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Sample records for receptor content induced

  1. Androgen- and Estrogen-Receptor Content in Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Canine Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, John; Hicks, L. Louise; Walsh, Patrick C.

    1980-01-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism by which steroidal hormones influence the development of canine prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear and cytosolic androgen- and estrogen-receptor content, as measured under exchange conditions by the binding of [3H]R1881 (methyltrienolone) and [3H]estradiol, respectively, were quantitated in the prostates of purebred beagles of known age. In young dogs with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced (androstanediol plus estradiol treatment) prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear, but not cytosolic, prostatic androgen-receptor content was significantly greater than that determined in the normal prostates of age-matched dogs (3,452±222 and 4,035±274 fmol/mg DNA vs. 2,096±364 fmol/mg DNA, respectively). No differences were observed between the androgen-receptor content of the normal prostates of young dogs and the hyperplastic prostates of old dogs. The cytosolic and nuclear estrogen-receptor content of spontaneously arising prostatic hyperplasia in both young and old animals was similar to that found in normal prostates. The administration of estradiol plus androstanediol to castrate dogs significantly increased the prostatic nuclear androgen-receptor content over that found in dogs treated only with androstanediol. This estradiol-associated increase in nuclear androgen-receptor content was accompanied by the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Estradiol treatment of castrate dogs resulted in an increase in prostatic nuclear estrogen-receptor content, in the appearance of a putative prostatic cytosolic progesterone receptor, and in an alteration of the epithelium of the prostate to one characterized by squamous metaplasia. Treatment of castrate dogs with both estradiol and androstanediol resulted in a reduction in prostatic nuclear estrogen-receptor content, disappearance of the progesterone receptor, and loss of squamous metaplasia. An increase in nuclear androgen-receptor content, thus, appears to be an important event in the

  2. Low brain histamine content affects ethanol-induced motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Lintunen, Minnamaija; Raatesalmi, Kristiina; Sallmen, Tina; Anichtchik, Oleg; Karlstedt, Kaj; Kaslin, Jan; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Korpi, Esa R; Panula, Pertti

    2002-02-01

    The effect of ethanol on motor performance in humans is well established but how neural mechanisms are affected by ethanol action remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the brain histaminergic system is important in it, we used a genetic model consisting of rat lines selectively outbred for differential ethanol sensitivity. Ethanol-sensitive rats had lower levels of brain histamine and lower densities of histamine-immunoreactive fibers than ethanol-insensitive rats, although both rat lines showed no changes in histamine synthesizing neurons. Lowering the high brain histamine content of the ethanol-insensitive rats with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine before ethanol administration increased their ethanol sensitivity in a behavioral motor function test. Higher H3 receptor ligand binding and histamine-induced G-protein activation was detected in several brain regions of ethanol-naive ethanol-sensitive rats. Brain histamine levels and possibly signaling via H3 receptors may thus correlate with genetic differences in ethanol-induced motor impairment.

  3. Estrogen-induced decrease of glucocorticoid receptor messenger ribonucleic acid concentration in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, A; Barden, N

    1987-06-01

    Using Northern blots and hybridization techniques, we have identified an approximately 6.5 kilobase glucocorticoid receptor mRNA species in rat anterior pituitary gland. Ovariectomy resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA concentrations. This effect was maximal 8 days after surgery and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels remained elevated for at least up to 4 weeks. Administration of 17-beta-estradiol completely reversed the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content of pituitary gland. Treatment of rats with corticosterone did not influence the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content, indicating that this increase is not mediated via effects on circulating glucocorticoid levels or availability. In situ hybridization experiments confirmed the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content and indicated that this action is widely distributed throughout the anterior pituitary gland.

  4. A high-content EMT screen identifies multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors with activity on TGFβ receptor.

    PubMed

    Lotz-Jenne, Carina; Lüthi, Urs; Ackerknecht, Sabine; Lehembre, François; Fink, Tobias; Stritt, Manuel; Wirth, Matthias; Pavan, Simona; Bill, Ruben; Regenass, Urs; Christofori, Gerhard; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    An epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial tumor cells to break out of the primary tumor mass and to metastasize. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving EMT in more detail will provide important tools to interfere with the metastatic process. To identify pharmacological modulators and druggable targets of EMT, we have established a novel multi-parameter, high-content, microscopy-based assay and screened chemical compounds with activities against known targets. Out of 3423 compounds, we have identified 19 drugs that block transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-induced EMT in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG). The active compounds include inhibitors against TGFβ receptors (TGFBR), Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK), myosin II, SRC kinase and uridine analogues. Among the EMT-repressing compounds, we identified a group of inhibitors targeting multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, and biochemical profiling of these multi-kinase inhibitors reveals TGFBR as a thus far unknown target of their inhibitory spectrum. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-parameter, high-content microscopy screen to identify modulators and druggable targets of EMT. Moreover, the newly discovered "off-target" effects of several receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have important consequences for in vitro and in vivo studies and might beneficially contribute to the therapeutic effects observed in vivo. PMID:27036020

  5. A high-content EMT screen identifies multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors with activity on TGFβ receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ackerknecht, Sabine; Lehembre, François; Fink, Tobias; Stritt, Manuel; Wirth, Matthias; Pavan, Simona; Bill, Ruben; Regenass, Urs; Christofori, Gerhard; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    An epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial tumor cells to break out of the primary tumor mass and to metastasize. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving EMT in more detail will provide important tools to interfere with the metastatic process. To identify pharmacological modulators and druggable targets of EMT, we have established a novel multi-parameter, high-content, microscopy-based assay and screened chemical compounds with activities against known targets. Out of 3423 compounds, we have identified 19 drugs that block transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-induced EMT in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG). The active compounds include inhibitors against TGFβ receptors (TGFBR), Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK), myosin II, SRC kinase and uridine analogues. Among the EMT-repressing compounds, we identified a group of inhibitors targeting multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, and biochemical profiling of these multi-kinase inhibitors reveals TGFBR as a thus far unknown target of their inhibitory spectrum. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-parameter, high-content microscopy screen to identify modulators and druggable targets of EMT. Moreover, the newly discovered “off-target” effects of several receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have important consequences for in vitro and in vivo studies and might beneficially contribute to the therapeutic effects observed in vivo. PMID:27036020

  6. 5-Hydroxytryptamine type 7 receptor neuroprotection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity is PDGFβ receptor dependent.

    PubMed

    Vasefi, Maryam S; Kruk, Jeff S; Heikkila, John J; Beazely, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the hippocampus. Long-term (2-24 h) activation of 5-HT7 receptors regulates growth factor receptor expression, including the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β receptors. Direct activation of PDGFβ receptors in primary hippocampal and cortical neurons inhibits NMDA receptor activity and attenuates NMDA receptor-induced neurotoxicity. Our objective was to investigate whether the 5-HT7 receptor-induced increase in PDGFβ receptor expression would be similarly neuroprotective. We demonstrate that 5-HT7 receptor agonist treatment in primary hippocampal neurons also increases the expression of phospholipase C (PLC) γ, a downstream effector of PDGFβ receptors associated with the inhibition of NMDA receptor activity. To determine if the up-regulation of PDGFβ receptors is neuroprotective, primary hippocampal neurons were incubated with the 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP 12, for 24 h. Indeed, LP 12 treatment prevented NMDA-induced neurotoxicity and this effect was dependent on PDGFβ receptor kinase activity. Treatment of primary neurons with LP 12 also differentially altered NMDA receptor subunit expression, reducing the expression of NR1 and NR2B, but not NR2A. These findings demonstrate the potential for providing growth factor receptor-dependent neuroprotective effects using small-molecule ligands of G protein-coupled receptors.

  7. Guest-induced organization of an optimal receptor from a dynamic receptor library: Spectroscopic screening

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Fujita, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    Complexation of a cis-protected palladium ion and a family of exo-bidentate and -tridentate ligands results in the formation of an equilibrium mixture of numerous metal-linked receptors that are referred to as a dynamic receptor library. We found that a guest induced the selective formation of the optimal receptor of its own. Screening of the library by using difference NMR facilitates the search for new receptors because in difference NMR only receptors interacting with the guest can be observed. An unpredictable heterotopic receptor was discovered by this screening method. Interestingly, the new receptor thus found was assembled quantitatively only in the presence of its optimal guest. PMID:11959936

  8. Correlation of desensitisation of platelet activating factor (PAF) receptors with intensity of inflammation and intestinal PAF content during experimental ileitis in guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Jeanneton, O; Delvaux, M; Langlois, Y; Le Bars, P; Le Bars, J; Delisle, M; Frexinos, J; Bueno, L

    1998-01-01

    Aim—To determine the kinetics of platelet activating factor (PAF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor desensitisation during intestinal inflammation induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNB) instillation and to study the relation between receptor regulation, inflammatory lesions, and PAF content of the gut wall. 
Methods—Receptor desensitisation was assessed on isolated smooth muscle cells from the circular layer. PAF content of the intestinal wall was determined by thin layer chromatography and radioimmunoassay. 
Results—After an acute inflammatory phase on day 1, subacute changes appeared in TNB instilled ileum, with a maximal intensity on day 6. In control animals, PAF 10 nM and PGE2 10 nM provoked a maximal contraction in the range of 24% of cell shortening. On days 1 and 3 after intestinal instillation of TNB, PAF induced contraction was not altered whereas the effect of PGE2 was progressively desensitised (2 logM rightward shift of its concentration-response curve: Cmax = 1 µM; p<0.01). Between days 4 and 6, the concentration-response curve of PGE2 shifted by only 1 logM (p<0.05) whereas the curve of PAF induced contraction shifted by 2 logM (Cmax = 1 µM; p<0.01). The PAF content of the ileal wall was maximal between days 3 and 5 (300 ng/mg tissue). On days 10 and 15, PAF and PGE2 induced contractions were similar to those observed on day 1, and PAF content returned to basal. 
Conclusion—Inflammation induced by TNB instillation triggers PAF and PGE2 receptor desensitisation; this is dependent on the duration of inflammation and correlates with PAF content in the ileum. This receptor desensitisation may play a protective role by preventing overstimulation of intestinal smooth muscle cells. 

 Keywords: platelet activating factor receptor; prostaglandin E2 receptor; receptor desensitisation; intestinal inflammation; trinitrobenzensulphonic acid; smooth muscle cells PMID:9863481

  9. Hydrogen peroxide down-regulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor content through proteasome activation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Garrido, A; Boyano-Adánez, M C; Alique, M; Calleros, L; Serrano, I; Griera, M; Rodríguez-Puyol, D; Griendling, K K; Rodríguez-Puyol, M

    2009-11-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is implicated in the regulation of signaling pathways leading to changes in vascular smooth muscle function. Contractile effects produced by H(2)O(2) are due to the phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase triggered by increases in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) from intracellular stores or influx of extracellular Ca(2+). One mechanism for mobilizing such stores involves the phosphoinositide pathway. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) by binding to a family of receptors (IP(3)Rs) on the endoplasmic-sarcoplasmic reticulum that act as ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels. IP(3)Rs can be rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome, causing a decrease in cellular IP(3)R content. In this study we show that IP(3)R(1) and IP(3)R(3) are down-regulated when vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are stimulated by H(2)O(2), through an increase in proteasome activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the decrease in IP(3)R by H(2)O(2) is accompanied by a reduction in calcium efflux induced by IP(3) in VSMC. Also, we observed that angiotensin II (ANGII) induces a decrease in IP(3)R by activation of NADPH oxidase and that preincubation with H(2)O(2) decreases ANGII-mediated calcium efflux and planar cell surface area in VSMC. The decreased IP(3) receptor content observed in cells was also found in aortic rings, which exhibited a decreased ANGII-dependent contraction after treatment with H(2)O(2). Altogether, these results suggest that H(2)O(2) mediates IP(3)R down-regulation via proteasome activity.

  10. Prolactin receptors and androgen-induced regression of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Costlow, M E; Buschow, R A; McGuire, W L

    1976-09-01

    Prolactin reverses the inhibitory effects of pharmacological doses of androgen on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumor growth (Quadri, S.K., Kledzik, G.S., and Meites, J.J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 52: 875-878,1974). To determine whether this effect is due to an alteration in the ability of the tumor cell to bind prolactin, we have quantitated prolactin receptors in androgen-responsive and nonresponsive tumors. Prolactin receptors were measured with 125I-labeled ovine prolactin in a subcellular fraction which reproducibly contained 60 to 80% of the total receptor present in tumor homogenates. Prolactin binding was reversible, reached a steady state in 9 hr, and was completed by excess unlabeled prolactin. Prolactin bound to its receptor with a Kd of approximately 1 X 10(-10) M. Growing tumors were biopsied, and rats bearing regrown tumors were given injections of 4 mg testosterone propionate twice a week. Prolactin receptors were reduced in most of the tumors, which regressed after testosterone treatment by an average of 63% compared to the pretreatment biopsy specimens. Nonresponsive tumors and vehicle-injected controls showed no signifcant alterations in receptor content. This reduction of prolactin receptors is probably insufficient to account for androgen-induced mammary tumor regression. PMID:184948

  11. Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Chronic treatment with selective I2-imidazoline receptor ligands decreases the content of pro-apoptotic markers in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Garau, Celia; Miralles, Antonio; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2013-02-01

    Selective I(2)-imidazoline receptor ligands induce neuroprotection through various molecular mechanisms including blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To investigate new neuroprotective mechanisms associated with I(2)-imidazoline receptors, the effects of selective (2-styryl-2-imidazoline (LSL 61122), 2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline (2-BFI), 2-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl) quinoline hydrochloride (BU-224)) and non-selective (idazoxan) I(2)-drugs on canonical apoptotic pathways were assessed in rat brain cortex. The acute treatment with LSL 61122 (10 mg/kg) reduced the content of mitochondrial (pro-apoptotic) Bax (-33%) and cytochrome c (-31%), which was prevented by idazoxan, an I(2)-receptor antagonist. The sustained stimulation of I(2)-imidazoline receptors with selective drugs (10 mg/kg, every 12 h for seven days) was associated with down-regulation of key components of the extrinsic (Fas receptor: -20%; Fas associated protein with death domain (FADD) adaptor: -47-54%) and/or intrinsic (Bax: -20-23%; cytochrome c: -22-28%) apoptotic signalling and/or up-regulation of survival anti-apoptotic factors (p-Ser194 FADD/FADD ratio: +1.6-2.5-fold; and/or Bcl-2/Bax ratio: +1.5-fold), which in the long-term could dampen cell death in the brain. Similar chronic treatments with LSL 60101 (the imidazole analogue of 2-BFI) and idazoxan (a mixed I(2)/α(2)-ligand) did not induce significant alterations of pro- or anti-apoptotic proteins. The disclosed anti-apoptotic mechanisms of selective I(2)-imidazoline drugs may work in concert with other molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection (e.g. blockade of NMDA receptors) that are engaged by I(2)-ligands.

  13. G-protein Receptor Kinase 5 Regulates the Cannabinoid Receptor 2-induced Up-regulation of Serotonin 2A Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Jade M.; Carrasco, Gonzalo A.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported that cannabinoid agonists can up-regulate and enhance the activity of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFCx). Increased expression and activity of cortical 5-HT2A receptors has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and schizophrenia. Here we report that repeated CP55940 exposure selectively up-regulates GRK5 proteins in rat PFCx and in a neuronal cell culture model. We sought to examine the mechanism underlying the regulation of GRK5 and to identify the role of GRK5 in the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation and enhanced activity of 5-HT2A receptors. Interestingly, we found that cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation of GRK5 involves CB2 receptors, β-arrestin 2, and ERK1/2 signaling because treatment with CB2 shRNA lentiviral particles, β-arrestin 2 shRNA lentiviral particles, or ERK1/2 inhibitor prevented the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation of GRK5. Most importantly, we found that GRK5 shRNA lentiviral particle treatment prevented the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation and enhanced 5-HT2A receptor-mediated calcium release. Repeated cannabinoid exposure was also associated with enhanced phosphorylation of CB2 receptors and increased interaction between β-arrestin 2 and ERK1/2. These latter phenomena were also significantly inhibited by GRK5 shRNA lentiviral treatment. Our results suggest that sustained activation of CB2 receptors, which up-regulates 5-HT2A receptor signaling, enhances GRK5 expression; the phosphorylation of CB2 receptors; and the β-arrestin 2/ERK interactions. These data could provide a rationale for some of the adverse effects associated with repeated cannabinoid agonist exposure. PMID:23592773

  14. Neural network analysis of the information content in population responses from human periodontal receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edin, Benoni B.; Trulsson, Mats

    1992-07-01

    Understanding of the information processing in some sensory systems is hampered for several reasons. First, some of these systems may depend on several receptor types with different characteristics, and the crucial features of natural stimuli encoded by the receptors are rarely known with certainty. Second, the functional output of sensory processing is often not well defined. The human tooth is endowed with several types of sensory receptors. Among these, the mechanoreceptors located in the periodontal ligaments have been implicated in force encoding during chewing and biting. Individual receptors cannot, however, code unambiguously either the direction or the magnitude of the applied forces. Neuronal responses recorded in single human nerve fibers from periodontal receptors were fed to multi-layered feed-forward networks. The networks were trained with error back-propagation to identify specific features of the force stimuli that evoked the receptor responses. It was demonstrated that population responses in periodontal receptors contain information about both the point of attack and the direction of applied forces. It is concluded that networks may provide a powerful tool to investigate the information content in responses from biological receptor populations. As such, specific hypotheses with respect to information processing may be tested using neural networks also in sensory systems less well understood than, for instance, the visual system.

  15. G protein-coupled receptor internalization assays in the high-content screening format.

    PubMed

    Haasen, Dorothea; Schnapp, Andreas; Valler, Martin J; Heilker, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    High-content screening (HCS), a combination of fluorescence microscopic imaging and automated image analysis, has become a frequently applied tool to study test compound effects in cellular disease-modeling systems. This chapter describes the measurement of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization in the HCS format using a high-throughput, confocal cellular imaging device. GPCRs are the most successful group of therapeutic targets on the pharmaceutical market. Accordingly, the search for compounds that interfere with GPCR function in a specific and selective way is a major focus of the pharmaceutical industry today. This chapter describes methods for the ligand-induced internalization of GPCRs labeled previously with either a fluorophore-conjugated ligand or an antibody directed against an N-terminal tag of the GPCR. Both labeling techniques produce robust assay formats. Complementary to other functional GPCR drug discovery assays, internalization assays enable a pharmacological analysis of test compounds. We conclude that GPCR internalization assays represent a valuable medium/high-throughput screening format to determine the cellular activity of GPCR ligands.

  16. Glucagon receptor antagonism induces increased cholesterol absorption.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hong-Ping; Yang, Xiaodong; Lu, Ku; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Castro-Perez, Jose M; Previs, Stephen; Wright, Michael; Shah, Vinit; Herath, Kithsiri; Xie, Dan; Szeto, Daphne; Forrest, Gail; Xiao, Jing Chen; Palyha, Oksana; Sun, Li-Ping; Andryuk, Paula J; Engel, Samuel S; Xiong, Yusheng; Lin, Songnian; Kelley, David E; Erion, Mark D; Davis, Harry R; Wang, Liangsu

    2015-11-01

    Glucagon and insulin have opposing action in governing glucose homeostasis. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), plasma glucagon is characteristically elevated, contributing to increased gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia. Therefore, glucagon receptor (GCGR) antagonism has been proposed as a pharmacologic approach to treat T2DM. In support of this concept, a potent small-molecule GCGR antagonist (GRA), MK-0893, demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy to reduce hyperglycemia, with an HbA1c reduction of 1.5% at the 80 mg dose for 12 weeks in T2DM. However, GRA treatment was associated with dose-dependent elevation of plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c). The current studies investigated the cause for increased LDL-c. We report findings that link MK-0893 with increased glucagon-like peptide 2 and cholesterol absorption. There was not, however, a GRA-related modulation of cholesterol synthesis. These findings were replicated using structurally diverse GRAs. To examine potential pharmacologic mitigation, coadministration of ezetimibe (a potent inhibitor of cholesterol absorption) in mice abrogated the GRA-associated increase of LDL-c. Although the molecular mechanism is unknown, our results provide a novel finding by which glucagon and, hence, GCGR antagonism govern cholesterol metabolism.

