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Sample records for receptor channel gating

  1. Integrin receptors and ligand-gated channels.

    PubMed

    Morini, Raffaella; Becchetti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Plastic expression of different integrin subunits controls the different stages of neural development, whereas in the adult integrins regulate synaptic stability. Evidence of integrin-channel crosstalk exists for ionotropic glutamate receptors. As is often the case in other tissues, integrin engagement regulates channel activity through complex signaling pathways that often include tyrosine phosphorylation cascades. The specific pathways recruited by integrin activation depend on cerebral region and cell type. In turn, ion channels control integrin expression onto the plasma membrane and their ligand binding affinity. The most extensive studies concern the hippocampus and suggest implications for neuronal circuit plasticity. The physiological relevance of these findings depends on whether adhesion molecules, aside from determining tissue stability, contribute to synaptogenesis and the responsiveness of mature synapses, thus contributing to long-term circuit consolidation. Little evidence is available for other ligand-gated channels, with the exception of nicotinic receptors. These exert a variety of functions in neurons and non neural tissue, both in development and in the adult, by regulating cell cycle, synaptogenesis and synaptic circuit refinement. Detailed studies in epidermal keratinocytes have shed some light on the possible mechanisms through which ACh can regulate cell motility, which may be of general relevance for morphogenetic processes. As to the control of mature synapses, most results concern the integrinic control of nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular junction. Following this lead, a few studies have addressed similar topics in adult cerebral synapses. However, pursuing and interpreting these results in the brain is especially difficult because of the complexity of the nicotinic roles and the widespread contribution of nonsynaptic, paracrine transmission. From a pathological point of view, considering the well-known contribution of both

  2. Coupled gating between cardiac calcium release channels (ryanodine receptors).

    PubMed

    Marx, S O; Gaburjakova, J; Gaburjakova, M; Henrikson, C; Ondrias, K; Marks, A R

    2001-06-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling in heart muscle requires the activation of Ca(2+)-release channels/type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) by Ca(2+) influx. RyR2s are arranged on the sarcoplasmic reticular membrane in closely packed arrays such that their large cytoplasmic domains contact one another. We now show that multiple RyR2s can be isolated under conditions such that they remain physically coupled to one another. When these coupled channels are examined in planar lipid bilayers, multiple channels exhibit simultaneous gating, termed "coupled gating." Removal of the regulatory subunit, the FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6), functionally but not physically uncouples multiple RyR2 channels. Coupled gating between RyR2 channels may be an important regulatory mechanism in excitation-contraction coupling as well as in other signaling pathways involving intracellular Ca(2+) release. PMID:11397781

  3. Insights into the channel gating of P2X receptors from structures, dynamics and small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Yu, Ye

    2016-01-01

    P2X receptors, as ATP-gated non-selective trimeric ion channels, are permeable to Na+, K+ and Ca2+. Comparing with other ligand-gated ion channel families, P2X receptors are distinct in their unique gating properties and pathophysiological roles, and have attracted attention as promising drug targets for a variety of diseases, such as neuropathic pain, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and thrombus. Several small molecule inhibitors for distinct P2X subtypes have entered into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the gating mechanism of P2X remain unsolved. The structural determinations of P2X receptors at the resting and ATP-bound open states revealed that P2X receptor gating is a cooperative allosteric process involving multiple domains, which marks the beginning of the post-structure era of P2X research at atomic level. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure-function relationship of P2X receptors, depict the whole picture of allosteric changes during the channel gating, and summarize the active sites that may contribute to new strategies for developing novel allosteric drugs targeting P2X receptors. PMID:26725734

  4. Structural Insights into Divalent Cation Modulations of ATP-Gated P2X Receptor Channels.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Go; Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Takemoto, Mizuki; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakada-Nakura, Yoshiko; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Hattori, Motoyuki; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-02-01

    P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-gated cation channels involved in physiological processes ranging widely from neurotransmission to pain and taste signal transduction. The modulation of the channel gating, including that by divalent cations, contributes to these diverse physiological functions of P2X receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of an invertebrate P2X receptor from the Gulf Coast tick Amblyomma maculatum in the presence of ATP and Zn(2+) ion, together with electrophysiological and computational analyses. The structure revealed two distinct metal binding sites, M1 and M2, in the extracellular region. The M1 site, located at the trimer interface, is responsible for Zn(2+) potentiation by facilitating the structural change of the extracellular domain for pore opening. In contrast, the M2 site, coupled with the ATP binding site, might contribute to regulation by Mg(2+). Overall, our work provides structural insights into the divalent cation modulations of P2X receptors. PMID:26804916

  5. Principal pathway coupling agonist binding to channel gating in nicotinic receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Yong; Sine, Steven M.

    2005-11-01

    Synaptic receptors respond to neurotransmitters by opening an intrinsic ion channel in the final step in synaptic transmission. How binding of the neurotransmitter is conveyed over the long distance to the channel remains a central question in neurobiology. Here we delineate a principal pathway that links neurotransmitter binding to channel gating by using a structural model of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor at 4-Å resolution, recordings of currents through single receptor channels and determinations of energetic coupling between pairs of residues. We show that a pair of invariant arginine and glutamate residues in each receptor α-subunit electrostatically links peripheral and inner β-sheets from the binding domain and positions them to engage with the channel. The key glutamate and flanking valine residues energetically couple to conserved proline and serine residues emerging from the top of the channel-forming α-helix, suggesting that this is the point at which the binding domain triggers opening of the channel. The series of interresidue couplings identified here constitutes a primary allosteric pathway that links neurotransmitter binding to channel gating.

  6. The intrinsic energy of the gating isomerization of a neuromuscular acetylcholine receptor channel.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Tapan K; Purohit, Prasad G; Auerbach, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channels at neuromuscular synapses rarely open in the absence of agonists, but many different mutations increase the unliganded gating equilibrium constant (E0) to generate AChRs that are active constitutively. We measured E0 for two different sets of mutant combinations and by extrapolation estimated E0 for wild-type AChRs. The estimates were 7.6 and 7.8×10(-7) in adult-type mouse AChRs (-100 mV at 23°C). The values are in excellent agreement with one obtained previously by using a completely different method (6.5×10(-7), from monoliganded gating). E0 decreases with depolarization to the same extent as does the diliganded gating equilibrium constant, e-fold with ∼60 mV. We estimate that at -100 mV the intrinsic energy of the unliganded gating isomerization is +8.4 kcal/mol (35 kJ/mol), and that in the absence of a membrane potential, the intrinsic chemical energy of this global conformational change is +9.4 kcal/mol (39 kJ/mol). Na+ and K+ in the extracellular solution have no measureable effect on E0, which suggests that unliganded gating occurs with only water occupying the transmitter binding sites. The results are discussed with regard to the energy changes in receptor activation and the competitive antagonism of ions in agonist binding.

  7. Channel Gating Dependence on Pore Lining Helix Glycine Residues in Skeletal Muscle Ryanodine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yingwu; Xu, Le; Mowrey, David D; Mendez Giraldez, Raul; Wang, Ying; Pasek, Daniel A; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Meissner, Gerhard

    2015-07-10

    Type 1 ryanodine receptors (RyR1s) release Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to initiate skeletal muscle contraction. The role of RyR1-G4934 and -G4941 in the pore-lining helix in channel gating and ion permeation was probed by replacing them with amino acid residues of increasing side chain volume. RyR1-G4934A, -G4941A, and -G4941V mutant channels exhibited a caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release response in HEK293 cells and bound the RyR-specific ligand [(3)H]ryanodine. In single channel recordings, significant differences in the number of channel events and mean open and close times were observed between WT and RyR1-G4934A and -G4941A. RyR1-G4934A had reduced K(+) conductance and ion selectivity compared with WT. Mutations further increasing the side chain volume at these positions (G4934V and G4941I) resulted in reduced caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release in HEK293 cells, low [(3)H]ryanodine binding levels, and channels that were not regulated by Ca(2+) and did not conduct Ca(2+) in single channel measurements. Computational predictions of the thermodynamic impact of mutations on protein stability indicated that although the G4934A mutation was tolerated, the G4934V mutation decreased protein stability by introducing clashes with neighboring amino acid residues. In similar fashion, the G4941A mutation did not introduce clashes, whereas the G4941I mutation resulted in intersubunit clashes among the mutated isoleucines. Co-expression of RyR1-WT with RyR1-G4934V or -G4941I partially restored the WT phenotype, which suggested lessening of amino acid clashes in heterotetrameric channel complexes. The results indicate that both glycines are important for RyR1 channel function by providing flexibility and minimizing amino acid clashes. PMID:25998124

  8. Evolution of Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: Pro-Loop Receptors.

    PubMed

    Jaiteh, Mariama; Taly, Antoine; Hénin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ubiquitous neurotransmitter receptors in Bilateria, with a small number of known prokaryotic homologues. Here we describe a new inventory and phylogenetic analysis of pLGIC genes across all kingdoms of life. Our main finding is a set of pLGIC genes in unicellular eukaryotes, some of which are metazoan-like Cys-loop receptors, and others devoid of Cys-loop cysteines, like their prokaryotic relatives. A number of such "Cys-less" receptors also appears in invertebrate metazoans. Together, those findings draw a new distribution of pLGICs in eukaryotes. A broader distribution of prokaryotic channels also emerges, including a major new archaeal taxon, Thaumarchaeota. More generally, pLGICs now appear nearly ubiquitous in major taxonomic groups except multicellular plants and fungi. However, pLGICs are sparsely present in unicellular taxa, suggesting a high rate of gene loss and a non-essential character, contrasting with their essential role as synaptic receptors of the bilaterian nervous system. Multiple alignments of these highly divergent sequences reveal a small number of conserved residues clustered at the interface between the extracellular and transmembrane domains. Only the "Cys-loop" proline is absolutely conserved, suggesting the more fitting name "Pro loop" for that motif, and "Pro-loop receptors" for the superfamily. The infered molecular phylogeny shows a Cys-loop and a Cys-less clade in eukaryotes, both containing metazoans and unicellular members. This suggests new hypotheses on the evolutionary history of the superfamily, such as a possible origin of the Cys-loop cysteines in an ancient unicellular eukaryote. Deeper phylogenetic relationships remain uncertain, particularly around the split between bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. PMID:26986966

  9. Structural Studies of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor COUPLING LIGAND BINDING TO CHANNEL GATING

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Jenny; Yamazaki, Haruka; Ishiyama, Noboru; Seo, Min-Duk; Mal, Tapas K.; Michikawa, Takayuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2010-11-22

    The three isoforms of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP{sub 3}R) exhibit distinct IP{sub 3} sensitivities and cooperativities in calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) channel function. The determinants underlying this isoform-specific channel gating mechanism have been localized to the N-terminal suppressor region of IP3R. We determined the 1.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of the suppressor domain from type 3 IP{sub 3}R (IP{sub 3}R3{sub SUP}, amino acids 1-224) and revealed structural features contributing to isoform-specific functionality of IP{sub 3}R by comparing it with our previously determined structure of the type 1 suppressor domain (IP{sub 3}R1{sub SUP}). The molecular surface known to associate with the ligand binding domain (amino acids 224-604) showed marked differences between IP{sub 3}R3{sub SUP} and IP{sub 3}R1{sub SUP}. Our NMR and biochemical studies showed that three spatially clustered residues (Glu-20, Tyr-167, and Ser-217 in IP{sub 3}R1 and Glu-19, Trp-168, and Ser-218 in IP{sub 3}R3) within the N-terminal suppressor domains of IP{sub 3}R1{sub SUP} and IP{sub 3}R3{sub SUP} interact directly with their respective C-terminal fragments. Together with the accompanying paper (Yamazaki, H., Chan, J., Ikura, M., Michikawa, T., and Mikoshiba, K. (2010) J. Biol. Chem. 285, 36081-36091), we demonstrate that the single aromatic residue in this region (Tyr-167 in IP{sub 3}R1 and Trp-168 in IP{sub 3}R3) plays a critical role in the coupling between ligand binding and channel gating.

  10. Evolution of Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: Pro-Loop Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jaiteh, Mariama; Taly, Antoine; Hénin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ubiquitous neurotransmitter receptors in Bilateria, with a small number of known prokaryotic homologues. Here we describe a new inventory and phylogenetic analysis of pLGIC genes across all kingdoms of life. Our main finding is a set of pLGIC genes in unicellular eukaryotes, some of which are metazoan-like Cys-loop receptors, and others devoid of Cys-loop cysteines, like their prokaryotic relatives. A number of such “Cys-less” receptors also appears in invertebrate metazoans. Together, those findings draw a new distribution of pLGICs in eukaryotes. A broader distribution of prokaryotic channels also emerges, including a major new archaeal taxon, Thaumarchaeota. More generally, pLGICs now appear nearly ubiquitous in major taxonomic groups except multicellular plants and fungi. However, pLGICs are sparsely present in unicellular taxa, suggesting a high rate of gene loss and a non-essential character, contrasting with their essential role as synaptic receptors of the bilaterian nervous system. Multiple alignments of these highly divergent sequences reveal a small number of conserved residues clustered at the interface between the extracellular and transmembrane domains. Only the “Cys-loop” proline is absolutely conserved, suggesting the more fitting name “Pro loop” for that motif, and “Pro-loop receptors” for the superfamily. The infered molecular phylogeny shows a Cys-loop and a Cys-less clade in eukaryotes, both containing metazoans and unicellular members. This suggests new hypotheses on the evolutionary history of the superfamily, such as a possible origin of the Cys-loop cysteines in an ancient unicellular eukaryote. Deeper phylogenetic relationships remain uncertain, particularly around the split between bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. PMID:26986966

  11. Cross-talk and co-trafficking between rho1/GABA receptors and ATP-gated channels.

    PubMed

    Boué-Grabot, Eric; Emerit, Michel B; Toulmé, Estelle; Séguéla, Philippe; Garret, Maurice

    2004-02-20

    Gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) and ATP ionotropic receptors represent two structurally and functionally different classes of neurotransmitter-gated channels involved in fast synaptic transmission. We demonstrate here that, when the inhibitory rho1/GABA and the excitatory P2X2 receptor channels are co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, activation of one channel reduces the currents mediated by the other one. This reciprocal inhibitory cross-talk is a receptor-mediated phenomenon independent of agonist cross-modulation, membrane potential, direction of ionic flux, or channel densities. Functional interaction is disrupted when the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain of P2X2 is deleted or in competition experiments with minigenes coding for the C-terminal domain of P2X2 or the main intracellular loop of rho1 subunits. We also show a physical interaction between P2X2 and rho1 receptors expressed in oocytes and the co-clustering of these receptors in transfected hippocampal neurons. Co-expression with P2X2 induces retargeting and recruitment of mainly intracellular rho1/GABA receptors to surface clusters. Therefore, molecular and functional cross-talk between inhibitory and excitatory ligand-gated channels may regulate synaptic strength both by activity-dependent current occlusion and synaptic receptors co-trafficking.

  12. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4-Induced Modulation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhiwen; Jie, Pinghui; Tian, Yujing; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is reported to control the resting membrane potential and increase excitability in many types of cells. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play an important role in initiating action potentials in neurons. However, whether VGSCs can be modulated by the activation of TRPV4 in hippocampal pyramidal neurons remains unknown. In this study, we tested the effect of TRPV4 agonists (GSK1016790A and 4α-PDD) on voltage-gated sodium current (I Na) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and the protein levels of α/β-subunit of VGSCs in the hippocampus of mice subjected to intracerebroventricular (icv.) injection of GSK1016790A (GSK-injected mice). Herein, we report that I Na was inhibited by acute application of GSK1016790A or 4α-PDD. In the presence of TRPV4 agonists, the voltage-dependent inactivation curve shifted to the hyperpolarization, whereas the voltage-dependent activation curve remained unchanged. The TRPV4 agonist-induced inhibition of I Na was blocked by the TRPV4 antagonist or tetrodotoxin. Moreover, blocking protein kinase A (PKA) markedly attenuated the GSK1016790A-induced inhibition of I Na, whereas antagonism of protein kinase C or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase did not change GSK1016790A action. Finally, the protein levels of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, and Nav1.6 in the hippocampus increased in GSK-injected mice, whereas those of Nav1.3 and Navβ1 remained nearly unchanged. We conclude that I Na is inhibited by the acute activation of TRPV4 through PKA signaling pathway in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, but protein expression of α-subunit of VGSCs is increased by sustained TRPV4 activation, which may compensate for the acute inhibition of I Na and provide a possibility for hyper-excitability upon sustained TRPV4 activation.

  13. Yeast screens show aromatic residues at the end of the sixth helix anchor transient receptor potential channel gate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinliang; Su, Zhenwei; Anishkin, Andriy; Haynes, W John; Friske, Eric M; Loukin, Stephen H; Kung, Ching; Saimi, Yoshiro

    2007-09-25

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are first elements in sensing chemicals, heat, and force and are widespread among protists and fungi as well as animals. Despite their importance, the arrangement and roles of the amino acids that constitute the TRP channel gate are unknown. The yeast TRPY1 is activated in vivo by osmotically induced vacuolar membrane deformation and by cytoplasmic Ca(2+). After a random mutagenesis, we isolated TRPY1 mutants that responded more strongly to mild osmotic upshocks. One such gain-of-function mutant has a Y458H substitution at the C terminus of the predicted sixth transmembrane helix. Direct patch-clamp examination of vacuolar membranes showed that Y458H channels were already active with little stimulus and showed marked flickers between the open and intraburst closed states. They remained responsive to membrane stretch force and to Ca(2+), indicating primary defects in the gate region but not in the sensing of gating principles. None of the other 18 amino acid replacements engineered here showed normal channel kinetics except the two aromatic substitutions, Y458F and Y458W. The Y458 of TRPY1 has its aromatic counterpart in mammalian TRPM. Furthermore, conserved aromatics one alpha-helical turn downstream from this point are also found in animal TRPC, TRPN, TRPP, and TRPML, suggesting that gate anchoring with aromatics may be common among many TRP channels. The possible roles of aromatics at the end of the sixth transmembrane helix are discussed.

  14. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  15. Voltage-gated proton channels.

    PubMed

    Decoursey, Thomas E

    2012-04-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely, the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance approximately 10(3) times smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn(2+) (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B-lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H(+) for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens.

  16. Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels involves multiple receptor subtypes in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Choi, S; Lovinger, D M

    1996-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels was examined in isolated deep layer frontoparietal cortical neurons under conditions designed to isolate calcium-independent modulatory pathways. Trans-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylate (t-ACPD), a nonspecific mGluR agonist, produced rapid and reversible inhibition of Ca2+ channels. This effect was mimicked by agonists for group I and group II, but not group III, mGluRs. Effects of group I and II agonists often were observed in the same neurons, but separate subgroups of neurons were unresponsive to the group I agonist quisqualate or the group II agonist 2-(2,3-dicarboxycyclopropyl) glycine (DCG-IV). Inhibition by quisqualate and DCG-IV was nonocclusive in neurons responding to both agonists. These agonists thus appear to act on different mGluRs. The mGluR antagonist alpha-methyl-4-carboxylphenylglycine attenuated inhibition by t-ACPD, quisqualate, and DCG-IV. Inhibition by quisqualate and DCG-IV was voltage-dependent. Although the effects of both agonists were greatly reduced by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), inhibition by DCG-IV was more sensitive to NEM than inhibition by quisqualate. t-ACPD-induced inhibition was reduced by omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx) and omega-agatoxin IVA (omega-AgTx) but was affected little by nifedipine. Inhibition by DCG-IV and quisqualate also was reduced by omega-CgTx. We conclude that multiple mGluR subtypes inhibit Ca2+ channels in cortical neurons and that N- and possibly P-type channels are inhibited. Modulation is via a rapid-onset, voltage-dependent mechanism that likely involves a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-protein. Type I mGluRs may work via additional PTX-insensitive pathways.

  17. Phenylalanine in the pore of the Erwinia ligand-gated ion channel modulates picrotoxinin potency but not receptor function.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew J; Alqazzaz, Mona; Price, Kerry L; Weston, David A; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2014-10-01

    The Erwinia ligand-gated ion channel (ELIC) is a bacterial homologue of eukaryotic Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels. This protein has the potential to be a useful model for Cys-loop receptors but is unusual in that it has an aromatic residue (Phe) facing into the pore, leading to some predictions that this protein is incapable of ion flux. Subsequent studies have shown this is not the case, so here we probe the role of this residue by examining the function of the ELIC in cases in which the Phe has been substituted with a range of alternative amino acids, expressed in Xenopus oocytes and functionally examined. Most of the mutations have little effect on the GABA EC50, but the potency of the weak pore-blocking antagonist picrotoxinin at F16'A-, F16'D-, F16'S-, and F16'T-containing receptors was increased to levels comparable with those of Cys-loop receptors, suggesting that this antagonist can enter the pore only when residue 16' is small. T6'S has no effect on picrotoxinin potency when expressed alone but abolishes the increased potency when combined with F16'S, indicating that the inhibitor binds at position 6', as in Cys-loop receptors, if it can enter the pore. Overall, the data support the proposal that the ELIC pore is a good model for Cys-loop receptor pores if the role of F16' is taken into consideration.

  18. C-terminal Domains of N-Methyl-d-aspartic Acid Receptor Modulate Unitary Channel Conductance and Gating*

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Bruce A.; Aman, Teresa K.; Amico-Ruvio, Stacy A.; Kussius, Cassandra L.; Popescu, Gabriela K.

    2012-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NRs) are glutamate-gated calcium-permeable channels that are essential for normal synaptic transmssion and contribute to neurodegeneration. Tetrameric proteins consist of two obligatory GluN1 (N1) and two GluN2 (N2) subunits, of which GluN2A (2A) and GluN2B (2B) are prevalent in adult brain. The intracellularly located C-terminal domains (CTDs) make a significant portion of mass of the receptors and are essential for plasticity and excitotoxicity, but their functions are incompletely defined. Recent evidence shows that truncation of the N2 CTD alters channel kinetics; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. Here we recorded activity from individual NRs lacking the CTDs of N1, 2A, or 2B and determined the gating mechanisms of these receptors. Receptors lacking the N1 CTDs had larger unitary conductance and faster deactivation kinetics, receptors lacking the 2A or 2B CTDs had longer openings and longer desensitized intervals, and the first 100 amino acids of the N2 CTD were essential for these changes. In addition, receptors lacking the CTDs of either 2A or 2B maintained isoform-specific kinetic differences and swapping CTDs between 2A and 2B had no effect on single-channel properties. Based on these results, we suggest that perturbations in the CTD can modify the NR-mediated signal in a subunit-dependent manner, in 2A these effects are most likely mediated by membrane-proximal residues, and the isoform-specific biophysical properties conferred by 2A and 2B are CTD-independent. The kinetic mechanisms we developed afford a quantitative approach to understanding how the intracellular domains of NR subunits can modulate the responses of the receptor. PMID:22948148

  19. Subunit composition of G(o) proteins functionally coupling galanin receptors to voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Kalkbrenner, F; Degtiar, V E; Schenker, M; Brendel, S; Zobel, A; Heschler, J; Wittig, B; Schultz, G

    1995-01-01

    The neuropeptide galanin is widely expressed in the central nervous system and other tissues and induces different cellular reactions, e.g. hormone release from pituitary and inhibition of insulin release from pancreatic B cells. By microinjection of antisense oligonucleotides we studied the question as to which G proteins mediate the galanin-induced inhibition of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the rat pancreatic B-cell line RINm5F and in the rat pituitary cell line GH3. Injection of antisense oligonucleotides directed against alpha 01, beta 2, beta 3, gamma 2 and gamma 4 G protein subunits reduced the inhibition of Ca2+ channel current which was induced by galanin, whereas no change was seen after injection of cells with antisense oligonucleotides directed against alpha i, alpha q, alpha 11, alpha 14, alpha 15, beta 1, beta 4, gamma 1, gamma 3, gamma 5, or gamma 7 G protein subunits or with sense control oligonucleotides. In view of these data and of previous results, we conclude that the galanin receptors in GH3 and in RINm5F cells couple mainly to the G(0) protein consisting of alpha 01 beta 2 gamma 2 to inhibit Ca2+ channels and use alpha 01beta 3 gamma 4 less efficiently. The latter G protein composition was previously shown to be used by muscarinic M4 receptors to inhibit Ca2+ channels. Images PMID:7588602

  20. Antagonism of ligand-gated ion channel receptors: two domains of the glycine receptor alpha subunit form the strychnine-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, R J; French, C R; Barry, P H; Shine, J; Schofield, P R

    1992-01-01

    The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel receptor superfamily. Glycine activation of the receptor is antagonized by the convulsant alkaloid strychnine. Using in vitro mutagenesis and functional analysis of the cDNA encoding the alpha 1 subunit of the human GlyR, we have identified several amino acid residues that form the strychnine-binding site. These residues were identified by transient expression of mutated cDNAs in mammalian (293) cells and examination of resultant [3H]strychnine binding, glycine displacement of [3H]strychnine, and electrophysiological responses to the application of glycine and strychnine. This mutational analysis revealed that residues from two separate domains within the alpha 1 subunit form the binding site for the antagonist strychnine. The first domain includes the amino acid residues Gly-160 and Tyr-161, and the second domain includes the residues Lys-200 and Tyr-202. These results, combined with analyses of other ligand-gated ion channel receptors, suggest a conserved tertiary structure and a common mechanism for antagonism in this receptor superfamily. PMID:1311851

  1. A data-driven model of a modal gated ion channel: the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in insect Sf9 cells.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ghanim; Mak, Don-On Daniel; Pearson, John E

    2012-08-01

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor (IP(3)R) channel is crucial for the generation and modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signals in animal cells. To gain insight into the complicated ligand regulation of this ubiquitous channel, we constructed a simple quantitative continuous-time Markov-chain model from the data. Our model accounts for most experimentally observed gating behaviors of single native IP(3)R channels from insect Sf9 cells. Ligand (Ca(2+) and IP(3)) dependencies of channel activity established six main ligand-bound channel complexes, where a complex consists of one or more states with the same ligand stoichiometry and open or closed conformation. Channel gating in three distinct modes added one complex and indicated that three complexes gate in multiple modes. This also restricted the connectivity between channel complexes. Finally, latencies of channel responses to abrupt ligand concentration changes defined a model with specific network topology between 9 closed and 3 open states. The model with 28 parameters can closely reproduce the equilibrium gating statistics for all three gating modes over a broad range of ligand concentrations. It also captures the major features of channel response latency distributions. The model can generate falsifiable predictions of IP(3)R channel gating behaviors and provide insights to both guide future experiment development and improve IP(3)R channel gating analysis. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters and of the parameters in the De Young-Keizer model yield strong statistical evidence in favor of our model. Our method is simple and easily applicable to the dynamics of other ion channels and molecules.

  2. Modes of glutamate receptor gating

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Gabriela K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The time course of excitatory synaptic currents, the major means of fast communication between neurons of the central nervous system, is encoded in the dynamic behaviour of post-synaptic glutamate-activated channels. First-pass attempts to explain the glutamate-elicited currents with mathematical models produced reaction mechanisms that included only the most basic functionally defined states: resting vs. liganded, closed vs. open, responsive vs. desensitized. In contrast, single-molecule observations afforded by the patch-clamp technique revealed an unanticipated kinetic multiplicity of transitions: from microseconds-lasting flickers to minutes-long modes. How these kinetically defined events impact the shape of the synaptic response, how they relate to rearrangements in receptor structure, and whether and how they are physiologically controlled represent currently active research directions. Modal gating, which refers to the slowest, least frequently observed ion-channel transitions, has been demonstrated for representatives of all ion channel families. However, reaction schemes have been largely confined to the short- and medium-range time scales. For glutamate receptors as well, modal gating has only recently come under rigorous scrutiny. This article reviews the evidence for modal gating of glutamate receptors and the still developing hypotheses about the mechanism(s) by which modal shifts occur and the ways in which they may impact the time course of synaptic transmission. PMID:22106181

  3. Molecular Insights into the Local Anesthetic Receptor within Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Using Hydroxylated Analogs of Mexiletine.

    PubMed

    Desaphy, Jean-François; Dipalma, Antonella; Costanza, Teresa; Carbonara, Roberta; Dinardo, Maria Maddalena; Catalano, Alessia; Carocci, Alessia; Lentini, Giovanni; Franchini, Carlo; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that the β-adrenoceptor modulators, clenbuterol and propranolol, directly blocked voltage-gated sodium channels, whereas salbutamol and nadolol did not (Desaphy et al., 2003), suggesting the presence of two hydroxyl groups on the aromatic moiety of the drugs as a molecular requisite for impeding sodium channel block. To verify such an hypothesis, we synthesized five new mexiletine analogs by adding one or two hydroxyl groups to the aryloxy moiety of the sodium channel blocker and tested these compounds on hNav1.4 channels expressed in HEK293 cells. Concentration-response relationships were constructed using 25-ms-long depolarizing pulses at -30 mV applied from an holding potential of -120 mV at 0.1 Hz (tonic block) and 10 Hz (use-dependent block) stimulation frequencies. The half-maximum inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) were linearly correlated to drug lipophilicity: the less lipophilic the drug, minor was the block. The same compounds were also tested on F1586C and Y1593C hNav1.4 channel mutants, to gain further information on the molecular interactions of mexiletine with its receptor within the sodium channel pore. In particular, replacement of Phe1586 and Tyr1593 by non-aromatic cysteine residues may help in the understanding of the role of π-π or π-cation interactions in mexiletine binding. Alteration of tonic block suggests that the aryloxy moiety of mexiletine may interact either directly or indirectly with Phe1586 in the closed sodium channel to produce low-affinity binding block, and that this interaction depends on the electrostatic potential of the drug aromatic tail. Alteration of use-dependent block suggests that addition of hydroxyl groups to the aryloxy moiety may modify high-affinity binding of the drug amine terminal to Phe1586 through cooperativity between the two pharmacophores, this effect being mainly related to drug lipophilicity. Mutation of Tyr1593 further impaired such cooperativity. In conclusion, these

  4. Characterization of a ligand-gated cation channel based on an inositol receptor in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Shingo; Endo, Haruka; Tomita, Natsuo; Takada, Tomoyuki; Morita, Chiharu; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-07-01

    Insect herbivores recognize non-volatile compounds in plants to direct their feeding behavior. Gustatory receptors (Gr) appear to be required for nutrient recognition by gustatory organs in the mouthparts of insects. Gr10 is expressed in Bombyx mori (BmGr10) mouthparts such as maxillary galea, maxillary palp, and labrum. BmGr10 is predicted to function in sugar recognition; however, the precise biochemical function remains obscure. Larvae of B. mori are monophagous feeders able to find and feed on mulberry leaves. Soluble mulberry leaf extract contains sucrose, glucose, fructose, and myo-inositol. In this study, we identified BmGr10 as an inositol receptor using electrophysiological analysis with the Xenopus oocyte expression system and Ca(2+) imaging techniques using mammalian cells. These results demonstrated that Xenopus oocytes or HEK293T cells expressing BmGr10 specifically respond to myo-inositol and epi-inositol but do not respond to any mono-, di-, or tri-saccharides or to some sugar alcohols. These inositols caused Ca(2+) and Na(+) influxes into the cytoplasm independently of a G protein-mediated signaling cascade, indicating that BmGr10 is a ligand-gated cation channel. Overall, BmGr10 plays an important role in the myo-inositol recognition required for B. mori larval feeding behavior. PMID:27132146

  5. Mapping the Interaction Sites between AMPA Receptors and TARPs Reveals a Role for the Receptor N-Terminal Domain in Channel Gating

    PubMed Central

    Cais, Ondrej; Herguedas, Beatriz; Krol, Karolina; Cull-Candy, Stuart G.; Farrant, Mark; Greger, Ingo H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast neurotransmission at excitatory synapses. The extent and fidelity of postsynaptic depolarization triggered by AMPAR activation are shaped by AMPAR auxiliary subunits, including the transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs). TARPs profoundly influence gating, an effect thought to be mediated by an interaction with the AMPAR ion channel and ligand binding domain (LBD). Here, we show that the distal N-terminal domain (NTD) contributes to TARP modulation. Alterations in the NTD-LBD linker result in TARP-dependent and TARP-selective changes in AMPAR gating. Using peptide arrays, we identify a TARP interaction region on the NTD and define the path of TARP contacts along the LBD surface. Moreover, we map key binding sites on the TARP itself and show that mutation of these residues mediates gating modulation. Our data reveal a TARP-dependent allosteric role for the AMPAR NTD and suggest that TARP binding triggers a drastic reorganization of the AMPAR complex. PMID:25373908

  6. Regulation of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and membrane excitability in olfactory receptor cells by carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leinders-Zufall, T.; Shepherd, G. M.; Zufall, F.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of the putative neural messenger carbon monoxide (CO) and the role of the cGMP second-messenger system for olfactory signal generation was examined in isolated olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the tiger salamander. 2. With the use of whole cell voltage-clamp recordings in combination with a series of ionic and pharmological tests, it is demonstrated that exogenously applied CO is a potent activator (K1/2 = 2.9 microM) of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels previously described to mediate odor transduction. 3. Several lines of evidence suggest that CO mediates its effect through stimulation of a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) leading to formation of the second-messenger cGMP. This conclusion is based on the findings that CO responses show an absolute requirement for guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) in the internal solution, that no direct effect of CO on CNG currents in the absence of GTP is detectable, and that a blocker of sGC activation, LY85383 (10 microM), completely inhibits the CO response. 4. The dose-response curve for cGMP at CNG channels is used as a calibration to provide a quantitative estimate of the CO-stimulated cGMP formation. This analysis implies that CO is a potent activator of olfactory sGC. 5. Perforated patch recordings using amphotericin B demonstrate that low micromolar doses of CO effectively depolarize the membrane potential of ORNs through tonic activation of CNG channels. This effect in turn regulates excitable and adaptive properties of ORNs and modulates neuronal responsiveness. 6. These data argue for an important role of the cGMP pathway in olfactory signaling and support the idea that CO may function as a diffusible messenger in the olfactory system.

  7. Structural and Single-Channel Results Indicate that the Rates of Ligand Binding Domain Closing and Opening Directly Impact AMPA Receptor Gating

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,W.; Cho, Y.; Lolis, E.; Howe, J.

    2008-01-01

    At most excitatory central synapses, glutamate is released from presynaptic terminals and binds to postsynaptic AMPA receptors, initiating a series of conformational changes that result in ion channel opening. Efficient transmission at these synapses requires that glutamate binding to AMPA receptors results in rapid and near-synchronous opening of postsynaptic receptor channels. In addition, if the information encoded in the frequency of action potential discharge is to be transmitted faithfully, glutamate must dissociate from the receptor quickly, enabling the synapse to discriminate presynaptic action potentials that are spaced closely in time. The current view is that the efficacy of agonists is directly related to the extent to which ligand binding results in closure of the binding domain. For glutamate to dissociate from the receptor, however, the binding domain must open. Previously, we showed that mutations in glutamate receptor subunit 2 that should destabilize the closed conformation not only sped deactivation but also altered the relative efficacy of glutamate and quisqualate. Here we present x-ray crystallographic and single-channel data that support the conclusions that binding domain closing necessarily precedes channel opening and that the kinetics of conformational changes at the level of the binding domain importantly influence ion channel gating. Our findings suggest that the stability of the closed-cleft conformation has been tuned during evolution so that glutamate dissociates from the receptor as rapidly as possible but remains an efficacious agonist.

  8. The Ligand Gated Ion Channel Database.

    PubMed

    Le Novère, N; Changeux, J P

    1999-01-01

    The ligand gated ion channels (LGICs) are ionotropic receptors to neurotransmitters. Their physiological effect is carried out by the opening of an ionic channel upon binding of a particular neurotransmitter. These LGICs constitute superfamilies of receptors formed by homologous subunits. A database has been developed to handle the growing wealth of cloned subunits. This database contains nucleic acid sequences, protein sequences, as well as multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic studies. This database is accessible via the worldwide web (http://www.pasteur.fr/units/neubiomol/LGIC.h tml), where it is continuously updated. A downloadable version is also available [currently v0.1 (98.06)].

  9. Cloning and expression of ligand-gated ion-channel receptor L2 in central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Houtani, Takeshi; Munemoto, Yumi; Kase, Masahiko; Sakuma, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Tetsuo . E-mail: sugimoto@takii.kmu.ac.jp

    2005-09-23

    An orphan receptor of ligand-gated ion-channel type (L2, also termed ZAC according to the presence of zinc ion for channel activation) was identified by computer-assisted search programs on human genome database. The L2 protein shares partial homology with serotonin receptors 5HT3A and 5HT3B. We have cloned L2 cDNA derived from human caudate nucleus and characterized the exon-intron structure as follows: (1) The L2 protein has four transmembrane regions (M1-M4) and a long cytoplasmic loop between M3 and M4. (2) The sequence is conserved in species including chimpanzee, dog, cow, and opossum. (3) Nine exons form its protein-coding region and especially exon 5 corresponds to a disulfide bond region on the amino-terminal side. Our analysis using multiple tissue cDNA panels revealed that at least two splicing variants of L2 mRNA are present. The cDNA PCR amplification study revealed that L2 mRNA is expressed in tissues including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle while 5HT3A mRNA could be detected in brain, heart, placenta, lung, kidney, pancreas, and skeletal muscle, and 5HT3B mRNA in brain, kidney, and skeletal muscle, suggesting different significance in tissue expression of these receptors. Regional expression of L2 mRNA and protein was examined in brain. The RT-PCR studies confirmed L2 mRNA expression in hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, and thalamus in adult brain. The L2 protein was immunolocalized by using antipeptide antibodies. Immunostained tissue sections revealed that L2-like immunoreactivity was dominantly expressed in the hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. We analyzed the expression of L2 protein in HEK293 cells using GFP fusion protein reporter system. Western blots revealed that L2 protein confers sugar chains on the extracellular side. In transfected HEK293 cells, cellular membranes and intracellular puncta were densely labeled with GFP, suggesting selective dispatch to the

  10. Role of amino-terminal half of the S4-S5 linker in type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) channel gating.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Kurebayashi, Nagomi; Oba, Toshiharu; Oyamada, Hideto; Oguchi, Katsuji; Sakurai, Takashi; Ogawa, Yasuo

    2011-10-14

    The type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) is a Ca(2+) release channel found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle and plays a pivotal role in excitation-contraction coupling. The RyR1 channel is activated by a conformational change of the dihydropyridine receptor upon depolarization of the transverse tubule, or by Ca(2+) itself, i.e. Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). The molecular events transmitting such signals to the ion gate of the channel are unknown. The S4-S5 linker, a cytosolic loop connecting the S4 and S5 transmembrane segments in six-transmembrane type channels, forms an α-helical structure and mediates signal transmission in a wide variety of channels. To address the role of the S4-S5 linker in RyR1 channel gating, we performed alanine substitution scan of N-terminal half of the putative S4-S5 linker (Thr(4825)-Ser(4829)) that exhibits high helix probability. The mutant RyR1 was expressed in HEK cells, and CICR activity was investigated by caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release, single-channel current recordings, and [(3)H]ryanodine binding. Four mutants (T4825A, I4826A, S4828A, and S4829A) had reduced CICR activity without changing Ca(2+) sensitivity, whereas the L4827A mutant formed a constitutive active channel. T4825I, a disease-associated mutation for malignant hyperthermia, exhibited enhanced CICR activity. An α-helical wheel representation of the N-terminal S4-S5 linker provides a rational explanation to the observed activities of the mutants. These results suggest that N-terminal half of the S4-S5 linker may form an α-helical structure and play an important role in RyR1 channel gating.

  11. Pharmacological characterization of the Haemonchus contortus GABA-gated chloride channel, Hco-UNC-49: modulation by macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics and a receptor for piperazine.

    PubMed

    Brown, David D R; Siddiqui, Salma Z; Kaji, Mark D; Forrester, Sean G

    2012-04-30

    Invertebrate ligand-gated chloride channels are well recognized as important targets for several insecticides and anthelmintics. Hco-UNC-49 is a GABA-gated chloride channel from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus and is an orthologue to the neuromuscular receptor (Cel-UNC-49) from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. While the receptors from the two nematodes are similar in sequence, they exhibit different sensitivities to GABA which may reflect differences in in vivo function. The aim of the current study was to further characterize the pharmacology of the Hco-UNC-49 receptor by examining its sensitivity to various insecticides and anthelmintics using two-electrode voltage clamp. Specifically, the insecticides fipronil and picrotoxin appear to inhibit the channel in a similar manner. The IC(50) of picrotoxin on the homomeric channel was 3.65 ± 0.64 μM and for the heteromeric channel was 134.56 ± 44.12 μM. On the other hand, dieldrin, a well-known insect GABA receptor blocker, had little effect on the UNC-49 channel. The anthelmintics ivermectin and moxidectin both moderately potentiated the activation of Hco-UNC-49 by GABA, while piperazine was able to directly activate both the Hco-UNC-49 homomeric and heteromeric channels with EC(50) values of 6.23 ± 0.45 mM and 5.09 ± 0.32 mM, respectively. This piperazine current was reversibly blocked by picrotoxin which demonstrates that the anthelmintic specifically targets Hco-UNC-49. These results demonstrate that Hco-UNC-49 exhibits binding sites for several molecules including piperazine and macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics. In addition, this is the first report of the heterologous expression and subsequent characterization of a receptor for piperazine.

  12. 17β-Estradiol regulates the gene expression of voltage-gated sodium channels: role of estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Peizhi; Wang, Wenjuan; Qian, Wenyi; Xiao, Hang; Wang, Lin

    2012-04-01

    Estradiol (E2) plays a key role in pain modulation, and the biological effects of E2 are transduced by binding estrogen receptors (ERs). Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in the membranes of most neurons and excitable cells. Adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons can express the ERs (ERα and ERβ), and Nav channels (TTX-S: Nav1.1, Nav1.6, and Nav1.7; and TTX-R: Nav1.8, and Nav1.9). Although E2 modulates Nav channel currents, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, we investigate the mRNA expressions of Nav channel subtypes mediated differentially by the ERs in the DRGs of wild-type (WT) and estrogen receptor knockout (αERKO and βERKO) mice. By means of quantitative real-time PCR, we found that the expressions of Nav1.1, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 subtypes were elevated in αERKO and βERKO mice, whereas Nav1.6 mRNA decreased in αERKO, but not in βERKO mice. The mRNA expressions of Nav subtypes were increased in E2-treated WT ovariectomized animals. We also found that E2-regulation of Nav1.1 and Nav1.9 mRNA expressions is dependent on ERα, ERβ, and another ER, whereas E2-regulation of Nav1.8 appears to be in an ERβ-dependent manner. PMID:22169964

  13. Activation of protein kinase C and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors antagonistically modulate voltage-gated sodium channels in striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Hourez, Raphaël; Azdad, Karima; Vanwalleghem, Gilles; Roussel, Céline; Gall, David; Schiffmann, Serge N

    2005-10-19

    Regulation of voltage-gated sodium channels is crucial to firing patterns that constitute the output of medium spiny neurons (MSN), projecting neurons of the striatum. This modulation is thus critical for the final integration of information processed within the striatum. It has been shown that the adenylate cyclase pathway reduces sodium currents in MSN through channel phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, it is unknown whether a phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated signaling cascade could also modulate voltage-gated sodium channels within MSN. Using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, we investigated the effects of activation of two key components in PLC-mediated signaling cascades: protein kinase C (PKC) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3)) receptors on voltage-dependent sodium current. Cellular dialysis with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an activator of PKC, significantly reduced peak sodium current amplitude, while adenophostin A, an activator of IP(3) receptors, significantly increased peak sodium current amplitude. This effect of adenophostin was abolished by calcium chelation or by FK506, an inhibitor of calcineurin. These results suggest an antagonistic role of PKC and IP(3) in the modulation of striatal voltage-gated sodium channels, peak current amplitude being decreased through phosphorylation by PKC and increased through dephosphorylation by calcineurin.

  14. Modulation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels by Activation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 and Receptor-2 in Small DRG Neurons of Rats.

    PubMed

    Leo, M; Argalski, S; Schäfers, M; Hagenacker, T

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the development and maintenance of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Its effects are mediated by two receptors, TNF receptor-1 (TNFR-1) and TNF receptor-2 (TNFR-2). These receptors play a crucial role in the sensitization of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we examined the influence of TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 on VGSCs and TTX-resistant NaV1.8 channels in isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons by using selective TNFR agonists. The TNFR-1 agonist R32W (10 pg/mL) caused an increase in the VGSC current (I(Na(V))) by 27.2 ± 5.1%, while the TNFR-2 agonist D145 (10 pg/mL) increased the current by 44.9 ± 2.6%. This effect was dose dependent. Treating isolated NaV1.8 with R32W (100 pg/mL) resulted in an increase in I(NaV(1.8)) by 18.9 ± 1.6%, while treatment with D145 (100 pg/mL) increased the current by 14.5 ± 3.7%. Based on the current-voltage relationship, 10 pg of R32W or D145 led to an increase in I(Na(V)) in a bell-shaped, voltage-dependent manner with a maximum effect at -30 mV. The effects of TNFR activation on VGSCs promote excitation in primary afferent neurons and this might explain the sensitization mechanisms associated with neuropathic and inflammatory pain. PMID:26504355

  15. Modulation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels by Activation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 and Receptor-2 in Small DRG Neurons of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Leo, M.; Argalski, S.; Schäfers, M.; Hagenacker, T.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the development and maintenance of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Its effects are mediated by two receptors, TNF receptor-1 (TNFR-1) and TNF receptor-2 (TNFR-2). These receptors play a crucial role in the sensitization of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we examined the influence of TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 on VGSCs and TTX-resistant NaV1.8 channels in isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons by using selective TNFR agonists. The TNFR-1 agonist R32W (10 pg/mL) caused an increase in the VGSC current (INa(V)) by 27.2 ± 5.1%, while the TNFR-2 agonist D145 (10 pg/mL) increased the current by 44.9 ± 2.6%. This effect was dose dependent. Treating isolated NaV1.8 with R32W (100 pg/mL) resulted in an increase in INaV(1.8) by 18.9 ± 1.6%, while treatment with D145 (100 pg/mL) increased the current by 14.5 ± 3.7%. Based on the current-voltage relationship, 10 pg of R32W or D145 led to an increase in INa(V) in a bell-shaped, voltage-dependent manner with a maximum effect at −30 mV. The effects of TNFR activation on VGSCs promote excitation in primary afferent neurons and this might explain the sensitization mechanisms associated with neuropathic and inflammatory pain. PMID:26504355

  16. Neonatal Diabetes Caused by Mutations in Sulfonylurea Receptor 1: Interplay between Expression and Mg-Nucleotide Gating Defects of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Garin, Intza; Castaño, Luis; Argente, Jesús; Muñoz-Calvo, Ma. Teresa; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Shyng, Show-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Context: ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels regulate insulin secretion by coupling glucose metabolism to β-cell membrane potential. Gain-of-function mutations in the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) or Kir6.2 channel subunit underlie neonatal diabetes. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the mechanisms by which two SUR1 mutations, E208K and V324M, associated with transient neonatal diabetes affect KATP channel function. Design: E208K or V324M mutant SUR1 was coexpressed with Kir6.2 in COS cells, and expression and gating properties of the resulting channels were assessed biochemically and electrophysiologically. Results: Both E208K and V324M augment channel response to MgADP stimulation without altering sensitivity to ATP4− or sulfonylureas. Surprisingly, whereas E208K causes only a small increase in MgADP response consistent with the mild transient diabetes phenotype, V324M causes a severe activating gating defect. Unlike E208K, V324M also impairs channel expression at the cell surface, which is expected to dampen its functional impact on β-cells. When either mutation was combined with a mutation in the second nucleotide binding domain of SUR1 previously shown to abolish Mg-nucleotide response, the activating effect of E208K and V324M was also abolished. Moreover, combination of E208K and V324M results in channels with Mg-nucleotide sensitivity greater than that seen in individual mutations alone. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that E208K and V324M, located in distinct domains of SUR1, enhance transduction of Mg-nucleotide stimulation from the SUR1 nucleotide binding folds to Kir6.2. Furthermore, they suggest that diabetes severity is determined by interplay between effects of a mutation on channel expression and channel gating. PMID:20810569

  17. Single-Channel Recording of Ligand-Gated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Plested, Andrew J R

    2016-01-01

    Single-channel recordings reveal the microscopic properties of individual ligand-gated ion channels. Such recordings contain much more information than measurements of ensemble behavior and can yield structural and functional information about the receptors that participate in fast synaptic transmission in the brain. With a little care, a standard patch-clamp electrophysiology setup can be adapted for single-channel recording in a matter of hours. Thenceforth, it is a realistic aim to record single-molecule activity with microsecond resolution from arbitrary cell types, including cell lines and neurons. PMID:27480725

  18. Calcium Channel Signaling Complexes with Receptors and Channels.

    PubMed

    Zamponi, Gerald W

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are not only mediators of cell signalling events, but also are recipients of signalling inputs from G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their associated second messenger pathways. The coupling of GPCRs to calcium channels is optimized through the formation of receptor-channel complexes. In addition, this provides a mechanism for receptorchannel co-trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. On the other hand, voltage-gated calcium channel activity affects other types of ion channels such as voltage-and calcium-activated potassium channels. Coupling efficiency between these two families of channels is also enhanced through the formation of channel-channel complexes. This review provides a concise overview of the current state of knowledge on the physical interactions between voltage-gated calcium channels and members of the GPCR family, and with other types of ion channels.

  19. EXP-1 is an excitatory GABA-gated cation channel.

    PubMed

    Beg, Asim A; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2003-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediates fast inhibitory neurotransmission by activating anion-selective ligand-gated ion channels. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that GABA may activate cation-selective ligand-gated ion channels in some cell types, such a channel has never been characterized at the molecular level. Here we show that GABA mediates enteric muscle contraction in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans via the EXP-1 receptor, a cation-selective ligand-gated ion channel. The EXP-1 protein resembles ionotropic GABA receptor subunits in almost all domains. In the pore-forming domain of EXP-1, however, the residues that confer anion selectivity are exchanged for those that specify cation selectivity. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, EXP-1 forms a GABA receptor that is permeable to cations and not anions. We conclude that some of the excitatory functions assigned to GABA are mediated by cation channels rather than by anion channels.

  20. Neurosteroids shift partial agonist activation of GABA(A) receptor channels from low- to high-efficacy gating patterns.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Matt T; Macdonald, Robert L

    2003-11-26

    Although GABA activates synaptic (alphabetagamma) GABA(A) receptors with high efficacy, partial agonist activation of alphabetagamma isoforms and GABA activation of the primary extrasynaptic (alphabetadelta) GABA(A) receptors are limited to low-efficacy activity, characterized by minimal desensitization and brief openings. The unusual sensitivity of alphabetadelta receptor channels to neurosteroid modulation prompted investigation of whether this high sensitivity was dependent on the delta subunit or the low-efficacy channel function that it confers. We show that the isoform specificity (alphabetadelta > alphabetagamma) of neurosteroid modulation could be reversed by conditions that reversed isoform-specific activity modes, including the use of beta-alanine to achieve increased efficacy with alphabetadelta receptors and taurine to render alphabetagamma receptors low efficacy. We suggest that neurosteroids preferentially enhance low-efficacy GABA(A) receptor activity independent of subunit composition. Allosteric conversion of partial to full agonism may be a general mechanism for reversibly scaling the efficacy of GABA(A) receptors to endogenous partial agonists.

  1. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanck, Dorothy A.; Fozzard, Harry A.

    Voltage-gated sodium channels subserve regenerative excitation throughout the nervous system, as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This excitation results from a voltage-dependent mechanism that increases regeneratively and selectively the sodium conductance of the channel e-fold for a 4-7 mV depolarization of the membrane with time constants in the range of tens of microseconds. Entry of Na+ into the cell without a companion anion depolarizes the cell. This depolarization, called the action potential, is propagated at rates of 1-20 meters/sec. In nerve it subserves rapid transmission of information and, in muscle cells, coordinates the trigger for contraction. Sodium-dependent action potentials depolarize the membrane to inside positive values of about 30-40 mV (approaching the electrochemical potential for the transmembrane sodium gradient). Repolarization to the resting potential (usually between -60 and -90 mV) occurs because of inactivation (closure) of sodium channels, which is assisted in different tissues by variable amounts of activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. This sequence results in all-or-nothing action potentials in nerve and fast skeletal muscle of 1-2 ms duration, and in heart muscle of 100-300 ms duration. Recovery of regenerative excitation, i.e., recovery of the ability of sodium channels to open, occurs after restoration of the resting potential with time constants of a few to several hundreds of milliseconds, depending on the channel isoform, and this rate controls the minimum interval for repetitive action potentials (refractory period).

  2. Emergence of ion channel modal gating from independent subunit kinetics.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, Brendan A; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2016-09-01

    Many ion channels exhibit a slow stochastic switching between distinct modes of gating activity. This feature of channel behavior has pronounced implications for the dynamics of ionic currents and the signaling pathways that they regulate. A canonical example is the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel, whose regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is essential for numerous cellular processes. However, the underlying biophysical mechanisms that give rise to modal gating in this and most other channels remain unknown. Although ion channels are composed of protein subunits, previous mathematical models of modal gating are coarse grained at the level of whole-channel states, limiting further dialogue between theory and experiment. Here we propose an origin for modal gating, by modeling the kinetics of ligand binding and conformational change in the IP3R at the subunit level. We find good agreement with experimental data over a wide range of ligand concentrations, accounting for equilibrium channel properties, transient responses to changing ligand conditions, and modal gating statistics. We show how this can be understood within a simple analytical framework and confirm our results with stochastic simulations. The model assumes that channel subunits are independent, demonstrating that cooperative binding or concerted conformational changes are not required for modal gating. Moreover, the model embodies a generally applicable principle: If a timescale separation exists in the kinetics of individual subunits, then modal gating can arise as an emergent property of channel behavior. PMID:27551100

  3. Biphasic regulation of InsP3 receptor gating by dual Ca2+ release channel BH3-like domains mediates Bcl-xL control of cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Vais, Horia; Gu, Wenen; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members interact with inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) Ca2+ release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum to modulate Ca2+ signals that affect cell viability. However, the molecular details and consequences of their interactions are unclear. Here, we found that Bcl-xL activates single InsP3R channels with a biphasic concentration dependence. The Bcl-xL Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain-binding pocket mediates both high-affinity channel activation and low-affinity inhibition. Bcl-xL activates channel gating by binding to two BH3 domain-like helices in the channel carboxyl terminus, whereas inhibition requires binding to one of them and to a previously identified Bcl-2 interaction site in the channel-coupling domain. Disruption of these interactions diminishes cell viability and sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli. Our results identify BH3-like domains in an ion channel and they provide a unifying model of the effects of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins on the InsP3R that play critical roles in Ca2+ signaling and cell viability. PMID:26976600

  4. Intrinsic gating mechanisms of epithelial sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong-Long; Fuller, Catherine M; Benos, Dale J

    2002-08-01

    The hypothesis that there is a highly conserved, positively charged region distal to the second transmembrane domain in alpha-ENaC (epithelial sodium channel) that acts as a putative receptor site for the negatively charged COOH-terminal beta- and gamma-ENaC tails was tested in mutagenesis experiments. After expression in Xenopus oocytes, alpha-ENaC constructs in which positively charged arginine residues were converted into negatively charged glutamic acids could not be inhibited by blocking peptides. These observations provide insight into the gating machinery of ENaC. PMID:12107075

  5. Opioid receptors from a lower vertebrate (Catostomus commersoni): Sequence, pharmacology, coupling to a G-protein-gated inward-rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1), and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Darlison, Mark G.; Greten, Florian R.; Harvey, Robert J.; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jürgen; Stühmer, Thorsten; Zwiers, Henk; Lederis, Karl; Richter, Dietmar

    1997-01-01

    The molecular evolution of the opioid receptor family has been studied by isolating cDNAs that encode six distinct opioid receptor-like proteins from a lower vertebrate, the teleost fish Catostomus commersoni. One of these, which has been obtained in full-length form, encodes a 383-amino acid protein that exhibits greatest sequence similarity to mammalian μ-opioid receptors; the corresponding gene is expressed predominantly in brain and pituitary. Transfection of the teleost cDNA into HEK 293 cells resulted in the appearance of a receptor having high affinity for the μ-selective agonist [d-Ala2, MePhe4-Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) (Kd = 0.63 ± 0.15 nM) and for the nonselective antagonist naloxone (Kd = 3.1 ± 1.3 nM). The receptor had negligible affinity for U50488 and [d-Pen2, d-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE), which are κ- and δ-opioid receptor selective agonists, respectively. Stimulation of transfected cells with 1 μM DAMGO lowered forskolin-induced cAMP levels, an effect that could be reversed by naloxone. Experiments in Xenopus oocytes have demonstrated that the fish opioid receptor can, in an agonist-dependent fashion, activate a coexpressed mouse G-protein-gated inward-rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1). The identification of six distinct fish opioid receptor-like proteins suggests that additional mammalian opioid receptors remain to be identified at the molecular level. Furthermore, our data indicate that the μ-opioid receptor arose very early in evolution, perhaps before the appearance of vertebrates, and that the pharmacological and functional properties of this receptor have been conserved over a period of ≈400 million years implying that it fulfills an important physiological role. PMID:9223341

  6. Gramicidin channels are internally gated.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tyson L; Fu, Riqiang; Nielson, Frederick; Cross, Timothy A; Busath, David D

    2010-04-21

    Gramicidin channels are archetypal molecular subjects for solid-state NMR studies and investigations of single-channel or cation conductance. Until now, the transitions between on and off conductance states have been thought, based on multichannel studies, to represent monomer <--> dimer reactions. Here we use a single-molecule deposition method (vesicle fusion to a planar bilayer) to show that gramicidin dimer channels do not normally dissociate when conductance terminates. Furthermore, the observation of two 13C peaks in solid-state NMR indicates very stable dichotomous conformations for both the first and second peptide bonds in the monomers, and a two-dimensional chemical exchange spectrum with a 12-s mixing time demonstrates that the Val1 carbonyl conformations exchange slowly, with lifetimes of several seconds. It is proposed that gramicidin channels are gated by small conformational changes in the channel near the permeation pathway. These studies demonstrate how regulation of conformations governing closed <--> open transitions may be achieved and studied at the molecular level.

  7. GPCR and voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Altier, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are transmembrane proteins that control nerve impulses and cell homeostasis. Signaling molecules that regulate ion channel activity and density at the plasma membrane must be specifically and efficiently coupled to these channels in order to control critical physiological functions such as action potential propagation. Although their regulation by G-protein receptor activation has been extensively explored, the assembly of ion channels into signaling complexes of GPCRs plays a fundamental role, engaging specific downstream -signaling pathways that trigger precise downstream effectors. Recent work has confirmed that GPCRs can intimately interact with ion channels and serve as -chaperone proteins that finely control their gating and trafficking in subcellular microdomains. This chapter aims to describe examples of GPCR-ion channel co-assembly, focusing mainly on signaling complexes between GPCRs and voltage-gated calcium channels.

  8. P-channel silicone gate FET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostis, S.; Woo, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    Modified fabrication technique for P-channel MOSFET devices eliminates problems involving gate placement and gate overlap. Technique provides self-aligned gate, eliminating complexity of mask aligning. Devices produced by this process are considerably faster than conventional MOSFET's and process increases yield.

  9. Upregulation of voltage-gated Na+ channels by long-term activation of the ghrelin-growth hormone secretagogue receptor in clonal GC somatotropes.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Belisario; Felix, Ricardo; Monjaraz, Eduardo

    2009-05-01

    A central question in adenohypophyseal cell physiology concerns the role of transmembrane ionic fluxes in the initiation of the hormone secretion process. In the current report, we investigated the effects of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogues ghrelin and GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) on the regulation of the functional expression of voltage-gated Na(+) channels using the tumoral somatotrope GC cell line as a model. Cells were cultured under control conditions or in presence of the GH secretagogues (GHS) for 96 h, and Na(+) currents (I(Na)) were characterized in whole cell patch-clamp experiments. GHS treatment significantly increased I(Na) density in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of GHRP-6 were accompanied by an augment in conductance without changes in the kinetics and the voltage dependence of the currents, suggesting an increase in the number of channels in the cell membrane. Sustained inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channel activity decreased I(Na) density and prevented the effects of the GHS, whereas long-term exposure to an L-channel agonist increased I(Na) density and enhanced the actions of GHRP-6, indicating that Ca(2+) entry through these channels plays a role in the regulation of Na(+) channel expression. Likewise, GHRP-6 failed to enhance Na(+) channel expression in the presence of membrane-permeable inhibitors of protein kinases A and C, as well as the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Conversely, treatment with a cAMP analog or a protein kinase C activator enhanced both basal and GHS-induced secretion of GH measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay, suggesting that GHRP-6 acting through the ghrelin receptor and different signaling pathways enhances Na(+) channel membrane expression, which favors hormone release from GC somatotropes.

  10. 5. GATE 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING SOUTH; WATER FROM GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GATE 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING SOUTH; WATER FROM GATE 5 ENTERED DITCH AND IRRIGATED HONDIUS' FIELDS. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  11. Synaptic Neurotransmitter-Gated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Trevor G.; Paoletti, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors in the brain, many have deliberated over their likely structures and how these may relate to function. This was initially satisfied by the determination of the first amino acid sequences of the Cys-loop receptors that recognized acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, and glycine, followed later by similar determinations for the glutamate receptors, comprising non-NMDA and NMDA subtypes. The last decade has seen a rapid advance resulting in the first structures of Cys-loop receptors, related bacterial and molluscan homologs, and glutamate receptors, determined down to atomic resolution. This now provides a basis for determining not just the complete structures of these important receptor classes, but also for understanding how various domains and residues interact during agonist binding, receptor activation, and channel opening, including allosteric modulation. This article reviews our current understanding of these mechanisms for the Cys-loop and glutamate receptor families. PMID:22233560

  12. BK channels: multiple sensors, one activation gate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanghe; Zhang, Guohui; Cui, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport across cell membranes is essential to cell communication and signaling. Passive ion transport is mediated by ion channels, membrane proteins that create ion conducting pores across cell membrane to allow ion flux down electrochemical gradient. Under physiological conditions, majority of ion channel pores are not constitutively open. Instead, structural region(s) within these pores breaks the continuity of the aqueous ion pathway, thereby serves as activation gate(s) to control ions flow in and out. To achieve spatially and temporally regulated ion flux in cells, many ion channels have evolved sensors to detect various environmental stimuli or the metabolic states of the cell and trigger global conformational changes, thereby dynamically operate the opening and closing of their activation gate. The sensors of ion channels can be broadly categorized as chemical sensors and physical sensors to respond to chemical (such as neural transmitters, nucleotides and ions) and physical (such as voltage, mechanical force and temperature) signals, respectively. With the rapidly growing structural and functional information of different types of ion channels, it is now critical to understand how ion channel sensors dynamically control their gates at molecular and atomic level. The voltage and Ca(2+) activated BK channels, a K(+) channel with an electrical sensor and multiple chemical sensors, provide a unique model system for us to understand how physical and chemical energy synergistically operate its activation gate.

