine phosphorylated AKT/PKB was decreased with burn injury, and this decrease was attenuated with losartan treatment. In a separate group of rats, the effect of insulin on 2-deoxyglucose transport was significantly impaired in burned as compared with sham soleus muscles, in vitro; however, treatment of burned rats with losartan completely abolished the reduction of insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose transport. These findings demonstrate a cross talk between the AT1 and insulin receptor that negatively modulates insulin receptor signaling and suggest a potential role of renin-angiotensin system blockade as a therapeutic strategy for enhancing insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and improving whole-body glucose homeostasis in burn injury.

  10. Improvement of skin wound healing in diabetic mice by kinin B2 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Desposito, Dorinne; Chollet, Catherine; Taveau, Christopher; Descamps, Vincent; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Roussel, Ronan; Bouby, Nadine; Waeckel, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Impaired skin wound healing is a major medical problem in diabetic subjects. Kinins exert a number of vascular and other actions limiting organ damage in ischaemia or diabetes, but their role in skin injury is unknown. We investigated, through pharmacological manipulation of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1R and B2R respectively), the role of kinins in wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Using two mouse models of diabetes (streptozotocin-induced and db/db mice) and non-diabetic mice, we assessed the effect of kinin receptor activation or inhibition by subtype-selective pharmacological agonists (B1R and B2R) and antagonist (B2R) on healing of experimental skin wounds. We also studied effects of agonists and antagonist on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. Levels of Bdkrb1 (encoding B1R) and Bdkrb2 (encoding B2R) mRNAs increased 1-2-fold in healthy and wounded diabetic skin compared with in non-diabetic skin. Diabetes delayed wound healing. The B1R agonist had no effect on wound healing. In contrast, the B2R agonist impaired wound repair in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice, inducing skin disorganization and epidermis thickening. In vitro, B2R activation unbalanced fibroblast/keratinocyte proliferation and increased keratinocyte migration. These effects were abolished by co-administration of B2R antagonist. Interestingly, in the two mouse models of diabetes, the B2R antagonist administered alone normalized wound healing. This effect was associated with the induction of Ccl2 (encoding monocyte chemoattractant protein 1)/Tnf (encoding tumour necrosis factor α) mRNAs. Thus stimulation of kinin B2 receptor impairs skin wound healing in mice. B2R activation occurs in the diabetic skin and delays wound healing. B2R blockade improves skin wound healing in diabetic mice and is a potential therapeutic approach to diabetic ulcers. PMID:26443866

  11. Amelioration strategies fail to prevent tobacco smoke effects on neurodifferentiation: Nicotinic receptor blockade, antioxidants, methyl donors.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Skavicus, Samantha; Card, Jennifer; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco smoke exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We used neuronotypic PC12 cells to evaluate the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke extract (TSE) affects neurodifferentiation. In undifferentiated cells, TSE impaired DNA synthesis and cell numbers to a much greater extent than nicotine alone; TSE also impaired cell viability to a small extent. In differentiating cells, TSE enhanced cell growth at the expense of cell numbers and promoted emergence of the dopaminergic phenotype. Nicotinic receptor blockade with mecamylamine was ineffective in preventing the adverse effects of TSE and actually enhanced the effect of TSE on the dopamine phenotype. A mixture of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, N-acetyl-l-cysteine) provided partial protection against cell loss but also promoted loss of the cholinergic phenotype in response to TSE. Notably, the antioxidants themselves altered neurodifferentiation, reducing cell numbers and promoting the cholinergic phenotype at the expense of the dopaminergic phenotype, an effect that was most prominent for N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Treatment with methyl donors (vitamin B12, folic acid, choline) had no protectant effect and actually enhanced the cell loss evoked by TSE; they did have a minor, synergistic interaction with antioxidants protecting against TSE effects on growth. Thus, components of tobacco smoke perturb neurodifferentiation through mechanisms that cannot be attributed to the individual effects of nicotine, oxidative stress or interference with one-carbon metabolism. Consequently, attempted amelioration strategies may be partially effective at best, or, as seen here, can actually aggravate injury by interfering with normal developmental signals and/or by sensitizing cells to TSE effects on neurodifferentiation.

  12. Interleukin-6 receptor alpha blockade improves skin lesions in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Birner, Peter; Heider, Susanne; Petzelbauer, Peter; Wolf, Peter; Kornauth, Christoph; Kuroll, Madeleine; Merkel, Olaf; Steiner, Günter; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu; Rose-John, Stefan; Soleiman, Afschin; Moriggl, Richard; Kenner, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) and immunocomplexes, commonly affecting kidneys, skin, heart, lung or even the brain. We have shown that JunB(Δep) mice develop a SLE phenotype linked to increased epidermal Interleukin (IL)-6 secretion. Blocking of IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6Rα) is considered as therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SLE. JunB(Δep) and wild-type mice were treated for short (5 weeks) or long term (21 weeks) with the IL-6Rα-blocking antibody MR16-1. Skin and kidney of mice were investigated by histology and immunofluorescence, and in addition, kidneys were analysed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R), antihistone and antinucleosome antibodies levels were measured and associated with disease parameters. Treatment with MR16-1 resulted in significant improvement of SLE-like skin lesions in JunB(Δep) mice, compared to untreated mice. The sIL-6R amount upon long-term treatment with MR16-1 was significantly higher in JunB(Δep) versus untreated JunB(Δep) (P = 0.034) or wild-type mice (P = 0.034). MR16-1 treatment over these time spans did not significantly improve kidney pathology of immunoglobulin deposits causing impaired function. Significantly higher antihistone (P = 0.028) and antinucleosome antibody levels (P = 0.028) were measured in MR16-1-treated JunB(Δep) mice after treatment compared to levels before therapy. In conclusion, blockade of IL-6Rα improves skin lesions in a murine SLE model, but does not have a beneficial effect on autoimmune-mediated kidney pathology. Inhibition of IL-6R signalling might be helpful in lupus cases with predominant skin involvement, but combinatorial treatment might be required to restrain autoantibodies. PMID:26739431

  13. Local GABA receptor blockade reveals hindlimb responses in the SI forelimb-stump representation of neonatally amputated rats.

    PubMed

    Pluto, Charles P; Lane, Richard D; Rhoades, Robert W

    2004-07-01

    In adult rats that sustained forelimb amputation on the day of birth, there are numerous multi-unit recording sites in the forelimb-stump representation of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) that also respond to cutaneous stimulation of the hindlimb when cortical receptors for GABA are blocked. These normally suppressed hindlimb inputs originate in the SI hindlimb representation and synapse in the dysgranular cortex before exciting SI forelimb-stump neurons. In our previous studies, GABA (A + B) receptor blockade was achieved by topically applying a bicuculline methiodide/saclofen solution (BMI/SAC) to the cortical surface. This treatment blocks receptors throughout SI and does not allow determination of where along the above circuit the GABA-mediated suppression of hindlimb information occurs. In this study, focal injections of BMI/SAC were delivered to three distinct cortical regions that are involved in the hindlimb-to-forelimb-stump pathway. Blocking GABA receptors in the SI hindlimb representation and in the dysgranular cortex was largely ineffective in revealing hindlimb inputs ( approximately 10% of hindlimb inputs were revealed in both cases). In contrast, when the blockade was targeted at forelimb-stump recording sites, >80% of hindlimb inputs were revealed. Thus GABAergic interneurons within the forelimb-stump representation suppress the expression of reorganized hindlimb inputs to the region. A circuit model incorporating these and previous observations is presented and discussed.

  14. Blockade of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor function protects against in vivo disseminating brain damage following NMDA-induced excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik H; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Pons, Sebastián; Romero, Julián; García-Segura, Luis Miguel; Ramos, José Antonio; Hansen, Harald S; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

    2002-07-01

    The ability of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors to influence glutamatergic excitatory neurotransmission has fueled interest in how these receptors and their endogenous ligands may interact in conditions of excitotoxic insults. The present study characterized the impact of stimulated and inhibited CB(1) receptor function on NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Neonatal (6-day-old) rat pups received a systemic injection of a mixed CB(1) /CB(2) receptor agonist (WIN55,212-2) or their respective antagonists (SR141716A for CB(1) and SR144528 for CB(2) ) prior to an unilateral intrastriatal microinjection of NMDA. The NMDA-induced excitotoxic damage in the ipsilateral forebrain was not influenced by agonist-stimulated CB(1) receptor function. In contrast, blockade of CB(1), but not CB(2), receptor activity evoked a robust neuroprotective response by reducing the infarct area and the number of cortical degenerating neurons. These results suggest a critical involvement of CB(1) receptor tonus on neuronal survival following NMDA receptor-induced excitotoxicity in vivo.

  15. The stimulant effects of caffeine on locomotor behaviour in mice are mediated through its blockade of adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yacoubi, Malika El; Ledent, Catherine; Ménard, Jean-François; Parmentier, Marc; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2000-01-01

    The locomotor stimulatory effects induced by caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) in rodents have been attributed to antagonism of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. Little is known about its locomotor depressant effects seen when acutely administered at high doses. The roles of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in these activities were investigated using a Digiscan actimeter in experiments carried out in mice. Besides caffeine, the A2A antagonist SCH 58261 (5-amino-7-(β-phenylethyl)-2-(8-furyl)pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine), the A1 antagonist DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine), the A1 agonist CPA (N6-cyclopentyladenosine) and A2A receptor knockout mice were used.Caffeine had a biphasic effect on locomotion of wild-type mice not habituated to the open field, stimulating locomotion at 6.25–25 mg kg−1 i.p. doses, while depressing it at 100 mg kg−1. In sharp contrast, caffeine dose-dependently decreased locomotion in A2A receptor knockout mice over the whole range of tested doses.The depressant effects induced by high doses of caffeine were lost in control CD1 mice habituated to the open field.The A1 agonist CPA depressed locomotion at 0.3–1 mg kg−1 i.p. doses.The A1 antagonist DPCPX decreased locomotion of A2A receptor knockouts and CD1 mice at 5 mg kg−1 i.p. and 25 mg kg−1 i.p. respectively.DPCPX (0.2–1 mg kg−1 i.p.) left unaltered or even reduced the stimulant effect of SCH 58261 (1–3 mg kg−1 i.p.) on CD1 mice.These results suggest therefore that the stimulant effect of low doses of caffeine is mediated by A2A receptor blockade while the depressant effect seen at higher doses under some conditions is explained by A1 receptor blockade. PMID:10742303

  16. Blockade of NK3R signaling in the PVN decreases vasopressin and oxytocin release and c-Fos expression in the magnocellular neurons in response to hypotension.

    PubMed

    Haley, Gwendolen E; Flynn, Francis W

    2008-10-01

    Tachykinin neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signaling has a broad role in vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) release. Hydralazine (HDZ)-induced hypotension activates NK3R expressed by magnocellular neurons, increases plasma VP and OT levels, and induces c-Fos expression in VP and OT neurons. Intraventricular pretreatment with the specific NK3R antagonist, SB-222200, eliminates the HDZ-stimulated VP and OT release. NK3R are distributed in the central pathways conveying hypotension information to the magnocellular neurons, and the NK3R antagonist could act anywhere in the pathways. Alternatively, the antagonist could act at the NK3R expressed by the magnocellular neurons. To determine whether blockade of NK3R on magnocellular neurons impairs VP and OT release to HDZ, rats were pretreated with a unilateral PVN injection of 0.15 M NaCl or SB-222200 prior to an intravenous injection of 0.15 M NaCl or HDZ. Blood samples were taken, and brains were processed for VP/c-Fos and OT/c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Intravenous injection of 0.15 M NaCl did not alter plasma hormone levels, and little c-Fos immunoreactivity was present in the PVN. Conversely, intravenous injection of HDZ increased plasma VP and OT levels and c-Fos expression in VP and OT magnocellular neurons. Intra-PVN injection of SB-222200 prior to an intravenous injection of HDZ significantly decreased c-Fos expression in both VP and OT neurons by approximately 70% and attenuated plasma VP and OT levels by 33% and 35%, respectively. Therefore, NK3R signaling in magnocellular neurons has a critical role for the release of VP and OT in response to hypotension.

  17. Dopamine Receptor Blockade Modulates the Rewarding and Aversive Properties of Nicotine via Dissociable Neuronal Activity Patterns in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ninglei; Laviolette, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    The mesolimbic pathway comprising the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projection terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been identified as a critical neural system involved in processing both the rewarding and aversive behavioral effects of nicotine. Transmission through dopamine (DA) receptors functionally modulates these effects directly within the NAc. Nevertheless, the neuronal mechanisms within the NAc responsible for these bivalent behavioral effects are presently not known. Using an unbiased conditioned place preference procedure combined with in vivo neuronal recordings, we examined the effects of nicotine reward and aversion conditioning on intra-NAc neuronal sub-population activity patterns. We report that intra-VTA doses of nicotine that differentially produce rewarding or aversive behavioral effects produce opposite effects on sub-populations of fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) or medium spiny neurons (MSNs) within the shell region of the NAc (NAshell). Thus, while the rewarding effects of intra-VTA nicotine were associated with inhibition of FSI and activation of MSNs, the aversive effects of nicotine produced the opposite pattern of NAshell neuronal population activity. Blockade of DA transmission with a broad-spectrum DA receptor antagonist, α-flupenthixol, strongly inhibited the spontaneous activity of NAshell FSIs, and reversed the conditioning properties of intra-VTA nicotine, switching nicotine-conditioned responses from aversive to rewarding. Remarkably, DA receptor blockade switched intra-NAshell neuronal population activity from an aversion to a reward pattern, concomitant with the observed switch in behavioral conditioning effects. PMID:24896614

  18. Combined chronic blockade of hyper-active L-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors ameliorates HIV-1 associated hyper-excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Khodr, Christina E; Chen, Lihua; Dave, Sonya; Al-Harthi, Lena; Hu, Xiu-Ti

    2016-10-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection induces neurological and neuropsychological deficits, which are associated with dysregulation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other vulnerable brain regions. We evaluated the impact of HIV infection in the mPFC and the therapeutic potential of targeting over-active voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (L-channel) and NMDA receptors (NMDAR), as modeled in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to assess the membrane properties and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) potentials (Ca(2+) influx) in mPFC pyramidal neurons. Neurons from HIV-1 Tg rats displayed reduced rheobase, spike amplitude and inwardly-rectifying K(+) influx, increased numbers of action potentials, and a trend of aberrant firing compared to those from non-Tg control rats. Neuronal hyper-excitation was associated with abnormally-enhanced Ca(2+) influx (independent of NMDAR), which was eliminated by acute L-channel blockade. Combined chronic blockade of over-active L-channels and NMDARs with open-channel blockers abolished HIV effects on spiking, aberrant firing and Ca(2+) potential half-amplitude duration, though not the reduced inward rectification. In contrast, individual chronic blockade of over-active L-channels or NMDARs did not alleviate HIV-induced mPFC hyper-excitability. These studies demonstrate that HIV alters mPFC neuronal activity by dysregulating membrane excitability and Ca(2+) influx through the L-channels. This renders these neurons more susceptible and vulnerable to excitatory stimuli, and could contribute to HIV-associated neuropathogenesis. Combined targeting of over-active L-channels/NMDARs alleviates HIV-induced dysfunction of mPFC pyramidal neurons, emphasizing a potential novel therapeutic strategy that may effectively decrease HIV-induced Ca(2+) dysregulation in the mPFC.

  19. Combined chronic blockade of hyper-active L-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors ameliorates HIV-1 associated hyper-excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Khodr, Christina E; Chen, Lihua; Dave, Sonya; Al-Harthi, Lena; Hu, Xiu-Ti

    2016-10-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection induces neurological and neuropsychological deficits, which are associated with dysregulation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other vulnerable brain regions. We evaluated the impact of HIV infection in the mPFC and the therapeutic potential of targeting over-active voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (L-channel) and NMDA receptors (NMDAR), as modeled in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to assess the membrane properties and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) potentials (Ca(2+) influx) in mPFC pyramidal neurons. Neurons from HIV-1 Tg rats displayed reduced rheobase, spike amplitude and inwardly-rectifying K(+) influx, increased numbers of action potentials, and a trend of aberrant firing compared to those from non-Tg control rats. Neuronal hyper-excitation was associated with abnormally-enhanced Ca(2+) influx (independent of NMDAR), which was eliminated by acute L-channel blockade. Combined chronic blockade of over-active L-channels and NMDARs with open-channel blockers abolished HIV effects on spiking, aberrant firing and Ca(2+) potential half-amplitude duration, though not the reduced inward rectification. In contrast, individual chronic blockade of over-active L-channels or NMDARs did not alleviate HIV-induced mPFC hyper-excitability. These studies demonstrate that HIV alters mPFC neuronal activity by dysregulating membrane excitability and Ca(2+) influx through the L-channels. This renders these neurons more susceptible and vulnerable to excitatory stimuli, and could contribute to HIV-associated neuropathogenesis. Combined targeting of over-active L-channels/NMDARs alleviates HIV-induced dysfunction of mPFC pyramidal neurons, emphasizing a potential novel therapeutic strategy that may effectively decrease HIV-induced Ca(2+) dysregulation in the mPFC. PMID:27326669

  20. Angiotensin II receptor blockade promotes repair of skeletal muscle through down-regulation of aging-promoting C1q expression

    PubMed Central

    Yabumoto, Chizuru; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Rie; Yano, Masamichi; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Sumida, Tomokazu; Kamo, Takehiro; Yagi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yu; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Sakata, Yasushi; Uejima, Etsuko; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor prolonged life span in mice. Since aging-related decline in skeletal muscle function was retarded in Atgr1a−/− mice, we examined the role of AT1 receptor in muscle regeneration after injury. Administration of AT1 receptor blocker irbesartan increased the size of regenerating myofibers, decreased fibrosis, and enhanced functional muscle recovery after cryoinjury. We recently reported that complement C1q, secreted by macrophages, activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promoted aging-related decline in regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. Notably, irbesartan induced M2 polarization of macrophages, but reduced C1q expression in cryoinjured muscles and in cultured macrophage cells. Irbesartan inhibited up-regulation of Axin2, a downstream gene of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in cryoinjured muscles. In addition, topical administration of C1q reversed beneficial effects of irbesartan on skeletal muscle regeneration after injury. These results suggest that AT1 receptor blockade improves muscle repair and regeneration through down-regulation of the aging-promoting C1q-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26571361

  1. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  2. A peripherally administered, centrally acting angiotensin II AT2 antagonist selectively increases brain AT1 receptors and decreases brain tyrosine hydroxylase transcription, pituitary vasopressin and ACTH.

    PubMed

    Macova, Miroslava; Pavel, Jaroslav; Saavedra, Juan M

    2009-01-23

    The physiological actions of brain Angiotensin II AT(2) receptors and their relationship to Angiotensin II AT(1) receptors remain controversial. To further clarify their role, we determined to what extent systemic administration of an AT(2) receptor antagonist affected AT(2) receptor binding within the brain and the expression of AT(1) receptors. For this purpose, we subcutaneously administered the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 (1 mg/kg/day) to adult male rats for two weeks via osmotic minipumps. We also studied the content of pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone and vasopressin, representative of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, and the tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the locus coeruleus as a measure of central norepinephrine function. We found significant decreases in AT(2) receptor binding in brain areas inside the blood brain barrier, the inferior olive and the locus coeruleus. AT(2) receptor blockade increased AT(1) receptor binding and mRNA expression not only in the subfornical organ and the median eminence, situated outside the blood brain barrier, but also in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, located inside the blood brain barrier. These changes paralleled decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the locus coeruleus and decreased pituitary adrenocorticotropic and vasopressin content. Our results demonstrate that sustained peripheral administration of an AT(2) antagonist decreases binding to brain AT(2) receptors, indicating that this drug is a useful tool for the study of their central role. AT(2) receptor activity inhibition up-regulates AT(1) receptor expression in specific brain areas. Blockade of brain AT(2) receptors is compatible with enhanced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and decreased central sympathetic system activity.

  3. Brain Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade Improves Dairy Blood Pressure Variability via Sympathoinhibition in Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal blood pressure (BP) elevation in early morning is known to cause cardiovascular events. Previous studies have suggested that one of the reasons in abnormal dairy BP variability is sympathoexcitation. We have demonstrated that brain angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) causes sympathoexcitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether central AT1R blockade attenuates the excess BP elevation in rest-to-active phase in hypertensive rats or not. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were treated with intracerebroventricular infusion (ICV) of AT1R receptor blocker (ARB), oral administration of hydralazine (HYD), or ICV of vehicle (VEH). Telemetric averaged mean BP (MBP) was measured at early morning (EM), after morning (AM), and night (NT). At EM, MBP was significantly lower in ARB to a greater extent than in HYD compared to VEH, though MBP at AM was the same in ARB and HYD. At NT, MBP was also significantly lower in ARB than in HYD. These results in MBP were compatible to those in sympathoexcitation and suggest that central AT1R blockade attenuates excess BP elevation in early active phase and continuous BP elevation during rest phase independent of depressor response in hypertensive rats. PMID:25918643

  4. Brain Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade Improves Dairy Blood Pressure Variability via Sympathoinhibition in Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal blood pressure (BP) elevation in early morning is known to cause cardiovascular events. Previous studies have suggested that one of the reasons in abnormal dairy BP variability is sympathoexcitation. We have demonstrated that brain angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) causes sympathoexcitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether central AT1R blockade attenuates the excess BP elevation in rest-to-active phase in hypertensive rats or not. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were treated with intracerebroventricular infusion (ICV) of AT1R receptor blocker (ARB), oral administration of hydralazine (HYD), or ICV of vehicle (VEH). Telemetric averaged mean BP (MBP) was measured at early morning (EM), after morning (AM), and night (NT). At EM, MBP was significantly lower in ARB to a greater extent than in HYD compared to VEH, though MBP at AM was the same in ARB and HYD. At NT, MBP was also significantly lower in ARB than in HYD. These results in MBP were compatible to those in sympathoexcitation and suggest that central AT1R blockade attenuates excess BP elevation in early active phase and continuous BP elevation during rest phase independent of depressor response in hypertensive rats.

  5. GluN2B-Containing NMDA Receptors Blockade Rescues Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis of Cocaine Self-Administering Rats

    PubMed Central

    deBacker, Julian; Hawken, Emily R; Normandeau, Catherine P; Jones, Andrea A; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Mechefske, Elysia; Gardner Gregory, James; Hayton, Scott J; Dumont, Éric C

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse have detrimental effects on homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the motivational brain network. Bidirectional plasticity at excitatory synapses helps keep neural circuits within a functional range to allow for behavioral flexibility. Therefore, impaired bidirectional plasticity of excitatory synapses may contribute to the behavioral hallmarks of addiction, yet this relationship remains unclear. Here we tracked excitatory synaptic strength in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST) using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices from rats self-administering sucrose or cocaine. In the cocaine group, we measured both a persistent increase in AMPA to NMDA ratio (A:N) and slow decay time of NMDA currents throughout the self-administration period and after withdrawal from cocaine. In contrast, the sucrose group exhibited an early increase in A:N ratios (acquisition) that returned toward baseline values with continued self-administration (maintenance) and after withdrawal. The sucrose rats also displayed a decrease in NMDA current decay time with continued self-administration (maintenance), which normalized after withdrawal. Cocaine self-administering rats exhibited impairment in NMDA-dependent long-term depression (LTD) that could be rescued by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor blockade. Sucrose self-administering rats demonstrated no impairment in NMDA-dependent LTD. During the maintenance period of self-administration, in vivo (daily intraperitoneally for 5 days) pharmacologic blockade of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors did not reduce lever pressing for cocaine. However, in vivo GluN2B blockade did normalize A:N ratios in cocaine self-administrating rats, and dissociated the magnitude of ovBNST A:N ratios from drug-seeking behavior after protracted withdrawal. Altogether, our data demonstrate when and how bidirectional plasticity at ovBNST excitatory synapses becomes dysfunctional with cocaine self-administration and that NMDA

  6. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists are broad facilitators of antinicotinic neuromuscular blockade monitored either with 2 Hz train-of-four or 50 Hz tetanic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Monalisa W; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2012-10-01

    1. The 2 Hz train-of-four ratio (TOF(ratio)) is used to monitor the degree of patient curarization. Using a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, we showed that antinicotinic agents, such as hexamethonium, d-tubocurarine and pancuronium, but not cisatracurium, decreased contractions produced by physiological nerve activity patterns (50 Hz) more efficiently than those caused by 2 Hz trains. Uncertainty about the usefulness of the TOF(ratio) to control safe recovery from curarization prompted us to investigate the muscarinic and adenosine neuromodulation of tetanic (50 Hz) fade induced by antinicotinic agents at concentrations that cause a 25% reduction in the TOF(ratio) (TOF(fade)). 2. Tetanic fade caused by d-tubocurarine (1.1 μmol/L), pancuronium (3 μmol/L) and hexamethonium (5.47 mmol/L) was attenuated by blocking presynaptic inhibitory muscarinic M(2) and adenosine A(1) receptors with methoctramine (1 μmol/L) and 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (2.5 nmol/L), respectively. These compounds enhanced rather than decreased tetanic fade induced by cisatracurium (2.2 μmol/L), but they consistently attenuated cisatracurium-induced TOF(fade). The effect of the M(1) receptor antagonist pirenzepine (10 nmol/L) on fade produced by antinicotinic agents at 50 Hz was opposite to that observed with TOF stimulation. Blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptors with ZM 241385 (10 nmol/L) attenuated TOF(fade) caused by all antinicotinic drugs tested, with the exception of the 'pure' presynaptic nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium. ZM 241385 was the only compound tested in this series that facilitated recovery from tetanic fade produced by cisatracurium. 3. The data suggest that distinct antinicotinic relaxants interfere with fine-tuning neuromuscular adaptations to motor nerve stimulation patterns via activation of presynaptic muscarinic and adenosine receptors. These results support the use of A(2A) receptor antagonists together with atropine to facilitate recovery from

  7. Cardiac oxytocin receptor blockade stimulates adverse cardiac remodeling in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Marek; Wang, Donghao; Danalache, Bogdan; Gangal, Marius; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    2010-08-01

    An increasing amount of evidence demonstrates the beneficial role of oxytocin (OT) in the cardiovascular system. Similar actions are attributed to genistein, an isoflavonic phytoestrogen. The treatment with genistein activates the OT system in the aorta of ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low doses of genistein on the OT-induced effects in rat hypertension. The hypothesis tested was that treatment of OVX spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with genistein improves heart structure and heart work through a mechanism involving the specific OT receptor (OTR). OVX SHRs or SD rats were treated with genistein (in microg/g body wt sc, 10 days) in the presence or absence of an OT antagonist (OTA) [d(CH(2))(5), Tyr(Me)(2), Orn(8)]-vasotocin or a nonspecific estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI-182780). Vehicle-treated OVX rats served as controls. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that left ventricular (LV) OTR, downregulated by ovariectomy, increased in response to genistein. In SHRs or SD rats, this effect was blocked by OTA or ICI-182780 administration. The OTR was mainly localized in microvessels expressing the CD31 marker and colocalized with endothelial nitric oxide synthase. In SHRs, the genistein-stimulated OTR increases were associated with improved fractional shortening, decreased blood pressure (12 mmHg), decreased heart weight-to-body weight ratio, decreased fibrosis, and lowered brain natriuretic peptide in the LV. The prominent finding of the study is the detrimental effect of OTA treatment on the LV of SHRs. OTA treatment of OVX SHRs resulted in a dramatic worsening of ejection fractions and an augmented fibrosis. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that cardiac OTRs are involved in the regulation of cardiac function of OVX SHRs. The decreases of OTRs may contribute to cardiac pathology following menopause.

  8. Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses hyperthermic but not cardiovascular responses to psychosocial stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Beig, M I; Baumert, M; Walker, F R; Day, T A; Nalivaiko, E

    2009-03-31

    The aim of this study was to determine whether 5-HT2A receptors mediate cardiovascular and thermogenic responses to acute psychological stresses. For this purpose, adult male Wistar hooded rats instrumented for telemetric recordings of either electrocardiogram (ECG) (n=12) or arterial pressure (n=12) were subjected, on different days, to four 15-min episodes of social defeat. Prior to stress, animals received s.c. injection of the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist SR-46349B (trans-4-((3Z)3-[(2-dimethylaminoethyl)oxyimino]-3-(2-fluorophenyl)propen-1-yl)-phenol, hemifumarate) (at doses of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) or vehicle. The drug had no effect on basal heart rate or heart rate variability indexes, arterial pressure, and core body temperature. Social defeat elicited significant and substantial tachycardic (347+/-7 to 500+/-7 bpm), pressor (77+/-4 to 97+/-4 mm Hg) and hyperthermic (37.0+/-0.3 to 38.5+/-0.1 degrees C) responses. Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors, at all doses of the antagonist, completely prevented stress-induced hyperthermia. In contrast, stress-induced cardiovascular responses were not affected by the blockade (except small reduction of tachycardia by the highest dose of the drug). We conclude that in rats, 5-HT2A receptors mediate stress-induced hyperthermic responses, but are not involved in the genesis of stress-induced rises in heart rate or arterial pressure, and do not participate in cardiovascular control at rest. PMID:19356699

  9. Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD).

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Maeno, E; Shimizu, T; Dezaki, K; Wang, J; Morishima, S

    2001-04-01

    A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl- channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl- conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNF receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be abolished by

  10. Platelet peripheral benzodiazepine receptors are decreased in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bonuccelli, U.; Nuti, A.; Del Dotto, P.; Piccini, P.; Martini, C.; Giannacccini, G.; Lucacchini, A.; Muratorio, A. )

    1991-01-01

    Peripheral benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors are located in a variety of tissues, including platelets, in the nuclear and/or mitochondrial membranes. The authors studied the density of peripheral BDZ receptors in platelets of 10 de novo Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, 18 PD patients treated with a levodopa/carbidopa combination, and in 15 healthy subjects matched for sex and age. The binding assay was conducted using ({sup 3}H)PK 11195, a specific ligand for peripheral BDZ receptors. A significant decrease in the density of ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding sites has been observed in PD patients with respect to controls but not between de novo and treated PD patients. No correlation has been found between the decrease in density of ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding sites in platelets and either the duration or severity of PD. Peripheral BDZ receptors are implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial respiratory function. Thus, their decrease in PD might parallel the abnormalities in mitochondrial function recently found in this neurologic disease.

  11. Comparison of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in pregnant sheep during late gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Forhead, A. J.; Whybrew, K.; Hughes, P.; Broughton Pipkin, F.; Sutherland, M.; Fowden, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    maternal blood pressure. Although foetal blood pressure increased by 3 +/- 1 mmHg over a week of vehicle treatment (P < 0.05), no significant differences were observed between the long-term changes in foetal blood pressure in all three groups of animals. 7. There were no long-term effects of drug administration on maternal Hb concentration or oxygenation, or on the foetal haematological parameters. However, changes in maternal PaCo2 observed in the GR138950-treated (+1.4 +/- 0.5 mmHg; P < 0.05) and captopril-treated (+3.3 +/- 1.1 mmHg; P > 0.05) ewes were significantly different from those seen in the vehicle-treated animals (P < 0.05). 8. There were no apparent adverse effects of maternal GR138950 or captopril treatment on foetal viability. 9. The present study demonstrated that administration of either GR138950 or captopril to pregnant ewes effectively blocked the maternal RAS, and caused hypotension and a decrease in uterine blood flow. However, only captopril appeared to cross the placenta to influence directly the RAS of the sheep foetus. This suggests that the fall in foetal oxygenation observed after AT1-specific receptor blockade and ACE inhibition originates primarily from changes in the maternal and/or placental vasculature. Despite these changes, neither GR138950 nor captopril were detrimental to the outcome of pregnancy when foetal blood loss was kept to a minimum. PMID:8886426

  12. NMDA and AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex modulate the elaborated defensive behavior and innate fear-induced antinociception elicited by GABAA receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Medeiros, Priscila; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors of the prelimbic (PL) division of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on the panic attack-like reactions evoked by γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus (MH). Rats were pretreated with NaCl 0.9%, LY235959 (NMDA receptor antagonist), and NBQX (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist) in the PL at 3 different concentrations. Ten minutes later, the MH was treated with bicuculline, and the defensive responses were recorded for 10 min. The antagonism of NMDA receptors in the PL decreased the frequency and duration of all defensive behaviors evoked by the stimulation of the MH and reduced the innate fear-induced antinociception. However, the pretreatment of the PL cortex with NBQX was able to decrease only part of defensive responses and innate fear-induced antinociception. The present findings suggest that the NMDA-glutamatergic system of the PL is critically involved in panic-like responses and innate fear-induced antinociception and those AMPA/kainate receptors are also recruited during the elaboration of fear-induced antinociception and in panic attack-related response. The activation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission of PL division of the MPFC during the elaboration of oriented behavioral reactions elicited by the chemical stimulation of the MH recruits mainly NMDA receptors in comparison with AMPA/kainate receptors. PMID:23349224

  13. NMDA and AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex modulate the elaborated defensive behavior and innate fear-induced antinociception elicited by GABAA receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Medeiros, Priscila; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors of the prelimbic (PL) division of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on the panic attack-like reactions evoked by γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus (MH). Rats were pretreated with NaCl 0.9%, LY235959 (NMDA receptor antagonist), and NBQX (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist) in the PL at 3 different concentrations. Ten minutes later, the MH was treated with bicuculline, and the defensive responses were recorded for 10 min. The antagonism of NMDA receptors in the PL decreased the frequency and duration of all defensive behaviors evoked by the stimulation of the MH and reduced the innate fear-induced antinociception. However, the pretreatment of the PL cortex with NBQX was able to decrease only part of defensive responses and innate fear-induced antinociception. The present findings suggest that the NMDA-glutamatergic system of the PL is critically involved in panic-like responses and innate fear-induced antinociception and those AMPA/kainate receptors are also recruited during the elaboration of fear-induced antinociception and in panic attack-related response. The activation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission of PL division of the MPFC during the elaboration of oriented behavioral reactions elicited by the chemical stimulation of the MH recruits mainly NMDA receptors in comparison with AMPA/kainate receptors.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Bosentan-Mediated Endothelin Receptor Blockade on Flap Survival in Rats: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Görgülü, Tahsin; Guler, Ramazan; Olgun, Abdulkerim; Torun, Merve; Kargi, Eksal

    2016-08-01

    Local skin flaps are important tools for performing plastic surgery. Skin flaps are used for closure of defects after tumor excision or in tissue losses after trauma. However, problems associated with these flaps are commonly encountered, particularly in areas of marginal necrosis. Bosentan is a vasodilator that exerts its effect through endothelin receptor blockade, and has been shown to prevent ischemic tissue damage. However, no reports have addressed the effect of bosentan on skin flaps. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of bosentan, which may be applied clinically to promote survival of ischemic skin flaps. A modified McFarlane flap was elevated in the dorsum of 20 Albino Wistar rats with a width-to-length ratio of 3 to 10 cm, respectively, with the caudal base. Perioperatively, 0.9% of physiologic NaCl and injectable distilled water of identical volume were injected into rats in Group 1 (n = 10), and 5 mg/kg bosentan was injected intraperitoneally into rats in Group 2 (n = 10). All of the rats were followed up for 7 days postoperatively. The surviving parts of the flaps were measured at the end of day 7. Acute and chronic inflammation, amount of granulation tissue, fibroblast maturation, amount of collagen, and amounts of reepithelialization and neovascularization present in the ischemic zones of the distal parts of the flaps were evaluated histopathologically, and results were compared statistically. The mean flap survivals were 61.1% in Group 1 and 91.1% in Group 2; the percentage of the surviving flap area in Group 2 was higher than that in Group 1 (p < 0.005). In both groups, there was significantly less acute inflammation in the ischemic zones in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p < 0.005). No significant difference was found in the amounts of chronic inflammation and granulation tissue between the two groups (p > 0.005). Fibroblast maturation, amount of collagen, and amounts of reepithelialization and neovascularization

  15. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  16. Doxepin and diphenhydramine increased non-rapid eye movement sleep through blockade of histamine H1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Takata, Yohko; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Urade, Yoshihiro; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2015-02-01

    Histaminergic neurons have been reported to play an important role in the regulation of sleep-wake behavior through the histamine H1 receptor (R, H1R). First generation H1R antagonists, such as doxepin and diphenhydramine, produce drowsiness in humans, and are occasionally used to treat insomnia. However, if H1R antagonists function via physically blocking the H1R remains unclear. In the current study, we used H1R knockout (KO) mice to investigate if the sleep-promoting effects of doxepin and diphenhydramine are dependent on blockade of the H1R. When doxepin was administered, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in wild type (WT) mice increased for 4h, with an increase in the numbers of NREM sleep bouts of 256-512 s and 512-1024 s. These effects were not observed in the H1R KO mice. Furthermore, diphenhydramine increased NREM sleep for 6h in WT, and not in the H1R KO mice after the injection. These results indicate that both doxepin at 15 mg/kg and diphenhydramine at 10 mg/kg induce NREM sleep through blockade of H1R.

  17. Pharmacological blockade of either cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors prevents both cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion and cocaine-induced reduction of cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Vargas, Antonio; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Galeano, Pablo; Rubio, Leticia; Suárez, Juan; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Addiction to major drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, has recently been linked to alterations in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The endogenous cannabinoid system modulates this proliferative response as demonstrated by the finding that pharmacological activation/blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors not only modulates neurogenesis but also modulates cell death in the brain. In the present study, we evaluated whether the endogenous cannabinoid system affects cocaine-induced alterations in cell proliferation. To this end, we examined whether pharmacological blockade of either CB1 (Rimonabant, 3 mg/kg) or CB2 receptors (AM630, 3 mg/kg) would affect cell proliferation [the cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ). Additionally, we measured cell apoptosis (as monitored by the expression of cleaved caspase-3) and glial activation [by analyzing the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1] in the striatum and hippocampus during acute and repeated (4 days) cocaine administration (20 mg/kg). The results showed that acute cocaine exposure decreased the number of BrdU-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the SVZ and SGZ. In contrast, repeated cocaine exposure reduced the number of BrdU-ir cells only in the SVZ. Both acute and repeated cocaine exposure increased the number of cleaved caspase-3-, GFAP- and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus, and this effect was counteracted by AM630 or Rimonabant, which increased the number of BrdU-, GFAP-, and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that the changes in neurogenic, apoptotic and gliotic processes that were produced by repeated cocaine administration were normalized by pharmacological blockade of CB1 and CB2. The restorative effects of cannabinoid receptor blockade on hippocampal cell proliferation were associated with the prevention of the induction of conditioned locomotion

  18. Prorenin/Renin Receptor Blockade Promotes a Healthy Fat Distribution in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Paul; Blais, Carolane; Nguyen, Thi M.-D.; Schiller, Peter W.; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Lavoie, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Administration of the handle region peptide (HRP), a (pro)renin receptor blocker, decreases body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF/HC) diet-fed mice. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential mechanisms implicated in these observations. Methods Mice were given a normal or a HF/HC diet along with saline or HRP for 10 weeks. Results In HF/HC-fed mice, HRP increased the expression of several enzymes implicated in lipogenesis and lipolysis in subcutaneous fat (SCF) while the expression of the enzyme implicated in the last step of lipogenesis decreased in VAT. A reduction was also observed in circulating free fatty acids in these animals which was accompanied by normalized adipocyte size in VAT and increased adipocyte size in SCF. “Beiging“ is the evolution of a white adipose tissue toward a brown-like phenotype characterized by an increased mitochondrial density and small lipid droplets. HRP increased the expression of’ “beiging” markers in SCF of HF/HC diet-fed mice. Conclusions HRP treatment may favor healthy fat storage in SCF by activating a triglyceride/free fatty acid cycling and “beiging,” which could explain the body weight and fat mass reduction. PMID:27458124

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade is pivotal for the prevention of blood-brain barrier impairment and cognitive decline in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Min, Li-Juan; Mogi, Masaki; Shudou, Masachika; Jing, Fei; Tsukuda, Kana; Ohshima, Kousei; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2012-05-01

    We reported previously that an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, improved cognitive decline with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation; however, the detailed mechanisms are unclear. Enhanced blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability with alteration of tight junctions is suggested to be related to diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we examined the possibility that telmisartan could attenuate BBB impairment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation to improve diabetes mellitus-induced cognitive decline. Type 2 diabetic mice KKA(y) exhibited impairment of cognitive function, and telmisartan treatment attenuated this. Cotreatment with GW9662, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ antagonist, interfered with these protective effects of telmisartan against cognitive function. BBB permeability was increased in both the cortex and hippocampus in KKA(y) mice. Administration of telmisartan attenuated this increased BBB permeability. Coadministration of GW9662 reduced this effect of telmisartan. Significant decreases in expression of tight junction proteins and increases in matrix metalloproteinase expression, oxidative stress, and proinflammatory cytokine production were observed in the brain, and treatment with telmisartan restored these changes. Swollen astroglial end-feet in BBB were observed in KKA(y) mice, and this change in BBB ultrastructure was decreased in telmisartan. These effects of telmisartan were weakened by cotreatment with GW9662. In contrast, administration of another angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, was less effective compared with telmisartan in terms of preventing BBB permeability and astroglial end-foot swelling, and coadministration of GW9662 did not affect the effects of losartan. These findings are consistent with the possibility that, in type 2 diabetic mice, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation by telmisartan

  20. Cortisol receptor blockade and seawater adaptation in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, W.S.; Cozzi, R.R.F.; Pelis, R.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the role of cortisol in seawater osmoregulation in a euryhaline teleost, adult killifish were acclimated to brackish water (10???) and RU486 or vehicle was administered orally in peanut oil daily for five days at low (40 mg.kg-1) or high dose (200 mg.kg-1). Fish were transferred to 1.5 x seawater (45???) or to brackish water (control) and sampled at 24 h and 48 h after transfer, when Cl- secretion is upregulated. At 24 h, opercular membrane Cl- secretion rate, as Isc, was increased only in the high dose RU486 group. Stimulation of membranes by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and cAMP increased Isc in vehicle treated controls but those from RU486-treated animals were unchanged and membranes from brackish water animals showed a decrease in Isc. At 48 h, Isc increased and transepithelial resistance decreased in vehicle and RU486 groups, compared to brackish water controls. Plasma cortisol increased in all groups transferred to high salinity, compared to brackish water controls. RU486 treated animals had higher cortisol levels compared to vehicle controls. Vehicle treated controls had lower cortisol levels than untreated or RU486 treated animals, higher stimulation of Isc, and lower hematocrit at 24 h, beneficial effects attributed to increased caloric intake from the peanut oil vehicle. Chloride cell density was significantly increased in the high dose RU486 group at 48 hours, yet Isc was unchanged, suggesting a decrease in Cl- secretion per cell. Thus cortisol enhances NaCl secretion capacity in chloride cells, likely via glucocorticoid type receptors. ?? 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Improvement in lung diffusion by endothelin A receptor blockade at high altitude.

    PubMed

    de Bisschop, Claire; Martinot, Jean-Benoit; Leurquin-Sterk, Gil; Faoro, Vitalie; Guénard, Hervé; Naeije, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Lung diffusing capacity has been reported variably in high-altitude newcomers and may be in relation to different pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Twenty-two healthy volunteers were investigated at sea level and at 5,050 m before and after random double-blind intake of the endothelin A receptor blocker sitaxsentan (100 mg/day) vs. a placebo during 1 wk. PVR was estimated by Doppler echocardiography, and exercise capacity by maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2 max)). The diffusing capacities for nitric oxide (DL(NO)) and carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) were measured using a single-breath method before and 30 min after maximal exercise. The membrane component of DL(CO) (Dm) and capillary volume (Vc) was calculated with corrections for hemoglobin, alveolar volume, and barometric pressure. Altitude exposure was associated with unchanged DL(CO), DL(NO), and Dm but a slight decrease in Vc. Exercise at altitude decreased DL(NO) and Dm. Sitaxsentan intake improved Vo(2 max) together with an increase in resting and postexercise DL(NO) and Dm. Sitaxsentan-induced decrease in PVR was inversely correlated to DL(NO). Both DL(CO) and DL(NO) were correlated to Vo(2 max) at sea level (r = 0.41-0.42, P < 0.1) and more so at altitude (r = 0.56-0.59, P < 0.05). Pharmacological pulmonary vasodilation improves the membrane component of lung diffusion in high-altitude newcomers, which may contribute to exercise capacity.

  2. Effects of activation and blockade of orexin A receptors in the medial preoptic area on food intake in male rats.

    PubMed

    Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Emam, Amir Hossein; Panah, Mohammad Hosseini; Komaki, Alireza; Seif, Sadegh; Vafaeirad, Majid; Alaii, Elham

    2015-09-14

    It has been shown that activation of type 1 orexinergic receptors (ORX1) in several parts of the hypothalamus stimulate food intake. Orexin A receptive sites for food intake exist primarily in a narrow band of the hypothalamus that is known to be involved in control of energy homeostasis. The present study aimed to investigate the role of orexin receptors in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) on food intake in rats. Twenty-four male rats weighing 200-250g were divided into three groups (n=8 in each group). Rats were cannulated using stereotaxic coordinates above the MPOA. Normal saline was microinjected into the MPOA in the control group. Another group received intra MPOA microinjection of SB334867, a selective antagonist for ORX1 receptors. In the other group, orexin A was microinjected (0.5μl of 1μmol) into the MPOA. Food intake was measured in metabolic cages. The statistical significance of differences between groups was detected by a one way ANOVA. A value of p<0.05 was considered significant. There was no significant difference in food consumption between saline and SB334867 treated groups. However, activation of the orexin receptor in the MPOA significantly increased food intake during the 2 and 8h after orexin A microinjection. Our results showed that during ad libitum access to food, activation but not blockade of the MPOA ORX1 receptor can increase food intake in a time-dependent manner. The role of these receptors in hunger and appetite stimulation requires further study.

  3. Remodeling of intrinsic cardiac neurons: effects of β-adrenergic receptor blockade in guinea pig models of chronic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Jean C; Southerland, E Marie; Girasole, Allison E; Ryan, Shannon E; Negrotto, Sara; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2012-11-01

    Chronic heart disease induces remodeling of cardiac tissue and associated neuronal components. Treatment of chronic heart disease often involves pharmacological blockade of adrenergic receptors. This study examined the specific changes in neuronal sensitivity of guinea pig intrinsic cardiac neurons to autonomic modulators in animals with chronic cardiac disease, in the presence or absence of adrenergic blockage. Myocardial infarction (MI) was produced by ligature of the coronary artery and associated vein on the dorsal surface of the heart. Pressure overload (PO) was induced by a banding of the descending dorsal aorta (∼20% constriction). Animals were allowed to recover for 2 wk and then implanted with an osmotic pump (Alzet) containing either timolol (2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or vehicle, for a total of 6-7 wk of drug treatment. At termination, intracellular recordings from individual neurons in whole mounts of the cardiac plexus were used to assess changes in physiological responses. Timolol treatment did not inhibit the increased sensitivity to norepinephrine seen in both MI and PO animals, but it did inhibit the stimulatory effects of angiotensin II on the norepinephrine-induced increases in neuronal excitability. Timolol treatment also inhibited the increase in synaptically evoked action potentials observed in PO animals with stimulation of fiber tract bundles. These results demonstrate that β-adrenergic blockade can inhibit specific aspects of remodeling within the intrinsic cardiac plexus. In addition, this effect was preferentially observed with active cardiac disease states, indicating that the β-receptors were more influential on remodeling during dynamic disease progression.

  4. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor blockade reduces the invasiveness of gastrointestinal cancers via blocking production of matrilysin.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yasushi; Li, Rong; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Min, Yongfen; Piao, Wenhua; Wang, Yu; Imsumran, Arisa; Li, Hua; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Lee, Choon-Taek; Imai, Kohzoh; Carbone, David P; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2009-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling is required for carcinogenicity and proliferation of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. We have previously shown significant therapeutic activity for recombinant adenoviruses expressing dominant-negative insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR/dn), including suppression of tumor invasion. In this study, we sought to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition of invasion and the relationship between IGF-IR and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in GI carcinomas. We analyzed the role of IGF-IR on invasion in three GI cancer cell lines, colorectal adenocarcinoma, HT29; pancreatic adenocarcinoma, BxPC3 and gastric adenocarcinoma, MKN45, using a modified Boyden chamber method and subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. The impact of IGF-IR signaling on the expression of MMPs and the effects of blockade of matrilysin or IGF-IR on invasiveness were assessed using recombinant adenoviruses, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-AEW541 and antisense matrilysin. Invasive subcutaneous tumors expressed several MMPs. IGF-IR/dn reduced the expression of these MMPs but especially matrilysin (MMP-7). Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) stimulated secretion of matrilysin and IGF-IR/dn blocked IGF-mediated matrilysin induction in three GI cancers. Both IGF-IR/dn and inhibition of matrilysin reduced in vitro invasion to the same degree. NVP-AEW541 also reduced cancer cell invasion both in vitro and in murine xenograft tumors via suppression of matrilysin. Thus, blockade of IGF-IR is involved in the suppression of cancer cell invasion through downregulation of matrilysin. Strategies of targeting IGF-IR may have significant therapeutic utility to prevent invasion and progression of human GI carcinomas.

  5. Intracellular calcium ions decrease the affinity of the GABA receptor.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Oomura, Y; Yakushiji, T; Akaike, N

    Intracellular free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) plays a crucial role in the transduction of extracellular signals. It has been implicated in the modulation of light sensitivity in Limulus photoreceptors and in the efficacy of synaptic transmission; calcium ion fluxes are also involved in the postsynaptic facilitation of nicotinic transmission seen in sympathetic ganglia, and in activation of the acetylcholine (ACh) receptor. [Ca2+]i is also a second messenger for many biologically active substances. We recorded neuronal activities of sensory neurones from the bullfrog (Rana catesbiana), using the suction pipette method and a 'concentration clamp' technique to apply gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to the cell. We report the first evidence that [Ca2+]i suppresses the GABA-activated Cl- conductance, by decreasing the apparent affinity of the GABA receptor. PMID:2431316

  6. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian; Rask-Madsen, Christian; He, Pingnian; Mizutani, Koji; Katagiri, Sayaka; Maeda, Yasutaka; Wu, I-Hsien; Khamaisi, Mogher; Preil, Simone Rordam; Sørensen, Ditte; Huang, Paul L.; King, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) in the endothelia of Apoe–/– mice (Irs1/Apoe–/–) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE–/– mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin’s enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca2+]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1 overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE–/– mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway. Finally EDNRB deletion in EC of Ldlr–/– and Irs1/Ldlr–/– mice decreased NO production and accelerated atherosclerosis, compared with Ldlr–/– mice. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes may be reduced by improving insulin signaling selectively via IRS1/Akt in the EC by inducing EDNRB expression and NO production. PMID:27200419

  7. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian; Rask-Madsen, Christian; He, Pingnian; Mizutani, Koji; Katagiri, Sayaka; Maeda, Yasutaka; Wu, I-Hsien; Khamaisi, Mogher; Preil, Simone Rordam; Maddaloni, Ernesto; Sørensen, Ditte; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Huang, Paul L.; King, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) in the endothelia of Apoe−/− mice (Irs1/Apoe−/−) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE−/− mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin’s enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca2+]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1 overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE−/− mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway. Finally EDNRB deletion in EC of Ldlr−/− and Irs1/Ldlr−/− mice decreased NO production and accelerated atherosclerosis, compared with Ldlr−/− mice. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes may be reduced by improving insulin signaling selectively via IRS1/Akt in the EC by inducing EDNRB expression and NO production. PMID:27200419

  8. Activation and blockade of serotonin7 receptors in the prelimbic cortex regulate depressive-like behaviors in a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q J; Du, C X; Tan, H H; Zhang, L; Li, L B; Zhang, J; Niu, X L; Liu, J

    2015-12-17

    The role of serotonin7 (5-HT7) receptors in the regulation of depression is poorly understood, particularly in Parkinson's disease-associated depression. Here we examined whether 5-HT7 receptors in the prelimbic (PrL) sub-region of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) involve in the regulation of depressive-like behaviors in sham-operated rats and rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced depressive-like responses as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats. Intra-PrL injection of 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS19 (0.5, 1 and 2 μg/rat) increased sucrose consumption, and decreased immobility time in sham-operated and the lesioned rats, indicating the induction of antidepressant-like effects. Further, intra-PrL injection of 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970 (1.5, 3 and 6 μg/rat) decreased sucrose consumption, and increased immobility time, indicating the induction of depressive-like responses. However, the doses producing these effects in the lesioned rats were higher than those in sham-operated rats. Neurochemical results showed that intra-PrL injection of AS19 (2 μg/rat) increased dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) levels in the mPFC, habenula and ventral hippocampus (vHip) in sham-operated and the lesioned rats; whereas SB269970 (6 μg/rat) decreased 5-HT levels in the habenula and vHip, and the levels of NA in the mPFC, habenula and vHip in the two groups of rats. The results suggest that 5-HT7 receptors in the PrL play an important role in the regulation of these behaviors, which attribute to changes in monoamine levels in the limbic and limbic-related brain regions after activation and blockade of 5-HT7 receptors.