  17. TRPA1 receptors mediate environmental irritant-induced meningeal vasodilatation

    PubMed Central

    Kunkler, Phillip Edward; Ballard, Carrie Jo; Oxford, Gerry Stephen; Hurley, Joyce Harts

    2010-01-01

    The TRPA1 receptor is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels expressed in nociceptive neurons. TRPA1 receptors are targeted by pungent compounds from mustard and garlic and environmental irritants such as formaldehyde and acrolein. Ingestion or inhalation of these chemical agents causes irritation and burning in the nasal and oral mucosa and respiratory lining. Headaches have been widely reported to be induced by inhalation of environmental irritants, but it is unclear how these agents produce headache. Stimulation of trigeminal neurons releases CGRP and substance P and induces neurogenic inflammation associated with the pain of migraine. Here we test the hypothesis that activation of TRPA1 receptors are the mechanistic link between environmental irritants and peptide mediated neurogenic inflammation. Known TRPA1 agonists and environmental irritants stimulate CGRP release from dissociated rat trigeminal ganglia neurons and this release is blocked by a selective TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031. Further, TRPA1 agonists and environmental irritants increase meningeal blood flow following intranasal administration. Prior dural application of the CGRP antagonist, CGRP8–37, or intranasal or dural administration of HC-030031, blocks the increases in blood flow elicited by environmental irritants. Together these results demonstrate that TRPA1 receptor activation by environmental irritants stimulates CGRP release and increases cerebral blood flow. We suggest that these events contribute to headache associated with environmental irritants. PMID:21075522

  18. Acute isoproterenol induces anxiety-like behavior in rats and increases plasma content of extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Leo, Giuseppina; Guescini, Michele; Genedani, Susanna; Stocchi, Vilberto; Carone, Chiara; Filaferro, Monica; Sisti, Davide; Marcoli, Manuela; Maura, Guido; Cortelli, Pietro; Guidolin, Diego; Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Several clinical observations have demonstrated a link between heart rate and anxiety or panic disorders. In these patients, β-adrenergic receptor function was altered. This prompted us to investigate whether the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol, at a dose that stimulates peripheral β-adrenergic system but has no effects at the central nervous system, can induce anxiety-like behavior in rats. Moreover, some possible messengers involved in the peripheral to brain communication were investigated. Our results showed that isoproterenol (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) increased heart rate, evoked anxiety-like behavior, did not result in motor impairments and increased extracellular vesicle content in the blood. Plasma corticosterone level was unmodified as well as vesicular Hsp70 content. Vesicular miR-208 was also unmodified indicating a source of increased extracellular vesicles different from cardiomyocytes. We can hypothesize that peripheral extracellular vesicles might contribute to the β-adrenergic receptor-evoked anxiety-like behavior, acting as peripheral signals in modulating the mental state.

  19. The Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist Almorexant Induces Sleep and Decreases Orexin-Induced Locomotion by Blocking Orexin 2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Géraldine M.; Dürst, Thomas; Bürki, Hugo; Imobersteg, Stefan; Abramowski, Dorothee; Schuepbach, Edi; Hoyer, Daniel; Fendt, Markus; Gee, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Orexin peptides activate orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R), regulate locomotion and sleep-wake. The dual OX1R/OX2R antagonist almorexant reduces activity and promotes sleep in multiple species, including man. The relative contributions of the two receptors in locomotion and sleep/wake regulation were investigated in mice. Design: Mice lacking orexin receptors were used to determine the contribution of OX1R and OX2R to orexin A-induced locomotion and to almorexant-induced sleep. Setting: N/A. Patients or Participants: C57BL/6J mice and OX1R+/+, OX1R-/-, OX2R+/+, OX2R-/- and OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Interventions: Intracerebroventricular orexin A; oral dosing of almorexant. Measurements and Results: Almorexant attenuated orexin A-induced locomotion. As in other species, almorexant dose-dependently increased rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and nonREM sleep in mice. Almorexant and orexin A were ineffective in OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Both orexin A-induced locomotion and sleep induction by almorexant were absent in OX2R-/- mice. Interestingly, almorexant did not induce cataplexy in wild-type mice under conditions where cataplexy was seen in mice lacking orexins and in OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Almorexant dissociates very slowly from OX2R as measured functionally and in radioligand binding. Under non equilibrium conditions in vitro, almorexant was a dual antagonist whereas at equilibrium, almorexant became OX2R selective. Conclusions: In vivo, almorexant specifically inhibits the actions of orexin A. The two known orexin receptors mediate sleep induction by almorexant and orexin A-induced locomotion. However, OX2R activation mediates locomotion induction by orexin A and antagonism of OX2R is sufficient to promote sleep in mice. Citation: Mang GM; Dürst T; Bürki H; Imobersteg S; Abramowski D; Schuepbach E; Hoyer D; Fendt M; Gee CE. The dual orexin receptor antagonist almorexant induces sleep and decreases orexin-induced locomotion by blocking orexin

  20. CB1 receptors modulate affective behaviour induced by neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Ildikó; Nent, Elisa; Erxlebe, Edda; Zimmer, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Patients suffering from chronic pain are often diagnosed with a psychiatric condition, in particular generalized anxiety and major depression. The underlying pathomechanisms contributing to this comorbidity, however, are not entirely clear. In this manuscript we have focussed on the potential role of the cannabinoid receptor CB1, because it is known to modulate neuronal circuits contributing to chronic pain states and affective behaviours. For this purpose we analysed the consequences of a partial sciatic nerve ligation on anxiety- and depression-related behaviours in mice lacking CB1 receptors. Our results show that the development of mechanical hypersensitivity was similar in CB1 deficient mice and wild type controls. However, CB1 knockouts showed much more pronounced behavioural manifestations of anxiety-related behaviours in the light-dark and zero-maze tests, sucrose anhedonia, and disturbed home-cage activity. These results indicate that the endocannabinoid system affects chronic pain-induced mood changes through CB1 receptors.

  1. γ-Aminbuturic Acid A Receptor Mitigates Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Cell Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Neetu; Moshal, Karni S.; Tyagi, Suresh C.; Lominadze, David

    2010-01-01

    Many cerebrovascular disorders are accompanied by an increased homocysteine (Hcy) levels. We have previously shown that acute hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) leads to an increased microvascular permeability in the mouse brain. Hcy competitively binds to γ -aminbuturic acid (GABA) receptors and may increase vascular permeability by acting as an excitatory neurotransmitter. However, the role of GABA-A (GABAA) receptor in Hcy-induced endothelial cell (EC) permeability remains unclear. In the present study we attempted to determine the role of GABAA receptor and the possible mechanisms involved in Hcy-induced EC layer permeability. Mouse aortic and brain ECs were grown in Transwells and treated with 50 μM Hcy in the presence or absence of GABAA-specific agonist muscimol. Role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was determined using its activity inhibitor GM-6001. Involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling was assessed using its kinase activity inhibitors PD98059 or U0126. EC permeability to the known content of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated with Alexa Flour-488 was assessed by measuring fluorescence intensity of the solutes in the Transwell's lower chambers. It was found that Hcy induced the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin). Hcy-induced EC permeability to BSA was significantly decreased by GABA and muscimol treatments. Presence of MMP-9 or ERK kinase activity inhibitors restored the Hcy-induced EC permeability to its baseline level. The mediation BSA leakage through the ECs was further confirmed in the experiments where Hcy-induced alterations in transendothelial electrical resistance of confluent ECs were assessed. The data suggest that Hcy increases EC layer permeability through inhibition of GABAA receptor and F-actin formation, in part, by transducing ERK and MMP-9 activation. PMID:18080868

  2. Radiation-induced DNA content variability in mouse sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkel, D.; Gledhill, B.L.; van Dilla, M.A.; Lake, S.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1983-09-01

    Mouse sperm collected from the cauda epididymidis 35 days after acute testicular x-ray exposure and fluorescently stained for DNA show dose-dependent increases in the coefficient of variation (CV) of flow cytometrically obtained fluorescence distributions. By comparing dose-response curves obtained with three protocols which overcome the optical and cytochemical difficulties of sperm measurement in different ways we conclude the response is due to x-ray-induced DNA content variability. Computer modeling of the shapes of the fluorescence distributions show that at 600 rad 30 to 40% of the sperm have abnormal DNA content. Some have errors as large as two whole chromosomes, but it is not clear whether they are due to whole chromosome nondisjunction or a finer fragmentation of the genome. Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene and mitomycin C cause no detectable DNA content variability. We conclude mouse sperm DNA content measurements are not sensitive to small amounts of aneuploidy and as such will only be useful in detecting agents that produce substantial DNA content variability. Another animal with a smaller number of chromosomes might be more favorable. These sperm measurement techniques may find additional application in other areas of reproductive biology, such as the determination of the relative numbers of X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm in semen that may be artifically enriched in one population.

  3. Crosslinking-induced endocytosis of acetylcholine receptors by quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Wai; Zhang, Hailong; Geng, Lin; Peng, H Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-α-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  4. Crosslinking-Induced Endocytosis of Acetylcholine Receptors by Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lin; Peng, H. Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-α-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  5. Upregulation of 5-HT2C receptors in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats: antagonism by Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Amee; Nandhu, M S; Paulose, C S

    2009-10-01

    Emotional disturbances, depressive mood, anxiety, aggressive behavior, and memory impairment are the common psychiatric features associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The present study was carried out to investigate the role of Bacopa monnieri extract in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epileptic rats through the 5-HT(2C) receptor in relation to depression. Our results showed upregulation of 5-HT(2C) receptors with a decreased affinity in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats. Also, there was an increase in 5-HT(2C) gene expression and inositol triphosphate content in epileptic hippocampus. Carbamazepine and B. monnieri treatments reversed the alterations in 5-HT(2C) receptor binding, gene expression, and inositol triphosphate content in treated epileptic rats as compared to untreated epileptic rats. The forced swim test confirmed the depressive behavior pattern during epilepsy that was nearly completely reversed by B. monnieri treatment.

  6. Radiation-induced DNA content variability in mouse sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkel, D.; Gledhill, B.L.; Van Dilla, M.A.; Lake, S.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1983-09-01

    Mouse sperm collected from the cauda epididymidis 35 days after acute testicular X-ray exposure and fluorescently stained for DNA show dose-dependent increases in the coefficient of variation (CV) of flow cytometrically obtained fluorescence distributions. By comparing dose-response curves obtained with three protocols which overcome the optical and cytochemical difficulties of sperm measurement in different ways we conclude the response is due to X-ray-induced DNA content variability. In the range between 0 and 600 rad the dose dependence of the square of CV of the DNA content variability, delta CV2D, is described by delta CV2D . Bx + Cx2, with 0 less than or equal to B less than or equal to 0.23 X 10(-2) and C . (0.44 +/- 0.06) X 10(-4). The dose x is measured in rad and delta CVD is expressed in percent. Computer modeling of the shapes of the fluorescence distributions show that at 600 rad 30 to 40% of the sperm have abnormal DNA content. Some have errors as large as two whole chromosomes, but it is not clear whether they are due to whole chromosome nondisjunction or a finer fragmentation of the genome. Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene and mitomycin C cause no detectable DNA content variability. We conclude mouse sperm DNA content measurements are not sensitive to small amounts of aneuploidy and as such will only be useful in detecting agents that produce substantial DNA content variability. Another animal with a smaller number of chromosomes might be more favorable. These sperm measurement techniques may find additional application in other areas of reproductive biology, such as the determination of the relative numbers of X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm in semen that may be artificially enriched in one population.

  7. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and Muscarinic Receptors: Supersensitivity Induced by Long-Term Atropine Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlund, Britta; Abens, Janis; Bartfai, Tamas

    1983-04-01

    Long-term treatment of rats with atropine induced large increases in the numbers of muscarinic receptors and receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the salivary glands. Since receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide coexist with muscarinic receptors on the same neurons in this preparation, the results suggest that a drug that alters the sensitivity of one receptor may also affect the sensitivity of the receptor for a costored transmitter and in this way contribute to the therapeutic or side effects of the drug.

  8. Ammonia Induces Autophagy through Dopamine Receptor D3 and MTOR.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ji, Xinmiao; Wang, Wenchao; Liu, Juanjuan; Liang, Xiaofei; Wu, Hong; Liu, Jing; Eggert, Ulrike S; Liu, Qingsong; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperammonemia is frequently seen in tumor microenvironments as well as in liver diseases where it can lead to severe brain damage or death. Ammonia induces autophagy, a mechanism that tumor cells may use to protect themselves from external stresses. However, how cells sense ammonia has been unclear. Here we show that culture medium alone containing Glutamine can generate milimolar of ammonia at 37 degrees in the absence of cells. In addition, we reveal that ammonia acts through the G protein-coupled receptor DRD3 (Dopamine receptor D3) to induce autophagy. At the same time, ammonia induces DRD3 degradation, which involves PIK3C3/VPS34-dependent pathways. Ammonia inhibits MTOR (mechanistic target of Rapamycin) activity and localization in cells, which is mediated by DRD3. Therefore, ammonia has dual roles in autophagy: one to induce autophagy through DRD3 and MTOR, the other to increase autophagosomal pH to inhibit autophagic flux. Our study not only adds a new sensing and output pathway for DRD3 that bridges ammonia sensing and autophagy induction, but also provides potential mechanisms for the clinical consequences of hyperammonemia in brain damage, neurodegenerative diseases and tumors.

  9. Receptor ganglioside content of three hosts for Sendai virus. MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Markwell, M A; Fredman, P; Svennerholm, L

    1984-08-01

    Specific gangliosides GD1a, GT1b and GQ1b isolated from brain have been shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus by conferring susceptibility to infection when they are incorporated into receptor-deficient cells (Markwell, M.A.K., Svennerholm, L. and Paulson, J.C. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 5406-5410). The endogenous gangliosides of three commonly used hosts for Sendai virus: MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells were analyzed to determine the amount and type of receptor gangliosides present. In all three cell lines, GM3 was the major ganglioside component. The presence of GM1, GD1a and the more complex homologs of the gangliotetraose series was also established. In cell lines derived from normal tissue, MDBK and MDCK cells, gangliosides contributed 47-65% of the total sialic acid. In HeLa cells, gangliosides contributed substantially less (17% of the total sialic acid). The ganglioside content of each cell line was shown not to be immutable but instead to depend on the state of differentiation, passage number, and surface the cells were grown on. Thus, the ganglioside concentration of undifferentiated MDCK cells was found to be substantially greater than that of MDBK or HeLa cells, but decreased as the MDCK cells underwent differentiation. Changes in culture conditions that were shown to decrease the receptor ganglioside content of the cells resulted in a corresponding decrease in susceptibility to infection. The endogenous oligosialogangliosides present in susceptible host cells were shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus.

  10. Involvement of ryanodine receptors in neurotrophin-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Adasme, Tatiana; Haeger, Paola; Paula-Lima, Andrea C.; Espinoza, Italo; Casas-Alarcón, M. Mercedes; Carrasco, M. Angélica; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyR) amplify activity-dependent calcium influx via calcium-induced calcium release. Calcium signals trigger postsynaptic pathways in hippocampal neurons that underlie synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Recent evidence supports a role of the RyR2 and RyR3 isoforms in these processes. Along with calcium signals, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key signaling molecule for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory. Upon binding to specific TrkB receptors, BDNF initiates complex signaling pathways that modify synaptic structure and function. Here, we show that BDNF-induced remodeling of hippocampal dendritic spines required functional RyR. Additionally, incubation with BDNF enhanced the expression of RyR2, RyR3, and PKMζ, an atypical protein kinase C isoform with key roles in hippocampal memory consolidation. Consistent with their increased RyR protein content, BDNF-treated neurons generated larger RyR-mediated calcium signals than controls. Selective inhibition of RyR-mediated calcium release with inhibitory ryanodine concentrations prevented the PKMζ, RyR2, and RyR3 protein content enhancement induced by BDNF. Intrahippocampal injection of BDNF or training rats in a spatial memory task enhanced PKMζ, RyR2, RyR3, and BDNF hippocampal protein content, while injection of ryanodine at concentrations that stimulate RyR-mediated calcium release improved spatial memory learning and enhanced memory consolidation. We propose that RyR-generated calcium signals are key features of the complex neuronal plasticity processes induced by BDNF, which include increased expression of RyR2, RyR3, and PKMζ and the spine remodeling required for spatial memory formation. PMID:21282625

  11. Involvement of ryanodine receptors in neurotrophin-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory formation.

    PubMed

    Adasme, Tatiana; Haeger, Paola; Paula-Lima, Andrea C; Espinoza, Italo; Casas-Alarcón, M Mercedes; Carrasco, M Angélica; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2011-02-15

    Ryanodine receptors (RyR) amplify activity-dependent calcium influx via calcium-induced calcium release. Calcium signals trigger postsynaptic pathways in hippocampal neurons that underlie synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Recent evidence supports a role of the RyR2 and RyR3 isoforms in these processes. Along with calcium signals, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key signaling molecule for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory. Upon binding to specific TrkB receptors, BDNF initiates complex signaling pathways that modify synaptic structure and function. Here, we show that BDNF-induced remodeling of hippocampal dendritic spines required functional RyR. Additionally, incubation with BDNF enhanced the expression of RyR2, RyR3, and PKMζ, an atypical protein kinase C isoform with key roles in hippocampal memory consolidation. Consistent with their increased RyR protein content, BDNF-treated neurons generated larger RyR-mediated calcium signals than controls. Selective inhibition of RyR-mediated calcium release with inhibitory ryanodine concentrations prevented the PKMζ, RyR2, and RyR3 protein content enhancement induced by BDNF. Intrahippocampal injection of BDNF or training rats in a spatial memory task enhanced PKMζ, RyR2, RyR3, and BDNF hippocampal protein content, while injection of ryanodine at concentrations that stimulate RyR-mediated calcium release improved spatial memory learning and enhanced memory consolidation. We propose that RyR-generated calcium signals are key features of the complex neuronal plasticity processes induced by BDNF, which include increased expression of RyR2, RyR3, and PKMζ and the spine remodeling required for spatial memory formation. PMID:21282625

  12. AMPA receptor potentiation can prevent ethanol-induced intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicholas; Messenger, Marcus J; O'Neill, Michael J; Oldershaw, Anna; Gilmour, Gary; Simmons, Rosa M A; Iyengar, Smriti; Libri, Vincenzo; Tricklebank, Mark; Williams, Steve C R

    2008-06-01

    We present a substantial series of behavioral and imaging experiments, which demonstrate, for the first time, that increasing AMPA receptor-mediated neurotransmission via administration of potent and selective biarylsulfonamide AMPA potentiators LY404187 and LY451395 reverses the central effects of an acutely intoxicating dose of ethanol in the rat. Using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI), we observed that LY404187 attenuated ethanol-induced reductions in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) in the anesthetized rat brain. A similar attenuation was apparent when measuring local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) via C14-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography in freely moving conscious rats. Both LY404187 and LY451395 significantly and dose-dependently reversed ethanol-induced deficits in both motor coordination and disruptions in an operant task where animals were trained to press a lever for food reward. Both prophylactic and acute intervention treatment with LY404187 reversed ethanol-induced deficits in motor coordination. Given that LY451395 and related AMPA receptor potentiators/ampakines are tolerated in both healthy volunteers and elderly patients, these data suggest that such compounds may form a potential management strategy for acute alcohol intoxication.

  13. Thymic involution in the suspended rat - Adrenal hypertrophy and glucocorticoid receptor content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between thymic involution and adrenal hypertrophy is studied. The thymus, adrenal glands, and tissue water content are evaluated in male Sprague rats suspended in antiorthostatic (AO) or orthostatic (O) positions. A 50 percent decrease in the wet weight of the thymus and hypertrophy of the adrenal glands are observed during the seven days of AO suspension. After seven days of recovery the thymus weight is increased to control level; however, the hypertrophy of the adrenal glands remains unchanged. Thymic and renal responses in O postioned rats are similar to AO reactions. Thymic glucocorticoid (GC) receptor concentrations in the rats are analyzed; a 20 percent decrease in GC receptor site concentration, which is related to thymic involution, is detected in both AO and O rats. It is concluded that there is a temporal correlation between thymic involution and adrenal hypertrophy, which is not affected by AO positioning, and thymic involution is not associated with an increased sensitivity to GC.

  14. The liver X receptor agonist TO901317 protects mice against cisplatin-induced kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Wang, Rong; Sun, Jing; Yu, Kezhou; Chen, Bing; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Liver X receptors are in the nuclear receptor superfamily and are contained in the regulation of lipid and cholesterol metabolism. Besides, liver X receptors are considered crucial regulators of the inflammatory response and innate immunity. The current study evaluates the in vivo effects that the synthetic liver X receptor agonist TO901317 protects against cisplatin-induced kidney injury in mice. Mice received cisplatin administration through a single intraperitoneal injection (20 mg/kg in saline). And then the mice were treated with the TO901317 by daily gavage (10 mg/kg/day) 12 h postcisplatin administration, and cisplatin nephrotoxicity was evaluated. At 72 h after cisplatin treatment, elevated plasma urea and creatinine levels (P < 0.05) were evidenced which indicates the renal dysfunction of the vehicle-treated mice, consistent with tubular necrosis, protein cast, dilation of renal tubules, and desquamation of epithelial cells in renal tubules. In contrast, the severity of renal dysfunction and histological damage was reduced in TO901317 treated mice (P < 0.05). In accordance, circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha levels, renal tumor necrosis factor alpha, p47phox, gp91phox, and protein expression levels and COX-2 mRNA, renal monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, VACAM-1 mRNA and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 contents, and renal prostaglandin E2 amounts, were higher in samples from cisplatin-treated mice in comparison with controls (P < 0.05) but attenuated in the TO901317 treatment group (P < 0.05). Taken together, treatment with the liver X receptor agonist TO901317 ameliorated the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in cisplatin-induced kidney injury in mice. PMID:26062799

  15. ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES SRC-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES Src-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)
    Weidong Wu1, Lee M. Graves2, Gordon N. Gill3 and James M. Samet4 1Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology; 2Department of Pharmacology, University o...