  13. BK channels: multiple sensors, one activation gate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huanghe; Zhang, Guohui; Cui, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport across cell membranes is essential to cell communication and signaling. Passive ion transport is mediated by ion channels, membrane proteins that create ion conducting pores across cell membrane to allow ion flux down electrochemical gradient. Under physiological conditions, majority of ion channel pores are not constitutively open. Instead, structural region(s) within these pores breaks the continuity of the aqueous ion pathway, thereby serves as activation gate(s) to control ions flow in and out. To achieve spatially and temporally regulated ion flux in cells, many ion channels have evolved sensors to detect various environmental stimuli or the metabolic states of the cell and trigger global conformational changes, thereby dynamically operate the opening and closing of their activation gate. The sensors of ion channels can be broadly categorized as chemical sensors and physical sensors to respond to chemical (such as neural transmitters, nucleotides and ions) and physical (such as voltage, mechanical force and temperature) signals, respectively. With the rapidly growing structural and functional information of different types of ion channels, it is now critical to understand how ion channel sensors dynamically control their gates at molecular and atomic level. The voltage and Ca2+ activated BK channels, a K+ channel with an electrical sensor and multiple chemical sensors, provide a unique model system for us to understand how physical and chemical energy synergistically operate its activation gate. PMID:25705194

  14. Site-directed spin labeling reveals pentameric ligand-gated ion channel gating motions.

    PubMed

    Dellisanti, Cosma D; Ghosh, Borna; Hanson, Susan M; Raspanti, James M; Grant, Valerie A; Diarra, Gaoussou M; Schuh, Abby M; Satyshur, Kenneth; Klug, Candice S; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2013-11-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are neurotransmitter-activated receptors that mediate fast synaptic transmission. In pLGICs, binding of agonist to the extracellular domain triggers a structural rearrangement that leads to the opening of an ion-conducting pore in the transmembrane domain and, in the continued presence of neurotransmitter, the channels desensitize (close). The flexible loops in each subunit that connect the extracellular binding domain (loops 2, 7, and 9) to the transmembrane channel domain (M2-M3 loop) are essential for coupling ligand binding to channel gating. Comparing the crystal structures of two bacterial pLGIC homologues, ELIC and the proton-activated GLIC, suggests channel gating is associated with rearrangements in these loops, but whether these motions accurately predict the motions in functional lipid-embedded pLGICs is unknown. Here, using site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and functional GLIC channels reconstituted into liposomes, we examined if, and how far, the loops at the ECD/TMD gating interface move during proton-dependent gating transitions from the resting to desensitized state. Loop 9 moves ∼9 Å inward toward the channel lumen in response to proton-induced desensitization. Loop 9 motions were not observed when GLIC was in detergent micelles, suggesting detergent solubilization traps the protein in a nonactivatable state and lipids are required for functional gating transitions. Proton-induced desensitization immobilizes loop 2 with little change in position. Proton-induced motion of the M2-M3 loop was not observed, suggesting its conformation is nearly identical in closed and desensitized states. Our experimentally derived distance measurements of spin-labeled GLIC suggest ELIC is not a good model for the functional resting state of GLIC, and that the crystal structure of GLIC does not correspond to a desensitized state. These findings advance our understanding

  15. Evidence for the role of lipid rafts and sphingomyelin in Ca2+-gating of Transient Receptor Potential channels in trigeminal sensory neurons and peripheral nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Sághy, Éva; Szőke, Éva; Payrits, Maja; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Börzsei, Rita; Erostyák, János; Jánosi, Tibor Zoltán; Sétáló, György; Szolcsányi, János

    2015-10-01

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) cation channels, such as TRP Vanilloid 1 and TRP Ankyrin repeat domain 1 (TRPV1 and TRPA1) are nocisensors playing important role to signal pain. Two "melastatin" TRP receptors, like TRPM8 and TRPM3 are also expressed in a subgroup of primary sensory neurons. These channels serve as thermosensors with unique thermal sensitivity ranges and are activated also by several exogenous and endogenous chemical ligands inducing conformational changes from various allosteric ("multisteric") sites. We analysed the role of plasma membrane microdomains of lipid rafts on isolated trigeminal (TRG) neurons and TRPV1-expressing CHO cell line by measuring agonist-induced Ca2+ transients with ratiometric technique. Stimulation-evoked calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release from sensory nerve endings of the isolated rat trachea by radioimmunoassay was also measured. Lipid rafts were disrupted by cleaving sphingomyelin (SM) with sphingomyelinase (SMase), cholesterol depletion with methyl β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and ganglioside breakdown with myriocin. It has been revealed that intracellular Ca2+ increase responses evoked by the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, the TRPA1 agonsits allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and formaldehyde as well as the TRPM8 activator icilin were inhibited after SMase, MCD and myriocin incubation but the response to the TRPM3 agonist pregnenolon sulphate was not altered. Extracellular SMase treatment did not influence the thapsigargin-evoked Ca2+-release from intracellular stores. Besides the cell bodies, SMase also inhibited capsaicin- or AITC-evoked CGRP release from peripheral sensory nerve terminals, this provides the first evidence for the importance of lipid raft integrity in TRPV1 and TRPA1 gating on capsaicin-sensitive nerve terminals. SM metabolites, ceramide and sphingosine, did not influence TRPA1 and TRPV1 activation on TRG neurons, TRPV1-expressing CHO cell line, and nerve terminals. We suggest, that the hydrophobic

  16. 1. UPPER SEGMENT OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, DRUM GATES ALONG SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. UPPER SEGMENT OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, DRUM GATES ALONG SIDE OF CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH (up the channel) - Tieton Dam, Spillway & Drum Gates, South & East side of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  17. Mechanism of Ca2+ Disruption in Alzheimer’s Disease by Presenilin Regulation of InsP3 Receptor Channel Gating

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, King-Ho; Shineman, Diana; Muller, Marioly; Cardenas, Cesar; Mei, Lijuan; Yang, Jun; Tomita, Taisuke; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Mutations in presenilins (PS) are the major cause of familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) and have been associated with calcium (Ca2+) signaling abnormalities. Here, we demonstrate that FAD mutant PS1 (M146L) and PS2 (N141I) interact with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) Ca2+ release channel and exert profound stimulatory effects on its gating activity in response to saturating and sub-optimal levels of InsP3. These interactions result in exaggerated cellular Ca2+ signaling in response to agonist stimulation as well as enhanced low-level Ca2+ signaling in unstimulated cells. Parallel studies in InsP3R-expressing and -deficient cells revealed that enhanced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum as a result of the specific interaction of PS1-M146L with the InsP3R stimulates amyloid beta processing, an important feature of AD pathology. These observations provide molecular insights into the “Ca2+ dysregulation” hypothesis of AD pathogenesis and suggest novel targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:18579078

  18. From Toxins Targeting Ligand Gated Ion Channels to Therapeutic Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Nasiripourdori, Adak; Taly, Valérie; Grutter, Thomas; Taly, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels (LGIC) play a central role in inter-cellular communication. This key function has two consequences: (i) these receptor channels are major targets for drug discovery because of their potential involvement in numerous human brain diseases; (ii) they are often found to be the target of plant and animal toxins. Together this makes toxin/receptor interactions important to drug discovery projects. Therefore, toxins acting on LGIC are presented and their current/potential therapeutic uses highlighted. PMID:22069709

  19. Voltage-dependent interaction of open-channel blocking molecules with gating of NMDA receptors in rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Antonov, S M; Johnson, J W

    1996-01-01

    1. The mechanisms by which four adamantane derivatives (IEM-1857, -1592, -1460 and -1754) block the open NMDA-activated channel were studied at membrane voltages (Vm) from -170 to +30 mV. The rate constants of channel block (k+) and of channel unblock (k-) were measured from the fully resolvable flicker of single-channel currents induced by each compound. 2. The k+ of each compound exhibited a similar exponential dependence on voltage over the Vm range studied. 3. The k- of IEM-1857 and IEM-1592 over the Vm range studied, and of IEM-1754 and IEM-1460 from -30 to -90 mV, exhibited similar exponential dependencies on voltage. However, the k- of IEM-1754 and IEM-1460 at Vm values more hyperpolarized than -90 mV were much more steeply voltage dependent, suggesting that at these Vm values the two drugs can occupy a deeper binding site. 4. Each of the drugs induced a concentration-dependent prolongation of the mean burst length at -90 mV, suggesting that while blocking they can interfere with channel closure. 5. The prolongation of mean burst length induced by the largest drug (IEM-1857) increased with hyperpolarization. The increase was consistent at each Vm with the predictions of the sequential scheme of block, suggesting that channel closure is prevented when IEM-1857 is bound. The prolongation of burst length induced by the smallest drug (IEM-1754) was less than predicted by the sequential scheme and the deviation increased with hyperpolarization. 6. The IEM-1857 concentration-dependence of number of blockages per unit open time had a slope equal to k+ at -150 mV. The IEM-1754 concentration-dependence of number of blockages per unit open time revealed a slope about two times less than k+ for this compound at -150 mV. 7. The mean patch current was not significantly altered by 3 microM IEM-1857 at Vm values from -90 to -150 mV, as expected of a drug that prevents channel closure when blocking. Mean patch current significantly decreased with hyperpolarization beyond

  20. Conjoint occurrence of GABAB receptor antibodies in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome with antibodies to the voltage gated calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Dogan Onugoren, Müjgan; Rauschka, Helmut; Bien, Christian G

    2014-08-15

    Antibodies (abs) to the GABAB receptor have been recently found to be responsible for immune-mediated encephalitis with dominant seizures. They are in approximately 50% of cases associated with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). GABAB receptors are mainly located in the hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum in the presynaptic and postsynaptic regions of synapses. The main function of these receptors is to reduce activity states of neurons. In some instances, GABAB receptor abs in these patients were accompanied by other antibodies, among them VGCC abs (Lancaster et al., 2010, Boronat et al., 2011). VGCC abs cause paraneoplastic Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) by reduction of presynaptic VGCCs (Titulaer et al., 2011). In the domain of CNS disease, VGCC abs have been found in association with paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia (Mason et al., 1997) and rarely and at low titres also in other paraneoplastic encephalopathies together with Hu abs (Lennon et al., 1995). It has been a long-standing debate if abs in paraneoplastic conditions associate rather with the neurological syndrome or the tumour. Here, we describe the conjoint occurrence of abs to the GABAB receptor and to the VGCC in a patient with SCLC presenting only symptoms of the peripheral nervous system giving another example of the latter hypothesis. PMID:24929678

  1. The desensitization gate of inhibitory Cys-loop receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, Marc; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-04-01

    Cys-loop neurotransmitter-gated ion channels are vital for communication throughout the nervous system. Following activation, these receptors enter into a desensitized state in which the ion channel shuts even though the neurotransmitter molecules remain bound. To date, the molecular determinants underlying this most fundamental property of Cys-loop receptors have remained elusive. Here we present a generic mechanism for the desensitization of Cys-loop GABAA (GABAARs) and glycine receptors (GlyRs), which both mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission. Desensitization is regulated by interactions between the second and third transmembrane segments, which affect the ion channel lumen near its intracellular end. The GABAAR and GlyR pore blocker picrotoxin prevented desensitization, consistent with its deep channel-binding site overlapping a physical desensitization gate.

  2. The desensitization gate of inhibitory Cys-loop receptors.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Marc; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G

    2015-01-01

    Cys-loop neurotransmitter-gated ion channels are vital for communication throughout the nervous system. Following activation, these receptors enter into a desensitized state in which the ion channel shuts even though the neurotransmitter molecules remain bound. To date, the molecular determinants underlying this most fundamental property of Cys-loop receptors have remained elusive. Here we present a generic mechanism for the desensitization of Cys-loop GABAA (GABAARs) and glycine receptors (GlyRs), which both mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission. Desensitization is regulated by interactions between the second and third transmembrane segments, which affect the ion channel lumen near its intracellular end. The GABAAR and GlyR pore blocker picrotoxin prevented desensitization, consistent with its deep channel-binding site overlapping a physical desensitization gate. PMID:25891813

  3. Coactivation of metabotropic glutamate receptors and of voltage-gated calcium channels induces long-term depression in cerebellar Purkinje cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Daniel, H; Hemart, N; Jaillard, D; Crepel, F

    1992-01-01

    Using an in vitro slice preparation, we studied the effects, on parallel fiber (PF)-mediated EPSPs, of coactivation of metabotropic-glutamate receptors and of voltage-gated calcium (Ca) channels of Purkinje cells (PCs) by bath application of 50 microM trans-1-amino-cyclopentyl-1,3-dicarboxylate (trans-ACPD) and by direct depolarization of the cells, respectively. These effects were compared with changes in synaptic efficacy obtained when alpha-amino-3hydroxy-5-methylisoxalone-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors of PCs were also activated through stimulation of PFs during the pairing protocol, as well as when similar experiments were performed without trans-ACPD in the bath. In a control medium, pairing for 1 min of PF-mediated EPSPs evoked at 1 Hz with Ca spikes evoked by steady depolarization of PCs (n = 13) led to LTD of synaptic transmission in 9 cases whereas for the others EPSPs were not affected. No LTD occurred in 9 out of 10 other cells tested when PF stimulation was omitted during the 1 min period of Ca spike firing of PCs. Bath application of 50 microM trans-ACPD, in conjunction with the same pairing protocol as before (n = 8), led to a significantly larger LTD of PF-mediated EPSPs after washing out of this drug. Moreover, a clear-cut LTD of PF-mediated EPSPs was also observed in 5 of the 8 other cells, when PF stimulation was omitted during Ca spike firing in the presence of trans-ACPD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels by sumatriptan bioisosteres

    PubMed Central

    Carbonara, Roberta; Carocci, Alessia; Roussel, Julien; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Buonavoglia, Canio; Franchini, Carlo; Lentini, Giovanni; Camerino, Diana Conte; Desaphy, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are known to play a pivotal role in perception and transmission of pain sensations. Gain-of-function mutations in the genes encoding the peripheral neuronal sodium channels, hNav1.7–1.9, cause human painful diseases. Thus while treatment of chronic pain remains an unmet clinical need, sodium channel blockers are considered as promising druggable targets. In a previous study, we evaluated the analgesic activity of sumatriptan, an agonist of serotonin 5HT1B/D receptors, and some new chiral bioisosteres, using the hot plate test in the mouse. Interestingly, we observed that the analgesic effectiveness was not necessarily correlated to serotonin agonism. In this study, we evaluated whether sumatriptan and its congeners may inhibit heterologously expressed hNav1.7 sodium channels using the patch-clamp method. We show that sumatriptan blocks hNav1.7 channels only at very high, supratherapeutic concentrations. In contrast, its three analogs, namely 20b, (R)-31b, and (S)-22b, exert a dose and use-dependent sodium channel block. At 0.1 and 10 Hz stimulation frequencies, the most potent compound, (S)-22b, was 4.4 and 1.7 fold more potent than the well-known sodium channel blocker mexiletine. The compound induces a negative shift of voltage dependence of fast inactivation, suggesting higher affinity to the inactivated channel. Accordingly, we show that (S)-22b likely binds the conserved local anesthetic receptor within voltage-gated sodium channels. Combining these results with the previous ones, we hypothesize that use-dependent sodium channel blockade contributes to the analgesic activity of (R)-31b and (S)-22b. These later compounds represent promising lead compounds for the development of efficient analgesics, the mechanism of action of which may include a dual action on sodium channels and 5HT1D receptors. PMID:26257653

  5. Inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels by sumatriptan bioisosteres.

    PubMed

    Carbonara, Roberta; Carocci, Alessia; Roussel, Julien; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Buonavoglia, Canio; Franchini, Carlo; Lentini, Giovanni; Camerino, Diana Conte; Desaphy, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are known to play a pivotal role in perception and transmission of pain sensations. Gain-of-function mutations in the genes encoding the peripheral neuronal sodium channels, hNav1.7-1.9, cause human painful diseases. Thus while treatment of chronic pain remains an unmet clinical need, sodium channel blockers are considered as promising druggable targets. In a previous study, we evaluated the analgesic activity of sumatriptan, an agonist of serotonin 5HT1B/D receptors, and some new chiral bioisosteres, using the hot plate test in the mouse. Interestingly, we observed that the analgesic effectiveness was not necessarily correlated to serotonin agonism. In this study, we evaluated whether sumatriptan and its congeners may inhibit heterologously expressed hNav1.7 sodium channels using the patch-clamp method. We show that sumatriptan blocks hNav1.7 channels only at very high, supratherapeutic concentrations. In contrast, its three analogs, namely 20b, (R)-31b, and (S)-22b, exert a dose and use-dependent sodium channel block. At 0.1 and 10 Hz stimulation frequencies, the most potent compound, (S)-22b, was 4.4 and 1.7 fold more potent than the well-known sodium channel blocker mexiletine. The compound induces a negative shift of voltage dependence of fast inactivation, suggesting higher affinity to the inactivated channel. Accordingly, we show that (S)-22b likely binds the conserved local anesthetic receptor within voltage-gated sodium channels. Combining these results with the previous ones, we hypothesize that use-dependent sodium channel blockade contributes to the analgesic activity of (R)-31b and (S)-22b. These later compounds represent promising lead compounds for the development of efficient analgesics, the mechanism of action of which may include a dual action on sodium channels and 5HT1D receptors. PMID:26257653

  6. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW OF GATE, DRAIN CHANNEL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW OF GATE, DRAIN CHANNEL AND BUILDING SHELTERING GATE OPERATING MECHANISM - Norwich Water Power Company, Canal Drain Gate, West bank of Shetucket River opposite Twelfth Street, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  7. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: Evolutionary History and Distinctive Sequence Features.

    PubMed

    Kasimova, M A; Granata, D; Carnevale, V

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) are responsible for the rising phase of the action potential. Their role in electrical signal transmission is so relevant that their emergence is believed to be one of the crucial factors enabling development of nervous system. The presence of voltage-gated sodium-selective channels in bacteria (BacNav) has raised questions concerning the evolutionary history of the ones in animals. Here we review some of the milestones in the field of Nav phylogenetic analysis and discuss some of the most important sequence features that distinguish these channels from voltage-gated potassium channels and transient receptor potential channels. PMID:27586287

  8. Modal gating of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vij, Ridhima

    Many ion channels exhibit multiple patterns of kinetic activity in single-channel currents. This behavior is rare in WT mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), where A2C↔A2O gating events are well-described by single exponentials. Also, single-channel open probability (PO) is essentially homogeneous at a given agonist concentration in the WT receptors. Here I report that perturbations of almost all the residues in loop C (alpha188-alpha199, at the agonist binding site) generate heterogeneity in PO ('modes'). Such unsettled activity was apparent with an alanine substitution at all positions in loop C (except alphaY190 and alphaY198) and with different side chain substitutions at alphaP197 for both adult- and fetal-type AChRs. I used single channel electrophysiology along with site-directed mutagenesis to study modal gating in AChRs consequent to mutations/deletions in loop C. The multiple patterns of kinetic activity arose from the difference in agonist affinity rather than in intrinsic AChR gating. Out of the four different agonists used to study the modal behavior, acetylcholine (ACh) showed a higher degree of kinetic heterogeneity compared to others. The time constant for switching between modes was long (~mins), suggesting that they arise from alternative, stable protein conformations. By studying AChRs having only 1 functional binding site, I attempted to find the source of the affinity difference, which was traced mainly to the alphadelta agonist site. Affinity at the neurotransmitter binding site is mainly determined by a core of five aromatic residues (alphaY93, alphaW149, alphaY190, alphaY198 and deltaW57). Phenylalanine substitutions at all aromatic residues except alphaY93 resulted in elimination of modes. Modes were also eliminated by alanine mutation at deltaW57 on the complementary side but not at other aromatics. Also, by substituting four gamma subunit residues into the delta subunit on the complementary beta sheet, I found that

  9. Voltage-gated proton channels: what' next?

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    This review is an attempt to identify and place in context some of the many questions about voltage-gated proton channels that remain unsolved. As the gene was identified only 2 years ago, the situation is very different than in fields where the gene has been known for decades. For the proton channel, most of the obvious and less obvious structure–function questions are still wide open. Remarkably, the proton channel protein strongly resembles the voltage-sensing domain of many voltage-gated ion channels, and thus offers a novel approach to study gating mechanisms. Another surprise is that the proton channel appears to function as a dimer, with two separate conduction pathways. A number of significant biological questions remain in dispute, unanswered, or in some cases, not yet asked. This latter deficit is ascribable to the intrinsic difficulty in evaluating the importance of one component in a complex system, and in addition, to the lack, until recently, of a means of performing an unambiguous lesion experiment, that is, of selectively eliminating the molecule in question. We still lack a potent, selective pharmacological inhibitor, but the identification of the gene has allowed the development of powerful new tools including proton channel antibodies, siRNA and knockout mice. PMID:18801839

  10. Philosophy of voltage-gated proton channels

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.; Hosler, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    In this review, voltage-gated proton channels are considered from a mainly teleological perspective. Why do proton channels exist? What good are they? Why did they go to such lengths to develop several unique hallmark properties such as extreme selectivity and ΔpH-dependent gating? Why is their current so minuscule? How do they manage to be so selective? What is the basis for our belief that they conduct H+ and not OH–? Why do they exist in many species as dimers when the monomeric form seems to work quite well? It is hoped that pondering these questions will provide an introduction to these channels and a way to logically organize their peculiar properties as well as to understand how they are able to carry out some of their better-established biological functions. PMID:24352668

  11. LGICdb: the ligand-gated ion channel database.

    PubMed

    Le Novère, N; Changeux, J P

    2001-01-01

    Ligand-Gated Ion Channels (LGIC) are polymeric transmembrane proteins involved in the fast response to numerous neurotransmitters. All these receptors are formed by homologous subunits and the last two decades revealed an unexpected wealth of genes coding for these subunits. The Ligand-Gated Ion Channel database (LGICdb) has been developed to handle this increasing amount of data. The database aims to provide only one entry for each gene, containing annotated nucleic acid and protein sequences. The repository is carefully structured and the entries can be retrieved by various criteria. In addition to the sequences, the LGICdb provides multiple sequence alignments, phylogenetic analyses and atomic coordinates when available. The database is accessible via the World Wide Web (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/LGIC /LGIC.html), where it is continuously updated. The version 16 (September 2000) available for download contained 333 entries covering 34 species.

  12. cGMP/Protein Kinase G Signaling Suppresses Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Phosphorylation and Promotes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Photoreceptors of Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel-deficient Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongwei; Butler, Michael R.; Thapa, Arjun; Belcher, Josh; Yang, Fan; Baehr, Wolfgang; Biel, Martin; Michalakis, Stylianos; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play a pivotal role in phototransduction. Mutations in the cone CNG channel subunits CNGA3 and CNGB3 are associated with achromatopsia and cone dystrophies. We have shown endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated apoptotic cone death and increased phosphorylation of the ER Ca2+ channel inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1) in CNG channel-deficient mice. We also presented a remarkable elevation of cGMP and an increased activity of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G, PKG) in CNG channel deficiency. This work investigated whether cGMP/PKG signaling regulates ER stress and IP3R1 phosphorylation in CNG channel-deficient cones. Treatment with PKG inhibitor and deletion of guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1), the enzyme producing cGMP in cones, were used to suppress cGMP/PKG signaling in cone-dominant Cnga3−/−/Nrl−/− mice. We found that treatment with PKG inhibitor or deletion of GC1 effectively reduced apoptotic cone death, increased expression levels of cone proteins, and decreased activation of Müller glial cells. Furthermore, we observed significantly increased phosphorylation of IP3R1 and reduced ER stress. Our findings demonstrate a role of cGMP/PKG signaling in ER stress and ER Ca2+ channel regulation and provide insights into the mechanism of cone degeneration in CNG channel deficiency. PMID:26124274

  13. 4. SPILLWAY DRUM GATES AND CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST (upstream face ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SPILLWAY DRUM GATES AND CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST (upstream face and Control House in background) - Tieton Dam, Spillway & Drum Gates, South & East side of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  14. 2. ALABAMA GATES LOOKING SOUTHEAST ALONG LINED CHANNEL, NOTE CHEMICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ALABAMA GATES LOOKING SOUTHEAST ALONG LINED CHANNEL, NOTE CHEMICAL PURIFICATION TANK IN DISTANCE FOR KEEPING DOWN GROWTH OF ALGAE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Alabama Gates, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Molecular simulation studies of hydrophobic gating in nanopores and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Trick, Jemma L; Aryal, Prafulla; Tucker, Stephen J; Sansom, Mark S P

    2015-04-01

    Gating in channels and nanopores plays a key role in regulating flow of ions across membranes. Molecular simulations provide a 'computational microscope' which enables us to examine the physical nature of gating mechanisms at the level of the single channel molecule. Water enclosed within the confines of a nanoscale pore may exhibit unexpected behaviour. In particular, if the molecular surfaces lining the pore are hydrophobic this promotes de-wetting of the pore. De-wetting is observed as stochastic liquid-vapour transitions within a pore, and may lead to functional closure of a pore to the flow of ions and/or water. Such behaviour was first observed in simulations of simple model nanopores and referred to as 'hydrophobic gating'. Simulations of both the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and of TWIK-1 potassium channels (the latter alongside experimental studies) suggest hydrophobic gating may occur in some biological ion channels. Current studies are focused on designing hydrophobic gates into biomimetic nanopores.

  16. Marine Toxins That Target Voltage-gated Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabi, Ahmed; McArthur, Jeff; Ostroumov, Vitaly; French, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic, voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are large membrane proteins which underlie generation and propagation of rapid electrical signals in nerve, muscle and heart. Nine different NaV receptor sites, for natural ligands and/or drugs, have been identified, based on functional analyses and site-directed mutagenesis. In the marine ecosystem, numerous toxins have evolved to disrupt NaV channel function, either by inhibition of current flow through the channels, or by modifying the activation and inactivation gating processes by which the channels open and close. These toxins function in their native environment as offensive or defensive weapons in prey capture or deterrence of predators. In composition, they range from organic molecules of varying size and complexity to peptides consisting of ~10–70 amino acids. We review the variety of known NaV-targeted marine toxins, outlining, where known, their sites of interaction with the channel protein and their functional effects. In a number of cases, these natural ligands have the potential applications as drugs in clinical settings, or as models for drug development.

  17. Insight into DEG/ENaC Channel Gating from Genetics and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Amy L.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    The founding members of the superfamily of DEG/ENaC ion channel proteins are C. elegans proteins that form mechanosensitive channels in touch and pain receptors. For more than a decade, the research community has used mutagenesis to identify motifs that regulate gating. This review integrates insight derived from unbiased in vivo mutagenesis screens with recent crystal structures to develop new models for activation of mechanically-gated DEGs. PMID:23026751

  18. Predicted structure of the extracellular region of ligand-gated ion-channel receptors shows SH2-like and SH3-like domains forming the ligand-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Gready, J. E.; Ranganathan, S.; Schofield, P. R.; Matsuo, Y.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    Fast synaptic neurotransmission is mediated by ligand-gated ion-channel (LGIC) receptors, which include receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, glycine, and glutamate. LGICs are pentamers with extracellular ligand-binding domains and form integral membrane ion channels that are selective for cations (acetylcholine and serotonin 5HT3 receptors) or anions (GABAA and glycine receptors and the invertebrate glutamate-binding chloride channel). They form a protein superfamily with no sequence similarity to any protein of known structure. Using a 1D-3D structure mapping approach, we have modeled the extracellular ligand-binding domain based on a significant match with the SH2 and SH3 domains of the biotin repressor structure. Refinement of the model based on knowledge of the large family of SH2 and SH3 structures, sequence alignments, and use of structure templates for loop building, allows the prediction of both monomer and pentamer models. These are consistent with medium-resolution electron microscopy structures and with experimental structure/function data from ligand-binding, antibody-binding, mutagenesis, protein-labeling and subunit-linking studies, and glycosylation sites. Also, the predicted polarity of the channel pore calculated from electrostatic potential maps of pentamer models of superfamily members is consistent with known ion selectivities. Using the glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit, which forms homopentamers, the monomeric and pentameric models define the agonist and antagonist (strychnine) binding sites to a deep crevice formed by an extended loop, which includes the invariant disulfide bridge, between the SH2 and SH3 domains. A detailed binding site for strychnine is reported that is in strong agreement with known structure/function data. A site for interaction of the extracellular ligand-binding domain with the activation of the M2 transmembrane helix is also suggested. PMID:9144769

  19. Simultaneous optical recording in multiple cells by digital holographic microscopy of chloride current associated to activation of the ligand-gated chloride channel GABA(A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Pascal; Boss, Daniel; Rappaz, Benjamin; Moratal, Corinne; Hernandez, Maria-Clemencia; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre Julius; Marquet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a group of targets for major clinical indications. However, molecular screening for chloride channel modulators has proven to be difficult and time-consuming as approaches essentially rely on the use of fluorescent dyes or invasive patch-clamp techniques which do not lend themselves to the screening of large sets of compounds. To address this problem, we have developed a non-invasive optical method, based on digital holographic microcopy (DHM), allowing monitoring of ion channel activity without using any electrode or fluorescent dye. To illustrate this approach, GABA(A) mediated chloride currents have been monitored with DHM. Practically, we show that DHM can non-invasively provide the quantitative determination of transmembrane chloride fluxes mediated by the activation of chloride channels associated with GABA(A) receptors. Indeed through an original algorithm, chloride currents elicited by application of appropriate agonists of the GABA(A) receptor can be derived from the quantitative phase signal recorded with DHM. Finally, chloride currents can be determined and pharmacologically characterized non-invasively simultaneously on a large cellular sampling by DHM.

  20. The receptor site of the spider toxin PcTx1 on the proton-gated cation channel ASIC1a

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Miguel; Rash, Lachlan D; Baron, Anne; Lambeau, Gérard; Escoubas, Pierre; Lazdunski, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are excitatory neuronal cation channels, involved in physiopathological processes related to extracellular pH fluctuation such as nociception, ischaemia, perception of sour taste and synaptic transmission. The spider peptide toxin psalmotoxin 1 (PcTx1) has previously been shown to inhibit specifically the proton-gated cation channel ASIC1a. To identify the binding site of PcTx1, we produced an iodinated form of the toxin (125I-PcTx1YN) and developed a set of binding and electrophysiological experiments on several chimeras of ASIC1a and the PcTx1-insensitive channels ASIC1b and ASIC2a. We show that 125I-PcTx1YN binds specifically to ASIC1a at a single site, with an IC50 of 128 pm, distinct from the amiloride blocking site. Results obtained from chimeras indicate that PcTx1 does not bind to ASIC1a transmembrane domains (M1 and M2), involved in formation of the ion pore, but binds principally on both cysteine-rich domains I and II (CRDI and CRDII) of the extracellular loop. The post-M1 and pre-M2 regions, although not involved in the binding site, are crucial for the ability of PcTx1 to inhibit ASIC1a current. The linker domain between CRDI and CRDII is important for their correct spatial positioning to form the PcTx1 binding site. These results will be useful for the future identification or design of new molecules acting on ASICs. PMID:16284080

  1. α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid receptor activation protects against phencyclidine-induced caspase-3 activity by activating voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Timpe, Jennifer M; Wang, Cheng Z; Kim, Jisoo; Johnson, Kenneth M

    2014-12-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) is a noncompetitive, open channel blocker of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-ion channel complex. When administered to immature animals, it is known to cause apoptotic neurodegeneration in several regions, and this is followed by olanzapine-sensitive, schizophrenia-like behaviors in late adolescence and adulthood. Clarification of its mechanism of action could yield data that would help to inform the treatment of schizophrenia. In our initial experiments, we found that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA) inhibited PCP-induced apoptosis in organotypic neonatal rat brain slices in a concentration-dependent and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione-sensitive manner. Calcium signaling pathways are widely implicated in apoptosis, and PCP prevents calcium influx through NMDA receptor channels. We therefore hypothesized that AMPA could protect against this effect by activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs). In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with the calcium channel blocker cadmium chloride eliminated AMPA-mediated protection against PCP. Furthermore, the L-type VDCC inhibitor nifedipine (10 µM) fully abrogated the effects of AMPA, suggesting that L-type VDCCs are required for AMPA-mediated protection against PCP-induced neurotoxicity. Whereas the P/Q-type inhibitor ω-agatoxin TK (200 nM) reduced AMPA protection by 51.7%, the N-type VDCC inhibitor ω-conotoxin (2 µM) had no effect. Decreased AMPA-mediated protection following cotreatment with K252a, a TrkB inhibitor, suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling plays an important role. By analogy, these results suggest that activation of L-type, and to a lesser extent P/Q-type, VDCCs might be advantageous in treating conditions associated with diminished NMDAergic activity during early development. PMID:24995437

  2. Ubiquitylation of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Laedermann, Cédric J; Decosterd, Isabelle; Abriel, Hugues

    2014-01-01

    Ion channel proteins are regulated by different types of posttranslational modifications. The focus of this review is the regulation of voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) upon their ubiquitylation. The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) was the first ion channel shown to be regulated upon ubiquitylation. This modification results from the binding of ubiquitin ligase from the Nedd4 family to a protein-protein interaction domain, known as the PY motif, in the ENaC subunits. Many of the Navs have similar PY motifs, which have been demonstrated to be targets of Nedd4-dependent ubiquitylation, tagging them for internalization from the cell surface. The role of Nedd4-dependent regulation of the Nav membrane density in physiology and disease remains poorly understood. Two recent studies have provided evidence that Nedd4-2 is downregulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in both rat and mouse models of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Using two different mouse models, one with a specific knockout of Nedd4-2 in sensory neurons and another where Nedd4-2 was overexpressed with the use of viral vectors, it was demonstrated that the neuropathy-linked neuronal hyperexcitability was the result of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 overexpression due to Nedd4-2 downregulation. These studies provided the first in vivo evidence of the role of Nedd4-2-dependent regulation of Nav channels in a disease state. This ubiquitylation pathway may be involved in the development of symptoms and diseases linked to Nav-dependent hyperexcitability, such as pain, cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy, migraine, and myotonias. PMID:24737239

  3. Gating-by-Tilt of Mechanically Sensitive Membrane Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Matthew S.; Sens, Pierre

    2004-09-01

    We propose an alternative mechanism for the gating of biological membrane channels in response to membrane tension that involves a change in the slope of the membrane near the channel. Under biological membrane tensions we show that the energy difference between the closed (tilted) and open (untilted) states can far exceed kBT and is comparable to what is available under simple dilational gating. Recent experiments demonstrate that membrane leaflet asymmetries (spontaneous curvature) can strongly affect the gating of some channels. Such a phenomenon would be easier to explain under gating-by-tilt, given its novel intrinsic sensitivity to such asymmetry.

  4. ThermoTRP channels as modular proteins with allosteric gating.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Ramon; Brauchi, Sebastian; Orta, Gerardo; Zaelzer, Cristián; Vargas, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Ion channels activate by sensing stimuli such as membrane voltage, ligand binding or temperature and transduce this information into conformational changes that open the channel pore. Thus, a key question in understanding ion channel function is how do the protein domains involved in sensing stimuli (sensors) and opening the pore (gates) communicate. In this regard, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that confer thermosensation [A. Dhaka, V. Viswanath, A. Patapoutian, TRP ion channels and temperature sensation, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 29 (2006) 135-161; I.S. Ramsey, M. Delling, D.E. Clapham, An introduction to TRP channels, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 68 (2006) 619-647] (thermoTRP; Q(10)>10) are unique to the extent that they integrate a variety of physical and chemical stimuli. In some cases such as, for example, the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 [M.J. Caterina, M.A. Schumacher, M. Tominaga, T.A. Rosen, J.D. Levine, D. Julius, The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway, Nature 389 (1997) 816-824] and TRPA1 [G.M. Story, A.M. Peier, A.J. Reeve, S.R. Eid, J. Mosbacher, T.R. Hricik, T.J. Earley, A.C. Hergarden, D.A. Andersson, S.W. Hwang, P. McIntyre, T. Jegla, S. Bevan, A. Patapoutian, ANKTM1, a TRP-like channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, is activated by cold temperatures, Cell 112 (2003) 819-829; S. Jordt, D. Julius, Molecular basis for species-specific sensitivity to "hot" chilli peppers, Cell 108 (2002) 421-430] the integration of these stimuli elicit pain [M. Tominaga, M.J. Caterina, A.B. Malmberg, T.A. Rosen, H. Gilbert, K. Skinner, B.E. Raumann, A.I. Basbaum, D. Julius, The cloned capsaicin receptor integrates multiple pain-producing stimuli, Neuron 21 (1998) 531-543; M. Bandell, A. Dubin, M. Petrus, A. Orth, J. Mathur, S. Hwang, A. Patapoutian, High-throughput random mutagenesis screen reveals TRPM8 residues specifically required for activation by menthol, Nat. Neurosci. 9 (2006) 466-468; S. Zurborg, B. Yurgionas, JA. Jira, O

  5. Evolutionarily conserved intracellular gate of voltage-dependent sodium channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelstrom, Kevin; Goldschen-Ohm, Marcel P.; Holmgren, Miguel; Chanda, Baron

    2014-03-01

    Members of the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily (VGIC) regulate ion flux and generate electrical signals in excitable cells by opening and closing pore gates. The location of the gate in voltage-gated sodium channels, a founding member of this superfamily, remains unresolved. Here we explore the chemical modification rates of introduced cysteines along the S6 helix of domain IV in an inactivation-removed background. We find that state-dependent accessibility is demarcated by an S6 hydrophobic residue; substituted cysteines above this site are not modified by charged thiol reagents when the channel is closed. These accessibilities are consistent with those inferred from open- and closed-state structures of prokaryotic sodium channels. Our findings suggest that an intracellular gate composed of a ring of hydrophobic residues is not only responsible for regulating access to the pore of sodium channels, but is also a conserved feature within canonical members of the VGIC superfamily.

  6. How voltage-gated calcium channels gate forms of homeostatic synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Frank, C. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Throughout life, animals face a variety of challenges such as developmental growth, the presence of toxins, or changes in temperature. Neuronal circuits and synapses respond to challenges by executing an array of neuroplasticity paradigms. Some paradigms allow neurons to up- or downregulate activity outputs, while countervailing ones ensure that outputs remain within appropriate physiological ranges. A growing body of evidence suggests that homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) is critical in the latter case. Voltage-gated calcium channels gate forms of HSP. Presynaptically, the aggregate data show that when synapse activity is weakened, homeostatic signaling systems can act to correct impairments, in part by increasing calcium influx through presynaptic CaV2-type channels. Increased calcium influx is often accompanied by parallel increases in the size of active zones and the size of the readily releasable pool of presynaptic vesicles. These changes coincide with homeostatic enhancements of neurotransmitter release. Postsynaptically, there is a great deal of evidence that reduced network activity and loss of calcium influx through CaV1-type calcium channels also results in adaptive homeostatic signaling. Some adaptations drive presynaptic enhancements of vesicle pool size and turnover rate via retrograde signaling, as well as de novo insertion of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Enhanced calcium influx through CaV1 after network activation or single cell stimulation can elicit the opposite response—homeostatic depression via removal of excitatory receptors. There exist intriguing links between HSP and calcium channelopathies—such as forms of epilepsy, migraine, ataxia, and myasthenia. The episodic nature of some of these disorders suggests alternating periods of stable and unstable function. Uncovering information about how calcium channels are regulated in the context of HSP could be relevant toward understanding these and other disorders. PMID

  7. Forcing Open TRP channels: mechanical gating as a unifying activation mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Montell, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins are cation channels that comprise a superfamily of molecular sensors that enable animals to detect a wide variety of environmental stimuli. This versatility enables vertebrate and invertebrate TRP channels to function in a diversity of senses, ranging from vision to taste, smell, touch, hearing, proprioception and thermosensation. Moreover, many individual TRP channels are activated through a surprising range of sensory stimuli. The multitasking nature of TRP channels raises the question as to whether seemingly disparate activators gate TRPs through common strategies. In this regard, a recent major advance is the discovery that a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent signaling cascade activates the TRP channels in Drosophila photoreceptor cells through generation of force in the lipid-bilayer. The premise of this review is that mechanical force is a unifying, common strategy for gating TRP channels. In addition to several TRP channels that function in mechanosensation and are gated by force applied to the cells, changes in temperature and in the concentration of lipophilic second messengers through stimulation of signaling cascades, cause architectural modifications of the cell membrane, which in turn activate TRP channels through mechanical force. Consequently, TRPs are capable of functioning as stretch-activated channels, even in cases in which the stimuli that initiate the signaling cascades are not mechanical. We propose that most TRPs are actually mechanosensitive channels (MSCs), which undergo conformational changes in response to tension imposed on the lipid bilayer, resulting in channel gating. PMID:25998730

  8. [Voltage gated calcium channels: structure, characteristics and terminology].

    PubMed

    Veizerová, L; Svetlík, J; Kettmann, V

    2007-07-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are the major pathway of Ca2+ entry into the cells. Their activity is essential to couple electrical signals from the cell surface to physiological events in cells. Several pharmacologically, structurally and kinetically distinct calcium channel types have been identified at the electrophysiological and molecular levels. This review aims to describe the functional, structural and pharmacological properties of voltage-gated calcium channels.

  9. Agonist-dependent single channel current and gating in alpha4beta2delta and alpha1beta2gamma2S GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Angelo; Harrison, Neil L

    2008-02-01

    The family of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) mediates two types of inhibition in the mammalian brain. Phasic inhibition is mediated by synaptic GABA(A)Rs that are mainly comprised of alpha(1), beta(2), and gamma(2) subunits, whereas tonic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs comprised of alpha(4/6), beta(2), and delta subunits. We investigated the activation properties of recombinant alpha(4)beta(2)delta and alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) GABA(A)Rs in response to GABA and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3(2H)-one (THIP) using electrophysiological recordings from outside-out membrane patches. Rapid agonist application experiments indicated that THIP produced faster opening rates at alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs (beta approximately 1600 s(-1)) than at alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) GABA(A)Rs (beta approximately 460 s(-1)), whereas GABA activated alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) GABA(A)Rs more rapidly (beta approximately 1800 s(-1)) than alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs (beta < 440 s(-1)). Single channel recordings of alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) and alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs showed that both channels open to a main conductance state of approximately 25 pS at -70 mV when activated by GABA and low concentrations of THIP, whereas saturating concentrations of THIP elicited approximately 36 pS openings at both channels. Saturating concentrations of GABA elicited brief (<10 ms) openings with low intraburst open probability (P(O) approximately 0.3) at alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs and at least two "modes" of single channel bursting activity, lasting approximately 100 ms at alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) GABA(A)Rs. The most prevalent bursting mode had a P(O) of approximately 0.7 and was described by a reaction scheme with three open and three shut states, whereas the "high" P(O) mode ( approximately 0.9) was characterized by two shut and three open states. Single channel activity elicited by THIP in alpha(4)beta(2)delta and alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) GABA

  10. Oxidative Modulation of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Nirakar; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Voltage-gated K+ channels are a large family of K+-selective ion channel protein complexes that open on membrane depolarization. These K+ channels are expressed in diverse tissues and their function is vital for numerous physiological processes, in particular of neurons and muscle cells. Potentially reversible oxidative regulation of voltage-gated K+ channels by reactive species such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents a contributing mechanism of normal cellular plasticity and may play important roles in diverse pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Advances: Studies using various protocols of oxidative modification, site-directed mutagenesis, and structural and kinetic modeling provide a broader phenomenology and emerging mechanistic insights. Critical Issues: Physicochemical mechanisms of the functional consequences of oxidative modifications of voltage-gated K+ channels are only beginning to be revealed. In vivo documentation of oxidative modifications of specific amino-acid residues of various voltage-gated K+ channel proteins, including the target specificity issue, is largely absent. Future Directions: High-resolution chemical and proteomic analysis of ion channel proteins with respect to oxidative modification combined with ongoing studies on channel structure and function will provide a better understanding of how the function of voltage-gated K+ channels is tuned by ROS and the corresponding reducing enzymes to meet cellular needs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 933–952. PMID:24040918

  11. Cytoplasmic Domains and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channel Gating

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Francisco; Domínguez, Pedro; de la Peña, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The basic architecture of the voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv channels) corresponds to a transmembrane protein core in which the permeation pore, the voltage-sensing components and the gating machinery (cytoplasmic facing gate and sensor–gate coupler) reside. Usually, large protein tails are attached to this core, hanging toward the inside of the cell. These cytoplasmic regions are essential for normal channel function and, due to their accessibility to the cytoplasmic environment, constitute obvious targets for cell-physiological control of channel behavior. Here we review the present knowledge about the molecular organization of these intracellular channel regions and their role in both setting and controlling Kv voltage-dependent gating properties. This includes the influence that they exert on Kv rapid/N-type inactivation and on activation/deactivation gating of Shaker-like and eag-type Kv channels. Some illustrative examples about the relevance of these cytoplasmic domains determining the possibilities for modulation of Kv channel gating by cellular components are also considered. PMID:22470342

  12. 3. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING WEST; DEBRIS FILTER SCREEN IN GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING WEST; DEBRIS FILTER SCREEN IN GATE 2. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  13. 2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 SHOWING. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  14. 4. GATES 1 AND 2, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GATES 1 AND 2, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  15. Supramolecular Assemblies and Localized Regulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shuiping; Hall, Duane D.; Hell, Johannes W.

    2009-01-01

    This review addresses the localized regulation of voltage-gated ion channels by phosphorylation. Comprehensive data on channel regulation by associated protein kinases, phosphatases, and related regulatory proteins are mainly available for voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which form the main focus of this review. Other voltage-gated ion channels and especially Kv7.1-3 (KCNQ1-3), the large- and small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels BK and SK2, and the inward-rectifying K+ channels Kir3 have also been studied to quite some extent and will be included. Regulation of the L-type Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 by PKA has been studied most thoroughly as it underlies the cardiac fight-or-flight response. A prototypical Cav1.2 signaling complex containing the β2 adrenergic receptor, the heterotrimeric G protein Gs, adenylyl cyclase, and PKA has been identified that supports highly localized via cAMP. The type 2 ryanodine receptor as well as AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors are in close proximity to Cav1.2 in cardiomyocytes and neurons, respectively, yet independently anchor PKA, CaMKII, and the serine/threonine phosphatases PP1, PP2A, and PP2B, as is discussed in detail. Descriptions of the structural and functional aspects of the interactions of PKA, PKC, CaMKII, Src, and various phosphatases with Cav1.2 will include comparisons with analogous interactions with other channels such as the ryanodine receptor or ionotropic glutamate receptors. Regulation of Na+ and K+ channel phosphorylation complexes will be discussed in separate papers. This review is thus intended for readers interested in ion channel regulation or in localization of kinases, phosphatases, and their upstream regulators. PMID:19342611

  16. Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates.

    PubMed

    Pusch, M; Jordt, S E; Stein, V; Jentsch, T J

    1999-03-01

    1. ClC proteins are a class of voltage-dependent Cl- channels with several members mutated in human diseases. The prototype ClC-0 Torpedo channel is a dimeric protein; each subunit forms a pore that can gate independently from the other one. A common slower gating mechanism acts on both pores simultaneously; slow gating activates ClC-0 at hyperpolarized voltages. The ClC-2 Cl- channel is also activated by hyperpolarization, as are some ClC-1 mutants (e.g. D136G) and wild-type (WT) ClC-1 at certain pH values. 2. We studied the dependence on internal Cl- ([Cl-]i) of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of several ClC channels (WT ClC-0, ClC-0 mutant P522G, ClC-1 mutant D136G and an N-terminal deletion mutant of ClC-2), by patch clamping channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. 3. With all these channels, reducing [Cl-]i shifted activation to more negative voltages and reduced the maximal activation at most negative voltages. 4. We also investigated the external halide dependence of WT ClC-2 using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Reducing external Cl- ([Cl-]o) activated ClC-2 currents. Replacing [Cl-]o by the less permeant Br- reduced channel activity and accelerated deactivation. 5. Gating of the ClC-2 mutant K566Q in normal [Cl-]o resembled that of WT ClC-2 in low [Cl-]o, i.e. channels had a considerable open probability (Po) at resting membrane potential. Substituting external Cl- by Br- or I- led to a decrease in Po. 6. The [Cl-]i dependence of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of various ClC channels suggests a similar gating mechanism, and raises the possibility that the gating charge for the hyperpolarization-activated gate is provided by Cl-. 7. The external halide dependence of hyperpolarization-activated gating of ClC-2 suggests that it is mediated or modulated by anions as in other ClC channels. In contrast to the depolarization-activated fast gates of ClC-0 and ClC-1, the absence of Cl- favours channel opening. Lysine 556 may be important for the

  17. Type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1) trigger the gating of GluD2 delta glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ady, Visou; Perroy, Julie; Tricoire, Ludovic; Piochon, Claire; Dadak, Selma; Chen, Xiaoru; Dusart, Isabelle; Fagni, Laurent; Lambolez, Bertrand; Levenes, Carole

    2014-01-01

    The orphan GluD2 receptor belongs to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family but does not bind glutamate. Ligand-gated GluD2 currents have never been evidenced, and whether GluD2 operates as an ion channel has been a long-standing question. Here, we show that GluD2 gating is triggered by type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors, both in a heterologous expression system and in Purkinje cells. Thus, GluD2 is not only an adhesion molecule at synapses but also works as a channel. This gating mechanism reveals new properties of glutamate receptors that emerge from their interaction and opens unexpected perspectives regarding synaptic transmission and plasticity. PMID:24357660

  18. Voltage-Dependent Gating of hERG Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yen May; Claydon, Tom W.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which voltage-gated channels sense changes in membrane voltage and energetically couple this with opening of the ion conducting pore has been the source of significant interest. In voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, much of our knowledge in this area comes from Shaker-type channels, for which voltage-dependent gating is quite rapid. In these channels, activation and deactivation are associated with rapid reconfiguration of the voltage-sensing domain unit that is electromechanically coupled, via the S4–S5 linker helix, to the rate-limiting opening of an intracellular pore gate. However, fast voltage-dependent gating kinetics are not typical of all Kv channels, such as Kv11.1 (human ether-à-go-go related gene, hERG), which activates and deactivates very slowly. Compared to Shaker channels, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying slow hERG gating is much poorer. Here, we present a comparative review of the structure–function relationships underlying activation and deactivation gating in Shaker and hERG channels, with a focus on the roles of the voltage-sensing domain and the S4–S5 linker that couples voltage sensor movements to the pore. Measurements of gating current kinetics and fluorimetric analysis of voltage sensor movement are consistent with models suggesting that the hERG activation pathway contains a voltage independent step, which limits voltage sensor transitions. Constraints upon hERG voltage sensor movement may result from loose packing of the S4 helices and additional intra-voltage sensor counter-charge interactions. More recent data suggest that key amino acid differences in the hERG voltage-sensing unit and S4–S5 linker, relative to fast activating Shaker-type Kv channels, may also contribute to the increased stability of the resting state of the voltage sensor. PMID:22586397

  19. Biophysics, pathophysiology, and pharmacology of ion channel gating pores

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Adrien; Gosselin-Badaroudine, Pascal; Chahine, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) are a feature of voltage gated ion channels (VGICs) and voltage sensitive proteins. They are composed of four transmembrane (TM) segments (S1–S4). Currents leaking through VSDs are called omega or gating pore currents. Gating pores are caused by mutations of the highly conserved positively charged amino acids in the S4 segment that disrupt interactions between the S4 segment and the gating charge transfer center (GCTC). The GCTC separates the intracellular and extracellular water crevices. The disruption of S4–GCTC interactions allows these crevices to communicate and create a fast activating and non-inactivating alternative cation-selective permeation pathway of low conductance, or a gating pore. Gating pore currents have recently been shown to cause periodic paralysis phenotypes. There is also increasing evidence that gating pores are linked to several other familial diseases. For example, gating pores in Nav1.5 and Kv7.2 channels may underlie mixed arrhythmias associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) phenotypes and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH), respectively. There is little evidence for the existence of gating pore blockers. Moreover, it is known that a number of toxins bind to the VSD of a specific domain of Na+ channels. These toxins may thus modulate gating pore currents. This focus on the VSD motif opens up a new area of research centered on developing molecules to treat a number of cell excitability disorders such as epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and pain. The purpose of the present review is to summarize existing knowledge of the pathophysiology, biophysics, and pharmacology of gating pore currents and to serve as a guide for future studies aimed at improving our understanding of gating pores and their pathophysiological roles. PMID:24772081

  20. Voltage gated ion channel function: gating, conduction, and the role of water and protons.

    PubMed

    Kariev, Alisher M; Green, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Ion channels, which are found in every biological cell, regulate the concentration of electrolytes, and are responsible for multiple biological functions, including in particular the propagation of nerve impulses. The channels with the latter function are gated (opened) by a voltage signal, which allows Na(+) into the cell and K(+) out. These channels have several positively charged amino acids on a transmembrane domain of their voltage sensor, and it is generally considered, based primarily on two lines of experimental evidence, that these charges move with respect to the membrane to open the channel. At least three forms of motion, with greatly differing extents and mechanisms of motion, have been proposed. There is a "gating current", a capacitative current preceding the channel opening, that corresponds to several charges (for one class of channel typically 12-13) crossing the membrane field, which may not require protein physically crossing a large fraction of the membrane. The coupling to the opening of the channel would in these models depend on the motion. The conduction itself is usually assumed to require the "gate" of the channel to be pulled apart to allow ions to enter as a section of the protein partially crosses the membrane, and a selectivity filter at the opposite end of the channel determines the ion which is allowed to pass through. We will here primarily consider K(+) channels, although Na(+) channels are similar. We propose that the mechanism of gating differs from that which is generally accepted, in that the positively charged residues need not move (there may be some motion, but not as gating current). Instead, protons may constitute the gating current, causing the gate to open; opening consists of only increasing the diameter at the gate from approximately 6 Å to approximately 12 Å. We propose in addition that the gate oscillates rather than simply opens, and the ion experiences a barrier to its motion across the channel that is tuned by

  1. Effects of fractal gating of potassium channels on neuronal behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, De-Jiang; Zeng, Shang-You; Zhang, Zheng-Zhen

    2010-10-01

    The classical model of voltage-gated ion channels assumes that according to a Markov process ion channels switch among a small number of states without memory, but a bunch of experimental papers show that some ion channels exhibit significant memory effects, and this memory effects can take the form of kinetic rate constant that is fractal. Obviously the gating character of ion channels will affect generation and propagation of action potentials, furthermore, affect generation, coding and propagation of neural information. However, there is little previous research on this series of interesting issues. This paper investigates effects of fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state on neuronal behaviours. The obtained results show that fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state has important effects on neuronal behaviours, increases excitability, rest potential and spiking frequency of the neuronal membrane, and decreases threshold voltage and threshold injected current of the neuronal membrane. So fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state can improve the sensitivity of the neuronal membrane, and enlarge the encoded strength of neural information.

  2. Voltage Gated Ion Channel Function: Gating, Conduction, and the Role of Water and Protons

    PubMed Central

    Kariev, Alisher M.; Green, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Ion channels, which are found in every biological cell, regulate the concentration of electrolytes, and are responsible for multiple biological functions, including in particular the propagation of nerve impulses. The channels with the latter function are gated (opened) by a voltage signal, which allows Na+ into the cell and K+ out. These channels have several positively charged amino acids on a transmembrane domain of their voltage sensor, and it is generally considered, based primarily on two lines of experimental evidence, that these charges move with respect to the membrane to open the channel. At least three forms of motion, with greatly differing extents and mechanisms of motion, have been proposed. There is a “gating current”, a capacitative current preceding the channel opening, that corresponds to several charges (for one class of channel typically 12–13) crossing the membrane field, which may not require protein physically crossing a large fraction of the membrane. The coupling to the opening of the channel would in these models depend on the motion. The conduction itself is usually assumed to require the “gate” of the channel to be pulled apart to allow ions to enter as a section of the protein partially crosses the membrane, and a selectivity filter at the opposite end of the channel determines the ion which is allowed to pass through. We will here primarily consider K+ channels, although Na+ channels are similar. We propose that the mechanism of gating differs from that which is generally accepted, in that the positively charged residues need not move (there may be some motion, but not as gating current). Instead, protons may constitute the gating current, causing the gate to open; opening consists of only increasing the diameter at the gate from approximately 6 Å to approximately 12 Å. We propose in addition that the gate oscillates rather than simply opens, and the ion experiences a barrier to its motion across the channel that is tuned

  3. Allosteric gating mechanism underlies the flexible gating of KCNQ1 potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Osteen, Jeremiah D.; Barro-Soria, Rene; Robey, Seth; Sampson, Kevin J.; Kass, Robert S.; Larsson, H. Peter

    2012-01-01

    KCNQ1 (Kv7.1) is a unique member of the superfamily of voltage-gated K+ channels in that it displays a remarkable range of gating behaviors tuned by coassembly with different β subunits of the KCNE family of proteins. To better understand the basis for the biophysical diversity of KCNQ1 channels, we here investigate the basis of KCNQ1 gating in the absence of β subunits using voltage-clamp fluorometry (VCF). In our previous study, we found the kinetics and voltage dependence of voltage-sensor movements are very similar to those of the channel gate, as if multiple voltage-sensor movements are not required to precede gate opening. Here, we have tested two different hypotheses to explain KCNQ1 gating: (i) KCNQ1 voltage sensors undergo a single concerted movement that leads to channel opening, or (ii) individual voltage-sensor movements lead to channel opening before all voltage sensors have moved. Here, we find that KCNQ1 voltage sensors move relatively independently, but that the channel can conduct before all voltage sensors have activated. We explore a KCNQ1 point mutation that causes some channels to transition to the open state even in the absence of voltage-sensor movement. To interpret these results, we adopt an allosteric gating scheme wherein KCNQ1 is able to transition to the open state after zero to four voltage-sensor movements. This model allows for widely varying gating behavior, depending on the relative strength of the opening transition, and suggests how KCNQ1 could be controlled by coassembly with different KCNE family members. PMID:22509038

  4. Bell-shaped calcium-response curves of lns(l,4,5)P3- and calcium-gated channels from endoplasmic reticulum of cerebellum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezprozvanny, Llya; Watras, James; Ehrlich, Barbara E.

    1991-06-01

    RELEASE of calcium from intracellular stores occurs by two pathways, an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-gated channel1-3 and a calcium-gated channel (ryanodine receptor)4-6. Using specific antibodies, both receptors were found in Purkinje cells of cerebellum7,8. We have now compared the functional properties of the channels corresponding to the two receptors by incorporating endoplasmic reticulum vesicles from canine cerebellum into planar bilayers. InsP3-gated channels were observed most frequently. Another channel type was activated by adenine nucleotides or caffeine, inhibited by ruthenium red, and modified by ryanodine, characteristics of the ryanodine receptor/channel6. The open probability of both channel types displayed a bell-shaped curve for dependence on calcium. For the InsP3-gated channel, the maximum probability of opening occurred at 0.2 µM free calcium, with sharp decreases on either side of the maximum. Maximum activity for the ryanodine receptor/channel was maintained between 1 and 100 µM calcium. Thus, within the physiological range of cytoplasmic calcium, the InsP3-gated channel itself allows positive feed-back and then negative feedback for calcium release, whereas the ryanodine receptor/channel behaves solely as a calcium-activated channel. The existence in the same cell of two channels with different responses to calcium and different ligand sensitivities provides a basis for complex patterns of intracellular calcium regulation.

  5. Cys-loop ligand-gated chloride channels in dorsal unpaired median neurons of Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Daniel; Derst, Christian; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Van Kerkhove, Emmy

    2010-05-01

    In insects, inhibitory neurotransmission is generally associated with members of the cys-loop ligand-gated anion channels, such as the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl), the GABA-gated chloride channels (GABACl), and the histamine-gated chloride channels (HisCl). These ionotropic receptors are considered established target sites for the development of insecticides, and therefore it is necessary to obtain a better insight in their distribution, structure, and functional properties. Here, by combining electrophysiology and molecular biology techniques, we identified and characterized GluCl, GABACl, and HisCl in dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons of Locust migratoria. In whole cell patch-clamp recordings, application of glutamate, GABA, or histamine induced rapidly activating ionic currents. GluCls were sensitive to ibotenic acid and blocked by picrotoxin and fipronil. The pharmacological profile of the L. migratoria GABACl fitted neither the vertebrate GABA(A) nor GABA(C) receptor and was similar to the properties of the cloned Drosophila melanogaster GABA receptor subunit (Rdl). The expression of Rdl-like subunit-containing GABA receptors was shown at the molecular level using RT-PCR. Sequencing analysis indicated that the orthologous GABACl of D. melanogaster CG10357-A is expressed in DUM neurons of L. migratoria. Histamine-induced currents exhibited a fast onset and desensitized completely on continuous application of histamine. In conclusion, within the DUM neurons of L. migratoria, we identified three different cys-loop ligand-gated anion channels that use GABA, glutamate, or histamine as their neurotransmitter. PMID:20200125

  6. Gating Movement of Acetylcholine Receptor Caught by Plunge-Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, Nigel; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor converts transiently to an open-channel form when activated by ACh released into the synaptic cleft. We describe here the conformational change underlying this event, determined by electron microscopy of ACh-sprayed and freeze-trapped postsynaptic membranes. ACh binding to the α subunits triggers a concerted rearrangement in the ligand-binding domain, involving an ~ 1‐Å outward displacement of the extracellular portion of the β subunit where it interacts with the juxtaposed ends of α-helices shaping the narrow membrane-spanning pore. The β-subunit helices tilt outward to accommodate this displacement, destabilising the arrangement of pore-lining helices, which in the closed channel bend inward symmetrically to form a central hydrophobic gate. Straightening and tangential motion of the pore-lining helices effect channel opening by widening the pore asymmetrically and increasing its polarity in the region of the gate. The pore-lining helices of the αγ and δ subunits, by flexing between alternative bent and straight conformations, undergo the greatest movements. This coupled allosteric transition shifts the structure from a tense (closed) state toward a more relaxed (open) state. PMID:22841691

  7. Interaction of the BKCa channel gating ring with dendrotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Zoltan; Imredy, John P; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Zhorov, Boris S; Moczydlowski, Edward G

    2014-01-01

    Two classes of small homologous basic proteins, mamba snake dendrotoxins (DTX) and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), block the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa, KCa1.1) by production of discrete subconductance events when added to the intracellular side of the membrane. This toxin-channel interaction is unlikely to be pharmacologically relevant to the action of mamba venom, but as a fortuitous ligand-protein interaction, it has certain biophysical implications for the mechanism of BKCa channel gating. In this work we examined the subconductance behavior of 9 natural dendrotoxin homologs and 6 charge neutralization mutants of δ-dendrotoxin in the context of current structural information on the intracellular gating ring domain of the BKCa channel. Calculation of an electrostatic surface map of the BKCa gating ring based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation reveals a predominantly electronegative surface due to an abundance of solvent-accessible side chains of negatively charged amino acids. Available structure-activity information suggests that cationic DTX/BPTI molecules bind by electrostatic attraction to site(s) on the gating ring located in or near the cytoplasmic side portals where the inactivation ball peptide of the β2 subunit enters to block the channel. Such an interaction may decrease the apparent unitary conductance by altering the dynamic balance of open versus closed states of BKCa channel activation gating. PMID:25483585

  8. Gating the Selectivity Filter in ClC Chloride Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutzler, Raimund; Campbell, Ernest B.; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2003-04-01

    ClC channels conduct chloride (Cl-) ions across cell membranes and thereby govern the electrical activity of muscle cells and certain neurons, the transport of fluid and electrolytes across epithelia, and the acidification of intracellular vesicles. The structural basis of ClC channel gating was studied. Crystal structures of wild-type and mutant Escherichia coli ClC channels bound to a monoclonal Fab fragment reveal three Cl- binding sites within the 15-angstrom neck of an hourglass-shaped pore. The Cl- binding site nearest the extracellular solution can be occupied either by a Cl- ion or by a glutamate carboxyl group. Mutations of this glutamate residue in Torpedo ray ClC channels alter gating in electrophysiological assays. These findings reveal a form of gating in which the glutamate carboxyl group closes the pore by mimicking a Cl- ion.

  9. Hair-bundle friction from transduction channels' gating forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormuth, Volker; Barral, Jérémie; Joanny, Jean-François; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Hearing starts when sound-evoked mechanical vibrations of the hair-cell bundle activate mechanosensitive ion channels, giving birth to an electrical signal. As for any mechanical system, friction impedes movements of the hair bundle and thus constrains the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of auditory transduction. We have shown recently that the opening and closing of the transduction channels produce internal frictional forces that can dominate viscous drag on the micrometer-sized hair bundle and thus provide a major source of damping [2]. We develop here a physical theory of passive hair-bundle mechanics that explains the origin of channel friction. We show that channel friction can be understood quantitatively by coupling the dynamics of the conformational change associated with channel gating to tip-link tension. As a result, varying channel properties affects friction, with faster channels producing smaller friction. The analysis emphasizes the dual role of transduction channels' gating forces, which affect both hair-bundle stiffness and drag. Friction originating from gating of ion channels is a general concept that is relevant to all mechanosensitive channels.

  10. Redox Regulation of Neuronal Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Voltage-gated calcium channels are ubiquitously expressed in neurons and are key regulators of cellular excitability and synaptic transmitter release. There is accumulating evidence that multiple subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channels may be regulated by oxidation and reduction. However, the redox mechanisms involved in the regulation of channel function are not well understood. Recent Advances: Several studies have established that both T-type and high-voltage-activated subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channel can be redox-regulated. This article reviews different mechanisms that can be involved in redox regulation of calcium channel function and their implication in neuronal function, particularly in pain pathways and thalamic oscillation. Critical Issues: A current critical issue in the field is to decipher precise mechanisms of calcium channel modulation via redox reactions. In this review we discuss covalent post-translational modification via oxidation of cysteine molecules and chelation of trace metals, and reactions involving nitric oxide-related molecules and free radicals. Improved understanding of the roles of redox-based reactions in regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels may lead to improved understanding of novel redox mechanisms in physiological and pathological processes. Future Directions: Identification of redox mechanisms and sites on voltage-gated calcium channel may allow development of novel and specific ion channel therapies for unmet medical needs. Thus, it may be possible to regulate the redox state of these channels in treatment of pathological process such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 880–891. PMID:24161125

  11. Voltage-gated proton channel is expressed on phagosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Okochi, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Mari; Iwasaki, Hirohide; Okamura, Yasushi

    2009-05-01

    Voltage-gated proton channel has been suggested to help NADPH oxidase activity during respiratory burst of phagocytes through its activities of compensating charge imbalance and regulation of pH. In phagocytes, robust production of reactive oxygen species occurs in closed membrane compartments, which are called phagosomes. However, direct evidence for the presence of voltage-gated proton channels in phagosome has been lacking. In this study, the expression of voltage-gated proton channels was studied by Western blot with the antibody specific to the voltage-sensor domain protein, VSOP/Hv1, that has recently been identified as the molecular correlate for the voltage-gated proton channel. Phagosomal membranes of neutrophils contain VSOP/Hv1 in accordance with subunits of NADPH oxidases, gp91, p22, p47 and p67. Superoxide anion production upon PMA activation was significantly reduced in neutrophils from VSOP/Hv1 knockout mice. These are consistent with the idea that voltage-gated proton channels help NADPH oxidase in phagocytes to produce reactive oxygen species.

  12. Voltage-dependent gating and gating charge measurements in the Kv1.2 potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Itzel G.; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E.; Carrasco-Zanini, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned about the voltage sensors of ion channels since the x-ray structure of the mammalian voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.2 was published in 2005. High resolution structural data of a Kv channel enabled the structural interpretation of numerous electrophysiological findings collected in various ion channels, most notably Shaker, and permitted the development of meticulous computational simulations of the activation mechanism. The fundamental premise for the structural interpretation of functional measurements from Shaker is that this channel and Kv1.2 have the same characteristics, such that correlation of data from both channels would be a trivial task. We tested these assumptions by measuring Kv1.2 voltage-dependent gating and charge per channel. We found that the Kv1.2 gating charge is near 10 elementary charges (eo), ∼25% less than the well-established 13–14 eo in Shaker. Next, we neutralized positive residues in the Kv1.2 S4 transmembrane segment to investigate the cause of the reduction of the gating charge and found that, whereas replacing R1 with glutamine decreased voltage sensitivity to ∼50% of the wild-type channel value, mutation of the subsequent arginines had a much smaller effect. These data are in marked contrast to the effects of charge neutralization in Shaker, where removal of the first four basic residues reduces the gating charge by roughly the same amount. In light of these differences, we propose that the voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) of Kv1.2 and Shaker might undergo the same physical movement, but the septum that separates the aqueous crevices in the VSD of Kv1.2 might be thicker than Shaker’s, accounting for the smaller Kv1.2 gating charge. PMID:25779871

  13. Afterbay, looking west at the discharge channels and hydraulic gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Afterbay, looking west at the discharge channels and hydraulic gate check cylinders. The outlet at left without a hydraulic cylinder is the outlet for the ca. 1974-1975 outdoor regulatory pumps. The gate box for the spillback is visible at the far left on the west side of the canal - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. Mapping the gating and permeation pathways in the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, Adam; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Yibo; Noskov, Sergei Y; Larsson, H Peter

    2015-01-16

    Voltage-gated proton channels (Hv1) are ubiquitous throughout nature and are implicated in numerous physiological processes. The gene encoding for Hv1, however, was only identified in 2006. The lack of sufficient structural information of this channel has hampered the understanding of the molecular mechanism of channel activation and proton permeation. This study uses both simulation and experimental approaches to further develop existing models of the Hv1 channel. Our study provides insights into features of channel gating and proton permeation pathway. We compare open- and closed-state structures developed previously with a recent crystal structure that traps the channel in a presumably closed state. Insights into gating pathways were provided using a combination of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with a swarm of trajectories with the string method for extensive transition path sampling and evolution. A detailed residue-residue interaction profile and a hydration profile were studied to map the gating pathway in this channel. In particular, it allows us to identify potential intermediate states and compare them to the experimentally observed crystal structure of Takeshita et al. (Takeshita K, Sakata S, Yamashita E, Fujiwara Y, Kawanabe A, Kurokawa T, et al. X-ray crystal structure of voltage-gated proton channel. Nature 2014). The mechanisms governing ion transport in the wild-type and mutant Hv1 channels were studied by a combination of electrophysiological recordings and free energy simulations. With these results, we were able to further refine ideas about the location and function of the selectivity filter. The refined structural models will be essential for future investigations of this channel and the development of new drugs targeting cellular proton transport.