  9. EFFECT OF AT1 RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ON INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA-INDUCED ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Noah J.; Philippi, Nathan R.; Bird, Cynthia E.; Li, Yu-Long; Schultz, Harold D.; Morgan, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) raises arterial pressure, impairs vasodilator responsiveness, and increases circulating angiotensin II (Ang II); however, the role of Ang II in CIH-induced vascular dysfunction is unknown. Rats were exposed to CIH or room air (NORM), and a subset of these animals was treated with losartan (Los) during the exposure period. After 28 days, vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine or nitroprusside were measured in isolated gracilis arteries. Superoxide levels and Ang II receptor protein expression were measured in saphenous arteries. After 28 days, arterial pressure was increased and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was blunted in CIH vs. NORM, and this was prevented by Los. Responses to nitroprusside and superoxide levels did not differ between CIH and NORM. Expression of AT2R was decreased and the AT1R:AT2R ratio was increased in CIH vs. NORM, but this was unaffected by Los. These results indicate that the blood pressure elevation and endothelial dysfunction associated with CIH is dependent, at least in part, on RAS signaling. PMID:22728949

  10. Effect of food on H2-receptor blockade in normal subjects and duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed

    Merki, H S; Halter, F; Wilder-Smith, C; Allemann, P; Witzel, L; Kempf, M; Roehmel, J; Walt, R P

    1990-02-01

    Two separate studies of 24 hour intragastric acidity were carried out in normal volunteers and duodenal ulcer patients to define the interaction of food and the antisecretory effects of H2-receptor blockers. Both investigations were double blind randomised comparisons using ranitidine 300 mg with either different meal times or ad libitum snacks after an evening meal. Meals taken after drug administration nearly abolished measurable antisectory effects. Median 24 hour pH was 1.3 on placebo, 2.6 when ranitidine was administered after the evening meal and 1.9 when administered before the evening meal. Snacks taken after evening dosing with ranitidine also significantly decreased pharmacodynamic efficacy. During placebo, median night-time pH was 1.3 without snacks and 1.4 with snacks. pH rose to 5.9 during ranitidine treatment when snacks were forbidden but was only 3.1 when snacks were allowed. These findings could be of therapeutic importance and should rationalise dietary advise to patients receiving H2 blockers. The timing of drug administration can be adjusted according to individual life styles.

  11. Measuring specific receptor binding of a PET radioligand in human brain without pharmacological blockade: The genomic plot.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Mattia; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Rizzo, Gaia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Innis, Robert B; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2016-04-15

    PET studies allow in vivo imaging of the density of brain receptor species. The PET signal, however, is the sum of the fraction of radioligand that is specifically bound to the target receptor and the non-displaceable fraction (i.e. the non-specifically bound radioligand plus the free ligand in tissue). Therefore, measuring the non-displaceable fraction, which is generally assumed to be constant across the brain, is a necessary step to obtain regional estimates of the specific fractions. The nondisplaceable binding can be directly measured if a reference region, i.e. a region devoid of any specific binding, is available. Many receptors are however widely expressed across the brain, and a true reference region is rarely available. In these cases, the nonspecific binding can be obtained after competitive pharmacological blockade, which is often contraindicated in humans. In this work we introduce the genomic plot for estimating the nondisplaceable fraction using baseline scans only. The genomic plot is a transformation of the Lassen graphical method in which the brain maps of mRNA transcripts of the target receptor obtained from the Allen brain atlas are used as a surrogate measure of the specific binding. Thus, the genomic plot allows the calculation of the specific and nondisplaceable components of radioligand uptake without the need of pharmacological blockade. We first assessed the statistical properties of the method with computer simulations. Then we sought ground-truth validation using human PET datasets of seven different neuroreceptor radioligands, where nonspecific fractions were either obtained separately using drug displacement or available from a true reference region. The population nondisplaceable fractions estimated by the genomic plot were very close to those measured by actual human blocking studies (mean relative difference between 2% and 7%). However, these estimates were valid only when mRNA expressions were predictive of protein levels (i

  12. Measuring specific receptor binding of a PET radioligand in human brain without pharmacological blockade: The genomic plot.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Mattia; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Rizzo, Gaia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Innis, Robert B; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2016-04-15

    PET studies allow in vivo imaging of the density of brain receptor species. The PET signal, however, is the sum of the fraction of radioligand that is specifically bound to the target receptor and the non-displaceable fraction (i.e. the non-specifically bound radioligand plus the free ligand in tissue). Therefore, measuring the non-displaceable fraction, which is generally assumed to be constant across the brain, is a necessary step to obtain regional estimates of the specific fractions. The nondisplaceable binding can be directly measured if a reference region, i.e. a region devoid of any specific binding, is available. Many receptors are however widely expressed across the brain, and a true reference region is rarely available. In these cases, the nonspecific binding can be obtained after competitive pharmacological blockade, which is often contraindicated in humans. In this work we introduce the genomic plot for estimating the nondisplaceable fraction using baseline scans only. The genomic plot is a transformation of the Lassen graphical method in which the brain maps of mRNA transcripts of the target receptor obtained from the Allen brain atlas are used as a surrogate measure of the specific binding. Thus, the genomic plot allows the calculation of the specific and nondisplaceable components of radioligand uptake without the need of pharmacological blockade. We first assessed the statistical properties of the method with computer simulations. Then we sought ground-truth validation using human PET datasets of seven different neuroreceptor radioligands, where nonspecific fractions were either obtained separately using drug displacement or available from a true reference region. The population nondisplaceable fractions estimated by the genomic plot were very close to those measured by actual human blocking studies (mean relative difference between 2% and 7%). However, these estimates were valid only when mRNA expressions were predictive of protein levels (i

  13. P2Y12 Receptor Localizes in the Renal Collecting Duct and Its Blockade Augments Arginine Vasopressin Action and Alleviates Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Müller, Christa E; Carlson, Noel G; Baqi, Younis; Strasburg, David L; Heiney, Kristina M; Villanueva, Karie; Kohan, Donald E; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI. PMID:25855780

  14. P2Y12 Receptor Localizes in the Renal Collecting Duct and Its Blockade Augments Arginine Vasopressin Action and Alleviates Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Müller, Christa E; Carlson, Noel G; Baqi, Younis; Strasburg, David L; Heiney, Kristina M; Villanueva, Karie; Kohan, Donald E; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI.

  15. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor stimulation and blockade on food consumption and body weight in rats treated with a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2

    PubMed Central

    Radziszewska, Elżbieta; Bojanowska, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and endocannabinoids are involved in appetite control. Recently we have demonstrated that cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor antagonist and GLP-1 receptor agonist synergistically suppress food intake in the rat. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of GLP-1 receptor stimulation or blockade on feeding behavior in rats treated with WIN 55,212-2, a CB1 receptor agonist. Material/Methods Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats. In the first experiment the effects of increasing doses (0.5–4.0 mg/kg) of WIN 55,212-2 injected intraperitoneally on 24-hour food consumption were tested. In further experiments a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39), and WIN 55,212-2 or a GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, and WIN 55,212-2 were injected intraperitoneally at subthreshold doses (that alone did not change food intake and body weight) to investigate whether these agents may interact to affect food intake in rats. Results WIN 55,212-2 administered at low doses (0.5–2 mg/kg) did not markedly change 24-hour food consumption; however, at the highest dose, daily food intake was inhibited. Combined administration of WIN 55,212-2 and exendin (9-39) did not change the amount of food consumed compared to either the control group or to each agent injected alone. Combined injection of WIN 55,212-2 and exendin-4 at subthreshold doses resulted in a significant decrease in food intake and body weight in rats. Conclusions Stimulation of the peripheral CB1 receptor by its agonist WIN 55,212-2 can induce anorexigenic effects or potentiate, even at a subthreshold dose, the effects of exendin-4, a known anorectic agent. Hence, this dual action of the cannabinoid system should be considered in the medical use of CB1 agonists. PMID:23291632

  16. [Effect of blockade of opiate receptors by naloxone on lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH) and testosterone secretion in patients after kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Grzeszczak, W; Zukowska-Szczechowska, E; Kokot, F

    1992-01-01

    The influence of opioid receptors blockade by naloxone on lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH) and testosterone secretion induced by LH-RH was assessed in 12 male kidney transplant patients with stable graft function (KTP) treated by cyclosporine A and prednisone and in 15 healthy subjects. In KTP normal plasma levels of LH in spite of significantly reduced testosteronemia and a reduced response of LH to LH-RH was observed. After blockade of opioid receptors by naloxone normalization of the response of LH secretion to LH-RH was found and a higher increase of the plasma testosterone level was observed in KTP than in healthy subjects. Results obtained in this study suggest abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary--gonadal axis in KTP and participation of opioid receptors in its pathogenesis.

  17. Partial blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia in recurrently hypoglycemic rats.

    PubMed

    LaGamma, Edmund F; Kirtok, Necla; Chan, Owen; Nankova, Bistra B

    2014-10-01

    Recurrent exposure to hypoglycemia can impair the normal counterregulatory hormonal responses that guard against hypoglycemia, leading to hypoglycemia unawareness. This pathological condition known as hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) is the main adverse consequence that prevents individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus from attaining the long-term health benefits of tight glycemic control. The underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the progressive loss of the epinephrine response to subsequent bouts of hypoglycemia, a hallmark sign of HAAF, are largely unknown. Normally, hypoglycemia triggers both the release and biosynthesis of epinephrine through activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) on the adrenal glands. We hypothesize that excessive cholinergic stimulation may contribute to impaired counterregulation. Here, we tested whether administration of the nAChR partial agonist cytisine to reduce postganglionic synaptic activity can preserve the counterregulatory hormone responses in an animal model of HAAF. Compared with nicotine, cytisine has limited efficacy to activate nAChRs and stimulate epinephrine release and synthesis. We evaluated adrenal catecholamine production and secretion in nondiabetic rats subjected to two daily episodes of hypoglycemia for 3 days, followed by a hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp on day 4. Recurrent hypoglycemia decreased epinephrine responses, and this was associated with suppressed TH mRNA induction (a measure of adrenal catecholamine synthetic capacity). Treatment with cytisine improved glucagon responses as well as epinephrine release and production in recurrently hypoglycemic animals. These data suggest that pharmacological manipulation of ganglionic nAChRs may be promising as a translational adjunctive therapy to avoid HAAF in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  18. The blockade of transient receptor potential ankirin 1 (TRPA1) signalling mediates antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Juliana Cavalcante; Noroes, Maíra Macedo; Rachetti, Vanessa de Paula Soares; Soares, Bruno Lobão; Preti, Delia; Nassini, Romina; Materazzi, Serena; Marone, Ilaria Maddalena; Minocci, Daiana; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Gavioli, Elaine Cristina; André, Eunice

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) are involved in many biological processes, including nociception and hyperalgesia. Whereas the involvement of TRPV1 in psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression has been reported, little is known regarding the role of TRPA1 in these conditions. Experimental Approach We investigated the role of TRPA1 in mice models of depression [forced swimming test (FST)] and anxiety [elevated plus maze (EPM) test]. Key Results Administration of the TRPA1 antagonist (HC030031, 30 nmol in 2 μL, i.c.v.) reduced immobility time in the FST. Similar results were obtained after oral administration of HC030031 (30–300 mg·kg−1). The reduction in immobility time in FST induced by HC030031 (100 mg·kg−1) was completely prevented by pretreatment with TRPA1 agonist, cinnamaldehyde (50 mg·kg−1, p.o.), which per se was inactive. In the EPM test, pretreatment with cinnamaldehyde (50 mg·kg−1, p.o.), which per se did not affect behaviour response, prevented the anxiolytic-like effect (increased open arm exploration) evoked by TRPA1 blockade (HC030031, 100 mg·kg−1, p.o.). Treatment with either cinnamaldehyde or HC030031 did not affect spontaneous ambulation. Furthermore, TRPA1-deficient mice showed anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like phenotypes in the FST and EPM test respectively. Conclusion and Implications The present findings indicate that genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of TRPA1 produces inhibitory activity in mouse models of anxiety and depression. These results imply that TRPA1 exerts tonic control, promoting anxiety and depression, and that TRPA1 antagonism has potential as an innovative strategy for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:24846744

  19. Angiotensin type 1 receptor resistance to blockade in the opossum proximal tubule cell due to variations in the binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Nistala, Ravi; Andresen, Bradley T; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Meuth, Alex; Sinak, Catherine; Mandavia, Chirag; Thekkumkara, Thomas; Speth, Robert C; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R

    2013-04-15

    Blockade of the angiotensin (ANG) II receptor type 1 (AT(1)R) with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is widely used in the treatment of hypertension. However, ARBs are variably effective in reducing blood pressure, likely due, in part, to polymorphisms in the ARB binding pocket of the AT(1)R. Therefore, we need a better understanding of variations/polymorphisms that alter binding of ARBs in heterogeneous patient populations. The opossum proximal tubule cell (OKP) line is commonly used in research to evaluate renal sodium handling and therefore blood pressure. Investigating this issue, we found natural sequence variations in the opossum AT(1)R paralleling those observed in the human AT(1)R. Therefore, we posited that these sequence variations may explain ARB resistance. We demonstrate that OKP cells express AT(1)R mRNA, bind (125)I-labeled ANG II, and exhibit ANG II-induced phosphorylation of Jak2. However, Jak2 phosphorylation is not inhibited by five different ARBs commonly used to treat hypertension. Additionally, nonradioactive ANG II competes (125)I-ANG II efficiently, whereas a 10-fold molar excess of olmesartan and the ANG II receptor type 2 blocker PD-123319 is unable to block (125)I-ANG II binding. In contrast, ANG II binding to OKP cells stably expressing rat AT(1A)Rs, which have a conserved AT(1)R-binding pocket with human AT(1)R, is efficiently inhibited by olmesartan. A novel observation was that resistance to ARB binding to opossum AT(1)Rs correlates with variations from the human receptor at positions 108, 163, 192, and 198 within the ARB-binding pocket. These observations highlight the potential utility of evaluating AT(1)R polymorphisms within the ARB-binding pocket in various hypertensive populations.

  20. Angiotensin type 1 receptor resistance to blockade in the opossum proximal tubule cell due to variations in the binding pocket

    PubMed Central

    Nistala, Ravi; Andresen, Bradley T.; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Meuth, Alex; Sinak, Catherine; Mandavia, Chirag; Thekkumkara, Thomas; Speth, Robert C.; Whaley-Connell, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Blockade of the angiotensin (ANG) II receptor type 1 (AT1R) with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is widely used in the treatment of hypertension. However, ARBs are variably effective in reducing blood pressure, likely due, in part, to polymorphisms in the ARB binding pocket of the AT1R. Therefore, we need a better understanding of variations/polymorphisms that alter binding of ARBs in heterogeneous patient populations. The opossum proximal tubule cell (OKP) line is commonly used in research to evaluate renal sodium handling and therefore blood pressure. Investigating this issue, we found natural sequence variations in the opossum AT1R paralleling those observed in the human AT1R. Therefore, we posited that these sequence variations may explain ARB resistance. We demonstrate that OKP cells express AT1R mRNA, bind 125I-labeled ANG II, and exhibit ANG II-induced phosphorylation of Jak2. However, Jak2 phosphorylation is not inhibited by five different ARBs commonly used to treat hypertension. Additionally, nonradioactive ANG II competes 125I-ANG II efficiently, whereas a 10-fold molar excess of olmesartan and the ANG II receptor type 2 blocker PD-123319 is unable to block 125I-ANG II binding. In contrast, ANG II binding to OKP cells stably expressing rat AT1ARs, which have a conserved AT1R-binding pocket with human AT1R, is efficiently inhibited by olmesartan. A novel observation was that resistance to ARB binding to opossum AT1Rs correlates with variations from the human receptor at positions 108, 163, 192, and 198 within the ARB-binding pocket. These observations highlight the potential utility of evaluating AT1R polymorphisms within the ARB-binding pocket in various hypertensive populations. PMID:23389452

  1. Effect of P2 receptor blockade with pyridoxine on sympathetic response to exercise pressor reflex in humans

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jian; Leuenberger, Urs A; Blaha, Cheryl; King, Nicholas C; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2011-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that ATP plays a role in evoking the muscle reflex via stimulating purinergic P2 receptors on sensory neurons. However, there are no human data regarding the role ATP and P2 receptors may play in evoking the exercise pressor reflex. We hypothesized that P2 receptor blockade in humans would attenuate the exercise pressor response. Blood pressure (Finometer), heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were assessed during fatiguing isometric handgrip, post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO), and passive muscle stretch during PECO in 10 young healthy volunteers. The protocol was performed before and after local infusion of pyridoxine hydrochloride (i.e. vitamin B6) in saline via Bier block. Pyridoxine is converted into pyridoxal-5-phosphate, a P2-purinoceptor antagonist. In the second experiment, the same amount of saline was infused via the same procedure. After pyridoxine, the MSNA responses to fatiguing handgrip (Δ349 ± 70 vs.Δ556 ± 92), PECO (Δ285 ± 37 vs.Δ532 ± 115) and PECO + passive stretch (Δ368 ± 66 vs.Δ641 ± 128 units min−1, all P < 0.05) were all significantly less than those before pyridoxine. The blood pressure responses were also significantly (all P < 0.05) less than those before pyridoxine. Infusion of saline (as opposed to pyridoxine) had no effect on the MSNA and blood pressure responses. These data are consistent with the concept that P2 receptors contribute to the exercise pressor reflex in humans. PMID:21078590

  2. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade partially attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets: relationship with the nitrergic system

    PubMed Central

    Camelo, J.S.; Martins, A.R.; Rosa, E.; Ramos, S.G.; Hehre, D.; Bancalari, E.; Suguihara, C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe possible interactions between the renin-angiotensin and nitrergic systems in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. Thirteen chronically instrumented newborn piglets (6.3 ± 0.9 days; 2369 ± 491 g) were randomly assigned to receive saline (placebo, P) or the AT1 receptor (AT1-R) blocker L-158,809 (L) during 6 days of hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.12). During hypoxia, pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa; P < 0.0001), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR; P < 0.02) and the pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance ratio (PVR/SVR; P < 0.05) were significantly attenuated in the L (N = 7) group compared to the P group (N = 6). Western blot analysis of lung proteins showed a significant decrease of endothelial NOS (eNOS) in both P and L animals, and of AT1-R in P animals during hypoxia compared to normoxic animals (C group, N = 5; P < 0.01 for all groups). AT1-R tended to decrease in L animals. Inducible NOS (iNOS) did not differ among P, L, and C animals and iNOS immunohistochemical staining in macrophages was significantly more intense in L than in P animals (P < 0.01). The vascular endothelium showed moderate or strong eNOS and AT1-R staining. Macrophages and pneumocytes showed moderate or strong iNOS and AT1-R staining, but C animals showed weak iNOS and AT1-R staining. Macrophages of L and P animals showed moderate and weak AT2-R staining, respectively, but the endothelium of all groups only showed weak staining. In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia in newborn piglets is partially attenuated by AT1-R blockade. We suggest that AT1-R blockade might act through AT2-R and/or Mas receptors and the nitrergic system in the lungs of hypoxemic newborn piglets. PMID:22310488

  3. Mechanism of A2 adenosine receptor activation. I. Blockade of A2 adenosine receptors by photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lohse, M.J.; Klotz, K.N.; Schwabe, U.

    1991-04-01

    It has previously been shown that covalent incorporation of the photoreactive adenosine derivative (R)-2-azido-N6-p-hydroxy-phenylisopropyladenosine ((R)-AHPIA) into the A1 adenosine receptor of intact fat cells leads to a persistent activation of this receptor, resulting in a reduction of cellular cAMP levels. In contrast, covalent incorporation of (R)-AHPIA into human platelet membranes, which contain only stimulatory A2 adenosine receptors, reduces adenylate cyclase stimulation via these receptors. This effect of (R)-AHPIA is specific for the A2 receptor and can be prevented by the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline. Binding studies indicate that up to 90% of A2 receptors can be blocked by photoincorporation of (R)-AHPIA. However, the remaining 10-20% of A2 receptors are sufficient to mediate an adenylate cyclase stimulation of up to 50% of the control value. Similarly, the activation via these 10-20% of receptors occurs with a half-life that is only 2 times longer than that in control membranes. This indicates the presence of a receptor reserve, with respect to both the extent and the rate of adenylate cyclase stimulation. These observations require a modification of the models of receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling.

  4. Monoclonal antibody that inhibits infection of HeLa and rhabdomyosarcoma cells by selected enteroviruses through receptor blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, R.L.; Field, A.K.; Schleif, W.A.; Long, W.L.; Colonno, R.J.; Mapoles, J.E.; Emini, E. A.

    1986-02-01

    BALB/c mice were immunized with HeLa cells, and their spleen cells were fused with myeloma cells to produce hybridomas. Initial screening of culture fluids from 800 fusion products in a cell protection assay against coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) and the CB3-RD virus variant yielded five presumptive monoclonal antibodies with three specificities: (i) protection against CB3 on HeLa, (ii) protection against CB3-RD on rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, and (iii) protection against both viruses on the respective cells. Only one of the monoclonal antibodies (with dual specificity) survived two subclonings and was studied in detail. The antibody was determined to have an immunoglobulin G2a isotype and protected cells by blockade of cellular receptors, since attachment of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled CB3 was inhibited by greater than 90%. The monoclonal antibody protected HeLa cells against infection by CB1, CB3, CB5, echovirus 6, and coxsackievirus A21 and RD cells against CB1-RD, CB3-RD, and CB5-Rd virus variants. The monoclonal antibody did not protect either cell type against 16 other immunotypes of picornaviruses. The monoclonal antibody produced only positive fluorescence on those cells which were protected against infection, and /sup 125/I-labeled antibody confirmed the specific binding to HeLa and RD cells. The results suggest that this monoclonal antibody possesses some of the receptor specificity of the group B coxsackieviruses.

  5. Improvement of Chicken Primordial Germ Cell Maintenance In Vitro by Blockade of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Endogenous Activity.

    PubMed

    Pérez Sáez, Juan M; Bussmann, Leonardo E; Barañao, J Lino; Bussmann, Ursula A

    2016-06-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the undifferentiated progenitors of gametes. Germline competent PGCs can be developed as a cell-based system for genetic modification in chickens, which provides a valuable tool for transgenic technology with both research and industrial applications. This implies manipulation of PGCs, which, in recent years, encouraged a lot of research focused on the study of PGCs and the way of improving their culture. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that besides mediating toxic responses to environmental contaminants plays pivotal physiological roles in various biological processes. Since a novel compound that acts as an antagonist of this receptor has been reported to promote expansion of hematopoietic stem cells, we conducted the present study with the aim of determining whether addition of an established AHR antagonist to the standard culture medium used nowadays for in vitro chicken PGCs culture improves ex vivo expansion. We have found that addition of α-naphthoflavone in culture medium promotes the amplification of undifferentiated cells and that this effect is exerted by the blockade of AHR action. Our results constitute the first report of the successful use of a readily available AHR antagonist to improve avian PGCs expansion, and they further extend the knowledge of the effects of AHR modulation in undifferentiated cells. PMID:27253627

  6. Dual motor responses elicited by ethanol in the posterior VTA: Consequences of the blockade of μ-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Martí-Prats, Lucía; Orrico, Alejandro; Polache, Ana; Granero, Luis

    2015-09-01

    A recent hypothesis, based on electrophysiological and behavioural findings, suggests that ethanol simultaneously exerts opposed effects on the activity of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) through two parallel mechanisms, one promoting and the other reducing the GABA release onto VTA DA neurons. In this sense, the activating effects are mediated by salsolinol, a metabolite of ethanol, acting on the μ-opioid receptors (MORs) located in VTA GABA neurons. The inhibitory effects are, however, triggered by the non-metabolized fraction of ethanol which would cause the GABAA receptors-mediated inhibition of VTA DA neurons. Since both trends tend to offset each other, only the use of appropriate pharmacological tools allows analysis of this phenomenon in depth. Herein, we present new behavioural findings supporting this hypothesis. Motor activity was evaluated in rats after intra-VTA administration of ethanol 35 nmol, an apparently ineffective dose, 24 h after the irreversible blockade of MORs in the VTA with β-FNA. Our results showed that this pre-treatment turned the initially ineffective ethanol dose into a depressant one, confirming that the activating effect of ethanol can be selectively suppressed without affecting the depressant effects mediated by the non-biotransformed fraction of ethanol.

  7. Improvement of Chicken Primordial Germ Cell Maintenance In Vitro by Blockade of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Endogenous Activity.

    PubMed

    Pérez Sáez, Juan M; Bussmann, Leonardo E; Barañao, J Lino; Bussmann, Ursula A

    2016-06-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the undifferentiated progenitors of gametes. Germline competent PGCs can be developed as a cell-based system for genetic modification in chickens, which provides a valuable tool for transgenic technology with both research and industrial applications. This implies manipulation of PGCs, which, in recent years, encouraged a lot of research focused on the study of PGCs and the way of improving their culture. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that besides mediating toxic responses to environmental contaminants plays pivotal physiological roles in various biological processes. Since a novel compound that acts as an antagonist of this receptor has been reported to promote expansion of hematopoietic stem cells, we conducted the present study with the aim of determining whether addition of an established AHR antagonist to the standard culture medium used nowadays for in vitro chicken PGCs culture improves ex vivo expansion. We have found that addition of α-naphthoflavone in culture medium promotes the amplification of undifferentiated cells and that this effect is exerted by the blockade of AHR action. Our results constitute the first report of the successful use of a readily available AHR antagonist to improve avian PGCs expansion, and they further extend the knowledge of the effects of AHR modulation in undifferentiated cells.

  8. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, José L; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [(3)H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD.

  9. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Linnman, Clas; Catana, Ciprian; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats; Borsook, David; Peterson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis) were selected out of a larger (n = 120) randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis). These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA), was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP) / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment. PMID:27658244

  10. Opioid receptor blockade and warmth-liking: effects on interpersonal trust and frontal asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Desirée; Stemmler, Gerhard; Burgdorf, Christin; Wacker, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The emotion 'warmth-liking' (WL) associated with feelings of affection and acceptance is regularly activated in social contexts. WL has been suggested to be more closely related to the consummatory phase of post-goal attainment positive affect than to pre-goal attainment positive affect/approach motivation and to be partly mediated by brain opioids. To validate these assumptions we employed film/imagery to induce either a neutral emotional state or WL in female participants after intake of either placebo or the opioid antagonist naltrexone. Dependent variables were emotion self-report, interpersonal trust (TRUST, i.e. a behavioral indicator of WL) and frontal asymmetry (i.e. an electroencephalogram (EEG) indicator of approach motivation/behavioral activation). We found that participants reported more WL in the placebo/WL group than in the placebo/neutral group and both naltrexone groups. In addition, TRUST increased in the WL group after placebo, but not after naltrexone, and this pattern was reversed in the neutral control groups. Consequently, opioid blockade suppressed or even reversed the effects of the WL induction on the levels of self-report and behavior, respectively. In addition, we observed reduced relative left-frontal asymmetry in the WL (vs neutral) group, consistent with reduced approach motivation. Overall, these results suggest opioidergic influences on WL and TRUST and reduced approach motivation/behavioral activation for the positive emotion WL.

  11. Opioid receptor blockade and warmth-liking: effects on interpersonal trust and frontal asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Desirée; Stemmler, Gerhard; Burgdorf, Christin

    2014-01-01

    The emotion ‘warmth-liking’ (WL) associated with feelings of affection and acceptance is regularly activated in social contexts. WL has been suggested to be more closely related to the consummatory phase of post-goal attainment positive affect than to pre-goal attainment positive affect/approach motivation and to be partly mediated by brain opioids. To validate these assumptions we employed film/imagery to induce either a neutral emotional state or WL in female participants after intake of either placebo or the opioid antagonist naltrexone. Dependent variables were emotion self-report, interpersonal trust (TRUST, i.e. a behavioral indicator of WL) and frontal asymmetry (i.e. an electroencephalogram (EEG) indicator of approach motivation/behavioral activation). We found that participants reported more WL in the placebo/WL group than in the placebo/neutral group and both naltrexone groups. In addition, TRUST increased in the WL group after placebo, but not after naltrexone, and this pattern was reversed in the neutral control groups. Consequently, opioid blockade suppressed or even reversed the effects of the WL induction on the levels of self-report and behavior, respectively. In addition, we observed reduced relative left-frontal asymmetry in the WL (vs neutral) group, consistent with reduced approach motivation. Overall, these results suggest opioidergic influences on WL and TRUST and reduced approach motivation/behavioral activation for the positive emotion WL. PMID:24078107

  12. Blockade of central vasopressin receptors reduces the cardiovascular response to acute stress in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Stojicić, S; Milutinović-Smiljanić, S; Sarenac, O; Milosavljević, S; Paton, J F R; Murphy, D; Japundzić-Zigon, N

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the contribution of central vasopressin receptors to blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) response to stress we injected non-peptide selective V(1a) (SR49059), V(1b) (SSR149415), V(2) (SR121463) receptor antagonists, diazepam or vehicle in the lateral cerebral ventricle of conscious freely moving rats stressed by blowing air on their heads for 2 min. Cardiovascular effects of stress were evaluated by analyzing maximum increase of BP and HR (MAX), latency of maximum response (LAT), integral under BP and HR curve (integral), duration of their recovery and spectral parameters of BP and HR indicative of increased sympathetic outflow (LF(BP) and LF/HF(HR)). Moreover, the increase of serum corticosterone was measured. Exposure to air-jet stress induced simultaneous increase in BP and HR followed by gradual decline during recovery while LF(BP) oscillation remained increased as well as serum corticosterone level. Rats pre-treated with vasopressin receptor antagonists were not sedated while diazepam induced sedation that persisted during exposure to stress. V(1a), V(1b) and V(2) receptor antagonists applied separately did not modify basal values of cardiovascular parameters but prevented the increase in integral(BP). In addition, V(1b) and V(2) receptor antagonists reduced BP(MAX) whereas V(1a), V(1b) antagonist and diazepam reduced HR(MAX) induced by exposure to air-jet stress. All drugs shortened the recovery period, prevented the increase of LF(BP) without affecting the increase in serum corticosterone levels. Results indicate that vasopressin receptors located within the central nervous system mediate, in part, the cardiovascular response to air-jet stress without affecting either the neuroendocrine component or inducing sedation. They support the view that the V(1b) receptor antagonist may be of potential therapeutic value in reducing arterial pressure induced by stress-related disorders.

  13. [Beta-1 adrenoceptor blockade decreases the firing rate to painful stimuli in spinal wide-dynamic range neurons in rats].

    PubMed

    Lamothe-Molina, Paul J; Lamothe-Molina, Pedro A; López-Ávila, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la epinefrina/norepinefrina inhibe la transmisión del dolor agudo; empero, no es claro el papel de los receptores beta-adrenérgicos. Por tanto, analizamos si los fármacos de estos receptores modulan la transmisión del dolor agudo mediante registro electrofisiológico unitario extracelular in vivo durante estimulación periférica dolorosa y no dolorosa en ratas. Métodos: estudio longitudinal en el que se cotejaron siete grupos de ratas: control (n = 11): solución salina (0,9 %); EPI (n = 8): 100 mcg epinefrina; agonista beta-1 (n = 8): 125 mcg dobutamina; antagonista beta-1 (n = 9): 100 mcg metoprolol; agonista beta-2 (n = 7): 100 mcg clembuterol; antagonista beta-2 (n = 8): butoxamina 100 mcg; antagonista beta-1 + EPI (n = 10): 100 mcg metoprolol + 100 mcg epinefrina. Se hizo análisis estadístico por medio de ANOVA. Resultados: La epinefrina redujo significativamente la tasa de disparo basal (RDB) en 34.1 % (p < 0.05) y la respuesta evocada por la estimulación dolorosa en 56 % (p < 0.05). No hubo cambios en la respuesta provocada por la falta de estimulación dolorosa. El antagonista beta-1 fue el único fármaco con acción beta-adrenérgica que redujo significativamente la respuesta evocada por la estimulación dolorosa en 41 % (p < 0.05). Conclusión: por primera vez un antagonista de los receptores beta-1-adrenérgicos (metoprolol) prueba ser eficaz en la reducción de la respuesta a la estimulación dolorosa en las neuronas ARD.

  14. Antidepressant Drugs Transactivate TrkB Neurotrophin Receptors in the Adult Rodent Brain Independently of BDNF and Monoamine Transporter Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Rantamäki, Tomi; Di Lieto, Antonio; Tammela, Päivi; Schmitt, Angelika; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Rios, Maribel; Castrén, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Background Antidepressant drugs (ADs) have been shown to activate BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) receptor TrkB in the rodent brain but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. ADs act as monoamine reuptake inhibitors and after prolonged treatments regulate brain bdnf mRNA levels indicating that monoamine-BDNF signaling regulate AD-induced TrkB activation in vivo. However, recent findings demonstrate that Trk receptors can be transactivated independently of their neurotrophin ligands. Methodology In this study we examined the role of BDNF, TrkB kinase activity and monoamine reuptake in the AD-induced TrkB activation in vivo and in vitro by employing several transgenic mouse models, cultured neurons and TrkB-expressing cell lines. Principal Findings Using a chemical-genetic TrkBF616A mutant and TrkB overexpressing mice, we demonstrate that ADs specifically activate both the maturely and immaturely glycosylated forms of TrkB receptors in the brain in a TrkB kinase dependent manner. However, the tricyclic AD imipramine readily induced the phosphorylation of TrkB receptors in conditional bdnf−/− knock-out mice (132.4±8.5% of control; P = 0.01), indicating that BDNF is not required for the TrkB activation. Moreover, using serotonin transporter (SERT) deficient mice and chemical lesions of monoaminergic neurons we show that neither a functional SERT nor monoamines are required for the TrkB phosphorylation response induced by the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine or citalopram, or norepinephrine selective reuptake inhibitor reboxetine. However, neither ADs nor monoamine transmitters activated TrkB in cultured neurons or cell lines expressing TrkB receptors, arguing that ADs do not directly bind to TrkB. Conclusions The present findings suggest that ADs transactivate brain TrkB receptors independently of BDNF and monoamine reuptake blockade and emphasize the need of an intact tissue context for the ability of ADs to

  15. Chronic Blockade of the Androgen Receptor Abolishes Age-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure in Female Growth-Restricted Rats.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Rudsenske, Benjamin R; Davis, Gwendolyn K; Newsome, Ashley D; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction induced via placental insufficiency programs a significant increase in blood pressure at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats that is associated with early cessation of estrous cyclicity, indicative of premature reproductive senescence. In addition, female growth-restricted rats at 12 months of age exhibit a significant increase in circulating testosterone with no change in circulating estradiol. Testosterone is positively associated with blood pressure after menopause in women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that androgen receptor blockade would abolish the significant increase in blood pressure that develops with age in female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure was measured in animals pretreated with and without the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (8 mg/kg/day, SC for 2 weeks). Flutamide abolished the significant increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted rats relative to control at 12 months of age. To examine the mechanism(s) by which androgens contribute to increased blood pressure in growth-restricted rats, blood pressure was assessed in rats untreated or treated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 2 weeks). Enalapril eliminated the increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted relative to vehicle- and flutamide-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in medullary angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA expression was abolished in flutamide-treated growth-restricted relative to untreated counterparts and controls; cortical angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression was reduced in flutamide-treated growth-restricted versus untreated counterparts. Thus, these data indicate that androgens, via activation of the renin-angiotensin system, are important mediators of increased blood pressure that develops by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:27113045

  16. Combined blockade of angiotensin II and prorenin receptors ameliorates podocytic apoptosis induced by IgA-activated mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Joseph C K; Chan, Loretta Y Y; Saleem, M A; Mathieson, P W; Tang, Sydney C W; Lai, Kar Neng

    2015-07-01

    Glomerulo-podocytic communication plays an important role in the podocytic injury in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). In this study, we examine the role of podocytic angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT1R) and prorenin receptor (PRR) in podocytic apoptosis in IgAN. Polymeric IgA (pIgA) was isolated from patients with IgAN and healthy controls. Conditioned media were prepared from growth arrested human mesangial cells (HMC) incubated with pIgA from patients with IgAN (IgA-HMC media) or healthy controls (Ctl-HMC media). A human podocyte cell line was used as a model to examine the regulation of the expression of AT1R, PRR, TNF-α and CTGF by IgA-HMC media. Podocytic nephrin expression, annexin V binding and caspase 3 activity were used as the functional readout of podocytic apoptosis. IgA-HMC media had no effect on AngII release by podocytes. IgA-HMC media significantly up-regulated the expression of AT1R and PRR, down-regulated nephrin expression and induced apoptosis in podocytes. Mono-blockade of AT1R, PRR, TNF-α or CTGF partially reduced podocytic apoptosis. IgA-HMC media activated NFκB, notch1 and HEY1 expression by podocytes and dual blockade of AT1R with PRR, or anti-TNF-α with anti-CTGF, effectively rescued the podocytic apoptosis induced by IgA-HMC media. Our data suggests that pIgA-activated HMC up-regulates the expression of AT1R and PRR expression by podocytes and the associated activation of NFκB and notch signalling pathways play an essential role in the podocytic apoptosis induced by glomerulo-podocytic communication in IgAN. Simultaneously targeting the AT1R and PRR could be a potential therapeutic option to reduce the podocytic injury in IgAN.

  17. Up-Regulation of Endothelin Type A Receptor in Human and Rat Radiation Proctitis: Preclinical Therapeutic Approach With Endothelin Receptor Blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Jullien, Nicolash; Blirando, Karl; Milliat, Fabien; Benderitter, Marc; Francois, Agnes

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Rectum radiation damage and fibrosis are often associated with radiation therapy of pelvic tumors. The endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in several fibrotic diseases but never studied in the context of gastrointestinal radiation damage. This study assessed modifications in ET type 1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ET{sub A}), and ET type B receptor (ET{sub B}) localization and/or expression in irradiated human rectal tissue and in a rat model of delayed colorectal injury. We also evaluated the therapeutic potential of long-term ET receptor blockade. Methods and Materials: Routine histological studies of sections of healthy and radiation-injured human rectum tissue were done; the sections were also immunostained for ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} receptors. The rat model involved the delivery of 27 Gy in a single dose to the colons and rectums of the animals. The ET-1/ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} expression and ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} localization were studied at 10 weeks postexposure. The abilities of bosentan and atrasentan to protect against delayed rectal injury were also investigated. Results: The immunolocalization of ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} in healthy human rectums was similar to that in rat rectums. However, strong ET{sub A} immunostaining was seen in the presence of human radiation proctitis, and increased ET{sub A} mRNA levels were seen in the rat following colorectal irradiation. Immunostaining for ET{sub A} was also strongly positive in rats in areas of radiation-induced mucosal ulceration, atypia, and fibroproliferation. However, neither bosentan nor atrasentan prevented radiation damage to the rectum when given long term. The only effect seen for atrasentan was an increased number of sclerotic vessel sections in injured tissues. Conclusions: As the result of the overexpression of ET{sub A}, radiation exposure deregulates the endothelin system through an 'ET{sub A} profile' in the human and rodent rectum. However, therapeutic interventions involving mixed or

  18. Combined Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Blockade Inhibits Tumor Growth in Xenograft Models of EGFR Inhibitor Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Naumov, George N.; Nilsson, Monique B.; Cascone, Tina; Briggs, Alexandra; Straume, Oddbjorn; Akslen, Lars A.; Lifshits, Eugene; Byers, Lauren Averett; Xu, Li; Wu, Hua-kang; Jänne, Pasi; Kobayashi, Susumu; Halmos, Balazs; Tenen, Daniel; Tang, Xi M.; Engelman, Jeffrey; Yeap, Beow; Folkman, Judah; Johnson, Bruce E.; Heymach, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) gefitinib and erlotinib benefit some non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but most do not respond (primary resistance) and those who initially respond eventually progress (acquired resistance). EGFR TKI resistance is not completely understood and has been associated with certain EGFR and K-RAS mutations and MET amplification. Experimental Design We hypothesized that dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and EGFR pathways may overcome primary and acquired resistance. We investigated the VEGF receptor/EGFR TKI vandetanib, and the combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in vivo using xenograft models of EGFR TKI sensitivity, primary resistance, and three models of acquired resistance, including models with mutated K-RAS and secondary EGFR T790M mutation. Results Vandetanib, gefitinib, and erlotinib had similar profiles of in vitro activity and caused sustained tumor regressions in vivo in the sensitive HCC827 model. In all four resistant models, vandetanib and bevacizumab/erlotinib were significantly more effective than erlotinib or gefitinib alone. Erlotinib resistance was associated with a rise in both host and tumor-derived VEGF but not EGFR secondary mutations in the KRAS mutant-bearing A549 xenografts. Dual inhibition reduced tumor endothelial proliferation compared with VEGF or EGFR blockade alone, suggesting that the enhanced activity of dual inhibition is due at least in part to antiendothelial effects. Conclusion These studies suggest that erlotinib resistance may be associated with a rise in both tumor cell and host stromal VEGF and that combined blockade of the VEGFR and EGFR pathways can abrogate primary or acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs. This approach merits further evaluation in NSCLC patients. PMID:19447865

  19. Pharmacological blockade of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors reduces the growth of glioma cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arcella, Antonietta; Carpinelli, Giulia; Battaglia, Giuseppe; D'Onofrio, Mara; Santoro, Filippo; Ngomba, Richard Teke; Bruno, Valeria; Casolini, Paola; Giangaspero, Felice; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2005-07-01

    U87MG human glioma cells in cultures expressed metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3. Addition of the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 to the cultures reduced cell growth, expression of cyclin D1/2, and activation of the MAP kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathways. This is in line with the evidence that activation of mGlu2/3 receptors sustains glioma cell proliferation. U87MG cells were either implanted under the skin (1x10(6) cells/0.5 ml) or infused into the caudate nucleus (0.5x10(6) cells/5 microl) of nude mice. Animals were treated for 28 days with mGlu receptor antagonists by means of subcutaneous osmotic minipumps. Treatments with LY341495 or (2S)-alpha-ethylglutamate (both infused at a rate of 1 mg/kg per day) reduced the size of tumors growing under the skin. Infusion of LY341495 (10 mg/kg per day) also reduced the growth of brain tumors, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging analysis carried out every seven days. The effect of drug treatment was particularly evident during the exponential phase of tumor growth, that is, between the third and the fourth week following cell implantation. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that U87MG cells retained the expression of mGlu2/3 receptors when implanted into the brain of nude mice. These data suggest that mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists are of potential use in the experimental treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:16053698

  20. Effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade on breathing pattern in newborn cat.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, P; Pierrefiche, O; Foutz, A S; Denavit-Saubié, M

    1990-11-01

    We gave newborn kittens the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker MK-801 systemically while recording their breathing patterns by the barometric method. Unlike pentobarbital, MK-801 at an anaesthetic dose increased the relative length of inspiration within the respiratory cycle. The section of both vagus nerves under MK-801 produced apneustic breathing, whereas vagotomy under pentobarbital had no such effect. We conclude that the central inspiratory-termination mechanism mediated through NMDA receptors and the vagally-mediated mechanism that independently 'switches off' inspiration are both functional at birth. PMID:2148125

  1. Systemic Blockade of D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Nissim, Helen A.; Barad, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear in animals is the explicit model of behavior therapy for human anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Based on previous data indicating that fear extinction in rats is blocked by quinpirole, an agonist of dopamine D2 receptors, we hypothesized…

  2. Blockade of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 promotes regeneration after sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Fei; Zhang, Hong; Qi, Chao; Gao, Mei-ling; Wang, Hong; Li, Xia-qing

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) provides the sensation of pain (nociception). However, it remains unknown whether TRPV1 is activated after peripheral nerve injury, or whether activation of TRPV1 affects neural regeneration. In the present study, we established rat models of unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury, with or without pretreatment with AMG517 (300 mg/kg), a TRPV1 antagonist, injected subcutaneously into the ipsilateral paw 60 minutes before injury. At 1 and 2 weeks after injury, we performed immunofluorescence staining of the sciatic nerve at the center of injury, at 0.3 cm proximal and distal to the injury site, and in the dorsal root ganglia. Our results showed that Wallerian degeneration occurred distal to the injury site, and neurite outgrowth and Schwann cell regeneration occurred proximal to the injury. The number of regenerating myelinated and unmyelinated nerve clusters was greater in the AMG517-pretreated rats than in the vehicle-treated group, most notably 2 weeks after injury. TRPV1 expression in the injured sciatic nerve and ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia was markedly greater than on the contralateral side. Pretreatment with AMG517 blocked this effect. These data indicate that TRPV1 is activated or overexpressed after sciatic nerve crush injury, and that blockade of TRPV1 may accelerate regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve. PMID:26487864

  3. Blockade of the activin receptor IIb activates functional brown adipogenesis and thermogenesis by inducing mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Brigitte; Murray, Ben; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Marcaletti, Stefan; Marcellin, David; Bergling, Sebastian; Brachat, Sophie; Persohn, Elke; Pierrel, Eliane; Bombard, Florian; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Trendelenburg, Anne-Ulrike; Morvan, Frederic; Richardson, Brian; Glass, David J; Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle; Feige, Jerome N

    2012-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a key tissue for energy expenditure via fat and glucose oxidation for thermogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that the myostatin/activin receptor IIB (ActRIIB) pathway, which serves as an important negative regulator of muscle growth, is also a negative regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation. In parallel to the anticipated hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, the pharmacological inhibition of ActRIIB in mice, using a neutralizing antibody, increases the amount of BAT without directly affecting white adipose tissue. Mechanistically, inhibition of ActRIIB inhibits Smad3 signaling and activates the expression of myoglobin and PGC-1 coregulators in brown adipocytes. Consequently, ActRIIB blockade in brown adipose tissue enhances mitochondrial function and uncoupled respiration, translating into beneficial functional consequences, including enhanced cold tolerance and increased energy expenditure. Importantly, ActRIIB inhibition enhanced energy expenditure only at ambient temperature or in the cold and not at thermoneutrality, where nonshivering thermogenesis is minimal, strongly suggesting that brown fat activation plays a prominent role in the metabolic actions of ActRIIB inhibition.

  4. α-Adrenergic receptors in auditory cue detection: α2 receptor blockade suppresses false alarm responding in the rat.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dewey C; Co, Marissa S; Wolff, Ruben C; Atzori, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Numerous studies have suggested a facilitatory role of the noradrenergic system in attention. Cognitive functions relating to attentive states--arousal, motivation, behavioral flexibility, and working memory--are enhanced by norepinephrine release throughout the brain. The present study addresses the role of the adrenergic system on stimulus validity and sustained attention within the auditory system. We examined the effects of adrenoceptor stimulation via systemic injection of α1 and α2-adrenoceptor antagonist and agonist drugs, prazosin (1 mg/kg), phenylephrine (0.1 mg/kg), yohimbine (1 mg/kg), and clonidine (0.0375 mg/kg), respectively. Our results indicate that α1-adrenergic stimulation is ineffective in modulating the biological assessment of auditory signal validity in the non-stressed rat, while α2-adrenoceptor antagonist and agonist drugs were effective in modulating both accuracy and response latencies in the habituated animal. Remarkably, blockade of α2-adrenoceptors significantly improved the animal's ability to correctly reject non-signal events. These findings indicate not only a state dependent noradrenergic component of auditory attentional processing, but a potential therapeutic use for drugs targeting norepinephrine release in neurological disorders ranging from Alzheimer's disease to schizophrenia.

  5. Long-term blockade of mu-opioid receptors suggests a role in control of ingestive behaviour, body weight and core temperature in the rat.

    PubMed

    Millan, M J; Morris, B J

    1988-05-31

    Chronic subcutaneous infusion with a low dose (0.5 mg/kg/h) of naloxone via minipumps blocked the antinociceptive action of the mu-agonist, morphine, without affecting that of the kappa-agonist, U50488H. This dose resulted in a transient suppression in the rate of body weight gain and a sustained reduction in daily food intake (FI) and water intake (WI): this decrease was seen in both the light and dark phases. Naloxone also resulted in a reduction in resting core temperature (TC) in the light but not the dark phase. It did not affect the weight loss or hypothermia which accompanied 24 h food and water deprivation. Naloxone did, however, suppress FI and WI following deprivation and inhibited the recovery of body weight thereafter. The influence of naloxone upon FI, WI, TC and body weight was dose-dependent over 0.05-0.50 mg/kg/h. Increasing the dose to 3.0 mg/kg/h eliminated the antinociceptive action of U50,488H revealing a blockade of kappa- (in addition to mu-) receptors. This higher dose was not more effective in reducing FI, WI, body weight and TC than 0.5 mg/kg/h. Further, treatment with MR 2266, an antagonist (or weak partial agonist) with a higher activity at kappa-receptors than naloxone, was not more effective than naloxone in reducing FI, WI and body weight: further, it did not affect TC. Moreover, chronic infusion of bremazocine, (a kappa-agonist and mu-antagonist) reduced WI, FI, body weight and TC by a magnitude comparable to that of naloxone. Finally, chronic infusion of the mu-agonist, sufentanyl, led to a sustained rise in TC. It is concluded, that: (1) mu-opioid receptors may play a major role in the modulation of daily FI and WI and of body weight in freely behaving rats: this action is expressed in both the light and dark phases of the cycle and maintained following deprivation. The data provide no evidence for (but do not exclude) a particular role of kappa-receptors. (2) mu-Receptors play a physiological role in the modulation of TC in the

  6. Protection by imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells through blockade of NMDA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, Gabriel; DeGregorio-Rocasolano, Nuria; Regalado, M Paz; Gasull, Teresa; Boronat, M Assumpció; Trullas, Ramón; Villarroel, Alvaro; Lerma, Juan; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the potential neuroprotective effect of several imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine on glutamate-induced necrosis and on apoptosis induced by low extracellular K+ in cultured cerebellar granule cells.Exposure (30 min) of energy deprived cells to L-glutamate (1–100 μM) caused a concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, as determined 24 h later by a decrease in the ability of the cells to metabolize 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) into a reduced formazan product. L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity (EC50=5 μM) was blocked by the specific NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine).Imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine fully prevented neurotoxicity induced by 20 μM (EC100) L-glutamate with the rank order (EC50 in μM): antazoline (13)>cirazoline (44)>LSL 61122 [2-styryl-2-imidazoline] (54)>LSL 60101 [2-(2-benzofuranyl) imidazole] (75)>idazoxan (90)>LSL 60129 [2-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole] (101)>RX821002 (2-methoxy idazoxan) (106)>agmatine (196). No neuroprotective effect of these drugs was observed in a model of apoptotic neuronal cell death (reduction of extracellular K+) which does not involve stimulation of NMDA receptors.Imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine fully inhibited [3H]-(+)-MK-801 binding to the phencyclidine site of NMDA receptors in rat brain. The profile of drug potency protecting against L-glutamate neurotoxicity correlated well (r=0.90) with the potency of the same compounds competing against [3H]-(+)-MK-801 binding.In HEK-293 cells transfected to express the NR1-1a and NR2C subunits of the NMDA receptor, antazoline and agmatine produced a voltage- and concentration-dependent block of glutamate-induced currents. Analysis of the voltage dependence of the block was consistent with the presence of a binding site for antazoline located within the NMDA channel pore with an IC50 of 10–12 μM at 0 mV.It is concluded that imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine are

  7. CD28 family of receptors on T cells in chronic HBV infection: Expression characteristics, clinical significance and correlations with PD-1 blockade

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zong-Sheng; Hao, You-Hua; Zhang, E-Juan; Xu, Chun-Li; Zhou, Yun; Zheng, Xin; Yang, Dong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the overall clinical expression characteristics of the cluster of differentiation (CD)28 family receptors [CD28, inducible T-cell co-stimulator, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator] on T cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), analyze the correlations among these receptors and the clinical parameters, and to investigate the effects of PD-1 blockade on the receptor expression profiles, T-cell function and other biological effects. The expression characteristics of the CD28 family of receptors, the effects of PD-1 blockade on the receptor expression profiles and the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ were investigated in the T cells of patients with CHB. In addition, the transcription factor, T-box 21 (T-bet) and GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3) mRNA expression levels were investigated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with CHB. The expression levels of the CD28 family receptors in the T cells of patients with CHB demonstrated distinct characteristics, for example levels of PD-1 and CTLA-4 on CD4 T cells and ICOS, PD-1, and BTLA on CD8 T cells were increased in cells from patients with CHB compared with those from the healthy individuals. A significant positive correlation was demonstrated among the serum HBV DNA titers and the levels of PD-1 on CD8+ T cells with the highest expression of PD-1 corresponding to viral levels >106 IU/ml. A significant positive correlation was observed between the serum HBV DNA titers and the expression levels of BTLA on CD8+ T cells with the highest expression of BTLA corresponding to viral levels >106 IU/ml. PD-1 blockade altered the expression profiles of CD28 family receptors in the T cells of patients with CHB, partly enhanced T cell function and increased the ratio of T-bet/GATA-3 mRNA in PBMCs. Thus, CD28 family receptors are potential clinical indicators for the rapid

  8. Cardiovascular reactivity after blockade of angiotensin AT1 receptors in the experimental model of tilting test in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Bedette, D; Santos, R A S; Fontes, M A P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Studies have shown that the angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, accentuates the hypotensive response in the orthostatic stress test (tilt) performed in anaesthetized rats. The same effect was not reported with other AT1 antagonists. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the effects of AT1 receptor blockade on the cardiovascular response to tilt in a model developed for conscious rats. Experimental approach: Rats (n=5–7 per group) were instrumented for infusion of drugs and recording of cardiovascular parameters and, after recovery, placed in a plastic tube positioned over the tilt board. The tilt test was conducted by raising the head side of the tilt board from horizontal position to 75° head up position for 15 min. Key results: Compared with control group (NaCl 0.9%, 1 ml kg−1), oral treatment with 1 mg kg−1 per day of losartan or telmisartan did not alter the blood pressure response during tilt. With the 10 mg kg−1 dose, both antagonists altered the blood pressure response during tilt (mean maximum changes −11±3 mm Hg; P<0.01). A post-tilt hypotension was observed with both doses in losartan and telmisartan groups (−13±1 and −9±2 mm Hg, respectively; P<0.01). Conclusions and implications: The present results indicate that the effect of losartan on the cardiovascular reactivity to tilt shares a similar profile to that of other AT1 antagonists. Evidence discussed addresses the importance of using a conscious model for testing the influence of antihypertensive drugs on the cardiovascular reactivity to orthostatic challenges. PMID:18193073

  9. [Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on extinction of passive avoidance response in mice with depressive-like state].

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2008-01-01

    Selectivity of training and extinction of passive avoidance response caused by pharmacological influences on D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in intact mice and mice in depressive-like state was shown. Training was impaired only by administration of D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride and did not depend on the initial functional condition of mice. In intact mice, activation of D2 receptors by quinpirole evoked deficiency of extinction, i.e., impairment of the capability of new inhibitory training under conditions of disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with reaction of "behavioral despair" characterized by a delay of extinction, activation of D1 receptors by SKF38393 normalized this process (as distinct from the inefficiency of D2 agonist). The positive effect of acceleration of fear memory extinction was revealed also under conditions of blockade of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. PMID:19004320

  10. Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on the extinction of a passive avoidance reaction in mice with a depressive-like state.