  16. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian; Rask-Madsen, Christian; He, Pingnian; Mizutani, Koji; Katagiri, Sayaka; Maeda, Yasutaka; Wu, I-Hsien; Khamaisi, Mogher; Preil, Simone Rordam; Sørensen, Ditte; Huang, Paul L.; King, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) in the endothelia of Apoe–/– mice (Irs1/Apoe–/–) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE–/– mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin’s enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca2+]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1 overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE–/– mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway. Finally EDNRB deletion in EC of Ldlr–/– and Irs1/Ldlr–/– mice decreased NO production and accelerated atherosclerosis, compared with Ldlr–/– mice. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes may be reduced by improving insulin signaling selectively via IRS1/Akt in the EC by inducing EDNRB expression and NO production. PMID:27200419

  17. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian; Rask-Madsen, Christian; He, Pingnian; Mizutani, Koji; Katagiri, Sayaka; Maeda, Yasutaka; Wu, I-Hsien; Khamaisi, Mogher; Preil, Simone Rordam; Maddaloni, Ernesto; Sørensen, Ditte; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Huang, Paul L.; King, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) in the endothelia of Apoe−/− mice (Irs1/Apoe−/−) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE−/− mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin’s enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca2+]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1 overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE−/− mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway. Finally EDNRB deletion in EC of Ldlr−/− and Irs1/Ldlr−/− mice decreased NO production and accelerated atherosclerosis, compared with Ldlr−/− mice. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes may be reduced by improving insulin signaling selectively via IRS1/Akt in the EC by inducing EDNRB expression and NO production. PMID:27200419

  18. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate donepezil-induced oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Osamu; Arai, Masaaki; Dateki, Minori; Ogata, Toru; Uchida, Ryuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Takishima, Kunio

    2015-12-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Failure of myelin development and oligodendrocyte loss results in serious human disorders, including multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that donepezil, an acetlycholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells without affecting proliferation or cell viability. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase, and MOG, in addition to transcription factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil. Furthermore, luciferase assays confirmed that both MAG and MBP promoters display increased activity upon donepezil-induced oligodendrocytes differentiation, suggesting that donepezil increases myelin gene expression mainly through enhanced transcription. We also found that the increase in the number of oligodendrocytes observed following donepezil treatment was significantly inhibited by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine, but not by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine. Moreover, donepezil-induced myelin-related gene expression was suppressed by mecamylamine at both the mRNA and protein level. These results suggest that donepezil stimulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin-related gene expression via nAChRs in neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. We show that donepezil, a drug for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase and MOG in addition to transcripton factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil

  19. Cannabinoid receptor 1 suppresses transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-induced inflammatory responses to corneal injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wang, Z.; Varadaraj, K.; Kumari, S.S.; Mergler, S.; Okada, Y.; Saika, S.; Kingsley, P.J.; Marnett, L.J.; Reinach, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-induced suppression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) activation provides a therapeutic option to reduce inflammation and pain in different animal disease models through mechanisms involving dampening of TRPV1 activation and signaling events. As we found in both mouse corneal epithelium and human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) that there is CB1 and TRPV1 expression colocalization based on overlap of coimmunostaining, we determined in mouse corneal wound healing models and in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) if they interact with one another to reduce TRPV1-induced inflammatory and scarring responses. Corneal epithelial debridement elicited in vivo a more rapid wound healing response in wildtype (WT) than in CB1−/− mice suggesting functional interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. CB1 activation by injury is tenable based on the identification in mouse corneas of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) with tandem LC–MS/MS, a selective endocannabinoid CB1 ligand. Suppression of corneal TRPV1 activation by CB1 is indicated since following alkali burning, CB1 activation with WIN55,212-2 (WIN) reduced immune cell stromal infiltration and scarring. Western blot analysis of coimmunoprecipitates identified protein–protein interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. Other immunocomplexes were also identified containing transforming growth factor kinase 1 (TAK1), TRPV1 and CB1. CB1 siRNA gene silencing prevented suppression by WIN of TRPV1-induced TAK1–JNK1 signaling. WIN reduced TRPV1-induced Ca2+ transients in fura2-loaded HCEC whereas pertussis toxin (PTX) preincubation obviated suppression by WIN of such rises caused by capsaicin (CAP). Whole cell patch clamp analysis of HCEC showed that WIN blocked subsequent CAP-induced increases in nonselective outward currents. Taken together, CB1 activation by injury-induced release of endocannabinoids such as 2-AG downregulates TRPV1 mediated inflammation and corneal opacification

  20. β-caryophyllene ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a cannabinoid 2 receptor-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Béla; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Kechrid, Malek; Patel, Vivek; Tanashian, Galin; Wink, David A.; Gertsch, Jürg; Pacher, Pál

    2012-01-01

    (E)-β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a natural sequiterpene found in many essential oils of spice (best known for contributing to the spiciness of black pepper) and food plants with recognized anti-inflammatory properties. Recently it was shown that BCP is a natural agonist of endogenous cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors, which are expressed in immune cells and mediate anti-inflammatory effects. In this study we aimed to test the effects of BCP in a clinically relevant murine model of nephropathy (induced by the widely used antineoplastic drug cisplatin) in which the tubular injury is largely dependent on inflammation and oxidative/nitrative stress. β-caryophyllene dose-dependently ameliorated cisplatin-induced kidney dysfunction, morphological damage, and renal inflammatory response (chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-2, cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and neutrophil and macrophage infiltration). It also markedly mitigated oxidative/nitrative stress (NOX-2, NOX-4 expression, 4-HNE and 3-NT content) and cell death. The protective effects of BCP against biochemical and histological markers of nephropathy were absent in CB2 knockout mice. Thus, BCP may be an excellent therapeutic agent to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through a CB2 receptor dependent pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of BCP in humans it has tremendous therapeutic potential in multitude of diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:22326488

  1. Enhanced muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the corpus striatum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Gireesh, G; Kumar, T Peeyush; Mathew, Jobin; Paulose, CS

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), the first neurotransmitter to be identified, regulate the activities of central and peripheral functions through interactions with muscarinic receptors. Changes in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Previous reports from our laboratory on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats showed down regulation of muscarinic M1 receptors in the brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pancreatic islets. In this study, we have investigated the changes of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) enzyme activity, total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptor binding and gene expression in the corpus striatum of STZ – diabetic rats and the insulin treated diabetic rats. The striatum, a neuronal nucleus intimately involved in motor behaviour, is one of the brain regions with the highest acetylcholine content. ACh has complex and clinically important actions in the striatum that are mediated predominantly by muscarinic receptors. We observed that insulin treatment brought back the decreased maximal velocity (Vmax) of acetylcholine esterase in the corpus striatum during diabetes to near control state. In diabetic rats there was a decrease in maximal number (Bmax) and affinity (Kd) of total muscarinic receptors whereas muscarinic M1 receptors were increased with decrease in affinity in diabetic rats. We observed that, in all cases, the binding parameters were reversed to near control by the treatment of diabetic rats with insulin. Real-time PCR experiment confirmed the increase in muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression and a similar reversal with insulin treatment. These results suggest the diabetes-induced changes of the cholinergic activity in the corpus striatum and the regulatory role of insulin on binding parameters and gene expression of total and muscarinic M1 receptors. PMID:19344500

  2. Prostaglandin E2 activates the histaminergic system via the EP4 receptor to induce wakefulness in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-Li; Sato, Yo; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Okada, Tetsuya; Qu, Wei-Min; Yamatodani, Atsushi; Urade, Yoshihiro; Hayaishi, Osamu

    2003-07-01

    Prostaglandin (PG)E2 promotes the wakeful state when administered into the posterior hypothalamus, in which the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) is located. To explore the neurotransmitter mechanisms responsible for PGE2-induced wakefulness in rats, we examined the effect of PGE2 on the activity of the histaminergic system and the involvement of PGE2 receptor subtypes in the response. PGE2 perfusion in the TMN at doses of 100, 200, and 400 pmol/min for 2 hr significantly increased histamine release from the medial preoptic area and frontal cortex in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Among the agonists of the four distinct subtypes of PGE2 receptors (EP1-4) tested, only the EP4 receptor agonist (ONO-AE1-329) mimicked the excitatory effect of PGE2 on histamine release from both the medial preoptic area and frontal cortex. Perfusion of either PGE2 or the EP4 agonist into the TMN at a dose of 200 pmol/min for 1 hr increased histidine decarboxylase activity, histidine decarboxylase mRNA level, and histamine content in the hypothalamus. In situ hybridization revealed that EP4 receptor mRNA was expressed in histidine decarboxylase-immunoreactive neurons of the TMN region. Furthermore, EP4 agonist perfusion into the TMN induced wakefulness. These findings indicate that PGE2 induces wakefulness through activation of the histaminergic system via EP4 receptors.

  3. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  4. Ethanol inhibits neuritogenesis induced by astrocyte muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Guizzetti, Marina; Moore, Nadia H; Giordano, Gennaro; VanDeMark, Kathryn L; Costa, Lucio G

    2010-09-01

    In utero alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that ethanol alters neuronal development. We have recently shown that stimulation of M(3) muscarinic receptors in astrocytes increases the synthesis and release of fibronectin, laminin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, causing neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neurons. As M(3) muscarinic receptor signaling in astroglial cells is strongly inhibited by ethanol, we hypothesized that ethanol may also inhibit neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons induced by carbachol-stimulated astrocytes. In the present study, we report that the effect of carbachol-stimulated astrocytes on hippocampal neuron neurite outgrowth was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner (25-100 mM) by ethanol. This effect was because of the inhibition of the release of fibronectin, laminin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Similar effects on neuritogenesis and on the release of astrocyte extracellular proteins were observed after the incubation of astrocytes with carbachol in the presence of 1-butanol, another short-chain alcohol, which like ethanol is a competitive substrate for phospholipase D, but not by tert-butanol, its analog that is not a substrate for this enzyme. This study identifies a potential novel mechanism involved in the developmental effects of ethanol mediated by the interaction of ethanol with cell signaling in astrocytes, leading to an impairment in neuron-astrocyte communication.

  5. Chemotherapy-induced antitumor immunity requires formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Ma, Yuting; Baracco, Elisa E; Sistigu, Antonella; Enot, David P; Pietrocola, Federico; Yang, Heng; Adjemian, Sandy; Chaba, Kariman; Semeraro, Michaela; Signore, Michele; De Ninno, Adele; Lucarini, Valeria; Peschiaroli, Francesca; Businaro, Luca; Gerardino, Annamaria; Manic, Gwenola; Ulas, Thomas; Günther, Patrick; Schultze, Joachim L; Kepp, Oliver; Stoll, Gautier; Lefebvre, Céline; Mulot, Claire; Castoldi, Francesca; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Ladoire, Sylvain; Apetoh, Lionel; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Lucattelli, Monica; Delarasse, Cécile; Boige, Valérie; Ducreux, Michel; Delaloge, Suzette; Borg, Christophe; André, Fabrice; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Vitale, Ilio; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-11-20

    Antitumor immunity driven by intratumoral dendritic cells contributes to the efficacy of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in cancer. We identified a loss-of-function allele of the gene coding for formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) that was associated with poor metastasis-free and overall survival in breast and colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The therapeutic effects of anthracyclines were abrogated in tumor-bearing Fpr1(-/-) mice due to impaired antitumor immunity. Fpr1-deficient dendritic cells failed to approach dying cancer cells and, as a result, could not elicit antitumor T cell immunity. Experiments performed in a microfluidic device confirmed that FPR1 and its ligand, annexin-1, promoted stable interactions between dying cancer cells and human or murine leukocytes. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of FPR1 in chemotherapy-induced anticancer immune responses. PMID:26516201

  6. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X; Zamponi, Gerald W; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  7. Drug-induced defaecation in rats: role of central 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Croci, T.; Landi, M.; Bianchetti, A.; Manara, L.

    1995-01-01

    1. We investigated the acute effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonists, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), buspirone and SR 57746A, on rat faecal pellet output and water content. 2. 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone and SR 57746A, a new selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, displaced [3H]-8-OH-DPAT from specific binding sites in rat hippocampus membranes (Ki, nM; 1.8, 1.2, 15, 3.1 respectively) and stimulated rat defaecation dose-dependently. SR 57746A and buspirone induced 1 g dry weight of faeces at 1.3 and 6.1 mg kg-1, p.o. (AD1) respectively. 8-OH-DPAT and 5-HT stimulated defaecation after s.c. injection (AD1, 0.07 and 7.5 mg kg-1, respectively). All these agents increased faecal water content. 3. The putative 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, pindolol, injected s.c. or i.c.v., significantly reduced the defaecation induced by systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone or SR 57746A, but not 5-HT. 4. Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (i.p.) or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (i.c.v.), according to protocols designed to cause either generalized or CNS-limited 5-HT depletion respectively, also reduced the defaecation induced by buspirone or SR 57746A. 5. No specific 5-HT1A binding sites could be labelled by incubating rat colon membranes with [3H]-8-OH-DPAT, and in vitro preparations of rat colon segments showed no response to 8-OH-DPAT or SR 57746A up to 5 microM. 6. After eight days' repeated daily treatment, complete tolerance developed to the stimulant effects of SR 57746A and buspirone on faecal water content, but not on faecal pellet output.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7647978

  8. Histological grade and steroid receptor content of primary breast cancer--impact on prognosis and possible modes of action.

    PubMed Central

    Kamby, C.; Andersen, J.; Ejlertsen, B.; Birkler, N. E.; Rytter, L.; Zedeler, K.; Thorpe, S. M.; Nørgaard, T.; Rose, C.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical course of breast cancer was related to degree of anaplasia (DA) and steroid receptor (SR) content of primary tumours in 743 patients (pts) with clinical recurrence, initially enrolled in the DBCG-77 protocols. The oestrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PgR) content was known in 110 and 67 pts. The recurrence-free interval, survival after recurrence, and the overall survival were all prolonged in patients with well differentiated tumours or with high SR content. The tumour growth rates were estimated as clinical rates of progression (i.e., the time elapsed from a single distant metastasis until dissemination). The progression rate was prolonged in relatively well differentiated as well as in receptor rich tumours. The extent of dissemination, as indicated by the number of metastatic sites, was not associated with either DA or SR content. However, the anatomical distribution of metastases varied with both DA and SR content: signs of poor prognosis (high DA or low SR content) were associated with occurrence of visceral metastases. In contrast, SR rich tumours had a propensity for recurrence in bone. The results suggest that the impact on prognosis of the features examined here includes both variations in growth rate and metastatic pattern. PMID:3207602

  9. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI; Roskams, Tania; Oben, Jude A.

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  10. ATP-induced vasodilation and purinergic receptors in the human leg: roles of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and adenosine.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stefan P; González-Alonso, José; Bune, Laurids T; Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hellsten, Ylva

    2009-04-01

    Plasma ATP is thought to contribute to the local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow. Intravascular ATP infusion can induce profound limb muscle vasodilatation, but the purinergic receptors and downstream signals involved in this response remain unclear. This study investigated: 1) the role of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and adenosine as mediators of ATP-induced limb vasodilation and 2) the expression and distribution of purinergic P(2) receptors in human skeletal muscle. Systemic and leg hemodynamics were measured before and during 5-7 min of femoral intra-arterial infusion of ATP [0.45-2.45 micromol/min] in 19 healthy male subjects with and without coinfusion of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA; NO formation inhibitor; 12.3 +/- 0.3 (SE) mg/min), indomethacin (INDO; prostaglandin formation blocker; 613 +/- 12 microg/min), and/or theophylline (adenosine receptor blocker; 400 +/- 26 mg). During control conditions, ATP infusion increased leg blood flow (LBF) from baseline conditions by 1.82 +/- 0.14 l/min. When ATP was coinfused with either l-NMMA, INDO, or l-NMMA + INDO combined, the increase in LBF was reduced by 14 +/- 6, 15 +/- 9, and 39 +/- 8%, respectively (all P < 0.05), and was associated with a parallel lowering in leg vascular conductance and cardiac output and a compensatory increase in leg O(2) extraction. Infusion of theophylline did not alter the ATP-induced leg hyperemia or systemic variables. Real-time PCR analysis of the mRNA content from the vastus lateralis muscle of eight subjects showed the highest expression of P(2Y2) receptors of the 10 investigated P(2) receptor subtypes. Immunohistochemistry showed that P(2Y2) receptors were located in the endothelium of microvessels and smooth muscle cells, whereas P(2X1) receptors were located in the endothelium and the sacrolemma. Collectively, these results indicate that NO and prostaglandins, but not adenosine, play a role in ATP-induced vasodilation in human skeletal muscle. The expression

  11. The estrogen receptor alpha nuclear localization sequence is critical for fulvestrant-induced degradation of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Casa, Angelo J; Hochbaum, Daniel; Sreekumar, Sreeja; Oesterreich, Steffi; Lee, Adrian V

    2015-11-01

    Fulvestrant, a selective estrogen receptor down-regulator (SERD) is a pure competitive antagonist of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Fulvestrant binds ERα and reduces the receptor's half-life by increasing protein turnover, however, its mechanism of action is not fully understood. In this study, we show that removal of the ERα nuclear localization sequence (ERΔNLS) resulted in a predominantly cytoplasmic ERα that was degraded in response to 17-β-estradiol (E2) but was resistant to degradation by fulvestrant. ERΔNLS bound the ligands and exhibited receptor interaction similar to ERα, indicating that the lack of degradation was not due to disruption of these processes. Forcing ERΔNLS into the nucleus with a heterologous SV40-NLS did not restore degradation, suggesting that the NLS domain itself, and not merely receptor localization, is critical for fulvestrant-induced ERα degradation. Indeed, cloning of the endogenous ERα NLS onto the N-terminus of ERΔNLS significantly restored both its nuclear localization and turnover in response to fulvestrant. Moreover, mutation of the sumoylation targets K266 and K268 within the NLS impaired fulvestrant-induced ERα degradation. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the unique role of the ERα NLS in fulvestrant-induced degradation of the receptor.

  12. Aldosterone receptor antagonism normalizes vascular function in liquorice-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Quaschning, T; Ruschitzka, F; Shaw, S; Lüscher, T F

    2001-02-01

    The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2) provides mineralocorticoid receptor specificity for aldosterone by metabolizing glucocorticoids to their receptor-inactive 11-dehydro derivatives. The present study investigated the effects of the aldosterone receptor antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone on endothelial function in liquorice-induced hypertension. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a recognized inhibitor of 11beta-HSD2, was supplemented to the drinking water (3 g/L) of Wistar-Kyoto rats over a period of 21 days. From days 8 to 21, spironolactone (5.8+/-0.6 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), eplerenone (182+/-13 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), or placebo was added to the chow (n=7 animals per group). Endothelium-dependent or -independent vascular function was assessed as the relaxation of preconstricted aortic rings to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside, respectively. In addition, aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein content, nitrate tissue levels, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) protein levels were determined. GA increased systolic blood pressure from 142+/-8 to 185+/-9 mm Hg (P<0.01). In the GA group, endothelium-dependent relaxation was impaired compared with that in controls (73+/-6% versus 99+/-5%), whereas endothelium-independent relaxation remained unchanged. In the aortas of 11beta-HSD2-deficient rats, eNOS protein content and nitrate tissue levels decreased (1114+/-128 versus 518+/-77 microgram/g protein, P<0.05). In contrast, aortic ET-1 protein levels were enhanced by GA (308+/-38 versus 497+/-47 pg/mg tissue, P<0.05). Both spironolactone and eplerenone normalized blood pressure in animals on GA (142+/-9 and 143+/-9 mm Hg, respectively, versus 189+/-8 mm Hg in the placebo group; P<0.01), restored endothelium-dependent relaxation (96+/-3% and 97+/-3%, respectively, P<0.01 versus placebo), blunted the decrease in vascular eNOS protein content and nitrate tissue levels, and normalized vascular ET-1 levels. This is the first study to demonstrate that

  13. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  14. [Mathematical modeling of laser-induced selective destruction of labyrinthine vestibular receptors].

    PubMed

    Antonian, R G; Iakovlev, G V; Bakaliarov, A M; Garov, E V

    2006-01-01

    Basing on mathematical modeling, we tried to investigate in humans the ability of laser energy to suppress the function of the ampullar receptors of the semicircular canels and otolith receptors; to elicit mechanism of action of laser energy on labyrinthine receptors. Modeling has shown that in 1 mm thickness of the canal wall laser impact raises temperature of the liquid to 120 degrees C. Temperature higher than 100 degrees C stands in it up to 120 ms. This induces a distinct hydrodynamic shock which suppresses function of labyrinthine ampullar and otolith receptors. The heat factor of the laser impact causes destruction of the receptor sensory cells lasting for about a year.