  15. Hydrophobic plug functions as a gate in voltage-gated proton channels.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, Adam; Qiu, Feng; Rebolledo, Santiago; Wang, Yibo; Noskov, Sergei Y; Larsson, H Peter

    2014-01-14

    Voltage-gated proton (Hv1) channels play important roles in the respiratory burst, in pH regulation, in spermatozoa, in apoptosis, and in cancer metastasis. Unlike other voltage-gated cation channels, the Hv1 channel lacks a centrally located pore formed by the assembly of subunits. Instead, the proton permeation pathway in the Hv1 channel is within the voltage-sensing domain of each subunit. The gating mechanism of this pathway is still unclear. Mutagenic and fluorescence studies suggest that the fourth transmembrane (TM) segment (S4) functions as a voltage sensor and that there is an outward movement of S4 during channel activation. Using thermodynamic mutant cycle analysis, we find that the conserved positively charged residues in S4 are stabilized by countercharges in the other TM segments both in the closed and open states. We constructed models of both the closed and open states of Hv1 channels that are consistent with the mutant cycle analysis. These structural models suggest that electrostatic interactions between TM segments in the closed state pull hydrophobic residues together to form a hydrophobic plug in the center of the voltage-sensing domain. Outward S4 movement during channel activation induces conformational changes that remove this hydrophobic plug and instead insert protonatable residues in the center of the channel that, together with water molecules, can form a hydrogen bond chain across the channel for proton permeation. This suggests that salt bridge networks and the hydrophobic plug function as the gate in Hv1 channels and that outward movement of S4 leads to the opening of this gate.

  16. Voltage gated sodium channels as drug discovery targets.

    PubMed

    Bagal, Sharan K; Marron, Brian E; Owen, Robert M; Storer, R Ian; Swain, Nigel A

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are a family of transmembrane ion channel proteins. They function by forming a gated, water-filled pore to help establish and control cell membrane potential via control of the flow of ions between the intracellular and the extracellular environments. Blockade of NaVs has been successfully accomplished in the clinic to enable control of pathological firing patterns that occur in a diverse range of conditions such as chronic pain, epilepsy, and cardiac arrhythmias. First generation sodium channel modulator drugs, despite low inherent subtype selectivity, preferentially act on over-excited cells which reduces undesirable side effects in the clinic. However, the limited therapeutic indices observed with the first generation demanded a new generation of sodium channel inhibitors. The structure, function and the state of the art in sodium channel modulator drug discovery are discussed in this chapter.

  17. Voltage gated sodium channels as drug discovery targets

    PubMed Central

    Bagal, Sharan K; Marron, Brian E; Owen, Robert M; Storer, R Ian; Swain, Nigel A

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are a family of transmembrane ion channel proteins. They function by forming a gated, water-filled pore to help establish and control cell membrane potential via control of the flow of ions between the intracellular and the extracellular environments. Blockade of NaVs has been successfully accomplished in the clinic to enable control of pathological firing patterns that occur in a diverse range of conditions such as chronic pain, epilepsy, and cardiac arrhythmias. First generation sodium channel modulator drugs, despite low inherent subtype selectivity, preferentially act on over-excited cells which reduces undesirable side effects in the clinic. However, the limited therapeutic indices observed with the first generation demanded a new generation of sodium channel inhibitors. The structure, function and the state of the art in sodium channel modulator drug discovery are discussed in this chapter. PMID:26646477

  18. Gating of a mechanosensitive channel due to cellular flows.

    PubMed

    Pak, On Shun; Young, Y-N; Marple, Gary R; Veerapaneni, Shravan; Stone, Howard A

    2015-08-11

    A multiscale continuum model is constructed for a mechanosensitive (MS) channel gated by tension in a lipid bilayer membrane under stresses due to fluid flows. We illustrate that for typical physiological conditions vesicle hydrodynamics driven by a fluid flow may render the membrane tension sufficiently large to gate a MS channel open. In particular, we focus on the dynamic opening/closing of a MS channel in a vesicle membrane under a planar shear flow and a pressure-driven flow across a constriction channel. Our modeling and numerical simulation results quantify the critical flow strength or flow channel geometry for intracellular transport through a MS channel. In particular, we determine the percentage of MS channels that are open or closed as a function of the relevant measure of flow strength. The modeling and simulation results imply that for fluid flows that are physiologically relevant and realizable in microfluidic configurations stress-induced intracellular transport across the lipid membrane can be achieved by the gating of reconstituted MS channels, which can be useful for designing drug delivery in medical therapy and understanding complicated mechanotransduction.

  19. Glutamate Receptor Ion Channels: Structure, Regulation, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Wollmuth, Lonnie P.; McBain, Chris J.; Menniti, Frank S.; Vance, Katie M.; Ogden, Kevin K.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Yuan, Hongjie; Myers, Scott J.; Dingledine, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor family encodes 18 gene products that coassemble to form ligand-gated ion channels containing an agonist recognition site, a transmembrane ion permeation pathway, and gating elements that couple agonist-induced conformational changes to the opening or closing of the permeation pore. Glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and are localized on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. These receptors regulate a broad spectrum of processes in the brain, spinal cord, retina, and peripheral nervous system. Glutamate receptors are postulated to play important roles in numerous neurological diseases and have attracted intense scrutiny. The description of glutamate receptor structure, including its transmembrane elements, reveals a complex assembly of multiple semiautonomous extracellular domains linked to a pore-forming element with striking resemblance to an inverted potassium channel. In this review we discuss International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology glutamate receptor nomenclature, structure, assembly, accessory subunits, interacting proteins, gene expression and translation, post-translational modifications, agonist and antagonist pharmacology, allosteric modulation, mechanisms of gating and permeation, roles in normal physiological function, as well as the potential therapeutic use of pharmacological agents acting at glutamate receptors. PMID:20716669

  20. Therapeutic scope of modulation of non-voltage-gated cation channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Gosling, Martin; Poll, Chris T; Westwick, John; Cox, Brian

    2005-01-15

    Although widely regarded as attractive drug targets, less than a tenth of known ion channels are currently commercially exploited as therapeutic targets. Historically, drug discovery efforts on ion channel targets have been encumbered by a lack of molecular and structural information, sub-optimal screening technologies and a paucity of discriminating pharmacological tools. Although challenges remain, recent scientific and technological advances in the area of ion channel research and screening offer the exciting prospect of a new, more-predictive era of ion channel drug discovery. In this article, focusing primarily on non voltage gated cation channels, we describe the continuing evolution of approaches to ion channel drug discovery, highlight recent developments in the ion channel field and consider their potential impact on discovering and ascribing function to ion channel targets. We discuss the renaissance of known ion channel targets, such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and calcium-activated potassium channels, as well as the emergence of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as a gene family of cation channels with broad therapeutic potential.

  1. Therapeutic scope of modulation of non-voltage-gated cation channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Gosling, Martin; Poll, Chris T; Westwick, John; Cox, Brian

    2004-12-15

    Although widely regarded as attractive drug targets, less than a tenth of known ion channels are currently commercially exploited as therapeutic targets. Historically, drug discovery efforts on ion channel targets have been encumbered by a lack of molecular and structural information, sub-optimal screening technologies and a paucity of discriminating pharmacological tools. Although challenges remain, recent scientific and technological advances in the area of ion channel research and screening offer the exciting prospect of a new, more-predictive era of ion channel drug discovery. In this article, focusing primarily on non-voltage-gated cation channels, we describe the continuing evolution of approaches to ion channel drug discovery, highlight recent developments in the ion channel field and consider their potential impact on discovering and ascribing function to ion channel targets. We discuss the renaissance of known ion channel targets, such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and calcium-activated potassium channels, as well as the emergence of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as a gene family of cation channels with broad therapeutic potential.

  2. Mechanism of Electromechanical Coupling in Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Blunck, Rikard; Batulan, Zarah

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels play a central role in the generation of action potentials in the nervous system. They are selective for one type of ion – sodium, calcium, or potassium. Voltage-gated ion channels are composed of a central pore that allows ions to pass through the membrane and four peripheral voltage sensing domains that respond to changes in the membrane potential. Upon depolarization, voltage sensors in voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) undergo conformational changes driven by positive charges in the S4 segment and aided by pairwise electrostatic interactions with the surrounding voltage sensor. Structure-function relations of Kv channels have been investigated in detail, and the resulting models on the movement of the voltage sensors now converge to a consensus; the S4 segment undergoes a combined movement of rotation, tilt, and vertical displacement in order to bring 3–4e+ each through the electric field focused in this region. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the voltage sensor movement leads to pore opening, the electromechanical coupling, is still not fully understood. Thus, recently, electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels has been investigated with a multitude of techniques including electrophysiology, 3D crystal structures, fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. Evidently, the S4–S5 linker, the covalent link between the voltage sensor and pore, plays a crucial role. The linker transfers the energy from the voltage sensor movement to the pore domain via an interaction with the S6 C-termini, which are pulled open during gating. In addition, other contact regions have been proposed. This review aims to provide (i) an in-depth comparison of the molecular mechanisms of electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels; (ii) insight as to how the voltage sensor and pore domain influence one another; and (iii) theoretical predictions on the movement of the cytosolic face of the Kv channels during

  3. Base of the thumb domain modulates epithelial sodium channel gating.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shujie; Ghosh, D Dipon; Okumura, Sora; Carattino, Marcelo D; Kashlan, Ossama B; Sheng, Shaohu; Kleyman, Thomas R

    2011-04-29

    The activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is modulated by multiple external factors, including proteases, cations, anions and shear stress. The resolved crystal structure of acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1), a structurally related ion channel, and mutagenesis studies suggest that the large extracellular region is involved in recognizing external signals that regulate channel gating. The thumb domain in the extracellular region of ASIC1 has a cylinder-like structure with a loop at its base that is in proximity to the tract connecting the extracellular region to the transmembrane domains. This loop has been proposed to have a role in transmitting proton-induced conformational changes within the extracellular region to the gate. We examined whether loops at the base of the thumb domains within ENaC subunits have a similar role in transmitting conformational changes induced by external Na(+) and shear stress. Mutations at selected sites within this loop in each of the subunits altered channel responses to both external Na(+) and shear stress. The most robust changes were observed at the site adjacent to a conserved Tyr residue. In the context of channels that have a low open probability due to retention of an inhibitory tract, mutations in the loop activated channels in a subunit-specific manner. Our data suggest that this loop has a role in modulating channel gating in response to external stimuli, and are consistent with the hypothesis that external signals trigger movements within the extracellular regions of ENaC subunits that are transmitted to the channel gate. PMID:21367859

  4. Gating the glutamate gate of CLC-2 chloride channel by pore occupancy.

    PubMed

    De Jesús-Pérez, José J; Castro-Chong, Alejandra; Shieh, Ru-Chi; Hernández-Carballo, Carmen Y; De Santiago-Castillo, José A; Arreola, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    CLC-2 channels are dimeric double-barreled chloride channels that open in response to hyperpolarization. Hyperpolarization activates protopore gates that independently regulate the permeability of the pore in each subunit and the common gate that affects the permeability through both pores. CLC-2 channels lack classic transmembrane voltage-sensing domains; instead, their protopore gates (residing within the pore and each formed by the side chain of a glutamate residue) open under repulsion by permeant intracellular anions or protonation by extracellular H(+). Here, we show that voltage-dependent gating of CLC-2: (a) is facilitated when permeant anions (Cl(-), Br(-), SCN(-), and I(-)) are present in the cytosolic side; (b) happens with poorly permeant anions fluoride, glutamate, gluconate, and methanesulfonate present in the cytosolic side; (c) depends on pore occupancy by permeant and poorly permeant anions; (d) is strongly facilitated by multi-ion occupancy; (e) is absent under likely protonation conditions (pHe = 5.5 or 6.5) in cells dialyzed with acetate (an impermeant anion); and (f) was the same at intracellular pH 7.3 and 4.2; and (g) is observed in both whole-cell and inside-out patches exposed to increasing [Cl(-)]i under unlikely protonation conditions (pHe = 10). Thus, based on our results we propose that hyperpolarization activates CLC-2 mainly by driving intracellular anions into the channel pores, and that protonation by extracellular H(+) plays a minor role in dislodging the glutamate gate. PMID:26666914

  5. Gating the glutamate gate of CLC-2 chloride channel by pore occupancy.

    PubMed

    De Jesús-Pérez, José J; Castro-Chong, Alejandra; Shieh, Ru-Chi; Hernández-Carballo, Carmen Y; De Santiago-Castillo, José A; Arreola, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    CLC-2 channels are dimeric double-barreled chloride channels that open in response to hyperpolarization. Hyperpolarization activates protopore gates that independently regulate the permeability of the pore in each subunit and the common gate that affects the permeability through both pores. CLC-2 channels lack classic transmembrane voltage-sensing domains; instead, their protopore gates (residing within the pore and each formed by the side chain of a glutamate residue) open under repulsion by permeant intracellular anions or protonation by extracellular H(+). Here, we show that voltage-dependent gating of CLC-2: (a) is facilitated when permeant anions (Cl(-), Br(-), SCN(-), and I(-)) are present in the cytosolic side; (b) happens with poorly permeant anions fluoride, glutamate, gluconate, and methanesulfonate present in the cytosolic side; (c) depends on pore occupancy by permeant and poorly permeant anions; (d) is strongly facilitated by multi-ion occupancy; (e) is absent under likely protonation conditions (pHe = 5.5 or 6.5) in cells dialyzed with acetate (an impermeant anion); and (f) was the same at intracellular pH 7.3 and 4.2; and (g) is observed in both whole-cell and inside-out patches exposed to increasing [Cl(-)]i under unlikely protonation conditions (pHe = 10). Thus, based on our results we propose that hyperpolarization activates CLC-2 mainly by driving intracellular anions into the channel pores, and that protonation by extracellular H(+) plays a minor role in dislodging the glutamate gate.

  6. Gating the glutamate gate of CLC-2 chloride channel by pore occupancy

    PubMed Central

    De Jesús-Pérez, José J.; Castro-Chong, Alejandra; Shieh, Ru-Chi; Hernández-Carballo, Carmen Y.; De Santiago-Castillo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    CLC-2 channels are dimeric double-barreled chloride channels that open in response to hyperpolarization. Hyperpolarization activates protopore gates that independently regulate the permeability of the pore in each subunit and the common gate that affects the permeability through both pores. CLC-2 channels lack classic transmembrane voltage–sensing domains; instead, their protopore gates (residing within the pore and each formed by the side chain of a glutamate residue) open under repulsion by permeant intracellular anions or protonation by extracellular H+. Here, we show that voltage-dependent gating of CLC-2: (a) is facilitated when permeant anions (Cl−, Br−, SCN−, and I−) are present in the cytosolic side; (b) happens with poorly permeant anions fluoride, glutamate, gluconate, and methanesulfonate present in the cytosolic side; (c) depends on pore occupancy by permeant and poorly permeant anions; (d) is strongly facilitated by multi-ion occupancy; (e) is absent under likely protonation conditions (pHe = 5.5 or 6.5) in cells dialyzed with acetate (an impermeant anion); and (f) was the same at intracellular pH 7.3 and 4.2; and (g) is observed in both whole-cell and inside-out patches exposed to increasing [Cl−]i under unlikely protonation conditions (pHe = 10). Thus, based on our results we propose that hyperpolarization activates CLC-2 mainly by driving intracellular anions into the channel pores, and that protonation by extracellular H+ plays a minor role in dislodging the glutamate gate. PMID:26666914

  7. Computer Simulations of Voltage-Gated Cation Channels

    PubMed Central

    Treptow, Werner; Klein, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The relentless growth in computational power has seen increasing applications of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to the study of membrane proteins in realistic membrane environments, which include explicit membrane lipids, water and ions. The concomitant increasing availability of membrane protein structures for ion channels, and transporters -- to name just two examples -- has stimulated many of these MD studies. In the case of voltage-gated cation channels (VGCCs) recent computational works have focused on ion-conduction and gating mechanisms, along with their regulation by agonist/antagonist ligands. The information garnered from these computational studies is largely inaccessible to experiment and is crucial for understanding the interplay between the structure and function as well as providing new directions for experiments. This article highlights recent advances in probing the structure and function of potassium channels and offers a perspective on the challenges likely to arise in making analogous progress in characterizing sodium channels. PMID:22523619

  8. Positive allosteric modulators of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect neither the function of other ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels and acetylcholinesterase, nor β-amyloid content.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ravazzini, Federica; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Feuerbach, Dominik; Boffi, Juan C; Draczkowski, Piotr; Montag, Dirk; Brown, Brandon M; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Puia, Giulia

    2016-07-01

    The activity of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), including 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), 3-furan-2-yl-N-o-tolylacrylamide (PAM-3), and 3-furan-2-yl-N-phenylacrylamide (PAM-4), was tested on a variety of ligand- [i.e., human (h) α7, rat (r) α9α10, hα3-containing AChRs, mouse (m) 5-HT3AR, and several glutamate receptors (GluRs)] and voltage-gated (i.e., sodium and potassium) ion channels, as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and β-amyloid (Aβ) content. The functional results indicate that PAM-2 inhibits hα3-containing AChRs (IC50=26±6μM) with higher potency than that for NR1aNR2B and NR1aNR2A, two NMDA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 affects neither the activity of m5-HT3ARs, GluR5/KA2 (a kainate-sensitive GluR), nor AChE, and PAM-4 does not affect agonist-activated rα9α10 AChRs. Relevant clinical concentrations of PAM-2-4 do not inhibit Nav1.2 and Kv3.1 ion channels. These PAMs slightly enhance the activity of GluR1 and GluR2, two AMPA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 does not change the levels of Aβ42 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model (i.e., 5XFAD). The molecular docking and dynamics results using the hα7 model suggest that the active sites for PAM-2 include the intrasubunit (i.e., PNU-120596 locus) and intersubunit sites. These results support our previous study showing that these PAMs are selective for the α7 AChR, and clarify that the procognitive/promnesic/antidepressant activity of PAM-2 is not mediated by other targets.

  9. Positive allosteric modulators of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect neither the function of other ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels and acetylcholinesterase, nor β-amyloid content.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ravazzini, Federica; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Feuerbach, Dominik; Boffi, Juan C; Draczkowski, Piotr; Montag, Dirk; Brown, Brandon M; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Puia, Giulia

    2016-07-01

    The activity of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), including 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), 3-furan-2-yl-N-o-tolylacrylamide (PAM-3), and 3-furan-2-yl-N-phenylacrylamide (PAM-4), was tested on a variety of ligand- [i.e., human (h) α7, rat (r) α9α10, hα3-containing AChRs, mouse (m) 5-HT3AR, and several glutamate receptors (GluRs)] and voltage-gated (i.e., sodium and potassium) ion channels, as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and β-amyloid (Aβ) content. The functional results indicate that PAM-2 inhibits hα3-containing AChRs (IC50=26±6μM) with higher potency than that for NR1aNR2B and NR1aNR2A, two NMDA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 affects neither the activity of m5-HT3ARs, GluR5/KA2 (a kainate-sensitive GluR), nor AChE, and PAM-4 does not affect agonist-activated rα9α10 AChRs. Relevant clinical concentrations of PAM-2-4 do not inhibit Nav1.2 and Kv3.1 ion channels. These PAMs slightly enhance the activity of GluR1 and GluR2, two AMPA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 does not change the levels of Aβ42 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model (i.e., 5XFAD). The molecular docking and dynamics results using the hα7 model suggest that the active sites for PAM-2 include the intrasubunit (i.e., PNU-120596 locus) and intersubunit sites. These results support our previous study showing that these PAMs are selective for the α7 AChR, and clarify that the procognitive/promnesic/antidepressant activity of PAM-2 is not mediated by other targets. PMID:27129924

  10. Crystal structure of the ATP-gated P2X[subscript 4] ion channel in the closed state

    SciTech Connect

    Kawate, Toshimitsu; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Birdsong, William T.; Gouaux, Eric

    2009-08-13

    P2X receptors are cation-selective ion channels gated by extracellular ATP, and are implicated in diverse physiological processes, from synaptic transmission to inflammation to the sensing of taste and pain. Because P2X receptors are not related to other ion channel proteins of known structure, there is at present no molecular foundation for mechanisms of ligand-gating, allosteric modulation and ion permeation. Here we present crystal structures of the zebrafish P2X{sub 4} receptor in its closed, resting state. The chalice-shaped, trimeric receptor is knit together by subunit-subunit contacts implicated in ion channel gating and receptor assembly. Extracellular domains, rich in {beta}-strands, have large acidic patches that may attract cations, through fenestrations, to vestibules near the ion channel. In the transmembrane pore, the 'gate' is defined by an {approx}8 {angstrom} slab of protein. We define the location of three non-canonical, intersubunit ATP-binding sites, and suggest that ATP binding promotes subunit rearrangement and ion channel opening.

  11. EPR Studies of Gating Mechanisms in Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels open and close in response to diverse stimuli, and the molecular events underlying these processes are extensively modulated by ligands of both endogenous and exogenous origin. In the past decade, high-resolution structures of several channel types have been solved, providing unprecedented details of the molecular architecture of these membrane proteins. Intrinsic conformational flexibility of ion channels critically governs their functions. However, the dynamics underlying gating mechanisms and modulations are obscured in the information from crystal structures. While nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic methods allow direct measurements of protein dynamics, they are limited by the large size of these membrane protein assemblies in detergent micelles or lipid membranes. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has emerged as a key biophysical tool to characterize structural dynamics of ion channels and to determine stimulus-driven conformational transition between functional states in a physiological environment. This review will provide an overview of the recent advances in the field of voltage- and ligand-gated channels and highlight some of the challenges and controversies surrounding the structural information available. It will discuss general methods used in site-directed spin labeling and EPR spectroscopy and illustrate how findings from these studies have narrowed the gap between high-resolution structures and gating mechanisms in membranes, and have thereby helped reconcile seemingly disparate models of ion channel function. PMID:25950970

  12. Afterbay, showing four discharge channels and four hydraulic gate check ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Afterbay, showing four discharge channels and four hydraulic gate check cylinders, one for each discharge pipe opening. The fifth bay at the left without a hydraulic cylinder is the outlet for the regulatory pumps added in 1972. The still well is visible at right - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. Afterbay, showing five discharge channels and five hydraulic gate check ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Afterbay, showing five discharge channels and five hydraulic gate check cylinders, one for each discharge pipe opening. The spillback inlet is visible in the left foreground. View to the west - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. Afterbay, showing the six discharge channels and six hydraulic gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Afterbay, showing the six discharge channels and six hydraulic gate check cylinders, one for each of the discharge pipes. A stilling well is in the right foreground, and the Pumping Plant is visible in the background. View to the north - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  15. 6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; WATER THAT PASSED INTO PIPES ENTERED SETTLING VAULT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  16. Ca channel gating during cardiac action potentials.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, M; DeFelice, L J

    1990-10-01

    How do Ca channels conduct Ca ions during the cardiac action potential? We attempt to answer this question by applying a two-microelectrode technique, previously used for Na and K currents, in which we record the patch current and the action potential at the same time (Mazzanti, M., and L. J. DeFelice. 1987. Biophys. J. 12:95-100, and 1988. Biophys. J. 54:1139-1148; Wellis, D., L. J. DeFelice, and M. Mazzanti. 1990. Biophys. J. 57:41-48). In this paper, we also compare the action currents obtained by the technique with the step-protocol currents obtained during standard voltage-clamp experiments. Individual Ca channels were measured in 10 mM Ca/1 Ba and 10 mM Ba. To describe part of our results, we use the nomenclature introduced by Hess, P., J. B. Lansman, and R. W. Tsien (1984. Nature (Lond.). 311:538-544). With Ba as the charge carrier, Ca channel kinetics convert rapidly from long to short open times as the patch voltage changes from 20 to -20 mV. This voltage-dependent conversion occurs during action potentials and in step-protocol experiments. With Ca as the charge carrier, the currents are brief at all voltages, and it is difficult to define either the number of channels in the patch or the conductance of the individual channels. Occasionally, however, Ca-conducting channels spontaneously convert to long-open-time kinetics (in Hess et al., 1984, notation, mode 2). When this happens, which is about once in every 100beats, there usually appears to be only one channel in the patch. In this rare configuration, the channel is open long enough to measure its conductance in 10 Ca/ 1 Ba. The value is 8-10 pS, which is about half the conductance in Ba. Because the long openings occur so infrequently with Ca as the charge carrier, they contribute negligibly to the average Ca current at any particular time during an action potential. However, the total number of Ca ions entering during these long openings may be significant when compared to the number entering by the

  17. Ca channel gating during cardiac action potentials.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, M; DeFelice, L J

    1990-10-01

    How do Ca channels conduct Ca ions during the cardiac action potential? We attempt to answer this question by applying a two-microelectrode technique, previously used for Na and K currents, in which we record the patch current and the action potential at the same time (Mazzanti, M., and L. J. DeFelice. 1987. Biophys. J. 12:95-100, and 1988. Biophys. J. 54:1139-1148; Wellis, D., L. J. DeFelice, and M. Mazzanti. 1990. Biophys. J. 57:41-48). In this paper, we also compare the action currents obtained by the technique with the step-protocol currents obtained during standard voltage-clamp experiments. Individual Ca channels were measured in 10 mM Ca/1 Ba and 10 mM Ba. To describe part of our results, we use the nomenclature introduced by Hess, P., J. B. Lansman, and R. W. Tsien (1984. Nature (Lond.). 311:538-544). With Ba as the charge carrier, Ca channel kinetics convert rapidly from long to short open times as the patch voltage changes from 20 to -20 mV. This voltage-dependent conversion occurs during action potentials and in step-protocol experiments. With Ca as the charge carrier, the currents are brief at all voltages, and it is difficult to define either the number of channels in the patch or the conductance of the individual channels. Occasionally, however, Ca-conducting channels spontaneously convert to long-open-time kinetics (in Hess et al., 1984, notation, mode 2). When this happens, which is about once in every 100beats, there usually appears to be only one channel in the patch. In this rare configuration, the channel is open long enough to measure its conductance in 10 Ca/ 1 Ba. The value is 8-10 pS, which is about half the conductance in Ba. Because the long openings occur so infrequently with Ca as the charge carrier, they contribute negligibly to the average Ca current at any particular time during an action potential. However, the total number of Ca ions entering during these long openings may be significant when compared to the number entering by the

  18. The sigma receptor as a ligand-regulated auxiliary potassium channel subunit.

    PubMed

    Aydar, Ebru; Palmer, Christopher P; Klyachko, Vitaly A; Jackson, Meyer B

    2002-04-25

    The sigma receptor is a novel protein that mediates the modulation of ion channels by psychotropic drugs through a unique transduction mechanism depending neither on G proteins nor protein phosphorylation. The present study investigated sigma receptor signal transduction by reconstituting responses in Xenopus oocytes. Sigma receptors modulated voltage-gated K+ channels (Kv1.4 or Kv1.5) in different ways in the presence and absence of ligands. Association between Kv1.4 channels and sigma receptors was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation. These results indicate a novel mechanism of signal transduction dependent on protein-protein interactions. Domain accessibility experiments suggested a structure for the sigma receptor with two cytoplasmic termini and two membrane-spanning segments. The ligand-independent effects on channels suggest that sigma receptors serve as auxiliary subunits to voltage-gated K+ channels with distinct functional interactions, depending on the presence or absence of ligand.

  19. Calcium Channels and Associated Receptors in Malignant Brain Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Fernanda B; Gehring, Marina P; Nicoletti, Natália F

    2016-09-01

    Malignant brain tumors are highly lethal and aggressive. Despite recent advances in the current therapies, which include the combination of surgery and radio/chemotherapy, the average survival rate remains poor. Altered regulation of ion channels is part of the neoplastic transformation, which suggests that ion channels are involved in cancer. Distinct classes of calcium-permeable channels are abnormally expressed in cancer and are likely involved in the alterations underlying malignant growth. Specifically, cytosolic Ca(2+) activity plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, and Ca(2+) signaling is altered in proliferating tumor cells. A series of previous studies emphasized the importance of the T-type low-voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in different cancer types, including gliomas, and remarkably, pharmacologic inhibition of T-type VGCC caused antiproliferative effects and triggered apoptosis of human glioma cells. Other calcium permeable channels, such as transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, contribute to changes in Ca(2+) by modulating the driving force for Ca(2+) entry, and some TRP channels are required for proliferation and migration in gliomas. Furthermore, recent evidence shows that TRP channels contribute to the progression and survival of the glioblastoma patients. Likewise, the purinergic P2X7 receptor acts as a direct conduit for Ca(2+)-influx and an indirect activator of voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channel. Evidence also shows that P2X7 receptor activation is linked to elevated expression of inflammation promoting factors, tumor cell migration, an increase in intracellular mobilization of Ca(2+), and membrane depolarization in gliomas. Therefore, this review summarizes the recent findings on calcium channels and associated receptors as potential targets to treat malignant gliomas. PMID:27418672

  20. Mechanisms of Activation of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Grizel, A. V.; Glukhov, G. S.; Sokolova, O. S.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium ion channels (Kv) play an important role in a variety of cellular processes, including the functioning of excitable cells, regulation of apoptosis, cell growth and differentiation, the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, maintenance of cardiac activity, etc. Failure in the functioning of Kv channels leads to severe genetic disorders and the development of tumors, including malignant ones. Understanding the mechanisms underlying Kv channels functioning is a key factor in determining the cause of the diseases associated with mutations in the channels, and in the search for new drugs. The mechanism of activation of the channels is a topic of ongoing debate, and a consensus on the issue has not yet been reached. This review discusses the key stages in studying the mechanisms of functioning of Kv channels and describes the basic models of their activation known to date. PMID:25558391

  1. Neurological perspectives on voltage-gated sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Linley, John E.; Baker, Mark D.; Minett, Michael S.; Cregg, Roman; Werdehausen, Robert; Rugiero, François

    2012-01-01

    The activity of voltage-gated sodium channels has long been linked to disorders of neuronal excitability such as epilepsy and chronic pain. Recent genetic studies have now expanded the role of sodium channels in health and disease, to include autism, migraine, multiple sclerosis, cancer as well as muscle and immune system disorders. Transgenic mouse models have proved useful in understanding the physiological role of individual sodium channels, and there has been significant progress in the development of subtype selective inhibitors of sodium channels. This review will outline the functions and roles of specific sodium channels in electrical signalling and disease, focusing on neurological aspects. We also discuss recent advances in the development of selective sodium channel inhibitors. PMID:22961543

  2. Chemical Synthesis of Tetracyclic Terpenes and Evaluation of Antagonistic Activity on Endothelin-A Receptors and Voltage-gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianyu; Aguilar, Angelo; Zou, Bende; Bao, Weier; Koldas, Serkan; Aibin, Shi; Desper, John; Wangemann, Philine; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Hua, Duy H.

    2015-01-01

    A class of tetracyclic terpenes was synthesized and evaluated for antagonistic activity of endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced vasoconstriction and inhibitory activity of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. Three repeated Robinson annulation reactions were utilized to construct the tetracyclic molecules. A stereoselective reductive Robinson annulation was discovered for the formation of optically pure tricyclic terpenes. Stereoselective addition of cyanide to the hindered α-face of tetracyclic enone (-)-18 was found and subsequent transformation into the aldehyde function was affected by the formation of bicyclic hemiiminal (-)-4. Six selected synthetic tetracyclic terpenes show inhibitory activities in ET-1 induced vasoconstriction in the gerbil spiral modiolar artery with putative affinity constants ranging between 93 and 319 nM. Moreover, one compound, (-)-3, was evaluated further and found to inhibit voltage-activated Ca2+ currents but not to affect Na+ or K+ currents in dorsal root ganglion cells under similar concentrations. These observations imply a dual mechanism of action. In conclusion, tetracyclic terpenes represent a new class of hit molecules for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and vascular related diseases. PMID:26190460

  3. Gated Ion Channel-Based Biosensor Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Separovic, Frances; Cornell, Bruce A.

    A biosensor device based on the ion channel gramicidin A (gA) incorporated into a bilayer membrane is described. This generic immunosensing device utilizes gA coupled to an antibody and assembled in a lipid membrane. The membrane is chemically tethered to a gold electrode, which reports on changes in the ionic conduction of the lipid bilayer. Binding of a target molecule in the bathing solution to the antibody causes the gramicidin channels to switch from predominantly conducting dimers to predominantly nonconducting monomers. Conventional a.c. impedance spectroscopy between the gold and a counter electrode in the bathing solution is used to measure changes in the ionic conductivity of the membrane. This approach permits the quantitative detection of a range of target species, including bacteria, proteins, toxins, DNA sequences, and drug molecules.

  4. Imaging ligand-gated ion channels with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, I. D.; Orndorff, Rebecca L.; Gussin, Hélène; Mason, John N.; Blakely, Randy D.; Pepperberg, David R.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we report two different methodologies for labeling ligand-gated receptors. The first of these builds upon our earlier work with serotonin conjugated quantum dots and our studies with pegilated quantum dots to reduce non specific binding. In this approach a pegilated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphillic polymer derivative of poly acrylamide. These conjugates were used to image the GABA C receptor in oocytes. An alternative approach was used to image tissue sections to study nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the neuro muscular junction with biotinylated Bungerotoxin and streptavidin coated quantum dots.

  5. Intramembrane congestion effects on lysenin channel voltage-induced gating

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Eric; Bryant, Sheenah; Shrestha, Nisha; Clark, Tyler; Hanna, Charles; Pink, David; Fologea, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    All cell membranes are packed with proteins. The ability to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of protein channels in experimental conditions mimicking their congested native environment is crucial for understanding the environmental physicochemical cues that may fundamentally contribute to their functionality in natural membranes. Here we report on investigations of the voltage-induced gating of lysenin channels in congested conditions experimentally achieved by increasing the number of channels inserted into planar lipid membranes. Typical electrophysiology measurements reveal congestion-induced changes to the voltage-induced gating, manifested as a significant reduction of the response to external voltage stimuli. Furthermore, we demonstrate a similar diminished voltage sensitivity for smaller populations of channels by reducing the amount of sphingomyelin in the membrane. Given lysenin’s preference for targeting lipid rafts, this result indicates the potential role of the heterogeneous organization of the membrane in modulating channel functionality. Our work indicates that local congestion within membranes may alter the energy landscape and the kinetics of conformational changes of lysenin channels in response to voltage stimuli. This level of understanding may be extended to better characterize the role of the specific membrane environment in modulating the biological functionality of protein channels in health and disease. PMID:26695013

  6. Gambierol, a toxin produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, is a potent blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Cuypers, Eva; Abdel-Mottaleb, Yousra; Kopljar, Ivan; Rainier, Jon D; Raes, Adam L; Snyders, Dirk J; Tytgat, Jan

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we pharmacologically characterized gambierol, a marine polycyclic ether toxin which is produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. Besides several other polycyclic ether toxins like ciguatoxins, this scarcely studied toxin is one of the compounds that may be responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Unfortunately, the biological target(s) that underlies CFP is still partly unknown. Today, ciguatoxins are described to specifically activate voltage-gated sodium channels by interacting with their receptor site 5. But some dispute about the role of gambierol in the CFP story shows up: some describe voltage-gated sodium channels as the target, while others pinpoint voltage-gated potassium channels as targets. Since gambierol was never tested on isolated ion channels before, it was subjected in this work to extensive screening on a panel of 17 ion channels: nine cloned voltage-gated ion channels (mammalian Na(v)1.1-Na(v)1.8 and insect Para) and eight cloned voltage-gated potassium channels (mammalian K(v)1.1-K(v)1.6, hERG and insect ShakerIR) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. All tested sodium channel subtypes are insensitive to gambierol concentrations up to 10 microM. In contrast, K(v)1.2 is the most sensitive voltage-gated potassium channel subtype with almost full block (>97%) and an half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 34.5 nM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where the selectivity of gambierol is tested on isolated voltage-gated ion channels. Therefore, these results lead to a better understanding of gambierol and its possible role in CFP and they may also be useful in the development of more effective treatments. PMID:18313714

  7. Optogenetics. Engineering of a light-gated potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Cristian; Alberio, Laura; Gazzarrini, Sabrina; Aquila, Marco; Romano, Edoardo; Cermenati, Solei; Zuccolini, Paolo; Petersen, Jan; Beltrame, Monica; Van Etten, James L; Christie, John M; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The present palette of opsin-based optogenetic tools lacks a light-gated potassium (K(+)) channel desirable for silencing of excitable cells. Here, we describe the construction of a blue-light-induced K(+) channel 1 (BLINK1) engineered by fusing the plant LOV2-Jα photosensory module to the small viral K(+) channel Kcv. BLINK1 exhibits biophysical features of Kcv, including K(+) selectivity and high single-channel conductance but reversibly photoactivates in blue light. Opening of BLINK1 channels hyperpolarizes the cell to the K(+) equilibrium potential. Ectopic expression of BLINK1 reversibly inhibits the escape response in light-exposed zebrafish larvae. BLINK1 therefore provides a single-component optogenetic tool that can establish prolonged, physiological hyperpolarization of cells at low light intensities.

  8. Thinking in cycles: MWC is a good model for acetylcholine receptor-channels

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Neuromuscular acetylcholine receptors have long been a model system for understanding the mechanisms of operation of ligand-gated ion channels and fast chemical synapses. These five subunit membrane proteins have two allosteric (transmitter) binding sites and a distant ion channel domain. Occupation of the binding sites by agonist molecules transiently increases the probability that the channel is ion-permeable. Recent experiments show that the Monod, Wyman and Changeux formalism for allosteric proteins, originally developed for haemoglobin, is an excellent model for acetylcholine receptors. By using mutations and single-channel electrophysiology, the gating equilibrium constants for receptors with zero, one or two bound agonist molecules, and the agonist association and dissociation rate constants from both the closed- and open-channel conformations, have been estimated experimentally. The change in affinity for each transmitter molecule between closed and open conformations provides ∼–5.1 kcal mol−1 towards the global gating isomerization of the protein. PMID:21807612

  9. Design of a Gated Molecular Proton Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Wei; Zhou, Bo; Geyer, Tihamer; Hutter, Michael C.; Fang, Haiping; Helms, Volkhard H.

    2011-01-17

    The generation of an electrochemical pH gradient across biological membranes using energy from photosynthesis and respiration provides the universal driving force in cells for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy unit of life. Creating such an electrochemical potential requires the transportation of protons against a thermodynamic gradient. In biological proton pumps, chemical energy is used to induce protein conformational changes during each catalytic cycle where one or a few protons are pumped against a proton concentration gradient across the membrane. On the other hand, membrane channels also exist that mediate continuous particle exchange and may be switched between open and closed states. Being able to design nanochannels with similar functions would be of great importance for creating novel molecular devices with a wide range of applications such as molecular motors, fuel cells, rechargeable nanobatteries that provide energy to other nanomachines, and the generation of locally and temporally controlled pH jumps on microfluidic chips.

  10. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel's ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators. PMID:27384555

  11. Ion channels gated by acetylcholine and serotonin: structures, biology, and drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhong-shan; Cheng, Hao; Jiang, Yi; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2015-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and the 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) are cation-selective members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs), which are oligomeric protein assemblies that convert a chemical signal into an ion flux through postsynaptic membrane. They are critical components for synaptic transmission in the nervous system, and their dysfunction contributes to many neurological disorders. The diverse subunit compositions of pLGICs give rise to complex mechanisms of ligand recognition, channel gating, and ion-selective permeability, which have been demonstrated in numerous electrophysiological and molecular biological studies, and unraveled by progress in studying the structural biology of this protein family. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the structural and functional basis of two cation-selective pLGICs, the nAChR and the 5-HT3R, including their subunit compositions, ligand binding, and channel gating mechanisms. We also discuss their relevant pharmacology and drug discovery for treating various neurological disorders. Finally, we review a model of two alternative ion conducting pathways based on the latest 5-HT3A crystal structure. PMID:26238288

  12. Stimulation-dependent gating of TRPM3 channel in planar lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kunitoshi; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Asuthkar, Swapna; Cohen, Alejandro; Tominaga, Makoto; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2016-03-01

    The transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM)-3 channel is critical for various physiologic processes. In somatosensory neurons, TRPM3 has been implicated in temperature perception and inflammatory hyperalgesia, whereas in pancreatic β-cells the channel has been linked to glucose-induced insulin release. As a typical representative of the TRP family, TRPM3 is highly polymodal. In cells, it is activated by heat and chemical agonists, including pregnenolone sulfate (PS) and nifedipine (Nif). To define the nuances of TRPM3 channel activity and its modulators, we succeeded in incorporating the TRPM3 protein into planar lipid bilayers. We found that phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) or clotrimazole is necessary for channel opening by PS. Unlike PS, the presence of Nif alone sufficed to induce TRPM3 activity and demonstrated distinct gating behavior. We also performed an extensive thermodynamic analysis of TRPM3 activation and found that TRPM3 exhibited slight temperature sensitivity in the bilayers. In the absence of other agonists TRPM3 channels remained closed upon heat-induced stimulation, but opened in the presence of PIP2, although with only a low open-probability profile. Together, our results elucidate the details peculiar to TRPM3 channel function in an isolated system. We confirmed its direct gating by PS and PIP2, but found a lack of the strong intrinsic temperature sensitivity common to other thermosensitive TRP channels.

  13. Properties of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels mediating olfactory transduction. Activation, selectivity, and blockage

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (cng channels) in the sensory membrane of olfactory receptor cells, activated after the odorant-induced increase of cytosolic cAMP concentration, conduct the receptor current that elicits electrical excitation of the receptor neurons. We investigated properties of cng channels from frog and rat using inside- out and outside-out membrane patches excised from isolated olfactory receptor cells. Channels were activated by cAMP and cGMP with activation constants of 2.5-4.0 microM for cAMP and 1.0-1.8 for cGMP. Hill coefficients of dose-response curves were 1.4-1.8, indicating cooperativity of ligand binding. Selectivity for monovalent alkali cations and the Na/Li mole-fraction behavior identified the channel as a nonselective cation channel, having a cation-binding site of high field strength in the pore. Cytosolic pH effects suggest the presence of an additional titratable group which, when protonated, inhibits the cAMP-induced current with an apparent pK of 5.0-5.2. The pH effects were not voltage dependent. Several blockers of Ca2+ channels also blocked olfactory cng channels. Amiloride, D 600, and diltiazem inhibited the cAMP-induced current from the cytosolic side. Inhibition constants were voltage dependent with values of, respectively, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mM at -60 mV, and 0.03, 0.02, and 0.2 mM at +60 mV. Our results suggest functional similarity between frog and rat cng channels, as well as marked differences to cng channels from photoreceptors and other tissues. PMID:1324972

  14. Single-channel, macroscopic, and gating currents from sodium channels in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, C A; Bezanilla, F

    1991-01-01

    Single-channel, macroscopic ionic, and macroscopic gating currents were recorded from the voltage-dependent sodium channel using patch-clamp techniques on the cut-open squid giant axon. To obtain a complete set of physiological measurements of sodium channel gating under identical conditions, and to facilitate comparison with previous work, comparison was made between currents recorded in the absence of extracellular divalent cations and in the presence of physiological concentrations of extracellular Ca2+ (10 mM) and Mg2+ (50 mM). The single-channel currents were well resolved when divalent cations were not included in the extracellular solution, but were decreased in amplitude in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. The instantaneous current-voltage relationship obtained from macroscopic tail current measurements similarly was depressed by divalents, and showed a negative slope-conductance region for inward current at negative potentials. Voltage dependent parameters of channel gating were shifted 9-13 mV towards depolarized potentials by external divalent cations, including the peak fraction of channels open versus voltage, the time constant of tail current decline, the prepulse inactivation versus voltage relationship, and the charge-voltage relationship for gating currents. The effects of divalent cations are consistent with open channel block by Ca2+ and Mg2+ together with divalent screening of membrane charges. PMID:1663795

  15. Gating of Acoustic Transducer Channels Is Shaped by Biomechanical Filter Processes.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jennifer; Schöneich, Stefan; Kössl, Manfred; Scherberich, Jan; Hedwig, Berthold; Prinz, Simone; Nowotny, Manuela

    2016-02-24

    Mechanoelectrical transduction of acoustic signals is the fundamental process for hearing in all ears across the animal kingdom. Here, we performed in vivo laser-vibrometric and electrophysiological measurements at the transduction site in an insect ear (Mecopoda elongata) to relate the biomechanical tonotopy along the hearing organ to the frequency tuning of the corresponding sensory cells. Our mechanical and electrophysiological map revealed a biomechanical filter process that considerably sharpens the neuronal response. We demonstrate that the channel gating, which acts on chordotonal stretch receptor neurons, is based on a mechanical directionality of the sound-induced motion. Further, anatomical studies of the transduction site support our finding of a stimulus-relevant tilt. In conclusion, we were able to show, in an insect ear, that directionality of channel gating considerably sharpens the neuronal frequency selectivity at the peripheral level and have identified a mechanism that enhances frequency discrimination in tonotopically organized ears.

  16. Involvement of voltage-gated sodium channels blockade in the analgesic effects of orphenadrine.

    PubMed

    Desaphy, Jean-François; Dipalma, Antonella; De Bellis, Michela; Costanza, Teresa; Gaudioso, Christelle; Delmas, Patrick; George, Alfred L; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2009-04-01

    Orphenadrine is a drug acting on multiple targets, including muscarinic, histaminic, and NMDA receptors. It is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and in musculoskeletal disorders. It is also used as an analgesic, although its mechanism of action is still unknown. Both physiological and pharmacological results have demonstrated a critical role for voltage-gated sodium channels in many types of chronic pain syndromes. We tested the hypothesis that orphenadrine may block voltage-gated sodium channels. By using patch-clamp experiments, we evaluated the effects of the drug on whole-cell sodium currents in HEK293 cells expressing the skeletal muscle (Nav1.4), cardiac (Nav1.5) and neuronal (Nav1.1 and Nav1.7) subtypes of human sodium channels, as well as on whole-cell tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium currents likely conducted by Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 channel subtypes in primary culture of rat DRG sensory neurons. The results indicate that orphenadrine inhibits sodium channels in a concentration-, voltage- and frequency-dependent manner. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we further show that orphenadrine binds to the same receptor as the local anesthetics. Orphenadrine affinities for resting and inactivated sodium channels were higher compared to those of known sodium channels blockers, such as mexiletine and flecainide. Low, clinically relevant orphenadrine concentration produces a significant block of Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 channels, which are critical for experiencing pain sensations, indicating a role for sodium channel blockade in the clinical efficacy of orphenadrine as analgesic compound. On the other hand, block of Nav1.1 and Nav1.5 may contribute to the proconvulsive and proarrhythmic adverse reactions, especially observed during overdose. PMID:19217209

  17. Lipid bilayer modules as determinants of K+ channel gating.

    PubMed

    Syeda, Ruhma; Santos, Jose S; Montal, Mauricio

    2014-02-14

    The crystal structure of the sensorless pore module of a voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel showed that lipids occupy a crevice between subunits. We asked if individual lipid monolayers of the bilayer embody independent modules linked to channel gating modulation. Functional studies using single channel current recordings of the sensorless pore module reconstituted in symmetric and asymmetric lipid bilayers allowed us to establish the deterministic role of lipid headgroup on gating. We discovered that individual monolayers with headgroups that coat the bilayer-aqueous interface with hydroxyls stabilize the channel open conformation. The hydroxyl need not be at a terminal position and the effect is not dependent on the presence of phosphate or net charge on the lipid headgroup. Asymmetric lipid bilayers allowed us to determine that phosphoglycerides with glycerol or inositol on the extracellular facing monolayer stabilize the open conformation of the channel. This indirect effect is attributed to a change in water structure at the membrane interface. By contrast, inclusion of the positively charged lysyl-dioleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol exclusively on the cytoplasmic facing monolayer of the bilayer increases drastically the probability of finding the channel open. Such modulation is mediated by a π-cation interaction between Phe-19 of the pore module and the lysyl moiety anchored to the phosphatidylglycerol headgroup. The new findings imply that the specific chemistry of the lipid headgroup and its selective location in either monolayer of the bilayer dictate the stability of the open conformation of a Kv pore module in the absence of voltage-sensing modules.

  18. 21. OUTLET PIPE AND CONCRETE CHANNEL FOR THE HEAD GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. OUTLET PIPE AND CONCRETE CHANNEL FOR THE HEAD GATE PICTURED IN CO-43-A-20. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Glutamate-Gated Chloride Channel Subunits from Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Vanessa; Beech, Robin N.; Wever, Claudia; Dent, Joseph A.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) mediate fast ionotropic neurotransmission. They are proven drug targets in nematodes and arthropods, but are poorly characterized in flatworms. In this study, we characterized the anion-selective, non-acetylcholine-gated Cys-loop LGICs from Schistosoma mansoni. Full-length cDNAs were obtained for SmGluCl-1 (Smp_096480), SmGluCl-2 (Smp_015630) and SmGluCl-3 (Smp_104890). A partial cDNA was retrieved for SmGluCl-4 (Smp_099500/Smp_176730). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that SmGluCl-1, SmGluCl-2, SmGluCl-3 and SmGluCl-4 belong to a novel clade of flatworm glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) that includes putative genes from trematodes and cestodes. The flatworm GluCl clade was distinct from the nematode-arthropod and mollusc GluCl clades, and from all GABA receptors. We found no evidence of GABA receptors in S. mansoni. SmGluCl-1, SmGluCl-2 and SmGluCl-3 subunits were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) in Xenopus oocytes, and shown to encode Cl−-permeable channels gated by glutamate. SmGluCl-2 and SmGluCl-3 produced functional homomers, while SmGluCl-1 formed heteromers with SmGluCl-2. Concentration-response relationships revealed that the sensitivity of SmGluCl receptors to L-glutamate is among the highest reported for GluCl receptors, with EC50 values of 7–26 µM. Chloride selectivity was confirmed by current-voltage (I/V) relationships. SmGluCl receptors are insensitive to 1 µM ivermectin (IVM), indicating that they do not belong to the highly IVM-sensitive GluClα subtype group. SmGluCl receptors are also insensitive to 10 µM meclonazepam, a schistosomicidal benzodiazepine. These results provide the first molecular evidence showing the contribution of GluCl receptors to L-glutamate signaling in S. mansoni, an unprecedented finding in parasitic flatworms. Further work is needed to elucidate the roles of GluCl receptors in schistosomes and to explore their potential as drug targets. PMID:24009509

  20. Modelling modal gating of ion channels with hierarchical Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Fackrell, Mark; Crampin, Edmund J.; Taylor, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many ion channels spontaneously switch between different levels of activity. Although this behaviour known as modal gating has been observed for a long time it is currently not well understood. Despite the fact that appropriately representing activity changes is essential for accurately capturing time course data from ion channels, systematic approaches for modelling modal gating are currently not available. In this paper, we develop a modular approach for building such a model in an iterative process. First, stochastic switching between modes and stochastic opening and closing within modes are represented in separate aggregated Markov models. Second, the continuous-time hierarchical Markov model, a new modelling framework proposed here, then enables us to combine these components so that in the integrated model both mode switching as well as the kinetics within modes are appropriately represented. A mathematical analysis reveals that the behaviour of the hierarchical Markov model naturally depends on the properties of its components. We also demonstrate how a hierarchical Markov model can be parametrized using experimental data and show that it provides a better representation than a previous model of the same dataset. Because evidence is increasing that modal gating reflects underlying molecular properties of the channel protein, it is likely that biophysical processes are better captured by our new approach than in earlier models.

  1. Modelling modal gating of ion channels with hierarchical Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Fackrell, Mark; Crampin, Edmund J.; Taylor, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many ion channels spontaneously switch between different levels of activity. Although this behaviour known as modal gating has been observed for a long time it is currently not well understood. Despite the fact that appropriately representing activity changes is essential for accurately capturing time course data from ion channels, systematic approaches for modelling modal gating are currently not available. In this paper, we develop a modular approach for building such a model in an iterative process. First, stochastic switching between modes and stochastic opening and closing within modes are represented in separate aggregated Markov models. Second, the continuous-time hierarchical Markov model, a new modelling framework proposed here, then enables us to combine these components so that in the integrated model both mode switching as well as the kinetics within modes are appropriately represented. A mathematical analysis reveals that the behaviour of the hierarchical Markov model naturally depends on the properties of its components. We also demonstrate how a hierarchical Markov model can be parametrized using experimental data and show that it provides a better representation than a previous model of the same dataset. Because evidence is increasing that modal gating reflects underlying molecular properties of the channel protein, it is likely that biophysical processes are better captured by our new approach than in earlier models. PMID:27616917

  2. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. Ligand-gated ion channels are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528238

  3. A sodium channel gating model based on single channel, macroscopic ionic, and gating currents in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, C A; Bezanilla, F

    1991-01-01

    Sodium channel gating behavior was modeled with Markovian models fitted to currents from the cut-open squid giant axon in the absence of divalent cations. Optimum models were selected with maximum likelihood criteria using single-channel data, then models were refined and extended by simultaneous fitting of macroscopic ionic currents, ON and OFF gating currents, and single-channel first latency densities over a wide voltage range. Best models have five closed states before channel opening, with inactivation from at least one closed state as well as the open state. Forward activation rate constants increase with depolarization, and deactivation rate constants increase with hyperpolarization. Rates of inactivation from the open or closed states are generally slower than activation or deactivation rates and show little or no voltage dependence. Channels tend to reopen several times before inactivating. Macroscopic rates of activation and inactivation result from a combination of closed, open and inactivated state transitions. At negative potentials the time to first opening dominates the macroscopic current due to slow activation rates compared with deactivation rates: channels tend to reopen rarely, and often inactivate from closed states before they reopen. At more positive potentials, the time to first opening and burst duration together produce the macroscopic current. PMID:1663796

  4. Voltage-Gated Proton Channel in Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Silva, Luisa; Queiroz, Fernanda Oliveira; da Silva, Annielle Mendes Brito; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel

    2016-07-20

    Solid tumors tend to have a more glycolytic metabolism leading to an accumulation of acidic metabolites in their cytosol, and consequently, their intracellular pH (pHi) turns critically lower if the cells do not handle the acid excess. Recently, it was proposed that the voltage gated proton channels (HV1) can regulate the pHi in several cancers. Here we report the functional expression of voltage gated proton channels in a human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell line, the most common and lethal brain tumor. T98G cells presented an outward, slow activating voltage-dependent proton current, which was also ΔpH-dependent and inhibited by ZnCl2, characterizing it as being conducted by HV1 channels. Furthermore, blocking HV1 channels with ZnCl2 significantly reduced the pHi, cell survival, and migration, indicating an important role for HV1 for tumor proliferation and progression in GBM. Overall, our results suggest that HV1 channels can be a new therapeutic target for GBM. PMID:27225904

  5. A single amino acid gates the KcsA channel

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Minako; Okuno, Daichi; Onishi, Yukiko; Ide, Toru

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • pH-dependent gating of the KcsA channel is regulated by the CPD. • E146 is the most essential amino acid for pH sensing by the KcsA. • The protonated-mimicking mutant, E146Q, is constitutively open independent of pH. • Minimal rearrangement of the CPD is sufficient for opening of the KcsA. - Abstract: The KcsA channel is a proton-activated potassium channel. We have previously shown that the cytoplasmic domain (CPD) acts as a pH-sensor, and the charged states of certain negatively charged amino acids in the CPD play an important role in regulating the pH-dependent gating. Here, we demonstrate the KcsA channel is constitutively open independent of pH upon mutating E146 to a neutrally charged amino acid. In addition, we found that rearrangement of the CPD following this mutation was not large. Our results indicate that minimal rearrangement of the CPD, particularly around E146, is sufficient for opening of the KcsA channel.

  6. Voltage-gated Potassium Channels as Therapeutic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Heike; Castle, Neil A.; Pardo, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    The human genome contains 40 voltage-gated potassium channels (KV) which are involved in diverse physiological processes ranging from repolarization of neuronal or cardiac action potentials, over regulating calcium signaling and cell volume, to driving cellular proliferation and migration. KV channels offer tremendous opportunities for the development of new drugs for cancer, autoimmune diseases and metabolic, neurological and cardiovascular disorders. This review first discusses pharmacological strategies for targeting KV channels with venom peptides, antibodies and small molecules and then highlights recent progress in the preclinical and clinical development of drugs targeting KV1.x, KV7.x (KCNQ), KV10.1 (EAG1) and KV11.1 (hERG) channels. PMID:19949402

  7. Gating mechanosensitive channels in bacteria with an atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, Renata; Miller, Samantha; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Third Institute of Physics Team; School of Medical Sciences Collaboration

    The regulation of growth and integrity of bacteria is critically linked to mechanical stress. Bacteria typically maintain a high difference of osmotic pressure (turgor pressure) with respect to the environment. This pressure difference (on the order of 1 atm) is supported by the cell envelope, a composite of lipid membranes and a rigid cell wall. Turgor pressure is controlled by the ratio of osmolytes inside and outside bacteria and thus, can abruptly increase upon osmotic downshock. For structural integrity bacteria rely on the mechanical stability of the cell wall and on the action of mechanosensitive (MS) channels: membrane proteins that release solutes in response to stress in the cell envelope. We here present experimental data on MS channels gating. We activate channels by indenting living bacteria with the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM). We compare responses of wild-type and mutant bacteria in which some or all MS channels have been eliminated.

  8. Adaptive evolution of voltage-gated sodium channels: The first 800 million years

    PubMed Central

    Zakon, Harold H.

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+-permeable (Nav) channels form the basis for electrical excitability in animals. Nav channels evolved from Ca2+ channels and were present in the common ancestor of choanoflagellates and animals, although this channel was likely permeable to both Na+ and Ca2+. Thus, like many other neuronal channels and receptors, Nav channels predated neurons. Invertebrates possess two Nav channels (Nav1 and Nav2), whereas vertebrate Nav channels are of the Nav1 family. Approximately 500 Mya in early chordates Nav channels evolved a motif that allowed them to cluster at axon initial segments, 50 million years later with the evolution of myelin, Nav channels “capitalized” on this property and clustered at nodes of Ranvier. The enhancement of conduction velocity along with the evolution of jaws likely made early gnathostomes fierce predators and the dominant vertebrates in the ocean. Later in vertebrate evolution, the Nav channel gene family expanded in parallel in tetrapods and teleosts (∼9 to 10 genes in amniotes, 8 in teleosts). This expansion occurred during or after the late Devonian extinction, when teleosts and tetrapods each diversified in their respective habitats, and coincided with an increase in the number of telencephalic nuclei in both groups. The expansion of Nav channels may have allowed for more sophisticated neural computation and tailoring of Nav channel kinetics with potassium channel kinetics to enhance energy savings. Nav channels show adaptive sequence evolution for increasing diversity in communication signals (electric fish), in protection against lethal Nav channel toxins (snakes, newts, pufferfish, insects), and in specialized habitats (naked mole rats). PMID:22723361

  9. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel’s ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators. PMID:27384555

  10. Structural insights into Ca2+-activated long-range allosteric channel gating of RyR1

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Risheng; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Yan; Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Qiang; Huang, Xinrui; Jing, Shan; Liu, Congcong; Li, Shuang; Wang, Guangyu; Xu, Yaofang; Zhu, Sujie; Williams, Alan J; Sun, Fei; Yin, Chang-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a class of giant ion channels with molecular mass over 2.2 mega-Daltons. These channels mediate calcium signaling in a variety of cells. Since more than 80% of the RyR protein is folded into the cytoplasmic assembly and the remaining residues form the transmembrane domain, it has been hypothesized that the activation and regulation of RyR channels occur through an as yet uncharacterized long-range allosteric mechanism. Here we report the characterization of a Ca2+-activated open-state RyR1 structure by cryo-electron microscopy. The structure has an overall resolution of 4.9 Å and a resolution of 4.2 Å for the core region. In comparison with the previously determined apo/closed-state structure, we observed long-range allosteric gating of the channel upon Ca2+ activation. In-depth structural analyses elucidated a novel channel-gating mechanism and a novel ion selectivity mechanism of RyR1. Our work not only provides structural insights into the molecular mechanisms of channel gating and regulation of RyRs, but also sheds light on structural basis for channel-gating and ion selectivity mechanisms for the six-transmembrane-helix cation channel family. PMID:27573175

  11. Structural insights into Ca(2+)-activated long-range allosteric channel gating of RyR1.

    PubMed

    Wei, Risheng; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Yan; Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Qiang; Huang, Xinrui; Jing, Shan; Liu, Congcong; Li, Shuang; Wang, Guangyu; Xu, Yaofang; Zhu, Sujie; Williams, Alan J; Sun, Fei; Yin, Chang-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a class of giant ion channels with molecular mass over 2.2 mega-Daltons. These channels mediate calcium signaling in a variety of cells. Since more than 80% of the RyR protein is folded into the cytoplasmic assembly and the remaining residues form the transmembrane domain, it has been hypothesized that the activation and regulation of RyR channels occur through an as yet uncharacterized long-range allosteric mechanism. Here we report the characterization of a Ca(2+)-activated open-state RyR1 structure by cryo-electron microscopy. The structure has an overall resolution of 4.9 Å and a resolution of 4.2 Å for the core region. In comparison with the previously determined apo/closed-state structure, we observed long-range allosteric gating of the channel upon Ca(2+) activation. In-depth structural analyses elucidated a novel channel-gating mechanism and a novel ion selectivity mechanism of RyR1. Our work not only provides structural insights into the molecular mechanisms of channel gating and regulation of RyRs, but also sheds light on structural basis for channel-gating and ion selectivity mechanisms for the six-transmembrane-helix cation channel family.

  12. Structural insights into Ca(2+)-activated long-range allosteric channel gating of RyR1.

    PubMed

    Wei, Risheng; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Yan; Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Qiang; Huang, Xinrui; Jing, Shan; Liu, Congcong; Li, Shuang; Wang, Guangyu; Xu, Yaofang; Zhu, Sujie; Williams, Alan J; Sun, Fei; Yin, Chang-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a class of giant ion channels with molecular mass over 2.2 mega-Daltons. These channels mediate calcium signaling in a variety of cells. Since more than 80% of the RyR protein is folded into the cytoplasmic assembly and the remaining residues form the transmembrane domain, it has been hypothesized that the activation and regulation of RyR channels occur through an as yet uncharacterized long-range allosteric mechanism. Here we report the characterization of a Ca(2+)-activated open-state RyR1 structure by cryo-electron microscopy. The structure has an overall resolution of 4.9 Å and a resolution of 4.2 Å for the core region. In comparison with the previously determined apo/closed-state structure, we observed long-range allosteric gating of the channel upon Ca(2+) activation. In-depth structural analyses elucidated a novel channel-gating mechanism and a novel ion selectivity mechanism of RyR1. Our work not only provides structural insights into the molecular mechanisms of channel gating and regulation of RyRs, but also sheds light on structural basis for channel-gating and ion selectivity mechanisms for the six-transmembrane-helix cation channel family. PMID:27573175

  13. Intramembrane aromatic interactions influence the lipid sensitivities of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Carswell, Casey L; Sun, Jiayin; Baenziger, John E

    2015-01-23

    Although the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes lacking cholesterol and anionic lipids adopts a conformation where agonist binding is uncoupled from channel gating, the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Here, we examine the mechanism behind lipid-dependent uncoupling by comparing the propensities of two prokaryotic homologs, Gloebacter and Erwinia ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC and ELIC, respectively), to adopt a similar uncoupled conformation. Membrane-reconstituted GLIC and ELIC both exhibit folded structures in the minimal PC membranes that stabilize an uncoupled nAChR. GLIC, with a large number of aromatic interactions at the interface between the outermost transmembrane α-helix, M4, and the adjacent transmembrane α-helices, M1 and M3, retains the ability to flux cations in this uncoupling PC membrane environment. In contrast, ELIC, with a level of aromatic interactions intermediate between that of the nAChR and GLIC, does not undergo agonist-induced channel gating, although it does not exhibit the expected biophysical characteristics of the uncoupled state. Engineering new aromatic interactions at the M4-M1/M3 interface to promote effective M4 interactions with M1/M3, however, increases the stability of the transmembrane domain to restore channel function. Our data provide direct evidence that M4 interactions with M1/M3 are modulated during lipid sensing. Aromatic residues strengthen M4 interactions with M1/M3 to reduce the sensitivities of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels to their surrounding membrane environment. PMID:25519904

  14. Mechanism of voltage-gated channel formation in lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Guidelli, Rolando; Becucci, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    Although several molecular models for voltage-gated ion channels in lipid membranes have been proposed, a detailed mechanism accounting for the salient features of experimental data is lacking. A general treatment accounting for peptide dipole orientation in the electric field and their nucleation and growth kinetics with ion channel formation is provided. This is the first treatment that explains all the main features of the experimental current-voltage curves of peptides forming voltage-gated channels available in the literature. It predicts a regime of weakly voltage-dependent conductance, followed by one of strong voltage-dependent conductance at higher voltages. It also predicts values of the parameters expressing the exponential dependence of conductance upon voltage and peptide bulk concentration for both regimes, in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Most importantly, the only two adjustable parameters involved in the kinetics of nucleation and growth of ion channels can be varied over broad ranges without affecting the above predictions to a significant extent. Thus, the fitting of experimental current-voltage curves stems naturally from the treatment and depends only slightly upon the choice of the kinetic parameters. PMID:26768224

  15. Studies of multimodal gating of the sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Keynes, Richard D

    2002-01-01

    Chandler and Meves found that in squid axons perfused with NaF a small flow of Na+ ions persisted in the inactivated state, and that the Na+ channel therefore has more than one open state. Studies by Correa and Bezanilla on single patches in squid axons showed that such steady currents arose from reopening of the channel at a relatively low frequency. Currents with comparable properties are generated in mammalian brain cells and elsewhere. The existence of a third mode of gating was established by Patlak and Ortiz when they showed that in frog muscle fibres there were occasionally quite large bursts of late openings. Again, similar behaviour has been observed in other types of muscle and in brain cells. It is suggested that the voltage gating of all ionic channels involves a screw-helical mechanism, operating in steps each transferring unit charge. For segment S4 in domain IV of Na+ channels, three charges have to be transferred to reach the initial open state, and a fourth for fast inactivation to take place. The single late openings in the inactivated steady state may be explained by the transfer of a fifth charge in IVS4, while the larger bursts of reopening involve a modulation of the mechanism of fast inactivation.