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2010-01-01

    Learning and extinction of a conditioned passive avoidance reaction resulting from neuropharmacological actions on dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors were demonstrated to be specific in intact mice and in mice with a depressive-like state. Learning was degraded only after administration of the D(2) receptor antagonist sulpiride and was independent of the initial functional state of the mice. In intact mice, activation of D(2) receptors with quinpirole led to a deficit of extinction, consisting of a reduction in the ability to acquire new inhibitory learning in conditions associated with the disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with the "behavioral despair" reaction, characterized by delayed extinction, activation of D(1) receptors with SKF38393 normalized this process, while the D(2) agonist was ineffective. A positive effect consisting of accelerated extinction of the memory of fear of the dark ("dangerous") sector of the experimental chamber was also seen on blockade of both types of dopamine receptor. PMID:20012492

  11. Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on the extinction of a passive avoidance reaction in mice with a depressive-like state.

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2010-01-01

    Learning and extinction of a conditioned passive avoidance reaction resulting from neuropharmacological actions on dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors were demonstrated to be specific in intact mice and in mice with a depressive-like state. Learning was degraded only after administration of the D(2) receptor antagonist sulpiride and was independent of the initial functional state of the mice. In intact mice, activation of D(2) receptors with quinpirole led to a deficit of extinction, consisting of a reduction in the ability to acquire new inhibitory learning in conditions associated with the disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with the "behavioral despair" reaction, characterized by delayed extinction, activation of D(1) receptors with SKF38393 normalized this process, while the D(2) agonist was ineffective. A positive effect consisting of accelerated extinction of the memory of fear of the dark ("dangerous") sector of the experimental chamber was also seen on blockade of both types of dopamine receptor.

  12. [Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on extinction of passive avoidance response in mice with depressive-like state].

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2008-01-01

    Selectivity of training and extinction of passive avoidance response caused by pharmacological influences on D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in intact mice and mice in depressive-like state was shown. Training was impaired only by administration of D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride and did not depend on the initial functional condition of mice. In intact mice, activation of D2 receptors by quinpirole evoked deficiency of extinction, i.e., impairment of the capability of new inhibitory training under conditions of disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with reaction of "behavioral despair" characterized by a delay of extinction, activation of D1 receptors by SKF38393 normalized this process (as distinct from the inefficiency of D2 agonist). The positive effect of acceleration of fear memory extinction was revealed also under conditions of blockade of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.

  13. Blockade of CCR7 leads to decreased dendritic cell migration to draining lymph nodes and promotes graft survival in low-risk corneal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hos, D; Dörrie, J; Schaft, N; Bock, F; Notara, M; Kruse, F E; Krautwald, S; Cursiefen, C; Bachmann, B O

    2016-05-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 is essential for migration of mature dendritic cells (DCs) to the regional lymph nodes, and it has been shown that blocking of CCR7 improves graft survival after high-risk corneal transplantation in vascularized recipient corneas. However, it is so far unknown whether blocking of CCR7 reduces migration of DCs from the avascular cornea to the draining lymph nodes and whether this leads to improved graft survival also in the low-risk setting of corneal transplantation, which accounts for the majority of perforating transplantations performed. Therefore, in this study, pellets containing Freund's adjuvant and bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated to Alexa488 fluorescent dye were implanted into the corneal stroma of BALB/c mice to analyze antigen uptake by corneal DCs and their migration to the regional lymph nodes. After pellet implantation, mice were either treated by local administration of a CCR7 blocking fusion protein that consisted of CCL19 fused to the Fc part of human IgG1 or a control-IgG. In vivo fluorescence microscopy showed uptake of Alexa488-conjugated BSA by corneal DCs within 8 h. Furthermore, analysis of single cell suspensions of draining lymph nodes prepared after 48 h revealed that 2.1 ± 0.3% of CD11c(+) cells were also Alexa488(+). Importantly, DC migration was significantly reduced after topical administration of CCL19-IgG (1.2 ± 0.2%; p < 0.05). To test the effect of CCR7 blockade on graft rejection after allogeneic low-risk keratoplasty, corneal transplantations were performed using C57BL/6-mice as donors and BALB/c-mice as recipients. Treatment mice received two intraperitoneal loading doses of CCL19-IgG prior to transplantation, followed by local treatment with CCL19-IgG containing eye drops for the first two weeks after transplantation. Control mice received same amounts of control-IgG. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that in the CCL19-IgG treated group, 76% of the grafts survived through the end

  14. Low-Dose Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockade Prevents Western Diet-Induced Arterial Stiffening in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Vincent G; Habibi, Javad; Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R; Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Bender, Shawn B; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Sun, Zhe; Meininger, Gerald A; Manrique, Camila; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R

    2015-07-01

    Women are especially predisposed to development of arterial stiffening secondary to obesity because of consumption of excessive calories. Enhanced activation of vascular mineralocorticoid receptors impairs insulin signaling, induces oxidative stress, inflammation, and maladaptive immune responses. We tested whether a subpressor dose of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone (1 mg/kg per day) prevents aortic and femoral artery stiffening in female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/high-sugar western diet (WD) for 4 months (ie, from 4-20 weeks of age). Aortic and femoral artery stiffness were assessed using ultrasound, pressurized vessel preparations, and atomic force microscopy. WD induced weight gain and insulin resistance compared with control diet-fed mice and these abnormalities were unaffected by spironolactone. Blood pressures and heart rates were normal and unaffected by diet or spironolactone. Spironolactone prevented WD-induced stiffening of aorta and femoral artery, as well as endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, within aortic explants. Spironolactone prevented WD-induced impaired aortic protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling, as well as impaired endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation. Spironolactone ameliorated WD-induced aortic medial thickening and fibrosis and the associated activation of the progrowth extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 pathway. Finally, preservation of normal arterial stiffness with spironolactone in WD-fed mice was associated with attenuated systemic and vascular inflammation and an anti-inflammatory shift in vascular immune cell marker genes. Low-dose spironolactone may represent a novel prevention strategy to attenuate vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and growth pathway signaling and remodeling to prevent development of arterial stiffening secondary to consumption of a WD. PMID:26015449

  15. Intra-accumbal CB1 receptor blockade reduced extinction and reinstatement of morphine.

    PubMed

    Khaleghzadeh-Ahangar, Hossein; Haghparast, Abbas

    2015-10-01

    The limbic dopaminergic reward system is the main target of morphine-like drugs which begins from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends its dopaminergic projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Cannabinoid receptors exist in afferent neurons from these areas to the NAc and can modulate glutamate synaptic transmission in the NAc. Cannabinoids can interact with the opiate system in reward-related behaviors; nevertheless these systems' interaction in extinction duration and reinstatement has not been shown. In the present study, the effects of bilateral intra-accumbal administration of AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist, on the duration of the extinction phase and reinstatement to morphine were investigated by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Forty eight adult male albino Wistar rats were used. Bilateral intra-accumbal administration of AM251 (15, 45 and 90μM/0.5μl DMSO per side) was performed. Subcutaneous administration of morphine (5mg/kg) in three consecutive days was used to induce CPP. The results showed that administration of the maximal dose of AM251 during the extinction period significantly reduces duration of extinction and reinstatement to morphine. Administration of the middle dose during the extinction period significantly attenuated reinstatement to morphine. A single microinjection of the middle dose just before the reinstatement phase significantly attenuated reinstatement to morphine only, while bilateral intra-accumbal administration of neither the lowest dose nor the vehicle (DMSO) had any effects. These results for the first time indicated that CB1 receptors within the NAc are involved in the maintenance of morphine rewarding properties, and morphine seeking behaviors in extinguished morphine-induced CPP rats.

  16. Low-Dose Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockade Prevents Western Diet-Induced Arterial Stiffening in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Vincent G; Habibi, Javad; Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R; Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Bender, Shawn B; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Sun, Zhe; Meininger, Gerald A; Manrique, Camila; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R

    2015-07-01

    Women are especially predisposed to development of arterial stiffening secondary to obesity because of consumption of excessive calories. Enhanced activation of vascular mineralocorticoid receptors impairs insulin signaling, induces oxidative stress, inflammation, and maladaptive immune responses. We tested whether a subpressor dose of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone (1 mg/kg per day) prevents aortic and femoral artery stiffening in female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/high-sugar western diet (WD) for 4 months (ie, from 4-20 weeks of age). Aortic and femoral artery stiffness were assessed using ultrasound, pressurized vessel preparations, and atomic force microscopy. WD induced weight gain and insulin resistance compared with control diet-fed mice and these abnormalities were unaffected by spironolactone. Blood pressures and heart rates were normal and unaffected by diet or spironolactone. Spironolactone prevented WD-induced stiffening of aorta and femoral artery, as well as endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, within aortic explants. Spironolactone prevented WD-induced impaired aortic protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling, as well as impaired endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation. Spironolactone ameliorated WD-induced aortic medial thickening and fibrosis and the associated activation of the progrowth extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 pathway. Finally, preservation of normal arterial stiffness with spironolactone in WD-fed mice was associated with attenuated systemic and vascular inflammation and an anti-inflammatory shift in vascular immune cell marker genes. Low-dose spironolactone may represent a novel prevention strategy to attenuate vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and growth pathway signaling and remodeling to prevent development of arterial stiffening secondary to consumption of a WD.

  17. Successful alpha-1 receptor blockade therapy in a toddler with infrequent and difficult voiding.

    PubMed

    Robson, William Lane M; Leung, Alexander K C

    2005-01-01

    A 3-year-old neurologically intact and behaviorally normal boy developed infrequent and difficult voiding subsequent to a soft tissue injury to the glans penis. Symptoms persisted for at least 9 months, and the course was complicated by diagnostic imaging evidence of a "markedly distended" bladder and a voiding diary that suggested elevated bladder volumes. Treatment with an alpha-1 receptor blocker normalized voiding within 24 hours. Discontinuation of the medication after 2 weeks resulted in recurrence of symptoms within 48 hours. Readministration of the medication resulted in prompt resolution of symptoms.

  18. Astrocytic adenosine A2A receptors control the amyloid-β peptide-induced decrease of glutamate uptake.

    PubMed

    Matos, Marco; Augusto, Elisabete; Machado, Nuno J; dos Santos-Rodrigues, Alexandre; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Agostinho, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive impairment tightly correlated with the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides (mainly Aβ(1-42)). There is a precocious disruption of glutamatergic synapses in AD, in line with an ability of Aβ to decrease astrocytic glutamate uptake. Accumulating evidence indicates that caffeine prevents the burden of AD, likely through the antagonism of A(2A) receptors (A(2A)R) which attenuates Aβ-induced memory impairment and synaptotoxicity. Since A(2A)R also modulate astrocytic glutamate uptake, we now tested if A(2A)R blockade could prevent the decrease of astrocytic glutamate uptake caused by Aβ. In cultured astrocytes, Aβ(1-42). (1 μM for 24 hours) triggered an astrogliosis typified by an increased density of GFAP, which was mimicked by the A(2A)R agonist, CGS 26180 (30 nM), and prevented by the A(2A)R antagonist, SCH 58261 (100 nM). Aβ1-42 also decreased D-aspartate uptake by 28 ± 4%, an effect abrogated upon genetic inactivation or pharmacological blockade of A(2A)R. In accordance with the long term control of glutamate transporter expression by A(2A)R, Aβ(1-42). enhanced the expression and density of astrocytic A(2A)R and decreased GLAST and GLT-I expression in astrocytes from wild type, but not from A(2A)R knockout mice. This impact of Aβ(1-42). on glutamate transporters and uptake, dependent on A(2A)R function, was also confirmed in an ex vivo astrocyte preparation (gliosomes) from rats intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected with Aβ(1-42). . These results provide the first demonstration for a direct key role of astrocytic A(2A)R in the ability of Aβ-induced impairment of glutamate uptake, which may underlie glutamatergic synaptic dysfunction and excitotoxicity in AD.

  19. Blockade of CRF1 receptors in the central nucleus of the amygdala attenuates the dysphoria associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.; Ford, Jenna; Rogers, Jessica A.; Scheick, Stacey; Ji, Yue; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Alexander, Jon C.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of smokers relapse during the acute withdrawal phase when withdrawal symptoms are most severe. The goal of the present studies was to investigate the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and noradrenergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in the dysphoria associated with smoking cessation. It was investigated if blockade of CRF1 receptors, blockade of α1-adrenergic receptors, or stimulation of α2-adrenergic receptors in the CeA diminishes the deficit in brain reward function associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. Nicotine dependence was induced by implanting minipumps that delivered a nicotine solution. Withdrawal was precipitated with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine. A discrete-trial intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the negative affective aspects of nicotine withdrawal. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a deficit in brain reward function. In all the experiments, mecamylamine elevated the brain reward thresholds of the rats chronically treated with nicotine and did not affect the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Intra-CeA administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist R278995/CRA0450 completely prevented the mecamylamine-induced elevations in brain reward thresholds in the nicotine-treated rats and did not affect the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. R278995/CRA0450 has also been shown to block sigma-1 receptors but there is no evidence that this could affect negative mood states. Intra-CeA administration of the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin or the α2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine did not affect the brain reward thresholds of the nicotine or saline-treated rats. These studies suggest that CRF1 receptor antagonists may diminish the dysphoria associated with smoking cessation by blocking CRF1 receptors in the CeA. PMID:22182462

  20. Selective blockade of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 attenuates bone cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Ghilardi, Joseph R; Röhrich, Heidi; Lindsay, Theodore H; Sevcik, Molly A; Schwei, Matthew J; Kubota, Kazufumi; Halvorson, Kyle G; Poblete, Jeannie; Chaplan, Sandra R; Dubin, Adrienne E; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Swanson, Devin; Kuskowski, Michael; Flores, Christopher M; Julius, David; Mantyh, Patrick W

    2005-03-23

    Cancer colonization of bone leads to the activation of osteoclasts, thereby producing local tissue acidosis and bone resorption. This process may contribute to the generation of both ongoing and movement-evoked pain, resulting from the activation of sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli (nociceptors). The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1) is a cation channel expressed by nociceptors that detects multiple pain-producing stimuli, including noxious heat and extracellular protons, raising the possibility that it is an important mediator of bone cancer pain via its capacity to detect osteoclast- and tumor-mediated tissue acidosis. Here, we show that TRPV1 is present on sensory neuron fibers that innervate the mouse femur and that, in an in vivo model of bone cancer pain, acute or chronic administration of a TRPV1 antagonist or disruption of the TRPV1 gene results in a significant attenuation of both ongoing and movement-evoked nocifensive behaviors. Administration of the antagonist had similar efficacy in reducing early, moderate, and severe pain-related responses, suggesting that TRPV1 may be a novel target for pharmacological treatment of chronic pain states associated with bone cancer metastasis.

  1. Olfactory conditioning impairment following posttraining NMDA receptor blockade in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Weldon, D A; Fedorcik, G G; LoRusso, C M; Tiburzi, M J; Lenoci, J M

    1997-01-01

    Six-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to peppermint odor paired with tactile stimulation (stroking the skin with a paint brush) for twenty 10-s conditioning trials, and their olfactory preference was tested the next day. In Experiment 1, pups that had received an injection of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) either 30 min before or immediately after conditioning spent less time over the conditioned odor than saline-treated controls. In Experiment 2, pups received an injection of either MK-801 or saline 0, 30, or 60 min after the training period. There was a reduction in the preference for the conditioned odor in the animals receiving MK-801 immediately following training, but treatment with the drug at the other intervals did not produce a performance impairment. The impairment following immediate posttraining injection occurred with either 0.05 or 0.1, but not with 0.01 mg/kg of MK-801 (Experiment 3). Experiment 4 provided control data to confirm that pups that had experienced the procedures used in Experiments 1-3 showed greater preference for the conditioned odor than did naive pups or those receiving exposure to the odor without stroking. The data indicate that immediate posttraining activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is required for normal olfactory learning in neonatal rats. PMID:9013499

  2. Inhibition of angiogenesis by selective estrogen receptor modulators through blockade of cholesterol trafficking rather than estrogen receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joong Sup; Li, Ruo-Jing; Lv, Junfang; Head, Sarah A; Yang, Eun Ju; Liu, Jun O

    2015-06-28

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) including tamoxifen are known to inhibit angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism, which is independent of their action on the estrogen receptor (ER), has remained largely unknown. In the present study, we found that tamoxifen and other SERM inhibited cholesterol trafficking in endothelial cells, causing a hyper-accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes/lysosomes. Inhibition of cholesterol trafficking by tamoxifen was accompanied by abnormal subcellular distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and inhibition of the terminal glycosylation of the receptor. Tamoxifen also caused perinuclear positioning of lysosomes, which in turn trapped the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the perinuclear region of endothelial cells. Abnormal distribution of VEGFR2 and mTOR and inhibition of VEGFR2 and mTOR activities by tamoxifen were significantly reversed by addition of cholesterol-cyclodextrin complex to the culture media of endothelial cells. Moreover, high concentrations of tamoxifen inhibited endothelial and breast cancer cell proliferation in a cholesterol-dependent, but ER-independent, manner. Together, these results unraveled a previously unrecognized mechanism of angiogenesis inhibition by tamoxifen and other SERM, implicating cholesterol trafficking as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

  3. Orexin-1 receptor blockade suppresses compulsive-like alcohol drinking in mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji-Hwan; Hopf, F Woodward

    2016-11-01

    Addiction is promoted by pathological motivation for addictive substances, and, despite extensive efforts, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high social, physical, and economic toll. Compulsive drinking of alcohol, where consumption persists even when alcohol is paired with negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle for treating AUDs. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake in rodents, e.g. where rodents drink even when alcohol is paired with the bitter tastant quinine, has been considered to model some compulsive aspects of human alcohol consumption. However, the critical mechanisms that drive compulsive-like drinking are only beginning to be identified. The neuropeptide orexin has been linked to high motivation for cocaine, preferred foods, and alcohol. Thus, we investigated the role of orexin receptors in compulsive-like alcohol drinking, where C57BL/6 mice had 2-hr daily access to 15% alcohol with or without quinine (100 μM). We found that systemic administration of the widely used selective orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) blocker, SB-334867 (SB), significantly reduced compulsive-like consumption at doses lower than those reported to reduce quinine-free alcohol intake. The dose of 3-mg/kg SB, in particular, suppressed only compulsive-like drinking. Furthermore, SB did not reduce concurrent water intake during the alcohol drinking sessions, and did not alter saccharin + quinine consumption. In addition, the OX2R antagonist TCS-OX2-29 (3 or 10 mg/kg) did not alter intake of alcohol with or without quinine. Together, our results suggest that OX1R signaling is particularly important for promoting compulsive-like alcohol drinking, and that OX1Rs might represent a novel therapy to counteract compulsive aspects of human AUDs.

  4. Orexin-1 receptor blockade suppresses compulsive-like alcohol drinking in mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji-Hwan; Hopf, F Woodward

    2016-11-01

    Addiction is promoted by pathological motivation for addictive substances, and, despite extensive efforts, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high social, physical, and economic toll. Compulsive drinking of alcohol, where consumption persists even when alcohol is paired with negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle for treating AUDs. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake in rodents, e.g. where rodents drink even when alcohol is paired with the bitter tastant quinine, has been considered to model some compulsive aspects of human alcohol consumption. However, the critical mechanisms that drive compulsive-like drinking are only beginning to be identified. The neuropeptide orexin has been linked to high motivation for cocaine, preferred foods, and alcohol. Thus, we investigated the role of orexin receptors in compulsive-like alcohol drinking, where C57BL/6 mice had 2-hr daily access to 15% alcohol with or without quinine (100 μM). We found that systemic administration of the widely used selective orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) blocker, SB-334867 (SB), significantly reduced compulsive-like consumption at doses lower than those reported to reduce quinine-free alcohol intake. The dose of 3-mg/kg SB, in particular, suppressed only compulsive-like drinking. Furthermore, SB did not reduce concurrent water intake during the alcohol drinking sessions, and did not alter saccharin + quinine consumption. In addition, the OX2R antagonist TCS-OX2-29 (3 or 10 mg/kg) did not alter intake of alcohol with or without quinine. Together, our results suggest that OX1R signaling is particularly important for promoting compulsive-like alcohol drinking, and that OX1Rs might represent a novel therapy to counteract compulsive aspects of human AUDs. PMID:27523303

  5. Endothelin receptor blockade inhibits the growth of human papillomavirus-associated cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Venuti, Aldo; Salani, Debora; Cirilli, Alessia; Simeone, Paola; Muller, Antonio; Flamini, Silvio; Padley, Robert; Bagnato, Anna

    2002-08-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with cervical cancer and interact with growth factors that may enhance malignant transformation of cervical carcinoma cells. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is released from HPV-transfected keratinocytes and induces increased growth response in these cell lines in comparison with normal cells. HPV-positive cancer cells secrete ET-1 and express mRNA for ET-1 and its receptors, whereas HPV-negative carcinoma cell lines express only the ET(B) receptor (ET(B)R) mRNA and do not secrete ET-1. In HPV-positive cancer cells, ET(A)R mediates the ET-1-induced mitogenic effect and sustains the basal growth rate of unstimulated cervical tumour cells. Therefore, ET-1 may be involved in the neoplastic growth of HPV-associated cervical carcinoma, where the increased ET-1 autocrine loop can be targeted for antitumour therapy. In the present work, the action of specific antagonists of ET(A)R (BQ-123 and ABT-627), was analysed in CaSki and C33A cells that are derived from human cervical carcinoma. CaSki cells are HPV-16-positive, produce ET-1 and possess ET(A)R and ET(B)R, whereas the C33A line is HPV-negative, does not secrete ET-1 and has no ET(A)R. In HPV-positive cancer cells ABT-627 strongly inhibited the proliferation induced by ET-1 and substantially reduced the basal growth rate of unstimulated cervical tumour cells, whereas the ET(B)R antagonist had no effect. These results demonstrate that ET-1 participates in the progression of neoplastic growth in HPV-associated carcinoma, in which ET(A)R expression is increased and could be targeted for antitumour therapy. In conclusion, an ET-1 autocrine loop is involved in tumour cell proliferation via ET(A)R, and ABT-627 is effective in controlling proliferation of cervical carcinoma cells.

  6. In vivo blockade of α1-adrenergic receptors mitigates stress-disturbed cAMP and cGMP signaling in Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, Natasa J; Baburski, Aleksandar Z; Bjelic, Maja M; Sokanovic, Srdjan J; Mihajlovic, Aleksandar I; Drljaca, Dragana M; Janjic, Marija M; Kostic, Tatjana S; Andric, Silvana A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of stress-associated reproductive dysfunction is complex and largely unknown. This study was designed to systematically analyze molecular effects of systemic in vivo blockade of α1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ADRs) on stress-induced disturbance of cAMP/cGMP signaling in testosterone-producing Leydig cells using the following parameters (i) level of circulating stress hormones, LH and testosterone; (ii) level of main molecular markers of Leydig cell functionality (testosterone, Insl3, cAMP); (iii) expression of cAMP signaling (cAMP 'producers'/'effectors'/'removers') and (iv) expression of NO-cGMP signaling (NO-cGMP 'producers'/'effectors'/'removers'). The results showed that oral administration of α1-ADR blocker before stress increased cGMP and diminished stress-reduced cAMP production in Leydig cells. In the same cells, stress-induced effects on cAMP/cGMP signaling pathways elements were changed. Sustained in vivo α1-ADR blockade completely abolished stress-increased transcription of most abundantly expressed phosphodiesterase that remove cAMP (Pde4b) and potentiated stress-increased expression of PRKA, the main stimulator of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. In the same Leydig cells, stress-decreased NOS3 expression was abolished, while stress-increased GUCY1 (cGMP 'producer') and PRKG1 (cGMP 'effector') were potentiated. It is possible that all molecules mentioned could contribute, at least in part, in recovery of Leydig cell testosterone production. Presented data provide new role of α1-ADRs in stress-triggered disturbance of cAMP/cGMP signaling, and new molecular insights into the relationship between stress and mammalian reproduction. Regardless of whether the effects of α1-blocker + stress are direct or indirect, the results are important in terms of human reproductive health and the wide use of α1-ADR antagonists, alone or in combination, to treat post-traumatic stress disorders, hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms and

  7. Blockade of mesolimbic dopamine D3 receptors inhibits stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jeremy; Campos, Arlene C.; Kline, Nicole; Ashby, Charles R.; Hagan, Jim J.; Heidbreder, Christian A.; Gardner, Eliot L.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor is preferentially expressed in the mesolimbic system. We have previously shown that selective D3 receptor blockade by the novel D3 antagonist SB-277011A inhibits cocaine’s reinforcing action and cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Objective In the present study, we investigated whether SB-277011A similarly inhibits stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods Rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.5 mg/kg per infusion, 3 h per session) for 10–14 days, followed by a once-daily extinction session for 7–14 days during which saline was substituted for cocaine. Extinction criteria were fewer than ten lever-presses per 3-h session for at least 3 consecutive days. After cocaine-seeking behavior was extinguished, each animal was tested twice for footshock-stress-induced reinstatement, once with vehicle (25% hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) and once with one of three doses of SB-277011A in counterbalanced fashion. Results During the last 3 days of cocaine self-administration (SA), active lever-presses were approximately 100 per session under fixed-ratio 2 reinforcement (~25 mg/kg cocaine per session). After extinction, intermittent footshock (10 min, 0.5 mA, 0.5 s on with a mean inter-shock interval of 40 s) robustly reinstated the cocaine-seeking behavior (8.4±3.6 active lever-presses in last extinction session to 35.3±5.2 in animals after footshock stress). Intraperitoneal (IP) injections of SB-277011A (3, 6, and 12 mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Reinstatement was also blocked by microinjections of SB-277011A (1.5 μg/0.5 μl per side) bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens, but not into the dorsal striatum. Conclusions The mesolimic DA D3 receptor plays an important role in mediating stress-induced reinstatement. PMID:15083257

  8. Original nootropic drug noopept prevents memory deficit in rats with muscarinic and nicotinic receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Radionova, K S; Belnik, A P; Ostrovskaya, R U

    2008-07-01

    Antiamnesic activity of Noopept was studied on the original three-way model of conditioned passive avoidance response, which allows studying spatial component of memory. Cholinoceptor antagonists of both types (scopolamine and mecamylamine) decreased entry latency and reduced the probability for selection of the safe compartment. Noopept abolished the antiamnesic effect of cholinoceptor antagonists and improved spatial preference. PMID:19145351

  9. Decreased prefrontal cortex dopamine activity following adolescent social defeat in male rats: role of dopamine D2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Michael J.; Roberts, Christina L.; Scholl, Jamie L.; Meyer, Danielle L.; Miiller, Leah C.; Barr, Jeffrey L.; Novick, Andrew M.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Adverse social experience in adolescence causes reduced medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine (DA) and associated behavioral deficits in early adulthood. Objective To determine whether mPFC DA hypofunction following social stress is specific to adolescent experience, and if this results from stress-induced DA D2 receptor activation. Materials and Methods Male rats exposed to repeated social defeat during adolescence or adulthood had mPFC DA activity sampled 17 days later. Separate experiments used freely-moving microdialysis to measure mPFC DA release in response to adolescent defeat exposure. At P40, 49 and 56 mPFC DA turnover was assessed to identify when DA activity decreased in relation to the adolescent defeat experience. Finally, non-defeated adolescent rats received repeated intra-mPFC infusions of the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole, while another adolescent group received intra-mPFC infusions of the D2 antagonist amisulpride before defeat exposure. Results Long-term decreases or increases in mPFC DA turnover were observed following adolescent or adult defeat, respectively. Adolescent defeat exposure elicits sustained increases in mPFC DA release, and DA turnover remains elevated beyond the stress experience before declining to levels below normal at P56. Activation of mPFC D2 receptors in non-defeated adolescents decreases DA activity in a similar manner to that caused by adolescent defeat, while defeat-induced reductions in mPFC DA activity are prevented by D2 receptor blockade. Conclusions Both the developing and mature PFC DA systems are vulnerable to social stress, but only adolescent defeat causes DA hypofunction. This appears to result in part from stress-induced activation of mPFC D2 autoreceptors. PMID:24271009

  10. Pharmacological blockade of either cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors prevents both cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion and cocaine-induced reduction of cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Vargas, Antonio; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Galeano, Pablo; Rubio, Leticia; Suárez, Juan; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Addiction to major drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, has recently been linked to alterations in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The endogenous cannabinoid system modulates this proliferative response as demonstrated by the finding that pharmacological activation/blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors not only modulates neurogenesis but also modulates cell death in the brain. In the present study, we evaluated whether the endogenous cannabinoid system affects cocaine-induced alterations in cell proliferation. To this end, we examined whether pharmacological blockade of either CB1 (Rimonabant, 3 mg/kg) or CB2 receptors (AM630, 3 mg/kg) would affect cell proliferation [the cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ). Additionally, we measured cell apoptosis (as monitored by the expression of cleaved caspase-3) and glial activation [by analyzing the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1] in the striatum and hippocampus during acute and repeated (4 days) cocaine administration (20 mg/kg). The results showed that acute cocaine exposure decreased the number of BrdU-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the SVZ and SGZ. In contrast, repeated cocaine exposure reduced the number of BrdU-ir cells only in the SVZ. Both acute and repeated cocaine exposure increased the number of cleaved caspase-3-, GFAP- and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus, and this effect was counteracted by AM630 or Rimonabant, which increased the number of BrdU-, GFAP-, and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that the changes in neurogenic, apoptotic and gliotic processes that were produced by repeated cocaine administration were normalized by pharmacological blockade of CB1 and CB2. The restorative effects of cannabinoid receptor blockade on hippocampal cell proliferation were associated with the prevention of the induction of conditioned locomotion

  11. Pharmacological blockade of either cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors prevents both cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion and cocaine-induced reduction of cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male rat

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Vargas, Antonio; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Galeano, Pablo; Rubio, Leticia; Suárez, Juan; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Addiction to major drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, has recently been linked to alterations in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The endogenous cannabinoid system modulates this proliferative response as demonstrated by the finding that pharmacological activation/blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors not only modulates neurogenesis but also modulates cell death in the brain. In the present study, we evaluated whether the endogenous cannabinoid system affects cocaine-induced alterations in cell proliferation. To this end, we examined whether pharmacological blockade of either CB1 (Rimonabant, 3 mg/kg) or CB2 receptors (AM630, 3 mg/kg) would affect cell proliferation [the cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ). Additionally, we measured cell apoptosis (as monitored by the expression of cleaved caspase-3) and glial activation [by analyzing the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1] in the striatum and hippocampus during acute and repeated (4 days) cocaine administration (20 mg/kg). The results showed that acute cocaine exposure decreased the number of BrdU-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the SVZ and SGZ. In contrast, repeated cocaine exposure reduced the number of BrdU-ir cells only in the SVZ. Both acute and repeated cocaine exposure increased the number of cleaved caspase-3-, GFAP- and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus, and this effect was counteracted by AM630 or Rimonabant, which increased the number of BrdU-, GFAP-, and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that the changes in neurogenic, apoptotic and gliotic processes that were produced by repeated cocaine administration were normalized by pharmacological blockade of CB1 and CB2. The restorative effects of cannabinoid receptor blockade on hippocampal cell proliferation were associated with the prevention of the induction of conditioned

  12. [Effect of chronic blockade of the opiodergic receptor on insulin resistance in a hyperandrogenic woman].

    PubMed

    Sir, T; López, G; Alba, F; Cipriano, A; Candía, M; Castillo, T; Devoto, L

    1994-04-01

    We report a woman with insulin resistance associated with hyperandrogenism and acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN syndrome) treated during 30 days with the prolonged action opioid antagonist Naltrexone. During its administration, decreases in basal blood glucose and serum insulin, insulin and glucose response to a glucose load and plasma testosterone were observed. These findings suggest that opioid activity could play a critical role in the physiopathology of hyperinsulinemia in hyperandrogenic women. PMID:7809540

  13. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists: blockade of adenosinergic effects and T regulatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Sitkovsky, M; Lukashev, D; Deaglio, S; Dwyer, K; Robson, S C; Ohta, A

    2008-01-01

    The intensity and duration of host responses are determined by protective mechanisms that control tissue injury by dampening down inflammation. Adenosine generation and consequent effects, mediated via A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) on effector cells, play a critical role in the pathophysiological modulation of these responses in vivo. Adenosine is both released by hypoxic cells/tissues and is also generated from extracellular nucleotides by ecto-enzymes e.g. CD39 (ENTPD1) and CD73 that are expressed by the vasculature and immune cells, in particular by T regulatory cell. In general, these adenosinergic mechanisms minimize the extent of collateral damage to host tissues during the course of inflammatory reactions. However, induction of suppressive pathways might also cause escape of pathogens and permit dissemination. In addition, adenosinergic responses may inhibit immune responses while enhancing vascular angiogenic responses to malignant cells that promote tumor growth. Novel drugs that block A2AR-adenosinergic effects and/or adenosine generation have the potential to boost pathogen destruction and to selectively destroy malignant tissues. In the latter instance, future treatment modalities might include novel ‘anti-adenosinergic' approaches that augment immune clearance of malignant cells and block permissive angiogenesis. This review addresses several possible pharmacological modalities to block adenosinergic pathways and speculates on their future application together with impacts on human disease. PMID:18311159

  14. Chronic CRF1 receptor blockade reduces heroin intake escalation and dependence-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Park, Paula E; Schlosburg, Joel E; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schulteis, Gery; Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F

    2015-03-01

    Opioids represent effective drugs for the relief of pain, yet chronic opioid use often leads to a state of increased sensitivity to pain that is exacerbated during withdrawal. A sensitization of pain-related negative affect has been hypothesized to closely interact with addiction mechanisms. Neuro-adaptive changes occur as a consequence of excessive opioid exposure, including a recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE) brain stress systems. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the transition to dependence, we determined the effects of functional antagonism within these two systems on hyperalgesia-like behavior during heroin withdrawal utilizing models of both acute and chronic dependence. We found that passive or self-administered heroin produced a significant mechanical hypersensitivity. During acute opioid dependence, systemic administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist MPZP (20 mg/kg) alleviated withdrawal-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. In contrast, several functional adrenergic system antagonists (clonidine, prazosin, propranolol) failed to alter mechanical hypersensitivity in this state. We then determined the effects of chronic MPZP or clonidine treatment on extended access heroin self-administration and found that MPZP, but not clonidine, attenuated escalation of heroin intake, whereas both drugs alleviated chronic dependence-associated hyperalgesia. These findings suggest that an early potentiation of CRF signaling occurs following opioid exposure that begins to drive both opioid-induced hyperalgesia and eventually intake escalation.

  15. Glucagon Receptor Blockade With a Human Antibody Normalizes Blood Glucose in Diabetic Mice and Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Haruka; Kim, Jinrang; Aglione, JohnPaul; Lee, Joseph; Cavino, Katie; Na, Erqian; Rafique, Ashique; Kim, Jee Hae; Harp, Joyce; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J; Gromada, Jesper

    2015-08-01

    Antagonizing glucagon action represents an attractive therapeutic option for reducing hepatic glucose production in settings of hyperglycemia where glucagon excess plays a key pathophysiological role. We therefore generated REGN1193, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits glucagon receptor (GCGR) signaling in vitro. REGN1193 administration to diabetic ob/ob and diet-induced obese mice lowered blood glucose to levels observed in GCGR-deficient mice. In diet-induced obese mice, REGN1193 reduced food intake, adipose tissue mass, and body weight. REGN1193 increased circulating levels of glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1 and was associated with reversible expansion of pancreatic α-cell area. Hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia was observed in fibroblast growth factor 21-deficient mice treated with REGN1193. Single administration of REGN1193 to diabetic cynomolgus monkeys normalized fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance and increased circulating levels of glucagon and amino acids. Finally, administration of REGN1193 for 8 weeks to normoglycemic cynomolgus monkeys did not cause hypoglycemia or increase pancreatic α-cell area. In summary, the GCGR-blocking antibody REGN1193 normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice and monkeys but does not produce hypoglycemia in normoglycemic monkeys. Thus, REGN1193 provides a potential therapeutic modality for diabetes mellitus and acute hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:26020795

  16. Central serotonin(2B) receptor blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical dopamine outflow.

    PubMed

    Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Di Marco, Barbara; Caraci, Filippo; Drago, Filippo; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-10-01

    The central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) is currently considered as an interesting pharmacological target for improved treatment of drug addiction. In the present study, we assessed the effect of two selective 5-HT2BR antagonists, RS 127445 and LY 266097, on cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and dopamine (DA) outflow in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsal striatum of freely moving rats. The peripheral administration of RS 127445 (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.) or LY 266097 (0.63 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced basal DA outflow in the NAc shell, but had no effect on cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced DA outflow in this brain region. Also, RS 127445 failed to modify both basal and cocaine-induced DA outflow in the NAc core and the dorsal striatum. Conversely, both 5-HT2BR antagonists reduced cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, RS 127445 as well as the DA-R antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced significantly the late-onset hyperlocomotion induced by the DA-R agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5-HT2BR blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical DA outflow. This interaction takes place downstream to DA neurons and could involve an action at the level of dorsostriatal and/or NAc DA transmission, in keeping with the importance of these brain regions in the behavioural responses of cocaine. Overall, this study affords additional knowledge into the regulatory control exerted by the 5-HT2BR on ascending DA pathways, and provides additional support to the proposed role of 5-HT2BRs as a new pharmacological target in drug addiction. PMID:26116760

  17. Central serotonin(2B) receptor blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical dopamine outflow.

    PubMed

    Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Di Marco, Barbara; Caraci, Filippo; Drago, Filippo; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-10-01

    The central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) is currently considered as an interesting pharmacological target for improved treatment of drug addiction. In the present study, we assessed the effect of two selective 5-HT2BR antagonists, RS 127445 and LY 266097, on cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and dopamine (DA) outflow in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsal striatum of freely moving rats. The peripheral administration of RS 127445 (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.) or LY 266097 (0.63 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced basal DA outflow in the NAc shell, but had no effect on cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced DA outflow in this brain region. Also, RS 127445 failed to modify both basal and cocaine-induced DA outflow in the NAc core and the dorsal striatum. Conversely, both 5-HT2BR antagonists reduced cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, RS 127445 as well as the DA-R antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced significantly the late-onset hyperlocomotion induced by the DA-R agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5-HT2BR blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical DA outflow. This interaction takes place downstream to DA neurons and could involve an action at the level of dorsostriatal and/or NAc DA transmission, in keeping with the importance of these brain regions in the behavioural responses of cocaine. Overall, this study affords additional knowledge into the regulatory control exerted by the 5-HT2BR on ascending DA pathways, and provides additional support to the proposed role of 5-HT2BRs as a new pharmacological target in drug addiction.

  18. Differential blockade of rat α3β4 and α7 neuronal nicotinic receptors by ω-conotoxin MVIIC, ω-conotoxin GVIA and diltiazem

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Carlos J; García-Palomero, Esther; Pintado, Antonio J; García, Antonio G; Montiel, Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Rat α3β4 or α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the effects of various toxins and non-toxin Ca2+ channel blockers studied. Nicotinic AChR currents were elicited by 1 s pulses of dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP, 100 μM) applied at regular intervals.The N/P/Q-type Ca2+ channel blocker ω-conotoxin MVIIC inhibited α3β4 currents with an IC50 of 1.3 μM; the blockade was non-competitive and reversible. The α7 currents were unaffected.At 1 μM, ω-conotoxin GVIA (N-type Ca2+ channel blocker) inhibited by 24 and 20% α3β4 and α7 currents, respectively. At 1 μM, ω-agatoxin IVA (a P/Q-type Ca2+ channel blocker) did not affect α7 currents and inhibited α3β4 currents by only 15%.L-type Ca2+ channel blockers furnidipine, verapamil and, particularly, diltiazem exhibited a preferential blocking activity on α3β4 nicotinic AChRs.The mechanism of α3β4 currents blockade by ω-conotoxins and diltiazem differed in the following aspects: (i) the onset and reversal of the blockade was faster for toxins; (ii) the blockade by the peptides was voltage-dependent, while that exerted by diltiazem was not; (iii) diltiazem promoted the inactivation of the current while ω-toxins did not.These data show that, at concentrations currently employed as Ca2+ channel blockers, some of these compounds also inhibit certain subtypes of nicotinic AChR currents. Our data calls for caution when interpreting many of the results obtained in neurons and other cell types, where nicotinic receptor and Ca2+ channels coexist. PMID:10455287

  19. NMDA receptor complex blockade by oral administration of magnesium: comparison with MK-801.

    PubMed

    Decollogne, S; Tomas, A; Lecerf, C; Adamowicz, E; Seman, M

    1997-09-01

    The ion channel of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex is subject to a voltage-dependent regulation by Mg2+ cations. Under physiological conditions, this channel is supposed to be blocked by a high concentration of magnesium in extracellular fluids. A single dose of magnesium organic salts (i.e., aspartate, pyroglutamate, and lactate) given orally to normal mice rapidly increases the plasma Mg2+ level and reveals a significant dose-dependent antagonist effect of magnesium on the latency of NMDA-induced convulsions; this effect is similar to that seen after administration of the dizocilpine (MK-801) channel blocker. An anticonvulsant effect of Mg2+ treatment is also observed with strychnine-induced convulsions but not with bicuculline-, picrotoxin-, or pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions. In the forced swimming test, Mg2+ salts reduce the immobility time in a way similar to imipramine and thus resemble the antidepressant-like activity of MK-801. This activity is masked at high doses of magnesium by a myorelaxant effect that is comparable to MK-801-induced ataxia. Potentiation of yohimbine fatal toxicity is another test commonly used to evaluate putative antidepressant drugs. Administration of Mg2+ salts, like administration of imipramine strongly potentiates yohimbine lethality in contrast to MK-801, which is only poorly active in this test. Neither Mg2+ nor MK-801 treatment can prevent reserpine-induced hypothermia. These data demonstrate that oral administration of magnesium to normal animals can antagonize NMDA-mediated responses and lead to antidepressant-like effects that are comparable to those of MK-801. This important regulatory role of Mg2+ in the central nervous system needs further investigation to evaluate the potential therapeutic advantages of magnesium supplementation in psychiatric disorders. PMID:9264101

  20. Effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on autonomic nervous system function in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Krum, Henry; Lambert, Elisabeth; Windebank, Emma; Campbell, Duncan J; Esler, Murray

    2006-04-01

    It has long been proposed that the renin-angiotensin system exerts a stimulatory influence on the sympathetic nervous system, including augmentation of central sympathetic outflow and presynaptic facilitation of norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves. We tested this proposition in 19 patients with essential hypertension, evaluating whether the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) eprosartan and losartan had identifiable antiadrenergic properties. This was done in a prospective, randomized, three-way placebo-controlled study of crossover design. Patients were randomized to 600 mg of eprosartan daily, 50 mg of losartan daily, or placebo. The treatment period was 4 wk, with 2-wk washout periods. Multiunit firing rates in efferent sympathetic nerves distributed to skeletal muscle vasculature (muscle sympathetic nerve activity, MSNA) were measured with microneurography, testing whether ARBs inhibit central sympathetic outflow. In parallel, isotope dilution methodology was used to measure whole body norepinephrine spillover to plasma. Mean blood pressure on placebo was 151/98 mmHg, with both ARBs causing reductions of approximately 11 mmHg systolic and 6 mmHg diastolic pressure, placebo corrected. Both MSNA [35 +/- 12 bursts/min (mean +/- SD) on placebo] and whole body norepinephrine spillover [366 +/- 247 ng/min] were unchanged by ARB administration, indicating that the ARBs did not materially inhibit central sympathetic outflow or act presynaptically to reduce norepinephrine release at existing rates of nerve firing. These findings contrast with the easily demonstrable reduction in sympathetic nervous activity produced by antihypertensive drugs of the imidazoline-binding class, which are known to act within the brain to inhibit sympathetic nervous outflow. We conclude that sympathetic nervous inhibition is not a major component of the blood pressure-lowering action of ARBs in essential hypertension.

  1. Blockade of muscarinic receptors impairs the retrieval of well-trained memory

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Shogo; Suematsu, Naofumi; Shimegi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is known to play an important role in memory functions, and its deficit has been proposed to cause the cognitive decline associated with advanced age and Alzheimer's disease (the cholinergic hypothesis). Although many studies have tested the cholinergic hypothesis for recently acquired memory, only a few have investigated the role of ACh in the retrieval process of well-trained cognitive memory, which describes the memory established from repetition and daily routine. To examine this point, we trained rats to perform a two-alternative forced-choice visual detection task. Each trial was started by having the rats pull upward a central-lever, which triggered the presentation of a visual stimulus to the right or left side of the display monitor, and then pulling upward a stimulus-relevant choice-lever located on both sides. Rats learned the task within 10 days, and the task training was continued for a month. Task performance was measured with or without systemic administration of a muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) antagonist, scopolamine (SCOP), prior to the test. After 30 min of SCOP administration, rats stopped manipulating any lever even though they explored the lever and surrounding environment, suggesting a loss of the task-related associative memory. Three hours later, rats were recovered to complete the trial, but the rats selected the levers irrespective of the visual stimulus, suggesting they remembered a series of lever-manipulations in association with a reward, but not association between the reward and visual stimulation. Furthermore, an m1-AChR, but not nicotinic AChR antagonist caused a similar deficit in the task execution. SCOP neither interfered with locomotor activity nor drinking behavior, while it influenced anxiety. These results suggest that the activation of mAChRs at basal ACh levels is essential for the recall of well-trained cognitive memory. PMID:24782760

  2. Beyond aggression: Androgen-receptor blockade modulates social interaction in wild meerkats.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Greene, Lydia K; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Fenkes, Miriam; Wisse, Jillian H; Drewe, Julian A; Manser, Marta B; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Drea, Christine M

    2016-02-01

    In male vertebrates, androgens are inextricably linked to reproduction, social dominance, and aggression, often at the cost of paternal investment or prosociality. Testosterone is invoked to explain rank-related reproductive differences, but its role within a status class, particularly among subordinates, is underappreciated. Recent evidence, especially for monogamous and cooperatively breeding species, suggests broader androgenic mediation of adult social interaction. We explored the actions of androgens in subordinate, male members of a cooperatively breeding species, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta). Although male meerkats show no rank-related testosterone differences, subordinate helpers rarely reproduce. We blocked androgen receptors, in the field, by treating subordinate males with the antiandrogen, flutamide. We monitored androgen concentrations (via baseline serum and time-sequential fecal sampling) and recorded behavior within their groups (via focal observation). Relative to controls, flutamide-treated animals initiated less and received more high-intensity aggression (biting, threatening, feeding competition), engaged in more prosocial behavior (social sniffing, grooming, huddling), and less frequently initiated play or assumed a 'dominant' role during play, revealing significant androgenic effects across a broad range of social behavior. By contrast, guarding or vigilance and measures of olfactory and vocal communication in subordinate males appeared unaffected by flutamide treatment. Thus, androgens in male meerkat helpers are aligned with the traditional trade-off between promoting reproductive and aggressive behavior at a cost to affiliation. Our findings, based on rare endocrine manipulation in wild mammals, show a more pervasive role for androgens in adult social behavior than is often recognized, with possible relevance for understanding tradeoffs in cooperative systems.

  3. Beyond aggression: Androgen-receptor blockade modulates social interaction in wild meerkats.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Greene, Lydia K; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Fenkes, Miriam; Wisse, Jillian H; Drewe, Julian A; Manser, Marta B; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Drea, Christine M

    2016-02-01

    In male vertebrates, androgens are inextricably linked to reproduction, social dominance, and aggression, often at the cost of paternal investment or prosociality. Testosterone is invoked to explain rank-related reproductive differences, but its role within a status class, particularly among subordinates, is underappreciated. Recent evidence, especially for monogamous and cooperatively breeding species, suggests broader androgenic mediation of adult social interaction. We explored the actions of androgens in subordinate, male members of a cooperatively breeding species, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta). Although male meerkats show no rank-related testosterone differences, subordinate helpers rarely reproduce. We blocked androgen receptors, in the field, by treating subordinate males with the antiandrogen, flutamide. We monitored androgen concentrations (via baseline serum and time-sequential fecal sampling) and recorded behavior within their groups (via focal observation). Relative to controls, flutamide-treated animals initiated less and received more high-intensity aggression (biting, threatening, feeding competition), engaged in more prosocial behavior (social sniffing, grooming, huddling), and less frequently initiated play or assumed a 'dominant' role during play, revealing significant androgenic effects across a broad range of social behavior. By contrast, guarding or vigilance and measures of olfactory and vocal communication in subordinate males appeared unaffected by flutamide treatment. Thus, androgens in male meerkat helpers are aligned with the traditional trade-off between promoting reproductive and aggressive behavior at a cost to affiliation. Our findings, based on rare endocrine manipulation in wild mammals, show a more pervasive role for androgens in adult social behavior than is often recognized, with possible relevance for understanding tradeoffs in cooperative systems. PMID:26545817

  4. Androgen receptor splice variants circumvent AR blockade by microtubule-targeting agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanyi; Liu, Xichun; Li, Jianzhuo; Ledet, Elisa; Alvarez, Xavier; Qi, Yanfeng; Fu, Xueqi; Sartor, Oliver; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Haitao

    2015-09-15

    Docetaxel-based chemotherapy is established as a first-line treatment and standard of care for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, half of the patients do not respond to treatment and those do respond eventually become refractory. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms to taxane chemotherapy is both urgent and clinical significant, as taxanes (docetaxel and cabazitaxel) are being used in various clinical settings. Sustained signaling through the androgen receptor (AR) has been established as a hallmark of CRPC. Recently, splicing variants of AR (AR-Vs) that lack the ligand-binding domain (LBD) have been identified. These variants are constitutively active and drive prostate cancer growth in a castration-resistant manner. In taxane-resistant cell lines, we found the expression of a major variant, AR-V7, was upregulated. Furthermore, ectopic expression of two clinically relevant AR-Vs (AR-V7 and ARV567es), but not the full-length AR (AR-FL), reduced the sensitivities to taxanes in LNCaP cells. Treatment with taxanes inhibited the transcriptional activity of AR-FL, but not those of AR-Vs. This could be explained, at least in part, due to the inability of taxanes to block the nuclear translocation of AR-Vs. Through a series of deletion constructs, the microtubule-binding activity was mapped to the LBD of AR. Finally, taxane-induced cytoplasm sequestration of AR-FL was alleviated when AR-Vs were present. These findings provide evidence that constitutively active AR-Vs maintain the AR signaling axis by evading the inhibitory effects of microtubule-targeting agents, suggesting that these AR-Vs play a role in resistance to taxane chemotherapy.

  5. NMDA Receptor Blockade by Ketamine Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Adam K; Budac, David P; Bisulco, Stephanie; Lee, Anna W; Smith, Robin A; Beenders, Brent; Kelley, Keith W; Dantzer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces depressive-like behavior by activating indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO; O'Connor et al, 2009c). IDO degrades tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway. Using mass-spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of kynurenine metabolites in the brain of mice injected at the periphery with 1 mg/kg LPS, we show that LPS activates the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase pathway that ultimately degrades kynurenine into quinolinic acid. As quinolinic acid acts as an N-methyl-𝒟-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist, we used the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine to assess the role of NMDA receptor activation in LPS-induced depressive-like behavior. Here, we report that a low dose of ketamine (6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) immediately before administration of LPS (0.83 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) in C57Bl/6 J mice abrogated the development of LPS-induced depressive-like behavior, without altering LPS-induced sickness measured by body weight loss, decreased motor activity, and reduced food intake. Depressive-like behavior was measured 24 h after LPS by decreased sucrose preference and increased immobility in the forced swim test (FST). Ketamine had no effect on LPS-induced cytokine expression in the liver and brain, IDO activation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcripts. The ability of ketamine to abrogate LPS-induced depressive-like behavior independently of a possible interference with LPS-induced inflammatory signaling was confirmed when ketamine was administered 10 h after LPS instead of immediately before LPS. In contrast, ketamine had no effect when administered 24 h before LPS. To confirm that NMDA receptor antagonism by ketamine mediates the antidepressant-like activity of this compound in LPS-treated mice, mice were pretreated with the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX) to block

  6. Dietary peptides from the non-digestible fraction of Phaseolus vulgaris L. decrease angiotensin II-dependent proliferation in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells through the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vital, Diego A; Liang, Katie; González de Mejía, Elvira; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to determine the ability of peptides present in the non-digestible fraction (NDF) of common beans to decrease angiotensin II (AngII) through the blockade of RAS and its effect on the proliferation of HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells. Pure synthesized peptides GLTSK and GEGSGA and the peptide fractions (PF) of cultivars Azufrado Higuera and Bayo Madero were used. The cells were pretreated with pure peptides, PF or AGT at their IC50 or IC25 values, in comparison with the simultaneous treatment of peptides and AGT. For western blot and microscopy analysis, 100 μM and 0.5 mg mL(-1) were used for pure peptides and PF treatments, respectively. According to the ELISA tests, GLTSK and GEGSGA decreased (p < 0.05) the conversion rate of AGT to angiotensin I (AngI) by 38 and 28%, respectively. All the peptides tested reduced (p < 0.05) the conversion rate of AngI to AngII from 38 to 50%. When the cells were pretreated with both pure peptides and PF before exposure to AGT, the effectiveness inhibiting cell proliferation was higher than the simultaneous treatment suggesting their preventive effects. GLTSK and GEGSGA interacted with the catalytic site of renin, the angiotensin-I converting enzyme, and the AngII receptor, mainly through hydrogen bonds, polar, hydrophobic and cation-π interactions according to molecular docking. Through confocal microscopy, it was determined that GLTSK and GEGSGA caused the decrease (p < 0.05) of AngII-dependent STAT3 nuclear activation in HCT116 cells by 66 and 23%, respectively. The results suggest that peptides present in the common bean NDF could potentially ameliorate the effects of RAS overexpression in colorectal cancer. PMID:27156533

  7. [Hemodynamic long-term effects of a beta-receptor blockader (Pindolol) in primary essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Klein, W W; Brandt, D; Fluch, N; Goebel, R; Holzer, H; Pöch, G

    1976-01-01

    1. Pindolol lowers blood pressure both, immediately after administration by a reduction of cardiac output and heart rate and after long-term administration by reducing peripheral resistance. Cardiac index, initially decreased, reached the control value after 8 weeks of treatment. 2. The persistent reduction in heart rate and increase of the cardiac index during exercise after prolonged treatment together with the increase of right and left heart filling pressures seems to be due to augmentation of the Starling mechanism. The increase of the stroke volume at rest and during exercise diminished the blood-pressure lowering effect of the drug. 4. The exercise-induced increase of noradrenalin was abolished by acute administration of pindolol. After long-term treatment, however, we found a consistent and significant elevation of the plasma-catecholamines. This may reflect the development of heart failure [1], a tyramin- or cocain-like action of pindolol [2] or an indirect sympathicomimetic effect of this drug at low doses (10--15 mg/day orally ) [3]. 5. The elevation of plasma-noradrenalin reflects increased sympathetic tone and may be responsible for the increase in stroke volume and plasma renin activity observed by several authors. 6. Since there was no evidence for a hemodynamic mode of action, the lowering of blood rpessure by pindolol may be a central effect.