  15. Hyperthermia restores apoptosis induced by death receptors through aggregation-induced c-FLIP cytosolic depletion

    PubMed Central

    Morlé, A; Garrido, C; Micheau, O

    2015-01-01

    TRAIL is involved in immune tumor surveillance and is considered a promising anti-cancer agent owing to its limited side effects on healthy cells. However, some cancer cells display resistance, or become resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death. Hyperthermia can enhance sensitivity to TRAIL-induced cell death in various resistant cancer cell lines, including lung, breast, colon or prostate carcinomas. Mild heat shock treatment has been proposed to restore Fas ligand or TRAIL-induced apoptosis through c-FLIP degradation or the mitochondrial pathway. We demonstrate here that neither the mitochondria nor c-FLIP degradation are required for TRAIL-induced cell death restoration during hyperthermia. Our data provide evidence that insolubilization of c-FLIP, alone, is sufficient to enhance apoptosis induced by death receptors. Hyperthermia induced c-FLIP depletion from the cytosolic fraction, without apparent degradation, thereby preventing c-FLIP recruitment to the TRAIL DISC and allowing efficient caspase-8 cleavage and apoptosis. Hyperthermia-induced c-FLIP depletion was independent of c-FLIP DED2 FL chain assembly motif or ubiquitination-mediated c-FLIP degradation, as assessed using c-FLIP point mutants on lysine 167 and 195 or threonine 166, a phosphorylation site known to regulate ubiquitination of c-FLIP. Rather, c-FLIP depletion was associated with aggregation, because addition of glycerol not only prevented the loss of c-FLIP from the cytosol but also enabled c-FLIP recruitment within the TRAIL DISC, thus inhibiting TRAIL-induced apoptosis during hyperthermia. Altogether our results demonstrate that c-FLIP is a thermosensitive protein whose targeting by hyperthermia allows restoration of apoptosis induced by TNF ligands, including TRAIL. Our findings suggest that combining TRAIL agonists with whole-body or localized hyperthermia may be an interesting approach in cancer therapy. PMID:25675293

  16. Hyperthermia restores apoptosis induced by death receptors through aggregation-induced c-FLIP cytosolic depletion.

    PubMed

    Morlé, A; Garrido, C; Micheau, O

    2015-01-01

    TRAIL is involved in immune tumor surveillance and is considered a promising anti-cancer agent owing to its limited side effects on healthy cells. However, some cancer cells display resistance, or become resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death. Hyperthermia can enhance sensitivity to TRAIL-induced cell death in various resistant cancer cell lines, including lung, breast, colon or prostate carcinomas. Mild heat shock treatment has been proposed to restore Fas ligand or TRAIL-induced apoptosis through c-FLIP degradation or the mitochondrial pathway. We demonstrate here that neither the mitochondria nor c-FLIP degradation are required for TRAIL-induced cell death restoration during hyperthermia. Our data provide evidence that insolubilization of c-FLIP, alone, is sufficient to enhance apoptosis induced by death receptors. Hyperthermia induced c-FLIP depletion from the cytosolic fraction, without apparent degradation, thereby preventing c-FLIP recruitment to the TRAIL DISC and allowing efficient caspase-8 cleavage and apoptosis. Hyperthermia-induced c-FLIP depletion was independent of c-FLIP DED2 FL chain assembly motif or ubiquitination-mediated c-FLIP degradation, as assessed using c-FLIP point mutants on lysine 167 and 195 or threonine 166, a phosphorylation site known to regulate ubiquitination of c-FLIP. Rather, c-FLIP depletion was associated with aggregation, because addition of glycerol not only prevented the loss of c-FLIP from the cytosol but also enabled c-FLIP recruitment within the TRAIL DISC, thus inhibiting TRAIL-induced apoptosis during hyperthermia. Altogether our results demonstrate that c-FLIP is a thermosensitive protein whose targeting by hyperthermia allows restoration of apoptosis induced by TNF ligands, including TRAIL. Our findings suggest that combining TRAIL agonists with whole-body or localized hyperthermia may be an interesting approach in cancer therapy. PMID:25675293

  17. Acetylcholine receptor-inducing factor from chicken brain increases the level of mRNA encoding the receptor. alpha. subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.A.; Falls, D.L.; Dill-Devor, R.M.; Fischbach, G.D. )

    1988-03-01

    A 42-kDa glycoprotein isolated from chicken brain, referred to as acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity (ARIA), that stimulates the rate of incorporation of acetylcholine receptors into the surface of chicken myotubes may play a role in the nerve-induced accumulation of receptors at developing neuromuscular synapses. Using nuclease-protection assays, the authors have found that ARIA causes a 2- to 16-fold increase in the level of mRNA encoding the {alpha} subunit of the receptor, with little or no change in the levels of {gamma}- and {delta}-subunit messengers. ARIA also increases the amount of a putative nuclear precursor of {alpha}-subunit mRNA, consistent with an activation of gene transcription. These results suggest that the concentration of {alpha} subunit may limit the rate of biosynthesis of the acetylcholine receptors in chicken myotubes. They also indicate that neuronal factors can regulate the expression of receptor subunit genes in a selective manner. Tetrodotoxin, 8-bromo-cAMP, and forskolin also increase the amount of {alpha}-subunit mRNA, with little change in the amount of {gamma}- and {delta}-subunit mRNAs. Unlike ARIA, however, these agents have little effect on the concentration of the {alpha}-subunit nuclear precursor.

  18. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced CCR2B receptor desensitization mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Aragay, A. M.; Mellado, M.; Frade, J. M. R.; Martin, A. M.; Jimenez-Sainz, M. C.; Martinez-A, C.; Mayor, F.

    1998-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a member of the chemokine cytokine family, whose physiological function is mediated by binding to the CCR2 and CCR4 receptors, which are members of the G protein-coupled receptor family. MCP-1 plays a critical role in both activation and migration of leukocytes. Rapid chemokine receptor desensitization is very likely essential for accurate chemotaxis. In this report, we show that MCP-1 binding to the CCR2 receptor in Mono Mac 1 cells promotes the rapid desensitization of MCP-1-induced calcium flux responses. This desensitization correlates with the Ser/Thr phosphorylation of the receptor and with the transient translocation of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2, also called β-adrenergic kinase 1 or βARK1) to the membrane. We also demonstrate that GRK2 and the uncoupling protein β-arrestin associate with the receptor, forming a macromolecular complex shortly after MCP-1 binding. Calcium flux responses to MCP-1 in HEK293 cells expressing the CCR2B receptor were also markedly reduced upon cotransfection with GRK2 or the homologous kinase GRK3. Nevertheless, expression of the GRK2 dominant-negative mutant βARK-K220R did not affect the initial calcium response, but favored receptor response to a subsequent challenge by agonists. The modulation of the CCR2B receptor by GRK2 suggests an important role for this kinase in the regulation of monocyte and lymphocyte response to chemokines. PMID:9501202

  19. Effects of High Fat Feeding and Diabetes on Regression of Atherosclerosis Induced by Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Therapy in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Willecke, Florian; Yuan, Chujun; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Hu, Yunying; Barnhart, Shelley; Bornfeldt, Karin E.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Fisher, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether a high fat diet (HFD) containing the inflammatory dietary fatty acid palmitate or insulin deficient diabetes altered the remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques in LDL receptor knockout (Ldlr-/-) mice. Cholesterol reduction was achieved by using a helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd) carrying the gene for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr; HDAd-LDLR). After injection of the HDAd-LDLR, mice consuming either HFD, which led to insulin resistance but not hyperglycemia, or low fat diet (LFD), showed regression compared to baseline. However there was no difference between the two groups in terms of atherosclerotic lesion size, or CD68+ cell and lipid content. Because of the lack of effects of these two diets, we then tested whether viral-mediated cholesterol reduction would lead to defective regression in mice with greater hyperglycemia. In both normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated hyperglycemic mice, HDAd-LDLR significantly reduced plasma cholesterol levels, decreased atherosclerotic lesion size, reduced macrophage area and lipid content, and increased collagen content of plaque in the aortic sinus. However, reductions in anti-inflammatory and ER stress-related genes were less pronounced in STZ-diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic mice. In conclusion, HDAd-mediated Ldlr gene therapy is an effective and simple method to induce atherosclerosis regression in Ldlr-/- mice in different metabolic states. PMID:26046657

  20. HIV-induced kidney cell injury: role of ROS-induced downregulated vitamin D receptor

    PubMed Central

    Salhan, Divya; Husain, Mohammad; Subrati, Ashaan; Goyal, Rohan; Singh, Tejinder; Rai, Partab; Malhotra, Ashwani

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to contribute to HIV-induced tubular cell injury. We hypothesized that HIV-induced ROS generation may be causing tubular cell injury through downregulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and associated downstream effects. In the present study, HIV not only downregulated tubular cell VDR expression but also inflicted DNA injury. On the other hand, EB-1089, a VDR agonist (VD), inhibited both downregulation of VDR and tubular cell DNA injury in the HIV milieu. H2O2 (an O− donor) directly downregulated tubular cell VDR, whereas catalase, a free radical scavenger, inhibited HIV-induced downregulation of tubular cell VDR expression. HIV also stimulated the tubular cell renin-angiotensin system (RAS) through downregulation of VDR. Because losartan (an ANG II blolcker) partially inhibited HIV-induced tubular cell ROS generation while ANG II directly stimulated tubular cell ROS generation, it appears that HIV-induced ROS production was partly contributed by the RAS activation. VD not only inhibited HIV-induced RAS activation but also attenuated tubular cell ROS generation. Tubular cells displayed double jeopardy in the HIV milieu induction of double-strand breaks and attenuated DNA repair; additionally, in the HIV milieu, tubular cells exhibited enhanced expression of phospho-p53 and associated downstream signaling. A VDR agonist and an ANG II blocker not only preserved expression of tubular cell DNA repair proteins but also inhibited induction of double-strand breaks. In in vivo studies, renal cortical sections of Tg26 mice displayed attenuated expression of VDR both in podocytes and tubular cells. In addition, renal cortical sections of Tg26 mice displayed enhanced oxidative stress-induced kidney cell DNA damage. These findings indicated that HIV-induced tubular cell downregulation of VDR contributed to the RAS activation and associated tubular cell DNA damage. However, both VD and RAS blockade provided protection

  1. Differential subcellular distribution of rat brain dopamine receptors and subtype-specific redistribution induced by cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Voulalas, Pamela J.; Schetz, John; Undieh, Ashiwel S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the subcellular distribution of dopamine D1, D2 and D5 receptor subtypes in rat frontal cortex, and examined whether psychostimulant-induced elevation of synaptic dopamine could alter the receptor distribution. Differential detergent solubilization and density gradient centrifugation were used to separate various subcellular fractions, followed by semi-quantitative determination of the relative abundance of specific receptor proteins in each fraction. D1 receptors were predominantly localized to detergent-resistant membranes, and a portion of these receptors also floated on sucrose gradients. These properties are characteristic of proteins found in lipid rafts and caveolae. D2 receptors exhibited variable distribution between cytoplasmic, detergent-soluble and detergent-resistant membrane fractions, yet were not present in buoyant membranes. Most D5 receptor immunoreactivity was distributed into the cytoplasmic fraction, failing to sediment at forces up to 300,000g, while the remainder was localized to detergent-soluble membranes in cortex. D5 receptors were undetectable in detergent-resistant fractions or raft-like subdomains. Following daily cocaine administration for seven days, a significant portion of D1 receptors translocated from detergent-resistant membranes to detergent-soluble membranes and the cytoplasmic fraction. The distributions of D5 and D2 receptor subtypes were not significantly altered by cocaine treatment. These data imply that D5 receptors are predominantly cytoplasmic, D2 receptors are diffusely distributed within the cell, whereas D1 receptors are mostly localized to lipid rafts within the rat frontal cortex. Dopamine receptor subtype localization is susceptible to modulation by pharmacological manipulations that elevate synaptic dopamine, however the functional implications of such drug-induced receptor warrant further investigation. PMID:21236347

  2. Prostaglandin EP4 receptor enhances BCR-induced apoptosis of immature B cells.

    PubMed

    Prijatelj, Matevz; Celhar, Teja; Mlinaric-Rascan, Irena

    2011-08-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is emerging as an important co-modulator of B cell responses. Using a pharmacological approach, we aimed to delineate the role of PGE2 in B cell receptor (BCR) induced apoptosis of immature B cells. Gene and protein expression analyses showed that, of the four PGE2 receptors subtypes, only EP4 receptor is upregulated upon BCR cross-linking, leading to sensitization of WEHI 231 cells towards PGE2 mediated inhibitory effects. EP4 receptor antagonist ONO-AE3-208, was able to completely revert the observed effects of PGE2. The engagement of EP4 receptor promotes BCR-induced G0/G1 arrest of WEHI 231 cells, resulting in enhanced caspase mediated, BCR-induced apoptosis. We addressed, mechanistically, the interplay between BCR and EP4 receptor signaling components. Prostaglandin1-alcohol (Pge1-OH), a selective EP4 receptor agonist inhibits BCR-induced activation of NF-κB by suppression of BCR-induced IκBα phosphorylation. Disruption of prosurvival pathways is a possible mechanism by which PGE2 enhances BCR-induced apoptosis in immature B lymphocytes.

  3. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Byung-Il; Hirabayashi, Yoko; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Kodama, Yukio; Kaneko, Toyozo; Kanno, Jun; Kim, Dae-Yong; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Tohru

    2002-11-01

    Benzene can induce hematotoxicity and leukemia in humans and mice. Since a review of the literature shows that the CYP2E1 knockout mouse is not known to possess any benzene toxicity, the metabolism of benzene by CYP2E1 in the liver is regarded to be prerequisite for its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, although the mechanism is not fully understood yet. Because it was found some years ago that benzene was also a substrate for CYP1A1, we investigated the involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in benzene hematotoxicity using AhR wild-type (AhR(+/+)), heterozygous (AhR(+/-)), and homozygous (AhR(-/-)) male mice. Interestingly, following a 2-week inhalation of 300 ppm benzene (a potent dose for leukemogenicity), no hematotoxicity was induced in AhR(-/-) mice. Further, there were no changes in cellularity of peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM), nor in levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units in BM. This lack of hematotoxicity was associated with the lack of p21 overexpression, which was regularly seen in the wild-type mice following benzene inhalation. Combined treatment with two major benzene metabolites, phenol and hydroquinone, induced hemopoietic toxicity, although it was not known whether this happened due to a surprising lack of expression of CYP2E1 by AhR knockout, or due to a lack of other AhR-mediated CYP enzymes, including 1A1 (i.e., a possible alternative pathway of benzene metabolism). The former possibility, evaluated in the present study, failed to show a significant relationship between AhR and the expression of CYP2E1. Furthermore, a subsequent evaluation of AhR expression after benzene inhalation tended to show higher but less significant expression in the liver, and none in the BM, compared with sham control. Although this study failed to identify the more likely of the above-mentioned two possibilities, the study using AhR knockout mice on benzene inhalation presents the unique possibility that the benzene toxicity may be

  4. The mineralocorticoid receptor mediates aldosterone-induced differentiation of T37i cells into brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Penfornis, P; Viengchareun, S; Le Menuet, D; Cluzeaud, F; Zennaro, M C; Lombès, M

    2000-08-01

    By use of targeted oncogenesis, a brown adipocyte cell line was derived from a hibernoma of a transgenic mouse carrying the proximal promoter of the human mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) linked to the SV40 large T antigen. T37i cells remain capable of differentiating into brown adipocytes upon insulin and triiodothyronine treatment as judged by their ability to express uncoupling protein 1 and maintain MR expression. Aldosterone treatment of undifferentiated cells induced accumulation of intracytoplasmic lipid droplets and mitochondria. This effect was accompanied by a significant and dose-dependent increase in intracellular triglyceride content (half-maximally effective dose 10(-9) M) and involved MR, because it was unaffected by RU-38486 treatment but was totally abolished in the presence of aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone, RU-26752). The expression of early adipogenic gene markers, such as lipoprotein lipase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein 2, was enhanced by aldosterone, confirming activation of the differentiation process. We demonstrate that, in the T37i cell line, aldosterone participates in the very early induction of brown adipocyte differentiation. Our findings may have a broader biological significance and suggest that MR is not only implicated in maintaining electrolyte homeostasis but could also play a role in metabolism and energy balance.

  5. Electroacupuncture Reduces Weight Gain Induced by Rosiglitazone through PPARγ and Leptin Receptor in CNS

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xinyue; Ou, Chen; Chen, Hui; Wang, Tianlin; Xu, Bin; Lu, Shengfeng; Zhu, Bing-Mei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on protecting the weight gain side effect of rosiglitazone (RSG) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats and its possible mechanism in central nervous system (CNS). Our study showed that RSG (5 mg/kg) significantly increased the body weight and food intake of the T2DM rats. After six-week treatment with RSG combined with EA, body weight, food intake, and the ratio of IWAT to body weight decreased significantly, whereas the ratio of BAT to body weight increased markedly. HE staining indicated that the T2DM-RSG rats had increased size of adipocytes in their IWAT, but EA treatment reduced the size of adipocytes. EA effectively reduced the lipid contents without affecting the antidiabetic effect of RSG. Furthermore, we noticed that the expression of PPARγ gene in hypothalamus was reduced by EA, while the expressions of leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were increased. Our results suggest that EA is an effective approach for inhibiting weight gain in T2DM rats treated by RSG. The possible mechanism might be through increased levels of leptin receptor and STAT3 and decreased PPARγ expression, by which food intake of the rats was reduced and RSG-induced weight gain was inhibited. PMID:26904147

  6. Role of spinal 5-HT receptors in cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by REM sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong; Ma, Ainiu; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Pertovaara, Antti

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation facilitates pain sensitivity. Since serotoninergic raphe neurons are involved both in regulation of sleep and descending pain modulation, we studied whether spinal 5-HT receptors have a role in sleep deprivation-induced facilitation of pain-related behavior. REM sleep deprivation of 48h was induced by the flower pot method in the rat. The pain modulatory influence of various serotoninergic compounds administered intrathecally was assessed by determining limb withdrawal response to monofilaments. REM sleep deprivation produced a marked hypersensitivity. Sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity and normal sensitivity in controls were reduced both by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist (WAY-100635) and a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist (RS-102221). An antagonist of the 5-HT(3) receptor (LY-278584) failed to modulate hypersensitivity in sleep-deprived or control animals. Paradoxically, sensitivity in sleep-deprived and control animals was reduced not only by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist but also by a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (8-OHDPAT). The results indicate that serotoninergic receptors in the spinal cord have a complex role in the control of sleep-deprivation induced cutaneous hypersensitivity as well as baseline sensitivity in control conditions. While endogenous serotonin acting on 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors may facilitate mechanical sensitivity in animals with a sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity as well as in controls, increased activation of spinal 5-HT(1A) receptors by an exogenous agonist leads to suppression of mechanical sensitivity in both conditions. Spinal 5-HT(3) receptors do not contribute to cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by sleep deprivation.

  7. Agonist induced constitutive receptor activation as a novel regulatory mechanism. Mu receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Sadée, W; Wang, Z

    1995-01-01

    We propose the hypothesis that certain G protein coupled receptors can become constitutively activated during agonist stimulation so that the receptor remains active even after the agonist is removed. This new paradigm of receptor regulation may account for some long term effects of neurotransmitters and hormones. We have tested the hypothesis that constitutive mu receptor activation represents a crucial step driving narcotic tolerance and dependence. Our results indeed support the conversion of mu to a constitutively active state, mu*, observed in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y tissue culture, in U293 cells transfected with the mu receptor gene, and in vivo. Constitutive mu activation may result from receptor phosphorylation to yield mu*, and further, in vivo studies indicate that formation of mu* could account for narcotic tolerance and dependence.

  8. Kinin B2 receptor deletion and blockage ameliorates cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Gabriel R; Wasinski, Frederick; Bacurau, Reury F; Malheiros, Denise M A C; Câmara, Niels O S; Araújo, Ronaldo C

    2014-09-01

    Cisplatin treatment has been adopted in some chemotherapies; however, this drug can induce acute kidney injury due its ability to negatively affect renal function, augment serum levels of creatinine and urea, increase the acute tubular necrosis score and up-regulate cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and TNF-α). The kinin B2 receptor has been associated with the inflammation process, as well as the regulation of cytokine expression, and its deletion resulted in an improvement in the diabetic nephropathy status. To examine the role of the kinin B2 receptor in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, kinin B2 receptor knockout mice were challenged with cisplatin. Additionally, WT mice were treated with a B2 receptor antagonist after cisplatin administration. B2 receptor-deficient mice were less sensitive to this drug than the WT mice, as shown by reduced weight loss, better preservation of kidney function, down regulation of inflammatory cytokines and less acute tubular necrosis. Moreover, treatment with the kinin B2 receptor antagonist effectively reduced the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea after cisplatin administration. Thus, our data suggest that the kinin B2 receptor is involved in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by mediating the necrotic process and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, thus resulting in declined renal function. These results highlight the kinin B2 receptor antagonist treatment in amelioration of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin therapy.

  9. MODULATION OF ACETAMINOPHEN-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY BY THE XENOBIOTIC RECEPTOR CAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified the xenobiotic receptor CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) as a key regulator of acetaminophen metabolism and hepatotoxicity. Known CAR activators as well as high doses of acetaminophen induced expression of three acetaminophen-metabolizing enzymes in wild-type but not in CAR-...