  16. Cardiac voltage-gated calcium channel macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; Abriel, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, a new field of research, called channelopathies, investigating diseases caused by ion channel dysfunction has emerged. Cardiac ion channels play an essential role in the generation of the cardiac action potential. Investigators have largely determined the physiological roles of different cardiac ion channels, but little is known about the molecular determinants of their regulation. The voltage-gated calcium channel Ca(v)1.2 shapes the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential and allows the influx of calcium leading to cardiomyocyte contraction. Studies suggest that the regulation of Ca(v)1.2 channels is not uniform in working cardiomyocytes. The notion of micro-domains containing Ca(v)1.2 channels and different calcium channel interacting proteins, called macro-molecular complex, has been proposed to explain these observations. The objective of this review is to summarize the currently known information on the Ca(v)1.2 macromolecular complexes in the cardiac cell and discuss their implication in cardiac function and disorder. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  17. Lyotropic anions. Na channel gating and Ca electrode response

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The effects of external anions on gating of Na channels of frog skeletal muscle were studied under voltage clamp. Anions reversibly shift the voltage dependence of peak sodium permeability and of steady state sodium inactivation towards more negative potentials in the sequence: methanesulfonate less than or equal to Cl- less than or equal to acetate less than Br- less than or equal to NO-3 less than or equal to SO2-4 less than benzenesulfonate less than SCN- less than ClO-4; approximately the lyotropic sequence. Voltage shifts are graded with mole fraction in mixtures and are roughly additive to calcium shifts. The peak PNa is not greatly affected. Except for SO2-4, these anions did not change the Ca++ activity of the solutions as measured with the dye murexide. Shifts of gating can be explained as the electrostatic effect of anion adsorption to the Na channel or to nearby lipid. Such adsorption is expected to follow the lyotropic series. Anions also interfere significantly with the response of a Ca-sensitive membrane electrode following the same sequence of effectiveness as the shifts of gating. The lyotropic anions decrease the Ca++ sensitivity and cause anomalously negative responses of the Ca electrode because these anions are somewhat permeant in the hydrophobic detector membrane. PMID:6302198

  18. Calmodulin regulation (calmodulation) of voltage-gated calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Johny, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Calmodulin regulation (calmodulation) of the family of voltage-gated CaV1-2 channels comprises a prominent prototype for ion channel regulation, remarkable for its powerful Ca2+ sensing capabilities, deep in elegant mechanistic lessons, and rich in biological and therapeutic implications. This field thereby resides squarely at the epicenter of Ca2+ signaling biology, ion channel biophysics, and therapeutic advance. This review summarizes the historical development of ideas in this field, the scope and richly patterned organization of Ca2+ feedback behaviors encompassed by this system, and the long-standing challenges and recent developments in discerning a molecular basis for calmodulation. We conclude by highlighting the considerable synergy between mechanism, biological insight, and promising therapeutics. PMID:24863929

  19. Ion selectivity and gating mechanisms of FNT channels

    PubMed Central

    Waight, Andrew B.; Czyzewski, Bryan K.; Wang, Da-Neng

    2013-01-01

    The phospholipid bilayer has evolved to be a protective and selective barrier by which the cell maintains high concentrations of life sustaining organic and inorganic material. As gatekeepers responsible for an immense amount of bidirectional chemical traffic between the cytoplasm and extracellular milieu, ion channels have been studied in detail since their postulated existence nearly three-quarters of a century ago. Over the past fifteen years, we have begun to understand how selective permeability can be achieved for both cationic and anionic ions. Our mechanistic knowledge has expanded recently with studies of a large family of anion channels, the Formate Nitrite Transport (FNT) family. This family has proven amenable to structural studies at a resolution high enough to reveal intimate details of ion selectivity and gating. With five representative members having yielded a total of 15 crystal structures, this family represents one of the richest sources of structural information for anion channels. PMID:23773802

  20. Side-gated ultrathin-channel nanopore FET sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Itaru; Oura, Takeshi; Haga, Takanobu; Ando, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Jiro; Mine, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Takeshi; Hatano, Toshiyuki; Akahori, Rena; Yokoi, Takahide; Anazawa, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    A side-gated, ultrathin-channel nanopore FET (SGNAFET) is proposed for fast and label-free DNA sequencing. The concept of the SGNAFET comprises the detection of changes in the channel current during DNA translocation through a nanopore and identifying the four types of nucleotides as a result of these changes. To achieve this goal, both p- and n-type SGNAFETs with a channel thicknesses of 2 or 4 nm were fabricated, and the stable transistor operation of both SGNAFETs in air, water, and a KCl buffer solution were confirmed. In addition, synchronized current changes were observed between the ionic current through the nanopore and the SGNAFET’s drain current during DNA translocation through the nanopore.

  1. Side-gated ultrathin-channel nanopore FET sensors.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Itaru; Oura, Takeshi; Haga, Takanobu; Ando, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Jiro; Mine, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Takeshi; Hatano, Toshiyuki; Akahori, Rena; Yokoi, Takahide; Anazawa, Takashi

    2016-03-18

    A side-gated, ultrathin-channel nanopore FET (SGNAFET) is proposed for fast and label-free DNA sequencing. The concept of the SGNAFET comprises the detection of changes in the channel current during DNA translocation through a nanopore and identifying the four types of nucleotides as a result of these changes. To achieve this goal, both p- and n-type SGNAFETs with a channel thicknesses of 2 or 4 nm were fabricated, and the stable transistor operation of both SGNAFETs in air, water, and a KCl buffer solution were confirmed. In addition, synchronized current changes were observed between the ionic current through the nanopore and the SGNAFET's drain current during DNA translocation through the nanopore. PMID:26876025

  2. Side-gated ultrathin-channel nanopore FET sensors.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Itaru; Oura, Takeshi; Haga, Takanobu; Ando, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Jiro; Mine, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Takeshi; Hatano, Toshiyuki; Akahori, Rena; Yokoi, Takahide; Anazawa, Takashi

    2016-03-18

    A side-gated, ultrathin-channel nanopore FET (SGNAFET) is proposed for fast and label-free DNA sequencing. The concept of the SGNAFET comprises the detection of changes in the channel current during DNA translocation through a nanopore and identifying the four types of nucleotides as a result of these changes. To achieve this goal, both p- and n-type SGNAFETs with a channel thicknesses of 2 or 4 nm were fabricated, and the stable transistor operation of both SGNAFETs in air, water, and a KCl buffer solution were confirmed. In addition, synchronized current changes were observed between the ionic current through the nanopore and the SGNAFET's drain current during DNA translocation through the nanopore.

  3. Identification of cyclic nucleotide gated channels using regular expressions.

    PubMed

    Zelman, Alice K; Dawe, Adam; Berkowitz, Gerald A

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are nonselective cation channels found in plants, animals, and some bacteria. They have a six-transmembrane/one-pore structure, a cytosolic cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, and a cytosolic calmodulin-binding domain. Despite their functional similarities, the plant CNGC family members appear to have different conserved amino acid motifs within corresponding functional domains than animal and bacterial CNGCs do. Here we describe the development and application of methods employing plant CNGC-specific sequence motifs as diagnostic tools to identify novel candidate channels in different plants. These methods are used to evaluate the validity of annotations of putative orthologs of CNGCs from plant genomes. The methods detail how to employ regular expressions of conserved amino acids in functional domains of annotated CNGCs and together with Web tools such as PHI-BLAST and ScanProsite to identify novel candidate CNGCs in species including Physcomitrella patens.

  4. Membrane coordination of receptors and channels mediating the inhibition of neuronal ion currents by ADP.

    PubMed

    Gafar, Hend; Dominguez Rodriguez, Manuel; Chandaka, Giri K; Salzer, Isabella; Boehm, Stefan; Schicker, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    ADP and other nucleotides control ion currents in the nervous system via various P2Y receptors. In this respect, Cav2 and Kv7 channels have been investigated most frequently. The fine tuning of neuronal ion channel gating via G protein coupled receptors frequently relies on the formation of higher order protein complexes that are organized by scaffolding proteins and harbor receptors and channels together with interposed signaling components. However, ion channel complexes containing P2Y receptors have not been described. Therefore, the regulation of Cav2.2 and Kv7.2/7.3 channels via P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors and the coordination of these ion channels and receptors in the plasma membranes of tsA 201 cells have been investigated here. ADP inhibited currents through Cav2.2 channels via both P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors with phospholipase C and pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins being involved, respectively. The nucleotide controlled the gating of Kv7 channels only via P2Y1 and phospholipase C. In fluorescence energy transfer assays using conventional as well as total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy, both P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors were found juxtaposed to Cav2.2 channels, but only P2Y1, and not P2Y12, was in close proximity to Kv7 channels. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in TIRF microscopy, evidence for a physical interaction was obtained for the pair P2Y12/Cav2.2, but not for any other receptor/channel combination. These results reveal a membrane juxtaposition of P2Y receptors and ion channels in parallel with the control of neuronal ion currents by ADP. This juxtaposition may even result in apparent physical interactions between receptors and channels.

  5. Evolution, Expression, and Function of Nonneuronal Ligand-Gated Chloride Channels in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Remnant, Emily J; Williams, Adam; Lumb, Chris; Yang, Ying Ting; Chan, Janice; Duchêne, Sebastian; Daborn, Phillip J; Batterham, Philip; Perry, Trent

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-gated chloride channels have established roles in inhibitory neurotransmission in the nervous systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. Paradoxically, expression databases in Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that three uncharacterized ligand-gated chloride channel subunits, CG7589, CG6927, and CG11340, are highly expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Furthermore, subunit copy number varies between insects, with some orders containing one ortholog, whereas other lineages exhibit copy number increases. Here, we show that the Dipteran lineage has undergone two gene duplications followed by expression-based functional differentiation. We used promoter-GFP expression analysis, RNA-sequencing, and in situ hybridization to examine cell type and tissue-specific localization of the three D. melanogaster subunits. CG6927 is expressed in the nurse cells of the ovaries. CG7589 is expressed in multiple tissues including the salivary gland, ejaculatory duct, malpighian tubules, and early midgut. CG11340 is found in malpighian tubules and the copper cell region of the midgut. Overexpression of CG11340 increased sensitivity to dietary copper, and RNAi and ends-out knockout of CG11340 resulted in copper tolerance, providing evidence for a specific nonneuronal role for this subunit in D. melanogaster Ligand-gated chloride channels are important insecticide targets and here we highlight copy number and functional divergence in insect lineages, raising the potential that order-specific receptors could be isolated within an effective class of insecticide targets.

  6. Evolution, Expression, and Function of Nonneuronal Ligand-Gated Chloride Channels in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Remnant, Emily J.; Williams, Adam; Lumb, Chris; Yang, Ying Ting; Chan, Janice; Duchêne, Sebastian; Daborn, Phillip J.; Batterham, Philip; Perry, Trent

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-gated chloride channels have established roles in inhibitory neurotransmission in the nervous systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. Paradoxically, expression databases in Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that three uncharacterized ligand-gated chloride channel subunits, CG7589, CG6927, and CG11340, are highly expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Furthermore, subunit copy number varies between insects, with some orders containing one ortholog, whereas other lineages exhibit copy number increases. Here, we show that the Dipteran lineage has undergone two gene duplications followed by expression-based functional differentiation. We used promoter-GFP expression analysis, RNA-sequencing, and in situ hybridization to examine cell type and tissue-specific localization of the three D. melanogaster subunits. CG6927 is expressed in the nurse cells of the ovaries. CG7589 is expressed in multiple tissues including the salivary gland, ejaculatory duct, malpighian tubules, and early midgut. CG11340 is found in malpighian tubules and the copper cell region of the midgut. Overexpression of CG11340 increased sensitivity to dietary copper, and RNAi and ends-out knockout of CG11340 resulted in copper tolerance, providing evidence for a specific nonneuronal role for this subunit in D. melanogaster. Ligand-gated chloride channels are important insecticide targets and here we highlight copy number and functional divergence in insect lineages, raising the potential that order-specific receptors could be isolated within an effective class of insecticide targets. PMID:27172217

  7. Evolution, Expression, and Function of Nonneuronal Ligand-Gated Chloride Channels in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Remnant, Emily J; Williams, Adam; Lumb, Chris; Yang, Ying Ting; Chan, Janice; Duchêne, Sebastian; Daborn, Phillip J; Batterham, Philip; Perry, Trent

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-gated chloride channels have established roles in inhibitory neurotransmission in the nervous systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. Paradoxically, expression databases in Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that three uncharacterized ligand-gated chloride channel subunits, CG7589, CG6927, and CG11340, are highly expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Furthermore, subunit copy number varies between insects, with some orders containing one ortholog, whereas other lineages exhibit copy number increases. Here, we show that the Dipteran lineage has undergone two gene duplications followed by expression-based functional differentiation. We used promoter-GFP expression analysis, RNA-sequencing, and in situ hybridization to examine cell type and tissue-specific localization of the three D. melanogaster subunits. CG6927 is expressed in the nurse cells of the ovaries. CG7589 is expressed in multiple tissues including the salivary gland, ejaculatory duct, malpighian tubules, and early midgut. CG11340 is found in malpighian tubules and the copper cell region of the midgut. Overexpression of CG11340 increased sensitivity to dietary copper, and RNAi and ends-out knockout of CG11340 resulted in copper tolerance, providing evidence for a specific nonneuronal role for this subunit in D. melanogaster Ligand-gated chloride channels are important insecticide targets and here we highlight copy number and functional divergence in insect lineages, raising the potential that order-specific receptors could be isolated within an effective class of insecticide targets. PMID:27172217

  8. Two-Photon Scanning Photochemical Microscopy: Mapping Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denk, Winfried

    1994-07-01

    The locations and densities of ionotropic membrane receptors, which are responsible for receiving synaptic transmission throughout the nervous system, are of prime importance in understanding the function of neural circuits. It is shown that the highly localized liberation of "caged" neurotransmitters by two-photon absorption-mediated photoactivation can be used in conjunction with recording the induced whole-cell current to determine the distribution of ligand-gated ion channels. The technique is potentially sensitive enough to detect individual channels with diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Images of the distribution of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on cultured BC3H1 cells were obtained using a photoactivatable precursor of the nicotinic agonist carbamoylcholine.

  9. Molecular basis of the interaction between gating modifier spider toxins and the voltage sensor of voltage-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Carus H. Y.; King, Glenn F.; Mobli, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) are modular transmembrane domains of voltage-gated ion channels that respond to changes in membrane potential by undergoing conformational changes that are coupled to gating of the ion-conducting pore. Most spider-venom peptides function as gating modifiers by binding to the VSDs of voltage-gated channels and trapping them in a closed or open state. To understand the molecular basis underlying this mode of action, we used nuclear magnetic resonance to delineate the atomic details of the interaction between the VSD of the voltage-gated potassium channel KvAP and the spider-venom peptide VSTx1. Our data reveal that the toxin interacts with residues in an aqueous cleft formed between the extracellular S1-S2 and S3-S4 loops of the VSD whilst maintaining lipid interactions in the gaps formed between the S1-S4 and S2-S3 helices. The resulting network of interactions increases the energetic barrier to the conformational changes required for channel gating, and we propose that this is the mechanism by which gating modifier toxins inhibit voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:27677715

  10. LRRK2 Regulates Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Cade; Sears, Catherine; Perez-Carrion, Maria; Piccoli, Giovanni; Condliffe, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels enable Ca2+ influx in response to membrane depolarization. CaV2.1 channels are localized to the presynaptic membrane of many types of neurons where they are involved in triggering neurotransmitter release. Several signaling proteins have been identified as important CaV2.1 regulators including protein kinases, G-proteins and Ca2+ binding proteins. Recently, we discovered that leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a protein associated with inherited Parkinson’s disease, interacts with specific synaptic proteins and influences synaptic transmission. Since synaptic proteins functionally interact with CaV2.1 channels and synaptic transmission is triggered by Ca2+ entry via CaV2.1, we investigated whether LRRK2 could impact CaV2.1 channel function. CaV2.1 channel properties were measured using whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology in HEK293 cells transfected with CaV2.1 subunits and various LRRK2 constructs. Our results demonstrate that both wild type (wt) LRRK2 and the G2019S LRRK2 mutant caused a significant increase in whole cell Ca2+ current density compared to cells expressing only the CaV2.1 channel complex. In addition, LRRK2 expression caused a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage-dependent activation while having no significant effect on inactivation properties. These functional changes in CaV2.1 activity are likely due to a direct action of LRRK2 as we detected a physical interaction between LRRK2 and the β3 CaV channel subunit via coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, effects on CaV2.1 channel function are dependent on LRRK2 kinase activity as these could be reversed via treatment with a LRRK2 inhibitor. Interestingly, LRRK2 also augmented endogenous voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function in PC12 cells suggesting other CaV channels could also be regulated by LRRK2. Overall, our findings support a novel physiological role for LRRK2 in regulating CaV2.1 function that could have implications for how mutations in LRRK2

  11. Airway Defense Control Mediated via Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    PubMed

    Kocmalova, M; Joskova, M; Franova, S; Banovcin, P; Sutovska, M

    2016-01-01

    Expression of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) takes place in the airways and the role of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 in the control of airway's defense reflexes has been confirmed. The activation of Nav channels is crucial for cough initiation and airway smooth muscle reactivity, but it is unknown whether these channels regulate ciliary beating. This study evaluated the involvement of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 channels in the airway defense mechanisms using their pharmacological blockers in healthy guinea pigs and in the experimental allergic asthma model. Asthma was modeled by ovalbumin sensitization over a period of 21 days. Blockade of Nav1.7 channels significantly decreased airway smooth muscle reactivity in vivo, the number of cough efforts, and the cilia beat frequency in healthy animals. In the allergic asthma model, blockade of Nav1.8 efficiently relieved symptoms of asthma, without adversely affecting cilia beat frequency. The study demonstrates that Nav1.8 channel antagonism has a potential to alleviate cough and bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma. PMID:27161110

  12. VKCDB: voltage-gated K+ channel database updated and upgraded.

    PubMed

    Gallin, Warren J; Boutet, Patrick A

    2011-01-01

    The Voltage-gated K(+) Channel DataBase (VKCDB) (http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca) makes a comprehensive set of sequence data readily available for phylogenetic and comparative analysis. The current update contains 2063 entries for full-length or nearly full-length unique channel sequences from Bacteria (477), Archaea (18) and Eukaryotes (1568), an increase from 346 solely eukaryotic entries in the original release. In addition to protein sequences for channels, corresponding nucleotide sequences of the open reading frames corresponding to the amino acid sequences are now available and can be extracted in parallel with sets of protein sequences. Channels are categorized into subfamilies by phylogenetic analysis and by using hidden Markov model analyses. Although the raw database contains a number of fragmentary, duplicated, obsolete and non-channel sequences that were collected in early steps of data collection, the web interface will only return entries that have been validated as likely K(+) channels. The retrieval function of the web interface allows retrieval of entries that contain a substantial fraction of the core structural elements of VKCs, fragmentary entries, or both. The full database can be downloaded as either a MySQL dump or as an XML dump from the web site. We have now implemented automated updates at quarterly intervals.

  13. Structure and gating of CLC channels and exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Accardi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since their serendipitous discovery the CLC family of Cl− transporting proteins has been a never ending source of surprises. From their double-barrelled architecture to their complex structure and divergence as channels and transporters, the CLCs never cease to amaze biophysicists, biochemists and physiologists alike. These unusual functional properties allow the CLCs to fill diverse physiological niches, regulating processes that range from muscle contraction to acidification of intracellular organelles, nutrient accumulation and survival of bacteria to environmental stresses. Over the last 15 years, the availability of atomic-level information on the structure of the CLCs, coupled to the discovery that the family is divided into passive channels and secondary active transporters, has revolutionized our understanding of their function. These breakthroughs led to the identification of the key structural elements regulating gating, transport, selectivity and regulation by ligands. Unexpectedly, many lines of evidence indicate that the CLC exchangers function according to a non-conventional transport mechanism that defies the fundamental tenets of the alternating-access paradigm for exchange transport, paving the way for future unexpected insights into the principles underlying active transport and channel gating. PMID:26148215

  14. Effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel current.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Atsushi; Ogura, Takehiko; Uemura, Hiroko; Reien, Yoshie; Kishimoto, Takashi; Nagai, Toshio; Komuro, Issei; Miyazaki, Masaru; Nakaya, Haruaki

    2009-06-01

    After the report of the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial, a tabular framework of the Sicilian Gambit has been proposed to display actions of antiarrhythmic drugs on ion channels and receptors and to provide more rational pharmacotherapy of arrhythmias. However, because effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on If have not been thoroughly examined, we used patch clamp techniques to determine the effects of various antiarrhythmic drugs on the HCN (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated) channel currents. HCN4 channels, a dominant isoform of HCN channels in the heart, were expressed in HEK293 cells. Amiodarone and bepridil potently inhibited the HCN4 channel current with IC50 values of 4.5 and 4.9 microM, respectively, which were close to their therapeutic concentrations. The inhibitory effects of quinidine, disopyramide, cibenzoline, lidocaine, mexiletine, aprindine, propafenone, flecainide, propranolol, and verapamil on the HCN4 channel current were weak in their therapeutic concentrations, with IC50 values of 78.3, 249, 46.8, 276, 309, 43.7, 14.3, 1700, 50.5, and 44.9 microM, respectively, suggesting that the inhibitory effects on If would be clinically small. D,L-Sotalol hardly affected the HCN4 channel current. Information about the HCN4-channel effects of many antiarrhythmic drugs may be useful for determining the appropriate drug for treatment of various arrhythmias while minimizing adverse effects. PMID:19498275

  15. Structural Basis for Xenon Inhibition in a Cationic Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    PubMed Central

    Sauguet, Ludovic; Fourati, Zeineb; Prangé, Thierry; Delarue, Marc; Colloc'h, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    GLIC receptor is a bacterial pentameric ligand-gated ion channel whose action is inhibited by xenon. Xenon has been used in clinical practice as a potent gaseous anaesthetic for decades, but the molecular mechanism of interactions with its integral membrane receptor targets remains poorly understood. Here we characterize by X-ray crystallography the xenon-binding sites within both the open and “locally-closed” (inactive) conformations of GLIC. Major binding sites of xenon, which differ between the two conformations, were identified in three distinct regions that all belong to the trans-membrane domain of GLIC: 1) in an intra-subunit cavity, 2) at the interface between adjacent subunits, and 3) in the pore. The pore site is unique to the locally-closed form where the binding of xenon effectively seals the channel. A putative mechanism of the inhibition of GLIC by xenon is proposed, which might be extended to other pentameric cationic ligand-gated ion channels. PMID:26910105

  16. Domain-based identification and analysis of glutamate receptor ion channels and their relatives in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ger, Mao-Feng; Rendon, Gloria; Tilson, Jeffrey L; Jakobsson, Eric

    2010-10-06

    Voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels are used in eukaryotic organisms for the purpose of electrochemical signaling. There are prokaryotic homologues to major eukaryotic channels of these sorts, including voltage-gated sodium, potassium, and calcium channels, Ach-receptor and glutamate-receptor channels. The prokaryotic homologues have been less well characterized functionally than their eukaryotic counterparts. In this study we identify likely prokaryotic functional counterparts of eukaryotic glutamate receptor channels by comprehensive analysis of the prokaryotic sequences in the context of known functional domains present in the eukaryotic members of this family. In particular, we searched the nonredundant protein database for all proteins containing the following motif: the two sections of the extracellular glutamate binding domain flanking two transmembrane helices. We discovered 100 prokaryotic sequences containing this motif, with a wide variety of functional annotations. Two groups within this family have the same topology as eukaryotic glutamate receptor channels. Group 1 has a potassium-like selectivity filter. Group 2 is most closely related to eukaryotic glutamate receptor channels. We present analysis of the functional domain architecture for the group of 100, a putative phylogenetic tree, comparison of the protein phylogeny with the corresponding species phylogeny, consideration of the distribution of these proteins among classes of prokaryotes, and orthologous relationships between prokaryotic and human glutamate receptor channels. We introduce a construct called the Evolutionary Domain Network, which represents a putative pathway of domain rearrangements underlying the domain composition of present channels. We believe that scientists interested in ion channels in general, and ligand-gated ion channels in particular, will be interested in this work. The work should also be of interest to bioinformatics researchers who are interested in the use

  17. Modification of Glutamate Receptor Channels: Molecular Mechanisms and Functional Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatt, Hanns

    Of the many possible mechanisms for modulating the efficiency of ion channels, the phosphorylation of receptor channel proteins may be the primary one. Changes in the set of molecular subunits of which the channels are composed are also important, especially for long-term regulation. In the central nervous system synaptic plasticity may be altered by modulating the ligand-activated neuronal ion channels involved in synaptic transmission; among them are channels gated directly by glutamate, the regulation of which we are only beginning to understand. This paper focuses on modulation of these channels [α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleprionic acid (AMPA), kainate, and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) types] by phosphorylation and changes in subunit composition. AMPA- and kainate-activated receptors are modulated by adenosine 3, 5-monophosphate (cAMP) dependent protein kinase A (PKA) coupled via D1 dopamine receptors. An increase in the intracellular concentration of cAMP and protein kinase A potentiates kainate-activated currents in α-motoneurons of the spinal cord by increasing the affinity of the ligand (glutamate) for the phosphorylated receptor protein (GluR6 and 7). The rapid desensitization of AMPA-evoked currents normally observed in horizontal cells of the retina is completely blocked by increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP. The effects of changes in subunit composition were examined in rat hippocampal neurons. The subunit composition of the NMDA receptor determines the kinetic properties of synaptic currents and can be regulated by the type of innervating neuron. Similar changes also occur during development. An important determinant here is the activity of the system. Dynamic regulation of excitatory receptors by both mechanisms may well be associated with some forms of learning and memory in the mammalian brain.

  18. Gating, Regulation, and Structure in K2P K+ Channels: In Varietate Concordia?

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Cid, L Pablo; González, Wendy; Sepúlveda, Francisco V

    2016-09-01

    K2P K(+) channels with two pore domains in tandem associate as dimers to produce so-called background conductances that are regulated by a variety of stimuli. Whereas gating in K2P channels has been poorly understood, recent developments have provided important clues regarding the gating mechanism for this family of proteins. Two modes of gating present in other K(+) channels have been considered. The first is the so-called activation gating that occurs by bundle crossing and the splaying apart of pore-lining helices commanding ion passage. The second mode involves a change in conformation at the selectivity filter (SF), which impedes ion flow at this narrow portion of the conduction pathway and accounts for extracellular pH modulation of several K2P channels. Although some evidence supports the existence of an activation gate in K2P channels, recent results suggest that perhaps all stimuli, even those sensed at a distant location in the protein, are also mediated by SF gating. Recently resolved crystal structures of K2P channels in conductive and nonconductive conformations revealed that the nonconductive state is reached by blockade by a lipid acyl chain that gains access to the channel cavity through intramembrane fenestrations. Here we discuss whether this novel type of gating, proposed so far only for membrane tension gating, might mediate gating in response to other stimuli or whether SF gating is the only type of opening/closing mechanism present in K2P channels. PMID:27268784

  19. Structure-Driven Pharmacology of Transient Receptor Potential Channel Vanilloid 1.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Caceres-Molina, Javier; Sepulveda, Romina V; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramon

    2016-09-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal receptor that mediates the flux of cations across the membrane in response to several stimuli, including heat, voltage, and ligands. The best known agonist of TRPV1 channels is capsaicin, the pungent component of "hot" chili peppers. In addition, peptides found in the venom of poisonous animals, along with the lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate, lysophosphatidic acid, and cholesterol, bind to TRPV1 with high affinity to modulate channel gating. Here, we discuss the functional evidence regarding ligand-dependent activation of TRPV1 channels in light of structural data recently obtained by cryoelectron microscopy. This review focuses on the mechanistic insights into ligand binding and allosteric gating of TRPV1 channels and the relevance of accurate polymodal receptor biophysical characterization for drug design in novel pain therapies. PMID:27335334

  20. Structure-Driven Pharmacology of Transient Receptor Potential Channel Vanilloid 1.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Caceres-Molina, Javier; Sepulveda, Romina V; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramon

    2016-09-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal receptor that mediates the flux of cations across the membrane in response to several stimuli, including heat, voltage, and ligands. The best known agonist of TRPV1 channels is capsaicin, the pungent component of "hot" chili peppers. In addition, peptides found in the venom of poisonous animals, along with the lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate, lysophosphatidic acid, and cholesterol, bind to TRPV1 with high affinity to modulate channel gating. Here, we discuss the functional evidence regarding ligand-dependent activation of TRPV1 channels in light of structural data recently obtained by cryoelectron microscopy. This review focuses on the mechanistic insights into ligand binding and allosteric gating of TRPV1 channels and the relevance of accurate polymodal receptor biophysical characterization for drug design in novel pain therapies.

  1. Mutations Causing Slow-Channel Myasthenia Reveal That a Valine Ring in the Channel Pore of Muscle AChR is Optimized for Stabilizing Channel Gating.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin-Ming; Okuno, Tatsuya; Milone, Margherita; Otsuka, Kenji; Takahashi, Koji; Komaki, Hirofumi; Giles, Elizabeth; Ohno, Kinji; Engel, Andrew G

    2016-10-01

    We identify two novel mutations in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) causing a slow-channel congenital myasthenia syndrome (CMS) in three unrelated patients (Pts). Pt 1 harbors a heterozygous βV266A mutation (p.Val289Ala) in the second transmembrane domain (M2) of the AChR β subunit (CHRNB1). Pts 2 and 3 carry the same mutation at an equivalent site in the ε subunit (CHRNE), εV265A (p.Val285Ala). The mutant residues are conserved across all AChR subunits of all species and are components of a valine ring in the channel pore, which is positioned four residues above the leucine ring. Both βV266A and εV265A reduce the amino acid size and lengthen the channel opening bursts by fourfold by enhancing gating efficiency by approximately 30-fold. Substitution of alanine for valine at the corresponding position in the δ and α subunit prolongs the burst duration four- and eightfold, respectively. Replacing valine at ε codon 265 either by a still smaller glycine or by a larger leucine also lengthens the burst duration. Our analysis reveals that each valine in the valine ring contributes to channel kinetics equally, and the valine ring has been optimized in the course of evolution to govern channel gating. PMID:27375219

  2. Mutations Causing Slow-Channel Myasthenia Reveal That a Valine Ring in the Channel Pore of Muscle AChR is Optimized for Stabilizing Channel Gating.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin-Ming; Okuno, Tatsuya; Milone, Margherita; Otsuka, Kenji; Takahashi, Koji; Komaki, Hirofumi; Giles, Elizabeth; Ohno, Kinji; Engel, Andrew G

    2016-10-01

    We identify two novel mutations in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) causing a slow-channel congenital myasthenia syndrome (CMS) in three unrelated patients (Pts). Pt 1 harbors a heterozygous βV266A mutation (p.Val289Ala) in the second transmembrane domain (M2) of the AChR β subunit (CHRNB1). Pts 2 and 3 carry the same mutation at an equivalent site in the ε subunit (CHRNE), εV265A (p.Val285Ala). The mutant residues are conserved across all AChR subunits of all species and are components of a valine ring in the channel pore, which is positioned four residues above the leucine ring. Both βV266A and εV265A reduce the amino acid size and lengthen the channel opening bursts by fourfold by enhancing gating efficiency by approximately 30-fold. Substitution of alanine for valine at the corresponding position in the δ and α subunit prolongs the burst duration four- and eightfold, respectively. Replacing valine at ε codon 265 either by a still smaller glycine or by a larger leucine also lengthens the burst duration. Our analysis reveals that each valine in the valine ring contributes to channel kinetics equally, and the valine ring has been optimized in the course of evolution to govern channel gating.

  3. Single-channel properties of ionic channels gated by cyclic nucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Bucossi, G; Nizzari, M; Torre, V

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive analysis of single-channel properties of cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channels, obtained by injecting into Xenopus laevis oocytes the mRNA encoding for the alpha and beta subunits from bovine rods. When the alpha and beta subunits of the CNG channel are coexpressed, at least three types of channels with different properties are observed. One type of channel has well-resolved, multiple conductive levels at negative voltages, but not at positive voltages. The other two types of channel are characterized by flickering openings, but are distinguished because they have a low and a high conductance. The alpha subunit of CNG channels has a well-defined conductance of about 28 pS, but multiple conductive levels are observed in mutant channels E363D and T364M. The conductance of these open states is modulated by protons and the membrane voltage, and has an activation energy around 44 kJ/mol. The relative probability of occupying any of these open states is independent of the cGMP concentration, but depends on extracellular protons. The open probability in the presence of saturating cGMP was 0.78, 0.47, 0.5, and 0.007 in the w.t. and mutants E363D, T364M, and E363G, and its dependence on temperature indicates that the thermodynamics of the transition between the closed and open state is also affected by mutations in the pore region. These results suggest that CNG channels have different conductive levels, leading to the existence of multiple open states in homomeric channels and to the flickering behavior in heteromeric channels, and that the pore is an essential part of the gating of CNG channels. PMID:9138564

  4. The screw-helical voltage gating of ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Keynes, R D; Elinder, F

    1999-01-01

    In the voltage-gated ion channels of every animal, whether they are selective for K+, Na+ or Ca2+, the voltage sensors are the S4 transmembrane segments carrying four to eight positive charges always separated by two uncharged residues. It is proposed that they move across the membrane in a screw-helical fashion in a series of three or more steps that each transfer a single electronic charge. The unit steps are stabilized by ion pairing between the mobile positive charges and fixed negative charges, of which there are invariably two located near the inner ends of segments S2 and S3 and a third near the outer end of either S2 or S3. Opening of the channel involves three such steps in each domain. PMID:10343407

  5. Endogenous ion channel complexes: the NMDA receptor.

    PubMed

    Frank, René A W

    2011-06-01

    Ionotropic receptors, including the NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) mediate fast neurotransmission, neurodevelopment, neuronal excitability and learning. In the present article, the structure and function of the NMDAR is reviewed with the aim to condense our current understanding and highlight frontiers where important questions regarding the biology of this receptor remain unanswered. In the second part of the present review, new biochemical and genetic approaches for the investigation of ion channel receptor complexes will be discussed.

  6. [Computational analysis of a cys-loop ligand gated ion channel from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii].

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Plants possess several neurotransmitters with well-known physiological roles. Currently only receptors for glutamate were reported to be found in plants, while receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin and GABA have not yet been reported. In animals, these neurotransmitters act via one class of ligand binding ion channels called Cys-loop receptors which play a major role in fast synaptic transmission. They show the presence of two domains namely Neurotransmitter-gated ion-channel ligand-binding domain (Pfam: PF02931) and Neurotransmitter-gated transmembrane domain (Pfam: PF02932). Cys-loop receptors are also known in prokaryotes. No cys-loop receptor has been characterized from plants yet. In this study, the Ensembl plants database was searched for proteins with these two domains in the sequenced plant genomes, what resulted in only one protein (LIC1) from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. BLAST and profile HMM searches against the pdb structure database showed that this protein is related to animal and prokaryotic cys-loop receptors, although the cysteine residues characteristic of the cys-loop are absent. Physico-chemical and sequence analysis indicate that LIC1 is an anionic receptor. A model of this protein was generated using homology modeling based on a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Torpedo marmorata. The characteristic extracellular domain (ECD) and transmembrane domain (TMD) are well structured but the intercellular region is poorly formed. This is the first report on a detailed characterization of a cys-loop receptor from the plant kingdom. PMID:26510602

  7. Contributions of Conserved Residues at the Gating Interface of Glycine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Pless, Stephan A.; Leung, Ada W. Y.; Galpin, Jason D.; Ahern, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are chloride channels that mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission and are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC) family. The interface between the ligand binding domain and the transmembrane domain of pLGICs has been proposed to be crucial for channel gating and is lined by a number of charged and aromatic side chains that are highly conserved among different pLGICs. However, little is known about specific interactions between these residues that are likely to be important for gating in α1 GlyRs. Here we use the introduction of cysteine pairs and the in vivo nonsense suppression method to incorporate unnatural amino acids to probe the electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions of five highly conserved side chains near the interface, Glu-53, Phe-145, Asp-148, Phe-187, and Arg-218. Our results suggest a salt bridge between Asp-148 in loop 7 and Arg-218 in the pre-M1 domain that is crucial for channel gating. We further propose that Phe-145 and Phe-187 play important roles in stabilizing this interaction by providing a hydrophobic environment. In contrast to the equivalent residues in loop 2 of other pLGICs, the negative charge at Glu-53 α1 GlyRs is not crucial for normal channel function. These findings help decipher the GlyR gating pathway and show that distinct residue interaction patterns exist in different pLGICs. Furthermore, a salt bridge between Asp-148 and Arg-218 would provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the pathophysiologically relevant hyperekplexia, or startle disease, mutant Arg-218 → Gln. PMID:21835920

  8. Methamphetamine acutely inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels but chronically up-regulates L-type channels.

    PubMed

    Andres, Marilou A; Cooke, Ian M; Bellinger, Frederick P; Berry, Marla J; Zaporteza, Maribel M; Rueli, Rachel H; Barayuga, Stephanie M; Chang, Linda

    2015-07-01

    In neurons, calcium (Ca(2+) ) channels regulate a wide variety of functions ranging from synaptic transmission to gene expression. They also induce neuroplastic changes that alter gene expression following psychostimulant administration. Ca(2+) channel blockers have been considered as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH) dependence because of their ability to reduce drug craving among METH users. Here, we studied the effects of METH exposure on voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels using SH-SY5Y cells as a model of dopaminergic neurons. We found that METH has different short- and long-term effects. A short-term effect involves immediate (< 5 min) direct inhibition of Ca(2+) ion movements through Ca(2+) channels. Longer exposure to METH (20 min or 48 h) selectively up-regulates the expression of only the CACNA1C gene, thus increasing the number of L-type Ca(2+) channels. This up-regulation of CACNA1C is associated with the expression of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), a known regulator of CACNA1C gene expression, and the MYC gene, which encodes a transcription factor that putatively binds to a site proximal to the CACNA1C gene transcription initiation site. The short-term inhibition of Ca(2+) ion movement and later, the up-regulation of Ca(2+) channel gene expression together suggest the operation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein- and C-MYC-mediated mechanisms to compensate for Ca(2+) channel inhibition by METH. Increased Ca(2+) current density and subsequent increased intracellular Ca(2+) may contribute to the neurodegeneration accompanying chronic METH abuse. Methamphetamine (METH) exposure has both short- and long-term effects. Acutely, methamphetamine directly inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels. Chronically, neurons compensate by up-regulating the L-type Ca(2+) channel gene, CACNA1C. This compensatory mechanism is mediated by transcription factors C-MYC and CREB, in which CREB is linked to the

  9. Transient receptor potential channels and regulation of lung endothelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This review highlights our current knowledge regarding expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels in lung endothelium and evidence for their involvement in regulation of lung endothelial permeability. Six mammalian TRP families have been identified and organized on the basis of sequence homology: TRPC (canonical), TRPV (vanilloid), TRPM (melastatin), TRPML (mucolipin), TRPP (polycystin), and TRPA (ankyrin). To date, only TRPC1/4, TRPC6, TRPV4, and TRPM2 have been extensively studied in lung endothelium. Calcium influx through each of these channels has been documented to increase lung endothelial permeability, although their channel-gating mechanisms, downstream signaling mechanisms, and impact on endothelial structure and barrier integrity differ. While other members of the TRPC, TRPV, and TRPM families may be expressed in lung endothelium, we have little or no evidence linking these to regulation of lung endothelial permeability. Further, neither the expression nor functional role(s) of any TRPML, TRPP, and TRPA family members has been studied in lung endothelium. In addition to this assessment organized by TRP channel family, we also discuss TRP channels and lung endothelial permeability from the perspective of lung endothelial heterogeneity, using outcomes of studies focused on TRPC1/4 and TRPV4 channels. The diversity within the TRP channel family and the relative paucity of information regarding roles of a number of these channels in lung endothelium make this field ripe for continued investigation. PMID:25006396

  10. ZnO-based multiple channel and multiple gate FinMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Huang, Hung-Lin; Tseng, Chun-Yen; Lee, Hsin-Ying

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, zinc oxide (ZnO)-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) have attracted much attention, because ZnO-based semiconductors possess several advantages, including large exciton binding energy, nontoxicity, biocompatibility, low material cost, and wide direct bandgap. Moreover, the ZnO-based MOSFET is one of most potential devices, due to the applications in microwave power amplifiers, logic circuits, large scale integrated circuits, and logic swing. In this study, to enhance the performances of the ZnO-based MOSFETs, the ZnObased multiple channel and multiple gate structured FinMOSFETs were fabricated using the simple laser interference photolithography method and the self-aligned photolithography method. The multiple channel structure possessed the additional sidewall depletion width control ability to improve the channel controllability, because the multiple channel sidewall portions were surrounded by the gate electrode. Furthermore, the multiple gate structure had a shorter distance between source and gate and a shorter gate length between two gates to enhance the gate operating performances. Besides, the shorter distance between source and gate could enhance the electron velocity in the channel fin structure of the multiple gate structure. In this work, ninety one channels and four gates were used in the FinMOSFETs. Consequently, the drain-source saturation current (IDSS) and maximum transconductance (gm) of the ZnO-based multiple channel and multiple gate structured FinFETs operated at a drain-source voltage (VDS) of 10 V and a gate-source voltage (VGS) of 0 V were respectively improved from 11.5 mA/mm to 13.7 mA/mm and from 4.1 mS/mm to 6.9 mS/mm in comparison with that of the conventional ZnO-based single channel and single gate MOSFETs.

  11. Calcium ions open a selectivity filter gate during activation of the MthK potassium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posson, David J.; Rusinova, Radda; Andersen, Olaf S.; Nimigean, Crina M.

    2015-09-01

    Ion channel opening and closing are fundamental to cellular signalling and homeostasis. Gates that control K+ channel activity were found both at an intracellular pore constriction and within the selectivity filter near the extracellular side but the specific location of the gate that opens Ca2+-activated K+ channels has remained elusive. Using the Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum homologue (MthK) and a stopped-flow fluorometric assay for fast channel activation, we show that intracellular quaternary ammonium blockers bind to closed MthK channels. Since the blockers are known to bind inside a central channel cavity, past the intracellular entryway, the gate must be within the selectivity filter. Furthermore, the blockers access the closed channel slower than the open channel, suggesting that the intracellular entryway narrows upon pore closure, without preventing access of either the blockers or the smaller K+. Thus, Ca2+-dependent gating in MthK occurs at the selectivity filter with coupled movement of the intracellular helices.

  12. Calcium ions open a selectivity filter gate during activation of the MthK potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Posson, David J; Rusinova, Radda; Andersen, Olaf S; Nimigean, Crina M

    2015-01-01

    Ion channel opening and closing are fundamental to cellular signalling and homeostasis. Gates that control K(+) channel activity were found both at an intracellular pore constriction and within the selectivity filter near the extracellular side but the specific location of the gate that opens Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels has remained elusive. Using the Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum homologue (MthK) and a stopped-flow fluorometric assay for fast channel activation, we show that intracellular quaternary ammonium blockers bind to closed MthK channels. Since the blockers are known to bind inside a central channel cavity, past the intracellular entryway, the gate must be within the selectivity filter. Furthermore, the blockers access the closed channel slower than the open channel, suggesting that the intracellular entryway narrows upon pore closure, without preventing access of either the blockers or the smaller K(+). Thus, Ca(2+)-dependent gating in MthK occurs at the selectivity filter with coupled movement of the intracellular helices.

  13. The Sensorless Pore Module of Voltage-gated K+ Channel Family 7 Embodies the Target Site for the Anticonvulsant Retigabine.

    PubMed

    Syeda, Ruhma; Santos, Jose S; Montal, Mauricio

    2016-02-01

    KCNQ (voltage-gated K(+) channel family 7 (Kv7)) channels control cellular excitability and underlie the K(+) current sensitive to muscarinic receptor signaling (the M current) in sympathetic neurons. Here we show that the novel anti-epileptic drug retigabine (RTG) modulates channel function of pore-only modules (PMs) of the human Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 homomeric channels and of Kv7.2/3 heteromeric channels by prolonging the residence time in the open state. In addition, the Kv7 channel PMs are shown to recapitulate the single-channel permeation and pharmacological specificity characteristics of the corresponding full-length proteins in their native cellular context. A mutation (W265L) in the reconstituted Kv7.3 PM renders the channel insensitive to RTG and favors the conductive conformation of the PM, in agreement to what is observed when the Kv7.3 mutant is heterologously expressed. On the basis of the new findings and homology models of the closed and open conformations of the Kv7.3 PM, we propose a structural mechanism for the gating of the Kv7.3 PM and for the site of action of RTG as a Kv7.2/Kv7.3 K(+) current activator. The results validate the modular design of human Kv channels and highlight the PM as a high-fidelity target for drug screening of Kv channels.

  14. Local postsynaptic voltage-gated sodium channel activation in dendritic spines of olfactory bulb granule cells.

    PubMed

    Bywalez, Wolfgang G; Patirniche, Dinu; Rupprecht, Vanessa; Stemmler, Martin; Herz, Andreas V M; Pálfi, Dénes; Rózsa, Balázs; Egger, Veronica

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal dendritic spines have been speculated to function as independent computational units, yet evidence for active electrical computation in spines is scarce. Here we show that strictly local voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) activation can occur during excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the spines of olfactory bulb granule cells, which we mimic and detect via combined two-photon uncaging of glutamate and calcium imaging in conjunction with whole-cell recordings. We find that local Nav activation boosts calcium entry into spines through high-voltage-activated calcium channels and accelerates postsynaptic somatic depolarization, without affecting NMDA receptor-mediated signaling. Hence, Nav-mediated boosting promotes rapid output from the reciprocal granule cell spine onto the lateral mitral cell dendrite and thus can speed up recurrent inhibition. This striking example of electrical compartmentalization both adds to the understanding of olfactory network processing and broadens the general view of spine function.

  15. Noise and stochastic resonance in voltage-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Robert K.

    2003-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo techniques, I calculate the effects of internally generated noise on information transfer through the passage of action potential spikes along unmyelinated axons in a simple nervous system. I take the Hodgkin–Huxley (HH) description of Na and K channels in squid giant axons as the basis of the calculations and find that most signal transmission noise is generated by fluctuations in the channel open and closed populations. To bring the model closer to conventional descriptions in terms of thermal noise energy, kT, and to determine gating currents, I express the HH equations in the form of simple relations from statistical mechanics where the states are separated by a Gibbs energy that is modified by the action of the transmembrane potential on dipole moments held by the domains. Using the HH equations, I find that the output response (in the probability of action potential spikes) from small input potential pulses across the cell membrane is increased by added noise but falls off when the input noise becomes large, as in stochastic resonance models. That output noise response is sharply reduced by a small increase in the membrane polarization potential or a moderate increase in the channel densities. Because any reduction of noise incurs metabolic and developmental costs to an animal, the natural noise level is probably optimal and any increase in noise is likely to be harmful. Although these results are specific to signal transmission in unmyelinated axons, I suggest that the conclusions are likely to be general. PMID:14506291

  16. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: Biophysics, Pharmacology, and Related Channelopathies

    PubMed Central

    Savio-Galimberti, Eleonora; Gollob, Michael H.; Darbar, Dawood

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are multi-molecular protein complexes expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. They are primarily formed by a pore-forming multi-spanning integral membrane glycoprotein (α-subunit) that can be associated with one or more regulatory β-subunits. The latter are single-span integral membrane proteins that modulate the sodium current (INa) and can also function as cell adhesion molecules. In vitro some of the cell-adhesive functions of the β-subunits may play important physiological roles independently of the α-subunits. Other endogenous regulatory proteins named “channel partners” or “channel interacting proteins” (ChiPs) like caveolin-3 and calmodulin/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) can also interact and modulate the expression and/or function of VGSC. In addition to their physiological roles in cell excitability and cell adhesion, VGSC are the site of action of toxins (like tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin), and pharmacologic agents (like antiarrhythmic drugs, local anesthetics, antiepileptic drugs, and newly developed analgesics). Mutations in genes that encode α- and/or β-subunits as well as the ChiPs can affect the structure and biophysical properties of VGSC, leading to the development of diseases termed sodium “channelopathies”.  This review will outline the structure, function, and biophysical properties of VGSC as well as their pharmacology and associated channelopathies and highlight some of the recent advances in this field. PMID:22798951

  17. Receptor for protons: First observations on Acid Sensing Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Krishtal, Oleg

    2015-07-01

    The history of ASICs began in 1980 with unexpected observation. The concept of highly selective Na(+) current gated by specific receptors for protons was not easily accepted. It took 16 years to get these receptor/channels cloned and start a new stage in their investigation. "The receptor for protons" became ASIC comprising under this name a family of receptor/channels ubiquitous for mammalian nervous system, both peripheral and central. The role of ASICs as putative nociceptors was suggested almost immediately after their discovery. This role subsequently was proven in many forms of pain-related phenomena. Many other functions of ASICs have been also found or primed for speculations both in physiology and in disease. Despite the width of field and strength of efforts, numerous basic questions are to be answered before we understand how the local changes in pH in the nervous tissue transform into electric and messenger signaling via ASICs as transducers. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in the Nervous System'.

  18. N channel JFET based digital logic gate structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A circuit topography is presented which is used to create usable digital logic gates using N (negatively doped) channel Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) and load resistors, level shifting resistors, and supply rails whose values are based on the direct current (DC) parametric distributions of those JFETs. This method has direct application to the current state of the art in high temperature, for example 300.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and higher, silicon carbide (SiC) device production. The ability to produce inverting and combinatorial logic enables the production of pulse and edge triggered latches. This scale of logic synthesis would bring digital logic and state machine capabilities to devices operating in extremely hot environments, such as the surface of Venus, near hydrothermal vents, within nuclear reactors (SiC is inherently radiation hardened), and within internal combustion engines. The basic logic gate can be configured as a driver for oscillator circuits allowing for time bases and simple digitizers for resistive or reactive sensors. The basic structure of this innovation, the inverter, can be reconfigured into various analog circuit topographies through the use of feedback structures.

  19. Structural basis of open channel block in a prokaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channel.

    PubMed

    Hilf, Ricarda J C; Bertozzi, Carlo; Zimmermann, Iwan; Reiter, Alwin; Trauner, Dirk; Dutzler, Raimund

    2010-11-01

    The flow of ions through cation-selective members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family is inhibited by a structurally diverse class of molecules that bind to the transmembrane pore in the open state of the protein. To obtain insight into the mechanism of channel block, we have investigated the binding of positively charged inhibitors to the open channel of the bacterial homolog GLIC by using X-ray crystallography and electrophysiology. Our studies reveal the location of two regions for interactions, with larger blockers binding in the center of the membrane and divalent transition metal ions binding to the narrow intracellular pore entry. The results provide a structural foundation for understanding the interactions of the channel with inhibitors that is relevant for the entire family.

  20. An evolutionarily-unique heterodimeric voltage-gated cation channel found in aphids.

    PubMed

    Amey, Joanna S; O'Reilly, Andrias O; Burton, Mark J; Puinean, Alin M; Mellor, Ian R; Duce, Ian R; Field, Linda M; Wallace, B A; Williamson, Martin S; Davies, T G Emyr

    2015-02-27

    We describe the identification in aphids of a unique heterodimeric voltage-gated sodium channel which has an atypical ion selectivity filter and, unusually for insect channels, is highly insensitive to tetrodotoxin. We demonstrate that this channel has most likely arisen by adaptation (gene fission or duplication) of an invertebrate ancestral mono(hetero)meric channel. This is the only identifiable voltage-gated sodium channel homologue in the aphid genome(s), and the channel's novel selectivity filter motif (DENS instead of the usual DEKA found in other eukaryotes) may result in a loss of sodium selectivity, as indicated experimentally in mutagenised Drosophila channels.

  1. Biophysical Adaptations of Prokaryotic Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    PubMed

    Vien, T N; DeCaen, P G

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the adaptive features found in voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These two families are distinct, having diverged early in evolutionary history but maintain a surprising degree of convergence in function. While prokaryotic NaVs are required for growth and motility, eukaryotic NaVs selectively conduct fast electrical currents for short- and long-range signaling across cell membranes in mammalian organs. Current interest in prokaryotic NaVs is stoked by their resolved high-resolution structures and functional features which are reminiscent of eukaryotic NaVs. In this chapter, comparisons between eukaryotic and prokaryotic NaVs are made to highlight the shared and unique aspects of ion selectivity, voltage sensitivity, and pharmacology. Examples of prokaryotic and eukaryotic NaV convergent evolution will be discussed within the context of their structural features. PMID:27586280

  2. Sleep disturbances in voltage-gated potassium channel antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barone, Daniel A; Krieger, Ana C

    2016-05-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) are a family of membrane proteins responsible for controlling cell membrane potential. The presence of antibodies (Ab) against neuronal VGKC complexes aids in the diagnosis of idiopathic and paraneoplastic autoimmune neurologic disorders. The diagnosis of VGKC Ab-associated encephalopathy (VCKC Ab syndrome) should be suspected in patients with subacute onset of disorientation, confusion, and memory loss in the presence of seizures or a movement disorder. VGKC Ab syndrome may present with sleep-related symptoms, and the purpose of this communication is to alert sleep and neurology clinicians of this still-under-recognized condition. In this case, we are presenting the VGKC Ab syndrome which improved after treatment with solumedrol. The prompt recognition and treatment of this condition may prevent the morbidity associated with cerebral atrophy and the mortality associated with intractable seizures and electrolyte disturbances.

  3. Voltage-gated sodium channels and metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    Brackenbury, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) are macromolecular protein complexes containing a pore-forming α subunit and smaller non-pore-forming β subunits. VGSCs are expressed in metastatic cells from a number of cancers. In these cells, Na+ current carried by α subunits enhances migration, invasion and metastasis in vivo. In contrast, the β subunits mediate cellular adhesion and process extension. The prevailing hypothesis is that VGSCs are upregulated in cancer, in general favoring an invasive/metastatic phenotype, although the mechanisms are still not fully clear. Expression of the Nav1.5 α subunit associates with poor prognosis in clinical breast cancer specimens, suggesting that VGSCs may have utility as prognostic markers for cancer progression. Furthermore, repurposing existing VGSC-blocking therapeutic drugs may provide a new strategy to improve outcomes in patients suffering from metastatic disease, which is the major cause of cancer-related deaths, and for which there is currently no cure. PMID:22992466

  4. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xunxun; Li, Tingting; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can accumulate in marine animals via the food chain. Consumption of shellfish toxin-contaminated seafood may result in potentially fatal human shellfish poisoning. This article provides an overview of the structure, bioactivity, and pharmacology of shellfish toxins that act on VGSCs, along with a brief discussion on their pharmaceutical potential for pain management. PMID:24287955

  5. Insights into the structural nature of the transition state in the Kir channel gating pathway.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Philip W; Bollepalli, Murali K; Rapedius, Markus; Nematian-Ardestani, Ehsan; Shang, Lijun; Sansom, Mark Sp; Tucker, Stephen J; Baukrowitz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study we identified an extensive gating network within the inwardly rectifying Kir1.1 (ROMK) channel by combining systematic scanning mutagenesis and functional analysis with structural models of the channel in the closed, pre-open and open states. This extensive network appeared to stabilize the open and pre-open states, but the network fragmented upon channel closure. In this study we have analyzed the gating kinetics of different mutations within key parts of this gating network. These results suggest that the structure of the transition state (TS), which connects the pre-open and closed states of the channel, more closely resembles the structure of the pre-open state. Furthermore, the G-loop, which occurs at the center of this extensive gating network, appears to become unstructured in the TS because mutations within this region have a 'catalytic' effect upon the channel gating kinetics. PMID:25483285

  6. Insights into the structural nature of the transition state in the Kir channel gating pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Philip W; Bollepalli, Murali K; Rapedius, Markus; Nematian-Ardestani, Ehsan; Shang, Lijun; Sansom, Mark SP; Tucker, Stephen J; Baukrowitz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study we identified an extensive gating network within the inwardly rectifying Kir1.1 (ROMK) channel by combining systematic scanning mutagenesis and functional analysis with structural models of the channel in the closed, pre-open and open states. This extensive network appeared to stabilize the open and pre-open states, but the network fragmented upon channel closure. In this study we have analyzed the gating kinetics of different mutations within key parts of this gating network. These results suggest that the structure of the transition state (TS), which connects the pre-open and closed states of the channel, more closely resembles the structure of the pre-open state. Furthermore, the G-loop, which occurs at the center of this extensive gating network, appears to become unstructured in the TS because mutations within this region have a ‘catalytic’ effect upon the channel gating kinetics. PMID:25483285

  7. The ryanodine receptor store-sensing gate controls Ca2+ waves and Ca2+-triggered arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqian; Wang, Ruiwu; Chen, Biyi; Zhong, Xiaowei; Kong, Huihui; Bai, Yunlong; Zhou, Qiang; Xie, Cuihong; Zhang, Jingqun; Guo, Ang; Tian, Xixi; Jones, Peter P; O'Mara, Megan L; Liu, Yingjie; Mi, Tao; Zhang, Lin; Bolstad, Jeff; Semeniuk, Lisa; Cheng, Hongqiang; Zhang, Jianlin; Chen, Ju; Tieleman, D Peter; Gillis, Anne M; Duff, Henry J; Fill, Michael; Song, Long-Sheng; Chen, S R Wayne

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores is important for various physiological and pathological processes. In cardiac muscle cells, spontaneous store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR) can result in Ca(2+) waves, a major cause of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTs) and sudden death. The molecular mechanism underlying SOICR has been a mystery for decades. Here we show that a point mutation, E4872A, in the helix bundle crossing region (the proposed gate) of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) completely abolishes luminal, but not cytosolic, Ca(2+) activation of RyR2. The introduction of metal-binding histidines at this site converts RyR2 into a luminal Ni(2+)-gated channel. Mouse hearts harboring a heterozygous RyR2 mutation at this site (E4872Q) are resistant to SOICR and are completely protected against Ca(2+)-triggered VTs. These data show that the RyR2 gate directly senses luminal (store) Ca(2+), explaining the regulation of RyR2 by luminal Ca(2+), the initiation of Ca(2+) waves and Ca(2+)-triggered arrhythmias. This newly identified store-sensing gate structure is conserved in all RyR and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor isoforms.

  8. Functional Coupling of Ca2+ Channels and Ryanodine Receptors in Cardiac Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sham, James S. K.; Cleemann, Lars; Morad, Martin

    1995-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, dihydropyridine receptors are functionally coupled to ryanodine receptors of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in triadic or diadic junctional complexes. In cardiac muscle direct physical or functional couplings have not been demonstrated. We have tested the hypothesis of functional coupling of L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in rat cardiac myocytes by comparing the efficacies of Ca2+ in triggering Ca2+ release when the ion enters the cell via the Ca2+ channels or the Na^+/Ca2+ exchanger. Ca2+ transported through the Ca2+ channels was 20-160 times more effective than Ca2+ influx via the Na^+/Ca2+ exchanger in gating Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, suggesting privileged communication between Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors. In support of this hypothesis we found that Ca2+ channels were inactivated by Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, even though the myoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations were buffered with 10 mM EGTA. The data thus suggest privileged cross signaling between the dihydropyridine and ryanodine receptors such that Ca2+ flux through either the Ca2+ channel or the ryanodine receptor alters the gating kinetics of the other channel.

  9. Propranolol Blocks Cardiac and Neuronal Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dao W.; Mistry, Akshitkumar M.; Kahlig, Kristopher M.; Kearney, Jennifer A.; Xiang, Jizhou; George, Alfred L.

    2010-01-01

    Propranolol is a widely used, non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist with proven efficacy in treating cardiovascular disorders and in the prevention of migraine headaches. At plasma concentrations exceeding those required for β-adrenergic receptor inhibition, propranolol also exhibits anti-arrhythmic (“membrane stabilizing”) effects that are not fully explained by β-blockade. Previous in vitro studies suggested that propranolol may have local anesthetic effects. We directly tested the effects of propranolol on heterologously expressed recombinant human cardiac (NaV1.5) and brain (NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.3) sodium channels using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We found that block was not stereospecific as we observed approximately equal IC50 values for tonic and use-dependent block by R-(+) and S-(−) propranolol (tonic block: R: 21.4 μM vs S: 23.6 μM; use-dependent block: R: 2.7 μM vs S: 2.6 μM). Metoprolol and nadolol did not block NaV1.5 indicating that sodium channel block is not a class effect of β-blockers. The biophysical effects of R-(+)-propranolol on NaV1.5 and NaV1.1 resembled that of the prototypical local anesthetic lidocaine including the requirement for a critical phenylalanine residue (F1760 in NaV1.5) in the domain 4 S6 segment. Finally, we observed that brain sodium channels exhibited less sensitivity to R-(+)-propranolol than NaV1.5 channels. Our findings establish sodium channels as targets for propranolol and may help explain some beneficial effects of the drug in treating cardiac arrhythmias, and may explain certain adverse central nervous system effects. PMID:21833183

  10. Evaluation of the number of agonist molecules needed to activate a ligand-gated channel from the current rising phase.

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, E; Tour, O; Parnas, H

    2000-01-01

    We propose a new method for calculating the number of agonist binding sites (n) in ligand-gated receptor channels from the initial phase of the current. This method is based on the fact that the relation between the current (I) and its first-time derivative (I') at the beginning of the current reflects the number of transitions that lead to channel opening. We show that, for constant agonist concentration, the above relationship at t --> 0 provides the number of steps leading to channel opening. When the agonist concentration is not constant but rather increases linearly with time, the corresponding value can be obtained using a slightly modified procedure. The analytical results were compared with computer simulations and a good match between the two was obtained. The theoretical procedure was then validated experimentally using the nicotinic receptor, because, for this receptor, the number of binding sites is well established. Indeed, the expected number of two binding sites was obtained. The method was then tested for the quisqualate-type glutamate receptor channel from the opener muscle of crayfish. The number of this receptor's binding sites is not fully resolved. Our results suggest that, for this glutamate receptor as well, two binding sites must be occupied to open the channel. PMID:10653786

  11. Transient Receptor Potential Channels in the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Scott; Brayden, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian genome encodes 28 distinct members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels, which exhibit varying degrees of selectivity for different ionic species. Multiple TRP channels are present in all cells and are involved in diverse aspects of cellular function, including sensory perception and signal transduction. Notably, TRP channels are involved in regulating vascular function and pathophysiology, the focus of this review. TRP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells participate in regulating contractility and proliferation, whereas endothelial TRP channel activity is an important contributor to endothelium-dependent vasodilation, vascular wall permeability, and angiogenesis. TRP channels are also present in perivascular sensory neurons and astrocytic endfeet proximal to cerebral arterioles, where they participate in the regulation of vascular tone. Almost all of these functions are mediated by changes in global intracellular Ca2+ levels or subcellular Ca2+ signaling events. In addition to directly mediating Ca2+ entry, TRP channels influence intracellular Ca2+ dynamics through membrane depolarization associated with the influx of cations or through receptor- or store-operated mechanisms. Dysregulation of TRP channels is associated with vascular-related pathologies, including hypertension, neointimal injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, pulmonary edema, and neurogenic inflammation. In this review, we briefly consider general aspects of TRP channel biology and provide an in-depth discussion of the functions of TRP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and perivascular cells under normal and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:25834234

  12. Temperature-sensitive gating of TRPV1 channel as probed by atomistic simulations of its trans- and juxtamembrane domains.

    PubMed

    Chugunov, Anton O; Volynsky, Pavel E; Krylov, Nikolay A; Nolde, Dmitry E; Efremov, Roman G

    2016-01-01

    Heat-activated transient receptor potential channel TRPV1 is one of the most studied eukaryotic proteins involved in temperature sensation. Upon heating, it exhibits rapid reversible pore gating, which depolarizes neurons and generates action potentials. Underlying molecular details of such effects in the pore region of TRPV1 is of a crucial importance to control temperature responses of the organism. Despite the spatial structure of the channel in both open (O) and closed (C) states is known, microscopic nature of channel gating and mechanism of thermal sensitivity are still poorly understood. In this work, we used unrestrained atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of TRPV1 (without N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains) embedded into explicit lipid bilayer in its O- and C-states. We found that the pore domain with its neighboring loops undergoes large temperature-dependent conformational transitions in an asymmetric way, when fragments of only one monomer move with large amplitude, freeing the pore upon heating. Such an asymmetrical gating looks rather biologically relevant because it is faster and more reliable than traditionally proposed "iris-like" symmetric scheme of channel opening. Analysis of structural, dynamic, and hydrophobic organization of the pore domain revealed entropy growth upon TRPV1 gating, which is in line with current concepts of thermal sensitivity. PMID:27612191

  13. Temperature-sensitive gating of TRPV1 channel as probed by atomistic simulations of its trans- and juxtamembrane domains

    PubMed Central

    Chugunov, Anton O.; Volynsky, Pavel E.; Krylov, Nikolay A.; Nolde, Dmitry E.; Efremov, Roman G.

    2016-01-01

    Heat-activated transient receptor potential channel TRPV1 is one of the most studied eukaryotic proteins involved in temperature sensation. Upon heating, it exhibits rapid reversible pore gating, which depolarizes neurons and generates action potentials. Underlying molecular details of such effects in the pore region of TRPV1 is of a crucial importance to control temperature responses of the organism. Despite the spatial structure of the channel in both open (O) and closed (C) states is known, microscopic nature of channel gating and mechanism of thermal sensitivity are still poorly understood. In this work, we used unrestrained atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of TRPV1 (without N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains) embedded into explicit lipid bilayer in its O- and C-states. We found that the pore domain with its neighboring loops undergoes large temperature-dependent conformational transitions in an asymmetric way, when fragments of only one monomer move with large amplitude, freeing the pore upon heating. Such an asymmetrical gating looks rather biologically relevant because it is faster and more reliable than traditionally proposed “iris-like” symmetric scheme of channel opening. Analysis of structural, dynamic, and hydrophobic organization of the pore domain revealed entropy growth upon TRPV1 gating, which is in line with current concepts of thermal sensitivity. PMID:27612191

  14. A negative charge in transmembrane segment 1 of domain II of the cockroach sodium channel is critical for channel gating and action of pyrethroid insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yuzhe; Song Weizhong; Groome, James R.; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo Ningguang; Dong Ke

    2010-08-15

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroids, an important class of synthetic insecticides. Pyrethroids bind to a distinct receptor site on sodium channels and prolong the open state by inhibiting channel deactivation and inactivation. Recent studies have begun to reveal sodium channel residues important for pyrethroid binding. However, how pyrethroid binding leads to inhibition of sodium channel deactivation and inactivation remains elusive. In this study, we show that a negatively charged aspartic acid residue at position 802 (D802) located in the extracellular end of transmembrane segment 1 of domain II (IIS1) is critical for both the action of pyrethroids and the voltage dependence of channel activation. Charge-reversing or -neutralizing substitutions (K, G, or A) of D802 shifted the voltage dependence of activation in the depolarizing direction and reduced channel sensitivity to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide. The charge-reversing mutation D802K also accelerated open-state deactivation, which may have counteracted the inhibition of sodium channel deactivation by deltamethrin. In contrast, the D802G substitution slowed open-state deactivation, suggesting an additional mechanism for neutralizing the action of deltamethrin. Importantly, Schild analysis showed that D802 is not involved in pyrethroid binding. Thus, we have identified a sodium channel residue that is critical for regulating the action of pyrethroids on the sodium channel without affecting the receptor site of pyrethroids.