  8. Cocaine decreases expression of neurogranin via alterations in thyroid receptor/retinoid X receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kovalevich, Jane; Corley, Gladys; Yen, William; Kim, Jae; Rawls, Scott M.; Langford, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests a potential link between cocaine abuse, disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis signaling, and neuroplasticity, but molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Neurogranin (Ng) is a gene containing a thyroid hormone-responsive element within its first intron that is involved in synaptic plasticity. Transcriptional activation requires heterodimerization of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) bound by their respective ligands, tri-iodothryonine and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA), and subsequent binding of this complex to the thyroid hormone-responsive element of the Ng gene. In this study, the effects of chronic cocaine abuse on Ng expression in euthyroid and hypothyroid mice were assessed. In cocaine-treated mice, decreased Ng expression was observed in the absence of changes in levels of thyroid hormones or other hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid signaling factors. Therefore, we hypothesized that cocaine decreases Ng expression via alterations in 9-cis-RA availability and TR/RXR signaling. In support of this hypothesis, RXR-γ was significantly decreased in brains of cocaine-treated mice while CYP26A1, the main enzyme responsible for neuronal RA degradation, was significantly increased. Results from this study provide the first evidence for a direct effect of cocaine abuse on TR/RXR signaling, RA metabolism, and transcriptional regulation of Ng, a gene essential for adult neuroplasticity. PMID:22300446

  9. Blockade of nociceptin/orphanin FQ-NOP receptor signalling produces antidepressant-like effects: pharmacological and genetic evidences from the mouse forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Gavioli, E C; Marzola, G; Guerrini, R; Bertorelli, R; Zucchini, S; De Lima, T C M; Rae, G A; Salvadori, S; Regoli, D; Calo, G

    2003-05-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand of the NOP receptor, regulates several central functions such as pain transmission, learning and memory, fear and anxiety and feeding and locomotor activity. It has been recently reported that NOP receptor antagonists induce antidepressant-like effects in the mouse forced swimming test (FST), i.e. reduce immobility time. This assay was used in the present study for further investigating the involvement of the NOP receptor in depression states. In male Swiss mice, intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v) of the novel NOP receptor antagonist, UFP-101 (1-10 nmol) dose-dependently reduced the immobility time (control 192 +/- 14 s, UFP-101 91 +/- 15 s). The effect of 3 or 10 nmol UFP-101 was fully or partially reversed, respectively, by the coadministration of 1 nmol N/OFQ, which was inactive per se. NOP receptor knockout mice showed a reduced immobility time compared with their wild-type littermates (wild-type 215 +/- 10 s, knockout 143 +/- 12 s). Moreover, i.c.v. injected UFP-101 (10 nmol) significantly reduced immobility time in wild-type mice but not in NOP receptor knockout animals. In conclusion, these results, obtained using a combined pharmacological and genetic approach, indicate that blockade of the N/OFQ-NOP receptor signalling in the brain produces antidepressant-like effects in the mouse FST. These findings support the NOP receptor as a candidate target for the development of innovative antidepressant drugs.

  10. Cholinergic receptor blockade by scopolamine and mecamylamine exacerbates global cerebral ischemia induced memory dysfunction in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Ray, R S; Rai, S; Katyal, A

    2014-12-01

    Global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCI/R) injury encompasses complex pathophysiological sequalae, inducing loss of hippocampal neurons and behavioural deficits. Progressive neuronal death and memory dysfunctions culminate from several different mechanisms like oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation and cholinergic hypofunction. Experimental evidences point to the beneficial effects of cholinomimetic agents such as rivastigmine and galantamine in improving memory outcomes following GCI/R injury. However, the direct implications of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor blockade during global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury have not been investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the relative involvement of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in spatial/associative memory functions and neuronal damage during global cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. The outcomes of present study support the idea that preservation of both muscarinic and nicotinic receptor functions is essential to alleviate hippocampal neuronal death in CA1 region following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25168578

  11. Blockade of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 attenuates early-life stress-induced synaptic abnormalities in the neonatal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xue-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Dun; Jia, Jiao; Li, Ji-Tao; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Su, Yun-Ai; Schmidt, Mathias V; Si, Tian-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Adult individuals with early stressful experience exhibit impaired hippocampal neuronal morphology, synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. While our knowledge on the persistent effects of early-life stress on hippocampal structure and function and the underlying mechanisms has advanced over the recent years, the molecular basis of the immediate postnatal stress effects on hippocampal development remains to be investigated. Here, we reported that repeated blockade of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) ameliorated postnatal stress-induced hippocampal synaptic abnormalities in neonatal mice. Following the stress exposure, pups with fragmented maternal care showed retarded dendritic outgrowth and spine formation in CA3 pyramidal neurons and reduced hippocampal levels of synapse-related proteins. During the stress exposure, repeated blockade of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) by daily administration of RU486 (100 µg g(-1) ) failed to attenuate postnatal stress-evoked synaptic impairments. Conversely, daily administration of the CRHR1 antagonist antalarmin hydrochloride (20 µg g(-1) ) in stressed pups normalized hippocampal protein levels of synaptophysin, postsynaptic density-95, nectin-1, and nectin-3, but not the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A. Additionally, GR or CRHR1 antagonism attenuated postnatal stress-induced endocrine alterations but not body growth retardation. Our data indicate that the CRH-CRHR1 system modulates the deleterious effects of early-life stress on dendritic development, spinogenesis, and synapse formation, and that early interventions of this system may prevent stress-induced hippocampal maldevelopment.

  12. Chronic NMDA receptor blockade in early postnatal period, but not in adulthood, impairs methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Furuie, Hiroki; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2016-03-15

    Early postnatal glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in animals is known to produce various behavioral deficits in adulthood. In the present study rats postnatally (day 7-20) treated chronically with MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, were tested later in adulthood in methamphetamine (MAP)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) using a unbiased procedure in a three-compartment apparatus. Rats with the same chronic treatment in adulthood were also tested. CPP test consisted of a baseline test before conditioning, place conditioning, and a preference test after conditioning. Rats postnatally treated with MK-801 did not show any evidence of preference for MAP-paired compartment compared with that for unpaired one in the preference test that was shown in rats postnatally treated with saline. On the other hand, rats treated with MK-801 in adulthood were not affected by the treatment and showed significant CPP as was shown in saline-treated control animals. Results suggest the possibility that chronic early postnatal, but not adulthood, NMDA receptor blockade induces persistent deficit of subsequent appetitive classical conditioning. PMID:26748255

  13. Chronic NMDA receptor blockade in early postnatal period, but not in adulthood, impairs methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Furuie, Hiroki; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2016-03-15

    Early postnatal glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in animals is known to produce various behavioral deficits in adulthood. In the present study rats postnatally (day 7-20) treated chronically with MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, were tested later in adulthood in methamphetamine (MAP)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) using a unbiased procedure in a three-compartment apparatus. Rats with the same chronic treatment in adulthood were also tested. CPP test consisted of a baseline test before conditioning, place conditioning, and a preference test after conditioning. Rats postnatally treated with MK-801 did not show any evidence of preference for MAP-paired compartment compared with that for unpaired one in the preference test that was shown in rats postnatally treated with saline. On the other hand, rats treated with MK-801 in adulthood were not affected by the treatment and showed significant CPP as was shown in saline-treated control animals. Results suggest the possibility that chronic early postnatal, but not adulthood, NMDA receptor blockade induces persistent deficit of subsequent appetitive classical conditioning.

  14. Dual human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 blockade for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of trastuzumab into clinical practice changed the natural course of HER2-positive breast cancer. Currently, treatment with trastuzumab represents the standard of care for HER2-positive breast cancer and this treatment has been approved in the adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and metastatic settings. Besides trastuzumab, two other anti-HER2 agents—lapatinib and pertuzumab—have been approved for the treatment of HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. Strong biologic data support the concept of dual HER2 blockade, with different anti-HER2 agents demonstrating complementary mechanisms of action. Several neoadjuvant and metastatic studies performed in HER2-positive breast cancer using dual HER2 blockade have been proven to outperform anti-HER2 monotherapies. These dual combinations of agents represent a promising therapeutic strategy that is now reaching clinical practice. In this review we describe the results of studies utilizing dual blockade in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:23377763

  15. Effects of β-endorphin on functional activity of mouse splenocytes under conditions of in vivo blockade of μ,δ-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Gein, S V; Baeva, T A; Nebogatikov, V O

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of δ-receptors with naltrindole under conditions of systemic immunization abolished the stimulatory effect of β-endorphin (0.0005 μg/kg) on the counts of antibody-producing cells and the titer of antierythrocyte antibodies. Injection of β-endorphin to mice led to stimulation of concanavalin A-induced proliferative activity of splenocytes and IL-4 secretion by the naloxone-dependent mechanism. The peptide did not modify the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ. PMID:25573369

  16. Upregulation of retinoic acid receptor-beta by the epidermal growth factor-receptor inhibitor PD153035 is not mediated by blockade of ErbB pathways.

    PubMed

    Grunt, Thomas W; Tomek, Katharina; Wagner, Renate; Puckmair, Klaudia; Kainz, Birgit; Rünzler, Dominik; Gaiger, Alexander; Köhler, Gottfried; Zielinski, Christoph C

    2007-06-01

    Inhibiting epidermal growth factor-receptor (ErbB-1) represents a powerful anticancer strategy. Activation of retinoid pathways is also in development for cancer treatment. Retinoic acid receptor-beta-the tumor suppressor and main retinoid mediator--is silenced in many tumors. The ErbB-1 inhibitor PD153035 cooperates with retinoic acid during growth inhibition and induces retinoic acid receptor-beta suggesting that ErbB-1 controls retinoic acid receptor-beta. However, here we demonstrate that ErbB pathways are not involved in PD153035-mediated retinoic acid receptor-beta-upregulation. PD153035 inhibits ErbB-1-phosphorylation, whereas its derivative EBE-A22 is inactive. Yet both inhibit cell growth and upregulate retinoic acid receptor-beta in ErbB-1-overexpressing (MDA-MB-468), moderately expressing (OVCAR-3), ErbB-1-negative (MDA-MB-453) or ErbB-negative cells (CEM, Jurkat). Both bind DNA, whereas the closely related ErbB-1 inhibitors AG1478 and ZD1839, which are inactive on retinoic acid receptor-beta, do not significantly bind DNA. None of the other ErbB-1/ErbB-2 inhibitors tested (RG-14620, LFM-A12, AG879, AG825) affect retinoic acid receptor-beta. PD153035 decreases methylation of the retinoic acid receptor-beta2 promoter. In OVCAR-3, it stimulates dislodgement of histone deacetylase 1 from the promoter and acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Consequently, PD153035 facilitates recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the promoter and stimulates transcriptional activity. Moreover, PD153035 increases the retinoic acid receptor-beta mRNA half-life. No other retinoid receptor, nor estrogen receptor-alpha, nor RASSF1A is upregulated by PD153035. Thus PD153035 induces retinoic acid receptor-beta by ErbB-independent transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. This report highlights a triple action for an ErbB-1 inhibitor (ErbB-1 inhibition, DNA intercalation, retinoic acid receptor-beta-induction). Such multitargeting drugs bear great potential for cancer

  17. BLOCKADE OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR (NGF) RECEPTOR TRKA ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory


    Recent studies have shown that asthmatics have increased levels of the neurotrophin, NGF, in their lungs. In addition, antibody blockade of NGF in mice attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses. DEP has been linked to asthma exacerbation in many c...

  18. Embryonic GABA(B) receptor blockade alters cell migration, adult hypothalamic structure, and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors sex specifically in mice.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Matthew S; Staros, Michelle; Budefeld, Tomaz; Searcy, Brian T; Nash, Connor; Eitel, Chad; Carbone, David; Handa, Robert J; Majdic, Gregor; Tobet, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system. Females lacking functional GABA(B) receptors because of a genetic disruption of the R1 subunit have altered cellular characteristics in and around the PVN at birth. The genetic disruption precluded appropriate assessments of physiology or behavior in adulthood. The current study was conducted to test the long term impact of a temporally restricting pharmacological blockade of the GABA(B) receptor to a 7-day critical period (E11-E17) during embryonic development. Experiments tested the role of GABA(B) receptor signaling in fetal development of the PVN and later adult capacities for adult stress related behaviors and physiology. In organotypic slices containing fetal PVN, there was a female specific, 52% increase in cell movement speeds with GABA(B) receptor antagonist treatment that was consistent with a sex-dependent lateral displacement of cells in vivo following 7 days of fetal exposure to GABA(B) receptor antagonist. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, open-field activity, and HPA mediated responses to restraint stress were measured in adult offspring of mothers treated with GABA(B) receptor antagonist. Embryonic exposure to GABA(B) receptor antagonist resulted in reduced HPA axis activation following restraint stress and reduced depression-like behaviors. There was also increased anxiety-like behavior selectively in females and hyperactivity in males. A sex dependent response to disruptions of GABA(B) receptor signaling was identified for PVN formation and key aspects of physiology and behavior. These changes correspond to sex specific prevalence in similar human disorders, namely anxiety disorders and hyperactivity.

  19. Embryonic GABAB Receptor Blockade Alters Cell Migration, Adult Hypothalamic Structure, and Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors Sex Specifically in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Matthew S.; Staros, Michelle; Budefeld, Tomaz; Searcy, Brian T.; Nash, Connor; Eitel, Chad; Carbone, David; Handa, Robert J.; Majdic, Gregor; Tobet, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system. Females lacking functional GABAB receptors because of a genetic disruption of the R1 subunit have altered cellular characteristics in and around the PVN at birth. The genetic disruption precluded appropriate assessments of physiology or behavior in adulthood. The current study was conducted to test the long term impact of a temporally restricting pharmacological blockade of the GABAB receptor to a 7-day critical period (E11–E17) during embryonic development. Experiments tested the role of GABAB receptor signaling in fetal development of the PVN and later adult capacities for adult stress related behaviors and physiology. In organotypic slices containing fetal PVN, there was a female specific, 52% increase in cell movement speeds with GABAB receptor antagonist treatment that was consistent with a sex-dependent lateral displacement of cells in vivo following 7 days of fetal exposure to GABAB receptor antagonist. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, open-field activity, and HPA mediated responses to restraint stress were measured in adult offspring of mothers treated with GABAB receptor antagonist. Embryonic exposure to GABAB receptor antagonist resulted in reduced HPA axis activation following restraint stress and reduced depression-like behaviors. There was also increased anxiety-like behavior selectively in females and hyperactivity in males. A sex dependent response to disruptions of GABAB receptor signaling was identified for PVN formation and key aspects of physiology and behavior. These changes correspond to sex specific prevalence in similar human disorders, namely anxiety disorders and hyperactivity. PMID:25162235

  20. Dopaminergic effects of histamine administration in the nucleus accumbens and the impact of H1-receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Galosi, R; Lenard, L; Knoche, A; Haas, H; Huston, J P; Schwarting, R K

    2001-03-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system is thought to play a critical role in reward-related processes. A number of studies have shown that lesion or inhibition of histaminergic neurons acting through H1 receptors can potentiate the effects of drug-induced reward (e.g., psychostimulants and opioids) and can enhance the reinforcing effects of electrical stimulation of the brain. Since dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens is thought to provide a crucial link in these histaminergic actions, we examined the effects of local histamine application (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 micromol/l) on dopamine and its metabolites in the nucleus accumbens of anesthetized rats by means of unilateral reverse dialysis. To study the influence of H1 receptors, we also applied the H1-receptor antagonist pyrilamine (10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 20 min before histamine administration (1 mmol/l). Finally, pyrilamine (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 micromol/l) was locally administered into the nucleus accumbens. The data show that histamine can enhance extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens in a dose-dependent way. This increase was partially antagonized by prior peripheral administration of 10 mg/kg, and was completely blocked by 20 mg/kg, of pyrilamine. Finally, intra-accumbens administration of pyrilamine locally decreased dopamine and increased dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels. These data are discussed with respect to the possible interactions between dopaminergic and histaminergic mechanisms in the mesolimbic system and their relation to mechanisms of reinforcement. PMID:11249972

  1. Blockade of NMDA receptors unmasks a long-term depression in synaptic efficacy in rat prefrontal neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, J C; Crepel, F

    1991-01-01

    All the experiments were carried out in slices of rat prefrontal cortex maintained in vitro. The effect of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) was tested on the postsynaptic potential (PSP) recorded in layer V pyramidal cells, in response to single or high frequency stimulation of the superficial layers I-II. Wash-out of Mg2+ increased the amplitude and duration of the PSPs. This effect resulted from activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors since it was suppressed by bath application of APV. Furthermore, in every cell tested in Mg2+ containing medium (N = 16), exposure to APV reversibly reduced both mono- and polysynaptic components of the PSPs, indicating that, even in the control solution, activation of NMDA-coupled channels contributed to these synaptic events. Finally, the anomalous voltage-dependence of the EPSP in the presence of Mg2+ and its sensitivity to APV suggests that at least a fraction of the NMDA receptors are postsynaptically located. Tetanization was applied to the afferents of cells bathed in control- or APV-medium. Long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) is defined as an increase or a decrease respectively, of the PSPs peak amplitude or initial slope, lasting 20 min. In the control medium, LTP in synaptic efficacy was observed in 34% of the cells and LTD in 48% (N = 23). When exposed to APV, none of the cells tested (N = 16) showed LTP of the response. In contrast, the tetanus induced a LTD of the PSP amplitude or slope in 14 out of these 16 cells. The percentage of cells showing LTD in synaptic efficacy (87%) when the NMDA receptors activation was blocked was significantly higher than that in control-medium.

  2. GABA(A) receptor blockade in dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus evokes panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour followed by innate fear-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Castiblanco-Urbina, Maria Angélica; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibraim; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2009-12-11

    Dysfunction in the hypothalamic GABAergic system has been implicated in panic syndrome in humans. Furthermore, several studies have implicated the hypothalamus in the elaboration of pain modulation. Panic-prone states are able to be experimentally induced in laboratory animals to study this phenomenon. The aim of the present work was to investigate the involvement of medial hypothalamic nuclei in the organization of panic-like behaviour and the innate fear-induced oscillations of nociceptive thresholds. The blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the neuronal substrates of the ventromedial or dorsomedial hypothalamus was followed by elaborated defensive panic-like reactions. Moreover, innate fear-induced antinociception was consistently elicited after the escape behaviour. The escape responses organized by the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei were characteristically more elaborated, and a remarkable exploratory behaviour was recorded during GABA(A) receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus. The motor characteristic of the elaborated defensive escape behaviour and the patterns of defensive alertness and defensive immobility induced by microinjection of the bicuculline either into the dorsomedial or into the ventromedial hypothalamus were very similar. This was followed by the same pattern of innate fear-induced antinociceptive response that lasted approximately 40 min after the elaborated defensive escape reaction in both cases. These findings suggest that dysfunction of the GABA-mediated neuronal system in the medial hypothalamus causes panic-like responses in laboratory animals, and that the elaborated escape behaviour organized in both dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are followed by significant innate-fear-induced antinociception. Our findings indicate that the GABA(A) receptor of dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are critically involved in the modulation of panic-like behaviour.

  3. PCP-induced alterations in cerebral glucose utilization in rat brain: blockade by metaphit, a PCP-receptor-acylating agent

    SciTech Connect

    Tamminga, C.A.; Tanimoto, K.; Kuo, S.; Chase, T.N.; Contreras, P.C.; Rice, K.C.; Jackson, A.E.; O'Donohue, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of phencyclidine (PCP) on regional cerebral glucose utilization was determined by using quantitative autoradiography with (/sup 14/C)-2-deoxyglucose. PCP increased brain metabolism in selected areas of cortex, particularly limbic, and in the basal ganglia and thalamus, whereas the drug decreased metabolism in areas related to audition. These results are consistent with the known physiology of central PCP neurons and may help to suggest brain areas involved in PCP-mediated actions. Moreover, based on the behavioral similarities between PCP psychosis and an acute schizophrenic episode, these data may be relevant to the understanding of schizophrenia. The PCP-receptor-acylating agent, metaphit, blocked most of these PCP actions. In addition, metaphit by itself was found to diminish glucose utilization rather uniformly throughout brain. These results indicate an antagonist effect of metaphit on the PCP system and suggest a widespread action of metaphit, putatively at a PCP-related site, possibly in connection with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.

  4. Dopamine D1 receptor blockade impairs alcohol seeking without reducing dorsal striatal activation to cues of alcohol availability

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Rebecca R; Robinson, Donita L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol-associated cues activate both ventral and dorsal striatum in functional brain imaging studies of heavy drinkers. In rodents, alcohol-associated cues induce changes in neuronal firing frequencies and increase dopamine release in ventral striatum, but the impact of alcohol-associated cues on neuronal activity in dorsal striatum is unclear. We previously reported phasic changes in action potential frequency in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum after cues that signaled alcohol availability, prompting approach behavior. Methods We investigated the hypothesis that dopamine transmission modulates these phasic firing changes. Rats were trained to self-administer alcohol, and neuronal activity was monitored with extracellular electrophysiology during “anticipatory” cues that signaled the start of the operant session. Sessions were preceded by systemic administration of the D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0, 10, and 20 μg/kg). Results SCH23390 significantly decreased firing rates during the 60 s prior to cue onset without reducing phasic excitations immediately following the cues. While neuronal activation to cues might be expected to initiate behavioral responses, in this study alcohol seeking was reduced despite the presence of dorsal striatal excitations to alcohol cues. Conclusions These data suggest that D1 receptor antagonism reduces basal firing rates in the dorsal striatum and modulates the ability of neuronal activation to “anticipatory” cues to initiate alcohol seeking in rats with an extensive history of alcohol self-administration. PMID:25642390

  5. Selective pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor attenuates light and 8-OH-DPAT induced phase shifts of mouse circadian wheel running activity.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Jonathan; Yun, Sujin; Losee Olson, Susan; Turek, Fred; Bonaventure, Pascal; Dvorak, Curt; Lovenberg, Timothy; Dugovic, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports have illustrated a reciprocal relationship between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor may provide a crucial link between the two sides of this equation since the receptor plays a critical role in sleep, depression, and circadian rhythm regulation. To further define the role of the 5-HT7 receptor as a potential pharmacotherapy to correct circadian rhythm disruptions, the current study utilized the selective 5-HT7 antagonist JNJ-18038683 (10 mg/kg) in three different circadian paradigms. While JNJ-18038683 was ineffective at phase shifting the onset of wheel running activity in mice when administered at different circadian time (CT) points across the circadian cycle, pretreatment with JNJ-18038683 blocked non-photic phase advance (CT6) induced by the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (3 mg/kg). Since light induced phase shifts in mammals are partially mediated via the modulation of the serotonergic system, we determined if JNJ-18038683 altered phase shifts induced by a light pulse at times known to phase delay (CT15) or advance (CT22) wheel running activity in free running mice. Light exposure resulted in a robust shift in the onset of activity in vehicle treated animals at both times tested. Administration of JNJ-18038683 significantly attenuated the light induced phase delay and completely blocked the phase advance. The current study demonstrates that pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor by JNJ-18038683 blunts both non-photic and photic phase shifts of circadian wheel running activity in mice. These findings highlight the importance of the 5-HT7 receptor in modulating circadian rhythms. Due to the opposite modulating effects of light resetting between diurnal and nocturnal species, pharmacotherapy targeting the 5-HT7 receptor in conjunction with bright light therapy may prove therapeutically beneficial by correcting the desynchronization of internal rhythms observed in depressed individuals.

  6. Targeting myeloid-derived suppressor cells with colony stimulating factor-1 receptor blockade can reverse immune resistance to immunotherapy in indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing tumors

    PubMed Central

    Holmgaard, Rikke B.; Zamarin, Dmitriy; Lesokhin, Alexander; Merghoub, Taha; Wolchok, Jedd D.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) promotes immunosuppression by direct action on effector T cells and Tregs and through recruitment, expansion and activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Targeting of MDSCs is clinically being explored as a therapeutic strategy, though optimal targeting strategies and biomarkers predictive of response are presently unknown. Maturation and tumor recruitment of MDSCs are dependent on signaling through the receptor tyrosine kinase CSF-1R on myeloid cells. Here, we show that MDSCs are the critical cell population in IDO-expressing B16 tumors in mediating accelerated tumor outgrowth and resistance to immunotherapy. Using a clinically relevant drug, we show that inhibition of CSF-1R signaling can functionally block tumor-infiltrating MDSCs and enhance anti-tumor T cell responses. Furthermore, inhibition of CSF-1R sensitizes IDO-expressing tumors to immunotherapy with T cell checkpoint blockade, and combination of CSF-1R blockade with IDO inhibitors potently elicits tumor regression. These findings provide evidence for a critical and functional role for MDSCs on the in vivo outcome of IDO-expressing tumors. PMID:27211548

  7. Targeting myeloid-derived suppressor cells with colony stimulating factor-1 receptor blockade can reverse immune resistance to immunotherapy in indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing tumors.

    PubMed

    Holmgaard, Rikke B; Zamarin, Dmitriy; Lesokhin, Alexander; Merghoub, Taha; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2016-04-01

    Tumor indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) promotes immunosuppression by direct action on effector T cells and Tregs and through recruitment, expansion and activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Targeting of MDSCs is clinically being explored as a therapeutic strategy, though optimal targeting strategies and biomarkers predictive of response are presently unknown. Maturation and tumor recruitment of MDSCs are dependent on signaling through the receptor tyrosine kinase CSF-1R on myeloid cells. Here, we show that MDSCs are the critical cell population in IDO-expressing B16 tumors in mediating accelerated tumor outgrowth and resistance to immunotherapy. Using a clinically relevant drug, we show that inhibition of CSF-1R signaling can functionally block tumor-infiltrating MDSCs and enhance anti-tumor T cell responses. Furthermore, inhibition of CSF-1R sensitizes IDO-expressing tumors to immunotherapy with T cell checkpoint blockade, and combination of CSF-1R blockade with IDO inhibitors potently elicits tumor regression. These findings provide evidence for a critical and functional role for MDSCs on the in vivo outcome of IDO-expressing tumors. PMID:27211548

  8. Blockade of Hedgehog Signaling Synergistically Increases Sensitivity to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Yang, Su-Qing; An, She-Juan; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Su, Jian; Xie, Zhi; Gou, Lan-Ying; Wu, Yi-Long

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been implicated in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) maintenance; both processes can result in tumor progression and treatment resistance in several types of human cancer. Hh cooperates with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in embryogenesis. We found that the Hh signaling pathway was silenced in EGFR-TKI-sensitive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, while it was inappropriately activated in EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells, accompanied by EMT induction and ABCG2 overexpression. Upregulation of Hh signaling through extrinsic SHH exposure downregulated E-cadherin expression and elevated Snail and ABCG2 expression, resulting in gefitinib tolerance (P < 0.001) in EGFR-TKI-sensitive cells. Blockade of the Hh signaling pathway using the SMO antagonist SANT-1 restored E-cadherin expression and downregulate Snail and ABCG2 in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells. A combination of SANT-1 and gefitinib markedly inhibited tumorigenesis and proliferation in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that hyperactivity of Hh signaling resulted in EGFR-TKI resistance, by EMT introduction and ABCG2 upregulation, and blockade of Hh signaling synergistically increased sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs in primary and secondary resistant NSCLC cells. E-cadherin expression may be a potential biomarker of the suitability of the combined application of an Hh inhibitor and EGFR-TKIs in EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLCs. PMID:26943330

  9. Chronic blockade of angiotensin AT1 receptors improves cardinal symptoms of metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obesity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Fielitz, Helge; Hübel, Nils; Mildner, Martin; Vogt, Florian M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Raasch, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose AT1 receptor antagonists decrease body weight gain in models of murine obesity. However, fewer data are available concerning the anti-obesity effects of these antagonists, given as a treatment after obesity had been established. Experimental Approach In spontaneously hypertensive rats, obesity was established by cafeteria diet (CD) feeding for 19 weeks. Rats were then were treated with telmisartan (8 mg·kg−1·d−1) or amlodipine (10 mg·kg−1·d−1; serving as blood pressure control) or telmisartan + amlodipine (2 + 10 mg·kg−1·d−1; to control for dose-dependency) for 17 weeks. Rats receiving only chow (Cchow) or CD-fed rats treated with vehicle (CCD) served as controls. Key Results The CD feeding induced obesity, hyperphagia, hyperlipidaemia, and leptin and insulin resistance. Telmisartan reduced the CD-induced increase in body weight and abdominal fat mass. Whereas energy intake was higher rather than lower, the respiratory ratio was lower. After telmisartan, leptin-induced energy intake was reduced and respiratory ratio was increased compared with CCD rats. Telmisartan also decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids and low-density lipoprotein. Amlodipine alone or the combination telmisartan + amlodipine did not affect body weight and eating behaviour. Telmisartan, but not amlodipine and telmisartan + amlodipine, improved glucose utilization. The decrease in BP reduction was almost the same in all treatment groups. Conclusions and Implications Telmisartan exerted anti-obesity effects and restored leptin sensitivity, given as a treatment to rats with obesity. Such effects required high doses of telmisartan and were independent of the decrease in blood pressure. PMID:24490862

  10. Blockade of 5-HT1A receptors by (+/-)-pindolol potentiates cortical 5-HT outflow, but not antidepressant-like activity of paroxetine: microdialysis and behavioral approaches in 5-HT1A receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; David, Denis J P; Guiard, Bruno P; Chenu, Franck; Repérant, Christelle; Toth, Miklos; Bourin, Michel; Gardier, Alain M

    2006-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors like paroxetine (Prx) often requires 4-6 weeks to achieve clinical benefits in depressed patients. Pindolol shortens this delay and it has been suggested that this effect is mediated by somatodendritic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1A autoreceptors. However clinical data on the beneficial effects of pindolol are conflicting. To study the effects of (+/-)-pindolol-paroxetine administration, we used genetical and pharmacological approaches in 5-HT1A knockout mice (5-HT1A-/-). Two assays, in vivo intracerebral microdialysis in awake mice and the forced swimming test (FST), were used to assess the antidepressant-like effects of this drug combination. Basal levels of extracellular serotonin, 5-HT ([5-HT]ext) in the frontal cortex (FCX) and the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) did not differ between the two strains of mice, suggesting a lack of tonic control of 5-HT1A autoreceptors on nerve terminal 5-HT release. Prx (1 and 4 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased cortical [5-HT]ext in both genotypes, but the effects were greater in mutants. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100635 (0.5 mg/kg), or (+/-)-pindolol (5 and 10 mg/kg) potentiated the effects of Prx (4 mg/kg) on cortical [5-HT]ext in 5-HT1A+/+, but not in 5-HT1A-/- mice. Similar responses were obtained following local intra-raphe perfusion by reverse microdialysis of either WAY-100635 or (+/-)-pindolol (100 microM each). In the FST, Prx administration dose-dependently decreased the immobility time in both strains of mice, but the response was much greater in 5HT1A-/- mice. In contrast, (+/-)-pindolol blocked Prx-induced decreases in the immobility time while WAY-100635 had no effect in both genotypes. These findings using 5-HT1A-/- mice confirm that (+/-)-pindolol behaves as an antagonist of 5-HT1A autoreceptor in mice, but its blockade of paroxetine-induced antidepressant-like effects in the FST may be due to its binding to other neurotransmitter receptors.

  11. Lasting inhibition of receptor-mediated calcium oscillations in pancreatic acini by neutrophil respiratory burst--a novel mechanism for secretory blockade in acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui Yuan; Song, Zhi Min; Cui, Zong Jie

    2013-08-01

    Although overwhelming evidence indicates that neutrophil infiltration is an early event in acute pancreatitis, the effect of neutrophil respiratory burst on pancreatic acini has not been investigated. In the present work, effect of fMLP-induced neutrophil respiratory burst on pancreatic acini was examined. It was found that neutrophil respiratory burst blocked calcium oscillations induced by cholecystokinin or by acetylcholine. Such lasting inhibition was dependent on the density of bursting neutrophils and could be overcome by increased agonist concentration. Inhibition of cholecystokinin stimulation was also observed in AR4-2J cells. In sharp contrast, neutrophil respiratory burst had no effect on calcium oscillations induced by phenylephrine (PE), vasopressin, or by ATP in rat hepatocytes. These data together suggest that inhibition of receptor-mediated calcium oscillations in pancreatic acini by neutrophil respiratory burst would lead to secretory blockade, which is a hallmark of acute pancreatitis. The present work has important implications for clinical treatment and management of acute pancreatitis.

  12. Decreased Insulin Receptors but Normal Glucose Metabolism in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pirro, Roberto; Lauro, Renato; Testa, Ivano; Ferretti, Ginofabrizio; de Martinis, Carlo; Dellantonio, Renzo

    1982-04-01

    Compared to matched controls, 17 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy showed decreased insulin binding to monocytes due to decreased receptor concentration. These patients showed no signs of altered glucose metabolism and retrospective analysis of the clinical records of a further 56 such patients revealed no modification in carbohydrate metabolism. These data suggest that reduced insulin receptor number does not produce overt modifications of glucose metabolism in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  13. Selective stimulation and blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors in the mandibular gland of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus.

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    2000-12-01

    Intracarotid infusions of noradrenaline (0.15 nmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) either alone or accompanied by phentolamine (1.5 nmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) caused similar-sized increases in salivary protein, magnesium and bicarbonate, and decreases in osmolality, sodium, potassium and chloride whereas intravenous noradrenaline stimulated much smaller responses. Concurrent infusions of the beta1-antagonist, CGP20712A, blocked these noradrenaline-induced changes in salivary composition more effectively than equimolar infusions of the beta2-antagonist, ICI118551, thereby confirming the presence of beta1-adrenoceptors. Intracarotid infusion of salbutamol at 0.15, 0.3 and 1.5 nmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) caused increasing but qualitatively similar changes in salivary composition, sodium excepted, to intracarotid noradrenaline with 0.3 nmol being most similar quantitatively. Intravenous infusion of salbutamol caused larger changes in salivary composition than equimolar intravenous noradrenaline thereby indicating that the response to salbutamol may, in part, be mediated by reflex increases in general sympathetic tone triggered by lowered blood pressure. Eliminating this hypotensive effect by concurrent intravenous and intracarotid infusions of beta1-(CGP or atenolol) and beta2-(ICII18551) antagonists with intracarotid salbutamol showed that IC1118551 was more potent than the beta1-antagonists thereby demonstrating the presence of beta2-receptors. It was concluded that the kangaroo mandibular has functional beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptor subtypes in both endpieces and excurrent ducts and that the duct system has two populations of cells, each expressing one receptor subtype.

  14. Blockade of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents in dissociated frog sensory neurones by benzoxazine derivative, Y-25130.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Akaike, N.

    1992-01-01

    1. The effect of Y-25130, ((+-)-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)-6-chloro-4-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dih ydr o- 2H-1,4-benzoxazine-8-carboxamide hydrochloride), a high affinity 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor ligand, was examined on the 5-HT-induced response in dissociated frog dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones by use of the extremely rapid concentration-jump ('concentration-clamp') and the conventional whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. 2. 5-HT induced a rapid transient inward current associated with an increase in membrane conductance at a holding potential of -70 mV. The current amplitude increased sigmoidally as 5-HT concentration increased. The half-maximum value (Ka) and the Hill coefficient estimated from the concentration-response curve were 1.7 x 10(-5) M and 1.7, respectively. 3. The current-voltage (I-V) relationship of 5-HT-induced current (I5-HT) showed inward rectification at potentials more positive than -40 mV. The reversal potential (E5-HT) was -11 mV. The E5-HT value was unaffected by total replacement of intracellular K+ by Cs+, indicating that the 5-HT-gated channels might be large cation channels. 4. Both the activation and inactivation phases of I5-HT were single exponentials. The time constants of activation and inactivation (tau a and tau i) decreased with increasing 5-HT concentration. 5. The 5-HT response was mimicked by a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, but the maximum response induced was approximately 25% that of 5-HT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1472977

  15. Reciprocal roles of angiotensin II and Angiotensin II Receptors Blockade (ARB) in regulating Cbfa1/RANKL via cAMP signaling pathway: possible mechanism for hypertension-related osteoporosis and antagonistic effect of ARB on hypertension-related osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiao-Xu; Zhou, Yi; Li, Ji-Yao

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Animal and epidemiological studies demonstrate that high blood pressure is associated with increased calcium loss, elevated parathyroid hormone, and increased calcium movement from bone. However, the mechanism responsible for hypertension-related osteoporosis remains elusive. Recent epidemiological studies indicate the benefits of Angiotensin II Receptors Blockade (ARB) on decreasing fracture risks. Since receptors for angiotensin II, the targets of ARB, are expressed in both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, we postulated that angiotensin II plays an important role in hypertension-related osteoporosis. Cbfa1 and RANKL, the important factors for maintaining bone homeostasis and key mediators in controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, are both regulated by cAMP-dependent signaling. Angiotensin II along with factors such as LDL, HDL, NO and homocysteine that are commonly altered both in hypertension and osteoporosis, can down-regulate the expression of Cbfa1 but up-regulate RANKL expression via the cAMP signaling pathway. We thus hypothesized that, by altering the ratio of Cbfa1/RANKL expression via the cAMP-dependent pathway, angiotensin II differently regulates osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation leading to enhanced bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Since ARB can antagonize the adverse effect of angiotensin II on bone by lowering cAMP levels and modifying other downstream targets, including LDL, HDL, NO and Cbfa1/RANKL, we propose the hypothesis that the antagonistic effects of ARB may also be exerted via cAMP signaling pathway. PMID:21845073

  16. Interrelated reduction of chemerin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 serum levels in rheumatoid arthritis after interleukin-6 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Makrilakis, Konstantinos; Fragiadaki, Kalliopi; Smith, Jacqueline; Sfikakis, Petros P; Kitas, George D

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory/metabolic factors and imbalance of haemostasis contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine that plays an important role in immune responses, is implicated in its pathogenesis. In this study, the effects of the IL-6 receptor inhibitor, tocilizumab, on serum adipokines and coagulation/fibrinolysis factors in RA patients were examined. Nineteen consecutive patients (18 women, aged 48 ± 9 years) received six monthly infusions of 8 mg/kg tocilizumab for moderate or severe RA. Disease activity/severity, as well as serum levels of chemerin apelin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), glucose, insulin and lipids were measured at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months thereafter. Chemerin and PAI-1 levels decreased significantly from baseline through 3 to 6 months (from 256 ± 79 to 174 ± 12 and 210 ± 85 ng/ml; from 73 ± 27 to 56 ± 22 and 51 ± 28 pg/ml, respectively). Other adipokines did not change, despite increases in adiposity. In multivariate models, significant independent associations were found between baseline chemerin with age, body mass index, remission of disease, HAQ-Di, CRP and PAI-1. Chemerin decrease at 6 months was significantly associated with PAI-1 and IL-6 changes at 6 months. Baseline PAI-1 associated negatively with remission of disease and total cholesterol, while PAI-1 change at 6 months associated with chemerin changes and smoking status. In conclusion, inhibition of IL-6 signaling in RA favorably alters chemerin and PAI-1 levels in an interrelated manner, despite increasing adiposity. This might represent a dual anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic/fibrinolytic mechanism of tocilizumab that may reduce cardiovascular event risk in RA patients.

  17. Lack of weight gain after angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade in diet-induced obesity is partly mediated by an angiotensin-(1–7)/ Mas-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schuchard, Johanna; Winkler, Martina; Stölting, Ines; Schuster, Franziska; Vogt, Florian M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Thorns, Christoph; Santos, Robson A; Bader, Michael; Raasch, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists induce weight loss; however, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. The Mas receptor agonist angiotensin-(1-7) is a metabolite of angiotensin I and of angiotensin II. As an agonist of Mas receptors, angiotensin-(1-7) has beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects. Experimental Approach We investigated the anti-obesity effects of transgenically overexpressed angiotensin-(1-7) in rats. We secondly examined whether weight loss due to telmisartan (8 mg·kg−1·d−1) in diet-induced obese Sprague Dawley (SD) rats can be blocked when the animals were co-treated with the Mas receptor antagonist A779 (24 or 72 μg·kg−1·d−1). Key Results In contrast to wild-type controls, transgenic rats overexpressing angiotensin-(1-7) had 1.) diminished body weight when they were regularly fed with chow; 2.) were protected from developing obesity although they were fed with cafeteria diet (CD); 3.) showed a reduced energy intake that was mainly related to a lower CD intake; 5.) remained responsive to leptin despite chronic CD feeding; 6.) had a higher, strain-dependent energy expenditure, and 7.) were protected from developing insulin resistance despite CD feeding. Telmisartan-induced weight loss in SD rats was partially antagonized after a high, but not a low dose of A779. Conclusions and Implications Angiotensin-(1-7) regulated food intake and body weight and contributed to the weight loss after AT1 receptor blockade. Angiotensin-(1-7)-like agonists may be drug candidates for treating obesity. PMID:25906670

  18. Distinct effects of ventral tegmental area NMDA and acetylcholine receptor blockade on conditioned reinforcement produced by food-associated cues.

    PubMed

    Wickham, R J; Solecki, W B; Nunes, E J; Addy, N A

    2015-08-20

    Stimuli paired with rewards acquire reinforcing properties to promote reward-seeking behavior. Previous work supports the role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in mediating conditioned reinforcement elicited by drug-associated cues. However, it is not known whether these cholinergic mechanisms are specific to drug-associated cues or whether VTA cholinergic mechanisms also underlie the ability of cues paired with natural rewards to act as conditioned reinforcers. Burst firing of VTA dopamine (DA) neurons and the subsequent phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in cue-mediated behavior and in the ability of cues to acquire reinforcing properties. In the VTA, both AChRs and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) regulate DA burst firing and phasic DA release. Here, we tested the role of VTA nAChRs, muscarinic AChRs (mAChRs), and NMDARs in the conditioned reinforcement elicited by a food-associated, natural reward cue. Subjects received 10 consecutive days of Pavlovian conditioning training where lever extension served as a predictive cue for food availability. On day 11, rats received bilateral VTA infusion of saline, AP-5 (0.1 or 1μg), mecamylamine (MEC: 3 or 30μg) or scopolamine (SCOP: 3 or 66.7μg) immediately prior to the conditioned reinforcement test. During the test, nosepoking into the active (conditioned reinforced, CR) noseport produced a lever cue while nosepoking on the inactive (non-conditioned reinforced, NCR) noseport had no consequence. AP-5 robustly attenuated conditioned reinforcement and blocked discrimination between CR and NCR noseports at the 1-μg dose. MEC infusion decreased responding for both CR and NCR while 66.7-μg SCOP disrupted the subject's ability to discriminate between CR and NCR. Together, our data suggest that VTA NMDARs and mAChRs, but not nAChRs, play a role in the ability of natural reward-associated cues to act as conditioned reinforcers.

  19. Distinct effects of ventral tegmental area NMDA and acetylcholine receptor blockade on conditioned reinforcement produced by food-associated cues.

    PubMed

    Wickham, R J; Solecki, W B; Nunes, E J; Addy, N A

    2015-08-20

    Stimuli paired with rewards acquire reinforcing properties to promote reward-seeking behavior. Previous work supports the role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in mediating conditioned reinforcement elicited by drug-associated cues. However, it is not known whether these cholinergic mechanisms are specific to drug-associated cues or whether VTA cholinergic mechanisms also underlie the ability of cues paired with natural rewards to act as conditioned reinforcers. Burst firing of VTA dopamine (DA) neurons and the subsequent phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in cue-mediated behavior and in the ability of cues to acquire reinforcing properties. In the VTA, both AChRs and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) regulate DA burst firing and phasic DA release. Here, we tested the role of VTA nAChRs, muscarinic AChRs (mAChRs), and NMDARs in the conditioned reinforcement elicited by a food-associated, natural reward cue. Subjects received 10 consecutive days of Pavlovian conditioning training where lever extension served as a predictive cue for food availability. On day 11, rats received bilateral VTA infusion of saline, AP-5 (0.1 or 1μg), mecamylamine (MEC: 3 or 30μg) or scopolamine (SCOP: 3 or 66.7μg) immediately prior to the conditioned reinforcement test. During the test, nosepoking into the active (conditioned reinforced, CR) noseport produced a lever cue while nosepoking on the inactive (non-conditioned reinforced, NCR) noseport had no consequence. AP-5 robustly attenuated conditioned reinforcement and blocked discrimination between CR and NCR noseports at the 1-μg dose. MEC infusion decreased responding for both CR and NCR while 66.7-μg SCOP disrupted the subject's ability to discriminate between CR and NCR. Together, our data suggest that VTA NMDARs and mAChRs, but not nAChRs, play a role in the ability of natural reward-associated cues to act as conditioned reinforcers. PMID

  20. NMDA receptor blockade in the developing cortex induces autophagy-mediated death of immature cortical GABAergic interneurons: An ex vivo and in vivo study in Gad67-GFP mice.

    PubMed

    Roux, Christian; Aligny, Caroline; Lesueur, Céline; Girault, Virginie; Brunel, Valery; Ramdani, Yasmina; Genty, Damien; Driouich, Azeddine; Laquerrière, Annie; Marret, Stéphane; Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Gonzalez, Bruno J; Bekri, Soumeya

    2015-05-01

    In neonates, excitotoxicity is a major process involved in hypoxic-ischemic brain lesions, and several research groups have suggested the use of NMDA antagonists for neuroprotection. However, despite their clinical interest, there is more and more evidence suggesting that, in the immature brain, these molecules exert deleterious actions on migrating GABAergic interneurons by suppressing glutamatergic trophic inputs. Consequently, preventing the side effects of NMDA antagonists would be therapeutically useful. Because macroautophagy is involved in the adaptive response to trophic deprivation, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of autophagy modulators on the MK801-induced death of immature GABAergic interneurons and to characterize the crosstalk between autophagic and apoptotic mechanisms in this cell type. Ex vivo, using cortical slices from NMRI and Gad67-GFP mice, we show that blockade of the NMDA receptor results in an accumulation of autophagosomes due to the disruption of the autophagic flux. This effect precedes the activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and the degeneration of immature GABAergic neurons present in developing cortical layers II-IV and is prevented by 3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor. In contrast, modulators of autophagy (3-MA, rapamycin) do not interfere with the anti-excitotoxic and neuroprotective effect of MK801 observed in deep layers V and VI. In vivo, 3-MA blocks the rapid increase in caspase-3 cleavage induced by the blockade of NMDA receptors and prevents the resulting long-term decrease in Gad67-GFP neurons in layers II-IV. Together, these data suggest that, in the developing cortex, the suppression of glutamatergic inputs through NMDA receptor inhibition results in the impairment of the autophagic flux and the subsequent switch to apoptotic death of immature GABAergic interneurons. The concomitant inhibition of autophagy prevents this pro-apoptotic action of the NMDA blocker and favors the long

  1. Upregulation of ERK1/2-eNOS via AT2 Receptors Decreases the Contractile Response to Angiotensin II in Resistance Mesenteric Arteries from Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hagihara, Graziela N.; Lobato, Nubia S.; Filgueira, Fernando P.; Akamine, Eliana H.; Aragão, Danielle S.; Casarini, Dulce E.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Fortes, Zuleica B.

    2014-01-01

    It has been clearly established that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKS) are important mediators of angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling via AT1 receptors in the vasculature. However, evidence for a role of these kinases in changes of Ang II-induced vasoconstriction in obesity is still lacking. Here we sought to determine whether vascular MAPKs are differentially activated by Ang II in obese animals. The role of AT2 receptors was also evaluated. Male monosodium glutamate-induced obese (obese) and non-obese Wistar rats (control) were used. The circulating concentrations of Ang I and Ang II, determined by HPLC, were increased in obese rats. Ang II-induced isometric contraction was decreased in endothelium-intact resistance mesenteric arteries from obese compared with control rats and exhibited a retarded AT1 receptor antagonist response. Blocking of AT2 receptors and inhibition of either endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) restored Ang II-induced contraction in obese rats. Western blot analysis revealed increased protein expression of AT2 receptors in arteries from obese rats. Basal and Ang II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was also increased in obese rats. Blockade of either AT1 or AT2 receptors corrected the increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in arteries from obese rats to levels observed in control preparations. Phosphorylation of eNOS was increased in obese rats. Incubation with the ERK1/2 inhibitor before Ang II stimulation did not affect eNOS phosphorylation in control rats; however, it corrected the increased phosphorylation of eNOS in obese rats. These results clearly demonstrate that enhanced AT2 receptor and ERK1/2-induced, NO-mediated vasodilation reduces Ang II-induced contraction in an endothelium-dependent manner in obese rats. PMID:25170617

  2. Post-retrieval beta-adrenergic receptor blockade: effects on extinction and reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories.

    PubMed

    Fricks-Gleason, Ashley N; Marshall, John F

    2008-09-01

    Contexts and discrete cues associated with drug-taking are often responsible for relapse among addicts. Animal models have shown that interference with the reconsolidation of drug-cue memories can reduce seeking of drugs or drug-paired stimuli. One such model is conditioned place preference (CPP) in which an animal is trained to associate a particular environment with the rewarding effects of a drug. Previous work from this laboratory has shown that intra-nucleus accumbens core infusions of a MEK inhibitor can interfere with reconsolidation of these drug-cue memories. A question that remains is whether post-retrieval drug effects on subsequent memories represent an interference with reconsolidation processes or rather a facilitation of extinction. In this experiment, we explore the effect of post-retrieval injections of propranolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on reconsolidation and extinction of cocaine CPP. After acquisition of cocaine CPP, animals were given post-retrieval propranolol injections once or each day during a protocol of unreinforced preference tests, until the animals showed no preference for the previously cocaine-paired environment. Following a cocaine priming injection, the animals that received daily post-test propranolol injections did not reinstate their preference for the drug-paired side. In contrast, a single post-retrieval propranolol injection followed by multiple days of unreinforced preference tests failed to blunt subsequent cocaine reinstatement of the memory. These data suggest that daily post-retrieval systemic injections of propranolol decrease the conditioned preference by interfering with reconsolidation of the memory for the association between the drug-paired side and the reinforcing effects of the drug, rather than facilitating new extinction learning.

  3. Genetic blockade of adenosine A2A receptors induces cognitive impairments and anatomical changes related to psychotic symptoms in mice.

    PubMed

    Moscoso-Castro, Maria; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Ciruela, Francisco; Valverde, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic severe mental disorder with a presumed neurodevelopmental origin, and no effective treatment. Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease with genetic, environmental and neurochemical etiology. The main theories on the pathophysiology of this disorder include alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in limbic and cortical areas of the brain. Early hypotheses also suggested that nucleoside adenosine is a putative affected neurotransmitter system, and clinical evidence suggests that adenosine adjuvants improve treatment outcomes, especially in poorly responsive patients. Hence, it is important to elucidate the role of the neuromodulator adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) subtypes are expressed in brain areas controlling motivational responses and cognition, including striatum, and in lower levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The aim of this study was to characterize A2AR knockout (KO) mice with complete and specific inactivation of A2AR, as an animal model for schizophrenia. We performed behavioral, anatomical and neurochemical studies to assess psychotic-like symptoms in adult male and female KO and wild-type (WT) littermates. Our results show impairments in inhibitory responses and sensory gating in A2AR KO animals. Hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and MK-801 was reduced in KO animals when compared to WT littermates. Moreover, A2AR KO animals show motor disturbances, social and cognitive alterations. Finally, behavioral impairments were associated with enlargement of brain lateral ventricles and decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus. These data highlight the role of adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and provide new possibilities for the therapeutic management of schizophrenia. PMID:27133030

  4. Antagonist but not agonist labeling of serotonin-1A receptors is decreased in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stockmeier, Craig A.; Howley, Eimear; Shi, Xiaochun; Sobanska, Anna; Clarke, Gerard; Friedman, Lee; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin-1A receptors may play a role in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. In postmortem brain tissue, agonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors is reportedly increased or unchanged in depression or suicide, while neuroimaging studies report a decrease in antagonist binding to these receptors in subjects with depression. In this study, both agonist and antagonist radioligand binding to serotonin-1A receptors were examined in postmortem orbitofrontal cortex from subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Brain tissue was collected at autopsy from 11 subjects with MDD and 11 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects. Two depressed subjects had a recent psychoactive substance use disorder. Six subjects with MDD had a prescription for an antidepressant drug in the last month of life, and, of these six, postmortem bloods from only two subjects tested positive for an antidepressant drug. There was no significant difference between cohorts for age, postmortem interval or tissue pH. The receptor agonist [3H]8-OH-DPAT or the antagonist [3H]MPPF were used to autoradiographically label serotonin-1A receptors in frozen sections from cytoarchitectonically-defined left rostral orbitofrontal cortex (area 47). There was no significant difference between depressed and control subjects in agonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors. However, antagonist binding was significantly decreased in outer layers of orbitofrontal cortex in MDD. This observation in postmortem tissue confirms reports using an antagonist radioligand in living subjects with depression. Decreased antagonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors in outer layers of orbitofrontal cortex suggests diminished receptor signaling and may be linked to corresponding neuronal changes detected previously in these depressed subjects. PMID:19215942

  5. Blockade of dopamine D₃ but not D₂ receptors reverses the novel object discrimination impairment produced by post-weaning social isolation: implications for schizophrenia and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Watson, David J G; Marsden, Charles A; Millan, Mark J; Fone, Kevin C F

    2012-05-01

    Dopamine D₃ receptors are densely expressed in mesolimbic projection areas, and selective antagonists enhance cognition, consistent with their potential therapeutic use in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study examines the effect of dopamine D₃ vs. D₂ receptor antagonists on the cognitive impairment and hyperactivity produced by social isolation of rat pups, in a neurodevelopmental model of certain deficits of schizophrenia. Three separate groups of male Lister hooded rats were group-housed or isolation-reared from weaning. Six weeks later rats received either vehicle or the dopamine D₃ selective antagonist, S33084 (0.04 and 0.16 mg/kg), the preferential D₃ antagonist, S33138 (0.16 and 0.63 mg/kg) or the preferential D₂ antagonist, L-741,626 (0.63 mg/kg) s.c. 30 min prior to recording; horizontal locomotor activity in a novel arena for 60 min and, the following day, novel object discrimination using a 2-h inter-trial interval. Isolation rearing induced locomotor hyperactivity in a novel arena and impaired novel object discrimination compared to that in group-housed littermates. Both S33084 and S33138 restored novel object discrimination deficits in isolation-reared rats without affecting discrimination in group-housed controls. By contrast, L-741,626 impaired novel object discrimination in group-housed rats, without affecting impairment in isolates. S33084 (0.16 mg/kg), S33138 and, less markedly, L741,626 reduced the locomotor hyperactivity in isolates without attenuating activity in group-housed controls. Selective blockade of dopamine D₃ receptors reverses the visual recognition memory deficit and hyperactivity produced by isolation rearing. These data support further investigation of the potential use of dopamine D₃ receptor antagonists to treat schizophrenia.