  10. Kinin B2 receptor deletion and blockage ameliorates cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Gabriel R; Wasinski, Frederick; Bacurau, Reury F; Malheiros, Denise M A C; Câmara, Niels O S; Araújo, Ronaldo C

    2014-09-01

    Cisplatin treatment has been adopted in some chemotherapies; however, this drug can induce acute kidney injury due its ability to negatively affect renal function, augment serum levels of creatinine and urea, increase the acute tubular necrosis score and up-regulate cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and TNF-α). The kinin B2 receptor has been associated with the inflammation process, as well as the regulation of cytokine expression, and its deletion resulted in an improvement in the diabetic nephropathy status. To examine the role of the kinin B2 receptor in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, kinin B2 receptor knockout mice were challenged with cisplatin. Additionally, WT mice were treated with a B2 receptor antagonist after cisplatin administration. B2 receptor-deficient mice were less sensitive to this drug than the WT mice, as shown by reduced weight loss, better preservation of kidney function, down regulation of inflammatory cytokines and less acute tubular necrosis. Moreover, treatment with the kinin B2 receptor antagonist effectively reduced the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea after cisplatin administration. Thus, our data suggest that the kinin B2 receptor is involved in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by mediating the necrotic process and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, thus resulting in declined renal function. These results highlight the kinin B2 receptor antagonist treatment in amelioration of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin therapy. PMID:24975837

  11. Histamine induces cytoskeletal changes in human eosinophils via the H(4) receptor.

    PubMed

    Buckland, Karen F; Williams, Timothy J; Conroy, Dolores M

    2003-11-01

    1. Histamine (0.004-2 microm) induced a concentration-dependent shape change of human eosinophils, but not of neutrophils or basophils, detected as an increase in forward scatter (FSC) in the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter (GAFS) assay. 2. The histamine-induced eosinophil shape change was completely abolished by thioperamide (10 microm), an H3/H4 receptor antagonist, but was not inhibited by pyrilamine or cimetidine (10 microm), H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, respectively. The H4 receptor agonists, clobenpropit and clozapine (0.004-2 microm), which are also H3 receptor antagonists, both induced eosinophil shape change, which was inhibited by thioperamide (10 microm). The H3/H4 receptor agonists, imetit, R-alpha-methyl histamine and N-alpha-methyl histamine (0.004-2 microm) also induced eosinophil shape change. 3. Histamine induced actin polymerisation (0.015-10 microm), intracellular calcium mobilisation (10-100 microm) and a significant upregulation of expression of the cell adhesion molecule CD11b (0.004-10 microm) in eosinophils, all of which were inhibited by thioperamide (10-100 microm). In addition, the H4 receptor agonist/H3 receptor antagonist clozapine (20 microm) stimulated a rise in intracellular calcium in eosinophils. 4. Activation of H4 receptors by histamine (1 microm) primed eosinophils for increased chemotactic responses to eotaxin, but histamine (0.1-10 microm) did not directly induce chemotaxis of eosinophils. 5. Pertussis toxin (1 microg ml-1) inhibited shape change and actin polymerisation responses induced by histamine showing that these effects are mediated by coupling to a Galphai/o G-protein. 6. This study demonstrates that human eosinophils express functional H4 receptors and may provide a novel target for allergic disease therapy.

  12. Regulation of type 1 inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor by dopamine receptors in cocaine-induced place conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Mizuno, Koji; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Ohkuma, Seitaro

    2012-02-01

    Recent study shows that type 1 inositol-1,4,5-triphosohate receptors (IP(3) Rs) may be involved in amphetamine-induced conditioned preference, but little is known about its role in psychological dependence on cocaine. This study investigated the role and regulation of IP(3) R-1 in mice with cocaine-induced place preference. The cocaine-induced place preference was dose-dependently inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with IP(3) R antagonists, 2-aminophenoxyethane-borate (2-APB), and xestospongin C. The levels of IP(3) R-1 in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of cocaine-conditioned mice significantly increased, which was completely abolished by SCH23390 and sulpiride, selective dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These findings suggest that IP(3) R-1-mediated intracellular signaling pathway may play an important role in the development of cocaine-induced place preference and that the expression of IP(3) R-1 is controlled by both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of mice with cocaine-induced place preference.

  13. Hypersensitivity Induced by Activation of Spinal Cord PAR2 Receptors Is Partially Mediated by TRPV1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mrozkova, Petra; Spicarova, Diana; Palecek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the peripheral nerve endings are implicated in the development of increased sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, especially during inflammatory states. Both PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors are co-expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on their peripheral endings and also on presynaptic endings in the spinal cord dorsal horn. However, the modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn after activation of PAR2 and their functional coupling with TRPV1 is not clear. To investigate the role of spinal PAR2 activation on nociceptive modulation, intrathecal drug application was used in behavioural experiments and patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous, miniature and dorsal root stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, mEPSCs, eEPSCs) were performed on superficial dorsal horn neurons in acute rat spinal cord slices. Intrathecal application of PAR2 activating peptide SLIGKV-NH2 induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was prevented by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist SB 366791 and was reduced by protein kinases inhibitor staurosporine. Patch-clamp experiments revealed robust decrease of mEPSC frequency (62.8 ± 4.9%), increase of sEPSC frequency (127.0 ± 5.9%) and eEPSC amplitude (126.9 ± 12.0%) in dorsal horn neurons after acute SLIGKV-NH2 application. All these EPSC changes, induced by PAR2 activation, were prevented by SB 366791 and staurosporine pretreatment. Our results demonstrate an important role of spinal PAR2 receptors in modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn at least partially mediated by activation of presynaptic TRPV1 receptors. The functional coupling between the PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors on the central branches of DRG neurons may be important especially during different pathological states when it may enhance pain perception. PMID:27755539

  14. Relations between 3H-estradiol uptake and receptor content of estrogen responsive tissues of castrated female rat.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Benitez, J; Sosa-González, A; Díaz-Chico, B N

    1984-09-01

    The time course of 3H-Estradiol-17 beta (3H-E2) uptake, and estrogen receptor content in estrogen responsive tissues were studied between 0 and 12 h after injection of 0.5 microgram/kg of 3H-E2 or cold E2 injection to castrated adult female rats. The plasma concentration of 3H-E2 between 10 min and 2 h after injection was in the range of the plasma E2 level of cyclic rat. The total 3H-E2 uptake was well correlated with the receptor content in all tissues. The rank order of 3H-E2 uptake was: uterus (Ut) greater than anterior pituitary (Ap) greater than hypothalamus (Ht) greater than plasma. The cytosol 3H-E2 uptake showed its maximal level 10 min after injection in all tissues. Parallel time course between plasma 3H-E2 and cytosol uptake was obtained for each separate tissue. The nuclear 3H-E2 uptake showed its maximal values 2 h after injection with a subsequent decline. Cytosolic estrogen receptor (Rc) content showed a depletion-replenishment cycle after cold E2 injection in all tissues. Nuclear estrogen receptor (Rn) content in Ut increased progressively from 0 to 14 h after injection, but in Ap it showed its maximal level 2 h after injection, declining afterwards. In Ap, nuclear 3H-E2 uptake and Rn level showed parallel time courses. The maximal level of both parameters coinciding with the time of maximal Rc depletion. However, the Rn level in Ut increases more slowly at greater length than the nuclear 3H-E2 uptake, both processes being divergent. These findings are interpreted as the expression of tissular differences in the rate of nuclear receptor formation from the Rc-E complex previously translocated into nucleus and attached to chromatin.

  15. The effects of sigma (σ1) receptor-selective ligands on muscarinic receptor antagonist-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Maninder; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Sumien, Nathalie; Su, Chang; Singh, Meharvan; Chen, Zhenglan; Huang, Ren-Qi; Meunier, Johann; Maurice, Tangui; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury and stroke often involve alterations in cholinergic signalling. Currently available therapeutic drugs provide only symptomatic relief. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are needed to retard and/or arrest the progressive loss of memory. Experimental Approach Scopolamine-induced memory impairment provides a rapid and reversible phenotypic screening paradigm for cognition enhancement drug discovery. Male C57BL/6J mice given scopolamine (1 mg·kg−1) were used to evaluate the ability of LS-1–137, a novel sigma (σ1) receptor-selective agonist, to improve the cognitive deficits associated with muscarinic antagonist administration. Key Results LS-1–137 is a high-affinity (Ki = 3.2 nM) σ1 receptor agonist that is 80-fold selective for σ1, compared with σ2 receptors. LS-1–137 binds with low affinity at D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) dopamine and muscarinic receptors. LS-1–137 was found to partially reverse the learning deficits associated with scopolamine administration using a water maze test and an active avoidance task. LS-1–137 treatment was also found to trigger the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from rat astrocytes. Conclusions and Implications The σ1 receptor-selective compound LS-1–137 may represent a novel candidate cognitive enhancer for the treatment of muscarinic receptor-dependent cognitive deficits. PMID:25573298

  16. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors induces a PKC-dependent switch in AMPA receptor subtypes in mouse cerebellar stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; June Liu, Siqiong

    2007-09-01

    The repetitive activation of synaptic glutamate receptors can induce a lasting change in the number or subunit composition of synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs). However, NMDA receptors that are present extrasynaptically can also be activated by a burst of presynaptic activity, and thus may be involved in the induction of synaptic plasticity. Here we show that the physiological-like activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs induces a lasting change in the synaptic current, by changing the subunit composition of AMPARs at the parallel fibre-to-cerebellar stellate cell synapse. This extrasynaptic NMDAR-induced switch in synaptic AMPARs from GluR2-lacking (Ca(2+)-permeable) to GluR2-containing (Ca(2+)-impermeable) receptors requires the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). These results indicate that the activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs by glutamate spillover is an important mechanism that detects the pattern of afferent activity and subsequently exerts a remote regulation of AMPAR subtypes at the synapse via a PKC-dependent pathway.

  17. Identification of human-induced changes in atmospheric moisture content.

    PubMed

    Santer, B D; Mears, C; Wentz, F J; Taylor, K E; Gleckler, P J; Wigley, T M L; Barnett, T P; Boyle, J S; Brüggemann, W; Gillett, N P; Klein, S A; Meehl, G A; Nozawa, T; Pierce, D W; Stott, P A; Washington, W M; Wehner, M F

    2007-09-25

    Data from the satellite-based Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) show that the total atmospheric moisture content over oceans has increased by 0.41 kg/m(2) per decade since 1988. Results from current climate models indicate that water vapor increases of this magnitude cannot be explained by climate noise alone. In a formal detection and attribution analysis using the pooled results from 22 different climate models, the simulated "fingerprint" pattern of anthropogenically caused changes in water vapor is identifiable with high statistical confidence in the SSM/I data. Experiments in which forcing factors are varied individually suggest that this fingerprint "match" is primarily due to human-caused increases in greenhouse gases and not to solar forcing or recovery from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of an emerging anthropogenic signal in the moisture content of earth's atmosphere.

  18. Identification of human-induced changes in atmospheric moisture content

    PubMed Central

    Santer, B. D.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F. J.; Taylor, K. E.; Gleckler, P. J.; Wigley, T. M. L.; Barnett, T. P.; Boyle, J. S.; Brüggemann, W.; Gillett, N. P.; Klein, S. A.; Meehl, G. A.; Nozawa, T.; Pierce, D. W.; Stott, P. A.; Washington, W. M.; Wehner, M. F.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the satellite-based Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) show that the total atmospheric moisture content over oceans has increased by 0.41 kg/m2 per decade since 1988. Results from current climate models indicate that water vapor increases of this magnitude cannot be explained by climate noise alone. In a formal detection and attribution analysis using the pooled results from 22 different climate models, the simulated “fingerprint” pattern of anthropogenically caused changes in water vapor is identifiable with high statistical confidence in the SSM/I data. Experiments in which forcing factors are varied individually suggest that this fingerprint “match” is primarily due to human-caused increases in greenhouse gases and not to solar forcing or recovery from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of an emerging anthropogenic signal in the moisture content of earth's atmosphere. PMID:17881573

  19. Identification of Human-Induced Changes in Atmospheric Moisture Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santer, B.D.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Gleckler, P.J.; Wigley, T.M.; Barnett, T.P.; Boyle, J.S.; Bruggemann, W.; Gillett, N.P.; Klein, S.A.; Meehl, G.A.; Nozawa, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Scott, P.A.; Washington, W.M.; Wehner, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the satellite-based Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) show that the total atmospheric moisture content over oceans has increased by 0.41 kg/sq m per decade since 1988. Results from current climate models indicate that water vapor increases of this magnitude cannot be explained by climate noise alone. In a formal detection and attribution analysis using the pooled results from 22 different climate models, the simulated "fingerprint" pattern of anthropogenically caused changes in water vapor is identifiable with high statistical confidence in the SSM/I data. Experiments in which forcing factors are varied individually suggest that this fingerprint "match" is primarily due to human-caused increases in greenhouse gases and not to solar forcing or recovery from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of an emerging anthropogenic signal in the moisture content of earth's atmosphere.

  20. Resistance to adenovirally induced hyperleptinemia in rats. Comparison of ventromedial hypothalamic lesions and mutated leptin receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, K; Shimabukuro, M; Chen, G; Wang, M Y; Lee, Y; Kalra, P S; Dube, M G; Kalra, S P; Newgard, C B; Unger, R H

    1998-01-01

    Leptin regulates appetite and body weight via hypothalamic targets, but it can act directly on cultured pancreatic islets to regulate their fat metabolism. To obtain in vivo evidence that leptin may act peripherally as well as centrally, we compared the effect of adenovirally induced hyperleptinemia on food intake, body weight, and islet fat content in ventromedial hypothalamic-lesioned (VMHL) rats, sham-lesioned (SL) controls, and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats in which the leptin receptor is mutated. Infusion with recombinant adenovirus containing the rat leptin cDNA increased plasma leptin by approximately 20 ng/ml in VMHL and ZDF rats but had no effect on their food intake, body weight, or fat tissue weight. Caloric matching of hyperphagic VMHL rats to SL controls did not reduce their resistance to hyperleptinemia. Whereas prediabetic ZDF rats had a fourfold elevation in islet fat, in VMHL rats islet fat was normal and none of them became diabetic. Isolated islets from ZDF rats were completely resistant to the lipopenic action of leptin, while VMHL islets exhibited 50% of the normal response; caloric matching of VMHL rats to SL controls increased leptin responsiveness of their islets to 92% of controls. We conclude that leptin regulation of adipocyte fat requires an intact VMH but that islet fat content is regulated independently of the VMH. PMID:9710441

  1. Role of the basolateral amygdala dopamine receptors in arachidonylcyclopropylamide-induced fear learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Hajian, Maryam; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence suggesting that the mesoamygdala dopaminergic (DAergic) system plays a crucial role in the formation and expression of fear conditioning, with both D1 and D2 receptors being involved. In addition, cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) signaling modulates DAergic pathways. The present study sought to determine the involvement of basolateral amygdala (BLA) dopamine receptors in arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA)-induced fear learning deficits. Context- and tone-dependent fear conditioning in adult male NMRI mice was evaluated. Pre-training intraperitoneal administration of ACPA (0.1 mg/kg) decreased the percentage of freezing in context- or tone-dependent fear conditioning, suggesting an acquisition impairment. Pre-training intra-BLA microinjection of a subthreshold dose of SKF38393 (D1-like receptor agonist), SCH23390 (D1-like receptor antagonist), quinpirole (D2-like receptor agonist), or sulpiride (D2-like receptor antagonist) did not alter the context-dependent fear learning deficit induced by ACPA, while SKF38393 or quinpirole restored ACPA effect on tone-dependent fear learning. Moreover, SKF38393 (1 μg/mouse), SCH23390 (0.04 and 0.08 μg/mouse), or quinpirole (0.1 μg/mouse) all impaired context-dependent fear learning. It is concluded that D1 or D2 dopamine (DA) receptor activation restores tone- but not context-dependent fear learning deficit induced by CB1 activation using ACPA.

  2. GRK2 protein-mediated transphosphorylation contributes to loss of function of μ-opioid receptors induced by neuropeptide FF (NPFF2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Moulédous, Lionel; Froment, Carine; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine

    2012-04-13

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to modulate opioid functions in the central nervous system. On dissociated neurons and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with NPFF receptors, NPFF acts as a functional antagonist of μ-opioid (MOP) receptors by attenuating the opioid-induced inhibition of calcium conductance. In the SH-SY5Y model, MOP and NPFF(2) receptors have been shown to heteromerize. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF, we have investigated the phosphorylation status of the MOP receptor using phospho-specific antibody and mass spectrometry. Similarly to direct opioid receptor stimulation, activation of the NPFF(2) receptor by [D-Tyr-1-(NMe)Phe-3]NPFF (1DMe), an analog of NPFF, induced the phosphorylation of Ser-377 of the human MOP receptor. This heterologous phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of second messenger-dependent kinases and, contrarily to homologous phosphorylation, was prevented by inactivation of G(i/o) proteins by pertussis toxin. Using siRNA knockdown we could demonstrate that 1DMe-induced Ser-377 cross-phosphorylation and MOP receptor loss of function were mediated by the G protein receptor kinase GRK2. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the phosphorylation pattern of MOP receptors was qualitatively similar after treatment with the MOP agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly (NMe)-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or after treatment with the NPFF agonist 1DMe, but the level of multiple phosphorylation was more intense after DAMGO. Finally, NPFF(2) receptor activation was sufficient to recruit β-arrestin2 to the MOP receptor but not to induce its internalization. These data show that NPFF-induced heterologous desensitization of MOP receptor signaling is mediated by GRK2 and could involve transphosphorylation within the heteromeric receptor complex. PMID:22375000

  3. GRK2 protein-mediated transphosphorylation contributes to loss of function of μ-opioid receptors induced by neuropeptide FF (NPFF2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Moulédous, Lionel; Froment, Carine; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine

    2012-04-13

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to modulate opioid functions in the central nervous system. On dissociated neurons and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with NPFF receptors, NPFF acts as a functional antagonist of μ-opioid (MOP) receptors by attenuating the opioid-induced inhibition of calcium conductance. In the SH-SY5Y model, MOP and NPFF(2) receptors have been shown to heteromerize. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF, we have investigated the phosphorylation status of the MOP receptor using phospho-specific antibody and mass spectrometry. Similarly to direct opioid receptor stimulation, activation of the NPFF(2) receptor by [D-Tyr-1-(NMe)Phe-3]NPFF (1DMe), an analog of NPFF, induced the phosphorylation of Ser-377 of the human MOP receptor. This heterologous phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of second messenger-dependent kinases and, contrarily to homologous phosphorylation, was prevented by inactivation of G(i/o) proteins by pertussis toxin. Using siRNA knockdown we could demonstrate that 1DMe-induced Ser-377 cross-phosphorylation and MOP receptor loss of function were mediated by the G protein receptor kinase GRK2. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the phosphorylation pattern of MOP receptors was qualitatively similar after treatment with the MOP agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly (NMe)-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or after treatment with the NPFF agonist 1DMe, but the level of multiple phosphorylation was more intense after DAMGO. Finally, NPFF(2) receptor activation was sufficient to recruit β-arrestin2 to the MOP receptor but not to induce its internalization. These data show that NPFF-induced heterologous desensitization of MOP receptor signaling is mediated by GRK2 and could involve transphosphorylation within the heteromeric receptor complex.

  4. Desensitization of GABAergic receptors as a mechanism of zolpidem-induced somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R

    2011-08-01

    Sleepwalking is a frequently reported side effect of zolpidem which is a short-acting hypnotic drug potentiating activity of GABA(A) receptors. Paradoxically, the most commonly used medications for somnambulism are benzodiazepines, especially clonazepam, which also potentiate activity of GABA(A) receptors. It is proposed that zolpidem-induced sleepwalking can be explained by the desensitization of GABAergic receptors located on serotonergic neurons. According to the proposed model, the delay between desensitization of GABA receptors and a compensatory decrease in serotonin release constitutes the time window for parasomnias. The occurrence of sleepwalking depends on individual differences in receptor desensitization, autoregulation of serotonin release and drug pharmacokinetics. The proposed mechanism of interaction between GABAergic and serotonergic systems can be also relevant for zolpidem abuse and zolpidem-induced hallucinations. It is therefore suggested that special care should be taken when zolpidem is used in patients taking at the same time selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:21565448

  5. Desensitization of GABAergic receptors as a mechanism of zolpidem-induced somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R

    2011-08-01

    Sleepwalking is a frequently reported side effect of zolpidem which is a short-acting hypnotic drug potentiating activity of GABA(A) receptors. Paradoxically, the most commonly used medications for somnambulism are benzodiazepines, especially clonazepam, which also potentiate activity of GABA(A) receptors. It is proposed that zolpidem-induced sleepwalking can be explained by the desensitization of GABAergic receptors located on serotonergic neurons. According to the proposed model, the delay between desensitization of GABA receptors and a compensatory decrease in serotonin release constitutes the time window for parasomnias. The occurrence of sleepwalking depends on individual differences in receptor desensitization, autoregulation of serotonin release and drug pharmacokinetics. The proposed mechanism of interaction between GABAergic and serotonergic systems can be also relevant for zolpidem abuse and zolpidem-induced hallucinations. It is therefore suggested that special care should be taken when zolpidem is used in patients taking at the same time selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  6. Inducible viral receptor, A possible concept to induce viral protection in primitive immune animals.