  15. Congruent pattern of accessibility identifies minimal pore gate in a non-symmetric voltage-gated sodium channel

    PubMed Central

    Oelstrom, Kevin; Chanda, Baron

    2016-01-01

    Opening and closing of the central ion-conducting pore in voltage-dependent ion channels is gated by changes in membrane potential. Although a gate residue in the eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium channel has been identified, the minimal molecular determinants of this gate region remain unknown. Here, by measuring the closed- and open-state reactivity of MTSET to substituted cysteines in all the pore-lining helices, we show that the state-dependent accessibility is delineated by four hydrophobic residues at homologous positions in each domain. Introduced cysteines above these sites do not react with intracellular MTSET while the channels are closed and yet are rapidly modified while the channels are open. These findings, in conjunction with state-dependent metal cross-bridging, support the notion that the gate residues in each of the four S6 segments of the eukaryotic sodium channel form an occlusion for ions in the closed state and are splayed open on activation. PMID:27186888

  16. A Conserved Residue Cluster That Governs Kinetics of ATP-dependent Gating of Kir6.2 Potassium Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Roger S.; Wright, Jordan D.; Pless, Stephan A.; Nunez, John-Jose; Kim, Robin Y.; Li, Jenny B. W.; Yang, Runying; Ahern, Christopher A.; Kurata, Harley T.

    2015-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are heteromultimeric complexes of an inwardly rectifying Kir channel (Kir6.x) and sulfonylurea receptors. Their regulation by intracellular ATP and ADP generates electrical signals in response to changes in cellular metabolism. We investigated channel elements that control the kinetics of ATP-dependent regulation of KATP (Kir6.2 + SUR1) channels using rapid concentration jumps. WT Kir6.2 channels re-open after rapid washout of ATP with a time constant of ∼60 ms. Extending similar kinetic measurements to numerous mutants revealed fairly modest effects on gating kinetics despite significant changes in ATP sensitivity and open probability. However, we identified a pair of highly conserved neighboring amino acids (Trp-68 and Lys-170) that control the rate of channel opening and inhibition in response to ATP. Paradoxically, mutations of Trp-68 or Lys-170 markedly slow the kinetics of channel opening (500 and 700 ms for W68L and K170N, respectively), while increasing channel open probability. Examining the functional effects of these residues using φ value analysis revealed a steep negative slope. This finding implies that these residues play a role in lowering the transition state energy barrier between open and closed channel states. Using unnatural amino acid incorporation, we demonstrate the requirement for a planar amino acid at Kir6.2 position 68 for normal channel gating, which is potentially necessary to localize the ϵ-amine of Lys-170 in the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding site. Overall, our findings identify a discrete pair of highly conserved residues with an essential role for controlling gating kinetics of Kir channels. PMID:25934393

  17. A Conserved Residue Cluster That Governs Kinetics of ATP-dependent Gating of Kir6.2 Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Roger S; Wright, Jordan D; Pless, Stephan A; Nunez, John-Jose; Kim, Robin Y; Li, Jenny B W; Yang, Runying; Ahern, Christopher A; Kurata, Harley T

    2015-06-19

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are heteromultimeric complexes of an inwardly rectifying Kir channel (Kir6.x) and sulfonylurea receptors. Their regulation by intracellular ATP and ADP generates electrical signals in response to changes in cellular metabolism. We investigated channel elements that control the kinetics of ATP-dependent regulation of KATP (Kir6.2 + SUR1) channels using rapid concentration jumps. WT Kir6.2 channels re-open after rapid washout of ATP with a time constant of ∼60 ms. Extending similar kinetic measurements to numerous mutants revealed fairly modest effects on gating kinetics despite significant changes in ATP sensitivity and open probability. However, we identified a pair of highly conserved neighboring amino acids (Trp-68 and Lys-170) that control the rate of channel opening and inhibition in response to ATP. Paradoxically, mutations of Trp-68 or Lys-170 markedly slow the kinetics of channel opening (500 and 700 ms for W68L and K170N, respectively), while increasing channel open probability. Examining the functional effects of these residues using φ value analysis revealed a steep negative slope. This finding implies that these residues play a role in lowering the transition state energy barrier between open and closed channel states. Using unnatural amino acid incorporation, we demonstrate the requirement for a planar amino acid at Kir6.2 position 68 for normal channel gating, which is potentially necessary to localize the ϵ-amine of Lys-170 in the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding site. Overall, our findings identify a discrete pair of highly conserved residues with an essential role for controlling gating kinetics of Kir channels.

  18. Signal Transduction at the Domain Interface of Prokaryotic Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Bertozzi, Carlo; Zimmermann, Iwan; Engeler, Sibylle; Hilf, Ricarda J. C.; Dutzler, Raimund

    2016-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels are activated by the binding of agonists to a site distant from the ion conduction path. These membrane proteins consist of distinct ligand-binding and pore domains that interact via an extended interface. Here, we have investigated the role of residues at this interface for channel activation to define critical interactions that couple conformational changes between the two structural units. By characterizing point mutants of the prokaryotic channels ELIC and GLIC by electrophysiology, X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have identified conserved residues that, upon mutation, apparently prevent activation but not ligand binding. The positions of nonactivating mutants cluster at a loop within the extracellular domain connecting β-strands 6 and 7 and at a loop joining the pore-forming helix M2 with M3 where they contribute to a densely packed core of the protein. An ionic interaction in the extracellular domain between the turn connecting β-strands 1 and 2 and a residue at the end of β-strand 10 stabilizes a state of the receptor with high affinity for agonists, whereas contacts of this turn to a conserved proline residue in the M2-M3 loop appear to be less important than previously anticipated. When mapping residues with strong functional phenotype on different channel structures, mutual distances are closer in conducting than in nonconducting conformations, consistent with a potential role of contacts in the stabilization of the open state. Our study has revealed a pattern of interactions that are crucial for the relay of conformational changes from the extracellular domain to the pore region of prokaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. Due to the strong conservation of the interface, these results are relevant for the entire family. PMID:26943937

  19. Signal Transduction at the Domain Interface of Prokaryotic Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Bertozzi, Carlo; Zimmermann, Iwan; Engeler, Sibylle; Hilf, Ricarda J C; Dutzler, Raimund

    2016-03-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels are activated by the binding of agonists to a site distant from the ion conduction path. These membrane proteins consist of distinct ligand-binding and pore domains that interact via an extended interface. Here, we have investigated the role of residues at this interface for channel activation to define critical interactions that couple conformational changes between the two structural units. By characterizing point mutants of the prokaryotic channels ELIC and GLIC by electrophysiology, X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have identified conserved residues that, upon mutation, apparently prevent activation but not ligand binding. The positions of nonactivating mutants cluster at a loop within the extracellular domain connecting β-strands 6 and 7 and at a loop joining the pore-forming helix M2 with M3 where they contribute to a densely packed core of the protein. An ionic interaction in the extracellular domain between the turn connecting β-strands 1 and 2 and a residue at the end of β-strand 10 stabilizes a state of the receptor with high affinity for agonists, whereas contacts of this turn to a conserved proline residue in the M2-M3 loop appear to be less important than previously anticipated. When mapping residues with strong functional phenotype on different channel structures, mutual distances are closer in conducting than in nonconducting conformations, consistent with a potential role of contacts in the stabilization of the open state. Our study has revealed a pattern of interactions that are crucial for the relay of conformational changes from the extracellular domain to the pore region of prokaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. Due to the strong conservation of the interface, these results are relevant for the entire family.

  20. Targeting the voltage sensor of Kv7.2 voltage-gated K+ channels with a new gating-modifier

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Asher; Pell, Liat; Gofman, Yana; Haitin, Yoni; Shamgar, Liora; Patrich, Eti; Kornilov, Polina; Gourgy-Hacohen, Orit; Ben-Tal, Nir; Attali, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The pore and gate regions of voltage-gated cation channels have been often targeted with drugs acting as channel modulators. In contrast, the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) was practically not exploited for therapeutic purposes, although it is the target of various toxins. We recently designed unique diphenylamine carboxylates that are powerful Kv7.2 voltage-gated K+ channel openers or blockers. Here we show that a unique Kv7.2 channel opener, NH29, acts as a nontoxin gating modifier. NH29 increases Kv7.2 currents, thereby producing a hyperpolarizing shift of the activation curve and slowing both activation and deactivation kinetics. In neurons, the opener depresses evoked spike discharges. NH29 dampens hippocampal glutamate and GABA release, thereby inhibiting excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Mutagenesis and modeling data suggest that in Kv7.2, NH29 docks to the external groove formed by the interface of helices S1, S2, and S4 in a way that stabilizes the interaction between two conserved charged residues in S2 and S4, known to interact electrostatically, in the open state of Kv channels. Results indicate that NH29 may operate via a voltage-sensor trapping mechanism similar to that suggested for scorpion and sea-anemone toxins. Reflecting the promiscuous nature of the VSD, NH29 is also a potent blocker of TRPV1 channels, a feature similar to that of tarantula toxins. Our data provide a structural framework for designing unique gating-modifiers targeted to the VSD of voltage-gated cation channels and used for the treatment of hyperexcitability disorders. PMID:20713704

  1. Solution structure and alanine scan of a spider toxin that affects the activation of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Gerardo; Sabo, Jennifer K; Bosmans, Frank; Billen, Bert; Villegas, Elba; Tytgat, Jan; Norton, Raymond S

    2007-02-16

    Magi 5, from the hexathelid spider Macrothele gigas, is a 29-residue polypeptide containing three disulfide bridges. It binds specifically to receptor site 4 on mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels and competes with scorpion beta-toxins, such as Css IV from Centruroides suffusus suffusus. As a consequence, Magi 5 shifts the activation voltage of the mammalian rNav1.2a channel to more hyperpolarized voltages, whereas the insect channel, DmNav1, is not affected. To gain insight into toxin-channel interactions, Magi 5 and 23 analogues were synthesized. The three-dimensional structure of Magi 5 in aqueous solution was determined, and its voltage-gated sodium channel-binding surfaces were mapped onto this structure using data from electrophysiological measurements on a series of Ala-substituted analogues. The structure clearly resembles the inhibitor cystine knot structural motif, although the triple-stranded beta-sheet typically found in that motif is partially distorted in Magi 5. The interactive surface of Magi 5 toward voltage-gated sodium channels resembles in some respects the Janus-faced atracotoxins, with functionally important charged residues on one face of the toxin and hydrophobic residues on the other. Magi 5 also resembles the scorpion beta-toxin Css IV, which has distinct nonpolar and charged surfaces that are critical for channel binding and has a key Glu involved in voltage sensor trapping. These two distinct classes of toxin, with different amino acid sequences and different structures, may utilize similar groups of residues on their surface to achieve the common end of modifying voltage-gated sodium channel function.

  2. Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Cancer Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vidhya R.; Perez-Neut, Mathew; Kaja, Simon; Gentile, Saverio

    2015-01-01

    Changes of the electrical charges across the surface cell membrane are absolutely necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. The opening of ion channels alter the charge distribution across the surface membrane as they allow the diffusion of ions such as K+, Ca++, Cl−, Na+. Traditionally, voltage-gated ion channels (VGIC) are known to play fundamental roles in controlling rapid bioelectrical signaling including action potential and/or contraction. However, several investigations have revealed that these classes of proteins can also contribute significantly to cell mitotic biochemical signaling, cell cycle progression, as well as cell volume regulation. All these functions are critically important for cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, a variety of distinct VGICs are expressed in different cancer cell types, including metastasis but not in the tissues from which these tumors were generated. Given the increasing evidence suggesting that VGIC play a major role in cancer cell biology, in this review we discuss the role of distinct VGIC in cancer cell proliferation and possible therapeutic potential of VIGC pharmacological manipulation. PMID:26010603

  3. BK channel inactivation gates daytime excitability in the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Joshua P; Montgomery, Jenna R; Meredith, Andrea L

    2016-03-04

    Inactivation is an intrinsic property of several voltage-dependent ion channels, closing the conduction pathway during membrane depolarization and dynamically regulating neuronal activity. BK K(+) channels undergo N-type inactivation via their β2 subunit, but the physiological significance is not clear. Here, we report that inactivating BK currents predominate during the day in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the brain's intrinsic clock circuit, reducing steady-state current levels. At night inactivation is diminished, resulting in larger BK currents. Loss of β2 eliminates inactivation, abolishing the diurnal variation in both BK current magnitude and SCN firing, and disrupting behavioural rhythmicity. Selective restoration of inactivation via the β2 N-terminal 'ball-and-chain' domain rescues BK current levels and firing rate, unexpectedly contributing to the subthreshold membrane properties that shift SCN neurons into the daytime 'upstate'. Our study reveals the clock employs inactivation gating as a biophysical switch to set the diurnal variation in suprachiasmatic nucleus excitability that underlies circadian rhythm.

  4. BK channel inactivation gates daytime excitability in the circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Whitt, Joshua P.; Montgomery, Jenna R.; Meredith, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation is an intrinsic property of several voltage-dependent ion channels, closing the conduction pathway during membrane depolarization and dynamically regulating neuronal activity. BK K+ channels undergo N-type inactivation via their β2 subunit, but the physiological significance is not clear. Here, we report that inactivating BK currents predominate during the day in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the brain's intrinsic clock circuit, reducing steady-state current levels. At night inactivation is diminished, resulting in larger BK currents. Loss of β2 eliminates inactivation, abolishing the diurnal variation in both BK current magnitude and SCN firing, and disrupting behavioural rhythmicity. Selective restoration of inactivation via the β2 N-terminal ‘ball-and-chain' domain rescues BK current levels and firing rate, unexpectedly contributing to the subthreshold membrane properties that shift SCN neurons into the daytime ‘upstate'. Our study reveals the clock employs inactivation gating as a biophysical switch to set the diurnal variation in suprachiasmatic nucleus excitability that underlies circadian rhythm. PMID:26940770

  5. Unambiguous observation of blocked states reveals altered, blocker-induced, cardiac ryanodine receptor gating

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Thomas, N. Lowri; Williams, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of ions through membrane channels is precisely regulated by gates. The architecture and function of these elements have been studied extensively, shedding light on the mechanisms underlying gating. Recent investigations have focused on ion occupancy of the channel’s selectivity filter and its ability to alter gating, with most studies involving prokaryotic K+ channels. Some studies used large quaternary ammonium blocker molecules to examine the effects of altered ionic flux on gating. However, the absence of blocking events that are visibly distinct from closing events in K+ channels makes unambiguous interpretation of data from single channel recordings difficult. In this study, the large K+ conductance of the RyR2 channel permits direct observation of blocking events as distinct subconductance states and for the first time demonstrates the differential effects of blocker molecules on channel gating. This experimental platform provides valuable insights into mechanisms of blocker-induced modulation of ion channel gating. PMID:27703263

  6. An evolutionarily-unique heterodimeric voltage-gated cation channel found in aphids

    PubMed Central

    Amey, Joanna S.; O’Reilly, Andrias O.; Burton, Mark J.; Puinean, Alin M.; Mellor, Ian R.; Duce, Ian R.; Field, Linda M.; Wallace, B.A.; Williamson, Martin S.; Davies, T.G. Emyr

    2015-01-01

    We describe the identification in aphids of a unique heterodimeric voltage-gated sodium channel which has an atypical ion selectivity filter and, unusually for insect channels, is highly insensitive to tetrodotoxin. We demonstrate that this channel has most likely arisen by adaptation (gene fission or duplication) of an invertebrate ancestral mono(hetero)meric channel. This is the only identifiable voltage-gated sodium channel homologue in the aphid genome(s), and the channel’s novel selectivity filter motif (DENS instead of the usual DEKA found in other eukaryotes) may result in a loss of sodium selectivity, as indicated experimentally in mutagenised Drosophila channels. PMID:25637326

  7. Improved resolution of single channel dwell times reveals mechanisms of binding, priming, and gating in muscle AChR.

    PubMed

    Mukhtasimova, Nuriya; daCosta, Corrie J B; Sine, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AChR) from vertebrate skeletal muscle initiates voluntary movement, and its kinetics of activation are crucial for maintaining the safety margin for neuromuscular transmission. Furthermore, the kinetic mechanism of the muscle AChR serves as an archetype for understanding activation mechanisms of related receptors from the Cys-loop superfamily. Here we record currents through single muscle AChR channels with improved temporal resolution approaching half an order of magnitude over our previous best. A range of concentrations of full and partial agonists are used to elicit currents from human wild-type and gain-of-function mutant AChRs. For each agonist-receptor combination, rate constants are estimated from maximum likelihood analysis using a kinetic scheme comprised of agonist binding, priming, and channel gating steps. The kinetic scheme and rate constants are tested by stochastic simulation, followed by incorporation of the experimental step response, sampling rate, background noise, and filter bandwidth. Analyses of the simulated data confirm all rate constants except those for channel gating, which are overestimated because of the established effect of noise on the briefest dwell times. Estimates of the gating rate constants were obtained through iterative simulation followed by kinetic fitting. The results reveal that the agonist association rate constants are independent of agonist occupancy but depend on receptor state, whereas those for agonist dissociation depend on occupancy but not on state. The priming rate and equilibrium constants increase with successive agonist occupancy, and for a full agonist, the forward rate constant increases more than the equilibrium constant; for a partial agonist, the forward rate and equilibrium constants increase equally. The gating rate and equilibrium constants also increase with successive agonist occupancy, but unlike priming, the equilibrium constants increase more than the forward rate

  8. Regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels by PI(4,5)P2

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Martin; Hammond, Gerald R.V.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) regulates activities of numerous ion channels including inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels, KCNQ, TRP, and voltage-gated calcium channels. Several studies suggest that voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels might be regulated by PI(4,5)P2. Wide expression of KV channels in different cells suggests that such regulation could have broad physiological consequences. To study regulation of KV channels by PI(4,5)P2, we have coexpressed several of them in tsA-201 cells with a G protein–coupled receptor (M1R), a voltage-sensitive lipid 5-phosphatase (Dr-VSP), or an engineered fusion protein carrying both lipid 4-phosphatase and 5-phosphatase activity (pseudojanin). These tools deplete PI(4,5)P2 with application of muscarinic agonists, depolarization, or rapamycin, respectively. PI(4,5)P2 at the plasma membrane was monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PH probes of PLCδ1 simultaneously with whole-cell recordings. Activation of Dr-VSP or recruitment of pseudojanin inhibited KV7.1, KV7.2/7.3, and Kir2.1 channel current by 90–95%. Activation of M1R inhibited KV7.2/7.3 current similarly. With these tools, we tested for potential PI(4,5)P2 regulation of activity of KV1.1/KVβ1.1, KV1.3, KV1.4, and KV1.5/KVβ1.3, KV2.1, KV3.4, KV4.2, KV4.3 (with different KChIPs and DPP6-s), and hERG/KCNE2. Interestingly, we found a substantial removal of inactivation for KV1.1/KVβ1.1 and KV3.4, resulting in up-regulation of current density upon activation of M1R but no changes in activity upon activating only VSP or pseudojanin. The other channels tested except possibly hERG showed no alteration in activity in any of the assays we used. In conclusion, a depletion of PI(4,5)P2 at the plasma membrane by enzymes does not seem to influence activity of most tested KV channels, whereas it does strongly inhibit members of the KV7 and Kir families. PMID:22851677

  9. Structure and function of glutamate receptor ion channels.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Mark L; Armstrong, Neali

    2004-01-01

    A vast number of proteins are involved in synaptic function. Many have been cloned and their functional role defined with varying degrees of success, but their number and complexity currently defy any molecular understanding of the physiology of synapses. A beacon of success in this medieval era of synaptic biology is an emerging understanding of the mechanisms underlying the activity of the neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate. Largely as a result of structural studies performed in the past three years we now have a mechanistic explanation for the activation of channel gating by agonists and partial agonists; the process of desensitization, and its block by allosteric modulators, is also mostly explained; and the basis of receptor subtype selectivity is emerging with clarity as more and more structures are solved. In the space of months we have gone from cartoons of postulated mechanisms to hard fact. It is anticipated that this level of understanding will emerge for other synaptic proteins in the coming decade.

  10. Computer simulation of ion channel gating: the M(2) channel of influenza A virus in a lipid bilayer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweighofer, K. J.; Pohorille, A.

    2000-01-01

    The transmembrane fragment of the influenza virus M(2) protein forms a homotetrameric channel that transports protons. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics simulations to help elucidate the mechanism of channel gating by four histidines that occlude the channel lumen in the closed state. We test two competing hypotheses. In the "shuttle" mechanism, the delta nitrogen atom on the extracellular side of one histidine is protonated by the incoming proton, and, subsequently, the proton on the epsilon nitrogen atom is released on the opposite side. In the "water-wire" mechanism, the gate opens because of electrostatic repulsion between four simultaneously biprotonated histidines. This allows for proton transport along the water wire that penetrates the gate. For each system, composed of the channel embedded in a hydrated phospholipid bilayer, a 1.3-ns trajectory was obtained. It is found that the states involved in the shuttle mechanism, which contain either single-protonated histidines or a mixture of single-protonated histidines plus one biprotonated residue, are stable during the simulations. Furthermore, the orientations and dynamics of water molecules near the gate are conducive to proton transfer. In contrast, the fully biprotonated state is not stable. Additional simulations show that if only two histidines are biprotonated, the channel deforms but the gate remains closed. These results support the shuttle mechanism but not the gate-opening mechanism of proton gating in M(2).

  11. Modeling of hole confinement gate voltage range for SiGe channel p-MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, G. F.; Ruan, G.; Zhang, D. H.

    1996-01-01

    An analytical model of hole confinement gate voltage range is derived for SiGe-channel p-MOSFETs and verified by SEDAN-3 simulation. The hole confinement gate voltage range is shown to be a function of threshold voltage, gate oxide thickness to Si cap thickness ratio, gate material, and Ge mole fraction. Si cap should be thinned with device scaling and power supply decreasing to keep the same hole confinement so as to realise full bias range SiGe-channel operation. It is clarified that various bulk and SIO SiGe p-MOSFETs have the same hole confinement under the same threshold voltage.

  12. X-ray structures define human P2X3 receptor gating cycle and antagonist action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, Steven E.; Lü, Wei; Oosterheert, Wout; Shekhar, Mrinal; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Gouaux, Eric

    2016-10-01

    P2X receptors are trimeric, non-selective cation channels activated by ATP that have important roles in the cardiovascular, neuronal and immune systems. Despite their central function in human physiology and although they are potential targets of therapeutic agents, there are no structures of human P2X receptors. The mechanisms of receptor desensitization and ion permeation, principles of antagonism, and complete structures of the pore-forming transmembrane domains of these receptors remain unclear. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of the human P2X3 receptor in apo/resting, agonist-bound/open-pore, agonist-bound/closed-pore/desensitized and antagonist-bound/closed states. The open state structure harbours an intracellular motif we term the ‘cytoplasmic cap’, which stabilizes the open state of the ion channel pore and creates lateral, phospholipid-lined cytoplasmic fenestrations for water and ion egress. The competitive antagonists TNP-ATP and A-317491 stabilize the apo/resting state and reveal the interactions responsible for competitive inhibition. These structures illuminate the conformational rearrangements that underlie P2X receptor gating and provide a foundation for the development of new pharmacological agents.

  13. Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Motoyuki; Gouaux, Eric

    2012-10-24

    P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP-binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP-binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide-binding pocket, flexing of the lower body {beta}-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP-binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

  14. Uncoupling Charge Movement from Channel Opening in Voltage-gated Potassium Channels by Ruthenium Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; Ishida, Itzel G.; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E.; Espinosa-Jalapa, Noel; Pérez-Guzmán, José A.; Elías-Viñas, David; Le Lagadec, Ronan; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D.

    2011-01-01

    The Kv2.1 channel generates a delayed-rectifier current in neurons and is responsible for modulation of neuronal spike frequency and membrane repolarization in pancreatic β-cells and cardiomyocytes. As with other tetrameric voltage-activated K+-channels, it has been proposed that each of the four Kv2.1 voltage-sensing domains activates independently upon depolarization, leading to a final concerted transition that causes channel opening. The mechanism by which voltage-sensor activation is coupled to the gating of the pore is still not understood. Here we show that the carbon-monoxide releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) is an allosteric inhibitor of the Kv2.1 channel and that its inhibitory properties derive from the CORM-2 ability to largely reduce the voltage dependence of the opening transition, uncoupling voltage-sensor activation from the concerted opening transition. We additionally demonstrate that CORM-2 modulates Shaker K+-channels in a similar manner. Our data suggest that the mechanism of inhibition by CORM-2 may be common to voltage-activated channels and that this compound should be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of electromechanical coupling. PMID:21454671

  15. The Central domain of RyR1 is the transducer for long-range allosteric gating of channel opening.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Chen; Yan, Zhen; Wu, Jianping; Li, Zhangqiang; Yan, Nieng

    2016-09-01

    The ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium channels responsible for rapid release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) to the cytoplasm, which is essential for the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling of cardiac and skeletal muscles. The near-atomic resolution structure of closed RyR1 revealed the molecular details of this colossal channel, while the long-range allosteric gating mechanism awaits elucidation. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of rabbit RyR1 in three closed conformations at about 4 Å resolution and an open state at 5.7 Å. Comparison of the closed RyR1 structures shows a breathing motion of the cytoplasmic platform, while the channel domain and its contiguous Central domain remain nearly unchanged. Comparison of the open and closed structures shows a dilation of the S6 tetrahelical bundle at the cytoplasmic gate that leads to channel opening. During the pore opening, the cytoplasmic "O-ring" motif of the channel domain and the U-motif of the Central domain exhibit coupled motion, while the Central domain undergoes domain-wise displacement. These structural analyses provide important insight into the E-C coupling in skeletal muscles and identify the Central domain as the transducer that couples the conformational changes of the cytoplasmic platform to the gating of the central pore. PMID:27468892

  16. The Central domain of RyR1 is the transducer for long-range allosteric gating of channel opening

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Chen; Yan, Zhen; Wu, Jianping; Li, Zhangqiang; Yan, Nieng

    2016-01-01

    The ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium channels responsible for rapid release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) to the cytoplasm, which is essential for the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling of cardiac and skeletal muscles. The near-atomic resolution structure of closed RyR1 revealed the molecular details of this colossal channel, while the long-range allosteric gating mechanism awaits elucidation. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of rabbit RyR1 in three closed conformations at about 4 Å resolution and an open state at 5.7 Å. Comparison of the closed RyR1 structures shows a breathing motion of the cytoplasmic platform, while the channel domain and its contiguous Central domain remain nearly unchanged. Comparison of the open and closed structures shows a dilation of the S6 tetrahelical bundle at the cytoplasmic gate that leads to channel opening. During the pore opening, the cytoplasmic “O-ring” motif of the channel domain and the U-motif of the Central domain exhibit coupled motion, while the Central domain undergoes domain-wise displacement. These structural analyses provide important insight into the E-C coupling in skeletal muscles and identify the Central domain as the transducer that couples the conformational changes of the cytoplasmic platform to the gating of the central pore. PMID:27468892

  17. Functional prokaryotic-eukaryotic chimera from the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family.

    PubMed

    Duret, Guillaume; Van Renterghem, Catherine; Weng, Yun; Prevost, Marie; Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Huon, Christèle; Sonner, James M; Corringer, Pierre-Jean

    2011-07-19

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs), which mediate chemo-electric signal transduction in animals, have been recently found in bacteria. Despite clear sequence and 3D structure homology, the phylogenetic distance between prokaryotic and eukaryotic homologs suggests significant structural divergences, especially at the interface between the extracellular (ECD) and the transmembrane (TMD) domains. To challenge this possibility, we constructed a chimera in which the ECD of the bacterial protein GLIC is fused to the TMD of the human α1 glycine receptor (α1GlyR). Electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes shows that it functions as a proton-gated ion channel, thereby locating the proton activation site(s) of GLIC in its ECD. Patch-clamp experiments in BHK cells show that the ion channel displays an anionic selectivity with a unitary conductance identical to that of the α1GlyR. In addition, pharmacological investigations result in transmembrane allosteric modulation similar to the one observed on α1GlyR. Indeed, the clinically active drugs propofol, four volatile general anesthetics, alcohols, and ivermectin all potentiate the chimera while they inhibit GLIC. Collectively, this work shows the compatibility between GLIC and α1GlyR domains and points to conservation of the ion channel and transmembrane allosteric regulatory sites in the chimera. This provides evidence that GLIC and α1GlyR share a highly homologous 3D structure. GLIC is thus a relevant model of eukaryotic pLGICs, at least from the anionic type. In addition, the chimera is a good candidate for mass production in Escherichia coli, opening the way for investigations of "druggable" eukaryotic allosteric sites by X-ray crystallography.

  18. Voltage-gated calcium channels: Determinants of channel function and modulation by inorganic cations.

    PubMed

    Neumaier, Felix; Dibué-Adjei, Maxine; Hescheler, Jürgen; Schneider, Toni

    2015-06-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) represent a key link between electrical signals and non-electrical processes, such as contraction, secretion and transcription. Evolved to achieve high rates of Ca(2+)-selective flux, they possess an elaborate mechanism for selection of Ca(2+) over foreign ions. It has been convincingly linked to competitive binding in the pore, but the fundamental question of how this is reconcilable with high rates of Ca(2+) transfer remains unanswered. By virtue of their similarity to Ca(2+), polyvalent cations can interfere with the function of VGCCs and have proven instrumental in probing the mechanisms underlying selective permeation. Recent emergence of crystallographic data on a set of Ca(2+)-selective model channels provides a structural framework for permeation in VGCCs, and warrants a reconsideration of their diverse modulation by polyvalent cations, which can be roughly separated into three general mechanisms: (I) long-range interactions with charged regions on the surface, affecting the local potential sensed by the channel or influencing voltage-sensor movement by repulsive forces (electrostatic effects), (II) short-range interactions with sites in the ion-conducting pathway, leading to physical obstruction of the channel (pore block), and in some cases (III) short-range interactions with extracellular binding sites, leading to non-electrostatic modifications of channel gating (allosteric effects). These effects, together with the underlying molecular modifications, provide valuable insights into the function of VGCCs, and have important physiological and pathophysiological implications. Allosteric suppression of some of the pore-forming Cavα1-subunits (Cav2.3, Cav3.2) by Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) may play a major role for the regulation of excitability by endogenous transition metal ions. The fact that these ions can often traverse VGCCs can contribute to the detrimental intracellular accumulation of metal ions following excessive

  19. Subunit stoichiometry and arrangement in a heteromeric glutamate-gated chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Degani-Katzav, Nurit; Gortler, Revital; Gorodetzki, Lilach; Paas, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride-selective receptors (GluClRs) are ion channels serving as targets for ivermectin (IVM), a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug used to treat human parasitic diseases like river blindness and lymphatic filariasis. The native GluClR is a heteropentamer consisting of α and β subunit types, with yet unknown subunit stoichiometry and arrangement. Based on the recent crystal structure of a homomeric GluClαR, we introduced mutations at the intersubunit interfaces where Glu (the neurotransmitter) binds. By electrophysiological characterization of these mutants, we found heteromeric assemblies with two equivalent Glu-binding sites at β/α intersubunit interfaces, where the GluClβ and GluClα subunits, respectively, contribute the “principal” and “complementary” components of the putative Glu-binding pockets. We identified a mutation in the IVM-binding site (far away from the Glu-binding sites), which significantly increased the sensitivity of the heteromeric mutant receptor to both Glu and IVM, and improved the receptor subunits’ cooperativity. We further characterized this heteromeric GluClR mutant as a receptor having a third Glu-binding site at an α/α intersubunit interface. Altogether, our data unveil heteromeric GluClR assemblies having three α and two β subunits arranged in a counterclockwise β-α-β-α-α fashion, as viewed from the extracellular side, with either two or three Glu-binding site interfaces. PMID:26792524

  20. A chimeric prokaryotic pentameric ligand–gated channel reveals distinct pathways of activation

    PubMed Central

    Schmandt, Nicolaus; Velisetty, Phanindra; Chalamalasetti, Sreevatsa V.; Stein, Richard A.; Bonner, Ross; Talley, Lauren; Parker, Mark D.; Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Yee, Vivien C.; Lodowski, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent high resolution structures of several pentameric ligand–gated ion channels have provided unprecedented details of their molecular architecture. However, the conformational dynamics and structural rearrangements that underlie gating and allosteric modulation remain poorly understood. We used a combination of electrophysiology, double electron–electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy, and x-ray crystallography to investigate activation mechanisms in a novel functional chimera with the extracellular domain (ECD) of amine-gated Erwinia chrysanthemi ligand–gated ion channel, which is activated by primary amines, and the transmembrane domain of Gloeobacter violaceus ligand–gated ion channel, which is activated by protons. We found that the chimera was independently gated by primary amines and by protons. The crystal structure of the chimera in its resting state, at pH 7.0 and in the absence of primary amines, revealed a closed-pore conformation and an ECD that is twisted with respect to the transmembrane region. Amine- and pH-induced conformational changes measured by DEER spectroscopy showed that the chimera exhibits a dual mode of gating that preserves the distinct conformational changes of the parent channels. Collectively, our findings shed light on both conserved and divergent features of gating mechanisms in this class of channels, and will facilitate the design of better allosteric modulators. PMID:26415570

  1. Structural Basis for Pharmacology of Voltage-Gated Sodium and Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in nerve, muscle, and other electrically excitable cells. Voltage-gated calcium channels are activated by depolarization during action potentials, and calcium influx through them is the key second messenger of electrical signaling, initiating secretion, contraction, neurotransmission, gene transcription, and many other intracellular processes. Drugs that block sodium channels are used in local anesthesia and the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, and cardiac arrhythmia. Drugs that block calcium channels are used in the treatment of epilepsy, chronic pain, and cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension, angina pectoris, and cardiac arrhythmia. The principal pore-forming subunits of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels are structurally related and likely to have evolved from ancestral voltage-gated sodium channels that are widely expressed in prokaryotes. Determination of the structure of a bacterial ancestor of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels at high resolution now provides a three-dimensional view of the binding sites for drugs acting on sodium and calcium channels. In this minireview, we outline the different classes of sodium and calcium channel drugs, review studies that have identified amino acid residues that are required for their binding and therapeutic actions, and illustrate how the analogs of those key amino acid residues may form drug-binding sites in three-dimensional models derived from bacterial channels. PMID:25848093

  2. Mechanism of Inactivation in Voltage-Gated Na(+) Channels.

    PubMed

    Gawali, V S; Todt, H

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) initiate action potentials thereby giving rise to rapid transmission of electrical signals along cell membranes and between cells. Depolarization of the cell membrane causes VGSCs to open but also gives rise to a nonconducting state termed inactivation. Inactivation of VGSCs serves a critical physiologic function as it determines the extent of excitability of neurons and of muscle cells. Depending on the time course of development and removal of inactivation both "fast-" and "slow"-inactivated states have been described. Evidence from mutagenesis studies suggests that fast inactivation is produced by a block of the internal vestibule by a tethered inactivation particle that has been mapped to the internal linker between domains III and IV. The motion of this linker may be regulated by parts of the internal C-terminus. The molecular mechanism of slow inactivation is less clear. However, aside from a high number of mutagenesis studies, the recent availability of 3D structures of crystallized prokaryotic VGSCs offers insights into the molecular motions associated with slow inactivation. One possible scenario is that slow movements of the voltage sensors are transmitted to the external vestibule giving rise to a conformational change of this region. This molecular rearrangement is transmitted to the S6 segments giving rise to collapse of the internal vestibule. PMID:27586291

  3. Targeting voltage-gated calcium channels for neuropathic pain management

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Danielle; Luo, Z. David

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) play obligatory roles in diverse physiological functions. Pathological conditions leading to changes in their biophysical properties and expression levels may cause malfunctions of VGCC mediated activities, resulting in disease states. It is believed that changes in VGCC properties under pain-inducing conditions may play a causal role in the development of chronic pain, including nerve injury-induced pain, or neuropathic pain. Over the past decades, preclinical and clinical research in developing VGCC blockers or modulators for chronic pain management has been fruitful, leading to some US Food and Drug Administration approved drugs currently available for chronic pain management. However, their efficacy in pain relief is limited in some patients and their long-term use is limited by their side effect profiles. Certainly, there is room for improvement in developing more subtype specific VGCC blockers or modulators for chronic pain conditions. In this review, we summarized the most recent preclinical and clinical studies related to chronic pain medications acting on the VGCC. We also included clinical trials aiming to expand the application of approved VGCC drugs to different pain states derived from various pathological conditions, as well as drug combination therapies trying to improve the efficacies and side effect profiles of current pain medications. PMID:19789072

  4. Cardiac Mechano-Gated Ion Channels and Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Peyronnet, Rémi; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Kohl, Peter

    2016-01-22

    Mechanical forces will have been omnipresent since the origin of life, and living organisms have evolved mechanisms to sense, interpret, and respond to mechanical stimuli. The cardiovascular system in general, and the heart in particular, is exposed to constantly changing mechanical signals, including stretch, compression, bending, and shear. The heart adjusts its performance to the mechanical environment, modifying electrical, mechanical, metabolic, and structural properties over a range of time scales. Many of the underlying regulatory processes are encoded intracardially and are, thus, maintained even in heart transplant recipients. Although mechanosensitivity of heart rhythm has been described in the medical literature for over a century, its molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Thanks to modern biophysical and molecular technologies, the roles of mechanical forces in cardiac biology are being explored in more detail, and detailed mechanisms of mechanotransduction have started to emerge. Mechano-gated ion channels are cardiac mechanoreceptors. They give rise to mechano-electric feedback, thought to contribute to normal function, disease development, and, potentially, therapeutic interventions. In this review, we focus on acute mechanical effects on cardiac electrophysiology, explore molecular candidates underlying observed responses, and discuss their pharmaceutical regulation. From this, we identify open research questions and highlight emerging technologies that may help in addressing them.

  5. Structure of the gating ring from the human large-conductance Ca[superscript 2+]-gated K[superscript +] channel

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yunkun; Yang, Yi; Ye, Sheng; Jiang, Youxing

    2010-11-12

    Large-conductance Ca{sup 2+}-gated K{sup +} (BK) channels are essential for many biological processes such as smooth muscle contraction and neurotransmitter release. This group of channels can be activated synergistically by both voltage and intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, with the large carboxy-terminal intracellular portion being responsible for Ca{sup 2+} sensing. Here we present the crystal structure of the entire cytoplasmic region of the human BK channel in a Ca{sup 2+}-free state. The structure reveals four intracellular subunits, each comprising two tandem RCK domains, assembled into a gating ring similar to that seen in the MthK channel and probably representing its physiological assembly. Three Ca{sup 2+} binding sites including the Ca{sup 2+} bowl are mapped onto the structure based on mutagenesis data. The Ca{sup 2+} bowl, located within the second RCK domain, forms an EF-hand-like motif and is strategically positioned close to the assembly interface between two subunits. The other two Ca{sup 2+} (or Mg{sup 2+}) binding sites, Asp367 and Glu374/Glu399, are located on the first RCK domain. The Asp367 site has high Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity and is positioned in the groove between the amino- and carboxy-terminal subdomains of RCK1, whereas the low-affinity Mg{sup 2+}-binding Glu374/Glu399 site is positioned on the upper plateau of the gating ring and close to the membrane. Our structure also contains the linker connecting the transmembrane and intracellular domains, allowing us to dock a voltage-gated K{sup +} channel pore of known structure onto the gating ring with reasonable accuracy and generate a structural model for the full BK channel.

  6. Open-channel block by internally applied amines inhibits activation gate closure in batrachotoxin-activated sodium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Zamponi, G W; French, R J

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the action of several pore-blocking amines on voltage-dependent activation gating of batrachotoxin(BTX)-activated sodium channels, from bovine heart and rat skeletal muscle, incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. Although structurally simpler, the compounds studied show general structural features and channel-inhibiting actions that resemble those of lidocaine. When applied to the cytoplasmic end of the channel, these compounds cause a rapid, voltage-dependent, open-channel block seen as a reduction in apparent single-channel amplitude (companion paper). Internal application of phenylpropanolamine, phenylethylamine, phenylmethylamine, and diethylamine, as well as causing open-channel block, reduces the probability of channel closure, producing a shift of the steady-state activation curve toward more hyperpolarizing potentials. These gating effects were observed for both cardiac and skeletal muscle channels and were not evoked by addition of equimolar N-Methyl-D-Glucamine, suggesting a specific interaction of the blockers with the channel rather than a surface charge effect. Kinetic analysis of phenylpropanolamine action on skeletal muscle channels indicated that phenylpropanolamine reduced the closed probability via two separate mechanisms. First, mean closed durations were slightly abbreviated in its presence. Second, and more important, the frequency of the gating closures was reduced. This action was correlated with the degree, and the voltage dependence, of open-channel block, suggesting that the activation gate cannot close while the pore is occluded by the blocker. Such a mechanism might underlie the previously reported immobilization of gating charge associated with local anesthetic block of unmodified sodium channels. PMID:7811914

  7. Role of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein, K+ channels, and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the antinociceptive effect of inosine.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Junior, Sérgio José; Nascimento, Francisney Pinto; Luiz-Cerutti, Murilo; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2013-03-01

    Inosine is the first metabolite of adenosine. It exerts an antinociceptive effect by activating the adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors. We have previously demonstrated that inosine exhibits antinociceptive properties in acute and chronic mice models of nociception. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptors, as well as K(+) and Ca(2+) channels, in the antinociception promoted by inosine in the formalin test. Mice were pretreated with pertussis toxin (2.5 μg/site, i.t., an inactivator of G(i/0) protein); after 7 days, they received inosine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (2.5 mg/kg, s.c., used as positive control) immediately before the formalin test. Another group of animals received tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (1 μg/site, i.t., a non-specific voltage-gated K(+) channel blockers), apamin (50 ng/site, i.t., a small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocker), charybdotoxin (250 pg/site, i.t., a large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocker), glibenclamide (100 μg/site, i.t., an ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker) or CaCl(2) (200 nmol/site, i.t.). Afterwards, the mice received inosine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i.p., a positive control), or morphine (2.5 mg/kg, s.c., a positive control) immediately before the formalin test. The antinociceptive effect of inosine was reversed by the pre-administration of pertussis toxin (2.5 μg/site, i.t.), TEA, 4-aminopyridine, charybdotoxin, glibenclamide, and CaCl(2), but not apamin. Further, all K(+) channel blockers and CaCl(2) reversed the antinociception induced by diclofenac and morphine, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that the antinociceptive effect of inosine is mediated, in part, by pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein coupled receptors and the subsequent activation of voltage gated K(+) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-activated and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or

  8. Functional Reconstitution of a Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Aimon, Sophie; Manzi, John; Schmidt, Daniel; Poveda Larrosa, Jose Antonio; Bassereau, Patricia; Toombes, Gilman E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are key players in cellular excitability. Recent studies suggest that their behavior can depend strongly on the membrane lipid composition and physical state. In vivo studies of membrane/channel and channel/channel interactions are challenging as membrane properties are actively regulated in living cells, and are difficult to control in experimental settings. We developed a method to reconstitute functional voltage-gated ion channels into cell-sized Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) in which membrane composition, tension and geometry can be controlled. First, a voltage-gated potassium channel, KvAP, was purified, fluorescently labeled and reconstituted into small proteoliposomes. Small proteoliposomes were then converted into GUVs via electroformation. GUVs could be formed using different lipid compositions and buffers containing low (5 mM) or near-physiological (100 mM) salt concentrations. Protein incorporation into GUVs was characterized with quantitative confocal microscopy, and the protein density of GUVs was comparable to the small proteoliposomes from which they were formed. Furthermore, patch-clamp measurements confirmed that the reconstituted channels retained potassium selectivity and voltage-gated activation. GUVs containing functional voltage-gated ion channels will allow the study of channel activity, distribution and diffusion while controlling membrane state, and should prove a powerful tool for understanding how the membrane modulates cellular excitability. PMID:21998666

  9. Ion Selectivity Mechanism in a Bacterial Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, Sebastian; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Wang, Hailong; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    The proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) is a prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that responds to the binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and mediates fast signal transmission. Recent emergence of a high-resolution crystal structure of GLIC captured in a potentially open state allowed detailed, atomic-level insight into ion conduction and selectivity mechanisms in these channels. Herein, we have examined the barriers to ion conduction and origins of ion selectivity in the GLIC channel by the construction of potential-of-mean-force profiles for sodium and chloride ions inside the transmembrane region. Our calculations reveal that the GLIC channel is open for a sodium ion to transport, but presents a 11 kcal/mol free energy barrier for a chloride ion. Our collective findings identify three distinct contributions to the observed preference for the permeant ions. First, there is a substantial contribution due to a ring of negatively charged glutamate residues (E-2 ) at the narrow intracellular end of the channel. The negative electrostatics of this region and the ability of the glutamate side chains to directly bind cations would strongly favor the passage of sodium ions while hindering translocation of chloride ions. Second, our results imply a significant hydrophobic contribution to selectivity linked to differences in the desolvation penalty for the sodium versus chloride ions in the central hydrophobic region of the pore. This hydrophobic contribution is evidenced by the large free energy barriers experienced by Cl in the middle of the pore for both GLIC and the E-2 A mutant. Finally, there is a distinct contribution arising from the overall negative electrostatics of the channel.

  10. Structural models of ligand-gated ion channels: sites of action for anesthetics and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Richard W; Li, Guo-Dong; Wallner, Martin; Trudell, James R; Bertaccini, Edward J; Lindahl, Erik; Miller, Keith W; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-03-01

    The molecular mechanism(s) of action of anesthetic, and especially, intoxicating doses of alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) have been of interest even before the advent of the Research Society on Alcoholism. Recent physiological, genetic, and biochemical studies have pin-pointed molecular targets for anesthetics and EtOH in the brain as ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) membrane proteins, especially the pentameric (5 subunit) Cys-loop superfamily of neurotransmitter receptors including nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChRs), GABAA (GABAA Rs), and glycine receptors (GlyRs). The ability to demonstrate molecular and structural elements of these proteins critical for the behavioral effects of these drugs on animals and humans provides convincing evidence for their role in the drugs' actions. Amino acid residues necessary for pharmacologically relevant allosteric modulation of LGIC function by anesthetics and EtOH have been identified in these channel proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed potential allosteric modulatory sites in both the trans-membrane domain (TMD) and extracellular domain (ECD). Potential sites of action and binding have been deduced from homology modeling of other LGICs with structures known from crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy studies. Direct information about ligand binding in the TMD has been obtained by photoaffinity labeling, especially in GABAA Rs. Recent structural information from crystallized procaryotic (ELIC and GLIC) and eukaryotic (GluCl) LGICs allows refinement of the structural models including evaluation of possible sites of EtOH action.

  11. An overview of trafficking and assembly of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels (Review).

    PubMed

    Schwappach, Blanche

    2008-05-01

    Ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and voltage-gated ion channels assemble from several homologous and non-homologous subunits. Assembly of these multimeric membrane proteins is a tightly controlled process subject to primary and secondary quality control mechanisms. An assembly pathway involving a dimerization of dimers has been demonstrated for a voltage-gated potassium channel and for different types of glutamate receptors. While many novel C-terminal assembly domains have been identified in various members of the voltage-gated cation channel superfamily, the assembly pathways followed by these proteins remain largely elusive. Recent progress on the recognition of polar residues in the transmembrane segments of membrane proteins by the retrieval factor Rer1 is likely to be relevant for the further investigation of trafficking defects in channelopathies. This mechanism might also contribute to controlling the assembly of ion channels by retrieving unassembled subunits to the endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum is a metabolic compartment studded with small molecule transporters. This environment provides ligands that have recently been shown to act as pharmacological chaperones in the biogenesis of ligand-gated ion channels. Future progress depends on the improvement of tools, in particular the antibodies used by the field, and the continued exploitation of genetically tractable model organisms in screens and physiological experiments. PMID:18446613

  12. Mechanistic Insights into the Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels by Inhalational Anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Manuel; Barber, Annika F; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Treptow, Werner; Eckenhoff, Roderic G

    2015-11-17

    General anesthesia is a relatively safe medical procedure, which for nearly 170 years has allowed life saving surgical interventions in animals and people. However, the molecular mechanism of general anesthesia continues to be a matter of importance and debate. A favored hypothesis proposes that general anesthesia results from direct multisite interactions with multiple and diverse ion channels in the brain. Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels and two-pore K+ channels are key players in the mechanism of anesthesia; however, new studies have also implicated voltage-gated ion channels. Recent biophysical and structural studies of Na+ and K+ channels strongly suggest that halogenated inhalational general anesthetics interact with gates and pore regions of these ion channels to modulate function. Here, we review these studies and provide a perspective to stimulate further advances.

  13. Extracellular ATP directly gates a cation-selective channel in rabbit airway ciliated epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Korngreen, Alon; Ma, Weiyuan; Priel, Zvi; Silberberg, Shai D

    1998-01-01

    was 1.2 in both solutions. These observations suggest that a form of ATP uncomplexed with divalent cations directly gates an ion channel (P2X receptor) in rabbit airway ciliated cells, which serves as a pathway for Ca2+ influx. This purinoceptor may contribute to sustained ciliary activation during prolonged exposures to ATP. PMID:9518727

  14. Cloning of a cGMP-gated cation channel from mouse kidney inner medullary collecting duct.

    PubMed

    Karlson, K H; Ciampolillo-Bates, F; McCoy, D E; Kizer, N L; Stanton, B A

    1995-05-24

    The cDNA sequence coding for the cGMP-gated cation channel expressed in the mouse kidney inner medullary collecting duct has been determined. The kidney cGMP-gated cation channel cDNA has an open reading frame of 2055 nucleotides and encodes a 685 amino acid protein. One cDNA clone is alternatively spliced thereby producing a deletion of 107 bp. Two differentially spliced 5' untranslated regions were determined by 5' RACE.

  15. Role of Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Channels in Stress Management in Plants.

    PubMed

    Jha, Saroj K; Sharma, Manisha; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2016-08-01

    Tolerance of plants to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses such as pathogen and herbivore attack, drought, salinity, cold and nutritional limitations is ensued by complex multimodule signaling pathways. The outcome of this complex signaling pathways results in adaptive responses by restoring the cellular homeostasis and thus promoting survival. Functions of many plant cation transporter and channel protein families such as glutamate receptor homologs (GLRs), cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC) have been implicated in providing biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Ion homeostasis regulated by several transporters and channels is one of the crucial parameters for the optimal growth, development and survival of all living organisms. The CNGC family members are known to be involved in the uptake of cations such as Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) and regulate plant growth and development. Detail functional genomics approaches have given an emerging picture of CNGCs wherein these protein are believed to play crucial role in pathways related to cellular ion homeostasis, development and as a 'guard' in defense against biotic and abiotic challenges. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of role of CNGCs in mediating stress management and how they aid plants in survival under adverse conditions. PMID:27499681

  16. Multiple mechanisms underlying rectification in retinal cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNGA1) channels.

    PubMed

    Arcangeletti, Manuel; Marchesi, Arin; Mazzolini, Monica; Torre, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    In cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNGA1) channels, in the presence of symmetrical ionic conditions, current-voltage (I-V) relationship depends, in a complex way, on the radius of permeating ion. It has been suggested that both the pore and S4 helix contribute to the observed rectification. In the present manuscript, using tail and gating current measurements from homotetrameric CNGA1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, we clarify and quantify the role of the pore and of the S4 helix. We show that in symmetrical Rb(+) and Cs(+) single-channel current rectification dominates macroscopic currents while voltage-dependent gating becomes larger in symmetrical ethylammonium and dimethylammonium, where the open probability strongly depends on voltage. Isochronal tail currents analysis in dimethylammonium shows that at least two voltage-dependent transitions underlie the observed rectification. Only the first voltage-dependent transition is sensible to mutation of charge residues in the S4 helix. Moreover, analysis of tail and gating currents indicates that the number of elementary charges per channel moving across the membrane is less than 2, when they are about 12 in K(+) channels. These results indicate the existence of distinct mechanisms underlying rectification in CNG channels. A restricted motion of the S4 helix together with an inefficient coupling to the channel gate render CNGA1 channels poorly sensitive to voltage in the presence of physiological Na(+) and K(+).

  17. STIM1 triggers a gating rearrangement at the extracellular mouth of the ORAI1 channel

    PubMed Central

    Gudlur, Aparna; Quintana, Ariel; Zhou, Yubin; Hirve, Nupura; Mahapatra, Sahasransu; Hogan, Patrick G

    2015-01-01

    The ER-resident regulatory protein STIM1 triggers store-operated Ca2+ entry by direct interaction with the plasma membrane Ca2+ channel ORAI1. The mechanism of channel gating remains undefined. Here we establish that STIM1 gates the purified recombinant ORAI1 channel in vitro, and use Tb3+ luminescence and, separately, disulfide crosslinking to probe movements of the pore-lining helices. We show that interaction of STIM1 with the cytoplasmic face of the human ORAI1 channel elicits a conformational change near the external entrance to the pore, detectable at the pore Ca2+-binding residue E106 and the adjacent pore-lining residue V102. We demonstrate that a short nonpolar segment of the pore including V102 forms a barrier to ion flux in the closed channel, implicating the STIM1-dependent movement in channel gating. Our data explain the close coupling between ORAI1 channel gating and ion selectivity, and open a new avenue to dissect the gating, modulation, and inactivation of ORAI-family channels. PMID:25296861

  18. The orphan pentameric ligand-gated ion channel pHCl-2 is gated by pH and regulates fluid secretion in Drosophila Malpighian tubules.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Daniel; Starc, Tanja; O'Donnell, Michael J; Nilson, Laura; Dent, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) constitute a large protein superfamily in metazoa whose role as neurotransmitter receptors mediating rapid, ionotropic synaptic transmission has been extensively studied. Although the vast majority of pLGICs appear to be neurotransmitter receptors, the identification of pLGICs in non-neuronal tissues and homologous pLGIC-like proteins in prokaryotes points to biological functions, possibly ancestral, that are independent of neuronal signalling. Here, we report the molecular and physiological characterization of a highly divergent, orphan pLGIC subunit encoded by the pHCl-2 (CG11340) gene, in Drosophila melanogaster We show that pHCl-2 forms a channel that is insensitive to a wide array of neurotransmitters, but is instead gated by changes in extracellular pH. pHCl-2 is expressed in the Malpighian tubules, which are non-innervated renal-type secretory tissues. We demonstrate that pHCl-2 is localized to the apical membrane of the epithelial principal cells of the tubules and that loss of pHCl-2 reduces urine production during diuresis. Our data implicate pHCl-2 as an important source of chloride conductance required for proper urine production, highlighting a novel role for pLGICs in epithelial tissues regulating fluid secretion and osmotic homeostasis. PMID:27358471

  19. In vivo potency of different ligands on voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Safrany-Fark, Arpad; Petrovszki, Zita; Kekesi, Gabriella; Liszli, Peter; Benedek, Gyorgy; Keresztes, Csilla; Horvath, Gyongyi

    2015-09-01

    The Ranvier nodes of thick myelinated nerve fibers contain almost exclusively voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs), while the unmyelinated fibers have several receptors (e.g., cannabinoid, transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1), too. Therefore, a nerve which contains only motor fibers can be an appropriate in vivo model for selective influence of Navs. The goals were to evaluate the potency of local anesthetic drugs on such a nerve in vivo; furthermore, to investigate the effects of ligands with different structures (arachidonic acid, anandamide, capsaicin and nisoxetine) that were proved to inhibit Navs in vitro with antinociceptive properties. The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve was explored in anesthetized Wistar rats; after its stimulation, the electrical activity of the vibrissae muscles was registered following the perineural injection of different drugs. Lidocaine, bupivacaine and ropivacaine evoked dose-dependent decrease in electromyographic activity, i.e., lidocaine had lower potency than bupivacaine or ropivacaine. QX-314 did not cause any effect by itself, but its co-application with lidocaine produced a prolonged inhibition. Nisoxetine had a very low potency. While anandamide and capsaicin in high doses caused about 50% decrease in the amplitude of action potential, arachidonic acid did not influence the responses. We proved that the classical local anesthetics have high potency on motor nerves, suggesting that this method might be a reliable model for selective targeting of Navs in vivo circumstances. It is proposed that the effects of these endogenous lipids and capsaicin on sensory fibers are not primarily mediated by Navs.

  20. Mechanisms of closed-state inactivation in voltage-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Bähring, Robert; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Inactivation of voltage-gated ion channels is an intrinsic auto-regulatory process necessary to govern the occurrence and shape of action potentials and establish firing patterns in excitable tissues. Inactivation may occur from the open state (open-state inactivation, OSI) at strongly depolarized membrane potentials, or from pre-open closed states (closed-state inactivation, CSI) at hyperpolarized and modestly depolarized membrane potentials. Voltage-gated Na+, K+, Ca2+ and non-selective cationic channels utilize both OSI and CSI. Whereas there are detailed mechanistic descriptions of OSI, much less is known about the molecular basis of CSI. Here, we review evidence for CSI in voltage-gated cationic channels (VGCCs) and recent findings that shed light on the molecular mechanisms of CSI in voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels. Particularly, complementary observations suggest that the S4 voltage sensor, the S4S5 linker and the main S6 activation gate are instrumental in the installment of CSI in Kv4 channels. According to this hypothesis, the voltage sensor may adopt a distinct conformation to drive CSI and, depending on the stability of the interactions between the voltage sensor and the pore domain, a closed-inactivated state results from rearrangements in the selectivity filter or failure of the activation gate to open. Kv4 channel CSI may efficiently exploit the dynamics of the subthreshold membrane potential to regulate spiking properties in excitable tissues. PMID:21098008

  1. AKAP150-dependent cooperative TRPV4 channel gating is central to endothelium-dependent vasodilation and is disrupted in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sonkusare, Swapnil K.; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Bonev, Adrian D.; Hill-Eubanks, David C.; Kotlikoff, Michael I.; Scott, John D.; Santana, Luis F.; Nelson, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cell dysfunction, characterized by a diminished response to endothelial cell–dependent vasodilators, is a hallmark of hypertension. TRPV4 channels play a major role in endothelial-dependent vaso-dilation, a function mediated by local Ca2+ influx through clusters of functionally coupled TRPV4 channels rather than by a global increase in endothelial cell Ca2+. We showed that stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on endothelial cells of mouse arteries exclusively activated TRPV4 channels that were localized at myoendothelial projections (MEPs), specialized regions of endothelial cells that contact smooth muscle cells. Muscarinic receptor–mediated activation of TRPV4 depended on protein kinase C (PKC) and the PKC-anchoring protein AKAP150, which was concentrated at MEPs. Cooperative opening of clustered TRPV4 channels specifically amplified Ca2+ influx at MEPs. Cooperativity of TRPV4 channels at non-MEP sites was much lower, and cooperativity at MEPs was greatly reduced by chelation of intracellular Ca2+ or AKAP150 knockout, suggesting that Ca2+ entering through adjacent channels underlies the AKAP150-dependent potentiation of TRPV4 activity. In a mouse model of angiotensin II–induced hypertension, MEP localization of AKAP150 was disrupted, muscarinic receptor stimulation did not activate TRPV4 channels, cooperativity among TRPV4 channels at MEPs was weaker, and vasodilation in response to muscarinic receptor stimulation was reduced. Thus, endothelial-dependent dilation of resistance arteries is enabled by MEP-localized AKAP150, which ensures the proximity of PKC to TRPV4 channels and the coupled channel gating necessary for efficient communication from endothelial to smooth muscle cells in arteries. Disruption of this molecular assembly may contribute to altered blood flow in hypertension. PMID:25005230

  2. Amplification of small signals by voltage-gated sodium channels in drone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Coles, J A; Schneider-Picard, G

    1989-04-01

    Photoreceptor cells of the drone, Apis mellifera male, have a voltage-gated Na+ membrane conductance that can be blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX) and generates an action potential on abrupt depolarization: an action potential is triggered by the rising phase of a receptor potential evoked by an intense light flash (Autrum and von Zwehl 1964; Baumann 1968). We measured the intracellular voltage response to a small (9%), brief (30 ms) decrease in light intensity from a background, and found that its amplitude was decreased by 1 microM TTX. The response amplitude was maximal when the background intensity depolarized the cell to -38 mV. With intensities depolarizing the cell membrane to -45 to -33 mV the average response amplitude was decreased by TTX from 1.2 mV to 0.5 mV. TTX is also known to decrease the voltage noise during steady illumination (Ferraro et al. 1983) but, despite this, the ratio of peak-to-peak signal to noise was, on average, decreased by TTX. The results suggest that drone photoreceptors use voltage-gated Na+ channels for graded amplification of responses to small, rapid changes in light intensity.

  3. Physiology and pathophysiology of canonical transient receptor potential channels

    PubMed Central

    Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    The existence of a mammalian family of TRPC ion channels, direct homologues of TRP, the visual transduction channel of flies, was discovered during 1995–1996 as a consequence of research into the mechanism by which the stimulation of the receptor-Gq-phospholipase Cβ signaling pathway leads to sustained increases in intracellular calcium. Mammalian TRPs, TRPCs, turned out to be nonselective, calcium-permeable cation channels, which cause both a collapse of the cell’s membrane potential and entry of calcium. The family comprises 7 members and is widely expressed. Many cells and tissues express between 3 and 4 of the 7 TRPCs. Despite their recent discovery, a wealth of information has accumulated, showing that TRPCs have widespread roles in almost all cells studied, including cells from excitable and nonexcitable tissues, such as the nervous and cardiovascular systems, the kidney and the liver, and cells from endothelia, epithelia, and the bone marrow compartment. Disruption of TRPC function is at the root of some familial diseases. More often, TRPCs are contributing risk factors in complex diseases. The present article reviews what has been uncovered about physiological roles of mammalian TRPC channels since the time of their discovery. This analysis reveals TRPCs as major and unsuspected gates of Ca2+ entry that contribute, depending on context, to activation of transcription factors, apoptosis, vascular contractility, platelet activation, and cardiac hypertrophy, as well as to normal and abnormal cell proliferation. TRPCs emerge as targets for a thus far nonexistent field of pharmacological intervention that may ameliorate complex diseases.—Abramowitz, J., Birnbaumer, L. Physiology and pathophysiology of canonical transient receptor potential channels. PMID:18940894

  4. Acetylcholine receptor gating: movement in the alpha-subunit extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Prasad; Auerbach, Anthony

    2007-12-01

    Acetylcholine receptor channel gating is a brownian conformational cascade in which nanometer-sized domains ("Phi blocks") move in staggering sequence to link an affinity change at the transmitter binding sites with a conductance change in the pore. In the alpha-subunit, the first Phi-block to move during channel opening is comprised of residues near the transmitter binding site and the second is comprised of residues near the base of the extracellular domain. We used the rate constants estimated from single-channel currents to infer the gating dynamics of Y127 and K145, in the inner and outer sheet of the beta-core of the alpha-subunit. Y127 is at the boundary between the first and second Phi blocks, at a subunit interface. alphaY127 mutations cause large changes in the gating equilibrium constant and with a characteristic Phi-value (Phi = 0.77) that places this residue in the second Phi-block. We also examined the effect on gating of mutations in neighboring residues deltaI43 (Phi = 0.86), epsilonN39 (complex kinetics), alphaI49 (no effect) and in residues that are homologous to alphaY127 on the epsilon, beta, and delta subunits (no effect). The extent to which alphaY127 gating motions are coupled to its neighbors was estimated by measuring the kinetic and equilibrium constants of constructs having mutations in alphaY127 (in both alpha subunits) plus residues alphaD97 or deltaI43. The magnitude of the coupling between alphaD97 and alphaY127 depended on the alphaY127 side chain and was small for both H (0.53 kcal/mol) and C (-0.37 kcal/mol) substitutions. The coupling across the single alpha-delta subunit boundary was larger (0.84 kcal/mol). The Phi-value for K145 (0.96) indicates that its gating motion is correlated temporally with the motions of residues in the first Phi-block and is not synchronous with those of alphaY127. This suggests that the inner and outer sheets of the alpha-subunit beta-core do not rotate as a rigid body.

  5. Functional evolution of Erg potassium channel gating reveals an ancient origin for IKr

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Alexandra S.; van Rossum, Damian B.; Diatta, Fortunay H.; Layden, Michael J.; Rhodes, Sarah A.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Jegla, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian Ether-a-go-go related gene (Erg) family voltage-gated K+ channels possess an unusual gating phenotype that specializes them for a role in delayed repolarization. Mammalian Erg currents rectify during depolarization due to rapid, voltage-dependent inactivation, but rebound during repolarization due to a combination of rapid recovery from inactivation and slow deactivation. This is exemplified by the mammalian Erg1 channel, which is responsible for IKr, a current that repolarizes cardiac action potential plateaus. The Drosophila Erg channel does not inactivate and closes rapidly upon repolarization. The dramatically different properties observed in mammalian and Drosophila Erg homologs bring into question the evolutionary origins of distinct Erg K+ channel functions. Erg channels are highly conserved in eumetazoans and first evolved in a common ancestor of the placozoans, cnidarians, and bilaterians. To address the ancestral function of Erg channels, we identified and characterized Erg channel paralogs in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. N. vectensis Erg1 (NvErg1) is highly conserved with respect to bilaterian homologs and shares the IKr-like gating phenotype with mammalian Erg channels. Thus, the IKr phenotype predates the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians. NvErg4 and Caenorhabditis elegans Erg (unc-103) share the divergent Drosophila Erg gating phenotype. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis surprisingly indicates that this alternate gating phenotype arose independently in protosomes and cnidarians. Conversion from an ancestral IKr-like gating phenotype to a Drosophila Erg-like phenotype correlates with loss of the cytoplasmic Ether-a-go-go domain. This domain is required for slow deactivation in mammalian Erg1 channels, and thus its loss may partially explain the change in gating phenotype. PMID:24706772

  6. A statistical analysis of acetylcholine receptor activation in Xenopus myocytes: stepwise versus concerted models of gating.