  6. Blockade of dopamine D₃ but not D₂ receptors reverses the novel object discrimination impairment produced by post-weaning social isolation: implications for schizophrenia and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Watson, David J G; Marsden, Charles A; Millan, Mark J; Fone, Kevin C F

    2012-05-01

    Dopamine D₃ receptors are densely expressed in mesolimbic projection areas, and selective antagonists enhance cognition, consistent with their potential therapeutic use in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study examines the effect of dopamine D₃ vs. D₂ receptor antagonists on the cognitive impairment and hyperactivity produced by social isolation of rat pups, in a neurodevelopmental model of certain deficits of schizophrenia. Three separate groups of male Lister hooded rats were group-housed or isolation-reared from weaning. Six weeks later rats received either vehicle or the dopamine D₃ selective antagonist, S33084 (0.04 and 0.16 mg/kg), the preferential D₃ antagonist, S33138 (0.16 and 0.63 mg/kg) or the preferential D₂ antagonist, L-741,626 (0.63 mg/kg) s.c. 30 min prior to recording; horizontal locomotor activity in a novel arena for 60 min and, the following day, novel object discrimination using a 2-h inter-trial interval. Isolation rearing induced locomotor hyperactivity in a novel arena and impaired novel object discrimination compared to that in group-housed littermates. Both S33084 and S33138 restored novel object discrimination deficits in isolation-reared rats without affecting discrimination in group-housed controls. By contrast, L-741,626 impaired novel object discrimination in group-housed rats, without affecting impairment in isolates. S33084 (0.16 mg/kg), S33138 and, less markedly, L741,626 reduced the locomotor hyperactivity in isolates without attenuating activity in group-housed controls. Selective blockade of dopamine D₃ receptors reverses the visual recognition memory deficit and hyperactivity produced by isolation rearing. These data support further investigation of the potential use of dopamine D₃ receptor antagonists to treat schizophrenia. PMID:21414250

  7. Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A 2A Receptors.

    PubMed

    George, Annie; Chinnappan, Sasikala; Choudhary, Yogendra; Choudhary, Vandana Kotak; Bommu, Praveen; Wong, Hoi Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore a propriety standardized ethanolic extract from leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in improving impairments in short-term social memory in vivo, possibly via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). The ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves showed significant in vitro binding activity of A2AR with 74% inhibition at 150 μg/ml and significant A2AR antagonist activity with 98% inhibition at 300 μg/mL. A significant adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist activity with 100% inhibition was observed at 300 μg/mL. Its effect on learning and memory was assessed via social recognition task using Sprague Dawley rats whereby the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus showed significant (p < 0.001) change in recognition index (RI) at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg p.o and 120 mg/kg i.p., respectively, compared to the vehicle control. In comparison, the ethanolic extract of Polygonum minus aerial parts showed small change in inflexion; however, it remained insignificant in RI at 200 mg/kg p.o. Our findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves improves memory by reversing age-related deficits in short-term social memory and the possible involvement of adenosine A1 and adenosine A2A as a target bioactivity site in the restoration of memory.

  8. Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A 2A Receptors.

    PubMed

    George, Annie; Chinnappan, Sasikala; Choudhary, Yogendra; Choudhary, Vandana Kotak; Bommu, Praveen; Wong, Hoi Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore a propriety standardized ethanolic extract from leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in improving impairments in short-term social memory in vivo, possibly via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). The ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves showed significant in vitro binding activity of A2AR with 74% inhibition at 150 μg/ml and significant A2AR antagonist activity with 98% inhibition at 300 μg/mL. A significant adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist activity with 100% inhibition was observed at 300 μg/mL. Its effect on learning and memory was assessed via social recognition task using Sprague Dawley rats whereby the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus showed significant (p < 0.001) change in recognition index (RI) at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg p.o and 120 mg/kg i.p., respectively, compared to the vehicle control. In comparison, the ethanolic extract of Polygonum minus aerial parts showed small change in inflexion; however, it remained insignificant in RI at 200 mg/kg p.o. Our findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves improves memory by reversing age-related deficits in short-term social memory and the possible involvement of adenosine A1 and adenosine A2A as a target bioactivity site in the restoration of memory. PMID:26649059

  9. Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Yogendra; Choudhary, Vandana Kotak; Bommu, Praveen; Wong, Hoi Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore a propriety standardized ethanolic extract from leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in improving impairments in short-term social memory in vivo, possibly via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). The ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves showed significant in vitro binding activity of A2AR with 74% inhibition at 150 μg/ml and significant A2AR antagonist activity with 98% inhibition at 300 μg/mL. A significant adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist activity with 100% inhibition was observed at 300 μg/mL. Its effect on learning and memory was assessed via social recognition task using Sprague Dawley rats whereby the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus showed significant (p < 0.001) change in recognition index (RI) at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg p.o and 120 mg/kg i.p., respectively, compared to the vehicle control. In comparison, the ethanolic extract of Polygonum minus aerial parts showed small change in inflexion; however, it remained insignificant in RI at 200 mg/kg p.o. Our findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves improves memory by reversing age-related deficits in short-term social memory and the possible involvement of adenosine A1 and adenosine A2A as a target bioactivity site in the restoration of memory. PMID:26649059

  10. Structure-activity relationships for the irreversible blockade of nicotinic receptor agonist sites by lophotoxin and congeneric diterpene lactones

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, P.; Burch, M.; Potenza, C.; Wasserman, L.; Fenical, W.; Taylor, P.

    1985-11-01

    Lophotoxin, a diterpene lactone paralytic toxin from gorgonian corals of the genus Lophogorgia, inhibits ( SVI)-alpha-toxin binding to surface nicotinic receptors of BC3H-1 cells by irreversible occupation of the primary agonist sites. In contrast, receptor-bearing membrane fragments or detergent-solubilized receptors prepared from BC3H-1 cells are not susceptible to lophotoxin block. Thus, lophotoxin inhibition requires intact cells. However, when intact cells were incubated with lophotoxin, subsequent membrane-fragment preparation or detergent solubilization of the receptors did not diminish lophotoxin occupation of ( SVI)-alpha-toxin-binding sites, indicating that lophotoxin binds very tightly to nicotinic receptors. These studies further demonstrate that both surface and nonsurface nicotinic receptors of BC3H-1 cells are susceptible to irreversible occupation by lophotoxin, indicating that the lipophilic toxin freely permeates intact cells. The authors also examined several structural analogs of lophotoxin, one of which was equipotent with lophotoxin for inhibition of ( SVI)-alpha-toxin binding to intact cells and, notably, also blocked alpha-toxin binding to detergent-extracted receptor.

  11. Chronic treatment with selective I2-imidazoline receptor ligands decreases the content of pro-apoptotic markers in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Garau, Celia; Miralles, Antonio; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2013-02-01

    Selective I(2)-imidazoline receptor ligands induce neuroprotection through various molecular mechanisms including blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To investigate new neuroprotective mechanisms associated with I(2)-imidazoline receptors, the effects of selective (2-styryl-2-imidazoline (LSL 61122), 2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline (2-BFI), 2-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl) quinoline hydrochloride (BU-224)) and non-selective (idazoxan) I(2)-drugs on canonical apoptotic pathways were assessed in rat brain cortex. The acute treatment with LSL 61122 (10 mg/kg) reduced the content of mitochondrial (pro-apoptotic) Bax (-33%) and cytochrome c (-31%), which was prevented by idazoxan, an I(2)-receptor antagonist. The sustained stimulation of I(2)-imidazoline receptors with selective drugs (10 mg/kg, every 12 h for seven days) was associated with down-regulation of key components of the extrinsic (Fas receptor: -20%; Fas associated protein with death domain (FADD) adaptor: -47-54%) and/or intrinsic (Bax: -20-23%; cytochrome c: -22-28%) apoptotic signalling and/or up-regulation of survival anti-apoptotic factors (p-Ser194 FADD/FADD ratio: +1.6-2.5-fold; and/or Bcl-2/Bax ratio: +1.5-fold), which in the long-term could dampen cell death in the brain. Similar chronic treatments with LSL 60101 (the imidazole analogue of 2-BFI) and idazoxan (a mixed I(2)/α(2)-ligand) did not induce significant alterations of pro- or anti-apoptotic proteins. The disclosed anti-apoptotic mechanisms of selective I(2)-imidazoline drugs may work in concert with other molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection (e.g. blockade of NMDA receptors) that are engaged by I(2)-ligands.

  12. Pharmacological Blockade of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors in Diet-Induced Obesity Regulates Mitochondrial Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase in Muscle.

    PubMed

    Arrabal, Sergio; Lucena, Miguel Angel; Canduela, Miren Josune; Ramos-Uriarte, Almudena; Rivera, Patricia; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Decara, Juan; Vargas, Antonio; Baixeras, Elena; Martín-Rufián, Mercedes; Márquez, Javier; Fernández-Llébrez, Pedro; De Roos, Baukje; Grandes, Pedro; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptors peripherally modulate energy metabolism. Here, we investigated the role of CB1 receptors in the expression of glucose/pyruvate/tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism in rat abdominal muscle. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), a flavoprotein component (E3) of α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes with diaphorase activity in mitochondria, was specifically analyzed. After assessing the effectiveness of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (3 mg kg(-1), 14 days) on food intake and body weight, we could identified seven key enzymes from either glycolytic pathway or TCA cycle--regulated by both diet and CB1 receptor activity--through comprehensive proteomic approaches involving two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/LC-ESI trap mass spectrometry. These enzymes were glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), enolase (Eno3), lactate dehydrogenase (LDHa), glyoxalase-1 (Glo1) and the mitochondrial DLD, whose expressions were modified by AM251 in hypercaloric diet-induced obesity. Specifically, AM251 blocked high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced expression of GPI, TPI, Eno3 and LDHa, suggesting a down-regulation of glucose/pyruvate/lactate pathways under glucose availability. AM251 reversed the HCD-inhibited expression of Glo1 and DLD in the muscle, and the DLD and CB1 receptor expression in the mitochondrial fraction. Interestingly, we identified the presence of CB1 receptors at the membrane of striate muscle mitochondria. DLD over-expression was confirmed in muscle of CB1-/- mice. AM251 increased the pyruvate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity in C2C12 myotubes, and the diaphorase/oxidative activity in the mitochondria fraction. These results indicated an up-regulation of methylglyoxal and TCA cycle activity. Findings suggest that CB1 receptors in muscle modulate glucose/pyruvate/lactate pathways and mitochondrial oxidative activity by targeting DLD.

  13. Pharmacological Blockade of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors in Diet-Induced Obesity Regulates Mitochondrial Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Arrabal, Sergio; Lucena, Miguel Angel; Canduela, Miren Josune; Ramos-Uriarte, Almudena; Rivera, Patricia; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Decara, Juan; Vargas, Antonio; Baixeras, Elena; Martín-Rufián, Mercedes; Márquez, Javier; Fernández-Llébrez, Pedro; De Roos, Baukje; Grandes, Pedro; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptors peripherally modulate energy metabolism. Here, we investigated the role of CB1 receptors in the expression of glucose/pyruvate/tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism in rat abdominal muscle. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), a flavoprotein component (E3) of α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes with diaphorase activity in mitochondria, was specifically analyzed. After assessing the effectiveness of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (3 mg kg-1, 14 days) on food intake and body weight, we could identified seven key enzymes from either glycolytic pathway or TCA cycle—regulated by both diet and CB1 receptor activity—through comprehensive proteomic approaches involving two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/LC-ESI trap mass spectrometry. These enzymes were glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), enolase (Eno3), lactate dehydrogenase (LDHa), glyoxalase-1 (Glo1) and the mitochondrial DLD, whose expressions were modified by AM251 in hypercaloric diet-induced obesity. Specifically, AM251 blocked high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced expression of GPI, TPI, Eno3 and LDHa, suggesting a down-regulation of glucose/pyruvate/lactate pathways under glucose availability. AM251 reversed the HCD-inhibited expression of Glo1 and DLD in the muscle, and the DLD and CB1 receptor expression in the mitochondrial fraction. Interestingly, we identified the presence of CB1 receptors at the membrane of striate muscle mitochondria. DLD over-expression was confirmed in muscle of CB1-/- mice. AM251 increased the pyruvate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity in C2C12 myotubes, and the diaphorase/oxidative activity in the mitochondria fraction. These results indicated an up-regulation of methylglyoxal and TCA cycle activity. Findings suggest that CB1 receptors in muscle modulate glucose/pyruvate/lactate pathways and mitochondrial oxidative activity by targeting DLD. PMID:26671069

  14. Flumazenil decreases surface expression of α4β2δ GABAA receptors by increasing the rate of receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Kuver, Aarti; Smith, Sheryl S

    2016-01-01

    Increases in expression of α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs), triggered by fluctuations in the neurosteroid THP (3α-OH-5α[β]-pregnan-20-one), are associated with changes in mood and cognition. We tested whether α4βδ trafficking and surface expression would be altered by in vitro exposure to flumazenil, a benzodiazepine ligand which reduces α4βδ expression in vivo. We first determined that flumazenil (100 nM-100 μM, IC50=∼1 μM) acted as a negative modulator, reducing GABA (10 μM)-gated current in the presence of 100 nM THP (to increase receptor efficacy), assessed with whole cell patch clamp recordings of recombinant α4β2δ expressed in HEK-293 cells. Surface expression of recombinant α4β2δ receptors was detected using a 3XFLAG reporter at the C-terminus of α4 (α4F) using confocal immunocytochemical techniques following 48 h exposure of cells to GABA (10 μM)+THP (100 nM). Flumazenil (10 μM) decreased surface expression of α4F by ∼60%, while increasing its intracellular accumulation, after 48 h. Reduced surface expression of α4β2δ after flumazenil treatment was confirmed by decreases in the current responses to 100 nM of the GABA agonist gaboxadol. Flumazenil-induced decreases in surface expression of α4β2δ were prevented by the dynamin blocker, dynasore, and by leupeptin, which blocks lysosomal enzymes, suggesting that flumazenil is acting to increase endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the receptor. Flumazenil increased the rate of receptor removal from the cell surface by 2-fold, assessed using botulinum toxin B to block insertion of new receptors. These findings may suggest new therapeutic strategies for regulation of α4β2δ expression using flumazenil.

  15. AT1 receptor blockade in the central nucleus of the amygdala attenuates the effects of muscimol on sodium and water intake.

    PubMed

    Hu, B; Qiao, H; Sun, B; Jia, R; Fan, Y; Wang, N; Lu, B; Yan, J Q

    2015-10-29

    The blockade of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) with the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol significantly reduces hypertonic NaCl and water intake by sodium-depleted rats. In the present study we investigated the effects of previous injection of losartan, an angiotensin II type-1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, into the CeA on 0.3M NaCl and water intake reduced by muscimol bilaterally injected into the same areas in rats submitted to water deprivation-partial rehydration (WD-PR) and in rats treated with the diuretic furosemide (FURO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats with stainless steel cannulas bilaterally implanted into the CeA were used. Bilateral injections of muscimol (0.2 nmol/0.5 μl, n=8 rats/group) into the CeA in WD-PR-treated rats reduced 0.3M NaCl intake and water intake, and pre-treatment of the CeA with losartan (50 μg/0.5 μl) reversed the inhibitory effect of muscimol. The negative effect of muscimol on sodium and water intake could also be blocked by pretreatment with losartan microinjected into the CeA in rats given FURO (n=8 rats/group). However, bilateral injections of losartan (50 μg/0.5 μl) alone into the CeA did not affect the NaCl or water intake. These results suggest that the deactivation of CeA facilitatory mechanisms by muscimol injection into the CeA is promoted by endogenous angiotensin II acting on AT1 receptors in the CeA, which prevents rats from ingesting large amounts of hypertonic NaCl and water.

  16. Delta-opioid receptor blockade in the ventral pallidum increases perceived palatability and consumption of saccharin solution in rats.

    PubMed

    Inui, Tadashi; Shimura, Tsuyoshi

    2014-08-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is involved in ingestive behaviour. It receives dense GABAergic projections from the nucleus accumbens. GABAergic terminals in the VP co-express enkephalin, an endogenous ligand of delta-opioid receptors. The role of the delta-opioid receptors in the VP in the context of ingestive behaviour remains unclear, in contrast to the well-understood involvement of the mu-opioid receptors. We used the single-bottle test to examine the effects of VP microinjections of the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole on consumption of a saccharin solution. Naltrindole injections significantly increased the intake of saccharin, but not water, during a 2-h test session. We also investigated perceived palatability of saccharin using a taste reactivity test. The drug treatments increased ingestive responses to intraorally infused saccharin. Further experimentation explored the role of VP delta-opioid receptors in behavioural responses to saccharin that were previously paired with malaise upon the retrieval of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Naltrindole-injected rats exhibited longer latency for the first occurrence of aversive responses than vehicle-injected control rats. However, there was no between-group difference in total aversive responses. These results suggest that naltrindole injections into the VP induce an enhancement of perceived palatability of a normally preferred saccharin solution, and thereby facilitate consumption of the solution. On the other hand, delayed aversive responses to the conditioned aversive saccharin suggest that the delta-opioid receptors in the VP mediate the initiation of aversive taste reactivity responses to the conditioned stimulus upon CTA retrieval.

  17. Adenosine A2A-receptor blockade abolishes the roll-off respiratory response to hypoxia in awake lambs.

    PubMed

    Koos, Brian J; Kawasaki, Yoshikazu; Kim, Young-Han; Bohorquez, Fanor

    2005-05-01

    Adenosine (ADO) receptor antagonists (aminophylline, caffeine) blunt the respiratory roll-off response to hypoxia in the newborn. This study was designed to determine the ADO receptor subtype involved in the respiratory depression. Chronically catheterized lambs of 7-16 days of age breathed via face mask a gas mixture with a fraction of inspired O2 of 0.21 (normoxia) or 0.07 (hypoxia), while being infused intravascularly with 9-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; ADO A1-receptor antagonist, n=8), ZM-241385 (ADO A2A-receptor antagonist, n=7), or vehicle. Ventilation was measured at 20 degrees C by a turbine transducer flowmeter. In normoxia [arterial Po2 (PaO2) of approximately 83 Torr], infusion of vehicle did not alter cardiorespiratory measurements, whereas hypoxia (PaO2 of approximately 31 Torr, 15 min) elicited biphasic effects on mean arterial pressure (transient increase), heart rate (HR; diminishing tachycardia), and minute ventilation. In the latter, hypoxia increased ventilation to a peak value of approximately 2.5 times control within the first 3 min, which was followed by a significant (P<0.05) decline to approximately 50% of the maximum increment over the subsequent 7 min. ZM-241385 abolished the hypoxic ventilatory roll-off and blunted the rate of rise in HR without affecting mean arterial pressure or rectal temperature responses. In normoxia, DPCPX increased ventilation and mean arterial pressure but did not change HR. Compared with vehicle, DPCPX did not significantly affect cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxemia (PaO2 of approximately 31 Torr, 10 min). It is concluded that 1) ADO A2A receptors are critically involved in the ventilatory roll-off and HR responses to hypoxia, and 2) ADO A1 receptors, which are tonically active in cardiorespiratory control in normoxia, appear to have little impact on hypoxic ventilatory depression.

  18. Leptin decreases heart rate associated with increased ventricular repolarization via its receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Chang; Huang, Jianying; Hileman, Stan; Martin, Karen H; Hull, Robert; Davis, Mary; Yu, Han-Gang

    2015-11-15

    Leptin has been proposed to modulate cardiac electrical properties via β-adrenergic receptor activation. The presence of leptin receptors and adipocytes in myocardium raised a question as to whether leptin can directly modulate cardiac electrical properties such as heart rate and QT interval via its receptor. In this work, the role of local direct actions of leptin on heart rate and ventricular repolarization was investigated. We identified the protein expression of leptin receptors at cell surface of sinus node, atrial, and ventricular myocytes isolated from rat heart. Leptin at low doses (0.1-30 μg/kg) decreased resting heart rate; at high doses (150-300 μg/kg), leptin induced a biphasic effect (decrease and then increase) on heart rate. In the presence of high-dose propranolol (30 mg/kg), high-dose leptin only reduced heart rate and sometimes caused sinus pauses and ventricular tachycardia. The leptin-induced inhibition of resting heart rate was fully reversed by leptin antagonist. Leptin also increased heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc), and leptin antagonist did not. In isolated ventricular myocytes, leptin (0.03-0.3 μg/ml) reversibly increased the action potential duration. These results supported our hypothesis that in addition to indirect pathway via sympathetic tone, leptin can directly decrease heart rate and increase QT interval via its receptor independent of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. During inhibition of β-adrenergic receptor activity, high concentration of leptin in myocardium can cause deep bradycardia, prolonged QT interval, and ventricular arrhythmias.

  19. The non-competitive blockade of GABAA receptors by an aqueous extract of water hemlock (Cicuta douglassi) tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to the inhibition of fetal movement from the desensitization of fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the piperidine alkaloid anabaseine a 1,2-dehydropiperidine and anabasin...

  20. CXCL13 blockade disrupts B lymphocyte organization in tertiary lymphoid structures without altering B cell receptor bias or preventing diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Henry, Rachel A; Kendall, Peggy L

    2010-08-01

    Lymphocytes that invade nonlymphoid tissues often organize into follicle-like structures known as tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). These structures resemble those found in spleen or lymph nodes, but their function is unknown. TLOs are recognized in many autoimmune diseases, including the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes. In some cases, TLOs have been associated with the B lymphocyte chemoattractant, CXCL13. Studies presented in this article show that CXCL13 is present in inflamed islets of NOD mice. Ab blockade of this chemokine unraveled B lymphocyte organization in islet TLOs, without reducing their proportion in the islets. These chaotic milieus contained B lymphocytes with the same distinct repertoire of B cell receptors as those found in mice with well-organized structures. Somatic hypermutation, associated with T-B interactions, was not impaired in these disorganized insulitis lesions. Finally, loss of B lymphocyte organization in islets did not provide disease protection. Thus, B lymphocytes infiltrating islets in NOD mice do not require the morphology of secondary lymphoid tissues to support their role in disease. PMID:20574003

  1. Systemic modulation of serotonergic synapses via reuptake blockade or 5HT1A receptor antagonism does not alter perithreshold taste sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Clare M; Spector, Alan C

    2014-09-01

    Systemic blockade of serotonin (5HT) reuptake with paroxetine has been shown to increase sensitivity to sucrose and quinine in humans. Here, using a 2-response operant taste detection task, we measured the effect of paroxetine and the 5HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 on the ability of rats to discriminate sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid from water. After establishing individual psychometric functions, 5 concentrations of each taste stimulus were chosen to represent the dynamic portion of the concentration-response curve, and the performance of the rats to these stimuli was assessed after vehicle, paroxetine (7mg/kg intraperitoneally), and WAY100635 (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously; 1mg/kg intravenously) administration. Although, at times, overall performance across concentrations dropped, at most, 5% from vehicle to drug conditions, no differences relative to vehicle were seen on the parameters of the psychometric function (asymptote, slope, or EC50) after drug administration. In contrast to findings in humans, our results suggest that modulation of 5HT activity has little impact on sucrose detectability at perithreshold concentrations in rats, at least at the doses used in this task. In the rat model, the purported paracrine/neurocrine action of serotonin in the taste bud may work in a manner that does not impact overt taste detection behavior.

  2. TNF-α Autocrine Feedback Loops in Human Monocytes: The Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Roles of the TNF-α Receptors Support the Concept of Selective TNFR1 Blockade In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Selective TNFR1 blockade in inflammatory diseases is emerging as a clinical strategy. We studied the roles of the two TNF-α receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, in human monocytes, the principal producer of TNF-α and central to many TNF-α driven diseases. We hypothesised that TNF-α has pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on monocytes, occurring differentially via TNFR1 and TNFR2. Monocytes were isolated from healthy human subjects and exposed to LPS, plus/minus the addition of blocking antibodies to TNF-α or its receptors. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production was quantified using real-time PCR and ELISAs. Cell surface expression of TNFR1/2 was measured by flow cytometry. We demonstrated that monocytes vary in the expression patterns of TNFR1 and TNFR2. Autocrine binding of TNF-α led to sustained upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines via TNFR1. In contrast, autocrine binding via TNFR2 upregulated the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, without proinflammatory effect. TNFR2 was responsible for binding soluble TNF-α secreted by monocytes, clearing the cytokine from the pericellular environment. TNFR1 blockade did not change the cell surface expression of TNFR2, leaving this receptor free to upregulate IL-10. These novel results support the concept of selective TNFR1 blockade in vivo in order that positive anti-inflammatory effects of TNF-α can be retained via TNFR2 ligation. PMID:27747245

  3. Decreased striatal dopamine receptor binding in primary focal dystonia: a D2 or D3 defect?

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Morvarid; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Videen, Tom O.; Luedtke, Robert R.; Taylor, Michelle; Mach, Robert H.; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is an involuntary movement disorder characterized by repetitive patterned or sustained muscle contractions causing twisting or abnormal postures. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of dopaminergic pathways contribute to the pathophysiology of dystonia. In particular dysfunction of D2-like receptors that mediate function of the indirect pathway in the basal ganglia may play a key role. We have demonstrated with positron emission tomography (PET) that patients with primary focal cranial or hand dystonia have reduced putamenal specific binding of [18F]spiperone a non-selective D2-like radioligand with nearly equal affinity for serotonergic 5-HT(2A) sites. We then repeated the study with [18F]N-methyl-benperidol (NMB), a more selective D2-like receptor radioligand with minimal affinity for 5-HT(2A). Surprisingly, there was no decrease in NMB binding in the putamen of subjects with dystonia. Our findings excluded reductions of putamenal uptake greater than 20% with 95% confidence intervals. Following analysis of the in vitro selectivity of NMB and spiperone demonstrated that NMB was highly selective for D2 receptors relative to D3 receptors (200-fold difference in affinity), whereas spiperone has similar affinity for all three of the D2-like receptor subtypes. These findings coupled with other literature suggest that a defect in D3, rather than D2, receptor expression may be associated with primary focal dystonia. PMID:20960437

  4. Blockade of bradykinin B(2) receptor suppresses acute pancreatitis induced by obstruction of the pancreaticobiliary duct in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Mitsuhiro; Hayashi, Izumi; Yoshimura, Kuniko; Ishii, Ken-ichiro; Soma, Kazui; Ohwada, Takashi; Kakita, Akira; Majima, Masataka

    2002-01-01

    1. The involvement of bradykinin (BK) B(2) receptor in acute pancreatitis induced by pancreaticobiliary duct ligation was investigated in rats. 2. The activities of amylase and lipase in the serum, the water content of the pancreas, and vacuolization of the acinar cells were significantly increased 2 h after obstruction of the duct in Sprague-Dawley rats. 3. Elevated serum amylase activity, increased pancreatic oedema, and damage of the pancreatic tissue were significantly less marked in plasma kininogen-deficient, B/N-Katholiek rats than in the normal strain, B/N-Kitasato rats 2 h after the ligation. 4. Obstruction of the pancreaticobiliary duct augmented the level of (1-5)-BK (Arg(1)-Pro(2)-Pro(3)-Gly(4)-Phe(5)), a stable BK metabolite, in the blood from 73.0+/-21.7 pg ml(-1) at 0 h to 149.8+/-38.0 pg ml(-1) at 2 h after the induction of pancreatitis in SD rats. 5. Administration of a BK B(2) receptor antagonist, FR173657 (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) or Hoe140 (100 nmol kg(-1), s.c.), reduced the elevation of amylase and lipase activities in the serum and of pancreatic water content in a dose-dependent manner. The effective attenuation of oedema formation and vacuolization by the antagonists was also confirmed light-microscopically. In contrast, treatment with gabexate mesilate or indomethacin did not cause significant suppression of the pancreatitis. 6. These findings suggest a possible involvement of kinin B(2) receptor in the present pancreatitis model. Furthermore, they point to the potential usefulness of the B(2) receptor in clinical acute pancreatitis.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor blockade by a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor for human gastrointestinal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Piao, Wenhua; Wang, Yu; Adachi, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Li, Rong; Imsumran, Arisa; Li, Hua; Maehata, Tadateru; Ii, Masanori; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Lee, Choon-Taek; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Carbone, David P; Imai, Kohzoh

    2008-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling is required for carcinogenicity and proliferation of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effect of a new tyrosine kinase inhibitor of IGF-IR, NVP-AEW541, on the signal transduction and the progression of GI carcinomas. We assessed the effect of NVP-AEW541 on signal transduction, proliferation, survival, and migration in four GI cancer cells: colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29, pancreatic adenocarcinoma BxPC3, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma TE1, and hepatoma PLC/PRF/5. The effects of NVP-AEW541 alone and with chemotherapy were studied in vitro and in nude mouse xenografts. We also analyzed the effects of NVP-AEW541 on insulin signals and hybrid receptor formation between IGF-IR and insulin receptor. NVP-AEW541 blocked autophosphorylation of IGF-IR and both Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by IGF but not by insulin. NVP-AEW541 suppressed proliferation and tumorigenicity in vitro in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines. The drug inhibited tumor as a single agent and, when combined with stressors, up-regulated apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion and inhibited mobility. NVP-AEW541 augmented the effects of chemotherapy on in vitro growth and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the combination of NVP-AEW541 and chemotherapy was highly effective against tumors in mice. This compound did not influence hybrid receptor formation. Thus, NVP-AEW541 may have significant therapeutic utility in human GI carcinomas both alone and in combination with chemotherapy.

  6. Effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on the interaction between enalaprilat and doxazosin in rat tail arteries.

    PubMed

    Marwood, J F

    1998-01-01

    1. Previous work has shown that enalaprilat, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), potentiated the actions of alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists; it was hypothesized that angiotensin II (AngII) modulated the activity of alpha 1-adrenoceptors. This hypothesis was tested in Sprague-Dawley rat isolated perfused tail arteries using the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan and the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319. 2. Losartan had no alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist effects at concentrations below 1 mumol/L. Similarly, losartan (0.1 mumol/L) had no effect on the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist action of doxazosin (1, 10 nmol/L) nor on the potentiation of doxazosin by enalaprilat (1 mumol/L). 3. PD123319 (0.1 mumol/L) had no alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist effect but altered the mode of action of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist doxazosin: PD123319 changed doxazosin from a competitive to a non-competitive antagonist, as evidenced by the reduced slope of the dose-response curve for the alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. 4. These results suggest that AngII can modulate alpha 1-adrenoceptor function in rat tail arteries via an indirect action at AT2 receptors. However, the present results do not rule out the involvement of bradykinin, endothelin or prostaglandin in the modulation of alpha 1-adrenoceptor function by angiotensin II.

  7. Systems Biology and Birth Defects Prevention: Blockade of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Prevents Arsenic-Induced Birth Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ahir, Bhavesh K.; Sanders, Alison P.; Rager, Julia E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The biological mechanisms by which environmental metals are associated with birth defects are largely unknown. Systems biology–based approaches may help to identify key pathways that mediate metal-induced birth defects as well as potential targets for prevention. Objectives: First, we applied a novel computational approach to identify a prioritized biological pathway that associates metals with birth defects. Second, in a laboratory setting, we sought to determine whether inhibition of the identified pathway prevents developmental defects. Methods: Seven environmental metals were selected for inclusion in the computational analysis: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, and selenium. We used an in silico strategy to predict genes and pathways associated with both metal exposure and developmental defects. The most significant pathway was identified and tested using an in ovo whole chick embryo culture assay. We further evaluated the role of the pathway as a mediator of metal-induced toxicity using the in vitro midbrain micromass culture assay. Results: The glucocorticoid receptor pathway was computationally predicted to be a key mediator of multiple metal-induced birth defects. In the chick embryo model, structural malformations induced by inorganic arsenic (iAs) were prevented when signaling of the glucocorticoid receptor pathway was inhibited. Further, glucocorticoid receptor inhibition demonstrated partial to complete protection from both iAs- and cadmium-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity in vitro. Conclusions: Our findings highlight a novel approach to computationally identify a targeted biological pathway for examining birth defects prevention. PMID:23458687

  8. Chronic exposure to morphine decreases the expression of EAAT3 via opioid receptors in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingyan; Cao, Dexiong; Zhu, Siyu; Fu, Ganglan; Wu, Qiang; Liang, Jianjun; Cao, Minghui

    2015-12-01

    Alterations in glutamate transporter expression are closely related to opiate addition behavior, but the role of opioid receptors is unclear. In this study, we used primary cultures of hippocampal neurons from neonatal rats to study the effects of chronic exposure to morphine on excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) expression and the roles of µ opioid receptor (MOR), δ opioid receptor (DOR), and κ opioid receptor (KOR) in the morphine-dependent alterations in EAAT3 expression. The results showed that the EAAT3 protein and mRNA expression levels decreased significantly after chronic exposure to morphine (10μmol/L) for 48h, whereas the concentration of extracellular glutamate increased. In addition, we found that both the MOR inhibitor CTOP and the DOR inhibitor naltrindole could reverse the decreased expression of EAAT3 after exposure to morphine, whereas the MOR activator DAMGO and the DOR activator DPDPE significantly decreased EAAT3 expression. The KOR inhibitor had no effect on the expression of EAAT3, whereas its activator increased EAAT3 expression. These results suggest that the down-regulation of morphine-dependent EAAT3 expression in primary rat hippocampal cultures may be mediated by MOR and DOR and that KOR may not contribute significantly to this effect.

  9. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation decreases dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Birgit; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie

    2010-06-01

    A relationship between the central renin angiotensin system and the dopaminergic system has been described in the striatum. However, the role of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor in this interaction has not yet been established. The present study examined the outcome of direct AT(2) receptor stimulation on dopamine (DA) release and synthesis by means of the recently developed nonpeptide AT(2) receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21). The effects of AT(2) receptor agonism on the release of DA and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and on the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthesis, were investigated using in vivo microdialysis. Local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) resulted in a decrease of the extracellular DOPAC levels, whereas extracellular DA concentrations remained unaltered, suggesting a reduced synthesis of DA. This effect was mediated by the AT(2) receptor since it could be blocked by the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 (1 microM). A similar effect was observed after local striatal (10 nM) as well as systemic (0.3 and 3 mg/kg i.p.) administration of the AT(1) receptor antagonist, candesartan. TH activity as assessed by accumulation of extracellular levels of L-DOPA after inhibition of amino acid decarboxylase with NSD1015, was also reduced after local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) and candesartan (10 nM). Together, these data suggest that AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the striatum exert an opposite effect on the modulation of DA synthesis rather than DA release. PMID:20097214

  10. Organophosphorus Pesticides Decrease M2 Muscarinic Receptor Function in Guinea Pig Airway Nerves via Indirect Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Proskocil, Becky J.; Bruun, Donald A.; Thompson, Charles M.; Fryer, Allison D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP) exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity. PMID:20479945

  11. Activation of membrane-associated estrogen receptors decreases food and water intake in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Marshall, Anikó; Daniels, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) decreases food and water intake in a variety of species, including rats. Available evidence suggests that this is mediated by genomic mechanisms that are most often attributed to nuclear estrogen receptors. More recent studies indicate that membrane-associated estrogen receptors (mERs) also can influence gene expression through the activation of transcription factors, yet it is unclear whether mERs are involved in mediating the hypophagic and antidipsetic effects of E2. In the present experiments, we injected E2 or a membrane-impermeable form of E2 (E2-BSA) into the lateral cerebral ventricle of ovariectomized female rats and evaluated the effect on 23 h food and water intake. First, we found that higher doses of E2 were necessary to reduce water intake than were sufficient to reduce food intake. Analysis of drinking microstructure revealed that the decrease in water intake after E2 treatment was mediated by both a decrease in burst number and burst size. Next, the activation of mERs with E2-BSA decreased both overnight food and water intake and analysis of drinking microstructure indicated that the decreased water intake resulted from a decrease in burst number. Finally, E2-BSA did not condition a taste aversion, suggesting that the inhibitory effects on food and water intake were not secondary to malaise. Together these findings suggest that activation of mERs is sufficient to decrease food and water intake in female rats.

  12. Administration of caffeine inhibited adenosine receptor agonist-induced decreases in motor performance, thermoregulation, and brain neurotransmitter release in exercising rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18 m min(-1) at 23 °C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91 ± 14.1 min; CAF: 137 ± 25.8 min; NECA: 31 ± 13.7 min; CAF+NECA: 85 ± 11.8 min; p<0.05). NECA decreased the core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption, which is an index of heat production, tail skin temperature, which is an index of heat loss, and extracellular dopamine (DA) release at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, caffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release.

  13. Administration of caffeine inhibited adenosine receptor agonist-induced decreases in motor performance, thermoregulation, and brain neurotransmitter release in exercising rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18 m min(-1) at 23 °C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91 ± 14.1 min; CAF: 137 ± 25.8 min; NECA: 31 ± 13.7 min; CAF+NECA: 85 ± 11.8 min; p<0.05). NECA decreased the core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption, which is an index of heat production, tail skin temperature, which is an index of heat loss, and extracellular dopamine (DA) release at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, caffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release. PMID:26604076

  14. Purinergic 2 receptor blockade prevents the responses of group IV afferents to post-contraction circulatory occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Kindig, Angela E; Hayes, Shawn G; Kaufman, Marc P

    2007-01-01

    ATP, by activating purinergic 2 (P2) receptors on group III and IV afferents, is thought to evoke the metabolic component of the exercise pressor reflex. Previously we have shown that injection of PPADS, a P2 receptor antagonist, into the arterial supply of skeletal muscle of decerebrated cats attenuated the responses of group III and IV afferents to static contraction while the muscles were freely perfused. We have now tested the hypothesis that injection of PPADS (10 mg kg−1) attenuated the responses of group III (n = 13) and group IV afferents (n = 9) to post-contraction circulatory occlusion. In the present study, we found that PPADS attenuated the group III afferent responses to static contraction during circulatory occlusion (P < 0.05). Likewise, PPADS abolished the group IV afferent responses to static contraction during occlusion (P = 0.001). During a 1 minute period of post-contraction circulatory occlusion, four of the 13 group III afferents and eight of the nine group IV afferents maintained their increased discharge. A Fischer's exact probability test revealed that more group IV afferents than group III afferents were stimulated by post-contraction circulatory occlusion (P < 0.02). In addition, the nine group IV afferents increased their mean discharge rate over baseline levels during the post-contraction circulatory occlusion period, whereas the 13 group III afferents did not (P < 0.05). PPADS abolished this post-contraction increase in discharge by the group IV afferents (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that P2 receptors on group IV afferents play a role in evoking the metabolic component of the exercise pressor reflex. PMID:17038431

  15. Central P2Y12 receptor blockade alleviates inflammatory and neuropathic pain and cytokine production in rodents.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gergely; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Csölle, Cecilia; Király, Kornél; Andó, Rómeó D; Baranyi, Mária; Koványi, Bence; Máté, Zoltán; Hoffmann, Kristina; Algaier, Irina; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Von Kügelgen, Ivar; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2014-10-01

    In this study the role of P2Y12 receptors (P2Y12R) was explored in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain and in acute thermal nociception. In correlation with their activity to block the recombinant human P2Y12R, the majority of P2Y12R antagonists alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia dose-dependently, following intraplantar CFA injection, and after partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats. They also caused an increase in thermal nociceptive threshold in the hot plate test. Among the six P2Y12R antagonists evaluated in the pain studies, the selective P2Y12 receptor antagonist PSB-0739 was most potent upon intrathecal application. P2Y12R mRNA and IL-1β protein were time-dependently overexpressed in the rat hind paw and lumbar spinal cord following intraplantar CFA injection. This was accompanied by the upregulation of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in the hind paw. PSB-0739 (0.3mg/kg i.t.) attenuated CFA-induced expression of cytokines in the hind paw and of IL-1β in the spinal cord. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist MLA occluded the effect of PSB-0739 (i.t.) on pain behavior and peripheral cytokine induction. Denervation of sympathetic nerves by 6-OHDA pretreatment did not affect the action of PSB-0739. PSB-0739, in an analgesic dose, did not influence motor coordination and platelet aggregation. Genetic deletion of the P2Y12R in mice reproduced the effect of P2Y12R antagonists on mechanical hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models, on acute thermal nociception and on the induction of spinal IL-1β. Here we report the robust involvement of the P2Y12R in inflammatory pain. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of P2Y12R antagonism could be mediated by the inhibition of both central and peripheral cytokine production and involves α7-receptor mediated efferent pathways.

  16. Central P2Y12 receptor blockade alleviates inflammatory and neuropathic pain and cytokine production in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Gergely; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Csölle, Cecilia; Király, Kornél; Andó, Rómeó D.; Baranyi, Mária; Koványi, Bence; Máté, Zoltán; Hoffmann, Kristina; Algaier, Irina; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Von Kügelgen, Ivar; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2014-01-01

    In this study the role of P2Y12 receptors (P2Y12R) was explored in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain and in acute thermal nociception. In correlation with their activity to block the recombinant human P2Y12R, the majority of P2Y12R antagonists alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia dose-dependently, following intraplantar CFA injection, and after partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats. They also caused an increase in thermal nociceptive threshold in the hot plate test. Among the six P2Y12R antagonists evaluated in the pain studies, the selective P2Y12 receptor antagonist PSB-0739 was most potent upon intrathecal application. P2Y12R mRNA and IL-1β protein were time-dependently overexpressed in the rat hind paw and lumbar spinal cord following intraplantar CFA injection. This was accompanied by the upregulation of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in the hind paw. PSB-0739 (0.3 mg/kg i.t.) attenuated CFA-induced expression of cytokines in the hind paw and of IL-1β in the spinal cord. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist MLA occluded the effect of PSB-0739 (i.t.) on pain behavior and peripheral cytokine induction. Denervation of sympathetic nerves by 6-OHDA pretreatment did not affect the action of PSB-0739. PSB-0739, in an analgesic dose, did not influence motor coordination and platelet aggregation. Genetic deletion of the P2Y12R in mice reproduced the effect of P2Y12R antagonists on mechanical hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models, on acute thermal nociception and on the induction of spinal IL-1β. Here we report the robust involvement of the P2Y12R in inflammatory pain. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of P2Y12R antagonism could be mediated by the inhibition of both central and peripheral cytokine production and involves α7-receptor mediated efferent pathways. PMID:24971933

  17. Dihydrotestosterone decreases beta-adrenergic receptor binding in the fetal rabbit lung.

    PubMed

    Moawad, A H; River, L P; River, J M

    1988-07-01

    Tritium-labeled dihydroalprenolol was used to quantify the beta-adrenergic receptor sites in day 30 fetal rabbit lung tissue. Each of the fetuses of New Zealand White rabbits on day 28 of gestation was injected with dihydrotestosterone (2.0 micrograms) in one horn of the uterus and 10% ethanol in normal saline (the solvent) in the contralateral one. The animals were sacrificed 48 hours later and the fetal lung tissue was assayed. Dihydrotestosterone decreased the beta-adrenergic receptor site number in the treatment group compared with the control group (86 versus 111 fmol/mg protein, p less than 0.05 by paired t-test). In the presence of dihydrotestosterone, beta-adrenergic receptor binding is inhibited in the preterm fetal rabbit. This effect may be implicated in the beta-adrenergic mediation of phospholipid synthesis and/or release by fetal alveolar cells.

  18. Differential effects of muscarinic receptor blockade in prelimbic cortex on acquisition and memory formation of an odor-reward task

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Márquez, Anna; Vale-Martínez, Anna; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Boix-Trelis, Núria; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    The present experiments determined the consequences of blocking muscarinic cholinergic receptors of the prelimbic (PL) cortex in the acquisition and retention of an odor-reward associative task. Rats underwent a training test (five trials) and a 24-h retention test (two retention trials and two relearning trials). In the first experiment, rats were bilaterally infused with scopolamine (20 or 5 μg/site) prior to training. Although scopolamine rats showed acquisition equivalent to PBS-injected controls, they exhibited weakened performance in the 24-h retention test measured by number of errors. In the second experiment, rats were injected with scopolamine (20 μg/site) immediately or 1 h after training and tested 24 h later. Scopolamine rats injected immediately showed severe amnesia detected in two performance measures (errors and latencies), demonstrating deficits in retention and relearning, whereas those injected 1 h later showed good 24-h test performance, similar to controls. These results suggest that muscarinic transmission in the PL cortex is essential for early memory formation, but not for acquisition, of a rapidly learned odor discrimination task. Findings corroborate the role of acetylcholine in consolidation processes and the participation of muscarinic receptors in olfactory associative tasks. PMID:17848501

  19. Cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor inhibition decreases vascular smooth muscle migration and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Rajesh, Mohanraj; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Hasko, Gyoergy; Pacher, Pal

    2008-12-26

    Vascular smooth muscle proliferation and migration triggered by inflammatory stimuli and chemoattractants such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are key events in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Cannabinoids may modulate cell proliferation and migration in various cell types through cannabinoid receptors. Here we investigated the effects of CB{sub 1} receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A), which has recently been shown to have anti-atherosclerotic effects both in mice and humans, on PDGF-induced proliferation, migration, and signal transduction of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). PDGF induced Ras and ERK 1/2 activation, while increasing proliferation and migration of HCASMCs, which were dose dependently attenuated by CB{sub 1} antagonist, rimonabant. These findings suggest that in addition to improving plasma lipid alterations and decreasing inflammatory cell migration and inflammatory response, CB{sub 1} antagonists may exert beneficial effects in atherosclerosis and restenosis by decreasing vascular smooth muscle proliferation and migration.

  20. Selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blockade benefits fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism significantly in weight-stable nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Vidya; Bastarrachea, Raul A.; Higgins, Paul B.; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Kamath, Subhash; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.; Piomelli, Daniele; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether administration of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant would alter fatty acid flux in nonhuman primates. Five adult baboons (Papio Sp) aged 12.1 ± 4.7 yr (body weight: 31.9 ± 2.1 kg) underwent repeated metabolic tests to determine fatty acid and TG flux before and after 7 wk of treatment with rimonabant (15 mg/day). Animals were fed ad libitum diets, and stable isotopes were administered via diet (d31-tripalmitin) and intravenously (13C4-palmitate, 13C1-acetate). Plasma was collected in the fed and fasted states, and blood lipids were analyzed by GC-MS. DEXA was used to assess body composition and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp used to assess insulin-mediated glucose disposal. During the study, no changes were observed in food intake, body weight, plasma, and tissue endocannabinoid concentrations or the quantity of liver-TG fatty acids originating from de novo lipogenesis (19 ± 6 vs. 16 ± 5%, for pre- and posttreatment, respectively, P = 0.39). However, waist circumference was significantly reduced 4% in the treated animals (P < 0.04), glucose disposal increased 30% (P = 0.03), and FFA turnover increased 37% (P = 0.02). The faster FFA flux was consistent with a 43% reduction in these fatty acids used for TRL-TG synthesis (40 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 4%, P = 0.02) and a twofold increase in TRL-TG turnover (1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 3.1 ± 1.4 μmol·kg−1·h−1, P = 0.03). These data support the potential for a strong effect of CB1 receptor antagonism at the level of adipose tissue, resulting in improvements in fasting turnover of fatty acids at the whole body level, central adipose storage, and significant improvements in glucose homeostasis. PMID:22761159

  1. Lifelong disturbance of serotonin transporter functioning results in fear learning deficits: Reversal by blockade of CRF1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Elisabeth Y; Hendriksen, Hendrikus; Baas, Johanna M P; Millan, Mark J; Groenink, Lucianne

    2015-10-01

    The inability to associate aversive events with relevant cues (i.e. fear learning) may lead to maladaptive anxiety. To further study the role of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in fear learning, classical fear conditioning was studied in SERT knockout rats (SERT(-/-)) using fear potentiation of the startle reflex. Next, fear acquisition and concomitant development of contextual conditioned fear were monitored during training. To differentiate between developmental and direct effects of reduced SERT functioning, effects of acute and chronic SSRI treatment were studied in adult rats. Considering the known interactions between serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), we studied the effect of the CRFR1 antagonist CP154,526 on behavioral changes observed and determined CRF1 receptor levels in SERT(-/-) rats. SERT(-/-) showed blunted fear potentiation and enhanced contextual fear, which resulted from a deficit in fear acquisition. Paroxetine treatment did not affect acquisition or expression of fear-potentiated startle, suggesting that disturbed fear learning in SERT(-/-) results from developmental changes and not from reduced SERT functioning. Although CRF1 receptor levels did not differ significantly between genotypes, CP154,526 treatment normalized both cue- and contextual fear in SERT(-/-) during acquisition, but not expression of fear-potentiated startle. The disrupted fear acquisition and concomitant increase in contextual conditioned fear-potentiated startle fear in SERT(-/-) resembles the associative learning deficit seen in patients with panic disorder and suggests that normal SERT functioning is crucial for the development of an adequate fear neuro-circuitry. Moreover, the normalization of fear acquisition by CP154,526 suggests a role for central CRF signaling in the generalization of fear.

  2. Association of Smoking with Mu- Opioid Receptor Availability Before and During Naltrexone Blockade in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Weerts, Elise M.; Wand, Gary S.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Frost, J.James; Wong, Dean F.; McCaul, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Persons with a history of alcohol dependence are more likely to use tobacco and to meet criteria for nicotine dependence compared to social drinkers or nondrinkers. The high levels of comorbidity of nicotine and alcohol use and dependence are thought to be related to interactions between nicotinic, opioid and dopamine receptors in mesolimbic regions. The current study examined whether individual differences in regional mu-opioid receptor (MOR) availability were associated with tobacco use, nicotine dependence, and level of nicotine craving in 25 alcohol dependent (AD) subjects. AD subjects completed an inpatient protocol, which included medically supervised alcohol withdrawal, monitored alcohol abstinence, transdermal nicotine maintenance (21 mg/day), and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging using the MOR agonist [11C]-carfentanil (CFN) before (basal scan) and during treatment with 50 mg/day naltrexone (naltrexone scan). Subjects who had higher scores on the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Test had significantly lower basal scan binding potential (BPND) across mesolimbic regions including the amygdala, cingulate, globus pallidus, thalamus and insula. Likewise, the number of cigarettes per day was negatively associated with basal scan BPND in mesolimbic regions Higher nicotine craving was significantly associated with lower BPND in amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus and ventral striatum. Although blunted during naltrexone treatment, the negative association was maintained for nicotine dependence and cigarettes per day, but not for nicotine craving. These findings suggest that intensity of cigarette smoking and severity of nicotine dependence symptoms are systematically related to reduced BPND across multiple brain regions in AD subjects. PMID:23252742

  3. Adenosine A1-receptor blockade impairs the ability of rat pups to autoresuscitate from primary apnea during repeated exposure to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Fewell, James E; Lun, Rongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Failure of gasping to bring about autoresuscitation from hypoxia-induced apnea has been suggested to play a role in sudden unexpected infant death. Little is known, however, about factors that influence the ability of gasping to restore life during severe hypoxia in newborns. Given that adenosine modulates cardiac function during hypoxia-induced apnea and that cardiac dysfunction plays a role in mediating autoresuscitation failure, the present experiments were carried out on 34, 5- to 6-, and 10- to 11-day-old rat pups to investigate their ability to autoresuscitate from hypoxia-induced apnea during repeated exposure to hypoxia after adenosine A1-receptor blockade. Each pup was placed into a temperature-controlled chamber regulated to 37 ± 1°C and repeatedly exposed to an anoxic gas mixture (97% N2 and 3% CO2) until the occurrence of autoresuscitation failure. One group was studied following administration of the selective adenosine A1-receptor antagonist 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3,-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) and one group was studied following vehicle. DPCPX significantly attenuated bradycardia during hypoxia-induced apnea and impaired the ability of both age groups of pups to autoresuscitate during repeated exposure to hypoxia (5–6 days tolerated – vehicle 17 ± 4 vs. DPCPX 10 ± 2 hypoxia exposures [P < 0.05]; 10–11 days tolerated – vehicle 10 ± 2 vs. DPCPX 7 ± 2 hypoxia exposures [P < 0.05]). Death in all pups resulted from the inability of gasping to restore cardiovascular function during hypoxia-induced apnea although the mechanism of cardiovascular dysfunction/failure was influenced and the occurrence hastened by DPCPX. Thus, our data provide evidence that adenosine acting via adenosine A1-receptors enhances the ability of rat pups to tolerate repeated exposure to severe hypoxia during early postnatal maturation. PMID:26272732

  4. Malaria inhibits surface expression of complement receptor-1 in monocyte/macrophages causing decreased immunecomplex internalization

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Arias, Cristina; Lopez, Jean Pierre; Hernandez-Perez, Jean Nikolae; Bautista-Ojeda, Maria Dolores; Branch, OraLee; Rodriguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1) expressed on the surface of phagocytic cells binds complement-bound IC playing an important role in the clearance of circulating immunecomplexes (IC). This receptor is critical to prevent accumulation of IC, which can contribute to inflammatory pathology. Accumulation of circulating IC is frequently observed during malaria, although the factors contributing to this accumulation are not clearly understood. We have observed that the surface expression of CR1 on monocyte/macrophages and B cells is strongly reduced in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii, a rodent malaria model. Monocyte/macrophages from these infected mice present a specific inhibition of complement-mediated internalization of IC caused by the decreased CR1 expression. Accordingly, mice show accumulation of circulating IC and deposition of IC in the kidneys that inversely correlates with the decrease in CR1 surface expression. Our results indicate that malaria induces a significant decrease on surface CR1 expression in the monocyte/macrophage population that results in deficient internalization of IC by monocyte/macrophages. To determine whether this phenomenon is found in human malaria patients, we have analyzed 92 patients infected with either P. falciparum (22) or P. vivax (70), the most prevalent human malaria parasites. The levels of surface CR1 on peripheral monocyte/macrophages and B cells of these patients show a significant decrease compared to uninfected control individuals in the same area. We propose that this decrease in CR1 plays an essential role in impaired IC clearance during malaria. PMID:23440418

  5. Activation and blockade of prelimbic 5-HT6 receptors produce different effects on depressive-like behaviors in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yong; Sun, Yi-Na; Guo, Yuan; Du, Cheng-Xue; Zhang, Jin; Yao, Lu; Yu, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    The role of prelimbic (PrL) 5-HT6 receptors in depression is poorly understood, particularly in Parkinson's disease-related depression. Here we reported that 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in rats decreased sucrose preference and increased immobility time as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats, indicating the induction of depressive-like behaviors. Intra-PrL injection of 5-HT6 receptor agonist WAY208466 induced depressive-like responses in sham-operated rats, and produced antidepressant-like effects in the lesioned rats. However, 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB258585 produced antidepressant-like effects in sham-operated rats, and increased the expression of depressive-like behaviors in the lesioned rats. Neurochemical results showed that intra-PrL injection of WAY208466 and SB258585 decreased or increased dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, habenula and ventral hippocampus in sham-operated and the lesioned rats, respectively. WAY208466 increased the firing rate of PrL glutamate neurons in the two groups of rats, while SB258585 decreased the firing rate of the neurons. Compared to sham-operated rats, the duration of WAY208466 and SB258585 action on the firing rate of glutamate neurons was markedly prolonged in the lesioned rats. The lesion did not change the co-localization of 5-HT6 receptor and glutamate neurons in the PrL. These findings indicate that 5-HT6 receptors in the PrL are involved in the regulation of depressive-like behaviors, which attribute to changes in DA and NA levels in the limbic and limbic-related brain regions. Additionally, the results suggest that the lesion leads to a supersensitization of 5-HT6 receptors on glutamate neurons in the PrL.