    PubMed

    Pasharawipas, Tirasak

    2011-01-01

    A pseudolysogen (PL) is derived from the lysogenic Vibrio harveyi (VH) which is infected with the VHS1 (Vibrio harveyi Siphoviridae-like 1) bacteriophage. The lysogenic Vibrio harveyi undergoes an unequivalent division of the extra-chromosomal VHS1 phage genome and its VH host chromosome and produces a true lysogen (TL) and pseudolysogen (PL). The PL is tolerant to super-infection of VHS1, as is of the true lysogen (TL), but the PL does not contain the VHS1 phage genome while the TL does. However, the PL can become susceptible to VHS1 phage infection if the physiological state of the PL is changed. It is postulated that this is due to a phage receptor molecule which can be inducible to an on-and-off regulation influence by an alternating condition of the bacterial host cell. This characteristic of the PL leads to speculate that this phenomenon can also occur in high organisms with low immunity such as shrimp. This article proposes a hypothesis that the viral receptor molecule on the target cell can play a crucial role in which the invertebrate aquaculture animals can become tolerant to viral infection. A possible mechanism may be that the target cell disrupts the viral receptor molecule to prevent super infection. This concept can explain a mechanism for the prevention of viral infection in invertebrate animals which do not have acquired immunity in response to pathogens. It can guide us to develop a mechanism of immunity to viral infection in low-evolved-immune animals. Also, it can be an additional mechanism that exists in high immune organism, as in human for the prevention of viral infection. PMID:21711515

  7. Spinal 5-HT7 receptors induce phrenic motor facilitation via EPAC-mTORC1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Fields, D P; Springborn, S R; Mitchell, G S

    2015-09-01

    Spinal serotonin type 7 (5-HT7) receptors elicit complex effects on motor activity. Whereas 5-HT7 receptor activation gives rise to long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF), it also constrains 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF via "cross-talk inhibition." We hypothesized that divergent cAMP-dependent signaling pathways give rise to these distinct 5-HT7 receptor actions. Specifically, we hypothesized that protein kinase A (PKA) mediates cross-talk inhibition of 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF whereas 5-HT7 receptor-induced pMF results from exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) signaling. Anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated rats receiving intrathecal (C4) 5-HT7 receptor agonist (AS-19) injections expressed pMF for >90 min, an effect abolished by pretreatment with a selective EPAC inhibitor (ESI-05) but not a selective PKA inhibitor (KT-5720). Furthermore, intrathecal injections of a selective EPAC activator (8-pCPT-2'-Me-cAMP) were sufficient to elicit pMF. Finally, spinal mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) inhibition via intrathecal rapamycin abolished 5-HT7 receptor- and EPAC-induced pMF, demonstrating that spinal 5-HT7 receptors elicit pMF by an EPAC-mTORC1 signaling pathway. Thus 5-HT7 receptors elicit and constrain spinal phrenic motor plasticity via distinct signaling mechanisms that diverge at cAMP (EPAC vs. PKA). Selective manipulation of these molecules may enable refined regulation of serotonin-dependent spinal motor plasticity for therapeutic advantage. PMID:26269554

  8. Spinal 5-HT7 receptors induce phrenic motor facilitation via EPAC-mTORC1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fields, D. P.; Springborn, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal serotonin type 7 (5-HT7) receptors elicit complex effects on motor activity. Whereas 5-HT7 receptor activation gives rise to long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF), it also constrains 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF via “cross-talk inhibition.” We hypothesized that divergent cAMP-dependent signaling pathways give rise to these distinct 5-HT7 receptor actions. Specifically, we hypothesized that protein kinase A (PKA) mediates cross-talk inhibition of 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF whereas 5-HT7 receptor-induced pMF results from exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) signaling. Anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated rats receiving intrathecal (C4) 5-HT7 receptor agonist (AS-19) injections expressed pMF for >90 min, an effect abolished by pretreatment with a selective EPAC inhibitor (ESI-05) but not a selective PKA inhibitor (KT-5720). Furthermore, intrathecal injections of a selective EPAC activator (8-pCPT-2′-Me-cAMP) were sufficient to elicit pMF. Finally, spinal mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) inhibition via intrathecal rapamycin abolished 5-HT7 receptor- and EPAC-induced pMF, demonstrating that spinal 5-HT7 receptors elicit pMF by an EPAC-mTORC1 signaling pathway. Thus 5-HT7 receptors elicit and constrain spinal phrenic motor plasticity via distinct signaling mechanisms that diverge at cAMP (EPAC vs. PKA). Selective manipulation of these molecules may enable refined regulation of serotonin-dependent spinal motor plasticity for therapeutic advantage. PMID:26269554

  9. Gastrin and D1 dopamine receptor interact to induce natriuresis and diuresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Asico, Laureano D; Zheng, Shuo; Villar, Van Anthony M; He, Duofen; Zhou, Lin; Zeng, Chunyu; Jose, Pedro A

    2013-11-01

    Oral NaCl produces a greater natriuresis and diuresis than the intravenous infusion of the same amount of NaCl. Gastrin is the major gastrointestinal hormone taken up by renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells. We hypothesized that renal gastrin and dopamine receptors interact to synergistically increase sodium excretion, an impaired interaction of which may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In Wistar-Kyoto rats, infusion of gastrin induced natriuresis and diuresis, which was abrogated in the presence of a gastrin (cholecystokinin B receptor [CCKBR]; CI-988) or a D1-like receptor antagonist (SCH23390). Similarly, the natriuretic and diuretic effects of fenoldopam, a D1-like receptor agonist, were blocked by SCH23390, as well as by CI-988. However, the natriuretic effects of gastrin and fenoldopam were not observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The gastrin/D1-like receptor interaction was also confirmed in RPT cells. In RPT cells from Wistar-Kyoto but not spontaneously hypertensive rats, stimulation of either D1-like receptor or gastrin receptor inhibited Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, an effect that was blocked in the presence of SCH23390 or CI-988. In RPT cells from Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats, CCKBR and D1 receptor coimmunoprecipitated, which was increased after stimulation of either D1 receptor or CCKBR in RPT cells from Wistar-Kyoto rats; stimulation of one receptor increased the RPT cell membrane expression of the other receptor, effects that were not observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These data suggest that there is a synergism between CCKBR and D1-like receptors to increase sodium excretion. An aberrant interaction between the renal CCK BR and D1-like receptors (eg, D1 receptor) may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  10. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) induces cognitive deficits and affects GABAB receptors and IGF-1 receptors in male rats.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jenny; Grönbladh, Alfhild; Hallberg, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the abuse of the club drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has become increasingly popular among adolescents. The drug induces euphoria but can also result in sedation, anaesthesia as well as short-term amnesia. In addition, the abuse of GHB causes cognitive impairments and the mechanism by which GHB induces these impairments is not clarified. The present study investigates the impact of GHB treatment on spatial learning and memory using a water maze (WM) test in rats. Furthermore, the behavioural data is combined with an autoradiographic analysis of the GABAB and the IGF-1 receptor systems. The results demonstrate that the animals administered with GHB display an impaired performance in the WM test as compared to controls. In addition, significant alterations in GABAB and IGF-1 receptor density as well as GABAB receptor functionality, were observed in several brain regions associated with cognitive functions e.g. hippocampus. To conclude, our findings suggest that GHB treatment can affect spatial learning and memory, and that this outcome at least to some extent is likely to involve both GABAB and IGF-1 receptors.

  11. B-type receptor for platelet-derived growth factor mediates a chemotactic response by means of ligand-induced activation of the receptor protein-tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Westermark, B; Siegbahn, A; Heldin, C H; Claesson-Welsh, L

    1990-01-01

    Porcine aorta endothelial cells are devoid of receptors for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). We have transfected such cells with cDNA for the PDGF B-type receptor, both the wild-type receptor and a mutant form of the receptor (K634A), in which the putative nucleotide-binding lysine of the protein-tyrosine domain has been changed to alanine. Immunoprecipitation studies of metabolically labeled cells showed that both types of receptors were synthesized and processed to the mature form of Mr 190,000. In cells expressing the wild-type receptor, PDGF-BB, the natural ligand for the B-type receptor, induced membrane ruffling and reorganization of actin. Such a response has previously been seen in cells expressing the natural PDGF B-type receptor in response to PDGF-BB. No such effect was induced in nontransfected cells or in cells expressing the K634A mutant receptor. PDGF was also shown to be chemotactic for cells expressing the wild-type receptor, whereas no chemotactic response was elicited in control cells or in cells expressing the K634A mutant receptor. Our study thus provides formal evidence that the PDGF B-type receptor mediates a motility response including actin reorganization and chemotaxis. Furthermore, the results establish a role for the receptor-associated protein-tyrosine kinase in the transduction of the chemotactic signal. Images PMID:2153283

  12. Functional Relevance of the Switch of VEGF Receptors/Co-Receptors during Peritoneal Dialysis-Induced Mesothelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Lozano, María Luisa; Sandoval, Pilar; Rynne-Vidal, Ángela; Aguilera, Abelardo; Jiménez-Heffernan, José Antonio; Albar-Vizcaíno, Patricia; Majano, Pedro L.; Sánchez-Tomero, José Antonio; Selgas, Rafael; López-Cabrera, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is up-regulated during mesothelial to mesenchymal transition (MMT) and has been associated with peritoneal membrane dysfunction in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. It has been shown that normal and malignant mesothelial cells (MCs) express VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) and co-receptors and that VEGF is an autocrine growth factor for mesothelioma. Hence, we evaluated the expression patterns and the functional relevance of the VEGF/VEGFRs/co-receptors axis during the mesenchymal conversion of MCs induced by peritoneal dialysis. Omentum-derived MCs treated with TGF-β1 plus IL-1β (in vitro MMT) and PD effluent-derived MCs with non-epithelioid phenotype (ex vivo MMT) showed down-regulated expression of the two main receptors Flt-1/VEGFR-1 and KDR/VEGFR-2, whereas the co-receptor neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1) was up-regulated. The expression of the Nrp-1 ligand semaphorin-3A (Sema-3A), a functional VEGF competitor, was repressed throughout the MMT process. These expression pattern changes were accompanied by a reduction of the proliferation capacity and by a parallel induction of the invasive capacity of MCs that had undergone an in vitro or ex vivo MMT. Treatment with neutralizing anti-VEGF or anti-Nrp-1 antibodies showed that these molecules played a relevant role in cellular proliferation only in naïve omentum-derived MCs. Conversely, treatment with these blocking antibodies, as well as with recombinant Sema-3A, indicated that the switched VEGF/VEGFRs/co-receptors axis drove the enhanced invasion capacity of MCs undergoing MMT. In conclusion, the expression patterns of VEGFRs and co-receptors change in MCs during MMT, which in turn would determine their behaviour in terms of proliferation and invasion in response to VEGF. PMID:23585849

  13. Localization of type I interferon receptor limits interferon-induced TLR-3 in epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study aimed to expand on the role of type I IFNs in the influenza-induced upregulation of TLR3 and determine whether and how the localization of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) in respiratory epithelial cells could modify IFN-induced responses. Using differentiated prima...

  14. Inosine induces presynaptic inhibition of acetylcholine release by activation of A3 adenosine receptors at the mouse neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Cinalli, A R; Guarracino, J F; Fernandez, V; Roquel, L I; Losavio, A S

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The role of inosine at the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has not been clearly defined. Moreover, inosine was classically considered to be the inactive metabolite of adenosine. Hence, we investigated the effect of inosine on spontaneous and evoked ACh release, the mechanism underlying its modulatory action and the receptor type and signal transduction pathway involved. Experimental Approach End-plate potentials (EPPs) and miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) were recorded from the mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparations using conventional intracellular electrophysiological techniques. Key Results Inosine (100 μM) reduced MEPP frequency and the amplitude and quantal content of EPPs; effects inhibited by the selective A3 receptor antagonist MRS-1191. Immunohistochemical assays confirmed the presence of A3 receptors at mammalian NMJ. The voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocker Cd2+, the removal of extracellular Ca2+ and the L-type and P/Q-type VGCC antagonists, nitrendipine and ω-agatoxin IVA, respectively, all prevented inosine-induced inhibition. In the absence of endogenous adenosine, inosine decreased the hypertonic response. The effects of inosine on ACh release were prevented by the Gi/o protein inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, PKC antagonist chelerytrine and calmodulin antagonist W-7, but not by PKA antagonists, H-89 and KT-5720, or the inhibitor of CaMKII KN-62. Conclusion and Implications Our results suggest that, at motor nerve terminals, inosine induces presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous and evoked ACh release by activating A3 receptors through a mechanism that involves L-type and P/Q-type VGCCs and the secretory machinery downstream of calcium influx. A3 receptors appear to be coupled to Gi/o protein. PKC and calmodulin may be involved in these effects of inosine. PMID:23731236

  15. Improvement of ketamine-induced social withdrawal in rats: the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hołuj, Małgorzata; Popik, Piotr; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Social withdrawal, one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia, can be modelled in the social interaction (SI) test in rats using N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor glutamate receptor antagonists. We have recently shown that amisulpride, an antipsychotic with a high affinity for serotonin 5-HT7 receptors, reversed ketamine-induced SI deficits in rats. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the potential involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in the prosocial action of amisulpride. Acute administration of amisulpride (3 mg/kg) and SB-269970 (1 mg/kg), a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, reversed ketamine-induced social withdrawal, whereas sulpiride (20 or 30 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) were ineffective. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS19 (10 mg/kg) abolished the prosocial efficacy of amisulpride (3 mg/kg). The coadministration of an inactive dose of SB-269970 (0.2 mg/kg) showed the prosocial effects of inactive doses of amisulpride (1 mg/kg) and sulpiride (20 mg/kg). The anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (2.5 mg/kg) and the antidepressant fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg) were ineffective in reversing ketamine-induced SI deficits. The present study suggests that the antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute towards the mechanisms underlying the prosocial action of amisulpride. These results may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia and other disorders characterized by social withdrawal.

  16. Role of Adrenergic Receptors in Glucose, Fructose and Galactose-Induced Increases in Intestinal Glucose Uptake in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Salman, T M; Alada, A R A; Oyebola, D D O

    2014-12-29

    The study investigated the role of adrenergic receptors in glucose, fructose-, and galactose- induced increases in intestinal glucose uptake. Experiments were carried out on fasted male anaesthetized Nigerian local dogs divided into seven groups (with five dogs per group). Group I dogs were administered normal saline and served as control. Dogs in groups II, III and IV were intravenously infused with glucose (1.1 mg/kg/min), fructose (1.1 mg/kg/min) and galactose (1.1 mg/kg/min) respectively. Another three groups, V, VI and VII were pretreated with prazosin (0.2mg/kg), propranolol (0.5mg/kg) or a combination of prazosin (0.2mg/kg) and propranolol (0.5mg/kg) followed by glucose infusion, frutose infusion or galactose infusion respectively. Through a midline laparatomy, the upper jejunum was cannulated for blood flow measurement and blood samples were obtained for measurement of glucose content of the arterial blood and venous blood from the upper jejunal segment. Glucose uptake was calculated as the product of jejunal blood flow and the difference between arterial and venous glucose levels (A-V glucose). The results showed that pretreatment of the animal with prazosin had no effect on glucose and galactose induced increases in glucose uptake. However, pretreatment with propranolol completely abolished glucose, fructose and galactose-induced increases in intestinal glucose uptake. Prazosin also significantly reduced galactose-induced increase in intestinal glucose uptake. The results suggest that the increases in intestinal glucose uptake induced by glucose and fructose are mediated mostly by beta adrenergic receptors while that of galactose is mediated by both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors.

  17. Ghrelin-induced hypophagia is mediated by the β2 adrenergic receptor in chicken.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, Morteza; Hassanpour, Shahin

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of metoprolol (a β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist), ICI 118,551 (a β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist), and SR 59230R (a β3 adrenergic receptor antagonist) on ghrelin-induced food and water intake by 3-h food-deprived (FD3) cockerels. The chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups with 8 replicates in each group. A cannula was surgically implanted into the lateral ventricle of the brain. In experiment 1, chickens received the β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist (24 nmol) before injection of the ghrelin (0.6 nmol). In experiment 2, chickens received the β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist (5 nmol) before injection of the ghrelin (0.6 nmol). In experiment 3, birds were injected with ghrelin (0.6 nmol) after the β3 adrenergic receptor antagonist (20 nmol). Cumulative food and water intake were recorded 3-h post injection and analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. According to the results, ghrelin injection reduced food and water intake by broiler cockerels (p≤0.05). The effect of ghrelin on food intake was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the β2 receptor antagonist (p≤0.05). Furthermore, the β2 receptor antagonist had no effect on water intake induced by ghrelin. Also, pretreatment with the β1 and β3 receptors antagonists had no effect on ghrelin-induced food and water intake. These results suggest that the effect of ghrelin on cumulative food intake by cockerels is mediated via β2 adrenergic receptors.

  18. Regulatory role of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in stress-induced neuroinflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zoppi, S; Madrigal, J L; Caso, J R; García-Gutiérrez, M S; Manzanares, J; Leza, J C; García-Bueno, B

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stress exposure produces excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation, contributing to the cellular damage observed in stress-related neuropathologies. The endocannabinoids provide a homeostatic system, present in stress-responsive neural circuits. Here, we have assessed the possible regulatory role of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in stress-induced excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation. Experimental Approach We used wild type (WT), transgenic overexpressing CB2 receptors (CB2xP) and CB2 receptor knockout (CB2-KO) mice exposed to immobilization and acoustic stress (2 h·day−1 for 4 days). The CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 was administered daily (2 mg·kg−1, i.p.) to WT and CB2-KO animals. Glutamate uptake was measured in synaptosomes from frontal cortex; Western blots and RT-PCR were used to measure proinflammatory cytokines, enzymes and mediators in homogenates of frontal cortex. Key Results Increased plasma corticosterone induced by stress was not modified by manipulating CB2 receptors. JWH-133 treatment or overexpression of CB2 receptors increased control levels of glutamate uptake, which were reduced by stress back to control levels. JWH-133 prevented the stress-induced increase in proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and CCL2), in NF-κB, and in NOS-2 and COX-2 and in the consequent cellular oxidative and nitrosative damage (lipid peroxidation). CB2xP mice exhibited anti-inflammatory or neuroprotective actions similar to those in JWH-133 pretreated animals. Conversely, lack of CB2 receptors (CB2-KO mice) exacerbated stress-induced neuroinflammatory responses and confirmed that effects of JWH-133 were mediated through CB2 receptors. Conclusions and Implications Pharmacological manipulation of CB2 receptors is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of stress-related pathologies with a neuroinflammatory component, such as depression. PMID:24467609

  19. Mastocytosis: a mutated KIT receptor induced myeloproliferative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anindya; Ghosh, Joydeep; Kapur, Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Although more than 90% systemic mastocytosis (SM) patients express gain of function mutations in the KIT receptor, recent next generation sequencing has revealed the presence of several additional genetic and epigenetic mutations in a subset of these patients, which confer poor prognosis and inferior overall survival. A clear understanding of how genetic and epigenetic mutations cooperate in regulating the tremendous heterogeneity observed in these patients will be essential for designing effective treatment strategies for this complex disease. In this review, we describe the clinical heterogeneity observed in patients with mastocytosis, the nature of relatively novel mutations identified in these patients, therapeutic strategies to target molecules downstream from activating KIT receptor and finally we speculate on potential novel strategies to interfere with the function of not only the oncogenic KIT receptor but also epigenetic mutations seen in these patients. PMID:26158763

  20. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  1. NMDA receptor blockade alters stress-induced dendritic remodeling in medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kathryn P; Wellman, Cara L

    2011-10-01

    The development and relapse of many psychopathologies can be linked to both stress and prefrontal cortex dysfunction. Glucocorticoid stress hormones target medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and either chronic stress or chronic administration of glucocorticoids produces dendritic remodeling in prefrontal pyramidal neurons. Exposure to stress also causes an increase in the release of the excitatory amino acid glutamate, which binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which are plentiful in mPFC. NMDA receptor activation is crucial for producing hippocampal dendritic remodeling due to stress and for dendritic reorganization in frontal cortex after cholinergic deafferentation. Thus, NMDA receptors could mediate stress-induced dendritic retraction in mPFC. To test this hypothesis, dendritic morphology of pyramidal cells in mPFC was assessed after blocking NMDA receptors with the competitive NMDA antagonist ±3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) during restraint stress. Administration of CPP prevented stress-induced dendritic atrophy. Instead, CPP-injected stressed rats showed hypertrophy of apical dendrites compared with controls. These results suggest that NMDA activation is crucial for stress-induced dendritic atrophy in mPFC. Furthermore, NMDA receptor blockade uncovers a new pattern of stress-induced dendritic changes, suggesting that other neurohormonal changes in concert with NMDA receptor activation underlie the net dendritic retraction seen after chronic stress.

  2. Enhanced AMPA receptor activity increases operant alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Reginald; Fisher, Kristen R; Durant, Brandon; Besheer, Joyce; Hodge, Clyde W

    2013-01-01

    Long-term alcohol exposure produces neuroadaptations that contribute to the progression of alcohol abuse disorders. Chronic alcohol consumption results in strengthened excitatory neurotransmission and increased α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPA) receptor signaling in animal models. However, the mechanistic role of enhanced AMPA receptor activity in alcohol-reinforcement and alcohol-seeking behavior remains unclear. This study examined the role of enhanced AMPA receptor function using the selective positive allosteric modulator, aniracetam, in modulating operant alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement. Male alcohol-preferring (P-) rats, trained to self-administer alcohol (15%, v/v) versus water were pre-treated with aniracetam to assess effects on maintenance of alcohol self-administration. To determine reinforcer specificity, P-rats were trained to self-administer sucrose (0.8%, w/v) versus water, and effects of aniracetam were tested. The role of aniracetam in modulating relapse of alcohol-seeking was assessed using a response contingent cue-induced reinstatement procedure in P-rats trained to self-administer 15% alcohol. Aniracetam pre-treatment significantly increased alcohol-reinforced responses relative to vehicle treatment. This increase was not attributed to aniracetam-induced hyperactivity as aniracetam pre-treatment did not alter locomotor activity. AMPA receptor involvement was confirmed because 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (AMPA receptor antagonist) blocked the aniracetam-induced increase in alcohol self-administration. Aniracetam did not alter sucrose-reinforced responses in sucrose-trained P-rats, suggesting that enhanced AMPA receptor activity is selective in modulating the reinforcing function of alcohol. Finally, aniracetam pre-treatment potentiated cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior versus vehicle-treated P-rats. These data suggest that enhanced glutamate activity at AMPA

  3. Y2 receptor signalling in NPY neurons controls bone formation and fasting induced feeding but not spontaneous feeding.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yue; Fu, Melissa; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Y2 receptors have been implicated in the development of obesity and are a potential target for obesity treatment due to their known role of inhibiting neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced feeding responses. However, the precise neuronal population on which Y2 receptors act to fulfil this role is less clear. Here we utilise a novel inducible, postnatal onset NPY neurons specific deletion model to investigate the functional consequences of loss of Y2 signalling in this population of neurons on feeding and energy homeostasis regulation. While the consequences of lack of Y2 signalling in NPY neurons are confirmed in terms of the uncoupling of suppression/increasing of NPY and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nuclei (Arc), respectively, this lack of Y2 signalling surprisingly does not have any significant effect on spontaneous food intake. Fasting induced food intake, however, is strongly increased but only in the first 1h after re-feeding. Consequently no significant changes in body weight are being observed although body weight gain is increased in male mice after postnatal onset Y2 deletion. Importantly, another known function of central Y2 receptor signalling, the suppression of bone formation is conserved in this conditional model with whole body bone mineral content being decreased. Taken together this model confirms the critical role of Y2 signalling to control NPY and associated POMC expression in the Arc, but also highlights the possibility that others, non-NPY neuronal Y2 receptors, are also involved in controlling feeding and energy homeostasis regulation.