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, A

    1993-01-01

    1. The kinetic properties of single channel currents from fetal-type acetylcholine receptors in embryonic Xenopus myocytes (60 h old) have been analysed by a maximum-likelihood method. 2. At very high acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations (up to 5 mM) the effective opening rate appears to saturate at approximately 30,000 s-1. 3. The kinetics were analysed according to the standard concerted scheme that postulates a single channel-opening conformational change after two agonists are bound, and a rarely invoked stepwise scheme that postulates semi-independent conformational changes in two distinct gating domains. Both models assume that agonist cannot escape from a channel (or domain) that is in its activated conformation. 4. With either activation scheme the kinetic analyses indicate that ACh binds at a rate of approximately 2 x 10(8) s-1 M-1 and dissociates from doubly liganded receptors at a rate of approximately 28,000 s-1, and that the activation process is asymmetric, i.e. the binding (concerted model) or gating (stepwise model) transitions are not equal and independent. 5. In eighteen of twenty-seven file-by-file comparisons, the likelihood of the stepwise model was greater than that of the concerted model. In seven such comparisons, the likelihood of the concerted model was greater than that of the stepwise model, and in two there was no difference. Log likelihood ratio distributions were obtained from three files (those with the most events) by multiple cycles of resampling and fitting. The means of these distributions were significantly greater than zero, indicating that the stepwise scheme was as good as, or better than, the concerted scheme in describing receptor activation. 6. According to the stepwise view, two binding sites must be occupied and two 'gates' activated for conduction to occur. Although equivalent binding is not an essential aspect of stepwise activation, the binding sites can be identical and have a low affinity for ACh (Kd approximately 130

  7. Stabilization of the conductive conformation of a voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel: the lid mechanism.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jose S; Syeda, Ruhma; Montal, Mauricio

    2013-06-01

    Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels are molecular switches that sense membrane potential and in response open to allow K(+) ions to diffuse out of the cell. In these proteins, sensor and pore belong to two distinct structural modules. We previously showed that the pore module alone is a robust yet dynamic structural unit in lipid membranes and that it senses potential and gates open to conduct K(+) with unchanged fidelity. The implication is that the voltage sensitivity of K(+) channels is not solely encoded in the sensor. Given that the coupling between sensor and pore remains elusive, we asked whether it is then possible to convert a pore module characterized by brief openings into a conductor with a prolonged lifetime in the open state. The strategy involves selected probes targeted to the filter gate of the channel aiming to modulate the probability of the channel being open assayed by single channel recordings from the sensorless pore module reconstituted in lipid bilayers. Here we show that the premature closing of the pore is bypassed by association of the filter gate with two novel open conformation stabilizers: an antidepressant and a peptide toxin known to act selectively on Kv channels. Such stabilization of the conductive conformation of the channel is faithfully mimicked by the covalent attachment of fluorescein at a cysteine residue selectively introduced near the filter gate. This modulation prolongs the occupancy of permeant ions at the gate. It is this longer embrace between ion and gate that we conjecture underlies the observed stabilization of the conductive conformation. This study provides a new way of thinking about gating.

  8. A combined coarse-grained and all-atom simulation of TRPV1 channel gating and heat activation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels act as key sensors of various chemical and physical stimuli in eukaryotic cells. Despite years of study, the molecular mechanisms of TRP channel activation remain unclear. To elucidate the structural, dynamic, and energetic basis of gating in TRPV1 (a founding member of the TRPV subfamily), we performed coarse-grained modeling and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based on the recently solved high resolution structures of the open and closed form of TRPV1. Our coarse-grained normal mode analysis captures two key modes of collective motions involved in the TRPV1 gating transition, featuring a quaternary twist motion of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) relative to the intracellular domains (ICDs). Our transition pathway modeling predicts a sequence of structural movements that propagate from the ICDs to the TMDs via key interface domains (including the membrane proximal domain and the C-terminal domain), leading to sequential opening of the selectivity filter followed by the lower gate in the channel pore (confirmed by modeling conformational changes induced by the activation of ICDs). The above findings of coarse-grained modeling are robust to perturbation by lipids. Finally, our MD simulation of the ICD identifies key residues that contribute differently to the nonpolar energy of the open and closed state, and these residues are predicted to control the temperature sensitivity of TRPV1 gating. These computational predictions offer new insights to the mechanism for heat activation of TRPV1 gating, and will guide our future electrophysiology and mutagenesis studies. PMID:25918362

  9. Allosteric coupling of the inner activation gate to the outer pore of a potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christian J; Fedida, David; Accili, Eric A

    2013-10-23

    In potassium channels, functional coupling of the inner and outer pore gates may result from energetic interactions between residues and conformational rearrangements that occur along a structural path between them. Here, we show that conservative mutations of a residue near the inner activation gate of the Shaker potassium channel (I470) modify the rate of C-type inactivation at the outer pore, pointing to this residue as part of a pathway that couples inner gate opening to changes in outer pore structure and reduction of ion flow. Because they remain equally sensitive to rises in extracellular potassium, altered inactivation rates of the mutant channels are not secondary to modified binding of potassium to the outer pore. Conservative mutations of I470 also influence the interaction of the Shaker N-terminus with the inner gate, which separately affects the outer pore.

  10. A two-dimensional analytical model for short channel junctionless double-gate MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunsheng; Liang, Renrong; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jun

    2015-05-01

    A physics-based analytical model of electrostatic potential for short-channel junctionless double-gate MOSFETs (JLDGMTs) operated in the subthreshold regime is proposed, in which the full two-dimensional (2-D) Poisson's equation is solved in channel region by a method of series expansion similar to Green's function. The expression of the proposed electrostatic potential is completely rigorous and explicit. Based on this expression, analytical models of threshold voltage, subthreshold swing, and subthreshold drain current for JLDGMTs were derived. Subthreshold behavior was studied in detail by changing different device parameters and bias conditions, including doping concentration, channel thickness, gate length, gate oxide thickness, drain voltage, and gate voltage. Results predicted by all the analytical models agree well with numerical solutions from the 2-D simulator. These analytical models can be used to investigate the operating mechanisms of nanoscale JLDGMTs and to optimize their device performance.

  11. The KCNQ1 channel – remarkable flexibility in gating allows for functional versatility

    PubMed Central

    Liin, Sara I; Barro-Soria, Rene; Larsson, H Peter

    2015-01-01

    The KCNQ1 channel (also called Kv7.1 or KvLQT1) belongs to the superfamily of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels. KCNQ1 shares several general features with other Kv channels but also displays a fascinating flexibility in terms of the mechanism of channel gating, which allows KCNQ1 to play different physiological roles in different tissues. This flexibility allows KCNQ1 channels to function as voltage-independent channels in epithelial tissues, whereas KCNQ1 function as voltage-activated channels with very slow kinetics in cardiac tissues. This flexibility is in part provided by the association of KCNQ1 with different accessory KCNE β-subunits and different modulators, but also seems like an integral part of KCNQ1 itself. The aim of this review is to describe the main mechanisms underlying KCNQ1 flexibility. PMID:25653179

  12. Activation and Regulation of Purinergic P2X Receptor Channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Yan, Zonghe; Obsil, Tomas; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian ATP-gated nonselective cation channels (P2XRs) can be composed of seven possible subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7. Each subunit contains a large ectodomain, two transmembrane domains, and intracellular N and C termini. Functional P2XRs are organized as homomeric and heteromeric trimers. This review focuses on the binding sites involved in the activation (orthosteric) and regulation (allosteric) of P2XRs. The ectodomains contain three ATP binding sites, presumably located between neighboring subunits and formed by highly conserved residues. The detection and coordination of three ATP phosphate residues by positively charged amino acids are likely to play a dominant role in determining agonist potency, whereas an AsnPheArg motif may contribute to binding by coordinating the adenine ring. Nonconserved ectodomain histidines provide the binding sites for trace metals, divalent cations, and protons. The transmembrane domains account not only for the formation of the channel pore but also for the binding of ivermectin (a specific P2X4R allosteric regulator) and alcohols. The N- and C- domains provide the structures that determine the kinetics of receptor desensitization and/or pore dilation and are critical for the regulation of receptor functions by intracellular messengers, kinases, reactive oxygen species and mercury. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in a closed state provides a major advance in the understanding of this family of receptor channels. We will discuss data obtained from numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments accumulated during the last 15 years with reference to the crystal structure, allowing a structural interpretation of the molecular basis of orthosteric and allosteric ligand actions. PMID:21737531

  13. Artificial Modulation of the Gating Behavior of a K+ Channel in a KvAP-DNA Chimera

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Andrew; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    We present experiments where the gating behavior of a voltage-gated ion channel is modulated by artificial ligand binding. We construct a channel-DNA chimera with the KvAP potassium channel reconstituted in an artificial membrane. The channel is functional and the single channel ion conductivity unperturbed by the presence of the DNA. However, the channel opening probability vs. bias voltage, i.e., the gating, can be shifted considerably by the electrostatic force between the charges on the DNA and the voltage sensing domain of the protein. Different hybridization states of the chimera DNA thus lead to different response curves of the channel. PMID:21526187

  14. The gating mechanism of the large mechanosensitive channel MscL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukharev, S.; Betanzos, M.; Chiang, C. S.; Guy, H. R.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, MscL, is a ubiquitous membrane-embedded valve involved in turgor regulation in bacteria. The crystal structure of MscL from Mycobacterium tuberculosis provides a starting point for analysing molecular mechanisms of tension-dependent channel gating. Here we develop structural models in which a cytoplasmic gate is formed by a bundle of five amino-terminal helices (S1), previously unresolved in the crystal structure. When membrane tension is applied, the transmembrane barrel expands and pulls the gate apart through the S1-M1 linker. We tested these models by substituting cysteines for residues predicted to be near each other only in either the closed or open conformation. Our results demonstrate that S1 segments form the bundle when the channel is closed, and crosslinking between S1 segments prevents opening. S1 segments interact with M2 when the channel is open, and crosslinking of S1 to M2 impedes channel closing. Gating is affected by the length of the S1-M1 linker in a manner consistent with the model, revealing critical spatial relationships between the domains that transmit force from the lipid bilayer to the channel gate.

  15. Models of the Structure and Voltage-Gating Mechanism of the Shaker K+ Channel

    PubMed Central

    Durell, Stewart R.; Shrivastava, Indira H.; Guy, H. Robert

    2004-01-01

    In the preceding, accompanying article, we present models of the structure and voltage-dependent gating mechanism of the KvAP bacterial K+ channel that are based on three types of evidence: crystal structures of portions of the KvAP protein, theoretical modeling criteria for membrane proteins, and biophysical studies of the properties of native and mutated voltage-gated channels. Most of the latter experiments were performed on the Shaker K+ channel. Some of these data are difficult to relate directly to models of the KvAP channel's structure due to differences in the Shaker and KvAP sequences. We have dealt with this problem by developing new models of the structure and gating mechanism of the transmembrane and extracellular portions of the Shaker channel. These models are consistent with almost all of the biophysical data. In contrast, much of the experimental data are incompatible with the “paddle” model of gating that was proposed when the KvAP crystal structures were first published. The general folding pattern and gating mechanisms of our current models are similar to some of our earlier models of the Shaker channel. PMID:15454416

  16. Ion Selectivity Mechanism in a Bacterial Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, Sebastian M; Ivanov, Ivaylo N; Wang, Hailong; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    The proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) is a prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that responds to the binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and mediates fast signal transmission. Recent emergence of a high resolution crystal structure of GLIC captured in a potentially open state allowed detailed, atomic-level insight into ion conduction and selectivity mechanisms in these channels. Herein, we have examined the barriers to ion conduction and origins of ion selectivity in the GLIC channel by the construction of potential of mean force (PMF) profiles for sodium and chloride ions inside the transmembrane region. Our calculations reveal that the GLIC channel is open for a sodium ion to transport, but presents a ~10 kcal/mol free energy barrier for a chloride ion, which arises primarily from the unfavorable interactions with a ring of negatively charged glutamate residues (E-2 ) at the intracellular end and a ring of hydrophobic residues (I9 ) in the middle of the transmembrane domain. Our collective findings further suggest that the charge selection mechanism can, to a large extent, be attributed to the narrow intracellular end and a ring of glutamate residues in this position their strong negative electrostatics and ability to bind cations. By contrast, E19 at the extracellular entrance only plays a minor role in ion selectivity of GLIC. In addition to electrostatics, both ion hydration and protein dynamics are found to be crucial for ion conduction as well, which explains why a chloride ion experiences a much greater barrier than a sodium ion in the hydrophobic region of the pore.

  17. The Molecular Mechanism of Opening the Helix Bundle Crossing (HBC) Gate of a Kir Channel.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xuan-Yu; Liu, Shengtang; Cui, Meng; Zhou, Ruhong; Logothetis, Diomedes E

    2016-01-01

    Inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels, serving as natural molecular nanomachines, transport potassium ions across the plasma membrane of the cell. Along the ion permeation pathway, three relatively narrow regions (the selectivity filter (SF), the inner helix bundle crossing (HBC), and the cytosolic G loop) may serve as gates to control ion permeation. Our previous molecular dynamics simulations based on the crystal structure of a Kir3.1 chimera revealed the possible gating mechanism of the G loop gate. Here, we introduced a proline mutation in the inner helix and obtained a channel model of the open HBC gate. The open HBC gate reaches 0.6 nm in diameter, which allows partial hydrated K(+) ions to pass through. During the gating process, both the transmembrane helices TM1 and TM2 cooperatively rotate in a counterclockwise direction (viewed from the extracellular side) with the aid of the phospholipid PIP2. Only when all the transmembrane helices adopt a counterclockwise rotation, the HBC gate can be stabilized in the open state. We estimate that introduction of the proline mutation decreases the energy required to open the HBC gate by about 1.4 kcal/mol (ΔΔG).

  18. The Molecular Mechanism of Opening the Helix Bundle Crossing (HBC) Gate of a Kir Channel.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xuan-Yu; Liu, Shengtang; Cui, Meng; Zhou, Ruhong; Logothetis, Diomedes E

    2016-01-01

    Inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels, serving as natural molecular nanomachines, transport potassium ions across the plasma membrane of the cell. Along the ion permeation pathway, three relatively narrow regions (the selectivity filter (SF), the inner helix bundle crossing (HBC), and the cytosolic G loop) may serve as gates to control ion permeation. Our previous molecular dynamics simulations based on the crystal structure of a Kir3.1 chimera revealed the possible gating mechanism of the G loop gate. Here, we introduced a proline mutation in the inner helix and obtained a channel model of the open HBC gate. The open HBC gate reaches 0.6 nm in diameter, which allows partial hydrated K(+) ions to pass through. During the gating process, both the transmembrane helices TM1 and TM2 cooperatively rotate in a counterclockwise direction (viewed from the extracellular side) with the aid of the phospholipid PIP2. Only when all the transmembrane helices adopt a counterclockwise rotation, the HBC gate can be stabilized in the open state. We estimate that introduction of the proline mutation decreases the energy required to open the HBC gate by about 1.4 kcal/mol (ΔΔG). PMID:27439597

  19. The Molecular Mechanism of Opening the Helix Bundle Crossing (HBC) Gate of a Kir Channel

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xuan-Yu; Liu, Shengtang; Cui, Meng; Zhou, Ruhong; Logothetis, Diomedes E.

    2016-01-01

    Inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) channels, serving as natural molecular nanomachines, transport potassium ions across the plasma membrane of the cell. Along the ion permeation pathway, three relatively narrow regions (the selectivity filter (SF), the inner helix bundle crossing (HBC), and the cytosolic G loop) may serve as gates to control ion permeation. Our previous molecular dynamics simulations based on the crystal structure of a Kir3.1 chimera revealed the possible gating mechanism of the G loop gate. Here, we introduced a proline mutation in the inner helix and obtained a channel model of the open HBC gate. The open HBC gate reaches 0.6 nm in diameter, which allows partial hydrated K+ ions to pass through. During the gating process, both the transmembrane helices TM1 and TM2 cooperatively rotate in a counterclockwise direction (viewed from the extracellular side) with the aid of the phospholipid PIP2. Only when all the transmembrane helices adopt a counterclockwise rotation, the HBC gate can be stabilized in the open state. We estimate that introduction of the proline mutation decreases the energy required to open the HBC gate by about 1.4 kcal/mol (ΔΔG). PMID:27439597

  20. Proton-gated Ca(2+)-permeable TRP channels damage myelin in conditions mimicking ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Nicola B; Kolodziejczyk, Karolina; Kougioumtzidou, Eleni; Attwell, David

    2016-01-28

    The myelin sheaths wrapped around axons by oligodendrocytes are crucial for brain function. In ischaemia myelin is damaged in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, abolishing action potential propagation. This has been attributed to glutamate release activating Ca(2+)-permeable N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Surprisingly, we now show that NMDA does not raise the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in mature oligodendrocytes and that, although ischaemia evokes a glutamate-triggered membrane current, this is generated by a rise of extracellular [K(+)] and decrease of membrane K(+) conductance. Nevertheless, ischaemia raises oligodendrocyte [Ca(2+)]i, [Mg(2+)]i and [H(+)]i, and buffering intracellular pH reduces the [Ca(2+)]i and [Mg(2+)]i increases, showing that these are evoked by the rise of [H(+)]i. The H(+)-gated [Ca(2+)]i elevation is mediated by channels with characteristics of TRPA1, being inhibited by ruthenium red, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, HC-030031, A967079 or TRPA1 knockout. TRPA1 block reduces myelin damage in ischaemia. These data suggest that TRPA1-containing ion channels could be a therapeutic target in white matter ischaemia.

  1. Molecular dissection of gating in the ClC-2 chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Jordt, S E; Jentsch, T J

    1997-04-01

    The ClC-2 chloride channel is probably involved in the regulation of cell volume and of neuronal excitability. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to understand ClC-2 activation in response to cell swelling, hyperpolarization and acidic extracellular pH. Similar to equivalent mutations in ClC-0, neutralizing Lys566 at the end of the transmembrane domains results in outward rectification and a shift in voltage dependence, but leaves the basic gating mechanism, including swelling activation, intact. In contrast, mutations in the cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane domains D7 and D8 abolish all three modes of activation by constitutively opening the channel without changing its pore properties. These effects resemble those observed with deletions of an amino-terminal inactivation domain, and suggest that it may act as its receptor. Such a 'ball-and-chain' type mechanism may act as a final pathway in the activation of ClC-2 elicited by several stimuli. PMID:9130703

  2. The hitchhiker’s guide to the voltage-gated sodium channel galaxy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels contribute to the rising phase of action potentials and served as an early muse for biophysicists laying the foundation for our current understanding of electrical signaling. Given their central role in electrical excitability, it is not surprising that (a) inherited mutations in genes encoding for Nav channels and their accessory subunits have been linked to excitability disorders in brain, muscle, and heart; and (b) Nav channels are targeted by various drugs and naturally occurring toxins. Although the overall architecture and behavior of these channels are likely to be similar to the more well-studied voltage-gated potassium channels, eukaryotic Nav channels lack structural and functional symmetry, a notable difference that has implications for gating and selectivity. Activation of voltage-sensing modules of the first three domains in Nav channels is sufficient to open the channel pore, whereas movement of the domain IV voltage sensor is correlated with inactivation. Also, structure–function studies of eukaryotic Nav channels show that a set of amino acids in the selectivity filter, referred to as DEKA locus, is essential for Na+ selectivity. Structures of prokaryotic Nav channels have also shed new light on mechanisms of drug block. These structures exhibit lateral fenestrations that are large enough to allow drugs or lipophilic molecules to gain access into the inner vestibule, suggesting that this might be the passage for drug entry into a closed channel. In this Review, we will synthesize our current understanding of Nav channel gating mechanisms, ion selectivity and permeation, and modulation by therapeutics and toxins in light of the new structures of the prokaryotic Nav channels that, for the time being, serve as structural models of their eukaryotic counterparts. PMID:26712848

  3. X-ray structures of general anaesthetics bound to a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel.

    PubMed

    Nury, Hugues; Van Renterghem, Catherine; Weng, Yun; Tran, Alphonso; Baaden, Marc; Dufresne, Virginie; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Sonner, James M; Delarue, Marc; Corringer, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-20

    General anaesthetics have enjoyed long and widespread use but their molecular mechanism of action remains poorly understood. There is good evidence that their principal targets are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) such as inhibitory GABA(A) (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptors and excitatory nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are respectively potentiated and inhibited by general anaesthetics. The bacterial homologue from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC), whose X-ray structure was recently solved, is also sensitive to clinical concentrations of general anaesthetics. Here we describe the crystal structures of the complexes propofol/GLIC and desflurane/GLIC. These reveal a common general-anaesthetic binding site, which pre-exists in the apo-structure in the upper part of the transmembrane domain of each protomer. Both molecules establish van der Waals interactions with the protein; propofol binds at the entrance of the cavity whereas the smaller, more flexible, desflurane binds deeper inside. Mutations of some amino acids lining the binding site profoundly alter the ionic response of GLIC to protons, and affect its general-anaesthetic pharmacology. Molecular dynamics simulations, performed on the wild type (WT) and two GLIC mutants, highlight differences in mobility of propofol in its binding site and help to explain these effects. These data provide a novel structural framework for the design of general anaesthetics and of allosteric modulators of brain pLGICs.

  4. Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels Require Ankyrin-G for Transport to the Sensory Cilium of Rod Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Kizhatil, Krishnakumar; Baker, Sheila A.; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.; Bennett, Vann

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels localize exclusively to the plasma membrane of photosensitive outer segments of rod photoreceptors where they generate the electrical response to light. Here we found that targeting of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels to the rod outer segment required their interaction with ankyrin-G. Ankyrin-G localized exclusively to rod outer segments, coimmunoprecipitated with the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, and bound to the C-terminal domain of the β1-subunit. Ankyrin-G depletion in neonatal mouse retinas markedly reduced cyclic nucleotide-gated channel expression. Transgenic expression of cyclic nucleotide-gated channel β-subunit mutants in Xenopus rods showed that ankyrin-G binding was necessary and sufficient for targeting of the β1-subunit to outer segments. Thus ankyrin-G is required for transport of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels to the plasma membrane of rod outer segments. PMID:19299621

  5. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mariah R; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca(2+) release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca(2+) release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants.

  6. The Validation of Nematode-Specific Acetylcholine-Gated Chloride Channels as Potential Anthelmintic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wever, Claudia M.; Farrington, Danielle; Dent, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    New compounds are needed to treat parasitic nematode infections in humans, livestock and plants. Small molecule anthelmintics are the primary means of nematode parasite control in animals; however, widespread resistance to the currently available drug classes means control will be impossible without the introduction of new compounds. Adverse environmental effects associated with nematocides used to control plant parasitic species are also motivating the search for safer, more effective compounds. Discovery of new anthelmintic drugs in particular has been a serious challenge due to the difficulty of obtaining and culturing target parasites for high-throughput screens and the lack of functional genomic techniques to validate potential drug targets in these pathogens. We present here a novel strategy for target validation that employs the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to demonstrate the value of new ligand-gated ion channels as targets for anthelmintic discovery. Many successful anthelmintics, including ivermectin, levamisole and monepantel, are agonists of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, suggesting that the unexploited pentameric ion channels encoded in parasite genomes may be suitable drug targets. We validated five members of the nematode-specific family of acetylcholine-gated chloride channels as targets of agonists with anthelmintic properties by ectopically expressing an ivermectin-gated chloride channel, AVR-15, in tissues that endogenously express the acetylcholine-gated chloride channels and using the effects of ivermectin to predict the effects of an acetylcholine-gated chloride channel agonist. In principle, our strategy can be applied to validate any ion channel as a putative anti-parasitic drug target. PMID:26393923

  7. GlialCAM, a CLC-2 Cl- Channel Subunit, Activates the Slow Gate of CLC Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Jeworutzki, Elena; Lagostena, Laura; Elorza-Vidal, Xabier; López-Hernández, Tania; Estévez, Raúl; Pusch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    GlialCAM, a glial cell adhesion molecule mutated in megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts, targets the CLC-2 Cl- channel to cell contacts in glia and activates CLC-2 currents in vitro and in vivo. We found that GlialCAM clusters all CLC channels at cell contacts in vitro and thus studied GlialCAM interaction with CLC channels to investigate the mechanism of functional activation. GlialCAM slowed deactivation kinetics of CLC-Ka/barttin channels and increased CLC-0 currents opening the common gate and slowing its deactivation. No functional effect was seen for common gate deficient CLC-0 mutants. Similarly, GlialCAM targets the common gate deficient CLC-2 mutant E211V/H816A to cell contacts, without altering its function. Thus, GlialCAM is able to interact with all CLC channels tested, targeting them to cell junctions and activating them by stabilizing the open configuration of the common gate. These results are important to better understand the physiological role of GlialCAM/CLC-2 interaction. PMID:25185546

  8. A ligand channel through the G protein coupled receptor opsin.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Peter W; Scheerer, Patrick; Park, Jung Hee; Choe, Hui-Woog; Piechnick, Ronny; Ernst, Oliver P; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Heck, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The G protein coupled receptor rhodopsin contains a pocket within its seven-transmembrane helix (TM) structure, which bears the inactivating 11-cis-retinal bound by a protonated Schiff-base to Lys296 in TM7. Light-induced 11-cis-/all-trans-isomerization leads to the Schiff-base deprotonated active Meta II intermediate. With Meta II decay, the Schiff-base bond is hydrolyzed, all-trans-retinal is released from the pocket, and the apoprotein opsin reloaded with new 11-cis-retinal. The crystal structure of opsin in its active Ops* conformation provides the basis for computational modeling of retinal release and uptake. The ligand-free 7TM bundle of opsin opens into the hydrophobic membrane layer through openings A (between TM1 and 7), and B (between TM5 and 6), respectively. Using skeleton search and molecular docking, we find a continuous channel through the protein that connects these two openings and comprises in its central part the retinal binding pocket. The channel traverses the receptor over a distance of ca. 70 A and is between 11.6 and 3.2 A wide. Both openings are lined with aromatic residues, while the central part is highly polar. Four constrictions within the channel are so narrow that they must stretch to allow passage of the retinal beta-ionone-ring. Constrictions are at openings A and B, respectively, and at Trp265 and Lys296 within the retinal pocket. The lysine enforces a 90 degrees elbow-like kink in the channel which limits retinal passage. With a favorable Lys side chain conformation, 11-cis-retinal can take the turn, whereas passage of the all-trans isomer would require more global conformational changes. We discuss possible scenarios for the uptake of 11-cis- and release of all-trans-retinal. If the uptake gate of 11-cis-retinal is assigned to opening B, all-trans is likely to leave through the same gate. The unidirectional passage proposed previously requires uptake of 11-cis-retinal through A and release of photolyzed all-trans-retinal through

  9. Voltage-gated calcium channels and their auxiliary subunits: physiology and pathophysiology and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Annette C

    2016-10-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are essential players in many physiological processes in excitable cells. There are three main subdivisions of calcium channel, defined by the pore-forming α1 subunit, the CaV 1, CaV 2 and CaV 3 channels. For all the subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channel, their gating properties are key for the precise control of neurotransmitter release, muscle contraction and cell excitability, among many other processes. For the CaV 1 and CaV 2 channels, their ability to reach their required destinations in the cell membrane, their activation and the fine tuning of their biophysical properties are all dramatically influenced by the auxiliary subunits that associate with them. Furthermore, there are many diseases, both genetic and acquired, involving voltage-gated calcium channels. This review will provide a general introduction and then concentrate particularly on the role of auxiliary α2 δ subunits in both physiological and pathological processes involving calcium channels, and as a therapeutic target. PMID:27273705

  10. Voltage-gated calcium channels and their auxiliary subunits: physiology and pathophysiology and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Annette C

    2016-10-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are essential players in many physiological processes in excitable cells. There are three main subdivisions of calcium channel, defined by the pore-forming α1 subunit, the CaV 1, CaV 2 and CaV 3 channels. For all the subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channel, their gating properties are key for the precise control of neurotransmitter release, muscle contraction and cell excitability, among many other processes. For the CaV 1 and CaV 2 channels, their ability to reach their required destinations in the cell membrane, their activation and the fine tuning of their biophysical properties are all dramatically influenced by the auxiliary subunits that associate with them. Furthermore, there are many diseases, both genetic and acquired, involving voltage-gated calcium channels. This review will provide a general introduction and then concentrate particularly on the role of auxiliary α2 δ subunits in both physiological and pathological processes involving calcium channels, and as a therapeutic target.

  11. Fast and slow gating are inherent properties of the pore module of the K+ channel Kcv

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, Alessandra; DiFrancesco, Mattia Lorenzo; Schroeder, Indra; Epimashko, Svetlana; Gazzarrini, Sabrina; Hansen, Ulf Peter; Thiel, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Kcv from the chlorella virus PBCV-1 is a viral protein that forms a tetrameric, functional K+ channel in heterologous systems. Kcv can serve as a model system to study and manipulate basic properties of the K+ channel pore because its minimalistic structure (94 amino acids) produces basic features of ion channels, such as selectivity, gating, and sensitivity to blockers. We present a characterization of Kcv properties at the single-channel level. In symmetric 100 mM K+, single-channel conductance is 114 ± 11 pS. Two different voltage-dependent mechanisms are responsible for the gating of Kcv. “Fast” gating, analyzed by β distributions, is responsible for the negative slope conductance in the single-channel current–voltage curve at extreme potentials, like in MaxiK potassium channels, and can be explained by depletion-aggravated instability of the filter region. The presence of a “slow” gating is revealed by the very low (in the order of 1–4%) mean open probability that is voltage dependent and underlies the time-dependent component of the macroscopic current. PMID:19720961

  12. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 18 is an essential Ca2+ channel in pollen tube tips for pollen tube guidance to ovules in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qi-Fei; Gu, Li-Li; Wang, Hui-Qin; Fei, Cui-Fang; Fang, Xiang; Hussain, Jamshaid; Sun, Shu-Jing; Dong, Jing-Yun; Liu, Hongtao; Wang, Yong-Fei

    2016-03-15

    In flowering plants, pollen tubes are guided into ovules by multiple attractants from female gametophytes to release paired sperm cells for double fertilization. It has been well-established that Ca(2+) gradients in the pollen tube tips are essential for pollen tube guidance and that plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels in pollen tube tips are core components that regulate Ca(2+) gradients by mediating and regulating external Ca(2+) influx. Therefore, Ca(2+) channels are the core components for pollen tube guidance. However, there is still no genetic evidence for the identification of the putative Ca(2+) channels essential for pollen tube guidance. Here, we report that the point mutations R491Q or R578K in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 18 (CNGC18) resulted in abnormal Ca(2+) gradients and strong pollen tube guidance defects by impairing the activation of CNGC18 in Arabidopsis. The pollen tube guidance defects of cngc18-17 (R491Q) and of the transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertion mutant cngc18-1 (+/-) were completely rescued by CNGC18. Furthermore, domain-swapping experiments showed that CNGC18's transmembrane domains are indispensable for pollen tube guidance. Additionally, we found that, among eight Ca(2+) channels (including six CNGCs and two glutamate receptor-like channels), CNGC18 was the only one essential for pollen tube guidance. Thus, CNGC18 is the long-sought essential Ca(2+) channel for pollen tube guidance in Arabidopsis.

  13. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 18 is an essential Ca2+ channel in pollen tube tips for pollen tube guidance to ovules in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qi-Fei; Gu, Li-Li; Wang, Hui-Qin; Fei, Cui-Fang; Fang, Xiang; Hussain, Jamshaid; Sun, Shu-Jing; Dong, Jing-Yun; Liu, Hongtao; Wang, Yong-Fei

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, pollen tubes are guided into ovules by multiple attractants from female gametophytes to release paired sperm cells for double fertilization. It has been well-established that Ca2+ gradients in the pollen tube tips are essential for pollen tube guidance and that plasma membrane Ca2+ channels in pollen tube tips are core components that regulate Ca2+ gradients by mediating and regulating external Ca2+ influx. Therefore, Ca2+ channels are the core components for pollen tube guidance. However, there is still no genetic evidence for the identification of the putative Ca2+ channels essential for pollen tube guidance. Here, we report that the point mutations R491Q or R578K in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 18 (CNGC18) resulted in abnormal Ca2+ gradients and strong pollen tube guidance defects by impairing the activation of CNGC18 in Arabidopsis. The pollen tube guidance defects of cngc18-17 (R491Q) and of the transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertion mutant cngc18-1 (+/−) were completely rescued by CNGC18. Furthermore, domain-swapping experiments showed that CNGC18’s transmembrane domains are indispensable for pollen tube guidance. Additionally, we found that, among eight Ca2+ channels (including six CNGCs and two glutamate receptor-like channels), CNGC18 was the only one essential for pollen tube guidance. Thus, CNGC18 is the long-sought essential Ca2+ channel for pollen tube guidance in Arabidopsis. PMID:26929345

  14. Overview of the voltage-gated sodium channel family

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Frank H; Catterall, William A

    2003-01-01

    Selective permeation of sodium ions through voltage-dependent sodium channels is fundamental to the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as neurons. These channels are large integral membrane proteins and are encoded by at least ten genes in mammals. The different sodium channels have remarkably similar functional properties, but small changes in sodium-channel function are biologically relevant, as underscored by mutations that cause several human diseases of hyperexcitability. PMID:12620097

  15. Voltage-gated potassium+ channel expression in coronary artery smooth muscle cells of SHR and WKY.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi; Ma, Aiqun; Zhang, Yushun; Xi, Yutao; Fan, Lihong; Wang, Tingzhong; Zhang, Tingting

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to compare the expression of genes and the molecular characteristic of voltage-gated K(+) channels, which make great effort in maintaining and controlling smooth muscle contraction, cellular membrane potential, and intracellular calcium ion currents in artery smooth muscle cells of SHR and WKY. Expression of potassium ions family in coronary artery was detected through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction quantitatively. Significant levels of voltage-gated K(+) channels α1.2, α1.5, and β1.1 expression were all proved to be significantly higher in smooth muscles of SHR than WKY. Whole-cell voltage-gated K(+) channel currents were larger in SHR artery smooth muscles than the ones of WKY. Moreover, the voltage dependence of voltage-gated potassium channel activation was more negative in artery smooth muscle of SHR than that of WKY, while voltage dependence of availability was not different. The above diversity of voltage-gated potassium channel detected in gene expression and electrical character in coronary artery smooth muscle of SHR than that of WKY might be an underling mechanism associated with the membrane potential depolarization in artery smooth muscle of SHR.

  16. Regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels by PI(4,5)P2.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Martin; Hammond, Gerald R V; Hille, Bertil

    2012-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) regulates activities of numerous ion channels including inwardly rectifying potassium (K(ir)) channels, KCNQ, TRP, and voltage-gated calcium channels. Several studies suggest that voltage-gated potassium (K(V)) channels might be regulated by PI(4,5)P(2). Wide expression of K(V) channels in different cells suggests that such regulation could have broad physiological consequences. To study regulation of K(V) channels by PI(4,5)P(2), we have coexpressed several of them in tsA-201 cells with a G protein-coupled receptor (M(1)R), a voltage-sensitive lipid 5-phosphatase (Dr-VSP), or an engineered fusion protein carrying both lipid 4-phosphatase and 5-phosphatase activity (pseudojanin). These tools deplete PI(4,5)P(2) with application of muscarinic agonists, depolarization, or rapamycin, respectively. PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane was monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PH probes of PLCδ1 simultaneously with whole-cell recordings. Activation of Dr-VSP or recruitment of pseudojanin inhibited K(V)7.1, K(V)7.2/7.3, and K(ir)2.1 channel current by 90-95%. Activation of M(1)R inhibited K(V)7.2/7.3 current similarly. With these tools, we tested for potential PI(4,5)P(2) regulation of activity of K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1, K(V)1.3, K(V)1.4, and K(V)1.5/K(V)β1.3, K(V)2.1, K(V)3.4, K(V)4.2, K(V)4.3 (with different KChIPs and DPP6-s), and hERG/KCNE2. Interestingly, we found a substantial removal of inactivation for K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1 and K(V)3.4, resulting in up-regulation of current density upon activation of M(1)R but no changes in activity upon activating only VSP or pseudojanin. The other channels tested except possibly hERG showed no alteration in activity in any of the assays we used. In conclusion, a depletion of PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane by enzymes does not seem to influence activity of most tested K(V) channels, whereas it does strongly inhibit members of the K(V)7 and K(ir) families. PMID

  17. Outward Rectification of Voltage-Gated K+ Channels Evolved at Least Twice in Life History.

    PubMed

    Riedelsberger, Janin; Dreyer, Ingo; Gonzalez, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels are present in all living systems. Despite high structural similarities in the transmembrane domains (TMD), this K+ channel type segregates into at least two main functional categories-hyperpolarization-activated, inward-rectifying (Kin) and depolarization-activated, outward-rectifying (Kout) channels. Voltage-gated K+ channels sense the membrane voltage via a voltage-sensing domain that is connected to the conduction pathway of the channel. It has been shown that the voltage-sensing mechanism is the same in Kin and Kout channels, but its performance results in opposite pore conformations. It is not known how the different coupling of voltage-sensor and pore is implemented. Here, we studied sequence and structural data of voltage-gated K+ channels from animals and plants with emphasis on the property of opposite rectification. We identified structural hotspots that alone allow already the distinction between Kin and Kout channels. Among them is a loop between TMD S5 and the pore that is very short in animal Kout, longer in plant and animal Kin and the longest in plant Kout channels. In combination with further structural and phylogenetic analyses this finding suggests that outward-rectification evolved twice and independently in the animal and plant kingdom.

  18. Non-silent story on synonymous sites in voltage-gated ion channel genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Ko, Eun A; Gu, Wanjun; Lim, Inja; Bang, Hyoweon; Ko, Jae-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Synonymous mutations are usually referred to as "silent", but increasing evidence shows that they are not neutral in a wide range of organisms. We looked into the relationship between synonymous codon usage bias and residue importance of voltage-gated ion channel proteins in mice, rats, and humans. We tested whether translationally optimal codons are associated with transmembrane or channel-forming regions, i.e., the sites that are particularly likely to be involved in the closing and opening of an ion channel. Our hypothesis is that translationally optimal codons are preferred at the sites within transmembrane domains or channel-forming regions in voltage-gated ion channel genes to avoid mistranslation-induced protein misfolding or loss-of-function. Using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, which applies to categorical data, we found that translationally optimal codons are more likely to be used at transmembrane residues and the residues involved in channel-forming. We also found that the conservation level at synonymous sites in the transmembrane region is significantly higher than that in the non-transmembrane region. This study provides evidence that synonymous sites in voltage-gated ion channel genes are not neutral. Silent mutations at channel-related sites may lead to dysfunction of the ion channel.

  19. Lipid Agonism, The PIP2 Paradigm of Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade, membrane signaling lipids emerged as major regulators of ion channel function. However, the molecular nature of lipid binding to ion channels remained poorly described due to a lack of structural information and assays to quantify and measure lipid binding in a membrane. How does a lipid-ligand bind to a membrane protein in the plasma membrane and what does it mean for a lipid to activate or regulate an ion channel? How does lipid-binding compare to activation by soluble neurotransmitter? And how does the cell control lipid agonism? This review focuses on lipids and their interactions with membrane proteins, in particular ion channels. I discuss the intersection of membrane lipid biology and ion channel biophysics. A picture emerges of membrane lipids as bona fide agonists of ligand-gated ion channels. These freely diffusing signals reside in the plasma membrane, bind to the transmembrane domain of protein, and cause a conformational change that allosterically gates an ion channel. The system employs a catalog of diverse signaling lipids ultimately controlled by lipid enzymes and raft localization. I draw upon pharmacology, recent protein structure, and electrophysiological data to understand lipid regulation and define inward rectifying potassium channels (Kir) as a new class of PIP2 lipid-gated ion channels. PMID:25633344

  20. Outward Rectification of Voltage-Gated K+ Channels Evolved at Least Twice in Life History.

    PubMed

    Riedelsberger, Janin; Dreyer, Ingo; Gonzalez, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels are present in all living systems. Despite high structural similarities in the transmembrane domains (TMD), this K+ channel type segregates into at least two main functional categories-hyperpolarization-activated, inward-rectifying (Kin) and depolarization-activated, outward-rectifying (Kout) channels. Voltage-gated K+ channels sense the membrane voltage via a voltage-sensing domain that is connected to the conduction pathway of the channel. It has been shown that the voltage-sensing mechanism is the same in Kin and Kout channels, but its performance results in opposite pore conformations. It is not known how the different coupling of voltage-sensor and pore is implemented. Here, we studied sequence and structural data of voltage-gated K+ channels from animals and plants with emphasis on the property of opposite rectification. We identified structural hotspots that alone allow already the distinction between Kin and Kout channels. Among them is a loop between TMD S5 and the pore that is very short in animal Kout, longer in plant and animal Kin and the longest in plant Kout channels. In combination with further structural and phylogenetic analyses this finding suggests that outward-rectification evolved twice and independently in the animal and plant kingdom. PMID:26356684

  1. Outward Rectification of Voltage-Gated K+ Channels Evolved at Least Twice in Life History

    PubMed Central

    Riedelsberger, Janin; Dreyer, Ingo; Gonzalez, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels are present in all living systems. Despite high structural similarities in the transmembrane domains (TMD), this K+ channel type segregates into at least two main functional categories—hyperpolarization-activated, inward-rectifying (Kin) and depolarization-activated, outward-rectifying (Kout) channels. Voltage-gated K+ channels sense the membrane voltage via a voltage-sensing domain that is connected to the conduction pathway of the channel. It has been shown that the voltage-sensing mechanism is the same in Kin and Kout channels, but its performance results in opposite pore conformations. It is not known how the different coupling of voltage-sensor and pore is implemented. Here, we studied sequence and structural data of voltage-gated K+ channels from animals and plants with emphasis on the property of opposite rectification. We identified structural hotspots that alone allow already the distinction between Kin and Kout channels. Among them is a loop between TMD S5 and the pore that is very short in animal Kout, longer in plant and animal Kin and the longest in plant Kout channels. In combination with further structural and phylogenetic analyses this finding suggests that outward-rectification evolved twice and independently in the animal and plant kingdom. PMID:26356684

  2. Mechanism of activation gating in the full-length KcsA K[superscript +] channel

    SciTech Connect

    Uysal, Serdar; Cuello, Luis G.; Cortes, D. Marien; Koide, Shohei; Kossiakoff, Anthony A.; Perozo, Eduardo

    2012-10-25

    Using a constitutively active channel mutant, we solved the structure of full-length KcsA in the open conformation at 3.9 {angstrom}. The structure reveals that the activation gate expands about 20 {angstrom}, exerting a strain on the bulge helices in the C-terminal domain and generating side windows large enough to accommodate hydrated K{sup +} ions. Functional and spectroscopic analysis of the gating transition provides direct insight into the allosteric coupling between the activation gate and the selectivity filter. We show that the movement of the inner gate helix is transmitted to the C-terminus as a straightforward expansion, leading to an upward movement and the insertion of the top third of the bulge helix into the membrane. We suggest that by limiting the extent to which the inner gate can open, the cytoplasmic domain also modulates the level of inactivation occurring at the selectivity filter.

  3. Seizure suppression through manipulating splicing of a voltage-gated sodium channel

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Hsiang; He, Miaomiao

    2015-01-01

    Seizure can result from increased voltage-gated persistent sodium current expression. Although many clinically-approved antiepileptic drugs target voltage-gated persistent sodium current, none exclusively repress this current without also adversely affecting the transient voltage-gated sodium current. Achieving a more selective block has significant potential for the treatment of epilepsy. Recent studies show that voltage-gated persistent sodium current amplitude is regulated by alternative splicing offering the possibility of a novel route for seizure control. In this study we identify 291 splicing regulators that, on knockdown, alter splicing of the Drosophila voltage-gated sodium channel to favour inclusion of exon K, rather than the mutually exclusive exon L. This change is associated with both a significant reduction in voltage-gated persistent sodium current, without change to transient voltage-gated sodium current, and to rescue of seizure in this model insect. RNA interference mediated knock-down, in two different seizure mutants, shows that 95 of these regulators are sufficient to significantly reduce seizure duration. Moreover, most suppress seizure activity in both mutants, indicative that they are part of well conserved pathways and likely, therefore, to be optimal candidates to take forward to mammalian studies. We provide proof-of-principle for such studies by showing that inhibition of a selection of regulators, using small molecule inhibitors, is similarly effective to reduce seizure. Splicing of the Drosophila sodium channel shows many similarities to its mammalian counterparts, including altering the amplitude of voltage-gated persistent sodium current. Our study provides the impetus to investigate whether manipulation of splicing of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels may be exploitable to provide effective seizure control. PMID:25681415

  4. Seizure suppression through manipulating splicing of a voltage-gated sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Hsiang; He, Miaomiao; Baines, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Seizure can result from increased voltage-gated persistent sodium current expression. Although many clinically-approved antiepileptic drugs target voltage-gated persistent sodium current, none exclusively repress this current without also adversely affecting the transient voltage-gated sodium current. Achieving a more selective block has significant potential for the treatment of epilepsy. Recent studies show that voltage-gated persistent sodium current amplitude is regulated by alternative splicing offering the possibility of a novel route for seizure control. In this study we identify 291 splicing regulators that, on knockdown, alter splicing of the Drosophila voltage-gated sodium channel to favour inclusion of exon K, rather than the mutually exclusive exon L. This change is associated with both a significant reduction in voltage-gated persistent sodium current, without change to transient voltage-gated sodium current, and to rescue of seizure in this model insect. RNA interference mediated knock-down, in two different seizure mutants, shows that 95 of these regulators are sufficient to significantly reduce seizure duration. Moreover, most suppress seizure activity in both mutants, indicative that they are part of well conserved pathways and likely, therefore, to be optimal candidates to take forward to mammalian studies. We provide proof-of-principle for such studies by showing that inhibition of a selection of regulators, using small molecule inhibitors, is similarly effective to reduce seizure. Splicing of the Drosophila sodium channel shows many similarities to its mammalian counterparts, including altering the amplitude of voltage-gated persistent sodium current. Our study provides the impetus to investigate whether manipulation of splicing of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels may be exploitable to provide effective seizure control.

  5. Modulation of the slow/common gating of CLC channels by intracellular cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yawei; Tsai, Ming-Feng; Yu, Wei-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Members of the CLC family of Cl− channels and transporters are homodimeric integral membrane proteins. Two gating mechanisms control the opening and closing of Cl− channels in this family: fast gating, which regulates opening and closing of the individual pores in each subunit, and slow (or common) gating, which simultaneously controls gating of both subunits. Here, we found that intracellularly applied Cd2+ reduces the current of CLC-0 because of its inhibition on the slow gating. We identified CLC-0 residues C229 and H231, located at the intracellular end of the transmembrane domain near the dimer interface, as the Cd2+-coordinating residues. The inhibition of the current of CLC-0 by Cd2+ was greatly enhanced by mutation of I225W and V490W at the dimer interface. Biochemical experiments revealed that formation of a disulfide bond within this Cd2+-binding site is also affected by mutation of I225W and V490W, indicating that these two mutations alter the structure of the Cd2+-binding site. Kinetic studies showed that Cd2+ inhibition appears to be state dependent, suggesting that structural rearrangements may occur in the CLC dimer interface during Cd2+ modulation. Mutations of I290 and I556 of CLC-1, which correspond to I225 and V490 of CLC-0, respectively, have been shown previously to cause malfunction of CLC-1 Cl− channel by altering the common gating. Our experimental results suggest that mutations of the corresponding residues in CLC-0 change the subunit interaction and alter the slow gating of CLC-0. The effect of these mutations on modulations of slow gating of CLC channels by intracellular Cd2+ likely depends on their alteration of subunit interactions. PMID:26621774

  6. Tracking S4 movement by gating pore currents in the bacterial sodium channel NaChBac.

    PubMed

    Gamal El-Din, Tamer M; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A

    2014-08-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels mediate the initiation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells. Transmembrane segment S4 of voltage-gated sodium channels resides in a gating pore where it senses the membrane potential and controls channel gating. Substitution of individual S4 arginine gating charges (R1-R3) with smaller amino acids allows ionic currents to flow through the mutant gating pore, and these gating pore currents are pathogenic in some skeletal muscle periodic paralysis syndromes. The voltage dependence of gating pore currents provides information about the transmembrane position of the gating charges as S4 moves in response to membrane potential. Here we studied gating pore current in mutants of the homotetrameric bacterial sodium channel NaChBac in which individual arginine gating charges were replaced by cysteine. Gating pore current was observed for each mutant channel, but with different voltage-dependent properties. Mutating the first (R1C) or second (R2C) arginine to cysteine resulted in gating pore current at hyperpolarized membrane potentials, where the channels are in resting states, but not at depolarized potentials, where the channels are activated. Conversely, the R3C gating pore is closed at hyperpolarized membrane potentials and opens with channel activation. Negative conditioning pulses revealed time-dependent deactivation of the R3C gating pore at the most hyperpolarized potentials. Our results show sequential voltage dependence of activation of gating pore current from R1 to R3 and support stepwise outward movement of the substituted cysteines through the narrow portion of the gating pore that is sealed by the arginine side chains in the wild-type channel. This pattern of voltage dependence of gating pore current is consistent with a sliding movement of the S4 helix through the gating pore. Through comparison with high-resolution models of the voltage sensor of bacterial sodium channels, these results shed light on the

  7. Domain and interdomain energetics underlying gating in Shaker-type Kv channels.

    PubMed

    Peyser, Alexander; Gillespie, Dirk; Roth, Roland; Nonner, Wolfgang

    2014-10-21

    To understand gating events with a time-base many orders-of-magnitude slower than that of atomic motion in voltage-gated ion channels such as the Shaker-type KV channels, a multiscale physical model is constructed from the experimentally well-characterized voltage-sensor (VS) domains coupled to a hydrophobic gate. The four VS domains are described by a continuum electrostatic model under voltage-clamp conditions, the control of ion flow by the gate domain is described by a vapor-lock mechanism, and the simple coupling principle is informed by known experimental results and trial-and-error. The configurational energy computed for each element is used to produce a total Hamiltonian that is a function of applied voltage, VS positions, and gate radius. We compute statistical-mechanical expectation values of macroscopic laboratory observables. This approach stands in contrast with molecular-dynamic models which are challenged by increasing scale, and kinetic models which assume a probability distribution rather than derive it from the underlying physics. This generic model predicts well the Shaker charge/voltage and conductance/voltage relations; the tight constraints underlying these results allow us to quantitatively assess the underlying physical mechanisms. The total electrical work picked up by the VS domains is an order-of-magnitude larger than the work required to actuate the gate itself, suggesting an energetic basis for the evolutionary flexibility of the voltage-gating mechanism. The cooperative slide-and-interlock behavior of the VS domains described by the VS-gate coupling relation leads to the experimentally observed bistable gating. This engineering approach should prove useful in the investigation of various elements underlying gating characteristics and degraded behavior due to mutation. PMID:25418165

  8. Mechanisms of gain control by voltage-gated channels in intrinsically-firing neurons.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ameera X; Burdakov, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Gain modulation is a key feature of neural information processing, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In single neurons, gain can be measured as the slope of the current-frequency (input-output) relationship over any given range of inputs. While much work has focused on the control of basal firing rates and spike rate adaptation, gain control has been relatively unstudied. Of the limited studies on gain control, some have examined the roles of synaptic noise and passive somatic currents, but the roles of voltage-gated channels present ubiquitously in neurons have been less explored. Here, we systematically examined the relationship between gain and voltage-gated ion channels in a conductance-based, tonically-active, model neuron. Changes in expression (conductance density) of voltage-gated channels increased (Ca2+ channel), reduced (K+ channels), or produced little effect (h-type channel) on gain. We found that the gain-controlling ability of channels increased exponentially with the steepness of their activation within the dynamic voltage window (voltage range associated with firing). For depolarization-activated channels, this produced a greater channel current per action potential at higher firing rates. This allowed these channels to modulate gain by contributing to firing preferentially at states of higher excitation. A finer analysis of the current-voltage relationship during tonic firing identified narrow voltage windows at which the gain-modulating channels exerted their effects. As a proof of concept, we show that h-type channels can be tuned to modulate gain by changing the steepness of their activation within the dynamic voltage window. These results show how the impact of an ion channel on gain can be predicted from the relationship between channel kinetics and the membrane potential during firing. This is potentially relevant to understanding input-output scaling in a wide class of neurons found throughout the brain and other nervous systems

  9. Mechanisms of Gain Control by Voltage-Gated Channels in Intrinsically-Firing Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ameera X.; Burdakov, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Gain modulation is a key feature of neural information processing, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In single neurons, gain can be measured as the slope of the current-frequency (input-output) relationship over any given range of inputs. While much work has focused on the control of basal firing rates and spike rate adaptation, gain control has been relatively unstudied. Of the limited studies on gain control, some have examined the roles of synaptic noise and passive somatic currents, but the roles of voltage-gated channels present ubiquitously in neurons have been less explored. Here, we systematically examined the relationship between gain and voltage-gated ion channels in a conductance-based, tonically-active, model neuron. Changes in expression (conductance density) of voltage-gated channels increased (Ca2+ channel), reduced (K+ channels), or produced little effect (h-type channel) on gain. We found that the gain-controlling ability of channels increased exponentially with the steepness of their activation within the dynamic voltage window (voltage range associated with firing). For depolarization-activated channels, this produced a greater channel current per action potential at higher firing rates. This allowed these channels to modulate gain by contributing to firing preferentially at states of higher excitation. A finer analysis of the current-voltage relationship during tonic firing identified narrow voltage windows at which the gain-modulating channels exerted their effects. As a proof of concept, we show that h-type channels can be tuned to modulate gain by changing the steepness of their activation within the dynamic voltage window. These results show how the impact of an ion channel on gain can be predicted from the relationship between channel kinetics and the membrane potential during firing. This is potentially relevant to understanding input-output scaling in a wide class of neurons found throughout the brain and other nervous systems

  10. Gating characteristics control glutamate receptor distribution and trafficking in vivo.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, Astrid G; Lee, Yü-Hien; Khorramshahi, Omid; Reynolds, Eric; Plested, Andrew J R; Herzel, Hanspeter; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2014-09-01

    Glutamate-releasing synapses dominate excitatory release in the brain. Mechanisms governing their assembly are of major importance for circuit development and long-term plasticity underlying learning and memory. AMPA/Kainate-type glutamate receptors (GluRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that open their ion-conducting pores in response to binding of the neurotransmitter. Changes in subunit composition of postsynaptic GluRs are highly relevant for plasticity and development of glutamatergic synapses [1-4]. To date, posttranslational modifications, mostly operating via the intracellular C-terminal domains (CTDs) of GluRs, are presumed to be the major regulator of trafficking [5]. In recent years, structural and electrophysiological analyses have improved our understanding of GluR gating mechanism [6-11]. However, whether conformational changes subsequent to glutamate binding may per se be able to influence GluR trafficking has remained an unaddressed question. Using a Drosophila system allowing for extended visualization of GluR trafficking in vivo, we here provide evidence that mutations changing the gating behavior alter GluR distribution and trafficking. GluR mutants associated with reduced charge transfer segregated from coexpressed wild-type GluRs on the level of individual postsynaptic densities. Segregation was lost upon blocking of evoked glutamate release. Photobleaching experiments suggested increased mobility of mutants with reduced charge transfer, which accumulated prematurely during early steps of synapse assembly, but failed to further increase their level in accordance with assembly of the presynaptic scaffold. In summary, gating characteristics seem to be a new variable for the understanding of GluR trafficking relevant to both development and plasticity.

  11. A Transient Receptor Potential Ion Channel in Chlamydomonas Shares Key Features with Sensory Transduction-Associated TRP Channels in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Darraz, Luis; Cabezas, Deny; Colenso, Charlotte K.; Alegría-Arcos, Melissa; Bravo-Moraga, Felipe; Varas-Concha, Ignacio; Almonacid, Daniel E.; Madrid, Rodolfo; Brauchi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Sensory modalities are essential for navigating through an ever-changing environment. From insects to mammals, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are known mediators for cellular sensing. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile single-celled freshwater green alga that is guided by photosensory, mechanosensory, and chemosensory cues. In this type of alga, sensory input is first detected by membrane receptors located in the cell body and then transduced to the beating cilia by membrane depolarization. Although TRP channels seem to be absent in plants, C. reinhardtii possesses genomic sequences encoding TRP proteins. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of a C. reinhardtii version of a TRP channel sharing key features present in mammalian TRP channels associated with sensory transduction. In silico sequence-structure analysis unveiled the modular design of TRP channels, and electrophysiological experiments conducted on Human Embryonic Kidney-293T cells expressing the Cr-TRP1 clone showed that many of the core functional features of metazoan TRP channels are present in Cr-TRP1, suggesting that basic TRP channel gating characteristics evolved early in the history of eukaryotes. PMID:25595824

  12. Molecular characterisation of a pH-gated chloride channel from Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, Kate E; Dent, Joseph A; Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James; Currie, Bart J; Walton, Shelley F

    2007-09-01

    Reports of ivermectin resistance in scabies mites raise concerns regarding the sustainability of mass intervention programs for scabies worldwide and for the treatment of crusted scabies. Ligand gated ion channels (LGICs) are the primary targets of ivermectin in invertebrates. We report the molecular characterisation of SsCl--a novel LGIC from Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. While SsCl shows sequence similarity to other LGICs, phylogenetic analysis does not suggest strong homology to conventional glutamate, histamine or GABA gated channels. Instead, it is most similar to Drosophila pH-sensitive and group 1 clades. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, SsCl forms a homomeric, pH-gated chloride channel that is irreversibly activated by ivermectin. These results provide the first confirmation that this group of LGIC exists in arachnids, and suggest that SsCl may be an in vivo target of ivermectin in S. scabiei.

  13. NEUROSCIENCE. Natural light-gated anion channels: A family of microbial rhodopsins for advanced optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Janz, Roger; Liu, Xiaoqin; Spudich, John L

    2015-08-01

    Light-gated rhodopsin cation channels from chlorophyte algae have transformed neuroscience research through their use as membrane-depolarizing optogenetic tools for targeted photoactivation of neuron firing. Photosuppression of neuronal action potentials has been limited by the lack of equally efficient tools for membrane hyperpolarization. We describe anion channel rhodopsins (ACRs), a family of light-gated anion channels from cryptophyte algae that provide highly sensitive and efficient membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silencing through light-gated chloride conduction. ACRs strictly conducted anions, completely excluding protons and larger cations, and hyperpolarized the membrane of cultured animal cells with much faster kinetics at less than one-thousandth of the light intensity required by the most efficient currently available optogenetic proteins. Natural ACRs provide optogenetic inhibition tools with unprecedented light sensitivity and temporal precision.

  14. α1F64 Residue at GABA(A) receptor binding site is involved in gating by influencing the receptor flipping transitions.

    PubMed

    Szczot, Marcin; Kisiel, Magdalena; Czyzewska, Marta M; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2014-02-26

    GABA receptors (GABAARs) mediate inhibition in the adult brain. These channels are heteropentamers and their ligand binding sites are localized at the β+ / α- interfaces. As expected, mutations of binding-site residues affect binding kinetics but accumulating evidence indicates that gating is also altered, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the impact of the hydrophobic box residue localized at α1(-), F64 (α1F64), on the binding and gating of rat recombinant α1β1γ2 receptors. The analysis of current responses to rapid agonist applications confirmed a marked effect of α1F64 mutations on agonist binding and revealed surprisingly strong effects on gating, including the disappearance of rapid desensitization, the slowing of current onset, and accelerated deactivation. Moreover, nonstationary variance analysis revealed that the α1F64C mutation dramatically reduced the maximum open probability without altering channel conductance. Interestingly, for wild-type receptors, responses to saturating concentration of a partial agonist, P4S, showed no rapid desensitization, similar to GABA-evoked responses mediated by α1F64C mutants. For the α1F64L mutation, the application of the high-affinity agonist muscimol partially rescued rapid desensitization compared with responses evoked by GABA. These findings suggest that α1F64 mutations do not disrupt desensitization mechanisms but rather affect other gating features that obscure it. Model simulations indicated that all of our observations related to α1F64 mutations could be properly reproduced by altering the flipped state transitions that occurred after agonist binding but preceded opening. In conclusion, we propose that the α1F64 residue may participate in linking binding and gating by influencing flipping kinetics.

  15. Structural basis for alcohol modulation of a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel.

    PubMed

    Howard, Rebecca J; Murail, Samuel; Ondricek, Kathryn E; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Lindahl, Erik; Trudell, James R; Harris, R Adron

    2011-07-19

    Despite its long history of use and abuse in human culture, the molecular basis for alcohol action in the brain is poorly understood. The recent determination of the atomic-scale structure of GLIC, a prokaryotic member of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC) family, provides a unique opportunity to characterize the structural basis for modulation of these channels, many of which are alcohol targets in brain. We observed that GLIC recapitulates bimodal modulation by n-alcohols, similar to some eukaryotic pLGICs: methanol and ethanol weakly potentiated proton-activated currents in GLIC, whereas n-alcohols larger than ethanol inhibited them. Mapping of residues important to alcohol modulation of ionotropic receptors for glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and acetylcholine onto GLIC revealed their proximity to transmembrane cavities that may accommodate one or more alcohol molecules. Site-directed mutations in the pore-lining M2 helix allowed the identification of four residues that influence alcohol potentiation, with the direction of their effects reflecting α-helical structure. At one of the potentiation-enhancing residues, decreased side chain volume converted GLIC into a highly ethanol-sensitive channel, comparable to its eukaryotic relatives. Covalent labeling of M2 positions with an alcohol analog, a methanethiosulfonate reagent, further implicated residues at the extracellular end of the helix in alcohol binding. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidated the structural consequences of a potentiation-enhancing mutation and suggested a structural mechanism for alcohol potentiation via interaction with a transmembrane cavity previously termed the "linking tunnel." These results provide a unique structural model for independent potentiating and inhibitory interactions of n-alcohols with a pLGIC family member.

  16. Main ion channels and receptors associated with visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Rocha, Heraldo Arcela; Dantas, Bruna Priscilla Vasconcelos; Rolim, Thaísa Leite; Costa, Bagnólia Araújo; de Medeiros, Arnaldo Correia

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a very frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and alteration of bowel habits. The IBS physiopathology is extremely complex. Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal pain in both in vitro and in vivo models of this functional disorder. In order to obtain a general view of the participation of the main ion channels and receptors regarding the visceral hypersensitivity in the IBS and to describe their chemical structure, a literature review was carried out. A bibliographical research in the following electronic databases: Pubmed and Virtual Library in Health (BVS) was fulfilled by using the search terms “ion channels” “or” “receptors” “and” “visceral hypersensitivity” “or” “visceral nociception” “and” “irritable bowel syndrome”. Original and review articles were considered for data acquisition. The activation of the ATP ion-gated channels, voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and calcium (Cav) channels, as well as the activation of protease-activated receptors (PAR2), transient receptor potential vanilloide-1, serotonin, cannabinoids and cholecystokinin are involved in the genesis of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS. The involvement of ion channels and receptors concerning visceral hypersensitivity is noteworthy in IBS models. PMID:24976114

  17. The voltage-gated proton channel: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The main properties of voltage gated proton channels are described, along with what is known about how the channel protein structure accomplishes these functions. Just as protons are unique among ions, proton channels are unique among ion channels. Their four transmembrane helices sense voltage, the pH gradient, and conduct protons exclusively. Selectivity is achieved by the unique ability of H3O+ to protonate an Asp-Arg salt bridge. Pathognomonic sensitivity of gating to the pH gradient ensures channel opening only when acid extrusion will result, which is crucial to most biological functions. An exception occurs in dinoflagellates in which H+ influx through HV1 triggers the bioluminescent flash. Pharmacological interventions that promise to ameliorate cancer, asthma, brain damage in ischemic stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, autoimmune diseases, and numerous other conditions, await future progress. PMID:25964989

  18. Strong cooperativity between subunits in voltage-gated proton channels

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Carlos; Koch, Hans P.; Drum, Ben M.; Larsson, H. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-activated proton (HV) channels are essential components in the innate immune response. HV channels are dimeric proteins with one proton permeation pathway per subunit. It is not known how HV channels are activated by voltage and whether there is any cooperativity between subunits during voltage activation. Using cysteine accessibility measurements and voltage clamp fluorometry, we show data that are consistent with that the fourth transmembrane segment S4 functions as the voltage sensor in HV channels from Ciona intestinalis. Surprisingly, in a dimeric HV channel, S4 in both subunits have to move to activate the two proton permeation pathways. In contrast, if HV subunits are prevented from dimerizing, then the movement of a single S4 is sufficient to activate the proton permeation pathway in a subunit. These results suggest a strong cooperativity between subunits in dimeric HV channels. PMID:20023639

  19. Probing the energy landscape of activation gating of the bacterial potassium channel KcsA.

    PubMed

    Linder, Tobias; de Groot, Bert L; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial potassium channel KcsA, which has been crystallized in several conformations, offers an ideal model to investigate activation gating of ion channels. In this study, essential dynamics simulations are applied to obtain insights into the transition pathways and the energy profile of KcsA pore gating. In agreement with previous hypotheses, our simulations reveal a two phasic activation gating process. In the first phase, local structural rearrangements in TM2 are observed leading to an intermediate channel conformation, followed by large structural rearrangements leading to full opening of KcsA. Conformational changes of a highly conserved phenylalanine, F114, at the bundle crossing region are crucial for the transition from a closed to an intermediate state. 3.9 µs umbrella sampling calculations reveal that there are two well-defined energy barriers dividing closed, intermediate, and open channel states. In agreement with mutational studies, the closed state was found to be energetically more favorable compared to the open state. Further, the simulations provide new insights into the dynamical coupling effects of F103 between the activation gate and the selectivity filter. Investigations on individual subunits support cooperativity of subunits during activation gating.