  6. PTEN overexpression attenuates angiogenic processes of endothelial cells by blockade of endothelin-1/endothelin B receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Mei; Lin, Chun-Yao; Lam, Hing-Chung; Lin, Pey-Ru; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Tseng, Jui-Cheng; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Hsu, Te-Fa; Wu, Chia-Ching; Yang, Chao-Yuh; Hsu, Ching-Mei; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2012-04-01

    Arteriovenous (AV) graft is frequently used as vascular access in hemodialysis patients. However, clotting or thrombosis of AV grafts often occurs and requires surgical removal. At present, the molecular pathogenesis underlying thrombosis of AV graft is not clear. The PTEN/Akt signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In this study, elevated PTEN expression and concomitant Akt inactivation was observed in endothelium of atherosclerotic brachial arteries from hemodialysis patients. To investigate whether PTEN upregulation affects endothelial function, adenovirus-mediated PTEN (Ad-PTEN) overexpression was performed in aorta rings and cultured endothelial cells. It was found that PTEN overexpression potently inhibited the microvessel sprouting in aorta rings and the angiogenic activities of endothelial cells including migration and tube formation. On the contrary, PTEN knockdown by RNA interference promoted the endothelial migration and reversed the Ad-PTEN-induced inhibition of endothelial migration. Expression analysis showed that PTEN overexpression attenuated the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin B receptor (ETBR) in endothelial cells at transcriptional levels. However, exogenous ET-1 supply only partially reversed the PTEN-induced inhibition of migration and tube formation. This was delineated due to that PTEN overexpression also perturbed endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. In summary, PTEN upregulation induces endothelial dysfunction by attenuating the availability and signaling of multiple angiogenic pathways in endothelial cells, thereby may contribute to thrombosis of AV graft.

  7. Testing synaptic plasticity in dynamic mate choice decisions: N-methyl D-aspartate receptor blockade disrupts female preference.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Mary E; Vu, Wendy; Cummings, Molly E

    2014-06-22

    Social behaviours such as mate choice require context-specific responses, often with evolutionary consequences. Increasing evidence indicates that the behavioural plasticity associated with mate choice involves learning. For example, poeciliids show age-dependent changes in female preference functions and express synaptic-plasticity-associated molecular markers during mate choice. Here, we test whether social cognition is necessary for female preference behaviour by blocking the central player in synaptic plasticity, NMDAR (N-methyl d-aspartate receptor), in a poeciliid fish, Xiphophorus nigrensis. After subchronic exposure to NMDAR antagonist MK-801, female preference behaviours towards males were dramatically reduced. Overall activity levels were unaffected, but there was a directional shift from 'social' behaviours towards neutral activity. Multivariate gene expression patterns significantly discriminated between females with normal versus disrupted plasticity processes and correlated with preference behaviours-not general activity. Furthermore, molecular patterns support a distinction between 'preference' (e.g. neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDAR) and 'sociality' (isotocin and vasotocin) gene clusters, highlighting a possible conservation between NMDAR disruption and nonapeptides in modulating behaviour. Our results suggest that mate preference may involve greater social memory processing than overall sociality, and that poeciliid preference functions integrate synaptic-plasticity-oriented 'preference' pathways with overall sociality to invoke dynamic, context-specific responses towards favoured males and away from unfavoured males.

  8. TREK1 channel blockade induces an antidepressant-like response synergizing with 5-HT1A receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dongqing; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiangrong; Guo, Fei; Geng, Leiyu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-12-01

    Current antidepressants often remain the inadequate efficacy for many depressive patients, which warrant the necessary endeavor to develop the new molecules and targets for treating depression. Recently, the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK1 has been implicated in mood regulation and TREK-1 antagonists could be the promising antidepressant. This study has screened a TREK1 blocker (SID1900) with a satisfactory blood-brain barrier permeation and bioavailability. Electrophysiological research has shown that SID1900 and the previously reported TREK1 blocker (spadin) efficiently blocked TREK-1 current in HEK293 cells and specifically blocked two-pore domain potassium channels in primary-cultured rat hippocampal neurons. SID1900 and spadin induced a significant antidepressant-like response in the rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Both two TREK1 blockers substantially increased the firing rate of 5-HT-ergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) and PFC of CUMS rats. SID1900 and spadin significantly up-regulated the expression of PKA-pCREB-BDNF signaling in DRN, hippocampus and PFC of CUMS rats, which were enhanced and reversed by a 5-HTR1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT) and antagonist (WAY100635) respectively. The present findings suggested that TREK1 channel blockers posses the substantial antidepressant-like effect and have the potential synergistic effect with 5-HT1A receptor activation through the common CREB-BDNF signal transduction. PMID:26441141

  9. Histamine-1 receptor blockade does not prevent nitroglycerin induced migraine. Support for the NO-hypothesis of migraine.

    PubMed

    Lassen, L H; Thomsen, L L; Kruuse, C; Iversen, H K; Olesen, J

    1996-01-01

    It has previously been shown that in migraine sufferers infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and histamine causes an immediate headache during the infusion and a genuine migraine attack one to several hours after the infusion. This identical time profile indicates a common mechanism of action. To evaluate whether GTN causes headache via liberation of histamine, we studied the effect of GTN 0.5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 20 min in seven migraine sufferers, once after pretreatment with the histamine-1 (H1)-receptor blocker mepyramine (0.5 mg.kg-1) and once without pretreatment. This mepyramine dose is known to completely abolish histamine-induced headache. After pretreatment with mepyramine five patients experienced migraine, and without pretreatment six patients did so. The median peak headache score was 7 on a 0-10 scale with and without mepyramine pretreatment. The arterial responses, evaluated with transcranial Doppler, were also unaffected by the mepyramine pretreatment. Our results demonstrate that neither headache nor arterial dilatation due to GTN infusion is caused by histamine release. In all likelihood the common mediator of migraine induction by GTN and histamine is nitric oxide.

  10. Effects of blockade of α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stimuli conditioned to nicotine consumption critically contributes to the high relapse rates of tobacco smoking. Our previous work demonstrated that non-selective blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) reversed the cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking, indicating a role for cholinergic neurotransmission in the mediation of the conditioned incentive properties of nicotine cues. The present study further examined the relative roles of the two major nAChR subtypes, α4β2 and α7, in the cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to intravenously self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, free base) on a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. A nicotine-conditioned cue was established by associating a sensory stimulus with each nicotine infusion. After nicotine-maintained responding was extinguished by withholding the nicotine infusion and its paired cue, reinstatement test sessions were conducted with re-presentation of the cue but without the availability of nicotine. Thirty minutes before the tests, the rats were administered the α4β2-selective antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) and α7-selective antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). Pretreatment with MLA, but not DHβE, significantly reduced the magnitude of the cue-induced reinstatement of responses on the active, previously nicotine-reinforced lever. In different sets of rats, MLA altered neither nicotine self-administration nor cue-induced reinstatement of food seeking. These results demonstrate that activation of α7 nAChRs participates in the mediation of the conditioned incentive properties of nicotine cues and suggest that α7 nAChRs may be a promising target for the development of medications for the prevention of cue-induced smoking relapse.

  11. Effects of blockade of α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stimuli conditioned to nicotine consumption critically contributes to the high relapse rates of tobacco smoking. Our previous work demonstrated that non-selective blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) reversed the cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking, indicating a role for cholinergic neurotransmission in the mediation of the conditioned incentive properties of nicotine cues. The present study further examined the relative roles of the two major nAChR subtypes, α4β2 and α7, in the cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to intravenously self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, free base) on a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. A nicotine-conditioned cue was established by associating a sensory stimulus with each nicotine infusion. After nicotine-maintained responding was extinguished by withholding the nicotine infusion and its paired cue, reinstatement test sessions were conducted with re-presentation of the cue but without the availability of nicotine. Thirty minutes before the tests, the rats were administered the α4β2-selective antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) and α7-selective antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). Pretreatment with MLA, but not DHβE, significantly reduced the magnitude of the cue-induced reinstatement of responses on the active, previously nicotine-reinforced lever. In different sets of rats, MLA altered neither nicotine self-administration nor cue-induced reinstatement of food seeking. These results demonstrate that activation of α7 nAChRs participates in the mediation of the conditioned incentive properties of nicotine cues and suggest that α7 nAChRs may be a promising target for the development of medications for the prevention of cue-induced smoking relapse. PMID:23953129

  12. Prevention by blockade of angiotensin subtype1-receptors of the development of genetic hypertension but not its heritability.

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, P.; Anania, V.; Varoni, M. V.; Parpaglia, P. P.; Demontis, M. P.; Fattaccio, M. C.; Palomba, D.; Pollock, D.; Glorioso, N.

    1995-01-01

    1. We determined whether early inhibition of angiotensin II subtype1 (AT1) receptors by the newly synthesized nonpeptidic antagonist, A-81988, can attenuate the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and if the altered blood pressure phenotype can be passed on to the subsequent generation, not exposed to the antagonist. 2. Pairs of SHR were mated while drinking tap water or A-81988 in tap water, and the progeny was maintained on the parental regimen until 14 weeks of age. At this stage, A-81988-treated rats showed lower systolic blood pressure and body weight values (136 +/- 5 versus 185 +/- 4 mmHg and 247 +/- 4 versus 283 +/- 4 g in controls, P < 0.01); while heart rate was similar. In addition, mean blood pressure was reduced (101 +/- 7 versus 170 +/- 7 mmHg in controls, P < 0.01), and the pressor responses to intravenous or intracerebroventricular angiotensin II were inhibited by 27 and 59%, respectively. Heart/body weight ratio was smaller in A-81988-treated rats (3.2 +/- 0.1 versus 3.8 +/- 0.1 in controls, P < 0.01). 3. The antihypertensive and antihypertrophic effect of A-81988 persisted in rats removed from therapy for 7 weeks (systolic blood pressure: 173 +/- 4 versus 220 +/- 4 mmHg, heart/body weight ratio: 3.4 +/- 0.1 versus 4.1 +/- 0.1 in controls at 21 weeks of age, P < 0.01 for both comparisons), whereas the cardiovascular hypertensive phenotype was fully expressed in the subsequent generation that was maintained without treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582472

  13. Thymic involution in the suspended rat model for weightlessness - Decreased glucocorticoid receptor concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1984-01-01

    Hindlimb muscle atrophy, thymic involution and adrenal hypertrophy in rats during spaceflight can be simulated using suspension models. Skeletal muscle and thymus are sensitive to gluco-corticoids (GC), and previous studies have demonstrated that muscle atrophy in suspended rats is associated with increased GC receptor concentration. The objectives were to confirm thymic involution during suspension, and determine if involution correlated with increased GC receptor concentration. Seven days of antiorthostatic (AO) suspension of rats produced a significant (P less than 0.001) reduction in thymic wet weight not associated with an alteration of percent water content. GC receptor concentration (pmol/mg protein) decreased 20 percent (P less than 0.025) in thymus glands from 7 day AO suspended rats. Suspension, therefore, is associated with involution of the thymus, but this is not dependent upon AO positioning. Thymus GC receptor concentrations were depressed in 7-day suspended rats, in contrast with previous observations on skeletal muscle, suggesting that different mechanisms may underlie these responses.

  14. Activation of NMDA receptors prevents excessive metabolic decrease in hypoxic rat pups.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Shafiulla; Joseph, Vincent

    2006-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that glutamate NMDA receptors may help maintain metabolic rate and body temperature during acute or chronic hypoxic exposure in newborn rats. We recorded ventilation, metabolism ((.)V(O(2)) -- ((.)V(CO(2)) and rectal temperature, under normoxia, acute hypoxia (30 min -- 12% O(2)), or following 10 days of chronic hypoxia, in 10 days old male and female rats, receiving saline i.p. injection or the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Acute hypoxia decreased rectal temperature and metabolism, and increased ventilation, and (.)V(E)/((.)V(O(2) and (.)V(E)/((.)V(CO(2) to the same extent in males and females. MK-801 injection amplified the metabolic decrease under acute (in males and females) and chronic (in males) hypoxia, prevented the increase of minute ventilation, while (.)V(E)/((.)V(O(2) or (.)V(E)/((.)V(CO(2)remained constant. Hence, NMDA glutamate receptors help to maintain metabolic rate, minute ventilation and body temperature at a determined level in acute (males and females) and chronic hypoxia (males only).

  15. The Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist Almorexant Induces Sleep and Decreases Orexin-Induced Locomotion by Blocking Orexin 2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Géraldine M.; Dürst, Thomas; Bürki, Hugo; Imobersteg, Stefan; Abramowski, Dorothee; Schuepbach, Edi; Hoyer, Daniel; Fendt, Markus; Gee, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Orexin peptides activate orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R), regulate locomotion and sleep-wake. The dual OX1R/OX2R antagonist almorexant reduces activity and promotes sleep in multiple species, including man. The relative contributions of the two receptors in locomotion and sleep/wake regulation were investigated in mice. Design: Mice lacking orexin receptors were used to determine the contribution of OX1R and OX2R to orexin A-induced locomotion and to almorexant-induced sleep. Setting: N/A. Patients or Participants: C57BL/6J mice and OX1R+/+, OX1R-/-, OX2R+/+, OX2R-/- and OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Interventions: Intracerebroventricular orexin A; oral dosing of almorexant. Measurements and Results: Almorexant attenuated orexin A-induced locomotion. As in other species, almorexant dose-dependently increased rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and nonREM sleep in mice. Almorexant and orexin A were ineffective in OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Both orexin A-induced locomotion and sleep induction by almorexant were absent in OX2R-/- mice. Interestingly, almorexant did not induce cataplexy in wild-type mice under conditions where cataplexy was seen in mice lacking orexins and in OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Almorexant dissociates very slowly from OX2R as measured functionally and in radioligand binding. Under non equilibrium conditions in vitro, almorexant was a dual antagonist whereas at equilibrium, almorexant became OX2R selective. Conclusions: In vivo, almorexant specifically inhibits the actions of orexin A. The two known orexin receptors mediate sleep induction by almorexant and orexin A-induced locomotion. However, OX2R activation mediates locomotion induction by orexin A and antagonism of OX2R is sufficient to promote sleep in mice. Citation: Mang GM; Dürst T; Bürki H; Imobersteg S; Abramowski D; Schuepbach E; Hoyer D; Fendt M; Gee CE. The dual orexin receptor antagonist almorexant induces sleep and decreases orexin-induced locomotion by blocking orexin

  16. Blockade or deletion of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is not protective in a murine model of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Claire A.; Starr, Anna; Nandi, Manasi; Grant, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response triggered by microbial infection that can cause cardiovascular collapse, insufficient tissue perfusion and multi-organ failure. The cation channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is expressed in vascular endothelium and causes vasodilatation, but excessive TRPV4 activation leads to profound hypotension and circulatory collapse - key features of sepsis pathogenesis. We hypothesised that loss of TRPV4 signaling would protect against cardiovascular dysfunction in a mouse model of sepsis (endotoxaemia). Multi-parameter monitoring of conscious systemic haemodynamics (by radiotelemetry probe), mesenteric microvascular blood flow (laser speckle contrast imaging) and blood biochemistry (iSTAT blood gas analysis) was carried out in wild type (WT) and TRPV4 knockout (KO) mice. Endotoxaemia was induced by a single intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 12.5 mg/kg) and systemic haemodynamics monitored for 24 h. Blood flow recording was then conducted under terminal anaesthesia after which blood was obtained for haematological/biochemical analysis. No significant differences were observed in baseline haemodynamics or mesenteric blood flow. Naïve TRPV4 KO mice were significantly acidotic relative to WT counterparts. Following induction of sepsis, all mice became significantly hypotensive, though there was no significant difference in the degree of hypotension between TRPV4 WT and KO mice. TRPV4 KO mice exhibited a higher sepsis severity score. While septic WT mice became significantly hypernatraemic relative to the naïve state, this was not observed in septic KO mice. Mesenteric blood flow was inhibited by topical application of the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A in naïve WT mice, but enhanced 24 h following LPS injection. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, loss of TRPV4 signaling (either through gene deletion or pharmacological antagonism) did not attenuate sepsis-induced cardiovascular dysfunction: in fact

  17. Frontal fasciculi and psychotic symptoms in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia before and after 6 weeks of selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H.; Raghava, Jayachandra M.; Nielsen, Mette Ø.; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychotic symptoms are core clinical features of schizophrenia. We tested recent hypotheses proposing that psychotic, or positive, symptoms stem from irregularities in long-range white matter tracts projecting into the frontal cortex, and we predicted that selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade would restore white matter. Methods Between December 2008 and July 2011, antipsychoticnaive patients with first-episode schizophrenia and matched healthy controls underwent baseline examination with 3 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging and clinical assessments. We assessed group differences of fractional anisotropy (FA) using voxelwise tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and anatomic region of interest (ROI)–based analyses. Subsequently, patients underwent 6 weeks of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride. We repeated the examinations after 6 weeks. Results We included 38 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 38 controls in our analysis, and 28 individuals in each group completed the study. At baseline, whole brain TBSS analyses revealed lower FA in patients in the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), right cingulum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and right corticospinal tract (CT). Fractional anisotropy in the right ATR correlated with positive symptoms (z = 2.64, p = 0.008). The ROI analyses showed significant associations between positive symptoms and FA of the frontal fasciculi, specifically the right arcuate fasciculus (z = 2.83, p = 0.005) and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (z = −3.31, p = 0.001). At re-examination, all correlations between positive symptoms and frontal fasciculi had resolved. Fractional anisotropy in the ATR increased more in patients than in controls (z = −4.92, p < 0.001). The amisulpride dose correlated positively with FA changes in the right CT (t = 2.52, p = 0.019). Limitations Smoking and a previous diagnosis of substance abuse were potential confounders. Long-term effects of amisulpride on white

  18. Decreased Cocaine Motor Sensitization and Self-Administration in Mice Overexpressing Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Trigo, José M; García-Gutiérrez, María S; Ortega-Álvaro, Antonio; Ternianov, Alexander; Navarro, Daniela; Robledo, Patricia; Berbel, Pere; Maldonado, Rafael; Manzanares, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The potential involvement of the cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2r) in the adaptive responses induced by cocaine was studied in transgenic mice overexpressing the CB2r (CB2xP) and in wild-type (WT) littermates. For this purpose, the acute and sensitized locomotor responses to cocaine, conditioned place preference, and cocaine intravenous self-administration were evaluated. In addition, we assessed whether CB2r were localized in neurons and/or astrocytes, and whether they colocalized with dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (D1Dr and D2Dr). Dopamine (DA) extracellular levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and μ-opioid and cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the NAcc were also studied in both genotypes. CB2xP mice showed decreased motor response to acute administration of cocaine (10–20 mg/kg) and cocaine-induced motor sensitization compared with WT mice. CB2xP mice presented cocaine-induced conditioned place aversion and self-administered less cocaine than WT mice. CB2r were found in neurons and astrocytes and colocalized with D2Dr in the VTA and NAcc. No significant differences in extracellular DA levels in the NAcc were observed between genotypes after cocaine administration. Under baseline conditions, TH and DAT gene expression was higher and μ-opioid receptor gene expression was lower in CB2xP than in WT mice. However, both genotypes showed similar changes in TH and μ-opioid receptor gene expression after cocaine challenge independently of the pretreatment received. Importantly, the cocaine challenge decreased DAT gene expression to a lesser extent in cocaine-pretreated CB2xP than in cocaine-pretreated WT mice. These results revealed that CB2r are involved in cocaine motor responses and cocaine self-administration, suggesting that this receptor could represent a promising target to develop novel treatments for cocaine addiction. PMID:22414816

  19. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity, cytokine and neuroendocrine responses to opioid receptor blockade during prolonged restraint in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ciepielewski, Z M; Stojek, W; Borman, A; Myślińska, D; Glac, W; Kamyczek, M

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated porcine natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC), plasma cytokines including interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α and plasma stress-related hormones including prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), β-endorphin (BEND), ACTH and cortisol (COR) during a 4h restraint and recovery phase after saline or naloxone (1mg/kg BW) administration. The restraint preceded with saline altered NKCC and IL-12 concentration (an early from 15 to 60 min increase followed by a decrease) and increased other measured cytokines and hormones concentrations. Naloxone pretreatment blocked the suppressive effects of the restraint on NKCC and IL-12 and altered IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, PRL and ACTH concentrations. Furthermore, in naloxone-injected pigs, a positive correlation was found between NKCC and all measured cytokines (with the exception of IL-6) and BEND, ACTH and COR. Results suggest that naloxone-sensitive opioid pathways could influence the mechanisms underlying the immune system (including NKCC) response during stress. PMID:24148869

  20. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity, cytokine and neuroendocrine responses to opioid receptor blockade during prolonged restraint in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ciepielewski, Z M; Stojek, W; Borman, A; Myślińska, D; Glac, W; Kamyczek, M

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated porcine natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC), plasma cytokines including interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α and plasma stress-related hormones including prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), β-endorphin (BEND), ACTH and cortisol (COR) during a 4h restraint and recovery phase after saline or naloxone (1mg/kg BW) administration. The restraint preceded with saline altered NKCC and IL-12 concentration (an early from 15 to 60 min increase followed by a decrease) and increased other measured cytokines and hormones concentrations. Naloxone pretreatment blocked the suppressive effects of the restraint on NKCC and IL-12 and altered IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, PRL and ACTH concentrations. Furthermore, in naloxone-injected pigs, a positive correlation was found between NKCC and all measured cytokines (with the exception of IL-6) and BEND, ACTH and COR. Results suggest that naloxone-sensitive opioid pathways could influence the mechanisms underlying the immune system (including NKCC) response during stress.

  1. PD-1 blockade during chronic SIV infection reduces hyperimmune activation and microbial translocation in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Dyavar Shetty, Ravi; Velu, Vijayakumar; Titanji, Kehmia; Bosinger, Steven E; Freeman, Gordon J; Silvestri, Guido; Amara, Rama Rao

    2012-05-01

    Hyperimmune activation is a strong predictor of disease progression during pathogenic immunodeficiency virus infections and is mediated in part by sustained type I IFN signaling in response to adventitious microbial infection. The immune inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) regulates functional exhaustion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during chronic infections, and in vivo PD-1 blockade has been shown to improve viral control of SIV. Here, we show that PD-1 blockade during chronic SIV infection markedly reduced the expression of transcripts associated with type I IFN signaling in the blood and colorectal tissue of rhesus macaques (RMs). The effect of PD-1 blockade on type I IFN signaling was durable and persisted even under conditions of high viremia. Reduced type I IFN signaling was associated with enhanced expression of some of the junction-associated genes in colorectal tissue and with a profound decrease in plasma LPS levels, suggesting a possible repair of gut-associated junctions and decreased microbial translocation into the blood. PD-1 blockade enhanced immunity to gut-resident pathogenic bacteria, control of gut-associated opportunistic infections, and survival of SIV-infected RMs. Our results suggest PD-1 blockade as a potential novel therapeutic approach to enhance combination antiretroviral therapy by suppressing hyperimmune activation in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:22523065

  2. Tissue Distribution Dynamics of Human NK Cells Inferred from Peripheral Blood Depletion Kinetics after Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor Blockade.

    PubMed

    Mehling, M; Burgener, A-V; Brinkmann, V; Bantug, G R; Dimeloe, S; Hoenger, G; Kappos, L; Hess, C

    2015-11-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cell subsets differentially distribute throughout the organism. While CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) NK cell subsets similarly reside in the bone marrow (BM), the CD56(dim) population predominantly accumulates in non-lymphoid tissues and the CD56(bright) counterpart in lymphoid tissue (LT). The dynamics with which these NK cell subsets redistribute to tissues remains unexplored. Here, we studied individuals newly exposed to fingolimod, a drug that efficiently blocks sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-directed lymphocyte - including NK cell - egress from tissue to blood. During an observation period of 6h peripheral blood depletion of CD56(bright) NK cells was observed 3 h after first dose of fingolimod, with 40-50% depletion after 6 h, while a decrease of the numbers of CD56(dim) NK cells did not reach the level of statistical significance. In vitro, CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cells responded comparably to the BM-homing chemokine CXCL12, while CD56(bright) NK cells migrated more efficiently in gradients of the LT-homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21. In conjuncture with these in vitro studies, the indirectly observed subset-specific depletion kinetics from blood are compatible with preferential and more rapid redistribution of CD56(bright) NK cells from blood to peripheral tissue such as LT and possibly also the inflamed central nervous system. These data shed light on an unexplored level at which access of NK cells to LT, and thus, for example antigen-presenting cells, is regulated.

  3. Blockade of D1 dopamine receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex attenuates amphetamine- and methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hall, Darien A; Powers, John P; Gulley, Joshua M

    2009-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a component of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system involved in psychostimulant-induced hyperactivity and previous studies have shown that altering DA transmission or D2 receptors within the mPFC can decrease this stimulant effect. The goal of this study was to investigate a potential modulatory role for D1 receptors in the mPFC in amphetamine (AMPH)- and methamphetamine (METH)-induced hyperactivity. Locomotor activity in an open-field arena was measured in male, Sprague-Dawley rats given an intra-mPFC infusion of vehicle or the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0.25 or 1.0 microg) prior to systemic (i.p.) injection of saline, AMPH (1 mg/kg), or METH (1 mg/kg). We found that SCH 23390 produced a dose-dependent decrease in AMPH- and METH-induced locomotion and rearing but had no significant effect on spontaneous behavior that occurred following systemic saline injections. Because SCH 23390 has been shown to have agonist-like properties at 5-HT(2C) receptors, a follow-up experiment was performed to determine if this contributed to the attenuation of METH-induced activity that we observed. Rats were given intra-mPFC infusions of both SCH 23390 (1.0 microg) and the 5-HT(2C) antagonist RS 102221 (0.25 microg) prior to METH (1 mg/kg, i.p.). The addition of the 5-HT(2C) antagonist failed to alter SCH 23390-induced decreases in METH-induced locomotion and rearing; infusion of RS 102221 alone had no significant effects on locomotion and produced a non-significant decrease in rearing. The results of these studies suggest that D1 activation in the mPFC plays a significant role in AMPH- and METH-induced hyperactivity.

  4. Allopregnanolone, a GABAA receptor agonist, decreases gonadotropin levels in women. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Timby, Erika; Hedström, Helena; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Nyberg, Sigrid; Bixo, Marie

    2011-12-01

    Animal studies suggest regulatory effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis by allopregnanolone, an endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor agonist. Elevated levels of allopregnanolone in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea have been seen. Isoallopregnanolone is an isomer to allopregnanolone, but without GABA(A) receptor effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of allopregnanolone and isoallopregnanolone on gonadotropin levels in healthy women of fertile age. Ten women were given allopregnanolone and five women isoallopregnanolone intravenously in follicular phase. Repeated blood samples were drawn during the test day. Main outcomes were changes in serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), oestradiol, and progesterone. Serum-FSH decreased between 5 and 105 min after the allopregnanolone injection (F(16,144)=2.18, p=0.008). Serum-LH was reduced between 5 and 35 min following the allopregnanolone injection (F(16,144)=2.63, p=0.001). Serum-oestradiol and -progesterone were not significantly changed after allopregnanolone injections. No effect on gonadotropin levels were seen after administration of isoallopregnanolone. Allopregnanolone reduces FSH and LH levels in women and the effect might be mediated via a specific GABA(A) receptor activation since isoallopregnanolone lacked this effect. Although the number of women was small, the results suggest a regulatory mechanism on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by allopregnanolon.

  5. Estradiol decreases cortical reactive astrogliosis after brain injury by a mechanism involving cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    López Rodríguez, Ana Belén; Mateos Vicente, Beatriz; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Noé; Bellini, María José; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco Javier; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Viveros, María-Paz

    2011-09-01

    The neuroactive steroid estradiol reduces reactive astroglia after brain injury by mechanisms similar to those involved in the regulation of reactive gliosis by endocannabinoids. In this study, we have explored whether cannabinoid receptors are involved in the effects of estradiol on reactive astroglia. To test this hypothesis, the effects of estradiol, the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM251, and the cannabinoid CB2 antagonist/inverse agonist AM630 were assessed in the cerebral cortex of male rats after a stab wound brain injury. Estradiol reduced the number of vimentin immunoreactive astrocytes and the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive astrocytes in the proximity of the wound. The effect of estradiol was significantly inhibited by the administration of either CB1 or CB2 receptor antagonists. The effect of estradiol may be in part mediated by alterations in endocannabinoid signaling because the hormone increased in the injured cerebral cortex the messenger RNA levels of CB2 receptors and of some of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of endocannabinoids. These findings suggest that estradiol may decrease reactive astroglia in the injured brain by regulating the activity of the endocannabinoid system.

  6. Decreased circulation time offsets increased efficacy of PEGylated nanocarriers targeting folate receptors of glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeeley, Kathleen M.; Annapragada, Ananth; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2007-09-01

    Liposomal and other nanocarrier based drug delivery vehicles can localize to tumours through passive and/or active targeting. Passively targeted liposomal nanocarriers accumulate in tumours via 'leaky' vasculature through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Passive accumulation depends upon the circulation time and the degree of tumour vessel 'leakiness'. After extravasation, actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers efficiently deliver their payload by receptor-mediated uptake. However, incorporation of targeting moieties can compromise circulation time in the blood due to recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system, decreasing passive accumulation. Here, we compare the efficacy of passively targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers to that of actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers in a rat 9L brain tumour model. Although folate receptor (FR)-targeted liposomal nanocarriers had significantly reduced blood circulation time compared to PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers; intratumoural drug concentrations both at 20 and 50 h after administration were equal for both treatments. Both treatments significantly increased tumour inoculated animal survival by 60-80% compared to non-treated controls, but no difference in survival was observed between FR-targeted and passively targeted nanocarriers. Therefore, alternate approaches allowing for active targeting without compromising circulation time may be important for fully realizing the benefits of receptor-mediated active targeting of gliomas.

  7. Ethylene and pollination decrease transcript abundance of an ethylene receptor gene in Dendrobium petals.

    PubMed

    Thongkum, Monthathip; Burns, Parichart; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-03-15

    We studied the expression of a gene encoding an ethylene receptor, called Ethylene Response Sensor 1 (Den-ERS1), in the petals of Dendrobium orchid flowers. Transcripts accumulated during the young floral bud stage and declined by the time the flowers had been open for several days. Pollination or exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in earlier flower senescence, an increase in ethylene production and a lower Den-ERS1 transcript abundance. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of the ethylene receptor, decreased ethylene production and resulted in high transcript abundance. The literature indicates two kinds of ethylene receptor genes with regard to the effects of ethylene. One group shows ethylene-induced down-regulated transcription, while the other has ethylene-induced up-regulation. The present gene is an example of the first group. The 5' flanking region showed binding sites for Myb and myb-like, homeodomain, MADS domain, NAC, TCP, bHLH and EIN3-like transcription factors. The binding site for the EIN3-like factor might explain the ethylene effect on transcription. A few other transcription factors (RAV1 and NAC) seem also related to ethylene effects.

  8. Antagonist-induced micro-opioid receptor up-regulation decreases G-protein receptor kinase-2 and dynamin-2 abundance in mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minesh; Gomes, Benedict; Patel, Chintan; Yoburn, Byron C

    2002-06-20

    Chronic treatment with opioid receptor antagonists has been shown to increase the density of micro-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in cell culture and in the intact animal. Although opioid receptor antagonist-induced up-regulation is a robust phenomenon, the mechanisms responsible for the increase in receptor density remain unclear. In the present study, changes in a kinase and a GTPase that have been implicated in G-protein-coupled receptor regulation were examined following opioid receptor antagonist treatment. Mice were implanted s.c. with a naltrexone pellet or placebo pellet. On the eighth day following implantation, spinal cord was removed and G-protein receptor kinase-2 (GRK-2) and dynamin-2 abundance were determined using a quantitative immunoblot approach. Changes in micro-opioid receptor density were also determined. Naltrexone treatment produced a significant (145%) increase in micro-opioid receptor density. Naltrexone treatment was associated with a significant 36% decrease in GRK-2 and 30% decrease in dynamin-2 abundance in spinal cord. These data raise the possibility that opioid receptor antagonist-induced micro-opioid receptor up-regulation in the intact animal may be due to a reduction in constitutive internalization of opioid receptors.

  9. Blockade of central and peripheral luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors in neonatal rats with a potent LHRH-antagonist inhibits the morphofunctional development of the thymus and maturation of the cell-mediated and humoral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Morale, M C; Batticane, N; Bartoloni, G; Guarcello, V; Farinella, Z; Galasso, M G; Marchetti, B

    1991-02-01

    Freund adjuvant and BSA) and antibody (anti-BSA antibodies of the immunoglobulin G class) production measured in the serum after 15 days, a marked and significant decrease in immunoglobulin G levels was observed, compared to the values measured in untreated control. The described immune deficiencies in LHRH-anta-treated rats were associated with a clear inhibition of sexual maturation. This study clearly indicates that the blockade of central and peripheral LHRH receptors during a critical period for maturation of both hypothalamus-hypophyseal-gonadal axis and brain-thymus-lymphoid axis dramatically impairs immune system development, suggesting a potential role of the neuropeptide LHRH in the bidirectional programming of both neuroendocrine and immune functions.

  10. Liver X receptor agonists decrease ENaC-mediated sodium transport in collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Jia, Zhanjun; Fongsupa, Somsak; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Yang, Tianxin

    2012-12-15

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that regulate cholesterol, fatty acid, and glucose metabolism in various tissues. However, the renal action of LXRs is not well understood. Here we investigated the effects of LXR-activating ligands on modulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium transport in collecting duct cells. Exposure of the M1 cells to the synthetic LXR agonists T0901317 and GW3965 or the natural ligand 22R-hydroxycholesterol for 24 h decreased amiloride-sensitive sodium transport, corresponding with an increase of transepithelial resistance. The inhibition of amiloride-sensitive sodium transport after incubation with T0901317 or GW3965 was not mediated by a reduction of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-mediated basolateral sodium transport. On the other hand, T0901317 and GW3965 decreased mRNA abundance and membrane expression of ENaC. Preincubation the monolayer with GW3965 attenuated aldosterone-induced stimulation sodium transport. In primary cultures of collecting duct cells, T0901317 and GW3965 similarly inhibited ENaC transport function as in M1 cells. This is the first evidence showing LXR-activating ligands modulate ENaC-mediated sodium transport in collecting duct cells. These results suggest that LXRs may represent a novel therapeutic target for treatment of conditions with dysregulation of ENaC such as hypertension.

  11. Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Hare, Erin P; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2007-01-01

    The role of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the modulation of conspecific aggression in the fighting fish (Betta splendens) was investigated using pharmacological manipulations. We used a fish's response to its mirror image as our index of aggressive behavior. We also investigated the effects of some manipulations on monoamine levels in the B. splendens brain. Acute treatment with 5-HT and with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT both decreased aggressive behavior; however, treatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 did not increase aggression. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine caused no significant changes in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Treatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in no change in aggression, yet serotonergic activity decreased significantly. Finally, a diet supplemented with L-tryptophan (Trp), the precursor to 5-HT, showed no consistent effects on aggressive behavior or brain monoamine concentrations. These results suggest a complex role for serotonin in the expression of aggression in teleost fishes, and that B. splendens may be a useful model organism in pharmacological and toxicological studies.

  12. Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Hare, Erin P; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2007-01-01

    The role of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the modulation of conspecific aggression in the fighting fish (Betta splendens) was investigated using pharmacological manipulations. We used a fish's response to its mirror image as our index of aggressive behavior. We also investigated the effects of some manipulations on monoamine levels in the B. splendens brain. Acute treatment with 5-HT and with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT both decreased aggressive behavior; however, treatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 did not increase aggression. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine caused no significant changes in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Treatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in no change in aggression, yet serotonergic activity decreased significantly. Finally, a diet supplemented with L-tryptophan (Trp), the precursor to 5-HT, showed no consistent effects on aggressive behavior or brain monoamine concentrations. These results suggest a complex role for serotonin in the expression of aggression in teleost fishes, and that B. splendens may be a useful model organism in pharmacological and toxicological studies. PMID:17553555

  13. CB1 receptor deficiency decreases wheel-running activity: consequences on emotional behaviours and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dubreucq, Sarah; Koehl, Muriel; Abrous, Djoher N; Marsicano, Giovanni; Chaouloff, Francis

    2010-07-01

    Chronic voluntary wheel-running activity has been reported to hypersensitise central CB1 receptors in mice. On the other hand, pharmacological findings suggest that the CB1 receptor could be involved in wheel-running behaviour and in running-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We analysed wheel-running behaviour for 6 weeks and measured its consequences on hippocampal neurogenesis in CB1 knockout (CB1(-/-)) animals, compared to wild-type (CB1(+/+)) littermates. Because wheel running has been shown to affect locomotor reactivity in novel environments, memory for aversive events and depression-like behaviours, we also assessed these behaviours in control and running CB1(+/+) and CB1(-/-) mice. When compared with running CB1(+/+) mice, the distance covered weekly by CB1(-/-) mice was decreased by 30-40%, an observation accounted for by decreased time spent and maximal velocity on the wheels. Analyses of running distances with respect to the light/dark cycle revealed that mutant covered less distance throughout both the inactive and the active phases of that cycle. Locomotion in an activity cage, exploration in an open field, and immobility time in the forced swim test proved insensitive to chronic wheel running in either genotype. Wheel running, per se, did not influence the expression and extinction of cued fear memory but counteracted in a time-dependent manner the deficiency of extinction measured in CB1(-/-) mice. Hippocampal neurogenesis, assessed by doublecortin labelling of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, was lowered by 40% in control CB1(-/-) mice, compared to control CB1(+/+) mice. Although CB1(-/-) mice ran less than their wild-type littermates, the 6-week running protocol increased neurogenesis to similar extents (37-39%) in both genotypes. This study suggests that mouse CB1 receptors control wheel running but not its neurogenic consequences in the hippocampus.

  14. Neonatal NMDA receptor blockade disrupts spike timing and glutamatergic synapses in fast spiking interneurons in a NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin S; Corbin, Joshua G; Huntsman, Molly M

    2014-01-01

    The dysfunction of parvalbumin-positive, fast-spiking interneurons (FSI) is considered a primary contributor to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ), but deficits in FSI physiology have not been explicitly characterized. We show for the first time, that a widely-employed model of schizophrenia minimizes first spike latency and increases GluN2B-mediated current in neocortical FSIs. The reduction in FSI first-spike latency coincides with reduced expression of the Kv1.1 potassium channel subunit which provides a biophysical explanation for the abnormal spiking behavior. Similarly, the increase in NMDA current coincides with enhanced expression of the GluN2B NMDA receptor subunit, specifically in FSIs. In this study mice were treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, during the first week of life. During adolescence, we detected reduced spike latency and increased GluN2B-mediated NMDA current in FSIs, which suggests transient disruption of NMDA signaling during neonatal development exerts lasting changes in the cellular and synaptic physiology of neocortical FSIs. Overall, we propose these physiological disturbances represent a general impairment to the physiological maturation of FSIs which may contribute to schizophrenia-like behaviors produced by this model.

  15. Combined renin inhibition/(pro)renin receptor blockade in diabetic retinopathy--a study in transgenic (mREN2)27 rats.

    PubMed

    Batenburg, Wendy W; Verma, Amrisha; Wang, Yunyang; Zhu, Ping; van den Heuvel, Mieke; van Veghel, Richard; Danser, A H Jan; Li, Qiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Prorenin, the precursor of renin is highly elevated in ocular fluid of diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy. Prorenin may exert local effects in the eye by binding to the so-called (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR). Here we investigated the combined effects of the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the putative (P)RR blocker handle-region peptide (HRP) on diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic transgenic (mRen2)27 rats (a model with high plasma prorenin levels) as well as prorenin stimulated cytokine expression in cultured Müller cells. Adult (mRen2)27 rats were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) non-diabetic; (2) diabetic treated with vehicle; (3) diabetic treated with aliskiren (10 mg/kg per day); and (4) diabetic treated with aliskiren+HRP (1 mg/kg per day). Age-matched non-diabetic wildtype Sprague-Dawley rats were used as control. Drugs were administered by osmotic minipumps for three weeks. Transgenic (mRen2)27 rat retinas showed increased apoptotic cell death of both inner retinal neurons and photoreceptors, increased loss of capillaries, as well as increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. These pathological changes were further exacerbated by diabetes. Aliskiren treatment of diabetic (mRen2)27 rats prevented retinal gliosis, and reduced retinal apoptotic cell death, acellular capillaries and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. HRP on top of aliskiren did not provide additional protection. In cultured Müller cells, prorenin significantly increased the expression levels of IL-1α and TNF-α, and this was completely blocked by aliskiren or HRP, their combination, (P)RR siRNA and the AT1R blocker losartan, suggesting that these effects entirely depended on Ang II generation by (P)RR-bound prorenin. In conclusion, the lack of effect of HRP on top of aliskiren, and the Ang II-dependency of the ocular

  16. Touch Perception Altered by Chronic Pain and by Opioid Blockade.

    PubMed

    Case, Laura K; Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L; Richards, Emily A; Olausson, Håkan; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Touch plays a significant role in human social behavior and social communication, and its rewarding nature has been suggested to involve opioids. Opioid blockade in monkeys leads to increased solicitation and receipt of grooming, suggesting heightened enjoyment of touch. We sought to study the role of endogenous opioids in perception of affective touch in healthy adults and in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition shown to involve reduced opioid receptor availability. The pleasantness of touch has been linked to the activation of C-tactile fibers, which respond maximally to slow gentle touch and correlate with ratings of pleasantness. We administered naloxone to patients and healthy controls to directly observe the consequences of µ-opioid blockade on the perceived pleasantness and intensity of touch. We found that at baseline chronic pain patients showed a blunted distinction between slow and fast brushing for both intensity and pleasantness, suggesting reduced C-tactile touch processing. In addition, we found a differential effect of opioid blockade on touch perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. In healthy individuals, opioid blockade showed a trend toward increased ratings of touch pleasantness, while in chronic pain patients it significantly decreased ratings of touch intensity. Further, in healthy individuals, naloxone-induced increase in touch pleasantness was associated with naloxone-induced decreased preference for slow touch, suggesting a possible effect of opioid levels on processing of C-tactile fiber input. These findings suggest a role for endogenous opioids in touch processing, and provide further evidence for altered opioid functioning in chronic pain patients. PMID:27022625

  17. Dopamine Transporter Blockade Increases LTP in the CA1 Region of the Rat Hippocampus via Activation of the D3 Dopamine Receptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swant, Jarod; Wagner, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine has been demonstrated to be involved in the modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. As monoamine transporter blockade will increase the actions of endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters, the effect of a dopamine transporter (DAT) antagonist on LTP was assessed using field excitatory postsynaptic…

  18. Neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological study of opioid pathways in the mesencephalic tectum: effect of mu(1)- and kappa-opioid receptor blockade on escape behavior induced by electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Osaki, M Y; Castellan-Baldan, L; Calvo, F; Carvalho, A D; Felippotti, T T; de Oliveira, R; Ubiali, W A; Paschoalin-Maurin, T; Elias-Filho, D H; Motta, V; da Silva, L A; Coimbra, N C

    2003-12-01

    Deep layers of the superior colliculus (DLSC), the dorsal and ventral periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), and inferior colliculus (IC) are midbrain structures involved in the generation of defensive behavior. beta-Endorphin and Leu-enkephalin are some neurotransmitters that may modulate such behavior in mammals. Light microscopy immunocytochemistry with streptavidin method was used for the localization of the putative cells of defensive behavior with antibodies for endogenous opioids in rat brainstem. Midbrain structures showed positive neurons to beta-endorphin and Leu-enkephalin in similar distributions in the experimental animals, but we also noted the presence of varicose fibers positive to endogenous opioids in the PAG. Neuroanatomical techniques showed varicose fibers from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus to ventral aspects of the PAG, at more caudal levels. Naloxonazine and nor-binaltorphimine, competitive antagonists that block mu(1)- and kappa-opioid receptors, were then used in the present work to investigate the involvement of opioid peptide neural system in the control of the fear-induced reactions evoked by electrical stimulation of the neural substrates of the inferior colliculus. The fear-like responses were measured by electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, eliciting the escape behavior, which is characterized by vigorous running and jumping. Central administration of opioid antagonists (2.5 microg/0.2 microl and 5.0 microg/0.2 microl) was performed in non-anesthetized animals (Rattus norvegicus), and the behavioral manifestations of fear were registered after 10 min, 2 h, and 24 h of the pretreatment. Naloxonazine caused an increase of the defensive threshold, as compared to control, suggesting an antiaversive effect of the antagonism on mu(1)-opioid receptor. This finding was corroborated with central administration of nor-binaltorphimine, which also induced a decrease of the fear-like responses

  19. Inactivation of the EP3 receptor attenuates the Angiotensin II pressor response via decreasing arterial contractility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihong; Miao, Yifei; Zhang, Yahua; Dou, Dou; Liu, Limei; Tian, Xiaoyu; Yang, Guangrui; Pu, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kang, Jihong; Gao, Yuansheng; Wang, Shiqiang; Breyer, Matthew D.; Wang, Nanping; Zhu, Yi; Huang, Yu; Breyer, Richard M; Guan, Youfei

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present studies aimed at elucidating the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor subtype 3 (EP3) in regulating blood pressure. Methods and Results Mice bearing a genetic disruption of the EP3 gene (EP3−/−) exhibited reduced baseline mean arterial pressure monitored by both tail-cuff and carotid arterial catheterization. The pressor responses induced by EP3 agonists M&B28767 and sulprostone were markedly attenuated in EP3−/− mice, while the reduction of BP induced by PGE2 was comparable in both genotypes. Vasopressor effect of acute or chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) was attenuated in EP3−/− mice. AngII–induced vasoconstriction in mesenteric arteries decreased in EP3−/− group. In mesenteric arteries from wild type mice, AngII–induced vasoconstriction was inhibited by EP3 selective antagonist DG-041 or L798106. The expression of Arhgef-1 is attenuated in EP3 deficient mesenteric arteries. EP3 antagonist DG-041 diminished AngII-induced phosphorylation of MLC20 and MYPT1 in isolated mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), AngII induced intracellular Ca2+ increase was potentiated by EP3 agonist sulprostone, while inhibited by DG-041. Conclusions Activation of the EP3 receptor raises baseline blood pressure and contributes to AngII-dependent hypertension at least partially via enhancing Ca2+ sensitivity and intracellular calcium concentration in VSMCs. Selective targeting of the EP3 receptor may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:23065824

  20. Chronic ethanol exposure decreases CB1 receptor function at GABAergic synapses in the rat central amygdala.

    PubMed

    Varodayan, Florence P; Soni, Neeraj; Bajo, Michal; Luu, George; Madamba, Samuel G; Schweitzer, Paul; Parsons, Loren H; Roberto, Marisa

    2016-07-01

    The endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) influence the acute response to ethanol and the development of tolerance, dependence and relapse. Chronic alcohol exposure alters eCB levels and Type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1 ) expression and function in brain regions associated with addiction. CB1 inhibits GABA release, and GABAergic dysregulation in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the transition to alcohol dependence. We investigated possible disruptions in CB1 signaling of rat CeA GABAergic transmission following intermittent ethanol exposure. In the CeA of alcohol-naive rats, CB1 agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (s/mIPSCs). This effect was prevented by CB1 antagonism, but not Type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2 ) antagonism. After 2-3 weeks of intermittent ethanol exposure, these WIN inhibitory effects were attenuated, suggesting ethanol-induced impairments in CB1 function. The CB1 antagonist AM251 revealed a tonic eCB/CB1 control of GABAergic transmission in the alcohol-naive CeA that was occluded by calcium chelation in the postsynaptic cell. Chronic ethanol exposure abolished this tonic CB1 influence on mIPSC, but not sIPSC, frequency. Finally, acute ethanol increased CeA GABA release in both naive and ethanol-exposed rats. Although CB1 activation prevented this effect, the AM251- and ethanol-induced GABA release were additive, ruling out a direct participation of CB1 signaling in the ethanol effect. Collectively, these observations demonstrate an important CB1 influence on CeA GABAergic transmission and indicate that the CeA is particularly sensitive to alcohol-induced disruptions of CB1 signaling.

  1. Nociceptin receptor antagonist SB 612111 decreases high fat diet binge eating.

    PubMed

    Hardaway, J Andrew; Jensen, Jennifer; Kim, Michelle; Mazzone, Christopher M; Sugam, Jonathan A; Diberto, Jeffrey F; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Hwa, Lara S; Pleil, Kristen E; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kash, Thomas L

    2016-07-01

    Binge eating is a dysregulated form of feeding behavior that occurs in multiple eating disorders including binge-eating disorder, the most common eating disorder. Feeding is a complex behavioral program supported through the function of multiple brain regions and influenced by a diverse array of receptor signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown the overexpression of the opioid neuropeptide nociceptin (orphanin FQ, N/OFQ) can induce hyperphagia, but the role of endogenous nociceptin receptor (NOP) in naturally occurring palatability-induced hyperphagia is unknown. In this study we adapted a simple, replicable form of binge eating of high fat food (HFD). We found that male and female C57BL/6J mice provided with daily one-hour access sessions to HFD eat significantly more during this period than those provided with continuous 24h access. This form of feeding is rapid and entrained. Chronic intermittent HFD binge eating produced hyperactivity and increased light zone exploration in the open field and light-dark assays respectively. Treatment with the potent and selective NOP antagonist SB 612111 resulted in a significant dose-dependent reduction in binge intake in both male and female mice, and, unlike treatment with the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, produced no change in total 24-h food intake. SB 612111 treatment also significantly decreased non-binge-like acute HFD consumption in male mice. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that high fat binge eating is modulated by NOP signaling and that the NOP system may represent a promising novel receptor to explore for the treatment of binge eating.