  4. Farnesol induces thyroid hormone receptor (THR) {beta}1 but inhibits THR-mediated signaling in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Robin E.; Archer, Michael C. . E-mail: m.archer@utoronto.ca

    2006-04-28

    Anti-cancer effects of farnesol are well established, although mechanisms mediating these effects are not fully understood. Since farnesol has been shown to regulate gene transcription through activation of the farnesoid X receptor and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-{alpha} and -{gamma}, we hypothesized that farnesol may also mediate some of its effects through other nuclear hormone receptors. Here we showed that in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, farnesol induced the expression of thyroid hormone receptor (THR) {beta}1 mRNA and protein at concentrations that inhibited cell growth. Changes in the expression of THR responsive genes, however, suggested that farnesol inhibits THR-mediated signaling. Protein extracts from cells treated with farnesol displayed decreased binding to oligodeoxynucleotides containing a consensus sequence for the THR response element, despite the higher THR{beta}1 content, providing a mechanism to explain the decreased transcriptional activity of cellular THRs.

  5. Leukotriene C4 induces bronchoconstriction and airway vascular hyperpermeability via the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 in S-hexyl glutathione-treated guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yonetomi, Yasuo; Sekioka, Tomohiko; Kadode, Michiaki; Kitamine, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Akihiro; Matsumura, Naoya; Fujita, Manabu; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2015-05-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes act through G-protein-coupled receptors termed cysteinyl leukotriene 1 (CysLT1) and cysteinyl leukotriene 2 (CysLT2) receptors. However, little is known about the pathophysiological role of CysLT2 receptors in asthma. To elucidate the possible involvement of CysLT2 receptors in bronchoconstriction and airway vascular hyperpermeability, we have established a novel guinea pig model of asthma. In vitro study confirmed that CHO-K1 cells, expressing guinea pig CysLT2 and CysLT1 receptors are selectively stimulated by LTC4 and LTD4, respectively. However, when LTC4 was intravenously injected to guinea pigs, the resulting bronchoconstriction was fully abrogated by montelukast, a CysLT1 receptor antagonist, indicating rapid metabolism of LTC4 to LTD4 in the lung. We found that treatment with S-hexyl glutathione (S-hexyl GSH), an inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, significantly increased LTC4 content and LTC4/(LTD4 plus LTE4) ratio in the lung. Under these circumstances, LTC4-induced bronchoconstriction became resistant to montelukast, but sensitive to Compound A, a CysLT2 receptor antagonist, depending on the dose of S-hexyl GSH. Combination with montelukast and Compound A completely abrogated this spasmogenic response. Additionally, we confirmed that LTC4 elicits airway vascular hyperpermeability via CysLT2 receptors in the presence of high dose of S-hexyl GSH as evidenced by complete inhibition of LTC4-induced hyperpermeability by Compound A, but not montelukast. These results suggest that CysLT2 receptors mediate bronchoconstriction and airway vascular hyperpermeability in guinea pigs and that the animal model used in this study may be useful to elucidate the functional role of CysLT2 receptors in various diseases, including asthma. PMID:25704617

  6. Antagonist-induced micro-opioid receptor up-regulation decreases G-protein receptor kinase-2 and dynamin-2 abundance in mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minesh; Gomes, Benedict; Patel, Chintan; Yoburn, Byron C

    2002-06-20

    Chronic treatment with opioid receptor antagonists has been shown to increase the density of micro-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in cell culture and in the intact animal. Although opioid receptor antagonist-induced up-regulation is a robust phenomenon, the mechanisms responsible for the increase in receptor density remain unclear. In the present study, changes in a kinase and a GTPase that have been implicated in G-protein-coupled receptor regulation were examined following opioid receptor antagonist treatment. Mice were implanted s.c. with a naltrexone pellet or placebo pellet. On the eighth day following implantation, spinal cord was removed and G-protein receptor kinase-2 (GRK-2) and dynamin-2 abundance were determined using a quantitative immunoblot approach. Changes in micro-opioid receptor density were also determined. Naltrexone treatment produced a significant (145%) increase in micro-opioid receptor density. Naltrexone treatment was associated with a significant 36% decrease in GRK-2 and 30% decrease in dynamin-2 abundance in spinal cord. These data raise the possibility that opioid receptor antagonist-induced micro-opioid receptor up-regulation in the intact animal may be due to a reduction in constitutive internalization of opioid receptors.

  7. The farnesoid X receptor induces very low density lipoprotein receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sirvent, Audrey; Claudel, Thierry; Martin, Geneviève; Brozek, John; Kosykh, Vladimir; Darteil, Raphaël; Hum, Dean W; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart

    2004-05-21

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor activated by bile acids (BAs). In response to ligand-binding, FXR regulates many genes involved in BA, lipid, and lipoprotein metabolism. To identify new FXR target genes, microarray technology was used to profile total RNA extracted from HepG2 cells treated with the natural FXR agonist chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Interestingly, a significant increase of transcript level of the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) was observed. Our data, resulting from selective FXR activation, FXR RNA silencing and FXR-deficient mice, clearly demonstrate that BAs up-regulate VLDLR transcript levels via a FXR-dependent mechanism in vitro in human and in vivo in mouse liver cells.

  8. ETA receptor specific stimulation of glomerular inflammation and injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, M. A.; Boesen, E. I.; Pollock, J. S.; Savin, V. J.; Pollock, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis ETA receptor activation increases glomerular permeability to albumin (Palb) and elevates pre-inflammatory markers in hyperglycaemic (HG) rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given streptozotocin (STZ), n=32 or saline (sham,), n=32. Half of the animals in each group received the ETA-selective antagonist, ABT-627 (atrasentan; p.o.), beginning immediately after hyperglycaemia was confirmed. Glomeruli were isolated by sieving techniques and Palb determined from the change in glomerular volume induced by oncotic gradients of albumin. Glomerular nephrin expression was assessed by immunofluorescence, whereas urinary nephrin was measured by immunoassay. Results Three and six weeks after STZ injection, proteinuria was significantly increased compared to sham controls and was significantly reduced by ABT-627 treatment. Palb was also increased at 3 and 6 wk post-STZ; ABT-627 had no effect on Palb or protein excretion in sham rats. In glomeruli isolated from HG rats, incubation with BQ-123, a selective ETA antagonist, reduced Palb, whereas BQ-788, a selective ETB antagonist had no effect (n=6 rats/group, 5-8 glomeruli/rat). Glomerular and plasma content of soluble inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased 6 wk after STZ (ELISA). ABT-627 attenuated these increases. After 6 weeks of hyperglycaemia, glomerular nephrin expression was decreased with a concurrent increase in urinary nephrin excretion; ABT-627 prevented glomerular nephrin loss in the HG rats (n=5-8 rats in the eight groups). Conclusions/Interpretation These observations support the hypothesis that ET-1, via the ETA receptor, directly increases glomerular permeability to albumin, possibly via nephrin loss, as well as early inflammation in the HG rat. PMID:21191784

  9. The 5-HT3 receptor is essential for exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Nakamura, Y; Ishida, Y; Shimada, S

    2015-11-01

    Exercise has a variety of beneficial effects on brain structure and function, such as hippocampal neurogenesis, mood and memory. Previous studies have shown that exercise enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, induces antidepressant effects and improves learning behavior. Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels increase following exercise, and the 5-HT system has been suggested to have an important role in these exercise-induced neuronal effects. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, analysis of the 5-HT type 3A receptor subunit-deficient (htr3a(-/-)) mice revealed that lack of the 5-HT type 3 (5-HT3) receptor resulted in loss of exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects, but not of learning enhancement. Furthermore, stimulation of the 5-HT3 receptor promoted neurogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the 5-HT3 receptor is the critical target of 5-HT action in the brain following exercise, and is indispensable for hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects induced by exercise. This is the first report of a pivotal 5-HT receptor subtype that has a fundamental role in exercise-induced morphological changes and psychological effects.

  10. GHB-Induced Cognitive Deficits During Adolescence and the Role of NMDA Receptor.

    PubMed

    Sircar, R; Wu, L-C; Reddy, K; Sircar, D; Basak, A K

    2011-03-01

    We have earlier reported that γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) disrupts the acquisition of spatial learning and memory in adolescent rats. GHB is known to interact with several neurotransmitter systems that have been implicated in cognitive functioning. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR) -type of glutamate receptor is considered to be an important target for spatial learning and memory. Molecular mechanisms governing the neuroadptations following repeated GHB treatment in adolecent rats remain unknown. We examined the role of NMDA receptor in adolescent GHB-induced cognitive deficit. Adolescent rats were administered with GHB on 6 consecutive days, and surface-expressed NMDA receptor subunits levels were measured. GHB significantly decreased NR1 levels in the frontal cortex. Adolescent GHB also significantly reduced cortical NR2A subunit levels. Our findings support the hypothesis that adolescent GHB-induced cogntive deficits are associated with neuroadaptations in glutamatergic transmission, particulaly NR functioning in the frontal cortex.

  11. GHB–Induced Cognitive Deficits During Adolescence and the Role of NMDA Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, R; Wu, L-C; Reddy, K; Sircar, D; Basak, A.K

    2011-01-01

    We have earlier reported that γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) disrupts the acquisition of spatial learning and memory in adolescent rats. GHB is known to interact with several neurotransmitter systems that have been implicated in cognitive functioning. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR) -type of glutamate receptor is considered to be an important target for spatial learning and memory. Molecular mechanisms governing the neuroadptations following repeated GHB treatment in adolecent rats remain unknown. We examined the role of NMDA receptor in adolescent GHB-induced cognitive deficit. Adolescent rats were administered with GHB on 6 consecutive days, and surface-expressed NMDA receptor subunits levels were measured. GHB significantly decreased NR1 levels in the frontal cortex. Adolescent GHB also significantly reduced cortical NR2A subunit levels. Our findings support the hypothesis that adolescent GHB-induced cogntive deficits are associated with neuroadaptations in glutamatergic transmission, particulaly NR functioning in the frontal cortex. PMID:21886597

  12. Oleocanthal Modulates Estradiol-Induced Gene Expression Involving Estrogen Receptor α.

    PubMed

    Keiler, Annekathrin Martina; Djiogue, Sefirin; Ehrhardt, Tino; Zierau, Oliver; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Halabalaki, Maria; Vollmer, Günter

    2015-09-01

    Oleocanthal is a bioactive compound from olive oil. It has attracted considerable attention as it is anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and has been shown to possess neuroprotective properties in vitro and in vivo. Delineated from its polyphenolic structure, the aim of this study was to characterize oleocanthal towards estrogenic properties. This might contribute to partly explain the beneficial effects described for the Mediterranean diet. Estrogenic properties of oleocanthal were assessed by different methods: a) stimulation of reporter gene activity in MVLN or RNDA cells either expressing estrogen receptor α or β, b) stimulation of luciferase reporter gene activity in U2OS osteosarcoma cells expressing estrogen receptor α or β, and c) elucidation of the impact on estradiol-induced gene expression in U2OS cells transduced with both estrogen receptors. Depending on the cell line origin, oleocanthal inhibited luciferase activity (MVLN, U2OS-estrogen receptor β) or weakly induced reporter gene activity at 10 µM in U2OS-estrogen receptor α cells. However, oleocanthal inhibited stimulation of luciferase activity by estradiol from both estrogen receptors. Oleocanthal, if given alone, did not stimulate gene expression in U2OS cells, but it significantly modulated the response of estradiol. Oleocanthal enhanced the effect of estradiol on the regulation of those genes, which are believed to be regulated through heterodimeric estrogen receptors. As the estrogenic response pattern of oleocanthal is rather unique, we compared the results obtained with oleacein. Oleocanthal binds to both estrogen receptors inducing estradiol-agonistic or antiagonistic effects depending on the cell line. Regarding regulation of gene expression in U2OS-estrogen receptor α/β cells, oleocanthal and oleacein enhanced estradiol-mediated regulation of heterodimer-regulated genes. PMID:26166135

  13. Truncation of the cytoplasmic tail of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor prevents agonist-induced uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Yagüe, J; Rodríguez, M C; Segaloff, D L; Ascoli, M

    1992-04-15

    An agonist-induced change in the functional properties of a constant number of receptors seems to be a ubiquitous phenomenon involved in the regulation of cell surface receptors. Although the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon (called uncoupling or desensitization) have been studied in detail using beta 2-adrenergic receptors it is unclear if the models derived from these studies are applicable to other members of the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Since it has been shown previously that truncation of the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor results in a delay in the onset of agonist-induced uncoupling (Bouvier, M., Hausdorff, W.P., De Blasi, A., O'Dowd, B.F., Kobilka, B.K., Caron , M.G., and Lefkowitz, R.J. (1988) Nature 333, 370-373), we now present experiments designed to test the effects of a similar truncation of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG) receptor on its functional properties. The results presented herein show that (i) clonal lines of human embryonic kidney cells stably transfected with cDNAs encoding for the wild-type (rLHR-wt) or a mutant receptor truncated at amino acid residue 631 (rLHR-t631) express functional LH/CG receptors as judged by their ability to bind hCG and to respond to it with increased cAMP accumulation; (ii) a preincubation of the cells expressing rLHR-wt with hCG leads to a reduction in the ability of hCG to activate adenylylcyclase; and (iii) this reduction is severely blunted in cells expressing rLHR-t631. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the LH/CG receptor is necessary for agonist-induced uncoupling.

  14. A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors inhibit LPS-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1 accumulation in murine astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Stefanelli, Angela; Fazzi, Debora; Varani, Katia; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Adenosine (Ado) exerts neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory functions by acting through four receptor subtypes A1, A2A, A2B and A3. Astrocytes are one of its targets in the central nervous system. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is induced after hypoxia, ischemia and inflammation and plays an important role in brain injury. HIF-1 is expressed by astrocytes, however the regulatory role played by Ado on HIF-1α modulation induced by inflammatory and hypoxic conditions has not been investigated. Primary murine astrocytes were activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without Ado, Ado receptor agonists, antagonists and receptor silencing, before exposure to normoxia or hypoxia. HIF-1α accumulation and downstream genes regulation were determined. Ado inhibited LPS-increased HIF-1α accumulation under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, through activation of A1 and A3 receptors. In cells incubated with the blockers of p44/42 MAPK and Akt, LPS-induced HIF-1α accumulation was significantly decreased in normoxia and hypoxia, suggesting the involvement of p44/42 MAPK and Akt in this effect and Ado inhibited kinases phosphorylation. A series of angiogenesis and metabolism related genes were modulated by hypoxia in an HIF-1 dependent way, but not further increased by LPS, with the exception of GLUT-1 and hexochinase II that were elevated by LPS only in normoxia and inhibited by Ado receptors. Instead, genes involved in inflammation, like inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and A2B receptors, were increased by LPS in normoxia, strongly stimulated by LPS in concert with hypoxia and inhibited by Ado, through A1 and A3 receptor subtypes. In conclusion A1 and A3 receptors reduce the LPS-mediated HIF-1α accumulation in murine astrocytes, resulting in a downregulation of genes involved in inflammation and hypoxic injury, like iNOS and A2B receptors, in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

  15. Adenosine A2A receptor gene disruption provokes marked changes in melanocortin content and pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Jégou, S; El Yacoubi, M; Mounien, L; Ledent, C; Parmentier, M; Costentin, J; Vaugeois, J-M; Vaudry, H

    2003-12-01

    A2A receptor knockout (A2AR-/-) mice are more anxious and aggressive, and exhibit reduced exploratory activity than their wild-type littermates (A2AR+/+). Because alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) influences anxiety, aggressiveness and motor activity, we investigated the effect of A2AR gene disruption on alpha-MSH content in discrete brain regions and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in the hypothalamus and pituitary. No modification in alpha-MSH content was observed in the hypothalamus and medulla oblongata where POMC-expressing perikarya are located. In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, POMC mRNA levels were not affected by A2AR disruption. Conversely, in A2AR-/- mice, a significant increase in alpha-MSH content was observed in the amygdala and cerebral cortex, two regions that are innervated by POMC terminals. In the pars intermedia of the pituitary, A2AR disruption provoked a significant reduction of POMC mRNA expression associated with a decrease in alpha-MSH content. By contrast, in the anterior lobe of the pituitary, a substantial increase in POMC mRNA and adrenocorticotropin hormone concentrations was observed, and plasma corticosterone concentration was significantly higher in A2AR-/- mice, revealing hyperactivity of their pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Together, these results suggest that adenosine, acting through A2A receptors, may modulate the release of alpha-MSH in the cerebral cortex and amygdala. The data also indicate that A2A receptors are involved in the control of POMC gene expression and biosynthesis of POMC-derived peptides in pituitary melanotrophs and corticotrophs.

  16. Dual melanocortin-4 receptor and GLP-1 receptor agonism amplifies metabolic benefits in diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Finan, Brian; Fischer, Katrin; Tom, Robby Zachariah; Legutko, Beata; Sehrer, Laura; Heine, Daniela; Grassl, Niklas; Meyer, Carola W; Henderson, Bart; Hofmann, Susanna M; Tschöp, Matthias H; Van der Ploeg, Lex HT; Müller, Timo D

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of simultaneous agonism at the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) for the treatment of obesity and diabetes in rodents. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were chronically treated with either the long-acting GLP-1R agonist liraglutide, the MC4R agonist RM-493 or a combination of RM-493 and liraglutide. Co-treatment of DIO mice with RM-493 and liraglutide improves body weight loss and enhances glycemic control and cholesterol metabolism beyond what can be achieved with either mono-therapy. The superior metabolic efficacy of this combination therapy is attributed to the anorectic and glycemic actions of both drugs, along with the ability of RM-493 to increase energy expenditure. Interestingly, compared to mice treated with liraglutide alone, hypothalamic Glp-1r expression was higher in mice treated with the combination therapy after both acute and chronic treatment. Further, RM-493 enhanced hypothalamic Mc4r expression. Hence, co-dosing with MC4R and GLP-1R agonists increases expression of each receptor, indicative of minimized receptor desensitization. Together, these findings suggest potential opportunities for employing combination treatments that comprise parallel MC4R and GLP-1R agonism for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:25652173

  17. Peripheral and central CB1 cannabinoid receptors control stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Gomis-González, Maria; Srivastava, Raj Kamal; Cutando, Laura; Ortega-Alvaro, Antonio; Ruehle, Sabine; Remmers, Floortje; Bindila, Laura; Bellocchio, Luigi; Marsicano, Giovanni; Lutz, Beat; Maldonado, Rafael; Ozaita, Andrés

    2016-08-30

    Stressful events can generate emotional memories linked to the traumatic incident, but they also can impair the formation of nonemotional memories. Although the impact of stress on emotional memories is well studied, much less is known about the influence of the emotional state on the formation of nonemotional memories. We used the novel object-recognition task as a model of nonemotional memory in mice to investigate the underlying mechanism of the deleterious effect of stress on memory consolidation. Systemic, hippocampal, and peripheral blockade of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors abolished the stress-induced memory impairment. Genetic deletion and rescue of CB1 receptors in specific cell types revealed that the CB1 receptor population specifically in dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH)-expressing cells is both necessary and sufficient for stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation, but CB1 receptors present in other neuronal populations are not involved. Strikingly, pharmacological manipulations in mice expressing CB1 receptors exclusively in DBH(+) cells revealed that both hippocampal and peripheral receptors mediate the impact of stress on memory consolidation. Thus, CB1 receptors on adrenergic and noradrenergic cells provide previously unrecognized cross-talk between central and peripheral mechanisms in the stress-dependent regulation of nonemotional memory consolidation, suggesting new potential avenues for the treatment of cognitive aspects on stress-related disorders. PMID:27528659

  18. Peripheral and central CB1 cannabinoid receptors control stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Gomis-González, Maria; Srivastava, Raj Kamal; Cutando, Laura; Ortega-Alvaro, Antonio; Ruehle, Sabine; Remmers, Floortje; Bindila, Laura; Bellocchio, Luigi; Marsicano, Giovanni; Lutz, Beat; Maldonado, Rafael; Ozaita, Andrés

    2016-08-30

    Stressful events can generate emotional memories linked to the traumatic incident, but they also can impair the formation of nonemotional memories. Although the impact of stress on emotional memories is well studied, much less is known about the influence of the emotional state on the formation of nonemotional memories. We used the novel object-recognition task as a model of nonemotional memory in mice to investigate the underlying mechanism of the deleterious effect of stress on memory consolidation. Systemic, hippocampal, and peripheral blockade of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors abolished the stress-induced memory impairment. Genetic deletion and rescue of CB1 receptors in specific cell types revealed that the CB1 receptor population specifically in dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH)-expressing cells is both necessary and sufficient for stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation, but CB1 receptors present in other neuronal populations are not involved. Strikingly, pharmacological manipulations in mice expressing CB1 receptors exclusively in DBH(+) cells revealed that both hippocampal and peripheral receptors mediate the impact of stress on memory consolidation. Thus, CB1 receptors on adrenergic and noradrenergic cells provide previously unrecognized cross-talk between central and peripheral mechanisms in the stress-dependent regulation of nonemotional memory consolidation, suggesting new potential avenues for the treatment of cognitive aspects on stress-related disorders.