  20. Energetic role of the paddle motif in voltage gating of Shaker K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanping; Ramu, Yajamana; Shin, Hyeon-Gyu; Yamakaze, Jayden; Lu, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels underlie rapid electric signaling in excitable cells. Electrophysiological studies have established that the N-terminal half of the fourth transmembrane segment (NTS4) of these channels functions as the primary voltage sensor, whereas crystallographic studies have shown that NTS4 is not located within a proteinaceous pore. Rather, NTS4 and the C-terminal half of S3 (CTS3 or S3b) form a helix-turn-helix motif, termed the voltage-sensor paddle. This unexpected structural finding raises two fundamental questions: does the paddle motif also exist in voltage-gated channels in a biological membrane and, if so, what is its function in voltage gating. Here, we provide evidence that the paddle motif exists in the open state of Drosophila Shaker voltage-gated K+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes and that CTS3 acts as an extracellular hydrophobic "stabilizer" for NTS4, biasing the gating chemical equilibrium towards the open state. PMID:23542156

  1. Effects of Voltage-Gated K+ Channel on Cell Proliferation in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Fan, Yuying; Wang, Shuye; Wang, Lianjie; He, Wanting; Zhang, Qiu; Li, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study the effects and underlying mechanisms of voltage-gated K+ channels on the proliferation of multiple myeloma cells. Methods. RPMI-8226 MM cell line was used for the experiments. Voltage-gated K+ currents and the resting potential were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. RT-PCR detected Kv channel mRNA expression. Cell viability was analyzed with MTT assay. Cell counting system was employed to monitor cell proliferation. DNA contents and cell volume were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results. Currents recorded in RPMI-8226 cells were confirmed to be voltage-gated K+ channels. A high level of Kv1.3 mRNA was detected but no Kv3.1 mRNA was detected in RPMI-8226 cells. Voltage-gated K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (2 mM) depolarized the resting potential from −42 ± 1.7 mV to −31.8 ± 2.8 mV (P < 0.01). The results of MTT assay showed that there was no significant cytotoxicity to RPMI-8226 cells when the 4-AP concentration was lower than 4 mM. 4-AP arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Cells were synchronized at the G1/S boundary by treatment of aphidicolin and released from the blockage by replacing the medium with normal culture medium or with culture medium containing 2 mM 4-AP. 4-AP produced no significant inhibitory effect on cell cycle compared with control cells (P > 0.05). Conclusions. In RPMI-8226, voltage-gated K+ channels are involved in proliferation and cell cycle progression its influence on the resting potential and cell volume may be responsible for this process; the inhibitory effect of the voltage-gated K+ channel blocker on RPMI-8226 cell proliferation is a phase-specific event. PMID:24995361

  2. A mutation in the pore of the sodium channel alters gating.

    PubMed Central

    Tomaselli, G F; Chiamvimonvat, N; Nuss, H B; Balser, J R; Pérez-García, M T; Xu, R H; Orias, D W; Backx, P H; Marban, E

    1995-01-01

    Ion permeation and channel gating are classically considered independent processes, but site-specific mutagenesis studies in K channels suggest that residues in or near the ion-selective pore of the channel can influence activation and inactivation. We describe a mutation in the pore of the skeletal muscle Na channel that alters gating. This mutation, I-W53C (residue 402 in the mu 1 sequence), decreases the sensitivity to block by tetrodotoxin and increases the sensitivity to block by externally applied Cd2+ relative to the wild-type channel, placing this residue within the pore near the external mouth. Based on contemporary models of the structure of the channel, this residue is remote from the regions of the channel known to be involved in gating, yet this mutation abbreviates the time to peak and accelerates the decay of the macroscopic Na current. At the single-channel level we observe a shortening of the latency to first opening and a reduction in the mean open time compared with the wild-type channel. The acceleration of macroscopic current kinetics in the mutant channels can be simulated by changing only the activation and deactivation rate constants while constraining the microscopic inactivation rate constants to the values used to fit the wild-type currents. We conclude that the tryptophan at position 53 in the domain IP-loop may act as a linchpin in the pore that limits the opening transition rate. This effect could reflect an interaction of I-W53 with the activation voltage sensors or a more global gating-induced change in pore structure. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7612823

  3. Analytical Model for Direct Tunneling Gate Current in Long-Channel Undoped Cylindrical Surrounding Gate Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ru; Li, Cong

    2013-02-01

    In this study, an analytical direct tunneling gate current model for long-channel undoped cylindrical surrounding gate (CSG) MOSFETs is developed. On the basis of an analytical model, the direct tunneling gate current in CSG MOSFETs is investigated. It is found that direct tunneling gate current is a strong function of gate oxide thickness, but less affected by the change in channel radius. It is also revealed that considering the influence of the source and drain, as the length of the underlap region decreases to zero, the direct tunneling gate current drastically increases. The accuracy of the analytical model is verified by the good agreement of its results with those obtained by the three-dimensional numerical device simulator ISE.

  4. Modulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor channels by alkaline earth cations.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L; Porta, Maura; Copello, Julio A

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) function is modulated by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). To better characterize Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) binding sites involved in RyR2 regulation, the effects of cytosolic and luminal earth alkaline divalent cations (M(2+): Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+)) were studied on RyR2 from pig ventricle reconstituted in bilayers. RyR2 were activated by M(2+) binding to high affinity activating sites at the cytosolic channel surface, specific for Ca(2+) or Sr(2+). This activation was interfered by Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) acting at low affinity M(2+)-unspecific binding sites. When testing the effects of luminal M(2+) as current carriers, all M(2+) increased maximal RyR2 open probability (compared to Cs(+)), suggesting the existence of low affinity activating M(2+)-unspecific sites at the luminal surface. Responses to M(2+) vary from channel to channel (heterogeneity). However, with luminal Ba(2+)or Mg(2+), RyR2 were less sensitive to cytosolic Ca(2+) and caffeine-mediated activation, openings were shorter and voltage-dependence was more marked (compared to RyR2 with luminal Ca(2+)or Sr(2+)). Kinetics of RyR2 with mixtures of luminal Ba(2+)/Ca(2+) and additive action of luminal plus cytosolic Ba(2+) or Mg(2+) suggest luminal M(2+) differentially act on luminal sites rather than accessing cytosolic sites through the pore. This suggests the presence of additional luminal activating Ca(2+)/Sr(2+)-specific sites, which stabilize high P(o) mode (less voltage-dependent) and increase RyR2 sensitivity to cytosolic Ca(2+) activation. In summary, RyR2 luminal and cytosolic surfaces have at least two sets of M(2+) binding sites (specific for Ca(2+) and unspecific for Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)) that dynamically modulate channel activity and gating status, depending on SR voltage. PMID:22039534

  5. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Castro, Héctor; Arenas, Isabel; García, David E.; González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7), voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2), the A-type transient outward (IA) and delayed rectifier (IDR) currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:27164140

  6. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Castro, Héctor; Arenas, Isabel; García, David E; González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7), voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2), the A-type transient outward (IA) and delayed rectifier (IDR) currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:27164140

  7. Identification of the prokaryotic ligand-gated ion channels and their implications for the mechanisms and origins of animal Cys-loop ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Tasneem, Asba; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Jakobsson, Eric; Aravind, L

    2005-01-01

    Background Acetylcholine receptor type ligand-gated ion channels (ART-LGIC; also known as Cys-loop receptors) are a superfamily of proteins that include the receptors for major neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, glycine, GABA, glutamate and histamine, and for Zn2+ ions. They play a central role in fast synaptic signaling in animal nervous systems and so far have not been found outside of the Metazoa. Results Using sensitive sequence-profile searches we have identified homologs of ART-LGICs in several bacteria and a single archaeal genus, Methanosarcina. The homology between the animal receptors and the prokaryotic homologs spans the entire length of the former, including both the ligand-binding and channel-forming transmembrane domains. A sequence-structure analysis using the structure of Lymnaea stagnalis acetylcholine-binding protein and the newly detected prokaryotic versions indicates the presence of at least one aromatic residue in the ligand-binding boxes of almost all representatives of the superfamily. Investigation of the domain architectures of the bacterial forms shows that they may often show fusions with other small-molecule-binding domains, such as the periplasmic binding protein superfamily I (PBP-I), Cache and MCP-N domains. Some of the bacterial forms also occur in predicted operons with the genes of the PBP-II superfamily and the Cache domains. Analysis of phyletic patterns suggests that the ART-LGICs are currently absent in all other eukaryotic lineages except animals. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis and conserved sequence motifs also suggest that a subset of the bacterial forms is closer to the metazoan forms. Conclusions From the information from the bacterial forms we infer that cation-pi or hydrophobic interactions with the ligand are likely to be a pervasive feature of the entire superfamily, even though the individual residues involved in the process may vary. The conservation pattern in the channel-forming transmembrane

  8. Open-State Occupancy Prevents Gating Charge Relaxation of N-type (CaV2.2) Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Yarotskyy, Viktor; Elmslie, Keith S.

    2009-01-01

    N-type and L-type channels have significant gating differences, and we wondered whether some of these differences are linked to the relationship between charge movement and channel opening. The time constants for N-channel closing (τDeact) and Off-gating charge movement (τQOff) were compared over a range of voltages. τQOff was significantly larger than τDeact at voltages < −10 mV, and the voltage dependence of the τQOff was less steep than that for τDeact, which suggests that gating charge relaxation does not limit channel closing. Roscovitine, a drug that slows N-channel closing by holding the channel in a high open-probability state, was found to slow both τQOff and τDeact, and thus the time courses of channel closing and gating charge relaxation were similar. Our gating current results were reproduced with the addition of a voltage-independent, closed-closed transition to our previously published two-open-state N-channel model. This work suggests that, like L-type channels, there is a voltage-independent transition along the N-channel activation/deactivation pathway, but this transition occurs between closed states instead of the closed-open states of the L-channel. Also unlike L-type channels, the gating charge appears to be locked into the activated position by the N-channel open state. PMID:19883587

  9. Voltage-gated sodium channel modulation by scorpion α-toxins

    PubMed Central

    Bosmans, Frank; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels are integral membrane proteins that function as a gateway for a selective permeation of sodium ions across biological membranes. In this way, they are crucial players for the generation of action potentials in excitable cells. Voltage-gated Na+ channels are encoded by at least nine genes in mammals. The different isoforms have remarkably similar functional properties, but small changes in function and pharmacology are biologically well-defined, as underscored by mutations that cause several diseases and by modulation of a myriad of compounds respectively. This review will stress on the modulation of voltage-gated Na+ channels by scorpion alpha-toxins. Nature has designed these two classes of molecules as if they were predestined to each other: an inevitable ‘encounter’ between a voltage-gated Na+ channel isoform and an alpha-toxin from scorpion venom indeed results in a dramatically changed Na+ current phenotype with clear-cut consequences on electrical excitability and sometimes life or death. This fascinating aspect justifies an overview on scorpion venoms, their alpha-toxins and the Na+ channel targets they are built for, as well as on the molecular determinants that govern the selectivity and affinity of this ‘inseparable duo’. PMID:17087986

  10. Ionic selectivity and thermal adaptations within the voltage-gated sodium channel family of alkaliphilic Bacillus.

    PubMed

    DeCaen, Paul G; Takahashi, Yuka; Krulwich, Terry A; Ito, Masahiro; Clapham, David E

    2014-01-01

    Entry and extrusion of cations are essential processes in living cells. In alkaliphilic prokaryotes, high external pH activates voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav), which allows Na(+) to enter and be used as substrate for cation/proton antiporters responsible for cytoplasmic pH homeostasis. Here, we describe a new member of the prokaryotic voltage-gated Na(+) channel family (NsvBa; Non-selective voltage-gated, Bacillus alcalophilus) that is nonselective among Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) ions. Mutations in NsvBa can convert the nonselective filter into one that discriminates for Na(+) or divalent cations. Gain-of-function experiments demonstrate the portability of ion selectivity with filter mutations to other Bacillus Nav channels. Increasing pH and temperature shifts their activation threshold towards their native resting membrane potential. Furthermore, we find drugs that target Bacillus Nav channels also block the growth of the bacteria. This work identifies some of the adaptations to achieve ion discrimination and gating in Bacillus Nav channels. PMID:25385530

  11. Cloning and molecular characterization of a putative voltage-gated sodium channel gene in the crayfish.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Cagil; Purali, Nuhan

    2016-06-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channel genes and associated proteins have been cloned and studied in many mammalian and invertebrate species. However, there is no data available about the sodium channel gene(s) in the crayfish, although the animal has frequently been used as a model to investigate various aspects of neural cellular and circuit function. In the present work, by using RNA extracts from crayfish abdominal ganglia samples, the complete open reading frame of a putative sodium channel gene has firstly been cloned and molecular properties of the associated peptide have been analyzed. The open reading frame of the gene has a length of 5793 bp that encodes for the synthesis of a peptide, with 1930 amino acids, that is 82% similar to the α-peptide of a sodium channel in a neighboring species, Cancer borealis. The transmembrane topology analysis of the crayfish peptide indicated a pattern of four folding domains with several transmembrane segments, as observed in other known voltage-gated sodium channels. Upon analysis of the obtained sequence, functional regions of the putative sodium channel responsible for the selectivity filter, inactivation gate, voltage sensor, and phosphorylation have been predicted. The expression level of the putative sodium channel gene, as defined by a qPCR method, was measured and found to be the highest in nervous tissue. PMID:27032955

  12. Optical electrophysiology for probing function and pharmacology of voltage-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongkang; Reichert, Elaine; Cohen, Adam E

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels mediate electrical dynamics in excitable tissues and are an important class of drug targets. Channels can gate in sub-millisecond timescales, show complex manifolds of conformational states, and often show state-dependent pharmacology. Mechanistic studies of ion channels typically involve sophisticated voltage-clamp protocols applied through manual or automated electrophysiology. Here, we develop all-optical electrophysiology techniques to study activity-dependent modulation of ion channels, in a format compatible with high-throughput screening. Using optical electrophysiology, we recapitulate many voltage-clamp protocols and apply to Nav1.7, a channel implicated in pain. Optical measurements reveal that a sustained depolarization strongly potentiates the inhibitory effect of PF-04856264, a Nav1.7-specific blocker. In a pilot screen, we stratify a library of 320 FDA-approved compounds by binding mechanism and kinetics, and find close concordance with patch clamp measurements. Optical electrophysiology provides a favorable tradeoff between throughput and information content for studies of NaV channels, and possibly other voltage-gated channels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15202.001 PMID:27215841

  13. Menthol pain relief through cumulative inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Hao, Jizhe; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Gabriac, Mélanie; Delmas, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Menthol is a natural compound of plant origin known to produce cool sensation via the activation of the TRPM8 channel. It is also frequently part of topical analgesic drugs available in a pharmacy, although its mechanism of action is still unknown. Compelling evidence indicates that voltage-gated Na(+) channels are critical for experiencing pain sensation. We tested the hypothesis that menthol may block voltage-gated Na(+) channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. By use of a patch clamp, we evaluated the effects of menthol application on tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 channel subtypes in DRG neurons, and on TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels in immortalized DRG neuron-derived F11 cells. The results indicate that menthol inhibits Na(+) channels in a concentration-, voltage-, and frequency-dependent manner. Menthol promoted fast and slow inactivation states, causing use-dependent depression of Na(+) channel activity. In current clamp recordings, menthol inhibited firing at high-frequency stimulation with minimal effects on normal neuronal activity. We found that low concentrations of menthol cause analgesia in mice, relieving pain produced by a Na(+) channel-targeting toxin. We conclude that menthol is a state-selective blocker of Nav1.8, Nav1.9, and TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels, indicating a role for Na(+) channel blockade in the efficacy of menthol as topical analgesic compound. PMID:22172548

  14. Menthol pain relief through cumulative inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Hao, Jizhe; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Gabriac, Mélanie; Delmas, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Menthol is a natural compound of plant origin known to produce cool sensation via the activation of the TRPM8 channel. It is also frequently part of topical analgesic drugs available in a pharmacy, although its mechanism of action is still unknown. Compelling evidence indicates that voltage-gated Na(+) channels are critical for experiencing pain sensation. We tested the hypothesis that menthol may block voltage-gated Na(+) channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. By use of a patch clamp, we evaluated the effects of menthol application on tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 channel subtypes in DRG neurons, and on TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels in immortalized DRG neuron-derived F11 cells. The results indicate that menthol inhibits Na(+) channels in a concentration-, voltage-, and frequency-dependent manner. Menthol promoted fast and slow inactivation states, causing use-dependent depression of Na(+) channel activity. In current clamp recordings, menthol inhibited firing at high-frequency stimulation with minimal effects on normal neuronal activity. We found that low concentrations of menthol cause analgesia in mice, relieving pain produced by a Na(+) channel-targeting toxin. We conclude that menthol is a state-selective blocker of Nav1.8, Nav1.9, and TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels, indicating a role for Na(+) channel blockade in the efficacy of menthol as topical analgesic compound.

  15. Synthesis of photoreactive ivermectin B1a derivatives and their actions on Haemonchus and Bombyx glutamate-gated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Toshinori; Ikeda, Izumi; Kita, Tomo; Furutani, Shogo; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2015-05-01

    Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) are inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors that are present only in invertebrates such as nematodes and insects. These channels are important targets of insecticidal, acaricidal, and anthelmintic macrolides such as avermectins, ivermectin (IVM), and milbemycins. To identify the amino acid residues that interact with IVM in GluCls, three IVM B1a derivatives with different photoreactive substitutions at C-13 were synthesized in the present study. These derivatives displayed low- or subnanomolar affinity for parasitic nematode (Haemonchus contortus) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) GluCls expressed in COS-1 cells. The derivatives also activated homomeric H. contortus GluCls expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The results indicate that synthesized photoreactive IVM B1a derivatives have superior affinity and functionality for chemically labeling the macrolide-binding site in GluCls. .

  16. Synthesis of photoreactive ivermectin B1a derivatives and their actions on Haemonchus and Bombyx glutamate-gated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Toshinori; Ikeda, Izumi; Kita, Tomo; Furutani, Shogo; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2015-05-01

    Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) are inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors that are present only in invertebrates such as nematodes and insects. These channels are important targets of insecticidal, acaricidal, and anthelmintic macrolides such as avermectins, ivermectin (IVM), and milbemycins. To identify the amino acid residues that interact with IVM in GluCls, three IVM B1a derivatives with different photoreactive substitutions at C-13 were synthesized in the present study. These derivatives displayed low- or subnanomolar affinity for parasitic nematode (Haemonchus contortus) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) GluCls expressed in COS-1 cells. The derivatives also activated homomeric H. contortus GluCls expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The results indicate that synthesized photoreactive IVM B1a derivatives have superior affinity and functionality for chemically labeling the macrolide-binding site in GluCls. . PMID:25987225

  17. Dysfunctional Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Ion Channels in Cardiac Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoqi; Gu, Tianxiang

    2016-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are reverse voltage-dependent, and their activation depends on the hyperpolarization of the membrane and may be directly or indirectly regulated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or other signal-transduction cascades. The distribution, quantity and activation states of HCN channels differ in tissues throughout the body. Evidence exhibits that HCN channels play critical roles in the generation and conduction of the electrical impulse and the physiopathological process of some cardiac diseases. They may constitute promising drug targets in the treatment of these cardiac diseases. Pharmacological treatment targeting HCN channels is of benefit to these cardiac conditions. PMID:27556324

  18. Impaired gating of an L-Type Ca(2+) channel carrying a mutation linked to malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Bannister, Roger A; Beam, Kurt G

    2013-05-01

    Recently, we characterized the functional properties of a mutant skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV1.1 R174W) linked to the pharmacogenetic disorder malignant hyperthermia. Although the R174W mutation neutralizes the innermost basic amino acid in the voltage-sensing S4 helix of the first conserved membrane repeat of CaV1.1, the ability of the mutant channel to engage excitation-contraction coupling was largely unaffected by the introduction of the bulky tryptophan residue. In stark contrast, the mutation ablated the ability of CaV1.1 to produce L-type current under our standard recording conditions. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of channel dysfunction more extensively. We found that CaV1.1 R174W will open and conduct Ca(2+) in response to strong or prolonged depolarizations in the presence of the 1,4-dihydropyridine receptor agonist ±Bay K 8644. From these results, we have concluded that the R174W mutation impedes entry into both mode 1(low Po) and mode 2 (high Po) gating states and that these gating impairments can be partially overcome by maneuvers that promote entry into mode 2. PMID:23663834

  19. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of critically loaded or micro-damaged regions of bone by bone cells are still a matter of debate. Our previous studies showed that calcium efflux originates from pre-failure regions of bone matrix and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts respond to such efflux by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. The mechanisms by which the intracellular calcium concentration increases in response to an increase in the pericellular calcium concentration are unknown. Elevation of the intracellular calcium may occur via release from the internal calcium stores of the cell and/or via the membrane bound channels. The current study applied a wide range of pharmaceutical inhibitors to identify the calcium entry pathways involved in the process: internal calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER, inhibited by thapsigargin and TMB-8), calcium receptor (CaSR, inhibited by calhex), stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC, inhibited by gadolinium), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, inhibited by nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, and ω-conotoxin), and calcium-induced-calcium-release channel (CICRC, inhibited by ryanodine and dantrolene). These inhibitors were screened for their effectiveness to block intracellular calcium increase by using a concentration gradient induced calcium efflux model which mimics calcium diffusion from the basal aspect of cells. The inhibitor(s) which reduced the intracellular calcium response was further tested on osteoblasts seeded on mechanically loaded notched cortical bone wafers undergoing damage. The results showed that only neomycin reduced the intracellular calcium response in osteoblasts, by 27%, upon extracellular calcium stimulus induced by concentration gradient. The inhibitory effect of neomycin was more pronounced (75% reduction in maximum fluorescence) for osteoblasts seeded on notched cortical bone wafers loaded mechanically to damaging load levels. These results imply that the increase in

  20. Molecular determinants of prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels for recognition of local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Takushi; Irie, Katsumasa; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2016-08-01

    Local anesthetics (LAs) inhibit mammalian voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Navs) and are thus clinically important. LAs also inhibit prokaryotic Navs (BacNavs), which have a simpler structure than mammalian Navs. To elucidate the detailed mechanisms of LA inhibition to BacNavs, we used NavBh, a BacNav from Bacillus halodurans, to analyze the interactions of several LAs and quaternary ammoniums (QAs). Based on the chemical similarity of QA with the tertiary-alkylamine (TAA) group of LAs, QAs were used to determine the residues required for the recognition of TAA by NavBh. We confirmed that two residues, Thr220 and Phe227, are important for LA binding; a methyl group of Thr220 is important for recognizing both QAs and LAs, whereas Phe227 is involved in holding blockers at the binding site. In addition, we found that NavBh holds blockers in a closed state, consistent with the large inner cavity observed in the crystal structures of BacNavs. These findings reveal the inhibition mechanism of LAs in NavBh, where the methyl group of Thr220 provides the main receptor site for the TAA group and the bulky phenyl group of Phe227 holds the blockers inside the large inner cavity. These two residues correspond to the two LA recognition residues in mammalian Navs, which suggests the relevance of the LA recognition between BacNavs and mammalian Navs. PMID:27273848

  1. Cloning and expression of a FMRFamide-gated Na+ channel from Helisoma trivolvis and comparison with the native neuronal channel

    PubMed Central

    Jeziorski, Michael C; Green, Kevin A; Sommerville, John; Cottrell, Glen A

    2000-01-01

    We have cloned a cDNA encoding a Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide)-gated Na+ channel from nervous tissue of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis (HtFaNaC) and expressed the channel in Xenopus oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence of the protein expressed by HtFaNaC is 65 % identical to that of the FMRFamide-gated channel cloned from Helix aspersa (HaFaNaC). HtFaNaC expressed in oocytes was less sensitive to FMRFamide (EC50 = 70 μM) than HaFaNaC (EC50 = 2 μM). The two had a similar selectivity for Na+. The amplitude of the FMRFamide response of HtFaNaC was increased by reducing the extracellular concentration of divalent cations. The conductance of the two channels was similar, but the mean open time of unitary events was shorter for expressed HtFaNaC compared to expressed HaFaNaC. Each channel was susceptible to peptide block by high agonist concentrations. In marked contrast to HaFaNaC and other amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels, amiloride, and the related drugs benzamil and 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA), enhanced the FMRFamide response in oocytes expressing HtFaNaC cRNA. The potentiating effects of EIPA and benzamil were greater than those of amiloride. Unitary current analysis showed that with such drugs, there was channel blockade as well as an increased probability of channel opening. The similar permeability of the oocyte-expressed HtFaNaC and the Helisoma neuronal channel, and the susceptibility of both to agonist blockade and blockade by divalent cations, suggest that the channels are the same. However, neuronal channels were less susceptible to enhancement by amiloride analogues and in some patches were more sensitive to FMRFamide than expressed HtFaNaC. PMID:10878095

  2. Cloning and first functional characterization of a plant cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Q.; Mercier, R.W.; Yao, W.; Berkowitz, G.A.

    1999-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (cng) non-selective cation channels have been cloned from a number of animal systems. These channels are characterized by direct gating upon cAMO or cGMO binding to the intracellular portion of the channel protein, which leads to an increase in channel conductance. Animal cng channels are involved in signal transduction systems; they translate stimulus-induced changes in cytosolic cyclic nucleotide into altered cell membrane potential and/or cation flux as part of a signal cascade pathway. Putative plant homologs of animal cng channels have been identified. However, functional characterization (i.e., demonstration of cyclic-nucleotide-dependent ion currents) of a plant cng channel has not yet been accomplished. The authors report the cloning and first functional characterization of a plant member of this family of ion channels. The Arabidopsis cDNA AtCNGC2 encodes a polypeptide with deduced homology to the {alpha}-subunit of animal channels, and facilitates cyclic nucleotide-dependent cation currents upon expression in a number of heterologous systems. AtCNGC2 expression in a yeast mutant lacking a low-affinity K{sup +} uptake system complements growth inhibition only when lipophilic nucleotides are present in the culture medium. Voltage clamp analysis indicates that Xenopus lawvis oocytes injected with AtCNGC2 cRNA demonstrate cyclic-nucleotide-dependent, inward-rectifying K{sup +} currents. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) transfected with AtCNGC2 cDNA demonstrate increased permeability to Ca{sup 2+} only in the presence of lipophilic cyclic nucleotides. The evidence presented here supports the functional classification of AtCNGC2 as a cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel, and presents the first direct evidence identifying a plant member of this ion channel family.

  3. Liposome reconstitution and modulation of recombinant N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor channels by membrane stretch

    PubMed Central

    Kloda, Anna; Lua, Linda; Hall, Rhonda; Adams, David J.; Martinac, Boris

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the heteromeric N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels composed of NR1a and NR2A subunits were expressed, purified, reconstituted into liposomes, and characterized by using the patch clamp technique. The protein exhibited the expected electrophysiological profile of activation by glutamate and glycine and internal Mg2+ blockade. We demonstrated that the mechanical energy transmitted to membrane-bound NMDA receptor channels can be exerted directly by tension developed in the lipid bilayer. Membrane stretch and application of arachidonic acid potentiated currents through NMDA receptor channels in the presence of intracellular Mg2+. The correlation of membrane tension induced by either mechanical or chemical stimuli with the physiological Mg2+ block of the channel suggests that the synaptic transmission can be altered if NMDA receptor complexes experience local changes in bilayer thickness caused by dynamic targeting to lipid microdomains, electrocompression, or chemical modification of the cell membranes. The ability to study gating properties of NMDA receptor channels in artificial bilayers should prove useful in further study of structure–function relationships and facilitate discoveries of new therapeutic agents for treatment of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity or analgesic therapies. PMID:17242368

  4. Angular Sensitivity of Gated Micro-Channel Plate Framing Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O L; Lobban, A; Tutt, T; Bell, P M; Costa, R; Ze, F

    2000-07-24

    Gated, microchannel-plate-based (MCP) framing cameras have been deployed worldwide for 0.2 - 9 keV x-ray imaging and spectroscopy of transient plasma phenomena. For a variety of spectroscopic and imaging applications, the angular sensitivity of MCPs must be known for correctly interpreting the data. We present systematic measurements of angular sensitivity at discrete relevant photon energies and arbitrary MCP gain. The results can been accurately predicted by using a simple 2D approximation to the 3D MCP geometry and by averaging over all possible photon ray paths.

  5. N Channel JFET Based Digital Logic Gate Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus is provided that includes a first field effect transistor with a source tied to zero volts and a drain tied to voltage drain drain (Vdd) through a first resistor. The apparatus also includes a first node configured to tie a second resistor to a third resistor and connect to an input of a gate of the first field effect transistor in order for the first field effect transistor to receive a signal. The apparatus also includes a second field effect transistor configured as a unity gain buffer having a drain tied to Vdd and an uncommitted source.

  6. Modulation of BK channel voltage gating by different auxiliary β subunits

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Gustavo F.; Neely, Alan; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK) are regulated by a multiplicity of signals. The prevailing view is that different BK gating mechanisms converge to determine channel opening and that these gating mechanisms are allosterically coupled. In most instances the pore forming α subunit of BK is associated with one of four alternative β subunits that appear to target specific gating mechanisms to regulate the channel activity. In particular, β1 stabilizes the active configuration of the BK voltage sensor having a large effect on BK Ca2+ sensitivity. To determine the extent to which β subunits regulate the BK voltage sensor, we measured gating currents induced by the pore-forming BK α subunit alone and with the different β subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes (β1, β2IR, β3b, and β4). We found that β1, β2, and β4 stabilize the BK voltage sensor in the active conformation. β3 has no effect on voltage sensor equilibrium. In addition, β4 decreases the apparent number of charges per voltage sensor. The decrease in the charge associated with the voltage sensor in α β4 channels explains most of their biophysical properties. For channels composed of the α subunit alone, gating charge increases slowly with pulse duration as expected if a significant fraction of this charge develops with a time course comparable to that of K+ current activation. In the presence of β1, β2, and β4 this slow component develops in advance of and much more rapidly than ion current activation, suggesting that BK channel opening proceeds in two steps. PMID:23112204

  7. Multi-ion occupancy alters gating in high-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    In this study, single-channel recordings of high-conductance Ca(2+)- activated K+ channels from rat skeletal muscle inserted into planar lipid bilayer were used to analyze the effects of two ionic blockers, Ba2+ and Na+, on the channel's gating reactions. The gating equilibrium of the Ba(2+)-blocked channel was investigated through the kinetics of the discrete blockade induced by Ba2+ ions. Gating properties of Na(+)- blocked channels could be directly characterized due to the very high rates of Na+ blocking/unblocking reactions. While in the presence of K+ (5 mM) in the external solution Ba2+ is known to stabilize the open state of the blocked channel (Miller, C., R. Latorre, and I. Reisin. 1987. J. Gen. Physiol. 90:427-449), we show that the divalent blocker stabilizes the closed-blocked state if permeant ions are removed from the external solution (K+ less than 10 microM). Ionic substitutions in the outer solution induce changes in the gating equilibrium of the Ba(2+)-blocked channel that are tightly correlated to the inhibition of Ba2+ dissociation by external monovalent cations. In permeant ion-free external solutions, blockade of the channel by internal Na+ induces a shift (around 15 mV) in the open probability--voltage curve toward more depolarized potentials, indicating that Na+ induces a stabilization of the closed-blocked state, as does Ba2+ under the same conditions. A kinetic analysis of the Na(+)-blocked channel indicates that the closed- blocked state is favored mainly by a decrease in opening rate. Addition of 1 mM external K+ completely inhibits the shift in the activation curve without affecting the Na(+)-induced reduction in the apparent single-channel amplitude. The results suggest that in the absence of external permeant ions internal blockers regulate the permeant ion occupancy of a site near the outer end of the channel. Occupancy of this site appears to modulate gating primarily by speeding the rate of channel opening. PMID:2056305

  8. Pandinus imperator scorpion venom blocks voltage-gated potassium channels in GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Pappone, P A; Lucero, M T

    1988-06-01

    We examined the effects of Pandinus imperator scorpion venom on voltage-gated potassium channels in cultured clonal rat anterior pituitary cells (GH3 cells) using the gigohm-seal voltage-clamp method in the whole-cell configuration. We found that Pandinus venom blocks the voltage-gated potassium channels of GH3 cells in a voltage-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Crude venom in concentrations of 50-500 micrograms/ml produced 50-70% block of potassium currents measured at -20 mV, compared with 25-60% block measured at +50 mV. The venom both decreased the peak potassium current and shifted the voltage dependence of potassium current activation to more positive potentials. Pandinus venom affected potassium channel kinetics by slowing channel opening, speeding deactivation slightly, and increasing inactivation rates. Potassium currents in cells exposed to Pandinus venom did not recover control amplitudes or kinetics even after 20-40 min of washing with venom-free solution. The concentration dependence of crude venom block indicates that the toxins it contains are effective in the nanomolar range of concentrations. The effects of Pandinus venom were mimicked by zinc at concentrations less than or equal to 0.2 mM. Block of potassium current by zinc was voltage dependent and resembled Pandinus venom block, except that block by zinc was rapidly reversible. Since zinc is found in crude Pandinus venom, it could be important in the interaction of the venom with the potassium channel. We conclude that Pandinus venom contains toxins that bind tightly to voltage-dependent potassium channels in GH3 cells. Because of its high affinity for voltage-gated potassium channels and its irreversibility, Pandinus venom may be useful in the isolation, mapping, and characterization of voltage-gated potassium channels.

  9. Stoichiometry and novel gating mechanism within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel.

    PubMed

    Qian, Feng; Li, Tao; Yang, Fei; Liu, Lian

    2014-12-01

    Despite its fundamental importance to the molecular mechanism underlying cystic fibrosis, many details of the structural basis for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) remain unknown. In addition, the possible interactions among the CFTR proteins have not been clearly demonstrated. In order to identify whether the CFTR channel pore is formed as a monomer or a multimer, we analysed the single-channel properties in patches of cell membrane that coexpressed selected CFTR mutants having significantly different single-channel properties. No hybrid channel opening patterns were observed. We therefore propose that the CFTR channel pore is indeed composed of a monomer. However, we also observed that coexisting CFTR monomers in the cell membrane facilitated the activation of individual CFTR channels. The functional upregulation of this CFTR channel opening probability and the different gating behaviour suggest dynamic conformational changes among the interacting CFTR proteins within the multimeric CFTR complex. Our findings regarding the CFTR monomer channel pore and the novel synergistic gating behaviour within the CFTR channel complex will help to resolve the remaining contradictions among previous studies regarding whether CFTR is a monomer or a multimer.

  10. Suppression of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and neuronal excitability by imperatorin.

    PubMed

    Wu, King-Chuen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Cheng, Ka-Shun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yang, Chin-Tsang; Wong, Kar-Lok; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Chan, Paul; Leung, Yuk-Man

    2013-12-01

    Imperatorin is a naturally occurring furocoumarin compound isolated from plants such as Angelica archangelica and Cnidium monnieri. It has multiple pharmacological effects including anticonvulsant effects. Here we determined the effects of imperatorin on voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) using whole-cell patch clamp techniques in differentiated neuronal NG108-15 cells. We showed that imperatorin inhibited VGSC; such inhibition did not show state-dependence. Imperatorin caused a left shift in the steady-state inactivation curve without affecting activation gating. The inhibition of VGSC by imperatorin displayed a mild frequency-dependence. Imperatorin was also shown to inhibit VGSC and action potential amplitude without affecting voltage-gated K(+) channels in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. In conclusion, our results suggest that imperatorin dampens neuronal excitability by inhibiting VGSC. PMID:24113522

  11. Voltage-Gated Proton Channels: Molecular Biology, Physiology, and Pathophysiology of the HV Family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels (HV) are unique, in part because the ion they conduct is unique. HV channels are perfectly selective for protons and have a very small unitary conductance, both arguably manifestations of the extremely low H+ concentration in physiological solutions. They open with membrane depolarization, but their voltage dependence is strongly regulated by the pH gradient across the membrane (ΔpH), with the result that in most species they normally conduct only outward current. The HV channel protein is strikingly similar to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD, the first four membrane-spanning segments) of voltage-gated K+ and Na+ channels. In higher species, HV channels exist as dimers in which each protomer has its own conduction pathway, yet gating is cooperative. HV channels are phylogenetically diverse, distributed from humans to unicellular marine life, and perhaps even plants. Correspondingly, HV functions vary widely as well, from promoting calcification in coccolithophores and triggering bioluminescent flashes in dinoflagellates to facilitating killing bacteria, airway pH regulation, basophil histamine release, sperm maturation, and B lymphocyte responses in humans. Recent evidence that hHV1 may exacerbate breast cancer metastasis and cerebral damage from ischemic stroke highlights the rapidly expanding recognition of the clinical importance of hHV1. PMID:23589829

  12. Local anesthetic and antiepileptic drug access and binding to a bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Boiteux, Céline; Vorobyov, Igor; French, Robert J; French, Christopher; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Allen, Toby W

    2014-09-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are important targets in the treatment of a range of pathologies. Bacterial channels, for which crystal structures have been solved, exhibit modulation by local anesthetic and anti-epileptic agents, allowing molecular-level investigations into sodium channel-drug interactions. These structures reveal no basis for the "hinged lid"-based fast inactivation, seen in eukaryotic Nav channels. Thus, they enable examination of potential mechanisms of use- or state-dependent drug action based on activation gating, or slower pore-based inactivation processes. Multimicrosecond simulations of NavAb reveal high-affinity binding of benzocaine to F203 that is a surrogate for FS6, conserved in helix S6 of Domain IV of mammalian sodium channels, as well as low-affinity sites suggested to stabilize different states of the channel. Phenytoin exhibits a different binding distribution owing to preferential interactions at the membrane and water-protein interfaces. Two drug-access pathways into the pore are observed: via lateral fenestrations connecting to the membrane lipid phase, as well as via an aqueous pathway through the intracellular activation gate, despite being closed. These observations provide insight into drug modulation that will guide further developments of Nav inhibitors. PMID:25136136

  13. State-Dependent Network Connectivity Determines Gating in a K+ Channel

    PubMed Central

    Bollepalli, Murali K.; Fowler, Philip W.; Rapedius, Markus; Shang, Lijun; Sansom, Mark S.P.; Tucker, Stephen J.; Baukrowitz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary X-ray crystallography has provided tremendous insight into the different structural states of membrane proteins and, in particular, of ion channels. However, the molecular forces that determine the thermodynamic stability of a particular state are poorly understood. Here we analyze the different X-ray structures of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir1.1) in relation to functional data we obtained for over 190 mutants in Kir1.1. This mutagenic perturbation analysis uncovered an extensive, state-dependent network of physically interacting residues that stabilizes the pre-open and open states of the channel, but fragments upon channel closure. We demonstrate that this gating network is an important structural determinant of the thermodynamic stability of these different gating states and determines the impact of individual mutations on channel function. These results have important implications for our understanding of not only K+ channel gating but also the more general nature of conformational transitions that occur in other allosteric proteins. PMID:24980796

  14. State-dependent network connectivity determines gating in a K+ channel.

    PubMed

    Bollepalli, Murali K; Fowler, Philip W; Rapedius, Markus; Shang, Lijun; Sansom, Mark S P; Tucker, Stephen J; Baukrowitz, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    X-ray crystallography has provided tremendous insight into the different structural states of membrane proteins and, in particular, of ion channels. However, the molecular forces that determine the thermodynamic stability of a particular state are poorly understood. Here we analyze the different X-ray structures of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir1.1) in relation to functional data we obtained for over 190 mutants in Kir1.1. This mutagenic perturbation analysis uncovered an extensive, state-dependent network of physically interacting residues that stabilizes the pre-open and open states of the channel, but fragments upon channel closure. We demonstrate that this gating network is an important structural determinant of the thermodynamic stability of these different gating states and determines the impact of individual mutations on channel function. These results have important implications for our understanding of not only K+ channel gating but also the more general nature of conformational transitions that occur in other allosteric proteins. PMID:24980796

  15. A Non-canonical Voltage-Sensing Mechanism Controls Gating in K2P K+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Schewe, Marcus; Nematian-Ardestani, Ehsan; Sun, Han; Musinszki, Marianne; Cordeiro, Sönke; Bucci, Giovanna; de Groot, Bert L.; Tucker, Stephen J.; Rapedius, Markus; Baukrowitz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Summary Two-pore domain (K2P) K+ channels are major regulators of excitability that endow cells with an outwardly rectifying background “leak” conductance. In some K2P channels, strong voltage-dependent activation has been observed, but the mechanism remains unresolved because they lack a canonical voltage-sensing domain. Here, we show voltage-dependent gating is common to most K2P channels and that this voltage sensitivity originates from the movement of three to four ions into the high electric field of an inactive selectivity filter. Overall, this ion-flux gating mechanism generates a one-way “check valve” within the filter because outward movement of K+ induces filter opening, whereas inward movement promotes inactivation. Furthermore, many physiological stimuli switch off this flux gating mode to convert K2P channels into a leak conductance. These findings provide insight into the functional plasticity of a K+-selective filter and also refine our understanding of K2P channels and the mechanisms by which ion channels can sense voltage. PMID:26919430

  16. Simulation Studies of Ion Permeation and Selectivity in Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    PubMed

    Ing, C; Pomès, R

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in electrically excitable cells. Molecular dynamics simulations have become a useful tool to study the molecular basis of ion transport in atomistic models of voltage-gated ion channels. The elucidation of several three-dimensional structures of bacterial voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) in 2011 and 2012 opened the way to detailed computational investigations of this important class of membrane proteins. Here we review the numerous simulation studies of Na(+) permeation and selectivity in bacterial Nav channels published in the past 5years. These studies use a variety of simulation methodologies differing in force field parameters, molecular models, sampling algorithms, and simulation times. Although results disagree on the details of ion permeation mechanisms, they concur in the presence of two primary Na(+) binding sites in the selectivity filter and support a loosely coupled knock-on mechanism of Na(+) permeation. Comparative studies of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) permeation reveal sites within Nav channels that are Na(+) selective, yet a consensus model of selectivity has not been established. We discuss the agreement between simulation and experimental results and propose strategies that may be used to resolve discrepancies between simulation studies in order to improve future computational studies of permeation and selectivity in ion channels. PMID:27586286

  17. Interleukin-10 down-regulates voltage gated sodium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai-Feng; Zhu, He-Quan; Wei, Xu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Li, Yong-Yong; Pang, Rui-Ping; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2013-09-01

    The over-expression of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following peripheral nerve injury contributes to neuropathic pain by generation of the ectopic discharges of action potentials. However, mechanisms underlying the change in VGSCs' expression are poorly understood. Our previous work has demonstrated that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α up-regulates VGSCs. In the present work we tested if anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which had been proven to be effective for treating neuropathic pain, had the opposite effect. Western blot and immunofluorescence results showed that IL-10 receptor was localized in DRG neurons. Recombinant rat IL-10 (200 pg/ml) not only reduced the densities of TTX-sensitive and Nav1.8 currents in control DRG neurons, but also reversed the increase of the sodium currents induced by rat recombinant TNF-α (100 pg/ml), as revealed by patch-clamp recordings. Consistent with the electrophysiological results, real-time PCR and western blot revealed that IL-10 (200 pg/ml) down-regulated VGSCs in both mRNA and protein levels and reversed the up-regulation of VGSCs by TNF-α. Moreover, repetitive intrathecal administration of rrIL-10 for 3 days (4 times per day) attenuated mechanical allodynia in L5 spinal nerve ligation model and profoundly inhibited the excitability of DRG neurons. These results suggested that the down-regulation of the sodium channels in DRG neurons might contribute to the therapeutic effect of IL-10 on neuropathic pain. PMID:23357618

  18. Meroterpenoid Chrodrimanins Are Selective and Potent Blockers of Insect GABA-Gated Chloride Channels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Furutani, Shogo; Ihara, Makoto; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling; Kai, Kenji; Hayashi, Hideo; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Meroterpenoid chrodrimanins, produced from Talaromyces sp. YO-2, are known to paralyze silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae, but their target is unknown. We have investigated the actions of chrodrimanin B on ligand-gated ion channels of silkworm larval neurons using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Chrodrimanin B had no effect on membrane currents when tested alone at 1 μM. However, it completely blocked the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced current and showed less pronounced actions on acetylcholine- and L-glutamate-induced currents, when delivered at 1 μM for 1 min prior to co-application with transmitter GABA. Thus, chrodrimanins were also tested on a wild-type isoform of the B. mori GABA receptor (GABAR) RDL using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Chrodrimanin B attenuated the peak current amplitude of the GABA response of RDL with an IC50 of 1.66 nM. The order of the GABAR-blocking potency of chrodrimanins B > D > A was in accordance with their reported insecticidal potency. Chrodrimanin B had no open channel blocking action when tested at 3 nM on the GABA response of RDL. Co-application with 3 nM chrodrimanin B shifted the GABA concentration response curve to a higher concentration and further increase of chrodrimanin B concentration to 10 nM; it reduced maximum current amplitude of the GABA response, pointing to a high-affinity competitive action and a lower affinity non-competitive action. The A282S;T286V double mutation of RDL, which impairs the actions of fipronil, hardly affected the blocking action of chrodrimanin B, indicating a binding site of chrodrimanin B distinct from that of fipronil. Chrodrimanin B showed approximately 1,000-fold lower blocking action on human α1β2γ2 GABAR compared to RDL and thus is a selective blocker of insect GABARs.

  19. A specialized molecular motion opens the Hv1 voltage-gated proton channel.

    PubMed

    Mony, Laetitia; Berger, Thomas K; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2015-04-01

    The Hv1 proton channel is unique among voltage-gated channels for containing the pore and gate within its voltage-sensing domain. Pore opening has been proposed to include assembly of the selectivity filter between an arginine (R3) of segment S4 and an aspartate (D1) of segment S1. We determined whether gating involves motion of S1, using Ciona intestinalis Hv1. We found that channel opening is concomitant with solution access to the pore-lining face of S1, from the cytoplasm to deep inside the pore. Voltage- and patch-clamp fluorometry showed that this involves a motion of S1 relative to its surroundings. S1 motion and the S4 motion that precedes it are each influenced by residues on the other helix, thus suggesting a dynamic interaction between S1 and S4. Our findings suggest that the S1 of Hv1 has specialized to function as part of the channel's gate.

  20. L-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Conditioned Fear: A Genetic and Pharmacological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Brandon C.; Sze, Wilson; White, Jessica A.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Using pharmacological approaches, others have suggested that L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) mediate both consolidation and extinction of conditioned fear. In the absence of L-VGCC isoform-specific antagonists, we have begun to investigate the subtype-specific role of LVGCCs in consolidation and extinction of conditioned fear…

  1. Calmodulin and Ca2+ control of voltage gated Na+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Gabelli, Sandra B; Yoder, Jesse B; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Amzel, L Mario

    2016-01-01

    The structures of the cytosolic portion of voltage activated sodium channels (CTNav) in complexes with calmodulin and other effectors in the presence and the absence of calcium provide information about the mechanisms by which these effectors regulate channel activity. The most studied of these complexes, those of Nav1.2 and Nav1.5, show details of the conformations and the specific contacts that are involved in channel regulation. Another voltage activated sodium channel, Nav1.4, shows significant calcium dependent inactivation, while its homolog Nav1.5 does not. The available structures shed light on the possible localization of the elements responsible for this effect. Mutations in the genes of these 3 Nav channels are associated with several disease conditions: Nav1.2, neurological conditions; Nav1.4, syndromes involving skeletal muscle; and Nav1.5, cardiac arrhythmias. Many of these disease-specific mutations are located at the interfaces involving CTNav and its effectors. PMID:26218606

  2. Regulation of Calcium Channels and Exocytosis in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cells by Prostaglandin EP3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Mark L.; Breyer, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 controls numerous physiological functions through a family of cognate G protein-coupled receptors (EP1–EP4). Targeting specific EP receptors might be therapeutically useful and reduce side effects associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors that block prostanoid synthesis. Systemic immune challenge and inflammatory cytokines have been shown to increase expression of the synthetic enzymes for PGE2 in the adrenal gland. Catecholamines and other hormones, released from adrenal chromaffin cells in response to Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, play central roles in homeostatic function and the coordinated stress response. However, long-term elevation of circulating catecholamines contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and heart failure. Here, we investigated the EP receptor(s) and cellular mechanisms by which PGE2 might modulate chromaffin cell function. PGE2 did not alter resting intracellular [Ca2+] or the peak amplitude of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor currents, but it did inhibit CaV2 voltage-gated Ca2+ channel currents (ICa). This inhibition was voltage-dependent and mediated by pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, consistent with a direct Gβγ subunit-mediated mechanism common to other Gi/o-coupled receptors. mRNA for all four EP receptors was detected, but using selective pharmacological tools and EP receptor knockout mice, we demonstrated that EP3 receptors mediate the inhibition of ICa. Finally, changes in membrane capacitance showed that Ca2+-dependent exocytosis was reduced in parallel with ICa. To our knowledge, this is the first study of EP receptor signaling in mouse chromaffin cells and identifies a molecular mechanism for paracrine regulation of neuroendocrine function by PGE2. PMID:21383044

  3. Ca(2+)-BK channel clusters in olfactory receptor neurons and their role in odour coding.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guobin; de Jong, Daniëlle; Alevra, Mihai; Schild, Detlev

    2015-12-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) have high-voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels whose physiological impact has remained enigmatic since the voltage-gated conductances in this cell type were first described in the 1980s. Here we show that in ORN somata of Xenopus laevis tadpoles these channels are clustered and co-expressed with large-conductance potassium (BK) channels. We found approximately five clusters per ORN and twelve Ca(2+) channels per cluster. The action potential-triggered activation of BK channels accelerates the repolarization of action potentials and shortens interspike intervals during odour responses. This increases the sensitivity of individual ORNs to odorants. At the level of mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, odour qualities have been shown to be coded by first-spike-latency patterns. The system of Ca(2+) and BK channels in ORNs appears to be important for correct odour coding because the blockage of BK channels not only affects ORN spiking patterns but also changes the latency pattern representation of odours in the olfactory bulb.

  4. Molecular and functional interplay of voltage-gated Ca²⁺ channels with the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Gandini, Maria A; Felix, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels conduct Ca(2+) ions into cells in response to depolarization and thereby contribute to regulate diverse biological events in a wide variety of tissues including nerves, glands and muscles. They are responsible for initiation of excitation-contraction and excitation-secretion coupling, and are involved in the regulation of protein phosphorylation and gene transcription, among many other intracellular events. The activity of CaV channels may be regulated by a number of cell surface receptors acting through G proteins as well as by protein phosphorylation and other post-translational modifications. Likewise, it is acknowledged that CaV channels are organized into active signaling platforms depending upon interactions with other molecules including cytoskeletal proteins. Diverse studies have shown that several cytoskeletal components may act as binding partners that help regulate, localize and determine cell surface expression of CaV channel in response to extracellular events. In this review, we survey the interaction of CaV channels with the cytoskeleton and its potential physiological implications.

  5. Gating of dopamine transmission by calcium and axonal N-, Q-, T- and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels differs between striatal domains

    PubMed Central

    Brimblecombe, Katherine R; Gracie, Caitlin J; Platt, Nicola J; Cragg, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    The axonal voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) that catalyse dopamine (DA) transmission are incompletely defined. Yet, they are critical to DA function and might prime subpopulations of DA neurons for parkinsonian degeneration. Previous studies of VGCCs will have encompassed those on striatal cholinergic interneurons, which strongly influence DA transmission. We identify which VGCCs on DA axons govern DA transmission, we determine their dynamic properties and reveal an underlying basis for differences between the caudate putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). We detected DA release evoked electrically during nicotinic receptor blockade or optogenetically by light activation of channel rhodopsin-expressing DA axons in mouse striatal slices. Subtype-specific VGCC blockers indicated that N-, Q-, T- and L-VGCCs govern DA release in CPu, but in NAc, T and L-channels are relatively silent. The roles of the most dominant channels were inversely frequency-dependent, due to low-pass filtering of DA release by Ca2+-dependent relationships between initial release probability and short-term plasticity. Ca2+ concentration–response curves revealed that differences between CPu and NAc were due to greater underlying Ca2+ sensitivity of DA transmission from CPu axons. Functions for ‘silent’ L- and T-channels in NAc could be unmasked by elevating extracellular [Ca2+]. Furthermore, we identified a greater coupling between BAPTA-sensitive, fast Ca2+ transients and DA transmission in CPu axons, and evidence for endogenous fast buffering of Ca2+ in NAc. These data reveal that a range of VGCCs operate dynamically on DA axons, depending on local driving forces. Furthermore, they reveal dramatic differences in Ca2+ handling between axonal subpopulations that show different vulnerability to parkinsonian degeneration. PMID:25533038

  6. Voltage-gated calcium channel and antisense oligonucleotides thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruska, Keith A. (Inventor); Friedman, Peter A. (Inventor); Barry, Elizabeth L. R. (Inventor); Duncan, Randall L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An antisense oligonucleotide of 10 to 35 nucleotides in length that can hybridize with a region of the .alpha..sub.1 subunit of the SA-Cat channel gene DNA or mRNA is provided, together with pharmaceutical compositions containing and methods utilizing such antisense oligonucleotide.

  7. Transduction channels' gating can control friction on vibrating hair-cell bundles in the ear.

    PubMed

    Bormuth, Volker; Barral, Jérémie; Joanny, Jean-François; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal

    2014-05-20

    Hearing starts when sound-evoked mechanical vibrations of the hair-cell bundle activate mechanosensitive ion channels, giving birth to an electrical signal. As for any mechanical system, friction impedes movements of the hair bundle and thus constrains the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of auditory transduction. Friction is generally thought to result mainly from viscous drag by the surrounding fluid. We demonstrate here that the opening and closing of the transduction channels produce internal frictional forces that can dominate viscous drag on the micrometer-sized hair bundle. We characterized friction by analyzing hysteresis in the force-displacement relation of single hair-cell bundles in response to periodic triangular stimuli. For bundle velocities high enough to outrun adaptation, we found that frictional forces were maximal within the narrow region of deflections that elicited significant channel gating, plummeted upon application of a channel blocker, and displayed a sublinear growth for increasing bundle velocity. At low velocity, the slope of the relation between the frictional force and velocity was nearly fivefold larger than the hydrodynamic friction coefficient that was measured when the transduction machinery was decoupled from bundle motion by severing tip links. A theoretical analysis reveals that channel friction arises from coupling the dynamics of the conformational change associated with channel gating to tip-link tension. Varying channel properties affects friction, with faster channels producing smaller friction. We propose that this intrinsic source of friction may contribute to the process that sets the hair cell's characteristic frequency of responsiveness.

  8. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: Mechanistic Insights From Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Oakes, V; Furini, S; Domene, C

    2016-01-01

    The permeation of ions and other molecules across biological membranes is an inherent requirement of all cellular organisms. Ion channels, in particular, are responsible for the conduction of charged species, hence modulating the propagation of electrical signals. Despite the universal physiological implications of this property, the molecular functioning of ion channels remains ambiguous. The combination of atomistic structural data with computational methodologies, such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, is now considered routine to investigate structure-function relationships in biological systems. A fuller understanding of conduction, selectivity, and gating, therefore, is steadily emerging due to the applicability of these techniques to ion channels. However, because their structure is known at atomic resolution, studies have consistently been biased toward K(+) channels, thus the molecular determinants of ionic selectivity, activation, and drug blockage in Na(+) channels are often overlooked. The recent increase of available crystallographic data has eminently encouraged the investigation of voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels via computational methods. Here, we present an overview of simulation studies that have contributed to our understanding of key principles that underlie ionic conduction and selectivity in Na(+) channels, in comparison to the K(+) channel analogs. PMID:27586285

  9. Pathways and Barriers for Ion Translocation through the 5-HT3A Receptor Channel

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Danilo; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ionotropic receptors that mediate fast intercellular communications at synaptic level and include either cation selective (e.g., nAChR and 5-HT3) or anion selective (e.g., GlyR, GABAA and GluCl) membrane channels. Among others, 5-HT3 is one of the most studied members, since its first cloning back in 1991, and a large number of studies have successfully pinpointed protein residues critical for its activation and channel gating. In addition, 5-HT3 is also the target of a few pharmacological treatments due to the demonstrated benefits of its modulation in clinical trials. Nonetheless, a detailed molecular analysis of important protein features, such as the origin of its ion selectivity and the rather low conductance as compared to other channel homologues, has been unfeasible until the recent crystallization of the mouse 5-HT3A receptor. Here, we present extended molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of the whole 5-HT3A protein with the aim of better understanding its ion transport properties, such as the pathways for ion permeation into the receptor body and the complex nature of the selectivity filter. Our investigation unravels previously unpredicted structural features of the 5-HT3A receptor, such as the existence of alternative intersubunit pathways for ion translocation at the interface between the extracellular and the transmembrane domains, in addition to the one along the channel main axis. Moreover, our study offers a molecular interpretation of the role played by an arginine triplet located in the intracellular domain on determining the characteristic low conductance of the 5-HT3A receptor, as evidenced in previous experiments. In view of these results, possible implications on other members of the superfamily are suggested. PMID:26465896

  10. Pathways and Barriers for Ion Translocation through the 5-HT3A Receptor Channel.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Danilo; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ionotropic receptors that mediate fast intercellular communications at synaptic level and include either cation selective (e.g., nAChR and 5-HT3) or anion selective (e.g., GlyR, GABAA and GluCl) membrane channels. Among others, 5-HT3 is one of the most studied members, since its first cloning back in 1991, and a large number of studies have successfully pinpointed protein residues critical for its activation and channel gating. In addition, 5-HT3 is also the target of a few pharmacological treatments due to the demonstrated benefits of its modulation in clinical trials. Nonetheless, a detailed molecular analysis of important protein features, such as the origin of its ion selectivity and the rather low conductance as compared to other channel homologues, has been unfeasible until the recent crystallization of the mouse 5-HT3A receptor. Here, we present extended molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of the whole 5-HT3A protein with the aim of better understanding its ion transport properties, such as the pathways for ion permeation into the receptor body and the complex nature of the selectivity filter. Our investigation unravels previously unpredicted structural features of the 5-HT3A receptor, such as the existence of alternative intersubunit pathways for ion translocation at the interface between the extracellular and the transmembrane domains, in addition to the one along the channel main axis. Moreover, our study offers a molecular interpretation of the role played by an arginine triplet located in the intracellular domain on determining the characteristic low conductance of the 5-HT3A receptor, as evidenced in previous experiments. In view of these results, possible implications on other members of the superfamily are suggested. PMID:26465896

  11. Mode switching is the major mechanism of ligand regulation of InsP3 receptor calcium release channels.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Lucian; White, Carl; Cheung, King-Ho; Shuai, Jianwei; Parker, Ian; Pearson, John E; Foskett, J Kevin; Mak, Don-On Daniel

    2007-12-01

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) receptor (InsP(3)R) plays a critical role in generation of complex Ca(2+) signals in many cell types. In patch clamp recordings of isolated nuclei from insect Sf9 cells, InsP(3)R channels were consistently detected with regulation by cytoplasmic InsP(3) and free Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) very similar to that observed for vertebrate InsP(3)R. Long channel activity durations of the Sf9-InsP(3)R have now enabled identification of a novel aspect of InsP(3)R gating: modal gating. Using a novel algorithm to analyze channel modal gating kinetics, InsP(3)R gating can be separated into three distinct modes: a low activity mode, a fast kinetic mode, and a burst mode with channel open probability (P(o)) within each mode of 0.007 +/- 0.002, 0.24 +/- 0.03, and 0.85 +/- 0.02, respectively. Channels reside in each mode for long periods (tens of opening and closing events), and transitions between modes can be discerned with high resolution (within two channel opening and closing events). Remarkably, regulation of channel gating by [Ca(2+)](i) and [InsP(3)] does not substantially alter channel P(o) within a mode. Instead, [Ca(2+)](i) and [InsP(3)] affect overall channel P(o) primarily by changing the relative probability of the channel being in each mode, especially the high and low P(o) modes. This novel observation therefore reveals modal switching as the major mechanism of physiological regulation of InsP(3)R channel activity, with implications for the kinetics of Ca(2+) release events in cells.

  12. Analysis and functional implications of phosphorylation of neuronal voltage-gated potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Oscar; Trimmer, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation is the most common and abundant posttranslational modification to eukaryotic proteins, regulating a plethora of dynamic cellular processes. Here, we review and discuss recent advances in our knowledge of the breadth and importance of reversible phosphorylation in regulating the expression, localization and function of mammalian neuronal voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, key regulators of neuronal function. We highlight the role of modern mass spectrometric techniques and phosphospecific antibodies that reveal the extent and nature of phosphorylation at specific sites in Kv channels. We also emphasize the role of reversible phosphorylation in dynamically regulating diverse aspects of Kv channel biology. Finally, we discuss as important future directions the determination of the mechanistic basis for how altering phosphorylation state affects Kv channel expression, localization and function, the nature of macromolecular signaling complexes containing Kv channels and enzymes regulating their phosphorylation state, and the specific role of Kv channel phosphorylation in regulating neuronal function during physiological and pathophysiological events. PMID:20600597

  13. Molecular basis of ion permeability in a voltage-gated sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Claire E; Bagnéris, Claire; DeCaen, Paul G; Sula, Altin; Scaglione, Antonella; Clapham, David E; Wallace, B A

    2016-04-15

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for electrical signalling across cell membranes. They exhibit strong selectivities for sodium ions over other cations, enabling the finely tuned cascade of events associated with action potentials. This paper describes the ion permeability characteristics and the crystal structure of a prokaryotic sodium channel, showing for the first time the detailed locations of sodium ions in the selectivity filter of a sodium channel. Electrostatic calculations based on the structure are consistent with the relative cation permeability ratios (Na(+) ≈ Li(+) ≫ K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) measured for these channels. In an E178D selectivity filter mutant constructed to have altered ion selectivities, the sodium ion binding site nearest the extracellular side is missing. Unlike potassium ions in potassium channels, the sodium ions in these channels appear to be hydrated and are associated with side chains of the selectivity filter residues, rather than polypeptide backbones. PMID:26873592

  14. The role of MscL amphipathic N terminus indicates a blueprint for bilayer-mediated gating of mechanosensitive channels

    PubMed Central

    Bavi, Navid; Cortes, D. Marien; Cox, Charles D.; Rohde, Paul R.; Liu, Weihong; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Bavi, Omid; Strop, Pavel; Hill, Adam P.; Rees, Douglas; Corry, Ben; Perozo, Eduardo; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscL gates in response to membrane tension as a result of mechanical force transmitted directly to the channel from the lipid bilayer. MscL represents an excellent model system to study the basic biophysical principles of mechanosensory transduction. However, understanding of the essential structural components that transduce bilayer tension into channel gating remains incomplete. Here using multiple experimental and computational approaches, we demonstrate that the amphipathic N-terminal helix of MscL acts as a crucial structural element during tension-induced gating, both stabilizing the closed state and coupling the channel to the membrane. We propose that this may also represent a common principle in the gating cycle of unrelated mechanosensitive ion channels, allowing the coupling of channel conformation to membrane dynamics. PMID:27329693

  15. The role of MscL amphipathic N terminus indicates a blueprint for bilayer-mediated gating of mechanosensitive channels.

    PubMed

    Bavi, Navid; Cortes, D Marien; Cox, Charles D; Rohde, Paul R; Liu, Weihong; Deitmer, Joachim W; Bavi, Omid; Strop, Pavel; Hill, Adam P; Rees, Douglas; Corry, Ben; Perozo, Eduardo; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscL gates in response to membrane tension as a result of mechanical force transmitted directly to the channel from the lipid bilayer. MscL represents an excellent model system to study the basic biophysical principles of mechanosensory transduction. However, understanding of the essential structural components that transduce bilayer tension into channel gating remains incomplete. Here using multiple experimental and computational approaches, we demonstrate that the amphipathic N-terminal helix of MscL acts as a crucial structural element during tension-induced gating, both stabilizing the closed state and coupling the channel to the membrane. We propose that this may also represent a common principle in the gating cycle of unrelated mechanosensitive ion channels, allowing the coupling of channel conformation to membrane dynamics. PMID:27329693

  16. Reverberation of excitation in neuronal networks interconnected through voltage-gated gap junction channels

    PubMed Central

    Maciunas, Kestutis; Snipas, Mindaugas; Paulauskas, Nerijus

    2016-01-01

    We combined Hodgkin–Huxley equations and gating models of gap junction (GJ) channels to simulate the spread of excitation in two-dimensional networks composed of neurons interconnected by voltage-gated GJs. Each GJ channel contains two fast and slow gates, each exhibiting current–voltage (I-V) rectification and gating properties that depend on transjunctional voltage (Vj). The data obtained show how junctional conductance (gj), which is necessary for synchronization of the neuronal network, depends on its size and the intrinsic firing rate of neurons. A phase shift between action potentials (APs) of neighboring neurons creates bipolar, short-lasting Vj spikes of approximately ±100 mV that induce Vj gating, leading to a small decay of gj, which can accumulate into larger decays during bursting activity of neurons. We show that I-V rectification of GJs in local regions of the two-dimensional network of neurons can lead to unidirectional AP transfer and consequently to reverberation of excitation. This reverberation can be initiated by a single electrical pulse and terminated by a low-amplitude pulse applied in a specific window of reverberation cycle. Thus, the model accounts for the influence of dynamically modulatable electrical synapses in shaping the function of a neuronal network and the formation of reverberation, which, as proposed earlier, may be important for the development of short-term memory and its consolidation into long-term memory. PMID:26880752

  17. Intracellular domains interactions and gated motions of IKS potassium channel subunits

    PubMed Central

    Haitin, Yoni; Wiener, Reuven; Shaham, Dana; Peretz, Asher; Cohen, Enbal Ben-Tal; Shamgar, Liora; Pongs, Olaf; Hirsch, Joel A; Attali, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ channels co-assemble with auxiliary β subunits to form macromolecular complexes. In heart, assembly of Kv7.1 pore-forming subunits with KCNE1 β subunits generates the repolarizing K+ current IKS. However, the detailed nature of their interface remains unknown. Mutations in either Kv7.1 or KCNE1 produce the life-threatening long or short QT syndromes. Here, we studied the interactions and voltage-dependent motions of IKS channel intracellular domains, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer combined with voltage-clamp recording and in vitro binding of purified proteins. The results indicate that the KCNE1 distal C-terminus interacts with the coiled-coil helix C of the Kv7.1 tetramerization domain. This association is important for IKS channel assembly rules as underscored by Kv7.1 current inhibition produced by a dominant-negative C-terminal domain. On channel opening, the C-termini of Kv7.1 and KCNE1 come close together. Co-expression of Kv7.1 with the KCNE1 long QT mutant D76N abolished the K+ currents and gated motions. Thus, during channel gating KCNE1 is not static. Instead, the C-termini of both subunits experience molecular motions, which are disrupted by the D76N causing disease mutation. PMID:19521339

  18. ASSESSMENT OF SUBUNIT-DEPENDENT DIRECT GATING AND ALLOSTERIC MODULATORY EFFECTS OF CARISOPRODOL AT GABAA RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; González, Lorie A.; Dillon, Glenn H.