  2. Nociceptin receptor antagonist SB 612111 decreases high fat diet binge eating.

    PubMed

    Hardaway, J Andrew; Jensen, Jennifer; Kim, Michelle; Mazzone, Christopher M; Sugam, Jonathan A; Diberto, Jeffrey F; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Hwa, Lara S; Pleil, Kristen E; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kash, Thomas L

    2016-07-01

    Binge eating is a dysregulated form of feeding behavior that occurs in multiple eating disorders including binge-eating disorder, the most common eating disorder. Feeding is a complex behavioral program supported through the function of multiple brain regions and influenced by a diverse array of receptor signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown the overexpression of the opioid neuropeptide nociceptin (orphanin FQ, N/OFQ) can induce hyperphagia, but the role of endogenous nociceptin receptor (NOP) in naturally occurring palatability-induced hyperphagia is unknown. In this study we adapted a simple, replicable form of binge eating of high fat food (HFD). We found that male and female C57BL/6J mice provided with daily one-hour access sessions to HFD eat significantly more during this period than those provided with continuous 24h access. This form of feeding is rapid and entrained. Chronic intermittent HFD binge eating produced hyperactivity and increased light zone exploration in the open field and light-dark assays respectively. Treatment with the potent and selective NOP antagonist SB 612111 resulted in a significant dose-dependent reduction in binge intake in both male and female mice, and, unlike treatment with the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, produced no change in total 24-h food intake. SB 612111 treatment also significantly decreased non-binge-like acute HFD consumption in male mice. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that high fat binge eating is modulated by NOP signaling and that the NOP system may represent a promising novel receptor to explore for the treatment of binge eating. PMID:27036650

  3. Nociceptin receptor antagonist SB 612111 decreases high fat diet binge eating

    PubMed Central

    Hardaway, J. Andrew; Jensen, Jennifer; Kim, Michelle; Mazzone, Christopher M.; Sugam, Jonathan A.; Diberto, Jeffrey F.; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G.; Hwa, Lara S.; Pleil, Kristen E.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is a dysregulated form of feeding behavior that occurs in multiple eating disorders including binge-eating disorder, the most common eating disorder. Feeding is a complex behavioral program supported through the function of multiple brain regions and influenced by a diverse array of receptor signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown the overexpression of the opioid neuropeptide nociceptin (orphanin FQ, N/OFQ) can induce hyperphagia, but the role of endogenous nociceptin receptor (NOP) in naturally occurring palatability-induced hyperphagia is unknown. In this study we adapted a simple, replicable form of binge eating of high fat food (HFD). We found that male and female C57BL/6J mice provided with daily one-hour access sessions to HFD eat significantly more during this period than those provided with continuous 24 hour access. This form of feeding is rapid and entrained. Chronic intermittent HFD binge eating produced hyperactivity and increased light zone exploration in the open field and light-dark assays respectively. Treatment with the potent and selective NOP antagonist SB 612111 resulted in a significant dose-dependent reduction in binge intake in both male and female mice, and, unlike treatment with the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, produced no change in total 24-hour food intake. SB 612111 treatment also significantly decreased non-binge-like acute HFD consumption in male mice. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that high fat binge eating is modulated by NOP signaling and that the NOP system may represent a promising novel receptor to explore for the treatment of binge eating. PMID:27036650

  4. Decreased expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in ocular Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaokui; Ye, Zi; Kijlstra, Aize; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Peizeng

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is involved in immune responses. AhR is activated following interaction with its ligands, such as 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). In this study, we investigated the role of AhR activation by its endogenous ligands in the pathogenesis of ocular Behcet's disease (BD). The expression of AhR was significantly decreased in active BD patients as compared to inactive BD patients and normal controls. Both FICZ and ITE inhibited Th1 and Th17 polarization and induced the expression of IL-22 by PBMCs and by CD4(+)T cells in active BD patients and normal controls. Stimulation of purified CD4(+)T cells with FICZ or ITE caused a decreased expression of RORC, IL-17, IL-23R, and CCR6 and an increased phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5. The present study suggests that a decreased AhR expression is associated with disease activity in BD patients. The activation of AhR by either FICZ or ITE was able to inhibit Th1 and Th17 cell polarization. Further studies are needed to investigate whether modulation of AhR might be used in the treatment of BD.

  5. Decreased benzodiazepine receptor binding in epileptic El mice: A quantitative autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Shirasaka, Y.; Ito, M.; Tsuda, H.; Shiraishi, H.; Oguro, K.; Mutoh, K.; Mikawa, H. )

    1990-09-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors and subtypes were examined in El mice and normal ddY mice with a quantitative autoradiographic technique. Specific (3H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice, which had experienced repeated convulsions, was significantly lower in the cortex and hippocampus than in ddY mice and unstimulated El mice. In the amygdala, specific ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice was lower than in ddY mice. There was a tendency for the ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in these regions in unstimulated El mice to be intermediate between that in stimulated El mice and that in ddY mice, but there was no significant difference between unstimulated El mice and ddY mice. ({sup 3}H)Flunitrazepam binding displaced by CL218,872 was significantly lower in the cortex of stimulated El mice than in that of the other two groups, and in the hippocampus of stimulated than of unstimulated El mice. These data suggest that the decrease in ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice may be due mainly to that of type 1 receptor and may be the result of repeated convulsions.

  6. Glucocorticoids decrease astrocyte numbers by reducing glucocorticoid receptor expression in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Unemura, Kazuhiro; Kume, Toshiaki; Kondo, Minami; Maeda, Yuki; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Akaike, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are stress hormones released from the adrenal cortex and their concentration is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this study, we investigated the effect of glucocorticoids on the number of astrocytes and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation of cultured astrocytes was reduced following treatment with corticosterone and dexamethasone for 72 h. Corticosterone and dexamethasone also reduced GR expression in astrocytes. RU486, a GR antagonist, inhibited the reduction in both astrocyte proliferation and GR expression. Furthermore, GR knockdown by siRNA inhibited astrocyte proliferation. We also examined the effect of excessive glucocorticoid release on GR expression and the number of astrocytes in vivo by administering adrenocorticotropic hormone to rats for 14 days. GR expression was reduced in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and the number of astrocytes was reduced in the frontal cortex. Overall, our results suggest that glucocorticoids decrease the number of astrocytes by reducing GR expression.

  7. Lithocholic acid decreases expression of bile salt export pump through farnesoid X receptor antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinghua; Lo, Jane-L; Huang, Li; Zhao, Annie; Metzger, Edward; Adams, Alan; Meinke, Peter T; Wright, Samuel D; Cui, Jisong

    2002-08-30

    Bile salt export pump (BSEP) is a major bile acid transporter in the liver. Mutations in BSEP result in progressive intrahepatic cholestasis, a severe liver disease that impairs bile flow and causes irreversible liver damage. BSEP is a target for inhibition and down-regulation by drugs and abnormal bile salt metabolites, and such inhibition and down-regulation may result in bile acid retention and intrahepatic cholestasis. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the regulation of BSEP expression by FXR ligands in primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. We demonstrate that BSEP expression is dramatically regulated by ligands of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Both the endogenous FXR agonist chenodeoxycholate (CDCA) and synthetic FXR ligand GW4064 effectively increased BSEP mRNA in both cell types. This up-regulation was readily detectable at as early as 3 h, and the ligand potency for BSEP regulation correlates with the intrinsic activity on FXR. These results suggest BSEP as a direct target of FXR and support the recent report that the BSEP promoter is transactivated by FXR. In contrast to CDCA and GW4064, lithocholate (LCA), a hydrophobic bile acid and a potent inducer of cholestasis, strongly decreased BSEP expression. Previous studies did not identify LCA as an FXR antagonist ligand in cells, but we show here that LCA is an FXR antagonist with partial agonist activity in cells. In an in vitro co-activator association assay, LCA decreased CDCA- and GW4064-induced FXR activation with an IC(50) of 1 microm. In HepG2 cells, LCA also effectively antagonized GW4064-enhanced FXR transactivation. These data suggest that the toxic and cholestatic effect of LCA in animals may result from its down-regulation of BSEP through FXR. Taken together, these observations indicate that FXR plays an important role in BSEP gene expression and that FXR ligands may be potential therapeutic drugs for intrahepatic cholestasis.

  8. Monovalent Fc receptor blockade by an anti-Fcγ receptor/albumin fusion protein ameliorates murine ITP with abrogated toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaojie; Menard, Melissa; Prechl, József; Bhakta, Varsha; Sheffield, William P; Lazarus, Alan H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) commonly have antiplatelet antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia through Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). Antibodies specific for FcγRs, designed to inhibit antibody-FcγR interaction, had been shown to improve ITP in refractory human patients. However, the development of such FcγR-specific antibodies has stalled because of adverse events, a phenomenon recapitulated in mouse models. One hypothesis behind these adverse events involved the function of the Fc region of the antibody, which engages FcγRs, leading to inflammatory responses. Unfortunately, inhibition of Fc function by deglycosylation failed to prevent this inflammatory response. In this work, we hypothesize that the bivalent antigen-binding fragment regions of immunoglobulin G are sufficient to trigger adverse events and have reasoned that designing a monovalent targeting strategy could circumvent the inflammatory response. To this end, we generated a fusion protein comprising a monovalent human FcγRIIIA-specific antibody linked in tandem to human serum albumin, which retained FcγR-binding activity in vitro. To evaluate clinically relevant in vivo FcγR-blocking function and inflammatory effects, we generated a murine version targeting the murine FcγRIII linked to murine albumin in a passive murine ITP model. Monovalent blocking of FcγR function dramatically inhibited antibody-dependent murine ITP and successfully circumvented the inflammatory response as assessed by changes in body temperature, basophil activation, and basophil depletion. Consistent with our hypothesis, in vivo cross-linking of the fusion protein induced these inflammatory effects, recapitulating the adverse events of the parent antibody. Thus, monovalent blocking of FcγR function demonstrates a proof of concept to successfully treat FcγR-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  9. Aldosterone-reversible decrease in the density of renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in the rat after adrenalectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A.S.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Skolnick, P.

    1987-03-01

    A statistically significant decrease in the density of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was observed in renal membranes of rats beginning 2 weeks after adrenalectomy when compared with sham-operated controls. This decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density was manifest as a decrease in the maximum binding of two ligands, (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 and (/sup 3/H)PK 11195, without accompanying changes in their Kd for this site. Similar changes were not seen in another aldosterone-sensitive organ, the submandibular salivary gland. The decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density observed in adrenalectomized rat renal membranes was restored to control levels after 1 week of aldosterone administration using a dose (12.5 micrograms/kg/day) that had no effect on peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in sham-operated animals. In contrast, dexamethasone administration (50 micrograms/kg/day, 1 week) had no effect on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density when administered to either adrenalectomized or sham-operated rats. Further, adrenal demedullation had no effect on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density or affinity. The decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density was localized to the renal cortex and the outer stripe of the medulla by gross dissection of renal slices and renal tissue section autoradiography. The specific effect of adrenalectomy on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density, the lack of direct effect of aldosterone on (/sup 3/H) Ro 5-4864 binding and the localization of the change in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density to the renal cortex and outer stripe suggest that these changes may reflect an adaptation of the renal nephron (possibly the distal convoluted tubule, intermediate tubule and/or the collecting duct) to the loss of mineralocorticoid hormones.

  10. Loss of calcium responsiveness in cultured bovine parathyroid cells is associated with decreased calcium receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Brown, A J; Zhong, M; Ritter, C; Brown, E M; Slatopolsky, E

    1995-07-26

    Suppression of PTH secretion by extracellular calcium is mediated by a plasma membrane calcium receptor (CaR). However, primary cultures of bovine parathyroid cells are known to quickly lose their responsiveness to extracellular calcium. The present study was designed to determine if the loss of calcium responsiveness is due to changes in CaR expression. In primary monolayer cultures of parathyroid cells, calcium-mediated suppression of PTH was still evident after 24 hours in culture but was completely absent after 6 days. This was preceded by a 75% drop in CaR mRNA content within 24 hours. CaR mRNA levels remained low for the 6-day culture. Earlier time points, examined in parathyroid cell suspensions, showed a 70% drop in CaR mRNA by 4 hours after collagenase-dispersion of the glands and an 85% drop after 24 hours. The decreased expression of CaR mRNA was not influenced by altering medium serum, calcium, or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Our results indicate that the loss of responsiveness of cultured parathyroid cells to calcium is due to decreased CaR mRNA and, presumably, CaR protein expression.

  11. Estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and decreased risk of obesity in women

    PubMed Central

    Goulart, Alessandra C.; Zee, Robert Y.L.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) polymorphisms have been associated with several diseases, but whether they are associated with obesity is uncertain. To elucidate the role of genetic variation in the ESR1 gene with body mass index (BMI), 543 Caucasian women (median age 63 years) from the Women’s Health Study were examined. Most were postmenopausal (99.3%). The relationships between rs2234693 and rs9340799 genotypes and their associated haplotypes with obesity (BMI ≥ 30kg/m2) and overweight (BMI≥25kg/m2) were evaluated. Among women with the rs2234693 TT genotype, 18.3% were obese, while only 8.2% of those with the CC genotype only were obese (p=0.04). In a logistic regression model assuming additive inheritance, rs2234693 was associated with decreased odds of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (crude odds ratio [OR] = 0.63, 95%CI= 0.44-0.90, P=0.01). For rs9340799, only an inverse trend was observed for BMI (P=0.08). Haplotypes that included the variant C allele were associated with a reduced risk of obesity (crude OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.44-0.94, P= 0.02 for C-G). The rs2234693 C allele of ESR1 and its associated genotypes and haplotypes were inversely and consistently associated with obesity. One or more copies of the C allele were associated with decreased risk of obesity in white post-menopausal women. PMID:19375130

  12. Estrogenic compounds decrease growth hormone receptor abundance and alter osmoregulation in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, Darren T.; Sheridan, Mark A.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of Atlantic salmon smolts to estrogenic compounds is shown to compromise several aspects of smolt development. We sought to determine the underlying endocrine mechanisms of estrogen impacts on the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis. Smolts in freshwater (FW) were either injected 3 times over 10 days with 2 μg g−1 17β-estradiol (E2) or 150 μg g−1 4-nonylphenol (NP). Seawater (SW)-acclimated fish received intraperitoneal implants of 30 μg g−1 E2 over two weeks. Treatment with these estrogenic compounds increased hepatosomatic index and total plasma calcium. E2 and NP reduced maximum growth hormone binding by 30–60% in hepatic and branchial membranes in FW and SW, but did not alter the dissociation constant. E2 and NP treatment decreased plasma levels of IGF-I levels in both FW and SW. In FW E2 and NP decreased plasma GH whereas in SW plasma GH increased after E2 treatment. Compared to controls, plasma chloride concentrations of E2-treated fish were decreased 5.5 mM in FW and increased 10.5 mM in SW. There was no effect of NP or E2 on gill sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) activity in FW smolts, whereas E2 treatment in SW reduced gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity and altered the number and size of ionocytes. Our data indicate that E2 downregulates the GH/IGF-I-axis and SW tolerance which may be part of its normal function for reproduction and movement into FW. We conclude that the mechanism of endocrine disruption of smolt development by NP is in part through alteration of the GH/IGF-I axis via reduced GH receptor abundance.

  13. Decreased expression of the vitamin D receptor in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoting; Wang, Liqin; Yan, Chunfang; Zhang, Xinwen; Hui, Lingyun; Sheng, Qiu; Xue, Mingzhan; Yu, Xuewen

    2016-09-15

    The multiple functions of vitamin D3 have stimulated interest in the role that this vitamin may play during pregnancy. The present study investigated the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in women during the first trimester of pregnancy in order to determine whether VDR is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Forty women at 7-10 weeks gestation with RPL and 40 women of similar gestational age with a healthy pregnancy were recruited. VDR mRNA and protein in chorionic villi and decidua were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), western blot, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The serum levels of VDR were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Women with RPL had a significantly weaker expression of VDR mRNA in villi and decidual tissues compared with the control women (both p < 0.0001). Western blot analysis showed an approximately 46% decrease in VDR expression in villi and a 52% decrease in decidua in the RPL vs. the controls. Serum VDR levels were also significantly lower in the RPL group than in the control group (p = 0.003). Compared with the controls, immunohistochemical and CLSM analysis revealed significantly lower VDR expression in villous cytotrophoblasts and stromal cells, as well as in decidual glandular epithelial and stromal cells (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, these observations show that women with RPL have lower levels of VDR expression in chorionic villi, decidua and serum compared with normal pregnant women, suggesting that decreased VDR expression in the first trimester pregnancy may be associated with RPL. PMID:27477959

  14. β3-Adrenoceptor activation relieves oxidative inhibition of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump in hyperglycemia induced by insulin receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A.; Hamilton, Elisha J.; Figtree, Gemma A.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated nitric oxide (NO)- and superoxide (O2·−)-dependent signaling contributes to the pathobiology of diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications. We examined if stimulation of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), coupled to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation, relieves oxidative inhibition of eNOS and the Na+-K+ pump induced by hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was established in male New Zealand White rabbits by infusion of the insulin receptor antagonist S961 for 7 days. Hyperglycemia increased tissue and blood indexes of oxidative stress. It induced glutathionylation of the Na+-K+ pump β1-subunit in cardiac myocytes, an oxidative modification causing pump inhibition, and reduced the electrogenic pump current in voltage-clamped myocytes. Hyperglycemia also increased glutathionylation of eNOS, which causes its uncoupling, and increased coimmunoprecipitation of cytosolic p47phox and membranous p22phox NADPH oxidase subunits, consistent with NADPH oxidase activation. Blocking translocation of p47phox to p22phox with the gp91ds-tat peptide in cardiac myocytes ex vivo abolished the hyperglycemia-induced increase in glutathionylation of the Na+-K+ pump β1-subunit and decrease in pump current. In vivo treatment with the β3-AR agonist CL316243 for 3 days eliminated the increase in indexes of oxidative stress, decreased coimmunoprecipitation of p22phox with p47phox, abolished the hyperglycemia-induced increase in glutathionylation of eNOS and the Na+-K+ pump β1-subunit, and abolished the decrease in pump current. CL316243 also increased coimmunoprecipitation of glutaredoxin-1 with the Na+-K+ pump β1-subunit, which may reflect facilitation of deglutathionylation. In vivo β3-AR activation relieves oxidative inhibition of key cardiac myocyte proteins in hyperglycemia and may be effective in targeting the deleterious cardiac effects of diabetes. PMID:26063704

  15. VEGF receptor expression decreases during lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia induced by nitrofen

    PubMed Central

    Sbragia, L.; Nassr, A.C.C.; Gonçalves, F.L.L.; Schmidt, A.F.; Zuliani, C.C.; Garcia, P.V.; Gallindo, R.M.; Pereira, L.A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in pulmonary vessels have been described in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension; however, how the expression of VEGF receptors changes during fetal lung development in CDH is not understood. The aim of this study was to compare morphological evolution with expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1), in pseudoglandular, canalicular, and saccular stages of lung development in normal rat fetuses and in fetuses with CDH. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n=20 fetuses each) of four different gestational days (GD) 18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5: external control (EC), exposed to olive oil (OO), exposed to 100 mg nitrofen, by gavage, without CDH (N-), and exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH) on GD 9.5 (term=22 days). The morphological variables studied were: body weight (BW), total lung weight (TLW), left lung weight, TLW/BW ratio, total lung volume, and left lung volume. The histometric variables studied were: left lung parenchymal area density and left lung parenchymal volume. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression were determined by Western blotting. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. CDH frequency was 37% (80/216). All the morphological and histometric variables were reduced in the N- and CDH groups compared with the controls, and reductions were more pronounced in the CDH group (P<0.05) and more evident on GD 20.5 and GD 21.5. Similar results were observed for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. We conclude that N- and CDH fetuses showed primary pulmonary hypoplasia, with a decrease in VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. PMID:24519134

  16. VEGF receptor expression decreases during lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia induced by nitrofen.

    PubMed

    Sbragia, L; Nassr, A C C; Gonçalves, F L L; Schmidt, A F; Zuliani, C C; Garcia, P V; Gallindo, R M; Pereira, L A V

    2014-02-01

    Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in pulmonary vessels have been described in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension; however, how the expression of VEGF receptors changes during fetal lung development in CDH is not understood. The aim of this study was to compare morphological evolution with expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1), in pseudoglandular, canalicular, and saccular stages of lung development in normal rat fetuses and in fetuses with CDH. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n=20 fetuses each) of four different gestational days (GD) 18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5: external control (EC), exposed to olive oil (OO), exposed to 100 mg nitrofen, by gavage, without CDH (N-), and exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH) on GD 9.5 (term=22 days). The morphological variables studied were: body weight (BW), total lung weight (TLW), left lung weight, TLW/BW ratio, total lung volume, and left lung volume. The histometric variables studied were: left lung parenchymal area density and left lung parenchymal volume. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression were determined by Western blotting. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. CDH frequency was 37% (80/216). All the morphological and histometric variables were reduced in the N- and CDH groups compared with the controls, and reductions were more pronounced in the CDH group (P<0.05) and more evident on GD 20.5 and GD 21.5. Similar results were observed for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. We conclude that N- and CDH fetuses showed primary pulmonary hypoplasia, with a decrease in VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression.

  17. Effects of alpha1-adrenergic receptor blockade by doxazosin on renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase and vasopressin-degrading activities in male and female rat thalamus.

    PubMed

    de la Chica-Rodríguez, S; Cortés-Denia, P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2007-11-01

    The thalamus has connections with central autonomic centers involved in cardiovascular control and is enervated by noradrenergic fibers. The excitability of thalamic neurons is due to a reduction of ionic currents mediated by alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. The brain renin- angiotensin system (RAS) and the peptide hormone arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are also involved in the central control of blood pressure, and fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been extensively reported that aminopeptidase A (APA), aminopeptidase B (APB), aminopeptidase N (APN), and vasopressin-degrading cystyl aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) play an important role in the regulation of the activity of angiotensins and AVP. We have analyzed the effect of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor blockade by doxazosin on RAS-regulating aminopeptidase activities and AVP-DA in soluble and membrane-bound fractions of male and female rat thalamus. Our results show that alpha(1)-adrenoceptors blockade by doxazosin does not modify the RAS through its degrading peptidases at thalamic level either in male or female rats. However, alpha(1)-adrenoceptors blockade shows gender differences in AVP-DA, increasing in males but not in females, supporting an increased capacity of males against females to degrade AVP and, therefore, to regulate cardiovascular homeostasis, under this pharmacological manipulation.

  18. Simultaneous blockade of the epidermal growth factor receptor/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and rapamycin results in reduced cell growth and survival in biliary tract cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Herberger, Beata; Berger, Walter; Puhalla, Harald; Schmid, Katharina; Novak, Sabine; Brandstetter, Anita; Pirker, Christine; Gruenberger, Thomas; Filipits, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The prognosis of patients with biliary tract adenocarcinomas (BTA) is still poor due to lack of effective systemic treatment options. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this disease is of importance for the development of new treatment strategies. We determined the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and activated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) in paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of BTA (n = 89) by immunohistochemistry. Overall survival was analyzed with Cox models adjusted for clinical and pathologic factors. Combined EGFR/p-mTOR expression was significantly associated with relapse-free survival [adjusted hazard ratio for relapse, 2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.45-3.33; P < 0.001] and overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio for death, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.50-3.58; P < 0.001) of the patients. The effect of the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or cetuximab and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin on growth and survival of five BTA cell lines was tested in short-term 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays and long-term colony formation assays. Simultaneous blockade of EGFR and mTOR in biliary tract cancer cell lines results in a synergistic inhibition of both phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, leading to reduced cell growth and survival. These results suggest that combined targeted therapy with EGFR and mTOR inhibitors may potentially benefit patients with BTAs and should be further evaluated in clinical trials.

  19. Blockade of dopamine D1-like receptor signalling protects mice against OVA-induced acute asthma by inhibiting B-cell activating transcription factor signalling and Th17 function.

    PubMed

    Gong, Subo; Li, Jinxiu; Ma, Libing; Li, Keng; Zhang, Li; Wang, Guyi; Liu, Yi; Ji, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiaokun; Chen, Ping; Ouyang, Ruoyun; Zhang, Shu; Zhou, Zhiguang; Wang, Cong-Yi; Xiang, Xudong; Yang, Yu

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that dopamine D1-like receptor (D1-like-R) signalling is implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and type I diabetes. Given that allergic asthma shares certain disease aetiology similarities with autoimmune diseases, we conducted studies in OVA-induced mice aiming to address the impact of D1-like-R signalling on the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. It was noted that blockade of D1-like-R signalling provided protection for mice against OVA-induced acute asthma. Particularly, treatment of OVA-induced mice with SCH23390, a D1-like-R antagonist, significantly attenuated inflammatory infiltration in the airways along with repressed goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus production, as well as airway resistance. By contrast, administration of SKF83959, a D1-like-R agonist, displayed the opposite effect. Blockade of D1-like-R signalling impaired Th17 function, as manifested by a significant reduction of Th17 cells in the spleen and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Mechanistic studies revealed that D1-like-R signalling enhances B-cell activating transcription factor activity, which then transcribes the expression of RORγt, a Th17 transcription factor; accordingly, D1-like-R signalling regulates Th17 differentiation to promote the development of allergic asthma. Taken together, the data obtained in the present suggest that blockade of D1-like-R signalling could be an effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of allergic asthma in clinical practice.

  20. Pancreatic digestive enzyme blockade in the small intestine prevents insulin resistance in hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    DeLano, Frank A; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is associated with metabolic defects, including hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, but the mechanisms are unknown. We recently demonstrated that reduction of the extracellular domain of the insulin receptor by degrading proteases may lead to a reduced ability to maintain normal plasma glucose values. In shock, transfer of digestive enzymes from the lumen of the intestine into the systemic circulation after breakdown of the intestinal mucosal barrier causes inflammation and organ dysfunction. Suppression of the digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine with protease inhibitors is effective in reducing the level of the inflammatory reactions. To determine the degree to which blockade of digestive enzymes affects insulin resistance in shock, rats were exposed to acute hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg for 2 h) at which time all shed blood volume was returned. Digestive proteases in the intestine were blocked with a serine protease inhibitor (tranexamic acid in polyethylene glycol and physiological electrolyte solution), and the density of the insulin receptor was measured with immunohistochemistry in the mesentery microcirculation. The untreated rat without enzyme blockade had significantly attenuated levels of insulin receptor density as compared with control and treated rats. Blockade of the digestive proteases after 60 min of hypotension in the lumen of the small intestine led to a lesser decrease in insulin receptor density compared with controls without protease blockade. Glucose tolerance test indicates a significant increase in plasma glucose levels 2 h after hemorrhagic shock, which are reduced to control values in the presence of protease inhibition in the lumen of the intestine. The transient reduction of the plasma glucose levels after an insulin bolus is significantly attenuated after shock but is restored when digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine are blocked. These results suggest that in

  1. Decreased Pregnane X Receptor Expression in Children with Active Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vyhlidal, Carrie; Friesen, Craig; Hildreth, Amber; Singh, Vivekanand; Daniel, James; Kearns, Gregory L.; Leeder, J. Steven

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been reported to be decreased in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To investigate the differential expression of PXR in children with Crohn’s disease, a type of IBD, RNA was extracted from archived intestinal biopsies from 18 children with Crohn’s disease (CD) and 12 age- and sex-matched controls (aged 7–17yrs). The aim of this investigation was to compare the relative mRNA expression of PXR, cytochrome p450 3A4 (CYP3A4), and villin 1 (VIL1) (a marker of epithelial cell integrity) in the inflamed terminal ileum (TI) versus noninflamed duodenum of children with CD. Relative expression was determined via reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, data normalized to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and differences in gene expression explored via paired t tests. PXR expression was decreased in the inflamed TI versus noninflamed duodenum (TI = 1.88 ± 0.89 versus duodenum = 2.5 ± 0.67; P < 0.001) in CD, but not controls (TI = 2.11 ± 0.41 versus duodenum = 2.26 ± 0.61; P = 0.52). CYP3A4 expression was decreased in CD (TI = –0.89 ± 3.11 versus duodenum = 1.90 ± 2.29; P < 0.05), but not controls (TI = 2.46 ± 0.51 versus duodenum = 2.60 ± 0.60; P = 0.61), as was VIL1 (CD TI = 3.80 ± 0.94 versus duodenum = 4.61 ± 0.52; P < 0.001; controls TI = 4.30 ± 0.35 versus duodenum = 4.47 ± 0.40; P = 0.29). PXR expression correlated with VIL1 (r = 0.78, P = 0.01) and CYP3A4 (r = 0.52, P = 0.01) expression. In conclusion, PXR, CYP3A4, and VIL1 expression was decreased only in the actively inflamed small intestinal tissue in children with CD. Our findings suggest that inflammation has the potential to influence expression of genes, and potentially intestinal proteins, important to drug disposition and response. The observed differential patterns of gene expression support further investigation of the role of PXR in the pathogenesis and/or treatment of pediatric Crohn

  2. Decreased expression of thyroid receptor-associated protein 220 in temporal lobe tissue of patients with refractory epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinmei . E-mail: jinmeimery@Yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xuefeng . E-mail: rengang68@vip.sina.com; Xi Zhiqin; Gong Yun; Liu Fengying; Sun Jijun; Wu Yuan; Luan Guoming; Wang Yuping; Li Yunlin; Zhang Jianguo; Lu Yong; Li Hongwei

    2006-10-06

    Purpose: TRAP220 (thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein) functions as a coactivator for nuclear receptors and stimulates transcription by recruiting the TRAP mediator complex to hormone responsive promoter regions. Thus, TRAP220 enhances the function of thyroid/steroid hormone receptors such as thyroid hormone and oestrogen receptors. This study investigated the expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein level in epileptic brains comparing with human control. Methods: We examined the expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein levels in temporal lobes from patients with chronic pharmacoresistant epilepsy who have undergone surgery. Results: Expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein was shown to be decreased significantly in the temporal cortex of the patients with epilepsy. Conclusions: Our work showed that a decrease in TRAP220 mRNA and protein levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and may be associated with impairment of the brain caused by frequent seizures.

  3. Mitofusin 2 decreases intracellular lipids in macrophages by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chun; Ge, Beihai; He, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Kejian; Qian, Cuiping; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Wenzhong; Guo, Xiaomei

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Mfn2 decreases cellular lipid accumulation by activating cholesterol transporters. • PPARγ is involved in the Mfn2-mediated increase of cholesterol transporter expressions. • Inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 is involved in Mfn2-induced PPARγ expression. - Abstract: Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study aims to reveal how Mfn2 functions in the atherosclerosis. Mfn2 expression was found to be significantly reduced in arterial atherosclerotic lesions of both mice and human compared with healthy counterparts. Here, we observed that Mfn2 increased cellular cholesterol transporter expression in macrophages by upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, an effect achieved at least partially by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These findings provide insights into potential mechanisms of Mfn2-mediated alterations in cholesterol transporter expression, which may have significant implications for the treatment of atherosclerotic heart disease.

  4. Glucocorticoid receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) decrease endocrine and behavioral stress responses.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Sriparna; Bundzikova-Osacka, Jana; Dolgas, C Mark; Myers, Brent; Herman, James P

    2014-07-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to adrenocortical secretion of glucocorticoids. The magnitude and duration of the HPA axis response is mediated in large part by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) abundantly expresses the GR and is a key brain region for processing autonomic and endocrine stress responses. This study tests the hypothesis that GR within the NTS plays an important role in inhibiting stress-induced endocrine and behavioral responses. Cohorts of rats received bilateral micropellet (30 μg) implantations of crystalline corticosterone, mifepristone (a GR antagonist) or cholesterol (control) directed into the region of the NTS, and were subsequently subjected to either acute psychogenic (restraint) stress or chronic variable stress (CVS). We found that NTS GR antagonism increased acute stress-induced corticosterone levels, whereas GR activation within the NTS attenuated this response. Following CVS, basal and 15 min post-restraint plasma corticosterone levels were increased by NTS GR antagonism, which was associated with an increase in Fos immunoreactivity within the PVN. Using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST), we assessed the effect of NTS GR inhibition on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, respectively. GR inhibition within the NTS decreased open arm exploratory behavior in the EPM and increased immobility in the FST relative to controls. Together, the findings reveal a novel role of NTS GR signaling for inhibiting both endocrine and behavioral responses to stress.

  5. Estrogen-induced decrease of glucocorticoid receptor messenger ribonucleic acid concentration in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, A; Barden, N

    1987-06-01

    Using Northern blots and hybridization techniques, we have identified an approximately 6.5 kilobase glucocorticoid receptor mRNA species in rat anterior pituitary gland. Ovariectomy resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA concentrations. This effect was maximal 8 days after surgery and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels remained elevated for at least up to 4 weeks. Administration of 17-beta-estradiol completely reversed the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content of pituitary gland. Treatment of rats with corticosterone did not influence the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content, indicating that this increase is not mediated via effects on circulating glucocorticoid levels or availability. In situ hybridization experiments confirmed the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content and indicated that this action is widely distributed throughout the anterior pituitary gland.

  6. Stress-induced decrease of uterine blood flow in sheep is mediated by alpha 1-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Dreiling, Michelle; Bischoff, Sabine; Schiffner, Rene; Rupprecht, Sven; Kiehntopf, Michael; Schubert, Harald; Witte, Otto W; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Schwab, Matthias; Rakers, Florian

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal maternal stress can be transferred to the fetus via a catecholamine-dependent decrease of uterine blood flow (UBF). However, it is unclear which group of adrenergic receptors mediates this mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer. We hypothesized that in sheep, alpha 1-adrenergic receptors may play a key role in catecholamine mediated UBF decrease, as these receptors are mainly involved in peripheral vasoconstriction and are present in significant number in the uterine vasculature. After chronic instrumentation at 125 ± 1 days of gestation (dGA; term 150 dGA), nine pregnant sheep were exposed at 130 ± 1 dGA to acute isolation stress for one hour without visual, tactile, or auditory contact with their flockmates. UBF, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), stress hormones, and blood gases were determined before and during this isolation challenge. Twenty-four hours later, experiments were repeated during alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockage induced by a continuous intravenous infusion of urapidil. In both experiments, ewes reacted to isolation with an increase in serum norepinephrine, cortisol, BP, and HR as typical signs of activation of sympatho-adrenal and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Stress-induced UBF decrease was prevented by alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockage. We conclude that UBF decrease induced by maternal stress in sheep is mediated by alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Future studies investigating prevention strategies of impact of prenatal maternal stress on fetal health should consider selective blockage of alpha 1-receptors to interrupt maternal-fetal stress transfer mediated by utero-placental malperfusion.

  7. Reduced sleep duration mediates decreases in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Wiers, C E; Shumay, E; Cabrera, E; Shokri-Kojori, E; Gladwin, T E; Skarda, E; Cunningham, S I; Kim, S W; Wong, T C; Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented reduced striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) availability in cocaine abusers, which has been associated with impaired prefrontal activity and vulnerability for relapse. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the decreases in D2/D3R remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that sleep deprivation is associated with a downregulation of striatal D2/D3R in healthy volunteers. As cocaine abusers have disrupted sleep patterns, here we investigated whether reduced sleep duration mediates the relationship between cocaine abuse and low striatal D2/D3R availability. We used positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride to measure striatal D2/D3R availability in 24 active cocaine abusers and 21 matched healthy controls, and interviewed them about their daily sleep patterns. Compared with controls, cocaine abusers had shorter sleep duration, went to bed later and reported longer periods of sleep disturbances. In addition, cocaine abusers had reduced striatal D2/D3R availability. Sleep duration predicted striatal D2/D3R availability and statistically mediated the relationship between cocaine abuse and striatal D2/D3R availability. These findings suggest that impaired sleep patterns contribute to the low striatal D2/D3R availability in cocaine abusers. As sleep impairments are similarly observed in other types of substance abusers (for example, alcohol and methamphetamine), this mechanism may also underlie reductions in D2/D3R availability in these groups. The current findings have clinical implications suggesting that interventions to improve sleep patterns in cocaine abusers undergoing detoxification might be beneficial in improving their clinical outcomes. PMID:26954979

  8. Reduced sleep duration mediates decreases in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in cocaine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Wiers, C E; Shumay, E; Cabrera, E; Shokri-Kojori, E; Gladwin, T E; Skarda, E; Cunningham, S I; Kim, S W; Wong, T C; Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented reduced striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) availability in cocaine abusers, which has been associated with impaired prefrontal activity and vulnerability for relapse. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the decreases in D2/D3R remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that sleep deprivation is associated with a downregulation of striatal D2/D3R in healthy volunteers. As cocaine abusers have disrupted sleep patterns, here we investigated whether reduced sleep duration mediates the relationship between cocaine abuse and low striatal D2/D3R availability. We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure striatal D2/D3R availability in 24 active cocaine abusers and 21 matched healthy controls, and interviewed them about their daily sleep patterns. Compared with controls, cocaine abusers had shorter sleep duration, went to bed later and reported longer periods of sleep disturbances. In addition, cocaine abusers had reduced striatal D2/D3R availability. Sleep duration predicted striatal D2/D3R availability and statistically mediated the relationship between cocaine abuse and striatal D2/D3R availability. These findings suggest that impaired sleep patterns contribute to the low striatal D2/D3R availability in cocaine abusers. As sleep impairments are similarly observed in other types of substance abusers (for example, alcohol and methamphetamine), this mechanism may also underlie reductions in D2/D3R availability in these groups. The current findings have clinical implications suggesting that interventions to improve sleep patterns in cocaine abusers undergoing detoxification might be beneficial in improving their clinical outcomes. PMID:26954979

  9. Decreased plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor in high-altitude excessive erythrocytosis and Chronic Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Macarlupú, José Luis; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Corrales-Melgar, Daniela; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Corante, Noemí; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a prevalent syndrome in high-altitude Andean populations. Although hypoxemia represents its underlying stimulus, why some individuals develop EE despite having altitude-normal blood erythropoietin (Epo) concentration is still unclear. A soluble form of the Epo receptor (sEpoR) has been identified in human blood and competes directly for Epo with its membrane counterpart (mEpoR). Thus, reduced levels of circulating sEpoR could lead to higher Epo availability and ultimately to EE. We characterized the relationship between Epo and sEpoR, with hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration in healthy highlanders and CMS patients at 4,340 m in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Our results show that EE patients show decreased plasma sEpoR levels and can be subdivided into two subgroups of normal and high plasma Epo concentration for the altitude of residence, with hemoglobin concentration rising exponentially with an increasing Epo-to-sEpoR ratio (Epo/sEpoR). Also, we showed that the latter varies as an inverse exponential function of arterial pulse O2 saturation. Our findings suggests that EE is strongly associated with higher Epo/sEpoR values, leading to elevated plasma Epo availability to bind mEpoR, and thereby a stronger stimulus for augmented erythropoiesis. Differences in the altitude normal and high Epo CMS patients with a progressively higher Epo/sEpoR supports the hypothesis of the existence of two genetically different subgroups suffering from EE and possibly different degrees of adaptation to chronic high-altitude hypoxia. PMID:25324511

  10. Decreased plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor in high-altitude excessive erythrocytosis and Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Macarlupú, José Luis; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Corrales-Melgar, Daniela; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Corante, Noemí; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-12-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a prevalent syndrome in high-altitude Andean populations. Although hypoxemia represents its underlying stimulus, why some individuals develop EE despite having altitude-normal blood erythropoietin (Epo) concentration is still unclear. A soluble form of the Epo receptor (sEpoR) has been identified in human blood and competes directly for Epo with its membrane counterpart (mEpoR). Thus, reduced levels of circulating sEpoR could lead to higher Epo availability and ultimately to EE. We characterized the relationship between Epo and sEpoR, with hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration in healthy highlanders and CMS patients at 4,340 m in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Our results show that EE patients show decreased plasma sEpoR levels and can be subdivided into two subgroups of normal and high plasma Epo concentration for the altitude of residence, with hemoglobin concentration rising exponentially with an increasing Epo-to-sEpoR ratio (Epo/sEpoR). Also, we showed that the latter varies as an inverse exponential function of arterial pulse O2 saturation. Our findings suggests that EE is strongly associated with higher Epo/sEpoR values, leading to elevated plasma Epo availability to bind mEpoR, and thereby a stronger stimulus for augmented erythropoiesis. Differences in the altitude normal and high Epo CMS patients with a progressively higher Epo/sEpoR supports the hypothesis of the existence of two genetically different subgroups suffering from EE and possibly different degrees of adaptation to chronic high-altitude hypoxia.

  11. The epidermal growth factor receptor decreases Stathmin 1 and triggers catagen entry in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Bichsel, Kyle J; Hammiller, Brianna; Trempus, Carol S; Li, Yanhua; Hansen, Laura A

    2016-04-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is necessary for normal involution of hair follicles after the growth phase of anagen, although the mechanisms through which it acts are not well understood. In this report, we used transcriptional profiling of microdissected hair follicles from mice with skin-targeted deletion of Egfr to investigate how EGFR activation triggers catagen. Immunofluorescence for phospho-EGFR in mouse skin revealed increased activation of EGFR in follicular keratinocytes at catagen onset. Consistent with other models of EGFR deficiency, mice with skin-targeted deletion of Egfr (Krt14-Cre(+) /Egfr(fl/fl) ) exhibited a delayed and asynchronous catagen entry. Transcriptional profiling at the time of normal catagen onset at post-natal day (P) 17 revealed increased expression of the mitotic regulator Rcc2 in hair follicles lacking EGFR. Rcc2 protein was strongly immunopositive in the nuclei of control follicular keratinocytes at P16 then rapidly decreased until it was undetectable between P18 and 21. In contrast, Rcc2 expression continued in Egfr mutant follicles throughout this period. Proliferation, measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was also significantly increased in Egfr mutant follicular keratinocytes compared to controls at P18-21. Similarly, Rcc2-regulated mitotic regulator Stathmin 1 was strikingly reduced in control but not Egfr mutant follicles between P17 and P19. Deletion of Stmn1, in turn, accelerated catagen entry associated with premature cessation of proliferation in the hair follicles. These data reveal EGFR suppression of mitotic regulators including Rcc2 and Stathmin 1 as a mechanism for catagen induction in mouse skin.

  12. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia. PMID:27125843

  13. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-07-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia.

  14. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Decreases Hypothalamic Oxidative Stress During Experimental Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Fazal; Santos-Junior, Nilton N; de Almeida Rodrigues, Rodrigo Pereira; Costa, Luis Henrique A; Catalão, Carlos Henrique R; Rocha, Maria Jose A

    2016-08-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) prevented the impairment in vasopressin secretion and increased survival rate in septic rats. Additionally, we saw a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) levels in cerebroventricular spinal fluid (CSF), suggesting that the IL-1ra prevents apoptosis that seems to occur in vasopressinergic neurons. Here, we investigated the effect of IL-1ra pre-treatment on the sepsis-induced increase in oxidative stress markers in the hypothalamus of rats. The animals were pre-treated by an i.c.v. injection of IL-1ra (9 nmol) or vehicle (0.01 M PBS) before being subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or left as control (sham-operation or naive). After 4, 6, and 24 h, the animals were decapitated (n = 9/group) and the brain removed for hypothalamic tissue collection. Transcript and protein levels of IL-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot, respectively. Hypothalamic mRNA levels of all these genes were significantly (P < 0.005) increased at 4, 6, and 24 h CLP, as compared to sham-operated animals. IL-1ra pre-treatment in these CLP animals significantly decreased IL-1 gene expression at all time points and also of iNOS, caspase-3, and HIF-1α at 24 h when compared to vehicle-treated CLP animals. The effect of the pre-treatment on protein expression was most clearly seen for IL-1β and iNOS at 24 h. Our results showed that blocking the IL-1-IL-1r signaling pathway by central administration of an IL-1ra decreases hypothalamic oxidative stress markers during sepsis.

  15. Swimming exercise changes hemodynamic responses evoked by blockade of excitatory amino receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Cristiana A; Schoorlemmer, Gerhardus H M; Lazari, Maria de Fátima M; Giannocco, Gisele; Lopes, Oswaldo U; Colombari, Eduardo; Sato, Monica A

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training reduces sympathetic activity in hypertensive humans and rats. We hypothesized that the swimming exercise would change the neurotransmission in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key region involved in sympathetic outflow, and hemodynamic control in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Bilateral injections of kynurenic acid (KYN) were carried out in the RVLM in sedentary- (S-) or exercised- (E-) SHR and WKY rats submitted to swimming for 6 weeks. Rats were α-chloralose anesthetized and artificially ventilated, with Doppler flow probes around the lower abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery. Injections into the RVLM were made before and after i.v. L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor). Injections of KYN into the RVLM elicited a major vasodilation in the hindlimb more than in the mesenteric artery in E-SHR compared to S-SHR, but similar decrease in arterial pressure was observed in both groups. Injections of KYN into the RVLM after i.v. L-NAME attenuated the hindlimb vasodilation evoked by KYN and increased the mesenteric vasodilation in E-SHR. Swimming exercise can enhance the hindlimb vasodilation mediated by peripheral NO release, reducing the activation of neurons with EAA receptors in the RVLM in SHR. PMID:24696852

  16. Activation of histamine H3 receptor decreased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) imaging during electrical stimulation in the skeletal myotubes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Paavola, Jere; Stegajev, Vasili; Stark, Holger; Chazot, Paul L; Wen, Jian Guo; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2015-05-01

    Histamine is a neurotransmitter and chemical mediator in multiple physiological processes. Histamine H3 receptor is expressed in the nervous system, heart, and gastrointestinal tract; however, little is known about H3 receptor in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of H3 receptor in skeletal myotubes. The expression of H3 receptor and myosin heavy chain (MHC), a late myogenesis marker, was assessed by real-time PCR and immunostaining in C2C12 skeletal myogenesis and adult mid-urethral skeletal muscle tissues. H3 receptor mRNA showed a significant increase upon differentiation of C2C12 into myotubes: 1-, 26-, 91-, and 182-fold at days 0, 2, 4, and 6, respectively. H3 receptor immunostaining in differentiated C2C12 cells and adult skeletal muscles was positive and correlated with that of MHC. The functional role of H3receptor in differentiated myotubes was assessed using an H3 receptor agonist, (R)-a-methylhistamine ((R)-α-MeHA). Ca(2+) imaging, stimulated by electric pacing, was decreased by 55% after the treatment of mature C2C12 myotubes with 1μM (R)-α-MeHA for 10min and 20min, while treatment with 100nm (R)-α-MeHA for 5min caused 45% inhibition. These results suggested that H3 receptor may participate in the maintenance of the relaxed state and prevention of over-contraction in mature differentiated myotubes. The elucidation of the role of H3R in skeletal myogenesis and adult skeletal muscle may open a new direction in the treatment of skeletal muscle disorders, such as muscle weakness, atrophy, and myotonia in motion systems or peri-urethral skeletal muscle tissues.

  17. House-dust mite allergen and ozone exposure decreases histamine H3 receptors in the brainstem respiratory nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Bechtold, Andrea G.; Tham, Rick C.; Kott, Kayleen S.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Joad, Jesse P.; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-09-15

    Allergic airway diseases in children are a common and a growing health problem. Changes in the central nervous system (CNS) have been implicated in contributing to some of the symptoms. We hypothesized that airway allergic diseases are associated with altered histamine H3 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, where lung/airway and nasal sensory afferents terminate, respectively. Immunohistochemistry for histamine H3 receptors was performed on brainstem sections containing the NTS and the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus from 6- and 12-month-old rhesus monkeys who had been exposed for 5 months to house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + O{sub 3} or to filtered air (FA). While histamine H3 receptors were found exclusively in astrocytes in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, they were localized to both neuronal terminals and processes in the NTS. HDMA + O{sub 3} exposure significantly decreased histamine H3 receptor immunoreactivity in the NTS at 6 months and in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus at 12 months of age. In conclusion, exposing young primates to HDMA + O{sub 3} changed histamine H3 receptor expression in CNS pathways involving lung and nasal afferent nerves in an age-related manner. Histamine H3 receptors may be a therapeutic target for allergic asthma and rhinitis in children.

  18. Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstact Background Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex, maintains the inhibitory tones that counter balances neuronal excitation. When this balance is perturbed, seizures may ensue. Methods In the present study, alterations of the general GABA, GABAA and GABAB receptors in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri were investigated. Results Scatchard analysis of [3H]GABA, [3H]bicuculline and [3H]baclofen in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in Bmax (P < 0.001) compared to control. Real Time PCR amplification of GABA receptor subunits such as GABAAά1, GABAAγ, GABAAδ, GABAB and GAD where down regulated (P < 0.001) in epileptic rats. GABAAά5 subunit and Cyclic AMP responsible element binding protein were up regulated. Confocal imaging study confirmed the decreased GABA receptors in epileptic rats. Epileptic rats have deficit in radial arm and Y maze performance. Conclusions Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses epilepsy associated changes to near control suggesting that decreased GABA receptors in the cerebral cortex have an important role in epileptic occurrence; Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have therapeutic application in epilepsy management. PMID:22364254

  19. Expression of specific ionotropic glutamate and GABA-A receptor subunits is decreased in central amygdala of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhe; Bhandage, Amol K; Bazov, Igor; Kononenko, Olga; Bakalkin, Georgy; Korpi, Esa R; Birnir, Bryndis

    2014-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) has a role for mediating fear and anxiety responses. It is also involved in emotional imbalance caused by alcohol abuse and dependence and in regulating relapse to alcohol abuse. Growing evidences suggest that excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) transmissions in the CeA are affected by chronic alcohol exposure. Human post-mortem CeA samples from male alcoholics (n = 9) and matched controls (n = 9) were assayed for the expression level of ionotropic glutamate and GABA-A receptors subunit mRNAs using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR). Our data revealed that out of the 16 ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits, mRNAs encoding two AMPA [2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid] receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA4; one kainate receptor subunit GluK2; one NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor subunit GluN2D and one delta receptor subunit GluD2 were significantly decreased in the CeA of alcoholics. In contrast, of the 19 GABA-A receptor subunits, only the mRNA encoding the α2 subunit was significantly down-regulated in the CeA of the alcoholics as compared with control subjects. Our findings imply that the down-regulation of specific ionotropic glutamate and GABA-A receptor subunits in the CeA of alcoholics may represent one of the molecular substrates underlying the new balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in alcohol dependence. PMID:25278838

  20. PTPRD silencing by DNA hypermethylation decreases insulin receptor signaling and leads to type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yng-Tay; Lin, Wei-D; Liao, Wen-Lin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2015-05-30

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data showed that the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type delta (PTPRD) is associated with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Han Chinese. A replication study indicated that PTPRD is involved in the insulin signaling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated PTPRD expression in patients with T2D and controls. PTPRD expression levels were lower in patients and were correlated with the duration of the disease. Overexpression of the human insulin receptor PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells induced overexpression of PTPRD and the insulin receptor. PTPRD knockdown, using a shRNA, resulted in down-regulation of the insulin receptor. These results indicate that PTPRD activates PPARγ2 in the insulin signaling pathway. Similar results for PTPRD expression were found using a T2D mouse model. Silencing of PTPRD was caused by DNA methylation in T2D mice and patients, and correlated with DNMT1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that a DNMT1 SNP (rs78789647) was correlated with susceptibility to T2D. This study shows for the first time that DNMT1 caused PTPRD DNA hypermethylation and induced insulin signaling silencing in T2D patients. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the crucial roles of these regulatory elements in human T2D. PMID:26079428

  1. PTPRD silencing by DNA hypermethylation decreases insulin receptor signaling and leads to type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yng-Tay; Lin, Wei-De; Liao, Wen-Lin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data showed that the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type delta (PTPRD) is associated with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Han Chinese. A replication study indicated that PTPRD is involved in the insulin signaling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated PTPRD expression in patients with T2D and controls. PTPRD expression levels were lower in patients and were correlated with the duration of the disease. Overexpression of the human insulin receptor PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells induced overexpression of PTPRD and the insulin receptor. PTPRD knockdown, using a shRNA, resulted in down-regulation of the insulin receptor. These results indicate that PTPRD activates PPARγ2 in the insulin signaling pathway. Similar results for PTPRD expression were found using a T2D mouse model. Silencing of PTPRD was caused by DNA methylation in T2D mice and patients, and correlated with DNMT1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that a DNMT1 SNP (rs78789647) was correlated with susceptibility to T2D. This study shows for the first time that DNMT1 caused PTPRD DNA hypermethylation and induced insulin signaling silencing in T2D patients. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the crucial roles of these regulatory elements in human T2D. PMID:26079428

  2. PTPRD silencing by DNA hypermethylation decreases insulin receptor signaling and leads to type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yng-Tay; Lin, Wei-D; Liao, Wen-Lin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2015-05-30

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data showed that the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type delta (PTPRD) is associated with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Han Chinese. A replication study indicated that PTPRD is involved in the insulin signaling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated PTPRD expression in patients with T2D and controls. PTPRD expression levels were lower in patients and were correlated with the duration of the disease. Overexpression of the human insulin receptor PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells induced overexpression of PTPRD and the insulin receptor. PTPRD knockdown, using a shRNA, resulted in down-regulation of the insulin receptor. These results indicate that PTPRD activates PPARγ2 in the insulin signaling pathway. Similar results for PTPRD expression were found using a T2D mouse model. Silencing of PTPRD was caused by DNA methylation in T2D mice and patients, and correlated with DNMT1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that a DNMT1 SNP (rs78789647) was correlated with susceptibility to T2D. This study shows for the first time that DNMT1 caused PTPRD DNA hypermethylation and induced insulin signaling silencing in T2D patients. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the crucial roles of these regulatory elements in human T2D.

  3. Sweet taste receptor deficient mice have decreased adiposity and increased bone mass.

    PubMed

    Simon, Becky R; Learman, Brian S; Parlee, Sebastian D; Scheller, Erica L; Mori, Hiroyuki; Cawthorn, William P; Ning, Xiaomin; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Ma, Yanfei L; Tyrberg, Björn; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-01-01

    Functional expression of sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3) has been reported in numerous metabolic tissues, including the gut, pancreas, and, more recently, in adipose tissue. It has been suggested that sweet taste receptors in these non-gustatory tissues may play a role in systemic energy balance and metabolism. Smaller adipose depots have been reported in T1R3 knockout mice on a high carbohydrate diet, and sweet taste receptors have been reported to regulate adipogenesis in vitro. To assess the potential contribution of sweet taste receptors to adipose tissue biology, we investigated the adipose tissue phenotypes of T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice. Here we provide data to demonstrate that when fed an obesogenic diet, both T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice have reduced adiposity and smaller adipocytes. Although a mild glucose intolerance was observed with T1R3 deficiency, other metabolic variables analyzed were similar between genotypes. In addition, food intake, respiratory quotient, oxygen consumption, and physical activity were unchanged in T1R2 knockout mice. Although T1R2 deficiency did not affect adipocyte number in peripheral adipose depots, the number of bone marrow adipocytes is significantly reduced in these knockout animals. Finally, we present data demonstrating that T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice have increased cortical bone mass and trabecular remodeling. This report identifies novel functions for sweet taste receptors in the regulation of adipose and bone biology, and suggests that in these contexts, T1R2 and T1R3 are either dependent on each other for activity or have common independent effects in vivo. PMID:24466105

  4. N(N)-nicotinic blockade as an acute human model of autonomic failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Black, B. K.; Lance, R. H.; Squillante, M. D.; Costa, F.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pure autonomic failure has been conceptualized as deficient sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. Several recent observations in chronic autonomic failure, however, cannot be explained simply by loss of autonomic innervation, at least according to our current understanding. To simulate acute autonomic failure, we blocked N(N)-nicotinic receptors with intravenous trimethaphan (6+/-0.4 mg/min) in 7 healthy subjects (4 men, 3 women, aged 32+/-3 years, 68+/-4 kg, 171+/-5 cm). N(N)-Nicotinic receptor blockade resulted in near-complete interruption of sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents as indicated by a battery of autonomic function tests. With trimethaphan, small postural changes from the horizontal were associated with significant blood pressure changes without compensatory changes in heart rate. Gastrointestinal motility, pupillary function, saliva production, and tearing were profoundly suppressed with trimethaphan. Plasma norepinephrine level decreased from 1.1+/-0.12 nmol/L (180+/-20 pg/mL) at baseline to 0.23+/-0.05 nmol/L (39+/-8 pg/mL) with trimethaphan (P<.001). There was a more than 16-fold increase in plasma vasopressin (P<.01) and no change in plasma renin activity. We conclude that blockade of N(N)-cholinergic receptors is useful to simulate the hemodynamic alterations of acute autonomic failure in humans. The loss of function with acute N(N)-cholinergic blockade is more complete than in most cases of chronic autonomic failure. This difference may be exploited to elucidate the contributions of acute denervation and chronic adaptation to the pathophysiology of autonomic failure. N(N)-Cholinergic blockade may also be applied to study human cardiovascular physiology and pharmacology in the absence of confounding baroreflexes.