    2016-01-01

    Carisoprodol is a widely prescribed muscle relaxant, abuse of which has grown considerably in recent years. It directly activates and allosterically modulates α1β2γ2 GABAARs, although the site(s) of action are unknown. To gain insight into the actions of carisoprodol, subunit-dependent effects of this drug were assessed. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from HEK293 cells expressing α1β2, α1β3 or αxβzγ2 (where x = 1–6 and z = 1–3) GABAARs, and in receptors incorporating the δ subunit (modeling extrasynaptic receptors). The ability to directly gate and allosterically potentiate GABA-gated currents was observed for all configurations. Presence or absence of the γ2 subunit did not affect the ability of carisoprodol to directly gate or allosterically modulate the receptor. Presence of the β1 subunit conferred highest efficacy for direct activation relative to maximum GABA currents, while presence of the β2 subunit conferred highest efficacy for allosteric modulation of the GABA response. With regard to α subunits, carisoprodol was most efficacious at enhancing the actions of GABA in receptors incorporating the α1 subunit. The ability to directly gate the receptor was generally comparable regardless of the α subunit isoform, although receptors incorporating the α3 subunit showed significantly reduced direct gating efficacy and affinity. In extrasynaptic (α1β3δ and α4β3δ) receptors, carisoprodol had greater efficacy than GABA as a direct gating agonist. In addition, carisoprodol allosterically potentiated both EC20 and saturating GABA concentrations in these receptors. In assessing voltage-dependence, we found direct gating and inhibitory effects were insensitive to membrane voltage, whereas allosteric modulatory effects were affected by membrane voltage. Our findings demonstrate direct and allosteric effects of carisoprodol at synaptic and extrasynpatic GABAARs and that subunit isoform influences these effects. PMID:25896767

  19. Molecular dissection of lubeluzole use-dependent block of voltage-gated sodium channels discloses new therapeutic potentials.

    PubMed

    Desaphy, Jean-François; Carbonara, Roberta; Costanza, Teresa; Lentini, Giovanni; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Bruno, Claudio; Franchini, Carlo; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2013-02-01

    Lubeluzole, which acts on various targets in vitro, including voltage-gated sodium channels, was initially proposed as a neuroprotectant. The lubeluzole structure contains a benzothiazole moiety [N-methyl-1,3-benzothiazole-2-amine (R-like)] related to riluzole and a phenoxy-propranol-amine moiety [(RS)-1-(3,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-(piperidin-1-yl)propan-2-ol (A-core)] recalling propranolol. Both riluzole and propranolol are efficient sodium channel blockers. We studied in detail the effects of lubeluzole (racemic mixture and single isomers), the aforementioned lubeluzole moieties, and riluzole on sodium channels to increase our knowledge of drug-channel molecular interactions. Compounds were tested on hNav1.4 sodium channels, and on F1586C or Y1593C mutants functionally expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, using the patch-clamp technique. Lubeluzole blocked sodium channels with a remarkable effectiveness. No stereoselectivity was found. Compared with mexiletine, the dissociation constant for inactivated channels was ~600 times lower (~11 nM), conferring to lubeluzole a huge use-dependence of great therapeutic value. The F1586C mutation only partially impaired the use-dependent block, suggesting that additional amino acids are critically involved in high-affinity binding. Lubeluzole moieties were modest sodium channel blockers. Riluzole blocked sodium channels efficiently but lacked use dependence, similar to R-like. F1586C fully abolished A-core use dependence, suggesting that A-core binds to the local anesthetic receptor. Thus, lubeluzole likely binds to the local anesthetic receptor through its phenoxy-propranol-amine moiety, with consequent use-dependent behavior. Nevertheless, compared with other known sodium channel blockers, lubeluzole adds a third pharmacophoric point through its benzothiazole moiety, which greatly enhances high-affinity binding and use-dependent block. If sufficient isoform specificity can be attained, the huge use-dependent block

  20. The isolated voltage sensing domain of the Shaker potassium channel forms a voltage-gated cation channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Juan; Blunck, Rikard

    2016-01-01

    Domains in macromolecular complexes are often considered structurally and functionally conserved while energetically coupled to each other. In the modular voltage-gated ion channels the central ion-conducting pore is surrounded by four voltage sensing domains (VSDs). Here, the energetic coupling is mediated by interactions between the S4-S5 linker, covalently linking the domains, and the proximal C-terminus. In order to characterize the intrinsic gating of the voltage sensing domain in the absence of the pore domain, the Shaker Kv channel was truncated after the fourth transmembrane helix S4 (Shaker-iVSD). Shaker-iVSD showed significantly altered gating kinetics and formed a cation-selective ion channel with a strong preference for protons. Ion conduction in Shaker-iVSD developed despite identical primary sequence, indicating an allosteric influence of the pore domain. Shaker-iVSD also displays pronounced 'relaxation'. Closing of the pore correlates with entry into relaxation suggesting that the two processes are energetically related. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18130.001 PMID:27710769

  1. Meta-gated channel for the discrete control of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Wang, Hui; Shi, Ayuan; Zhang, Aofang; Wang, Jing; Gao, Dongxing; Lei, Zhenya; Hu, Bowei

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the meta-gate controlled wave propagation through multiple metallic plates with properly devised sub-wavelength defect apertures. Different from using gradient refractive-index meta-materials or phase-discontinuity meta-surfaces to produce the discrepancy between the incident angle and the refractive angle, our technique redirects electromagnetic fields by setting-up discrete transmission gateways between adjacent meta-gates and creates the perfect channels for the wave propagation. Electromagnetic fields can be assigned in the response of the driving frequency of meta-gates with extraordinary transmissions and propagate simply relying on their pre-set locations as illustrated by the meta-gate guided electromagnetic fields travelling in the paths of the Silk-Road and the contour line of Xi'an city where the Silk-Road starts. The meta-gate concept, offering the feasibility of the discrete control of electromagnetic fields with gating routes, may pave an alternative way for precisely transmitting of signals and efficiently sharing of resource in the communication.

  2. Voltage-Gated Proton Channels as Novel Drug Targets: From NADPH Oxidase Regulation to Sperm Biology

    PubMed Central

    Demaurex, Nicolas; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Voltage-gated proton channels are increasingly implicated in cellular proton homeostasis. Proton currents were originally identified in snail neurons less than 40 years ago, and subsequently shown to play an important auxiliary role in the functioning of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. Molecular identification of voltage-gated proton channels was achieved less than 10 years ago. Interestingly, so far, only one gene coding for voltage-gated proton channels has been identified, namely hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1), which codes for the HV1 proton channel protein. Over the last years, the first picture of putative physiological functions of HV1 has been emerging. Recent Advances: The best-studied role remains charge and pH compensation during the respiratory burst of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX). Strong evidence for a role of HV1 is also emerging in sperm biology, but the relationship with the sperm NOX5 remains unclear. Probably in many instances, HV1 functions independently of NOX: for example in snail neurons, basophils, osteoclasts, and cancer cells. Critical Issues: Generally, ion channels are good drug targets; however, this feature has so far not been exploited for HV1, and hitherto no inhibitors compatible with clinical use exist. However, there are emerging indications for HV1 inhibitors, ranging from diseases with a strong activation of the phagocyte NOX (e.g., stroke) to infertility, osteoporosis, and cancer. Future Directions: Clinically useful HV1-active drugs should be developed and might become interesting drugs of the future. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 490–513. PMID:24483328

  3. Charge substitution for a deep-pore residue reveals structural dynamics during BK channel gating.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xixi; Aldrich, Richard W

    2011-08-01

    The pore-lining amino acids of ion channel proteins reside on the interface between a polar (the pore) and a nonpolar environment (the rest of the protein). The structural dynamics of this region, which physically controls ionic flow, are essential components of channel gating. Using large-conductance, Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (BK) channels, we devised a systematic charge-substitution method to probe conformational changes in the pore region during channel gating. We identified a deep-pore residue (314 in hSlo1) as a marker of structural dynamics. We manipulated the charge states of this residue by substituting amino acids with different valence and pKa, and by adjusting intracellular pH. We found that the charged states of the 314 residues stabilized an open state of the BK channel. With models based on known structures of related channels, we postulate a dynamic rearrangement of the deep-pore region during BK channel opening/closing, which involves a change of the degree of pore exposure for 314.

  4. Computational Structural Pharmacology and Toxicology of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    PubMed

    Zhorov, B S; Tikhonov, D B

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are targets for many toxins and medically important drugs. Despite decades of intensive studies in industry and academia, atomic mechanisms of action are still not completely understood. The major cause is a lack of high-resolution structures of eukaryotic channels and their complexes with ligands. In these circumstances a useful approach is homology modeling that employs as templates X-ray structures of potassium channels and prokaryotic sodium channels. On one hand, due to inherent limitations of this approach, results should be treated with caution. In particular, models should be tested against relevant experimental data. On the other hand, docking of drugs and toxins in homology models provides a unique possibility to integrate diverse experimental data provided by mutational analysis, electrophysiology, and studies of structure-activity relations. Here we describe how homology modeling advanced our understanding of mechanisms of several classes of ligands. These include tetrodotoxins and mu-conotoxins that block the outer pore, local anesthetics that block of the inner pore, batrachotoxin that binds in the inner pore but, paradoxically, activates the channel, pyrethroid insecticides that activate the channel by binding at lipid-exposed repeat interfaces, and scorpion alpha and beta-toxins, which bind between the pore and voltage-sensing domains and modify the channel gating. We emphasize importance of experimental data for elaborating the models. PMID:27586283

  5. Solution-Based Single-Molecule FRET Studies of K(+) Channel Gating in a Lipid Bilayer.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Emma E; Kapanidis, Achillefs N; Tucker, Stephen J

    2016-06-21

    Ion channels are dynamic multimeric proteins that often undergo multiple unsynchronized structural movements as they switch between their open and closed states. Such structural changes are difficult to measure within the context of a native lipid bilayer and have often been monitored via macroscopic changes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between probes attached to different parts of the protein. However, the resolution of this approach is limited by ensemble averaging of structurally heterogeneous subpopulations. These problems can be overcome by measurement of FRET in single molecules, but this presents many challenges, in particular the ability to control labeling of subunits within a multimeric protein with acceptor and donor fluorophores, as well as the requirement to image large numbers of individual molecules in a membrane environment. To address these challenges, we randomly labeled tetrameric KirBac1.1 potassium channels, reconstituted them into lipid nanodiscs, and performed single-molecule FRET confocal microscopy with alternating-laser excitation as the channels diffused in solution. These solution-based single-molecule FRET measurements of a multimeric ion channel in a lipid bilayer have allowed us to probe the structural changes that occur upon channel activation and inhibition. Our results provide direct evidence of the twist-to-shrink movement of the helix bundle crossing during channel gating and demonstrate how this method might be applied to real-time structural studies of ion channel gating. PMID:27332124

  6. Inositol trisphosphate receptor and ion channel models based on single-channel data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, Elan; Wagner, Larry E.; Yule, David I.; Sneyd, James

    2009-09-01

    The inositol trisphosphate receptor (IPR) plays an important role in controlling the dynamics of intracellular Ca2+. Single-channel patch-clamp recordings are a typical way to study these receptors as well as other ion channels. Methods for analyzing and using this type of data have been developed to fit Markov models of the receptor. The usual method of parameter fitting is based on maximum-likelihood techniques. However, Bayesian inference and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques are becoming more popular. We describe the application of the Bayesian methods to real experimental single-channel data in three ion channels: the ryanodine receptor, the K+ channel, and the IPR. One of the main aims of all three studies was that of model selection with different approaches taken. We also discuss the modeling implications for single-channel data that display different levels of channel activity within one recording.

  7. Crystal structure of a heterotetrameric NMDA receptor ion channel.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Erkan; Furukawa, Hiro

    2014-05-30

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors belong to the family of ionotropic glutamate receptors, which mediate most excitatory synaptic transmission in mammalian brains. Calcium permeation triggered by activation of NMDA receptors is the pivotal event for initiation of neuronal plasticity. Here, we show the crystal structure of the intact heterotetrameric GluN1-GluN2B NMDA receptor ion channel at 4 angstroms. The NMDA receptors are arranged as a dimer of GluN1-GluN2B heterodimers with the twofold symmetry axis running through the entire molecule composed of an amino terminal domain (ATD), a ligand-binding domain (LBD), and a transmembrane domain (TMD). The ATD and LBD are much more highly packed in the NMDA receptors than non-NMDA receptors, which may explain why ATD regulates ion channel activity in NMDA receptors but not in non-NMDA receptors.

  8. Gating allosterism at a single class of etomidate sites on alpha1beta2gamma2L GABA A receptors accounts for both direct activation and agonist modulation.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Dirk; Zhong, Huijun; Forman, Stuart A

    2004-05-14

    At clinical concentrations, the potent intravenous general anesthetic etomidate enhances gamma-aminobutyric acid, type A (GABA(A)) receptor activity elicited with low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations, whereas much higher etomidate concentrations activate receptors in the absence of GABA. Therefore, GABA(A) receptors may possess two types of etomidate sites: high affinity GABA-modulating sites and low affinity channel-activating sites. However, GABA modulation and direct activation share stereoselectivity for the (R)(+)-etomidate isomer and display parallel dependence on GABA(A) beta subunit isoforms, suggesting that these two actions may be mediated by a single class of etomidate site(s) that exert one or more molecular effects. In this study, we assessed GABA modulation by etomidate using leftward shifts of electrophysiological GABA concentration responses in cells expressing human alpha1beta2gamma2L receptors. Etomidate at up to 100 microm reduced GABA EC(50) values by over 100-fold but without apparent saturation, indicating the absence of high affinity etomidate sites. In experiments using a partial agonist, P4S, etomidate both reduced EC(50) and increased maximal efficacy, demonstrating that etomidate shifts the GABA(A) receptor gating equilibrium toward open states. Results were quantitatively analyzed using equilibrium receptor gating models, wherein a postulated class of equivalent etomidate sites both directly activates receptors and enhances agonist gating. A Monod-Wyman-Changeux co-agonist mechanism with two equivalent etomidate sites that allosterically enhance GABA(A) receptor gating independently of agonist binding most simply accounts for direct activation and agonist modulation. This model also correctly predicts the actions of etomidate on GABA(A) receptors containing a point mutation that increases constitutive gating activity.

  9. Age-related homeostatic mid-channel proteolysis of neuronal L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Michailidis, Ioannis E.; Abele-Henckels, Kathryn; Zhang, Wei K.; Lin, Bochao; Yu, Yong; Geyman, Larry; Ehlers, Michael D.; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A.; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Neural circuitry and brain activity depend critically on proper function of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), whose activity must be tightly controlled. We show that the main body of the pore-forming α1 subunit of neuronal L-type VGCCs, Cav1.2, is proteolytically cleaved, resulting in Cav1.2 fragment-channels that separate but remain on the plasma membrane. This “gmid-channel” proteolysis is regulated by channel activity, involves the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and causes attenuation and biophysical alterations of VGCC currents. Recombinant Cav1.2 fragment-channels mimicking the products of mid-channel proteolysis do not form active channels on their own, but when properly paired, produce currents with distinct biophysical properties. Mid-channel proteolysis increases dramatically with age and can be attenuated with an L-type VGCC blocker in vivo. Mid-channel proteolysis represents a novel form of homeostatic negative-feedback processing of VGCCs that could profoundly affect neuronal excitability, neurotransmission, neuroprotection, and calcium signaling in physiological and disease states. PMID:24908485

  10. Opposite Effects of the S4–S5 Linker and PIP2 on Voltage-Gated Channel Function: KCNQ1/KCNE1 and Other Channels

    PubMed Central

    Choveau, Frank S.; Abderemane-Ali, Fayal; Coyan, Fabien C.; Es-Salah-Lamoureux, Zeineb; Baró, Isabelle; Loussouarn, Gildas

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are tetramers, each subunit presenting six transmembrane segments (S1–S6), with each S1–S4 segments forming a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and the four S5–S6 forming both the conduction pathway and its gate. S4 segments control the opening of the intracellular activation gate in response to changes in membrane potential. Crystal structures of several voltage-gated ion channels in combination with biophysical and mutagenesis studies highlighted the critical role of the S4–S5 linker (S4S5L) and of the S6 C-terminal part (S6T) in the coupling between the VSD and the activation gate. Several mechanisms have been proposed to describe the coupling at a molecular scale. This review summarizes the mechanisms suggested for various voltage-gated ion channels, including a mechanism that we described for KCNQ1, in which S4S5L is acting like a ligand binding to S6T to stabilize the channel in a closed state. As discussed in this review, this mechanism may explain the reverse response to depolarization in HCN-like channels. As opposed to S4S5L, the phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), stabilizes KCNQ1 channel in an open state. Many other ion channels (not only voltage-gated) require PIP2 to function properly, confirming its crucial importance as an ion channel cofactor. This is highlighted in cases in which an altered regulation of ion channels by PIP2 leads to channelopathies, as observed for KCNQ1. This review summarizes the state of the art on the two regulatory mechanisms that are critical for KCNQ1 and other voltage-gated channels function (PIP2 and S4S5L), and assesses their potential physiological and pathophysiological roles. PMID:22787448

  11. Opposite Effects of the S4-S5 Linker and PIP(2) on Voltage-Gated Channel Function: KCNQ1/KCNE1 and Other Channels.

    PubMed

    Choveau, Frank S; Abderemane-Ali, Fayal; Coyan, Fabien C; Es-Salah-Lamoureux, Zeineb; Baró, Isabelle; Loussouarn, Gildas

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are tetramers, each subunit presenting six transmembrane segments (S1-S6), with each S1-S4 segments forming a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and the four S5-S6 forming both the conduction pathway and its gate. S4 segments control the opening of the intracellular activation gate in response to changes in membrane potential. Crystal structures of several voltage-gated ion channels in combination with biophysical and mutagenesis studies highlighted the critical role of the S4-S5 linker (S4S5(L)) and of the S6 C-terminal part (S6(T)) in the coupling between the VSD and the activation gate. Several mechanisms have been proposed to describe the coupling at a molecular scale. This review summarizes the mechanisms suggested for various voltage-gated ion channels, including a mechanism that we described for KCNQ1, in which S4S5(L) is acting like a ligand binding to S6(T) to stabilize the channel in a closed state. As discussed in this review, this mechanism may explain the reverse response to depolarization in HCN-like channels. As opposed to S4S5(L), the phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), stabilizes KCNQ1 channel in an open state. Many other ion channels (not only voltage-gated) require PIP(2) to function properly, confirming its crucial importance as an ion channel cofactor. This is highlighted in cases in which an altered regulation of ion channels by PIP(2) leads to channelopathies, as observed for KCNQ1. This review summarizes the state of the art on the two regulatory mechanisms that are critical for KCNQ1 and other voltage-gated channels function (PIP(2) and S4S5(L)), and assesses their potential physiological and pathophysiological roles.

  12. Gating-pore currents demonstrate selective and specific modulation of individual sodium channel voltage-sensors by biological toxins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yucheng; Blumenthal, Kenneth; Cummins, Theodore R

    2014-08-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical determinants of nerve and muscle excitability. Although numerous toxins and small molecules target sodium channels, identifying the mechanisms of action is challenging. Here we used gating-pore currents selectively generated in each of the voltage-sensors from the four α-subunit domains (DI-DIV) to monitor the activity of individual voltage-sensors and to investigate the molecular determinants of sodium channel pharmacology. The tarantula toxin huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), which inhibits sodium channel current, exclusively enhanced inward gating-pore currents through the DII voltage-sensor. By contrast, the tarantula toxin ProTx-II, which also inhibits sodium channel currents, altered the gating-pore currents in multiple voltage-sensors in a complex manner. Thus, whereas HWTX-IV inhibits central-pore currents by selectively trapping the DII voltage-sensor in the resting configuration, ProTx-II seems to inhibit central-pore currents by differentially altering the configuration of multiple voltage-sensors. The sea anemone toxin anthopleurin B, which impairs open-channel inactivation, exclusively enhanced inward gating-pore currents through the DIV voltage-sensor. This indicates that trapping the DIV voltage-sensor in the resting configuration selectively impairs open-channel inactivation. Furthermore, these data indicate that although activation of all four voltage-sensors is not required for central-pore current generation, activation of the DII voltage-sensor is crucial. Overall, our data demonstrate that gating-pore currents can determine the mechanism of action for sodium channel gating modifiers with high precision. We propose this approach could be adapted to identify the molecular mechanisms of action for gating modifiers of various voltage-gated ion channels.

  13. Gating-Pore Currents Demonstrate Selective and Specific Modulation of Individual Sodium Channel Voltage-Sensors by Biological Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yucheng; Blumenthal, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical determinants of nerve and muscle excitability. Although numerous toxins and small molecules target sodium channels, identifying the mechanisms of action is challenging. Here we used gating-pore currents selectively generated in each of the voltage-sensors from the four α-subunit domains (DI–DIV) to monitor the activity of individual voltage-sensors and to investigate the molecular determinants of sodium channel pharmacology. The tarantula toxin huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), which inhibits sodium channel current, exclusively enhanced inward gating-pore currents through the DII voltage-sensor. By contrast, the tarantula toxin ProTx-II, which also inhibits sodium channel currents, altered the gating-pore currents in multiple voltage-sensors in a complex manner. Thus, whereas HWTX-IV inhibits central-pore currents by selectively trapping the DII voltage-sensor in the resting configuration, ProTx-II seems to inhibit central-pore currents by differentially altering the configuration of multiple voltage-sensors. The sea anemone toxin anthopleurin B, which impairs open-channel inactivation, exclusively enhanced inward gating-pore currents through the DIV voltage-sensor. This indicates that trapping the DIV voltage-sensor in the resting configuration selectively impairs open-channel inactivation. Furthermore, these data indicate that although activation of all four voltage-sensors is not required for central-pore current generation, activation of the DII voltage-sensor is crucial. Overall, our data demonstrate that gating-pore currents can determine the mechanism of action for sodium channel gating modifiers with high precision. We propose this approach could be adapted to identify the molecular mechanisms of action for gating modifiers of various voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:24898004

  14. Gating-pore currents demonstrate selective and specific modulation of individual sodium channel voltage-sensors by biological toxins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yucheng; Blumenthal, Kenneth; Cummins, Theodore R

    2014-08-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical determinants of nerve and muscle excitability. Although numerous toxins and small molecules target sodium channels, identifying the mechanisms of action is challenging. Here we used gating-pore currents selectively generated in each of the voltage-sensors from the four α-subunit domains (DI-DIV) to monitor the activity of individual voltage-sensors and to investigate the molecular determinants of sodium channel pharmacology. The tarantula toxin huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), which inhibits sodium channel current, exclusively enhanced inward gating-pore currents through the DII voltage-sensor. By contrast, the tarantula toxin ProTx-II, which also inhibits sodium channel currents, altered the gating-pore currents in multiple voltage-sensors in a complex manner. Thus, whereas HWTX-IV inhibits central-pore currents by selectively trapping the DII voltage-sensor in the resting configuration, ProTx-II seems to inhibit central-pore currents by differentially altering the configuration of multiple voltage-sensors. The sea anemone toxin anthopleurin B, which impairs open-channel inactivation, exclusively enhanced inward gating-pore currents through the DIV voltage-sensor. This indicates that trapping the DIV voltage-sensor in the resting configuration selectively impairs open-channel inactivation. Furthermore, these data indicate that although activation of all four voltage-sensors is not required for central-pore current generation, activation of the DII voltage-sensor is crucial. Overall, our data demonstrate that gating-pore currents can determine the mechanism of action for sodium channel gating modifiers with high precision. We propose this approach could be adapted to identify the molecular mechanisms of action for gating modifiers of various voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:24898004

  15. Modeling of the Binding of Peptide Blockers to Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels: Approaches and Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Novoseletsky, V. N.; Volyntseva, A. D.; Shaitan, K. V.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.; Feofanov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of the structure of voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels bound to peptide blockers aims to identify the key amino acid residues dictating affinity and provide insights into the toxin-channel interface. Computational approaches open up possibilities for in silico rational design of selective blockers, new molecular tools to study the cellular distribution and functional roles of potassium channels. It is anticipated that optimized blockers will advance the development of drugs that reduce over activation of potassium channels and attenuate the associated malfunction. Starting with an overview of the recent advances in computational simulation strategies to predict the bound state orientations of peptide pore blockers relative to KV-channels, we go on to review algorithms for the analysis of intermolecular interactions, and then take a look at the results of their application. PMID:27437138

  16. Independently Gated Multiple Substates of an Epithelial Chloride-Channel Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Arthur L.; Dillard, Margaret; Gaido, Marcia

    1993-06-01

    We have purified a protein from Necturus maculosus gallbladder cells that forms chloride channels in an artificial membrane. The same protein apparently can form channels that are highly selective for chloride but can have conductances varying from 9 to about 150 pS. The high-conductance channels are blocked by the monoclonal antibody used to purify the protein, but this antibody has no effect on the 9-pS channels. The observation that gating of the low- and high-conductance states is independent and that the antibody affects only the latter has implications regarding the control of chloride conductance in cell membranes and the different types of channels described in those cells.

  17. [Role of the voltage-gated sodium channels in the metastatic capacity of cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Plata, Everardo

    2012-01-01

    The functional expression of voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)) in cancer cells is associated with an increase of metastatic potential. The activity of Na(v) channels modulates different cellular processes related to the development of the malignant phenotype, such as adhesion, galvanotaxis, motility and invasiveness. Among the great diversity of cancerous phenotypes, Na(v) channels expression is common in highly metastatic cells with their distribution following a primary tumor-specific pattern. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature, regarding to: the types of Na(v) channels expressed by different types of cancer cells, the cancer cellular processes in which they play important roles, and the molecular mechanisms by which these channels promote metastasis.

  18. Site Directed Spin Labeling and EPR Spectroscopic Studies of Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Basak, Sandip; Chatterjee, Soumili; Chakrapani, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Ion channel gating is a stimulus-driven orchestration of protein motions that leads to transitions between closed, open, and desensitized states. Fundamental to these transitions is the intrinsic flexibility of the protein, which is critically modulated by membrane lipid-composition. To better understand the structural basis of channel function, it is necessary to study protein dynamics in a physiological membrane environment. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is an important tool to characterize conformational transitions between functional states. In comparison to NMR and X-ray crystallography, the information obtained from EPR is intrinsically of lower resolution. However, unlike in other techniques, in EPR there is no upper-limit to the molecular weight of the protein, the sample requirements are significantly lower, and more importantly the protein is not constrained by the crystal lattice forces. Therefore, EPR is uniquely suited for studying large protein complexes and proteins in reconstituted systems. In this article, we will discuss general protocols for site-directed spin labeling and membrane reconstitution using a prokaryotic proton-gated pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel (pLGIC) from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) as an example. A combination of steady-state Continuous Wave (CW) and Pulsed (Double Electron Electron Resonance-DEER) EPR approaches will be described that will enable a complete quantitative characterization of channel dynamics. PMID:27403967

  19. Visual ecology and voltage-gated ion channels in insect photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Weckström, M; Laughlin, S B

    1995-01-01

    That particular membrane conductances are selected for expression to enable the efficient coding of biologically relevant signals is illustrated by recent work on insect photoreceptors. These studies exploit the richness of insect vision and the accessibility of insect photoreceptors to cellular analysis in both intact animal and isolated cell preparations. The distribution of voltage-gated conductances among photoreceptors of different species correlates with visual ecology. Delayed-rectifier K+ channels are found in the rapidly responding photoreceptors of fast-flying flies. The conductance's activation range and dynamics match light-induced signals, and enable a rapid response by reducing the membrane time constant. Slow-moving flies have slowly responding photoreceptors that lack the delayed rectifier, but express an inactivating K+ conductance that is metabolically less demanding. Complementing these findings, locust photoreceptor membranes are modulated diurnally. The delayed rectifier is exhibited during the day and the inactivating K+ current is exhibited at night. Insect photoreceptors also demonstrate the amplification of signals by voltage-gated Na+ channels. In drone-bee photoreceptors, voltage-gated Na+ channels combine with K+ channels to enhance the small transient signals produced by the image of a queen bee passing over the retina. This subthreshold amplifier operates most effectively over the range of light intensities at which drones pursue queens.

  20. Major diversification of voltage-gated K+ channels occurred in ancestral parahoxozoans.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofan; Liu, Hansi; Chu Luo, Jose; Rhodes, Sarah A; Trigg, Liana M; van Rossum, Damian B; Anishkin, Andriy; Diatta, Fortunay H; Sassic, Jessica K; Simmons, David K; Kamel, Bishoy; Medina, Monica; Martindale, Mark Q; Jegla, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    We examined the origins and functional evolution of the Shaker and KCNQ families of voltage-gated K(+) channels to better understand how neuronal excitability evolved. In bilaterians, the Shaker family consists of four functionally distinct gene families (Shaker, Shab, Shal, and Shaw) that share a subunit structure consisting of a voltage-gated K(+) channel motif coupled to a cytoplasmic domain that mediates subfamily-exclusive assembly (T1). We traced the origin of this unique Shaker subunit structure to a common ancestor of ctenophores and parahoxozoans (cnidarians, bilaterians, and placozoans). Thus, the Shaker family is metazoan specific but is likely to have evolved in a basal metazoan. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Shaker subfamily could predate the divergence of ctenophores and parahoxozoans, but that the Shab, Shal, and Shaw subfamilies are parahoxozoan specific. In support of this, putative ctenophore Shaker subfamily channel subunits coassembled with cnidarian and mouse Shaker subunits, but not with cnidarian Shab, Shal, or Shaw subunits. The KCNQ family, which has a distinct subunit structure, also appears solely within the parahoxozoan lineage. Functional analysis indicated that the characteristic properties of Shaker, Shab, Shal, Shaw, and KCNQ currents evolved before the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians. These results show that a major diversification of voltage-gated K(+) channels occurred in ancestral parahoxozoans and imply that many fundamental mechanisms for the regulation of action potential propagation evolved at this time. Our results further suggest that there are likely to be substantial differences in the regulation of neuronal excitability between ctenophores and parahoxozoans.

  1. Voltage-dependent gating of single gap junction channels in an insect cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Bukauskas, F F; Weingart, R

    1994-01-01

    De novo formation of cell pairs was used to examine the gating properties of single gap junction channels. Two separate cells of an insect cell line (clone C6/36, derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus) were pushed against each other to provoke formation of gap junction channels. A dual voltage-clamp method was used to control the voltage gradient between the cells (Vj) and measure the intercellular current (Ij). The first sign of channel activity was apparent 4.7 min after cell contact. Steady-state coupling reached after 30 min revealed a conductance of 8.7 nS. Channel formation involved no leak between the intra- and extracellular space. The first opening of a newly formed channel was slow (25-28 ms). Each preparation passed through a phase with only one operational gap junction channel. This period was exploited to examine the single channel properties. We found that single channels exhibit several conductance states with different conductances gamma j; a fully open state (gamma j(main state)), several substates (gamma j(substates)), a residual state (gamma j(residual)) and a closed state (gamma j(closed)). The gamma j(main state) was 375 pS, and gamma j(residual) ranged from 30 to 90 pS. The transitions between adjacent substates were 1/7-1/4 of gamma j(main state). Vj had no effect on gamma j(main state), but slightly affected gamma j (residual). The lj transitions involving gamma j(closed) were slow (15-60 ms), whereas those not involving gamma j(closed) were fast (< 2 ms). An increase in Vj led to a decrease in open channel probability. Depolarization of the membrane potential (Vm) increased the incidence of slow transitions leading to gamma j(closed). We conclude that insect gap junctions possess two gates, a fast gate controlled by Vj and giving rise to gamma j(substates) and gamma j(residual), and a slow gate sensitive to Vm and able to close the channel completely. PMID:7524710

  2. Combinatorial augmentation of voltage-gated KCNQ potassium channels by chemical openers

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qiaojie; Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Yangming; Nan, Fajun; Li, Min

    2008-01-01

    Noninactivating potassium current formed by KCNQ2 (Kv7.2) and KCNQ3 (Kv7.3) subunits resembles neuronal M-currents which are activated by voltage and play a critical role in controlling membrane excitability. Activation of voltage-gated potassium channels by a chemical opener is uncommon. Therefore, the mechanisms of action are worthy further investigation. Retigabine and zinc pyrithione are two activators for KCNQ channels but their molecular interactions with KCNQ channel remain largely elusive. Here we report that retigabine and zinc pyrithione recognize two different sites of KCNQ2 channels. Their agonistic actions are noncompetitive and allow for simultaneous binding of two different activators on the same channel complex, hence giving rise to combinatorial potentiation with characteristic properties of both openers. Examining their effects on mutant channels, we showed zinc pyrithione is capable of opening nonconductive channels and coapplication of zinc pyrithione and retigabine could restore a disease mutant channel similar to wild type. Our results indicate two independent activator binding sites present in KCNQ channels. The resultant combinatorial potentiation by multiple synthetic chemical openers indicates that KCNQ channels are accessible to various types and combinations of pharmacological regulation. PMID:18272489

  3. VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNELS AT THE CROSSROADS OF NEURONAL FUNCTION, ISCHEMIC TOLERANCE, AND NEURODEGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Niyathi Hegde; Aizenman, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system, and are crucial mediators of neuronal excitability. Importantly, these channels also actively participate in cellular and molecular signaling pathways that regulate the life and death of neurons. Injury-mediated increased K+ efflux through Kv2.1 channels promotes neuronal apoptosis, contributing to widespread neuronal loss in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and stroke. In contrast, some forms of neuronal activity can dramatically alter Kv2.1 channel phosphorylation levels and influence their localization. These changes are normally accompanied by modifications in channel voltage-dependence, which may be neuroprotective within the context of ischemic injury. Kv1 and Kv7 channel dysfunction leads to neuronal hyperexcitability that critically contributes to the pathophysiology of human clinical disorders such as episodic ataxia and epilepsy. This review summarizes the neurotoxic, neuroprotective, and neuroregulatory roles of Kv channels, and highlights the consequences of Kv channel dysfunction on neuronal physiology. The studies described in this review thus underscore the importance of normal Kv channel function in neurons, and emphasize the therapeutic potential of targeting Kv channels in the treatment of a wide range of neurological diseases. PMID:24323720

  4. Designing a C84 fullerene as a specific voltage-gated sodium channel blocker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A.; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2013-07-01

    Fullerene derivatives demonstrate considerable potential for numerous biological applications, such as the effective inhibition of HIV protease. Recently, they were identified for their ability to indiscriminately block biological ion channels. A fullerene derivative which specifically blocks a particular ion channel could lead to a new set of drug leads for the treatment of various ion channel-related diseases. Here, we demonstrate their extraordinary potential by designing a fullerene which mimics some of the functions of μ-conotoxin, a peptide derived from cone snail venom which potently binds to the bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel (NavAb). We show, using molecular dynamics simulations, that the C84 fullerene with six lysine derivatives uniformly attached to its surface is selective to NavAb over a voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv1.3). The side chain of one of the lysine residues protrudes into the selectivity filter of the channel, while the methionine residues located just outside of the channel form hydrophobic contacts with the carbon atoms of the fullerene. The modified C84 fullerene strongly binds to the NavAb channel with an affinity of 46 nM but binds weakly to Kv1.3 with an affinity of 3 mM. This potent blocker of NavAb may serve as a structural template from which potent compounds can be designed for the targeting of mammalian Nav channels. There is a genuine need to target mammalian Nav channels as a form of treatment of various diseases which have been linked to their malfunction, such as epilepsy and chronic pain.

  5. Crystal Structure of the Mammalian GIRK2 KplusChannel and Gating Regulation by G Proteins PIP2 and Sodium

    SciTech Connect

    M Whorton; R MacKinnon

    2011-12-31

    G protein-gated K{sup +} channels (Kir3.1--Kir3.4) control electrical excitability in many different cells. Among their functions relevant to human physiology and disease, they regulate the heart rate and govern a wide range of neuronal activities. Here, we present the first crystal structures of a G protein-gated K{sup +} channel. By comparing the wild-type structure to that of a constitutively active mutant, we identify a global conformational change through which G proteins could open a G loop gate in the cytoplasmic domain. The structures of both channels in the absence and presence of PIP{sub 2} suggest that G proteins open only the G loop gate in the absence of PIP{sub 2}, but in the presence of PIP{sub 2} the G loop gate and a second inner helix gate become coupled, so that both gates open. We also identify a strategically located Na{sup +} ion-binding site, which would allow intracellular Na{sup +} to modulate GIRK channel activity. These data provide a structural basis for understanding multiligand regulation of GIRK channel gating.

  6. Temperature and voltage coupling to channel opening in transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8).

    PubMed

    Raddatz, Natalia; Castillo, Juan P; Gonzalez, Carlos; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Latorre, Ramon

    2014-12-19

    Expressed in somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion, the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel activated by cold, voltage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and menthol. Although TRPM8 channel gating has been characterized at the single channel and macroscopic current levels, there is currently no consensus regarding the extent to which temperature and voltage sensors couple to the conduction gate. In this study, we extended the range of voltages where TRPM8-induced ionic currents were measured and made careful measurements of the maximum open probability the channel can attain at different temperatures by means of fluctuation analysis. The first direct measurements of TRPM8 channel temperature-driven conformational rearrangements provided here suggest that temperature alone is able to open the channel and that the opening reaction is voltage-independent. Voltage is a partial activator of TRPM8 channels, because absolute open probability values measured with fully activated voltage sensors are less than 1, and they decrease as temperature rises. By unveiling the fast temperature-dependent deactivation process, we show that TRPM8 channel deactivation is well described by a double exponential time course. The fast and slow deactivation processes are temperature-dependent with enthalpy changes of 27.2 and 30.8 kcal mol(-1). The overall Q10 for the closing reaction is about 33. A three-tiered allosteric model containing four voltage sensors and four temperature sensors can account for the complex deactivation kinetics and coupling between voltage and temperature sensor activation and channel opening. PMID:25352597

  7. Temperature and voltage coupling to channel opening in transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8).

    PubMed

    Raddatz, Natalia; Castillo, Juan P; Gonzalez, Carlos; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Latorre, Ramon

    2014-12-19

    Expressed in somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion, the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel activated by cold, voltage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and menthol. Although TRPM8 channel gating has been characterized at the single channel and macroscopic current levels, there is currently no consensus regarding the extent to which temperature and voltage sensors couple to the conduction gate. In this study, we extended the range of voltages where TRPM8-induced ionic currents were measured and made careful measurements of the maximum open probability the channel can attain at different temperatures by means of fluctuation analysis. The first direct measurements of TRPM8 channel temperature-driven conformational rearrangements provided here suggest that temperature alone is able to open the channel and that the opening reaction is voltage-independent. Voltage is a partial activator of TRPM8 channels, because absolute open probability values measured with fully activated voltage sensors are less than 1, and they decrease as temperature rises. By unveiling the fast temperature-dependent deactivation process, we show that TRPM8 channel deactivation is well described by a double exponential time course. The fast and slow deactivation processes are temperature-dependent with enthalpy changes of 27.2 and 30.8 kcal mol(-1). The overall Q10 for the closing reaction is about 33. A three-tiered allosteric model containing four voltage sensors and four temperature sensors can account for the complex deactivation kinetics and coupling between voltage and temperature sensor activation and channel opening.

  8. Temperature and Voltage Coupling to Channel Opening in Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8)*♦

    PubMed Central

    Raddatz, Natalia; Castillo, Juan P.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Latorre, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Expressed in somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion, the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel is a Ca2+-permeable cation channel activated by cold, voltage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and menthol. Although TRPM8 channel gating has been characterized at the single channel and macroscopic current levels, there is currently no consensus regarding the extent to which temperature and voltage sensors couple to the conduction gate. In this study, we extended the range of voltages where TRPM8-induced ionic currents were measured and made careful measurements of the maximum open probability the channel can attain at different temperatures by means of fluctuation analysis. The first direct measurements of TRPM8 channel temperature-driven conformational rearrangements provided here suggest that temperature alone is able to open the channel and that the opening reaction is voltage-independent. Voltage is a partial activator of TRPM8 channels, because absolute open probability values measured with fully activated voltage sensors are less than 1, and they decrease as temperature rises. By unveiling the fast temperature-dependent deactivation process, we show that TRPM8 channel deactivation is well described by a double exponential time course. The fast and slow deactivation processes are temperature-dependent with enthalpy changes of 27.2 and 30.8 kcal mol−1. The overall Q10 for the closing reaction is about 33. A three-tiered allosteric model containing four voltage sensors and four temperature sensors can account for the complex deactivation kinetics and coupling between voltage and temperature sensor activation and channel opening. PMID:25352597

  9. Top-gate organic depletion and inversion transistors with doped channel and injection contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuhai; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-03-01

    Organic field-effect transistors constitute a vibrant research field and open application perspectives in flexible electronics. For a commercial breakthrough, however, significant performance improvements are still needed, e.g., stable and high charge carrier mobility and on-off ratio, tunable threshold voltage, as well as integrability criteria such as n- and p-channel operation and top-gate architecture. Here, we show pentacene-based top-gate organic transistors operated in depletion and inversion regimes, realized by doping source and drain contacts as well as a thin layer of the transistor channel. By varying the doping concentration and the thickness of the doped channel, we control the position of the threshold voltage without degrading on-off ratio or mobility. Capacitance-voltage measurements show that an inversion channel can indeed be formed, e.g., an n-doped channel can be inverted to a p-type inversion channel with highly p-doped contacts. The Cytop polymer dielectric minimizes hysteresis, and the transistors can be biased for prolonged cycles without a shift of threshold voltage, indicating excellent operation stability.

  10. Top-gate organic depletion and inversion transistors with doped channel and injection contact

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xuhai; Kasemann, Daniel Leo, Karl

    2015-03-09

    Organic field-effect transistors constitute a vibrant research field and open application perspectives in flexible electronics. For a commercial breakthrough, however, significant performance improvements are still needed, e.g., stable and high charge carrier mobility and on-off ratio, tunable threshold voltage, as well as integrability criteria such as n- and p-channel operation and top-gate architecture. Here, we show pentacene-based top-gate organic transistors operated in depletion and inversion regimes, realized by doping source and drain contacts as well as a thin layer of the transistor channel. By varying the doping concentration and the thickness of the doped channel, we control the position of the threshold voltage without degrading on-off ratio or mobility. Capacitance-voltage measurements show that an inversion channel can indeed be formed, e.g., an n-doped channel can be inverted to a p-type inversion channel with highly p-doped contacts. The Cytop polymer dielectric minimizes hysteresis, and the transistors can be biased for prolonged cycles without a shift of threshold voltage, indicating excellent operation stability.

  11. Phosphatidic acid stimulates cardiac KATP channels like phosphatidylinositols, but with novel gating kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Gao, Lizhi; Wang, Wenxia

    2003-01-01

    Membrane-bound anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositols have the capacity to modulate ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels through a mechanism involving long-range electrostatic interaction between the lipid headgroup and channel. However, it has not yet been determined whether the multiple effects of phosphatidylinositols reported in the literature all result from this general electrostatic interaction or require a specific headgroup structure. The present study investigated whether phosphatidic acid (PA), an anionic phospholipid substantially different in structure from phosphatidylinositols, evokes effects similar to phosphatidylinositols on native K(ATP) channels of rat heart and heterogeneous Kir6.2/SUR2A channels. Channels treated with PA (0.2-1 mg/ml applied to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane) exhibited higher activity, lower sensitivity to ATP inhibition, less Mg(2+)-dependent nucleotide stimulation, and poor sulfonylurea inhibition. These effects match the spectrum of phosphatidylinositols' effects, but, in addition, PA also induced a novel pattern in gating kinetics, represented by a decreased mean open time (from 12.2 +/- 2.0 to 3.3 +/- 0.7 ms). This impact on gating kinetics clearly distinguishes PA's effects from those of phosphatidylinositols. Results indicate that multiple effects of anionic phospholipids on K(ATP) channels are related phenomena and can likely be attributed to a common mechanism, but additional specific effects due to other mechanisms may also coincide.

  12. The Molecular Basis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Interactions with the Shaker Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Samira; Stein, Matthias; Elinder, Fredrik; Andersson, Magnus; Lindahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels are membrane proteins that respond to changes in membrane potential by enabling K+ ion flux across the membrane. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce channel opening by modulating the voltage-sensitivity, which can provide effective treatment against refractory epilepsy by means of a ketogenic diet. While PUFAs have been reported to influence the gating mechanism by electrostatic interactions to the voltage-sensor domain (VSD), the exact PUFA-protein interactions are still elusive. In this study, we report on the interactions between the Shaker KV channel in open and closed states and a PUFA-enriched lipid bilayer using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We determined a putative PUFA binding site in the open state of the channel located at the protein-lipid interface in the vicinity of the extracellular halves of the S3 and S4 helices of the VSD. In particular, the lipophilic PUFA tail covered a wide range of non-specific hydrophobic interactions in the hydrophobic central core of the protein-lipid interface, while the carboxylic head group displayed more specific interactions to polar/charged residues at the extracellular regions of the S3 and S4 helices, encompassing the S3-S4 linker. Moreover, by studying the interactions between saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the Shaker KV channel, our study confirmed an increased conformational flexibility in the polyunsaturated carbon tails compared to saturated carbon chains, which may explain the specificity of PUFA action on channel proteins. PMID:26751683

  13. Mg2+-dependent Gating and Strong Inward Rectification of the Cation Channel TRPV6

    PubMed Central

    Voets, Thomas; Janssens, Annelies; Prenen, Jean; Droogmans, Guy; Nilius, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    TRPV6 (CaT1/ECaC2), a highly Ca2+-selective member of the TRP superfamily of cation channels, becomes permeable to monovalent cations in the absence of extracellular divalent cations. The monovalent currents display characteristic voltage-dependent gating and almost absolute inward rectification. Here, we show that these two features are dependent on the voltage-dependent block/unblock of the channel by intracellular Mg2+. Mg2+ blocks the channel by binding to a site within the transmembrane electrical field where it interacts with permeant cations. The block is relieved at positive potentials, indicating that under these conditions Mg2+ is able to permeate the selectivity filter of the channel. Although sizeable outward monovalent currents were recorded in the absence of intracellular Mg2+, outward conductance is still ∼10 times lower than inward conductance under symmetric, divalent-free ionic conditions. This Mg2+-independent rectification was preserved in inside-out patches and not altered by high intracellular concentrations of spermine, indicating that TRPV6 displays intrinsic rectification. Neutralization of a single aspartate residue within the putative pore loop abolished the Mg2+ sensitivity of the channel, yielding voltage-independent, moderately inwardly rectifying monovalent currents in the presence of intracellular Mg2+. The effects of intracellular Mg2+ on TRPV6 are partially reminiscent of the gating mechanism of inwardly rectifying K+ channels and may represent a novel regulatory mechanism for TRPV6 function in vivo. PMID:12601087

  14. [ANALYSIS OF THE DINOFLAGELLATE PROROCENTRUM MINIMUM TRANSCRIPTOME: IDENTIFYING THE MEMBERS OF THE VOLTAGE-GATED CATION CHANNELS SUPERFAMILY].

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakov, I A; Skarlato, S O

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of aquatic single-cell eukaryotes. At the present time relatively little is known about physiological features that determine the role of these protists in natural ecosystems. Lack of knowledge on the diversity, structure, and functioning of dinoflagellate ion channels significantly hampers the interpretation of physiological reactions and adaptations in these microorganisms. We performed the analysis of the translated transcriptome databases that belong to two strains of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in order to identify the members of the voltage-gated cation channels superfamily. We found out that transcriptomes of these potentially toxic microorganisms contained the homologues of: 1) inwardly rectifying potassium channels (K(ir)), 2) voltage-gated potassium channels (K(v)), 3) calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca)), 4) cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (EAG and HCN/CNG), 5) TRPV and TRPP channels, 6) two-pore calcium channels TPC, 7) voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) and calcium (Ca(v)) channels, 8) voltage-gated proton channels (H(v)).

  15. Blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels inhibits invasion of endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMED, FATIMA H.; KHAJAH, MAITHAM A.; YANG, MING; BRACKENBURY, WILLIAM J.; LUQMANI, YUNUS A.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) are membrane proteins which are normally expressed in excitable cells but have also been detected in cancer cells, where they are thought to be involved in malignancy progression. In this study we examined the ion current and expression profile of VGSC (Nav1.5) in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (MCF-7) and silenced (pII) breast cancer cells and its possible influence on their proliferation, motility and invasion. VGSC currents were analysed by whole cell patch clamp recording. Nav1.5 expression and localization, in response to EGF stimulation, was examined by western blotting and immunofluorescence respectively. Cell invasion (under-agarose and Matrigel assays), motility (wound healing assay) and proliferation (MTT assay) were assessed in pII cells in response to VGSC blockers, phenytoin (PHT) and tetrodotoxin (TTX), or by siRNA knockdown of Nav1.5. The effect of PHT and TTX on modulating EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 was determined by western blotting. Total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) was determined using a fluorometric-based activity assay. The level of various human proteases was detected by using proteome profiler array kit. VGSC currents were detected in pII cells, but were absent in MCF-7. Nav1.5 showed cytoplasmic and perinuclear expression in both MCF-7 and pII cells, with enhanced expression upon EGF stimulation. Treatment of pII cells with PHT, TTX or siRNA significantly reduced invasion towards serum components and EGF, in part through reduction of P-ERK1/2 and proteases such as cathepsin E, kallikrein-10 and MMP-7, as well as total MMP activity. At high concentrations, PHT inhibited motility while TTX reduced cell proliferation. Pharmacological or genetic blockade of Nav1.5 may serve as a potential anti-metastatic therapy for breast cancer. PMID:26718772

  16. A gate-latch-lock mechanism for hormone signalling by abscisic acid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, Karsten; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Xu, Yong; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Park, Sang-Youl; Weiner, Joshua J; Fujii, Hiroaki; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Kovach, Amanda; Li, Jun; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Jiayang; Peterson, Francis C; Jensen, Davin R; Yong, Eu-Leong; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric

    2010-01-12

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous hormone that regulates plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Its action is mediated by the PYR/PYL/RCAR family of START proteins, but it remains unclear how these receptors bind ABA and, in turn, how hormone binding leads to inhibition of the downstream type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) effectors. Here we report crystal structures of apo and ABA-bound receptors as well as a ternary PYL2-ABA-PP2C complex. The apo receptors contain an open ligand-binding pocket flanked by a gate that closes in response to ABA by way of conformational changes in two highly conserved β-loops that serve as a gate and latch. Moreover, ABA-induced closure of the gate creates a surface that enables the receptor to dock into and competitively inhibit the PP2C active site. A conserved tryptophan in the PP2C inserts directly between the gate and latch, which functions to further lock the receptor in a closed conformation. Together, our results identify a conserved gate-latch-lock mechanism underlying ABA signalling.

  17. Quantum Dot Channel (QDC) FETs with Wraparound II-VI Gate Insulators: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, F.; Lingalugari, M.; Kondo, J.; Mirdha, P.; Suarez, E.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents simulations predicting the feasibility of 9-nm wraparound quantum dot channel (QDC) field-effect transistors (FETs). In particular, II-VI lattice-matched layers which reduce the density of interface states, serving as top (tunnel gate), side, and bottom gate insulators, have been simulated. Quantum simulations show FET operation with voltage swing of ~0.2 V. Incorporation of cladded quantum dots, such as SiO x -Si and GeO x -Ge, under the gate tunnel oxide results in electrical transport in one or more quantum dot layers which form a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL). Long-channel QDC FETs have experimental multistate drain current ( I D)-gate voltage ( V G) and drain current ( I D)-drain voltage ( V D) characteristics, which can be attributed to the manifestation of extremely narrow energy minibands formed in the QDSL. An approach for modeling the multistate I D- V G characteristics is reported. The multistate characteristics of QDC FETs permit design of compact two-bit multivalued logic circuits.

  18. Quantum Dot Channel (QDC) FETs with Wraparound II-VI Gate Insulators: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, F.; Lingalugari, M.; Kondo, J.; Mirdha, P.; Suarez, E.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents simulations predicting the feasibility of 9-nm wraparound quantum dot channel (QDC) field-effect transistors (FETs). In particular, II-VI lattice-matched layers which reduce the density of interface states, serving as top (tunnel gate), side, and bottom gate insulators, have been simulated. Quantum simulations show FET operation with voltage swing of ~0.2 V. Incorporation of cladded quantum dots, such as SiO x -Si and GeO x -Ge, under the gate tunnel oxide results in electrical transport in one or more quantum dot layers which form a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL). Long-channel QDC FETs have experimental multistate drain current (I D)-gate voltage (V G) and drain current (I D)-drain voltage (V D) characteristics, which can be attributed to the manifestation of extremely narrow energy minibands formed in the QDSL. An approach for modeling the multistate I D-V G characteristics is reported. The multistate characteristics of QDC FETs permit design of compact two-bit multivalued logic circuits.

  19. Single calcium channel domain gating of synaptic vesicle fusion at fast synapses; analysis by graphic modeling

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Elise F

    2015-01-01

    At fast-transmitting presynaptic terminals Ca2+ enter through voltage gated calcium channels (CaVs) and bind to a synaptic vesicle (SV) -associated calcium sensor (SV-sensor) to gate fusion and discharge. An open CaV generates a high-concentration plume, or nanodomain of Ca2+ that dissipates precipitously with distance from the pore. At most fast synapses, such as the frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the SV sensors are located sufficiently close to individual CaVs to be gated by single nanodomains. However, at others, such as the mature rodent calyx of Held (calyx of Held), the physiology is more complex with evidence that CaVs that are both close and distant from the SV sensor and it is argued that release is gated primarily by the overlapping Ca2+ nanodomains from many CaVs. We devised a 'graphic modeling' method to sum Ca2+ from individual CaVs located at varying distances from the SV-sensor to determine the SV release probability and also the fraction of that probability that can be attributed to single domain gating. This method was applied first to simplified, low and high CaV density model release sites and then to published data on the contrasting frog NMJ and the rodent calyx of Held native synapses. We report 3 main predictions: the SV-sensor is positioned very close to the point at which the SV fuses with the membrane; single domain-release gating predominates even at synapses where the SV abuts a large cluster of CaVs, and even relatively remote CaVs can contribute significantly to single domain-based gating. PMID:26457441

  20. Differential distribution of glutamate- and GABA-gated chloride channels in the housefly Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Kita, Tomo; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Azuma, Masaaki; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-01

    l-Glutamic acid (glutamate) mediates fast inhibitory neurotransmission by affecting glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in invertebrates. The molecular function and pharmacological properties of GluCls have been well studied, but not much is known about their physiological role and localization in the insect body. The distribution of GluCls in the housefly (Musca domestica L.) was thus compared with the distribution of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls). Quantitative PCR and ligand-binding experiments indicate that the GluCl and GABACl transcripts and proteins are predominantly expressed in the adult head. Intense GluCl immunostaining was detected in the lamina, leg motor neurons, and legs of adult houseflies. The GABACl (Rdl) immunostaining was more widely distributed, and was found in the medulla, lobula, lobula plate, mushroom body, antennal lobe, and ellipsoid body. The present findings suggest that GluCls have physiological roles in different tissues than GABACls.

  1. Regulation of Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated (HCN) Channel Activity by cCMP*

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Xiangang; Krause, Stefanie; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Krüger, Jens; Gruner, Christian; Cao-Ehlker, Xiaochun; Fenske, Stefanie; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Biel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Activation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels is facilitated in vivo by direct binding of the second messenger cAMP. This process plays a fundamental role in the fine-tuning of HCN channel activity and is critical for the modulation of cardiac and neuronal rhythmicity. Here, we identify the pyrimidine cyclic nucleotide cCMP as another regulator of HCN channels. We demonstrate that cCMP shifts the activation curves of two members of the HCN channel family, HCN2 and HCN4, to more depolarized voltages. Moreover, cCMP speeds up activation and slows down deactivation kinetics of these channels. The two other members of the HCN channel family, HCN1 and HCN3, are not sensitive to cCMP. The modulatory effect of cCMP is reversible and requires the presence of a functional cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. We determined an EC50 value of ∼30 μm for cCMP compared with 1 μm for cAMP. Notably, cCMP is a partial agonist of HCN channels, displaying an efficacy of ∼0.6. cCMP increases the frequency of pacemaker potentials from isolated sinoatrial pacemaker cells in the presence of endogenous cAMP concentrations. Electrophysiological recordings indicated that this increase is caused by a depolarizing shift in the activation curve of the native HCN current, which in turn leads to an enhancement of the slope of the diastolic depolarization of sinoatrial node cells. In conclusion, our findings establish cCMP as a gating regulator of HCN channels and indicate that this cyclic nucleotide has to be considered in HCN channel-regulated processes. PMID:22715094

  2. Tyrosine-rich Conopeptides Affect Voltage-gated K+ Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Imperial, Julita S.; Chen, Ping; Sporning, Annett; Terlau, Heinrich; Daly, Norelle L.; Craik, David J.; Alewood, Paul F.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2008-01-01

    Two venom peptides, CPY-Pl1 (EU000528) and CPY-Fe1 (EU000529), characterized from the vermivorous marine snails Conus planorbis and Conus ferrugineus, define a new class of conopeptides, the conopeptide Y (CPY) family. The peptides have no disulfide cross-links and are 30 amino acids long; the high content of tyrosine is unprecedented for any native gene product. The CPY peptides were chemically synthesized and shown to be biologically active upon injection into both mice and Caenorhabditis elegans; activity on mammalian Kv1 channel isoforms was demonstrated using an oocyte heterologous expression system, and selectivity for Kv1.6 was found. NMR spectroscopy revealed that the peptides were unstructured in aqueous solution; however, a helical region including residues 12–18 for one peptide, CPY-Pl1, formed in trifluoroethanol buffer. Clones obtained from cDNA of both species encoded prepropeptide precursors that shared a unique signal sequence, indicating that these peptides are encoded by a novel gene family. This is the first report of tyrosine-rich bioactive peptides in Conus venom. PMID:18505731

  3. Regulation of persistent Na current by interactions between β subunits of voltage-gated Na channels

    PubMed Central

    Aman, Teresa K.; Grieco-Calub, Tina M.; Chen, Chunling; Rusconi, Raffaella; Slat, Emily A.; Isom, Lori L.; Raman, Indira M.

    2009-01-01

    The β subunits of voltage-gated Na channels (Scnxb) regulate the gating of pore-forming α subunits, as well as their trafficking and localization. In heterologous expression systems, β1, β2, and β3 subunits influence inactivation and persistent current in different ways. To test how the β4 protein regulates Na channel gating, we transfected β4 into HEK cells stably expressing NaV1.1. Unlike a free peptide with a sequence from the β4 cytoplasmic domain, the full-length β4 protein did not block open channels. Instead, β4 expression favored open states by shifting activation curves negative, decreasing the slope of the inactivation curve, and increasing the percentage of non-inactivating current. Consequently, persistent current tripled in amplitude. Expression of β1 or chimeric subunits including the β1 extracellular domain, however, favored inactivation. Co-expressing NaV1.1 and β4 with β1 produced tiny persistent currents, indicating that β1 overcomes the effects of β4 in heterotrimeric channels. In contrast, β1C121W, which contains an extracellular epilepsy-associated mutation, did not counteract the destabilization of inactivation by β4, and also required unusually large depolarizations for channel opening. In cultured hippocampal neurons transfected with β4, persistent current was slightly but significantly increased. Moreover, in β4-expressing neurons from Scn1b and Scn1b/Scn2b null mice, entry into inactivated states was slowed. These data suggest that β1 and β4 have antagonistic roles, the former favoring inactivation and the latter favoring activation. Because increased Na channel availability may facilitate action potential firing, these results suggest a mechanism for seizure susceptibility of both mice and humans with disrupted β1 subunits. PMID:19228957

  4. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) with cerebellar involvement in a teenager.

    PubMed

    Langille, Megan M; Desai, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of this rare condition.

  5. Electrical resonance with voltage-gated ion channels: perspectives from biophysical mechanisms and neural electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lin; Liu, Xiao-dong

    2016-01-01

    Electrical resonance, providing selective signal amplification at preferred frequencies, is a unique phenomenon of excitable membranes, which has been observed in the nervous system at the cellular, circuit and system levels. The mechanisms underlying electrical resonance have not been fully elucidated. Prevailing hypotheses attribute the resonance to voltage-gated ion channels on the membrane of single neurons. In this review, we follow this line of thinking to summarize and analyze the biophysical/molecular mechanisms, and also the physiological relevance of channel-mediated electrical resonance. PMID:26725736

  6. Positive-bias gate-controlled metal-insulator transition in ultrathin VO2 channels with TiO2 gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Takeaki; Nishimura, Tomonori; Toriumi, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The next generation of electronics is likely to incorporate various functional materials, including those exhibiting ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and metal-insulator transitions. Metal-insulator transitions can be controlled by electron doping, and so incorporating such a material in transistor channels will enable us to significantly modulate transistor current. However, such gate-controlled metal-insulator transitions have been challenging because of the limited number of electrons accumulated by gate dielectrics, or possible electrochemical reaction in ionic liquid gate. Here we achieve a positive-bias gate-controlled metal-insulator transition near the transition temperature. A significant number of electrons were accumulated via a high-permittivity TiO2 gate dielectric with subnanometre equivalent oxide thickness in the inverse-Schottky-gate geometry. An abrupt transition in the VO2 channel is further exploited, leading to a significant current modulation far beyond the capacitive coupling. This solid-state operation enables us to discuss the electrostatic mechanism as well as the collective nature of gate-controlled metal-insulator transitions, paving the pathway for developing functional field effect transistors.

  7. Positive-bias gate-controlled metal–insulator transition in ultrathin VO2 channels with TiO2 gate dielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Takeaki; Nishimura, Tomonori; Toriumi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The next generation of electronics is likely to incorporate various functional materials, including those exhibiting ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and metal–insulator transitions. Metal–insulator transitions can be controlled by electron doping, and so incorporating such a material in transistor channels will enable us to significantly modulate transistor current. However, such gate-controlled metal–insulator transitions have been challenging because of the limited number of electrons accumulated by gate dielectrics, or possible electrochemical reaction in ionic liquid gate. Here we achieve a positive-bias gate-controlled metal–insulator transition near the transition temperature. A significant number of electrons were accumulated via a high-permittivity TiO2 gate dielectric with subnanometre equivalent oxide thickness in the inverse-Schottky-gate geometry. An abrupt transition in the VO2 channel is further exploited, leading to a significant current modulation far beyond the capacitive coupling. This solid-state operation enables us to discuss the electrostatic mechanism as well as the collective nature of gate-controlled metal–insulator transitions, paving the pathway for developing functional field effect transistors. PMID:26657761

  8. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Frolova, Sheyda R.; Gaiko, Olga; Tsvelaya, Valeriya A.; Pimenov, Oleg Y.; Agladze, Konstantin I.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB) to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav), calcium (ICav), and potassium (IKv) currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+) currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential. PMID:27015602

  9. Developmental expression of Kv1 voltage-gated potassium channels in the avian hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Doczi, Megan A; Vitzthum, Carl M; Forehand, Cynthia J

    2016-03-11

    Specialized hypothalamic neurons integrate the homeostatic balance between food intake and energy expenditure, processes that may become dysregulated during the development of diabetes, obesity, and other metabolic disorders. Shaker family voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv1) contribute to the maintenance of resting membrane potential, action potential characteristics, and neurotransmitter release in many populations of neurons, although hypothalamic Kv1 channel expression has been largely unexplored. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from avian hypothalamic brain slices demonstrate a developmental shift in the electrophysiological properties of avian arcuate nucleus neurons, identifying an increase in outward ionic current that corresponds with action potential maturation. Additionally, RT-PCR experiments identified the early expression of Kv1.2, Kv1.3, and Kv1.5 mRNA in the embryonic avian hypothalamus, suggesting that these channels may underlie the electrophysiological changes observed in these neurons. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis on intact microdissections of embryonic hypothalamic tissue revealed a concomitant increase in Kv1.2 and Kv1.5 gene expression at key electrophysiological time points during development. This study is the first to demonstrate hypothalamic mRNA expression of Kv1 channels in developing avian embryos and may suggest a role for voltage-gated ion channel regulation in the physiological patterning of embryonic hypothalamic circuits governing energy homeostasis.

  10. Structural model of the open-closed-inactivated cycle of prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Bagnéris, Claire; Naylor, Claire E; McCusker, Emily C; Wallace, B A

    2015-01-01

    In excitable cells, the initiation of the action potential results from the opening of voltage-gated sodium channels. These channels undergo a series of conformational changes between open, closed, and inactivated states. Many models have been proposed for the structural transitions that result in these different functional states. Here, we compare the crystal structures of prokaryotic sodium channels captured in the different conformational forms and use them as the basis for examining molecular models for the activation, slow inactivation, and recovery processes. We compare structural similarities and differences in the pore domains, specifically in the transmembrane helices, the constrictions within the pore cavity, the activation gate at the cytoplasmic end of the last transmembrane helix, the C-terminal domain, and the selectivity filter. We discuss the observed differences in the context of previous models for opening, closing, and inactivation, and present a new structure-based model for the functional transitions. Our proposed prokaryotic channel activation mechanism is then compared with the activation transition in eukaryotic sodium channels.

  11. Finite element simulation of the gating mechanism of mechanosensitive ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavi, Navid; Qin, Qinghua; Martinac, Boris

    2013-08-01

    In order to eliminate limitations of existing experimental or computational methods (such as patch-clamp technique or molecular dynamic analysis) a finite element (FE) model for multi length-scale and time-scale investigation on the gating mechanism of mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels has been established. Gating force value (from typical patch clamping values) needed to activate Prokaryotic MS ion channels was applied as tensional force to the FE model of the lipid bilayer. Making use of the FE results, we have discussed the effects of the geometrical and the material properties of the Escherichia coli MscL mechanosensitive ion channel opening in relation to the membrane's Young's modulus (which will vary depending on the cell type or cholesterol density in an artificial membrane surrounding the MscL ion channel). The FE model has shown that when the cell membrane stiffens the required channel activation force increases considerably. This is in agreement with experimental results taken from the literature.