  5. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis by metformin is associated with decreased plasma IGF-I and diminished receptor tyrosine kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Brendan J.; Dallos, Matthew; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.; Memmott, Regan M.; Hollander, M. Christine; Gills, Joell J.; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for type II diabetes and is associated with decreased cancer risk. Previously, we showed that metformin prevented tobacco carcinogen (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in a non-diabetic mouse model, which was associated with decreased IGF-I/insulin receptor signaling but not activation of AMPK in lung tissues, as well as decreased circulating levels of IGF-1 and insulin. Here, we used liver-IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice to determine the importance of IGF-1 in NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis and chemoprevention by metformin. LID mice had decreased lung tumor multiplicity and burden compared to WT mice. Metformin further decreased lung tumorigenesis in LID mice without affecting IGF-1 levels, suggesting that metformin can act through IGF-1-independent mechanisms. In lung tissues, metformin decreased phosphorylation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) as well as levels of GTP-bound Ras independently of AMPK. Metformin also diminished plasma levels of several cognate ligands for these RTKs. Tissue distribution studies using [14C]-metformin showed that uptake of metformin was high in liver but 4 fold lower in lungs, suggesting that the suppression of RTK activation by metformin occurs predominantly via systemic, indirect effects. Systemic inhibition of circulating growth factors and local RTK signaling are new AMPK-independent mechanisms of action of metformin that could underlie its ability to prevent tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. PMID:23771523

  6. Intronic deletions of tva receptor gene decrease the susceptibility to infection by avian sarcoma and leukosis virus subgroup A

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiguo; Liu, Yang; Li, Hongxing; Chang, Shuang; Shu, Dingming; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Xie, Qingmei

    2015-01-01

    The group of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) in chickens contains six highly related subgroups, A to E and J. Four genetic loci, tva, tvb, tvc and tvj, encode for corresponding receptors that determine the susceptibility to the ASLV subgroups. The prevalence of ASLV in hosts may have imposed strong selection pressure toward resistance to ASLV infection, and the resistant alleles in all four receptor genes have been identified. In this study, two new alleles of the tva receptor gene, tvar5 and tvar6, with similar intronic deletions were identified in Chinese commercial broilers. These natural mutations delete the deduced branch point signal within the first intron, disrupting mRNA splicing of the tva receptor gene and leading to the retention of intron 1 and introduction of premature TGA stop codons in both the longer and shorter tva isoforms. As a result, decreased susceptibility to subgroup A ASLV in vitro and in vivo was observed in the subsequent analysis. In addition, we identified two groups of heterozygous allele pairs which exhibited quantitative differences in host susceptibility to ASLV-A. This study demonstrated that defective splicing of the tva receptor gene can confer genetic resistance to ASLV subgroup A in the host. PMID:25873518

  7. [Effect of prednisolone on the inhibition of basal gastric secretion in laboratory rats induced by fats or blockade of H2-receptors].

    PubMed

    Trefilov, A B

    2004-02-01

    Experiments on rats with gastric fistulae for the first time have shown that glucocorticosteroid prednisolone causes weakening of the fat and H2-receptor inhibition of basal gastric secretion. PMID:15143511

  8. Blockade of Toll-Like Receptors (TLR2, TLR4) Attenuates Pain and Potentiates Buprenorphine Analgesia in a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model

    PubMed Central

    Jurga, Agnieszka M.; Rojewska, Ewelina; Makuch, Wioletta; Pilat, Dominika; Przewlocka, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that microglial TLR2 and TLR4 play a significant role in nociception. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the contribution of TLR2 and TLR4 and their adaptor molecules to neuropathy and their ability to amplify opioid effectiveness. Behavioral tests (von Frey's and cold plate) and biochemical (Western blot and qRT-PCR) analysis of spinal cord and DRG tissue were conducted after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. Repeated intrathecal administration of LPS-RS (TLR2 and TLR4 antagonist) and LPS-RS Ultrapure (TLR4 antagonist) attenuated allodynia and hyperalgesia. Biochemical analysis revealed time-dependent upregulation of mRNA and/or protein levels of TLR2 and TLR4 and MyD88 and TRIF adaptor molecules, which was paralleled by an increase in IBA-1/CD40-positive cells under neuropathy. LPS-RS and LPS-RS Ultrapure similarly influenced opioid analgesia by enhancing the effectiveness of buprenorphine but not morphine. Summing up, in light of their upregulation over the course of pain, both TLR2 and TLR4 may indeed play a significant role in neuropathy, which could be linked to the observed activation of IBA-1/CD40-positive cells. Blockade of TLR2 and TLR4 produced analgesia and enhanced buprenorphine's effectiveness, which suggests that they may be a putative target for future pharmacological pain relief tools, especially for opioid rotation, when the effect of morphine is tolerated. PMID:26962463

  9. Pathologically activated neuroprotection via uncompetitive blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors with fast off-rate by novel multifunctional dimer bis(propyl)-cognitin.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jialie; Li, Wenming; Zhao, Yuming; Fu, Hongjun; Ma, Dik-Lung; Tang, Jing; Li, Chaoying; Peoples, Robert W; Li, Fushun; Wang, Qinwen; Huang, Pingbo; Xia, Jun; Pang, Yuanping; Han, Yifan

    2010-06-25

    Uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with fast off-rate (UFO) may represent promising drug candidates for various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report that bis(propyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor antagonist, is such an antagonist of NMDA receptors. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we demonstrated that bis(propyl)-cognitin voltage-dependently, selectively, and moderately inhibited NMDA-activated currents. The inhibitory effects of bis(propyl)-cognitin increased with the rise in NMDA and glycine concentrations. Kinetics analysis showed that the inhibition was of fast onset and offset with an off-rate time constant of 1.9 s. Molecular docking simulations showed moderate hydrophobic interaction between bis(propyl)-cognitin and the MK-801 binding region in the ion channel pore of the NMDA receptor. Bis(propyl)-cognitin was further found to compete with [(3)H]MK-801 with a K(i) value of 0.27 mum, and the mutation of NR1(N616R) significantly reduced its inhibitory potency. Under glutamate-mediated pathological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin, in contrast to bis(heptyl)-cognitin, prevented excitotoxicity with increasing effectiveness against escalating levels of glutamate and much more effectively protected against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain damage than did memantine. More interestingly, under NMDA receptor-mediated physiological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin enhanced long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices, whereas MK-801 reduced and memantine did not alter this process. These results suggest that bis(propyl)-cognitin is a UFO antagonist of NMDA receptors with moderate affinity, which may provide a pathologically activated therapy for various neurodegenerative disorders associated with NMDA receptor dysregulation. PMID:20404346

  10. Pathologically activated neuroprotection via uncompetitive blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors with fast off-rate by novel multifunctional dimer bis(propyl)-cognitin.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jialie; Li, Wenming; Zhao, Yuming; Fu, Hongjun; Ma, Dik-Lung; Tang, Jing; Li, Chaoying; Peoples, Robert W; Li, Fushun; Wang, Qinwen; Huang, Pingbo; Xia, Jun; Pang, Yuanping; Han, Yifan

    2010-06-25

    Uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with fast off-rate (UFO) may represent promising drug candidates for various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report that bis(propyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor antagonist, is such an antagonist of NMDA receptors. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we demonstrated that bis(propyl)-cognitin voltage-dependently, selectively, and moderately inhibited NMDA-activated currents. The inhibitory effects of bis(propyl)-cognitin increased with the rise in NMDA and glycine concentrations. Kinetics analysis showed that the inhibition was of fast onset and offset with an off-rate time constant of 1.9 s. Molecular docking simulations showed moderate hydrophobic interaction between bis(propyl)-cognitin and the MK-801 binding region in the ion channel pore of the NMDA receptor. Bis(propyl)-cognitin was further found to compete with [(3)H]MK-801 with a K(i) value of 0.27 mum, and the mutation of NR1(N616R) significantly reduced its inhibitory potency. Under glutamate-mediated pathological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin, in contrast to bis(heptyl)-cognitin, prevented excitotoxicity with increasing effectiveness against escalating levels of glutamate and much more effectively protected against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain damage than did memantine. More interestingly, under NMDA receptor-mediated physiological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin enhanced long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices, whereas MK-801 reduced and memantine did not alter this process. These results suggest that bis(propyl)-cognitin is a UFO antagonist of NMDA receptors with moderate affinity, which may provide a pathologically activated therapy for various neurodegenerative disorders associated with NMDA receptor dysregulation.

  11. Silencing Met receptor tyrosine kinase signaling decreased oral tumor growth and increased survival of nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Tao, X.; Hill, K.S.; Gaziova, I.; Sastry, S.K.; Qui, S.; Szaniszlo, P.; Fennewald, S.; Resto, V.A.; Elferink, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met) is frequently overexpressed in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC), correlating positively with high-grade tumors and shortened patient survival. As such, Met may represent an important therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of Met signaling for HNSCC growth and locoregional dissemination. Materials and methods Using a lentiviral system for RNA interference, we knocked down Met in established HNSCC cell lines that express high levels of the endogenous receptor. The effect of Met silencing on in vitro proliferation, cell survival and migration was examined using western analysis, immunohisto-chemistry and live cell imaging. In vivo tumor growth, dissemination and mouse survival was assessed using an orthotopic tongue mouse model for HNSCC. Results We show that Met knockdown (1) impaired activation of downstream MAPK signaling; (2) reduced cell viability and anchorage independent growth; (3) abrogated HGF-induced cell motility on laminin; (4) reduced In vivo tumor growth by increased cell apoptosis; (5) caused reduced incidence of tumor dissemination to regional lymph nodes and (6) increased the survival of nude mice with orthotopic xenografts. Conclusion Met signaling is important for HNSCC growth and locoregional dissemination In vivo and that targeting Met may be an important strategy for therapy. PMID:24268630

  12. Thrombin action decreases acetylcholine receptor aggregate number and stability in cultured mouse myotubes.

    PubMed

    Davenport, R W; Lanuza, M; Kim, S; Jia, M; Snyder, E; Nelson, P G

    2000-08-30

    Neurons develop and make very stable, long-term synaptic connections with other nerve cells and with muscle. Synaptic stability at the neuromuscular junction changes over development in that a proliferation of synaptic input are made to individual myotubes and synapses from all but one neuron are lost during development. In an established co-culture paradigm in which spinal motoneurons synaptically contact myotubes, thrombin and associated protease inhibitors have been shown to affect the loss of functional synaptic contacts [6]. Evidence has not been provided which clearly demonstrate whether protease/protease inhibitors affect either the pre- or postsynaptic terminal, or both. In an effort to determine whether these reagents directly affect postsynaptic receptors on myotubes, myotubes were cultured in the absence of neurons and the spontaneous presence and stability of aggregates of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) in control and thrombin-containing media were evaluated. In dishes fixed after treatment and in dishes in which individual aggregates were observed live, thrombin action appeared to increase loss of AChR aggregates over time. Hirudin, a specific inhibitor of the thrombin protease, diminished this loss. Neither reagent affected the overall incorporation or degradation of AChR; therefore, it appears these protease/protease inhibitors affect the state of AChR aggregation. PMID:10960680

  13. Aversive odorant causing appetite decrease downregulates tyrosine decarboxylase gene expression in the olfactory receptor neuron of the blowfly, Phormia regina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2012-01-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, exposure to d-limonene for 5 days during feeding inhibits proboscis extension reflex behavior due to decreasing tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. TA is synthesized by tyrosine decarboxylase (Tdc) and catalyzed into octopamine (OA) by TA ß-hydroxylase (Tbh). To address the mechanisms of TA titer regulation in the blowfly, we cloned Tdc and Tbh cDNAs from P. regina (PregTdc and PregTbh). The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high identity to those of the corresponding proteins from Drosophila melanogaster at the amino acid level. PregTdc was expressed in the antenna, labellum, and tarsus whereas PregTbh was expressed in the head, indicating that TA is mainly synthesized in the sensory organs whereas OA is primarily synthesized in the brain. d-Limonene exposure significantly decreased PregTdc expression in the antenna but not in the labellum and the tarsus, indicating that PregTdc expressed in the antenna is responsible for decreasing TA titer. PregTdc-like immunoreactive material was localized in the thin-walled sensillum. In contrast, the OA/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR) was localized to the thick-walled sensillum. The results indicated that d-limonene inhibits PregTdc expression in the olfactory receptor neurons in the thin-walled sensilla, likely resulting in reduced TA levels in the receptor neurons in the antenna. TA may be transferred from the receptor neuron to the specific synaptic junction in the antennal lobe of the brain through the projection neurons and play a role in conveying the aversive odorant information to the projection and local neurons.

  14. P2Y2 receptor activation decreases blood pressure via intermediate conductance potassium channels and connexin 37

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez Rieg, J. A.; Burt, J. M.; Ruth, P.; Rieg, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Nucleotides are important paracrine regulators of vascular tone. We previously demonstrated that activation of P2Y2 receptors causes an acute, NO-independent decrease in blood pressure, indicating this signalling pathway requires an endothelial-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) response. To define the mechanisms by which activation of P2Y2 receptors initiates EDH and vasodilation, we studied intermediate-conductance (KCa3.1, expressed in endothelial cells) and big-conductance potassium channels (KCa1.1, expressed in smooth muscle cells) as well as components of the myoendothelial gap junction, connexins 37 and 40 (Cx37, Cx40), all hypothesized to be part of the EDH response. Methods We compared the effects of a P2Y2/4 receptor agonist in wild-type (WT) mice and in mice lacking KCa3.1, KCa1.1, Cx37 or Cx40 under anaesthesia, while monitoring intra-arterial blood pressure and heart rate. Results Acute activation of P2Y2/4 receptors (0.01–3 mg kg−1 body weight i.v.) caused a biphasic blood pressure response characterized by a dose-dependent and rapid decrease in blood pressure in WT (maximal response % of baseline at 3 mg kg−1: −38 ± 1%) followed by a consecutive increase in blood pressure (+44 ± 11%). The maximal responses in KCa3.1−/− and Cx37−/− were impaired (−13 ± 5, +17 ± 7 and −27 ± 1, +13 ± 3% respectively), whereas the maximal blood pressure decrease in response to acetylcholine at 3 µg kg−1 was not significantly different (WT: −53 ± 3%; KCa3.1−/−: −52 ± 3; Cx37−/−: −53 ± 3%). KCa1.1−/− and Cx40−/− showed an identical biphasic response to P2Y2/4 receptor activation compared to WT. Conclusions The data suggest that the P2Y2/4 receptor activation elicits blood pressure responses via distinct mechanisms involving KCa3.1 and Cx37. PMID:25545736

  15. Protein Disulfide Isomerase Chaperone ERP-57 Decreases Plasma Membrane Expression of the Human GnRH Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yánez, Rodrigo Ayala; Conn, P. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Retention of misfolded proteins by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a quality control mechanism involving the participation of endogenous chaperones such as calnexin (CANX) which interact and restrict plasma membrane expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), a G protein coupled receptor. CANX also interacts with ERP-57, a thiol oxidoreductase chaperone present in the ER. CANX along with ERP-57, promotes the formation of disulfide bond bridges in nascent proteins. The human GnRH receptor (hGnRHR) is stabilized by two disulfide bond bridges (Cys14-Cys200 and Cys114-Cys196), that, when broken, its expression at plasma membrane decreases. To determine if the presence of chaperones CANX and ERP-57 exert an influence over membrane routing and second messenger activation, we assessed the effect of various mutants including those with broken bridges (Cys→Ala) along with the wild type hGnRHR. The effect of chaperones on mutants was insignificant, whereas the overexpression of ERP-57 led to a wild type hGnRHR retention which was further enhanced by cotransfection with CANX cDNA disclosing receptor retention by ERP-57 augmented by CANX, suggesting a quality control mechanism. PMID:20029959

  16. Open-channel blockade is less effective on GluN3B than GluN3A subunit-containing NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    McClymont, David W; Harris, John; Mellor, Ian R

    2012-07-01

    The GluN3 subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor are known to reduce its Ca(2+) permeability and Mg(2+) sensitivity, however, little is known about their effects on other channel blockers. cRNAs for rat NMDA receptor subunits were injected into Xenopus oocytes and responses to NMDA and glycine were recorded using two electrode voltage clamp. Channel block of receptors containing GluN1-1a/2A, GluN1-1a/2A/3A or GluN1-1a/2A/3B subunits was characterised using Mg(2+), memantine, MK-801, philanthotoxin-343 and methoctramine. IC(50) values for Mg(2+) and memantine increased when receptors contained GluN3A subunits and were further increased when they contained GluN3B, e.g. IC(50)s at -75mV for block of GluN1-1a/2A, GluN1-1a/2A/3A and GluN1-1a/2A/3B receptors respectively were 4.2, 22.4 and 40.1μM for Mg(2+), and 2.5, 7.5 and 17.5μM for memantine. Blocking activity was found to be fully or partially restored when G or R (at the N and N+1 sites respectively) were mutated to N in GluN3A. Thus, the changes cannot be attributed to the loss of the N or N+1 sites alone, but rather involve both sites or residues elsewhere. Block by MK-801 and philanthotoxin-343 was also reduced by GluN3A, most strongly at -100mV but not at -50mV, and by GluN3B at all V(h). Methoctramine was the least sensitive to introduction of GluN3 subunits suggesting a minimal interaction with the N and N+1 sites. We conclude that GluN3B-containing receptors provide increased resistance to channel block compared to GluN3A-containing receptors and this must be due to differences outside the deep pore region (N site and deeper).

  17. Decreased VIP and VPAC2 receptor expression in the biological clock of the R6/2 Huntington's disease mouse.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Popovic, Natalija; Georg, Birgitte; Brundin, Patrik; Hannibal, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal genetic neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG triplet repeat expansion in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin. The most studied model of HD, the R6/2 transgenic mouse, replicates many features of the disease. In addition to motor, cognitive, and endocrine dysfunctions, these mice exhibit a progressive disruption of circadian rhythms. This is accompanied by an altered expression of the circadian clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus/nuclei (SCN), the principal circadian pacemaker in the brain. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor VPAC2 are highly expressed in the SCN, and VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity. We found a marked reduction in both VIP mRNA and VPAC2 receptor mRNA, quantified by RT-PCR, as well as a decrease in VIP immunostaining in the SCN of R6/2 mice. These changes were coupled to a disruption of circadian rhythm. We observed no loss of neurons in the SCN and therefore suggest that the changes in VIP and VPAC2 receptor are due to their decreased expression. In conclusion, we propose that impaired VIPergic signaling is an additional candidate mechanism for disruption of circadian rhythms in R6/2 mice.

  18. Histamine H3 receptor agonists decrease hypothalamic histamine levels and increase stereotypical biting in mice challenged with methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Kitanaka, Junichi; Kitanaka, Nobue; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Tanaka, Koh-ichi; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Takemura, Motohiko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the histamine H3 receptor agonists (R)-α-methylhistamine, imetit and immepip on methamphetamine (METH)-induced stereotypical behavior were examined in mice. The administration of METH (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to male ddY mice induced behaviors including persistent locomotion and stereotypical behaviors, which were classified into four categories: stereotypical head-bobbing (1.9%), circling (1.7%), sniffing (14.3%), and biting (82.1%). Pretreatment with (R)-α-methylhistamine (3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased stereotypical sniffing, but increased stereotypical biting induced by METH, in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of (R)-α-methylhistamine on behavior was mimicked by imetit or immepip (brain-penetrating selective histamine H3 receptor agonists; 10 mg/kg, i.p. for each drug). Hypothalamic histamine levels 1 h after METH challenge were significantly increased in mice pretreated with saline. These increases in histamine levels were significantly decreased by pretreatment with histamine H3 receptor agonists, effects which would appear to underlie the shift from METH-induced stereotypical sniffing to biting. PMID:21573995

  19. JNK pathway decreases thyroid hormones via TRH receptor: a novel mechanism for disturbance of thyroid hormone homeostasis by PCB153.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjiang; Ha, Mei; Cui, Yushan; Wang, Chengmin; Yan, Maosheng; Fu, Wenjuan; Quan, Chao; Zhou, Jun; Yang, Kedi

    2012-12-01

    PCBs, widespread and well-characterized endocrine disruptors, cause the disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. In order to verify the hypotheses that MAPK pathways would play roles in disturbance of TH levels caused by PCBs, and that TH-associated receptors could function in certain MAPK pathway, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with PCB153 intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 0, 4, 16 and 32mg/kg for 5 consecutive days, and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with PCB153 (0, 1, 5, 10μM) for 30min. Results showed that after the treatment with PCB153, serum total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) were decreased, whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were not altered. In vivo and in vitro studies indicated that JNK pathway was activated after PCB153 exposure. Moreover, TRH receptor (TRHr) level was suppressed after the activation of JNK pathway and was elevated after the inhibition of JNK pathway, but TSH receptor (TSHr) level was not affected by the status of JNK pathway though it was reduced after PCB153 treatment. The activated signs of ERK and P38 pathways were not observed in this study. Taken together, observed effects suggested that JNK pathway could decrease TH levels via TRHr, and that would be one novel mechanism of PCB153-mediated disruption of THs.

  20. Behavioral deficit and decreased GABA receptor functional regulation in the hippocampus of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Jobin; Gangadharan, Gireesh; Kuruvilla, Korah P; Paulose, C S

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, alterations of the General GABA and GABA(A) receptors in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epileptic rats and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri and its active component Bacoside-A were investigated. Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) is a herbaceous plant belonging to the family Scrophulariaceae. Hippocampus is the major region of the brain belonging to the limbic system and plays an important role in epileptogenesis, memory and learning. Scatchard analysis of [³H]GABA and [³H]bicuculline in the hippocampus of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in B(max) (P < 0.001) compared to control. Real Time PCR amplification of GABA(A) receptor sub-units such as GABA(Aά₁), GABA(Aά₅) GABA(Aδ), and GAD were down regulated (P < 0.001) in the hippocampus of the epileptic rats compared to control. GABA(Aγ) subunit was up regulated. Epileptic rats have deficit in the radial arm and Y maze performance. Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses all these changes near to control. Our results suggest that decreased GABA receptors in the hippocampus have an important role in epilepsy associated behavioral deficit, Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have clinical significance in the management of epilepsy.

  1. Decreased binding capacity (Bmax) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in fibroblasts from boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jessica; Landgren, Magnus; Fernell, Elisabeth; Lewander, Tommy; Venizelos, Nikolaos

    2013-09-01

    Monoaminergic dysregulation is implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate and amphetamines are the most frequently prescribed pharmacological agents for treating ADHD. However, it has recently been proposed that the core symptoms of the disorder might be due to an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems. In this study, we used fibroblast cell homogenates from boys with and without ADHD as an extraneural cell model to examine the cholinergic receptor density, that is, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). We found that the binding capacity (Bmax) of [³H] Quinuclidinyl benzilate (³H-QNB) to mAChRs was decreased by almost 50 % in the children with ADHD (mean = 30.6 fmol/mg protein, SD = 25.6) in comparison with controls [mean = 63.1 fmol/mg protein, SD = 20.5, p ≤ 0.01 (Student's unpaired t test)]. The decreased Bmax indicates a reduced cholinergic receptor density, which might constitute a biomarker for ADHD. However, these preliminary findings need to be replicated in larger ADHD and comparison cohorts.

  2. Estradiol decreases taurine level by reducing cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase via the estrogen receptor-α in female mice liver.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiwang; Zhao, Jianjun; Cao, Wei; Liu, Jiali; Cui, Sheng

    2015-02-15

    Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) and cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) are two rate-limiting enzymes in taurine de novo synthesis, and their expressions are associated with estrogen concentration. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between 17β-estradiol (E₂) and taurine in female mice liver. We initially observed the mice had lower levels of CSAD, CDO, and taurine during estrus than diestrus. We then, respectively, treated the ovariectomized mice, the cultured hepatocytes, and Hep G2 cells with different doses of E₂, and the CSAD and CDO expressions and taurine levels were analyzed. The results showed that E₂ decreased taurine level in the serum and the cultured cells by inhibiting CSAD and CDO expressions. Furthermore, we identified the molecular receptor types through which E₂ plays its role in regulating taurine synthesis, and our results showed that estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression was much higher than estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) in the liver and hepatocytes, and the inhibiting effects of E₂ on CSAD, CDO, and taurine level were partially abrogated in the ICI-182,780-pretreated liver and hepatocytes, and in ERα knockout mice. These results indicate that estradiol decreases taurine content by reducing taurine biosynthetic enzyme expression in mice liver.

  3. Pteromalus puparum venom impairs host cellular immune responses by decreasing expression of its scavenger receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qi; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yangkeng; Stanley, David W; Chen, Xuexin; Hu, Cui; Ye, Gongyin

    2011-11-01

    Insect host/parasitoid interactions are co-evolved systems in which host defenses are balanced by parasitoid mechanisms to disable or hide from host immune effectors. Although there is a rich literature on these systems, parasitoid immune-disabling mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here we report on a newly discovered immune-disabling mechanism in the Pieris rapae/Pteromalus puparum host/parasitoid system. Because venom injections and parasitization suppresses host phagocytosis, we turned attention to the P. rapae scavenger receptor (Pr-SR), posing the hypothesis that P. puparum venom suppresses expression of the host Pr-SR gene. To test our hypothesis, we cloned a full-length cDNA of the Pr-SR. Multiple sequences alignment showed the deduced amino acid sequence of Pr-SR is similar to scavenger receptors of other lepidopterans. Bacterial and bead injections induced Pr-SR mRNA and protein expression, which peaked at 4h post-bead injection. Venom injection inhibited Pr-SR expression. Pr-SR was specifically expressed in granulocytes compared to plasmatocytes. We localized the Pr-SR protein in cytoplasm and cellular membrane, with no evidence of secretion into host plasma. Double-strand RNA designed to Pr-SR mRNA silenced expression of Pr-SR and significantly impaired host phagocytosis and encapsulation reactions. Venom injections similarly silenced Pr-SR expression during the first 8h post-treatment, after which the silencing effects gradually abated. We infer from these findings that one mechanism of impairing P. rapae hemocytic immune reactions is by silencing expression of Pr-SR.

  4. Opioid/NMDA receptors blockade reverses the depressant-like behavior of foot shock stress in the mouse forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Kordjazy, Nastaran; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram

    2014-07-15

    Opioid and glutamatergic receptors have a key role in depression following stress. In this study, we assessed opioid and glutamatergic receptors interaction with the depressant-like behavior of acute foot-shock stress in the mouse forced swimming test. Stress was induced by intermittent foot shock stimulation during 30min and swim periods were afterwards conducted by placing mice in separated glass cylinders filled with water for 6min. The immobility time during the last 4min of the test was considered. Acute foot-shock stress significantly increased the immobility time of mice compared to non-stressed control group (P≤0.01). Administration of non-selective opioid receptors antagonist, naltrexone (1 and 2mg/kg, i.p.), and the selective non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.05mg/kg, i.p.), and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5mg/kg), significantly reduced the immobility time in stressed animals (P≤0.01). Lower doses of MK-801 (0.01mg/kg), naltrexone (0.3mg/kg), NMDA (75mg/kg) and morphine(5mg/kg) had no effect on foot-shock stressed mice. Combined treatment of sub-effective doses of naltrexone and MK-801 significantly showed an antidepressant-like effect (P≤0.001). On the other hand, co-administration of non-effective doses of NMDA and morphine with effective doses of naltrexone and MK-801 reversed the anti-immobility effect of these drugs. Taken together, we have for the first time demonstrated the possible role of opioid/NMDA receptors signaling in the depressant-like effect of foot-shock stress, and proposed the use of drugs that act like standard anti-depressants in stress-induced depression.

  5. Angiotensin type 2 receptor actions contribute to angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker effects on kidney fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Takashi; Ma, Li-Jun; Yang, Haichun; Zuo, Yiqin; Tang, Yiwei; Han, Jee Young; Kon, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker (ARB) ameliorates progression of chronic kidney disease. Whether this protection is due solely to blockade of AT1, or whether diversion of angiotensin II from the AT1 to the available AT2 receptor, thus potentially enhancing AT2 receptor effects, is not known. We therefore investigated the role of AT2 receptor in ARB-induced treatment effects in chronic kidney disease. Adult rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. Glomerulosclerosis was assessed by renal biopsy 8 wk later, and rats were divided into four groups with equivalent glomerulosclerosis: no further treatment, ARB, AT2 receptor antagonist, or combination. By week 12 after nephrectomy, systolic blood pressure was decreased in all treatment groups, but proteinuria was decreased only with ARB. Glomerulosclerosis increased significantly in AT2 receptor antagonist vs. ARB. Kidney cortical collagen content was decreased in ARB, but increased in untreated 5/6 nephrectomy, AT2 receptor antagonist, and combined groups. Glomerular cell proliferation increased in both untreated 5/6 nephrectomy and AT2 receptor antagonist vs. ARB, and phospho-Erk2 was increased by AT2 receptor antagonist. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA and protein were increased at 12 wk by AT2 receptor antagonist in contrast to decrease with ARB. Podocyte injury is a key component of glomerulosclerosis. We therefore assessed effects of AT1 vs. AT2 blockade on podocytes and interaction with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Cultured wild-type podocytes, but not plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 knockout, responded to angiotensin II with increased collagen, an effect that was completely blocked by ARB with lesser effect of AT2 receptor antagonist. We conclude that the benefical effects on glomerular injury achieved with ARB are contributed to not only by blockade of the AT1 receptor, but also by increasing angiotensin effects transduced through the AT2 receptor. PMID:20042458

  6. The influence of 5-hydroxytryptamine re-uptake blockade on CCK receptor antagonist effects in the rat elevated zero-maze.

    PubMed

    Bickerdike, M J; Marsden, C A; Dourish, C T; Fletcher, A

    1994-12-27

    In this study, the elevated zero-maze model of anxiety was used to investigate CCK receptor antagonist effects on the behaviour of male Lister-hooded rats and to demonstrate, by administering antagonists in the presence or absence of selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitors, the involvement of 5-HT in the mediation of these effects. Devazepide, a selective CCKA receptor antagonist, L-365,260 (3R(+)-N-2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin- 3-yl-N1- (3-methyl-phenyl)urea) or CI-988 (4-([2-[[3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-methyl-1- oxo-2-[[(tricyclo[3.3.1.1.(3.7)]-dec-2-yloxy)-carbonyl]-amin o]- propyl]-amino]-1-phenylethyl]-amino)-4-oxo-[R-(R*,R*)]-butanoate- N-methyl-D-glucamine), both selective CCKB receptor antagonists, were administered 30 min prior to testing. Behavioural analysis during testing included measures of risk-assessment behaviours (e.g. stretched-attend posture) in addition to time spent on the open quadrants. Devazepide induced significant anxiolytic effects, whereas CI-988 produced inconsistent results and L-365,260 was ineffective. When administered simultaneously with the 5-HT re-uptake inhibitors zimelidine or Wy 27587 (N-[[[1-[(6- fluoro-2-naphthalenyl)methyl]-4-piperidinyl]amino] carbonyl]-3-pyridine carboxamide methyl sulphonate salt), the significant anxiolytic effect induced by devazepide was dose-dependently and significantly attenuated. Zimelidine and Wy27587 had little effect alone on zero-maze behaviour at the lower of two doses given. These data show that the elevated zero-maze, in conjunction with the analysis of 'risk-assessment' behaviours, is an anxiety model which is sensitive to the anxiolytic effects of CCK receptor antagonism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Pharmacological blockade of the DP2 receptor inhibits cigarette smoke-induced inflammation, mucus cell metaplasia, and epithelial hyperplasia in the mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, Karin J; Broadhead, Alex R; Baccei, Christopher S; Scott, Jill M; Truong, Yen P; Coate, Heather; Stock, Nicholas S; Santini, Angelina M; Fagan, Patrick; Prodanovich, Patricia; Bain, Gretchen; Stearns, Brian A; King, Christopher D; Hutchinson, John H; Prasit, Peppi; Evans, Jilly F; Lorrain, Daniel S

    2010-03-01

    Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) is one of a family of biologically active lipids derived from arachidonic acid via the action of COX-1 and COX-2. PGD(2) is released from mast cells and binds primarily to two G protein-coupled receptors, namely DP1 and DP2, the latter also known as chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells. DP2 is predominantly expressed on eosinophils, Th2 cells, and basophils, but it is also expressed to a lesser extent on monocytes, mast cells, and epithelial cells. Interaction of PGD(2) and its active metabolites with DP2 results in cellular chemotaxis, degranulation, up-regulation of adhesion molecules, and cytokine production. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease characterized by elevated lung neutrophils, macrophages, and CD8+ T lymphocytes and mucus hypersecretion. Cigarette smoke contributes to the etiology of COPD and was used here as a provoking agent in a murine model of COPD. In an acute model, {2'-[(cyclopropanecarbonyl-ethyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoro-methyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid, sodium salt (AM156) and (5-{2-[(benzoyloxycarbonyl-ethyl-amino)-methyl]-4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl}-pyridin-3-yl)-acetic acid, sodium salt) (AM206), potent DP2 receptor antagonists, dose-dependently inhibited influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes to smoke-exposed airways. In a subchronic model, AM156 and AM206 inhibited neutrophil and lymphocyte trafficking to the airways. Furthermore, AM156 and AM206 treatment inhibited mucus cell metaplasia and prevented the thickening of the airway epithelial layer induced by cigarette smoke. These data suggest that DP2 receptor antagonism may represent a novel therapy for COPD or other conditions characterized by neutrophil influx, mucus hypersecretion, and airway remodeling.

  8. Hematopoietic Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Lyase Deficiency Decreases Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in LDL-Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Martine; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Johnson, Jason; Nijstad, Niels; Van Santbrink, Peter J.; Westra, Marijke M.; Van Der Hoeven, Gerd; Gijbels, Marion J.; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Varga, Georg; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kuiper, Johan; Van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2013-01-01

    Aims Altered sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) homeostasis and signaling is implicated in various inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. As S1P levels are tightly controlled by S1P lyase, we investigated the impact of hematopoietic S1P lyase (Sgpl1−/−) deficiency on leukocyte subsets relevant to atherosclerosis. Methods and Results LDL receptor deficient mice that were transplanted with Sgpl1−/− bone marrow showed disrupted S1P gradients translating into lymphopenia and abrogated lymphocyte mitogenic and cytokine response as compared to controls. Remarkably however, Sgpl1−/− chimeras displayed mild monocytosis, due to impeded stromal retention and myelopoiesis, and plasma cytokine and macrophage expression patterns, that were largely compatible with classical macrophage activation. Collectively these two phenotypic features of Sgpl1 deficiency culminated in diminished atherogenic response. Conclusions Here we not only firmly establish the critical role of hematopoietic S1P lyase in controlling S1P levels and T cell trafficking in blood and lymphoid tissue, but also identify leukocyte Sgpl1 as critical factor in monocyte macrophage differentiation and function. Its, partly counterbalancing, pro- and anti-inflammatory activity spectrum imply that intervention in S1P lyase function in inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis should be considered with caution. PMID:23700419

  9. Amygdala kindling increases fear responses and decreases glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression in hippocampal regions.

    PubMed

    Kalynchuk, Lisa E; Meaney, Michael J

    2003-12-01

    Amygdala kindling dramatically increases fearful behavior in rats. Because kindling-induced fear increases in magnitude as rats receive more stimulations, kindling provides an excellent model for studying the nature and neural mechanisms of fear sensitization. In the present experiment, we studied whether the development of kindling-induced fear is related to changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA expression in various brain regions. Rats received 20, 60 or 100 amygdala kindling stimulations or 100 sham stimulations. One day after the final stimulation, their fearful behavior was assessed in an unfamiliar open field. Then, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were processed for in situ hybridization of GR mRNA expression. We found that compared with the sham-stimulated rats, the rats that received 60 or 100 kindling stimulations were significantly more fearful in the open field and also had significantly less GR mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus. Importantly, the changes in fearful behavior were significantly correlated with the changes in GR mRNA expression. These results suggest that alterations in GR mRNA expression in hippocampal regions may play a role in the development of kindling-induced fear.

  10. Blockade of prostaglandin E2 signaling through EP1 and EP3 receptors attenuates Flt3L-dependent dendritic cell development from hematopoietic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pratibha; Hoggatt, Jonathan; Hu, Peirong; Speth, Jennifer M.; Fukuda, Seiji; Breyer, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis, like all mature blood cells, is maintained via hierarchal generation from hematopoietic precursors; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms governing DC generation. Here, we show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is required for optimal Flt3 ligand–mediated DC development and regulates expression of the Flt3 receptor on DC-committed progenitor cells. Inhibition of PGE2 biosynthesis reduces Flt3-mediated activation of STAT3 and expression of the antiapoptotic protein survivin, resulting in increased apoptosis of DC-committed progenitor cells. Reduced DC development caused by diminished PGE2 signaling is reversed by overexpression of Flt3 or survivin in DC progenitors and conversely is mimicked by STAT3 inhibition. PGE2 regulation of DC generation is specifically mediated through the EP1 and EP3 G protein PGE2 receptors. These studies define a novel DC progenitor regulatory pathway in which PGE2 signaling through EP1/EP3 receptors regulates Flt3 expression and downstream STAT3 activation and survivin expression, required for optimal DC progenitor survival and DC development in vivo. PMID:22110249

  11. Blockade of mast cell histamine secretion in response to neurotensin by SR 48692, a nonpeptide antagonist of the neurotensin brain receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L A; Cochrane, D E; Carraway, R E; Feldberg, R S

    1995-01-01

    1. Pretreatment of rat isolated mast cells with SR 48692, a nonpeptide antagonist of the neurotensin (NT) receptor, prevented histamine secretion in response to NT. 2. This inhibition was rapid in onset (approximately 1 min) and dependent upon the concentration of SR 48692 (IC50 approximately 1-10 nM). 3. SR 48692 (1-1000 nM) did not inhibit histamine secretion elicited by substance P, bradykinin or compound 48/80, or by anti-IgE stimulation of sensitized mast cells. 4. When SR 48692 was injected intradermally (5 pmol in 50 microliters) into anaesthetized rats, 15 min before the intradermal injection of NT, it reduced the effect of NT on vascular permeability. 5. When injected intravenously, SR 48692 attenuated the effects of NT on haematocrit and blood stasis. 6. These results demonstrate that SR 48692 selectively antagonizes the actions of NT on rat isolated mast cells as well as mast cells in vivo. Given the demonstrated specific interaction of SR 48692 with receptors for NT in brain, our results suggest the presence of specific NT receptors on mast cells. PMID:7541694

  12. Blockade of insulin-like growth factor type-1 receptor with cixutumumab (IMC-A12): a novel approach to treatment for multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Rowinsky, Eric K; Schwartz, Jonathan D; Zojwalla, Naseem; Youssoufian, Hagop; Fox, Floyd; Pultar, Philippe; Novosyadlyy, Ruslan; Cosaert, Jan; Ludwig, Dale L

    2011-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor type-1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays a central role in cell proliferation and survival and is overexpressed in many tumor types. Notably, IGF-1R-mediated signaling confers resistance to diverse cytotoxic, hormonal, and biologic agents, suggesting that therapies targeting IGF-1R may be effective against a broad range of human malignancies. Cixutumumab (IMC-A12; ImClone Systems) is a fully human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody that specifically inhibits IGF-1R signaling. Binding of cixutumumab to IGF-1R results in receptor internalization and degradation. Because cixutumumab is an IgG1 monoclonal antibody, it may induce additional cytotoxicity via immune effector mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In preclinical studies, cixutumumab monotherapy resulted in growth inhibition of multiple experimental cancers. Moreover, cixutumumab safely enhanced the tumor growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of a broad range of chemotherapeutics, and modulated the action of agents that target hormone receptors and signal transduction, which may have implications for cancer therapy. Herein, we review published preclinical and clinical data for cixutumumab and provide a comprehensive overview of selected clinical studies.

  13. IGF1 induces cell proliferation in human pituitary tumors - functional blockade of IGF1 receptor as a novel therapeutic approach in non-functioning tumors.

    PubMed

    Rubinfeld, Hadara; Kammer, Adi; Cohen, Ortal; Gorshtein, Alexander; Cohen, Zvi R; Hadani, Moshe; Werner, Haim; Shimon, Ilan

    2014-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) and its receptor display potent proliferative and antiapoptotic activities and are considered key players in malignancy. The objective of the study was to explore the role of IGF1 and its downstream pathways in the proliferation of non-functioning pituitary tumor cells and to develop a targeted therapeutic approach for the treatment of these tumors. Cultures of human non-functioning pituitary adenomas and the non-secreting immortalized rat pituitary tumor cell line MtT/E were incubated with IGF1, IGF1 receptor inhibitor or both, and cell viability, proliferation and signaling were examined. Our results show that IGF1 elevated cell proliferation and enhanced cell cycle progression as well as the expression of cyclins D1 and D3. IGF1 also induced the phosphorylation of ERK, Akt and p70S6K. On the other hand, the selective IGF1R inhibitor NVP-AEW541 abrogated IGF1-induced cell proliferation as well as IGF1 receptor phosphorylation and downstream signaling.

  14. Angiotensin type 1a receptor deficiency decreases amyloid β-protein generation and ameliorates brain amyloid pathology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junjun; Liu, Shuyu; Matsumoto, Yukino; Murakami, Saki; Sugakawa, Yusuke; Kami, Ayako; Tanabe, Chiaki; Maeda, Tomoji; Michikawa, Makoto; Komano, Hiroto; Zou, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by neuronal loss and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) and lowering the generation of Aβ is a pivotal approach in the strategy of Alzheimer’s disease treatment. Midlife hypertension is a major risk factor for the future onset of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease and the use of some antihypertensive drugs may decrease the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. However, it is largely unknown how the blood pressure regulation system is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Here we found that the deficiency of angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1a), a key receptor for regulating blood pressure, significantly decreased Aβ generation and amyloid plaque formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. The lack of AT1a inhibited the endocleavage of presenilin-1 (PS1), which is essential for γ-secretase complex formation and Aβ generation. Notably, the ligand of AT1a, angiotensin II, enhanced Aβ generation, PS1 endocleavage and γ-secretase complex formation. Our results suggest that AT1a activation is closely associated with Aβ generation and brain amyloid accumulation by regulating γ-secretase complex formation. Thus, removal of life style factors or stresses that stimulate AT1a to elevate blood pressure may decrease Aβ generation and brain amyloid accumulation, thereby preventing the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26154270

  15. Knockdown of EphB1 receptor decreases medulloblastoma cell growth and migration and increases cellular radiosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Timofeeva, Olga; Pasquale, Elena B.; Hirsch, Kellen; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lee, Yi Chien; Henkemeyer, Mark; Rood, Brian; Jung, Mira; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Kool, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The expression of members of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands is frequently dysregulated in medulloblastomas. We assessed the expression and functional role of EphB1 in medulloblastoma cell lines and engineered mouse models. mRNA and protein expression profiling showed expression of EphB1 receptor in the human medulloblastoma cell lines DAOY and UW228. EphB1 downregulation reduced cell growth and viability, decreased the expression of important cell cycle regulators, and increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle. It also modulated the expression of proliferation, and cell survival markers. In addition, EphB1 knockdown in DAOY cells resulted in significant decrease in migration, which correlated with decreased β1-integrin expression and levels of phosphorylated Src. Furthermore, EphB1 knockdown enhanced cellular radiosensitization of medulloblastoma cells in culture and in a genetically engineered mouse medulloblastoma model. Using genetically engineered mouse models, we established that genetic loss of EphB1 resulted in a significant delay in tumor recurrence following irradiation compared to EphB1-expressing control tumors. Taken together, our findings establish that EphB1 plays a key role in medulloblastoma cell growth, viability, migration, and radiation sensitivity, making EphB1 a promising therapeutic target. PMID:25879388

  16. Dual silencing of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor in colorectal cancer cells is associated with decreased proliferation and enhanced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kaulfuss, Silke; Burfeind, Peter; Gaedcke, Jochen; Scharf, Jens-Gerd

    2009-04-01

    Overexpression and activation of tyrosine kinase receptors are common features of colorectal cancer. Using the human colorectal cancer cell lines DLD-1 and Caco-2, we evaluated the role of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor (IGF-IR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cellular functions of these cells. We used the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology to specifically down-regulate IGF-IR and EGFR expression. Knockdown of IGF-IR and EGFR resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of DLD-1 and Caco-2 cells. An increased rate of apoptosis was associated with siRNA-mediated silencing of IGF-IR and EGFR as assessed by activation of caspase-3/caspase-7. The combined knockdown of both EGFR and IGF-IR decreased cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis more effectively than did silencing of either receptor alone. Comparable effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed after single and combinational treatment of cells by the IGF-IR tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-AEW541 and/or the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. Combined IGF-IR and EGFR silencing by either siRNAs or tyrosine kinase inhibitors diminished the phosphorylation of downstream signaling pathways AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 more effectively than did the single receptor knockdown. Single IGF-IR knockdown inhibited IGF-I-dependent phosphorylation of AKT but had no effect on IGF-I- or EGF-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, indicating a role of EGFR in ligand-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The present data show that inhibition of the IGF-IR transduction cascade augments the antipoliferative and proapoptotic effects of EGFR inhibition in colorectal cancer cells. A clinical application of combination therapy targeting both EGFR and IGF-IR could be a promising therapeutic strategy.

  17. Blockade of peripheral P2Y1 receptors prevents the induction of thermal hyperalgesia via modulation of TRPV1 expression in carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain rats: involvement of p38 MAPK phosphorylation in DRGs.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Gu; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Moon, Ji-Young; Choi, Sheu-Ran; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Kang, Suk-Yun; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2014-04-01

    Although previous reports have suggested that P2Y1 receptors (P2Y1Rs) are involved in cutaneous nociceptive signaling, it remains unclear how P2Y1Rs contribute to peripheral sensitization. The current study was designed to delineate the role of peripheral P2Y1Rs in pain and to investigate potential linkages to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in DRGs and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) expression in a rodent inflammatory pain model. Following injection of 2% carrageenan into the hind paw, expressions of P2Y1 and TRPV1 and the phosphorylation rates of both p38 MAPK and ERK but not JNK were increased and peaked at day 2 post-injection. Blockade of peripheral P2Y1Rs by the P2Y1R antagonist, MRS2500 injection (i.pl, D0 to D2) significantly reduced the induction of thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. Simultaneously, MRS2500 injections suppressed upregulated TRPV1 expression and DRG p38 phosphorylation, while pERK signaling was not affected. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 activation in the DRGs by SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor, i.t, D0 to D2) prevented the upregulation of TRPV1 and a single i.t injection of SB203580 reversed the established thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. Lastly, to identify the mechanism of action of P2Y1Rs, we repeatedly injected the P2Y1 agonist, MRS2365 into the naïve rat's hind paw and observed a dose-dependent increase in TRPV1 expression and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These data demonstrate a sequential role for P2Y1R, p38 MAPK and TRPV1 in inflammation-induced thermal hyperalgesia; thus, peripheral P2Y1Rs activation modulates p38 MAPK signaling and TRPV1 expression, which ultimately leads to the induction of thermal hyperalgesia. PMID:24333674

  18. EFFECTOR CELL BLOCKADE

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, John W.; Nossal, G. J. V.

    1974-01-01

    of PFC. Consistent with this suggestion was the observation that the degree of inhibition of plaque formation could be increased by decreasing the sensitivity of the assay so that only AFC secreting at high rates were detected. A micromanipulation study, where single PFC were subjected to inhibition, and were then tested for the rate at which they could cause hemolysis, showed a 68% inhibition of mean secretory rate. Micromanipulation studies were performed to test the amount of cell surface-associated Ig on control and preinhibited PFC. For this, single PFC were held with [125I]antiglobulin and quantitative radioautography was performed. No significant difference emerged, suggesting that retention of secreted Ig on cell-attached antigen was not the cause of inhibition. The results are discussed in the framework of tolerance models and blocking effects at the T-cell level by antigen-antibody complexes. The name effector cell blockade is suggested in the belief that the phenomenon may be a general one applying to both T and B cells. PMID:4133616

  19. Molecular and pharmacological blockade of the EP4 receptor selectively inhibits both proliferation and invasion of human inflammatory breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Fredika M; Simeone, Ann-Marie; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Shah, Ashish H; McMurray, John S; Ghosh, Sukhen; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) characterized by rapid growth and aggressive invasion with no selective therapies developed to treat IBC. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), which produces prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known to be upregulated in primary IBC tumors and metastatic lesions, however the use of selective Cox-2 inhibitors has diminished due to cardiovascular side effects. One alternative approach to targeting Cox-2 enzyme activity is to block binding of the PGE2 ligand to its prostanoid (EP) receptors, which are designated as EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 and are members of a subfamily of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). While SUM149 IBC tumor cells and MCF-7 non-IBC breast tumor cells produce both EP2 and EP4 receptors, the invasive MDA-MB-231 non-IBC breast tumor cells produced low but detectable levels of these receptors. PGE2 and the EP4 agonist, PGE2 alcohol, stimulated significantly increased (p < 0.05) levels of proliferation and invasion by SUM149 IBC tumor cells, with no effect on proliferation of either of the two non-IBC breast tumor cell lines. In contrast, the EP2 agonist butaprost had no effect on proliferation or invasion of any cell line examined. The selective EP4 antagonist, GW627368X, induced inhibition of proliferation and invasion of human SUM149 IBC tumor cells beginning at 0.1 microM, with inhibition of proliferation and invasion by MDA-MB-231 non-IBC cells at higher concentrations of GW627368X. Molecular knockdown of the EP4 receptor was accomplished by stable transfection of an EP4 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct, with a clonally derived cell line designated as SUM149/Clone 1 exhibiting significantly slowed proliferation and diminished invasion compared to SUM149/Vector 5 which contained a scrambled shRNA control vector. This is the first report using both a selective pharmacologic inhibitor and a molecular shRNA knockdown approach to demonstrate that EP4 is directly

  20. Decreased numbers of chemotactic factor receptors in chronic neutropenia with defective chemotaxis: spontaneous recovery from the neutrophil abnormalities during early childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, K.; Yamazaki, M.; Miyagawa, Y.; Komiyama, A.; Akabane, T.

    1987-05-01

    Childhood chronic neutropenia with decreased numbers of chemotactic factor receptors as well as defective chemotaxis was first demonstrated in an 8-month-old girl. Chemotactic factor receptors on neutrophils were assayed using tritiated N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (/sup 3/H-FMLP). The patient's neutrophils had decreased numbers of the receptors: numbers of the receptors were 20,000 (less than 3 SD) as compared with those of control cells of 52,000 +/- 6000 (mean +/- SD) (n = 10). The neutropenia disappeared spontaneously by 28 months of age parallel with the improvement of chemotaxis and increase in numbers of chemotactic factor receptors. These results demonstrate a transient decrease of neutrophil chemotactic factor receptors as one of the pathophysiological bases of a transient defect of neutrophil chemotaxis in this disorder.

  1. Lack of effect of nucleus accumbens dopamine D1 receptor blockade on consumption during the first two days of operant self-administration of sweetened ethanol in adult Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Doherty, James M; Gonzales, Rueben A

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying ethanol self-administration are not fully understood; however, it is clear that ethanol self-administration stimulates nucleus accumbens dopamine release in well-trained animals. During operant sweetened ethanol self-administration behavior, an adaptation in the nucleus accumbens dopamine system occurs between the first and second exposure, paralleling a dramatic increase in sweetened ethanol intake, which suggests a single exposure to sweetened ethanol may be sufficient to learn the association between sweetened ethanol cues and its reinforcing properties. In the present experiment, we test the effects of blockade of nucleus accumbens dopamine D1 receptors on operant sweetened ethanol self-administration behavior during the first 2 days of exposure. Adult male Long-Evans rats were first trained to self-administer 10% sucrose (10S) across 6 days in an appetitive and consummatory operant model (appetitive interval: 10-min pre-drinking wait period and a lever response requirement of 4; consummatory interval: 20-min access to the drinking solution). After training on 10S, the drinking solution was switched to 10% sucrose plus 10% ethanol (10S10E); control rats continued drinking 10S throughout the experiment. Bilateral nucleus accumbens microinjections of the dopamine D1 antagonist, SCH-23390 (0, 1.0, or 3.0 μg/side), immediately preceded the first two sessions of drinking 10S10E. Results show that blocking nucleus accumbens dopamine D1 receptors has little or no influence on consumption during the first 2 days of exposure to the sweetened ethanol solution or maintenance of sucrose-only drinking. Furthermore, the high dose of SCH-23390, 3.0 μg/side, reduced open-field locomotor activity. In conclusion, we found no evidence to suggest that nucleus accumbens D1 receptor activation is involved in consumption of a sweetened ethanol solution during the first 2 days of exposure or maintenance of sucrose drinking, bu