  19. Variation potential-induced photosynthetic and respiratory changes increase ATP content in pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Vodeneev, Vladimir; Katicheva, Lyubov; Semina, Maria; Sukhov, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Local damage induces a physiological response in higher plants by means of generation and propagation of variation potential (VP). The response includes changes in photosynthesis and respiration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of these changes on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in pea leaves. VP was induced by local heating of the first mature leaf and registered using extracellular and intracellular electrodes. Photosynthesis and respiration were measured using Dual-PAM-100 and GFS-3000. ATP content was determined using a bioluminescence-based ATP determination kit. Two non-stimulated leaves (second and fourth) were investigated. We showed that heating induced VP that propagated into the second mature leaf, but only a slight electrical reaction was registered in the fourth mature leaf. VP-induced inactivation of photosynthesis developed in the second leaf and included two stages: short- and long-term inactivation. Local heating also caused a two-stage increase in ATP content in the second leaf, which was connected with the photosynthetic responses. Changes in photosynthesis and ATP content were not observed in the fourth leaf. The effect of VP on respiration was investigated under dark conditions. We found that variation potential induced short-term activation of respiration in the second leaf. Local heating induced ATP content increase which included only one stage under dark conditions. Changes in ATP and respiration were absent in the fourth leaf under dark conditions. Thus, VP-induced photosynthetic and respiratory changes are likely to increase ATP content in pea leaves. PMID:27450494

  20. Variation potential-induced photosynthetic and respiratory changes increase ATP content in pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Vodeneev, Vladimir; Katicheva, Lyubov; Semina, Maria; Sukhov, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Local damage induces a physiological response in higher plants by means of generation and propagation of variation potential (VP). The response includes changes in photosynthesis and respiration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of these changes on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in pea leaves. VP was induced by local heating of the first mature leaf and registered using extracellular and intracellular electrodes. Photosynthesis and respiration were measured using Dual-PAM-100 and GFS-3000. ATP content was determined using a bioluminescence-based ATP determination kit. Two non-stimulated leaves (second and fourth) were investigated. We showed that heating induced VP that propagated into the second mature leaf, but only a slight electrical reaction was registered in the fourth mature leaf. VP-induced inactivation of photosynthesis developed in the second leaf and included two stages: short- and long-term inactivation. Local heating also caused a two-stage increase in ATP content in the second leaf, which was connected with the photosynthetic responses. Changes in photosynthesis and ATP content were not observed in the fourth leaf. The effect of VP on respiration was investigated under dark conditions. We found that variation potential induced short-term activation of respiration in the second leaf. Local heating induced ATP content increase which included only one stage under dark conditions. Changes in ATP and respiration were absent in the fourth leaf under dark conditions. Thus, VP-induced photosynthetic and respiratory changes are likely to increase ATP content in pea leaves.

  1. RIC-3 differentially modulates α4β2 and α7 nicotinic receptor assembly, expression, and nicotine-induced receptor upregulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work has shown that the chaperone resistant to inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (RIC-3) is critical for the folding, maturation and functional expression of a variety of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. α7 nicotinic receptors can only assemble and functionally express in select lines of cells, provided that RIC-3 is present. In contrast, α4β2 nicotinic receptors can functionally express in many cell lines even without the presence of RIC-3. Depending on the cell line, RIC-3 has differential effects on α4β2 receptor function – enhancement in mammalian cells but inhibition in Xenopus oocytes. Other differences between the two receptor types include nicotine-induced upregulation. When expressed in cell lines, α4β2 receptors readily and robustly upregulate with chronic nicotine exposure. However, α7 nicotinic receptors appear more resistant and require higher concentrations of nicotine to induce upregulation. Could the coexpression of RIC-3 modulate the extent of nicotine-induced upregulation not only for α7 receptors but also α4β2 receptors? We compared and contrasted the effects of RIC-3 on assembly, trafficking, protein expression and nicotine-induced upregulation on both α7 and α4β2 receptors using fluorescent protein tagged nicotinic receptors and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy imaging. Results RIC-3 increases assembly and cell surface trafficking of α7 receptors but does not alter α7 protein expression in transfected HEK293T cells. In contrast, RIC-3 does not affect assembly of α4β2 receptors but increases α4 and β2 subunit protein expression. Acute nicotine (30 min exposure) was sufficient to upregulate FRET between α4 and β2 subunits. Surprisingly, when RIC-3 was coexpressed with α4β2 receptors nicotine-induced upregulation was prevented. α7 receptors did not upregulate with acute nicotine in the presence or absence of RIC-3. Conclusions These results provide interesting novel data

  2. Drug-induced graves disease from CTLA-4 receptor suppression.

    PubMed

    Borodic, Gary; Hinkle, David M; Cia, Yihong

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody, ipilimumab, useful for treatment of metastatic melanoma, blocks CTLA-4 mediated T-cell suppression and can also cause a Graves ophthalmopathy like syndrome. Epidemiologic study has linked variant polymorphisms of CTLA-4 receptor gene to the presence of thyroid eye disease. The combination of these observations suggests CTLA-4 mediated T-cell functions are important to the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated eye disease. PMID:21242854

  3. Drug-induced graves disease from CTLA-4 receptor suppression.

    PubMed

    Borodic, Gary; Hinkle, David M; Cia, Yihong

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody, ipilimumab, useful for treatment of metastatic melanoma, blocks CTLA-4 mediated T-cell suppression and can also cause a Graves ophthalmopathy like syndrome. Epidemiologic study has linked variant polymorphisms of CTLA-4 receptor gene to the presence of thyroid eye disease. The combination of these observations suggests CTLA-4 mediated T-cell functions are important to the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated eye disease.

  4. Development of a 3D Tissue Culture–Based High-Content Screening Platform That Uses Phenotypic Profiling to Discriminate Selective Inhibitors of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Booij, Tijmen H.; Klop, Maarten J. D.; Yan, Kuan; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Szokol, Balint; Orfi, Laszlo; van de Water, Bob; Keri, Gyorgy; Price, Leo S.

    2016-01-01

    3D tissue cultures provide a more physiologically relevant context for the screening of compounds, compared with 2D cell cultures. Cells cultured in 3D hydrogels also show complex phenotypes, increasing the scope for phenotypic profiling. Here we describe a high-content screening platform that uses invasive human prostate cancer cells cultured in 3D in standard 384-well assay plates to study the activity of potential therapeutic small molecules and antibody biologics. Image analysis tools were developed to process 3D image data to measure over 800 phenotypic parameters. Multiparametric analysis was used to evaluate the effect of compounds on tissue morphology. We applied this screening platform to measure the activity and selectivity of inhibitors of the c-Met and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases in 3D cultured prostate carcinoma cells. c-Met and EGFR activity was quantified based on the phenotypic profiles induced by their respective ligands, hepatocyte growth factor and EGF. The screening method was applied to a novel collection of 80 putative inhibitors of c-Met and EGFR. Compounds were identified that induced phenotypic profiles indicative of selective inhibition of c-Met, EGFR, or bispecific inhibition of both targets. In conclusion, we describe a fully scalable high-content screening platform that uses phenotypic profiling to discriminate selective and nonselective (off-target) inhibitors in a physiologically relevant 3D cell culture setting. PMID:27412535

  5. Development of a 3D Tissue Culture-Based High-Content Screening Platform That Uses Phenotypic Profiling to Discriminate Selective Inhibitors of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    PubMed

    Booij, Tijmen H; Klop, Maarten J D; Yan, Kuan; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Szokol, Balint; Orfi, Laszlo; van de Water, Bob; Keri, Gyorgy; Price, Leo S

    2016-10-01

    3D tissue cultures provide a more physiologically relevant context for the screening of compounds, compared with 2D cell cultures. Cells cultured in 3D hydrogels also show complex phenotypes, increasing the scope for phenotypic profiling. Here we describe a high-content screening platform that uses invasive human prostate cancer cells cultured in 3D in standard 384-well assay plates to study the activity of potential therapeutic small molecules and antibody biologics. Image analysis tools were developed to process 3D image data to measure over 800 phenotypic parameters. Multiparametric analysis was used to evaluate the effect of compounds on tissue morphology. We applied this screening platform to measure the activity and selectivity of inhibitors of the c-Met and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases in 3D cultured prostate carcinoma cells. c-Met and EGFR activity was quantified based on the phenotypic profiles induced by their respective ligands, hepatocyte growth factor and EGF. The screening method was applied to a novel collection of 80 putative inhibitors of c-Met and EGFR. Compounds were identified that induced phenotypic profiles indicative of selective inhibition of c-Met, EGFR, or bispecific inhibition of both targets. In conclusion, we describe a fully scalable high-content screening platform that uses phenotypic profiling to discriminate selective and nonselective (off-target) inhibitors in a physiologically relevant 3D cell culture setting.

  6. Blockade of bradykinin B(2) receptor suppresses acute pancreatitis induced by obstruction of the pancreaticobiliary duct in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Mitsuhiro; Hayashi, Izumi; Yoshimura, Kuniko; Ishii, Ken-ichiro; Soma, Kazui; Ohwada, Takashi; Kakita, Akira; Majima, Masataka

    2002-01-01

    1. The involvement of bradykinin (BK) B(2) receptor in acute pancreatitis induced by pancreaticobiliary duct ligation was investigated in rats. 2. The activities of amylase and lipase in the serum, the water content of the pancreas, and vacuolization of the acinar cells were significantly increased 2 h after obstruction of the duct in Sprague-Dawley rats. 3. Elevated serum amylase activity, increased pancreatic oedema, and damage of the pancreatic tissue were significantly less marked in plasma kininogen-deficient, B/N-Katholiek rats than in the normal strain, B/N-Kitasato rats 2 h after the ligation. 4. Obstruction of the pancreaticobiliary duct augmented the level of (1-5)-BK (Arg(1)-Pro(2)-Pro(3)-Gly(4)-Phe(5)), a stable BK metabolite, in the blood from 73.0+/-21.7 pg ml(-1) at 0 h to 149.8+/-38.0 pg ml(-1) at 2 h after the induction of pancreatitis in SD rats. 5. Administration of a BK B(2) receptor antagonist, FR173657 (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) or Hoe140 (100 nmol kg(-1), s.c.), reduced the elevation of amylase and lipase activities in the serum and of pancreatic water content in a dose-dependent manner. The effective attenuation of oedema formation and vacuolization by the antagonists was also confirmed light-microscopically. In contrast, treatment with gabexate mesilate or indomethacin did not cause significant suppression of the pancreatitis. 6. These findings suggest a possible involvement of kinin B(2) receptor in the present pancreatitis model. Furthermore, they point to the potential usefulness of the B(2) receptor in clinical acute pancreatitis.

  7. Receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells induces apoptosis via ectodomain shedding.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Kenzo; Miyamoto, Shingo; Nakashima, Manabu; Wake, Norio

    2010-07-01

    Receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells (RCAS1) is a secreted antigen that induces apoptosis in putative receptor-expressing cells, including peripheral lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. RCAS1 expression is associated with aggressive characteristics and poor overall survival for 15 different human malignancies. The putative RCAS1 receptor has not been isolated and the mechanism of RCAS1 apoptosis induction remains unclear. This study explores how RCAS1 is involved in apoptosis initiation. The cell lines SiSo and MCF-7, human uterine carcinoma and breast adenocarcinoma, respectively, both express RCAS1, but RCAS1 secretion is undetectable in MCF-7 cells. SiSo and MCF-7 cells were stimulated to induce RCAS1 ectodomain shedding followed by assessment of RCAS1 expression and secretion. Additionally, the RCAS1 putative receptor-expressing human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562 was co-cultured with SiSo, MCF-7, or soluble RCAS1 to follow RCAS1 secretion in apoptosis initiation. RCAS1 secretion was strongly suppressed by inhibitors of metalloproteases, protein kinase C (PKC)-delta, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). K562 apoptosis could be induced only by co-culturing with SiSo or soluble RCAS1. RCAS1 is thus secreted by ectodomain shedding, which may represent a pivotal step in RCAS1-induced apoptosis initiation.

  8. Role of kinin B2 receptors in opioid-induced hyperalgesia in inflammatory pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Grastilleur, Sébastien; Mouledous, Lionel; Bedel, Jerome; Etcheverry, Jonathan; Bader, Michael; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Fourcade, Olivier; Frances, Bernard; Minville, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Postoperative pain management is a clinical challenge that can be complicated by opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Kinin receptors could mediate both the acute and chronic phases of inflammation and pain. A few recent studies suggest that dynorphin A could maintain neuropathic pain by activating the bradykinin (BK) receptor. Thus, the effect of a single administration of sufentanil (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) was investigated in a model of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain using three strains of mice, i.e., knockout mice for one kinin receptor, B1R or B2R (B1KO, B2KO), and wild-type C57/BL6J mice (WT) treated with either a B1R (R954) or a B2R antagonist (HOE140) or a KKS inhibitor (aprotinin). Pain was assessed and compared between the different groups using two behavioral tests exploring mechanical (von Frey filaments) and thermal (Hargreaves test) sensitivity. Pretreatment with sufentanil induced a sustained increase in pain sensitivity with a delayed return to baseline values characterizing an OIH in carrageenan-injected mice only. Sufentanil-induced OIH was not observed in B2KO but persisted in B1KO and was blunted by aprotinin and the B2R antagonist only. Collectively, our data indicate that the B2R receptor and BK synthesis or availability are essential peripheral steps in the mechanism leading to OIH in a pain context.

  9. Peripheral tackykinin and excitatory amino acid receptors mediate hyperalgesia induced by Phoneutria nigriventer venom.

    PubMed

    Zanchet, Eliane Maria; Cury, Yara

    2003-04-25

    The generation of hyperalgesia by Phoneutria nigriventer venom was investigated in rats using the paw pressure test, through the intraplantar injection of the venom. Hyperalgesia was significantly inhibited by N-[2-(4-chlorophenyl) ethyl]-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-2H-2-benzazepine-2-carbothioamide (capsazepine), a vanilloid receptor antagonist, by the local administration of pGlu-Ala-Asp-Pro-Asn-Lys-Phe-Tyr-Pro (spiro-gamma-lactam) Leu-Trp-NH(2) (GR82334) or of Phenyl-CO-Ala-Ala-D-Trp-Phe-D-Pro-Pro-Nle-NH(2) (GR94800), inhibitors of tachykinin NK(1) and NK(2) receptors, respectively, or by the local injection of dizocilpine (MK 801), (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid ((+/-)-AP-5), or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), antagonists of NMDA and non-NMDA excitatory amino acid receptors. The correlation between hyperalgesia and the inflammatory response induced by the venom was also investigated. The venom-induced edematogenic response was not modified by the pharmacological treatments. These results suggest that hyperalgesia induced by P. nigriventer venom is mediated by stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive neurons, with activation of peripheral tachykinin NK(1) and NK(2) receptors and of both the NMDA and AMPA receptors. Distinct mechanisms are involved in the development of hyperalgesia and edema induced by the venom.

  10. Role of kinin B2 receptors in opioid-induced hyperalgesia in inflammatory pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Grastilleur, Sébastien; Mouledous, Lionel; Bedel, Jerome; Etcheverry, Jonathan; Bader, Michael; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Fourcade, Olivier; Frances, Bernard; Minville, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Postoperative pain management is a clinical challenge that can be complicated by opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Kinin receptors could mediate both the acute and chronic phases of inflammation and pain. A few recent studies suggest that dynorphin A could maintain neuropathic pain by activating the bradykinin (BK) receptor. Thus, the effect of a single administration of sufentanil (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) was investigated in a model of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain using three strains of mice, i.e., knockout mice for one kinin receptor, B1R or B2R (B1KO, B2KO), and wild-type C57/BL6J mice (WT) treated with either a B1R (R954) or a B2R antagonist (HOE140) or a KKS inhibitor (aprotinin). Pain was assessed and compared between the different groups using two behavioral tests exploring mechanical (von Frey filaments) and thermal (Hargreaves test) sensitivity. Pretreatment with sufentanil induced a sustained increase in pain sensitivity with a delayed return to baseline values characterizing an OIH in carrageenan-injected mice only. Sufentanil-induced OIH was not observed in B2KO but persisted in B1KO and was blunted by aprotinin and the B2R antagonist only. Collectively, our data indicate that the B2R receptor and BK synthesis or availability are essential peripheral steps in the mechanism leading to OIH in a pain context. PMID:23324378

  11. Histamine H1 receptor induces cytosolic calcium increase and aquaporin translocation in human salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Park, Seong-Hae; Moon, Young Wha; Hwang, Sungmin; Kim, Donghoon; Jo, Su-Hyun; Oh, Seog Bae; Kim, Joong Soo; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Sung Joong; Choi, Se-Young; Park, Kyungpyo

    2009-08-01

    One of the common side effects of antihistamine medicines is xerostomia (dry mouth). The current consensus is that antihistamine-induced xerostomia comes from an antimuscarinic effect. Although the effect of antihistamines on salivary secretion is both obvious and significant, the cellular mechanism whereby this happens is still unclear because of the lack of knowledge of histamine signaling in human salivary glands. Here, we have studied histamine receptors and the effect of antihistamines on human submandibular acinar cells. In primary cultured human submandibular gland and a HSG cell line, histamine increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The histamine-induced cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase was inhibited by histamine H1 receptor-specific antagonists, and the expression of the functional histamine H1 receptor was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, histamine pretreatment did not inhibit a subsequent carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise without "heterologous desensitization." Chlorpheniramine inhibited a carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase at a 100-fold greater concentration than histamine receptor antagonism, whereas astemizole and cetrizine showed more than 1000-fold difference, which in part explains the xerostomia-inducing potency among the antihistamines. Notably, histamine resulted in translocation of aquaporin-5 to the plasma membrane in human submandibular gland cells and green fluorescent protein-tagged aquaporin-5 expressing HSG cells. We found that histidine decarboxylase and the histamine H1 receptor are broadly distributed in submandibular gland cells, whereas choline acetyltransferase is localized only at the parasympathetic terminals. Our results suggest that human salivary gland cells express histamine H1 receptors and histamine-synthesizing enzymes, revealing the cellular mechanism of antihistamine-induced xerostomia. PMID:19443731

  12. Visualization and ligand-induced modulation of dopamine receptor dimerization at the single molecule level

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Alina; Weisenburger, Siegfried; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Purkayastha, Nirupam; Kaindl, Jonas M.; Hübner, Harald; Wei, Luxi; Grömer, Teja W.; Kornhuber, Johannes; Tschammer, Nuska; Birdsall, Nigel J. M.; Mashanov, Gregory I.; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), including dopamine receptors, represent a group of important pharmacological targets. An increased formation of dopamine receptor D2 homodimers has been suggested to be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Selective labeling and ligand-induced modulation of dimerization may therefore allow the investigation of the pathophysiological role of these dimers. Using TIRF microscopy at the single molecule level, transient formation of homodimers of dopamine receptors in the membrane of stably transfected CHO cells has been observed. The equilibrium between dimers and monomers was modulated by the binding of ligands; whereas antagonists showed a ratio that was identical to that of unliganded receptors, agonist-bound D2 receptor-ligand complexes resulted in an increase in dimerization. Addition of bivalent D2 receptor ligands also resulted in a large increase in D2 receptor dimers. A physical interaction between the protomers was confirmed using high resolution cryogenic localization microscopy, with ca. 9 nm between the centers of mass. PMID:27615810

  13. Visualization and ligand-induced modulation of dopamine receptor dimerization at the single molecule level.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Alina; Weisenburger, Siegfried; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Purkayastha, Nirupam; Kaindl, Jonas M; Hübner, Harald; Wei, Luxi; Grömer, Teja W; Kornhuber, Johannes; Tschammer, Nuska; Birdsall, Nigel J M; Mashanov, Gregory I; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including dopamine receptors, represent a group of important pharmacological targets. An increased formation of dopamine receptor D2 homodimers has been suggested to be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Selective labeling and ligand-induced modulation of dimerization may therefore allow the investigation of the pathophysiological role of these dimers. Using TIRF microscopy at the single molecule level, transient formation of homodimers of dopamine receptors in the membrane of stably transfected CHO cells has been observed. The equilibrium between dimers and monomers was modulated by the binding of ligands; whereas antagonists showed a ratio that was identical to that of unliganded receptors, agonist-bound D2 receptor-ligand complexes resulted in an increase in dimerization. Addition of bivalent D2 receptor ligands also resulted in a large increase in D2 receptor dimers. A physical interaction between the protomers was confirmed using high resolution cryogenic localization microscopy, with ca. 9 nm between the centers of mass. PMID:27615810

  14. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA's but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression.

  15. Lysergic acid diethylamide-induced Fos expression in rat brain: role of serotonin-2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Gresch, P J; Strickland, L V; Sanders-Bush, E

    2002-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) produces altered mood and hallucinations in humans and binds with high affinity to serotonin-2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors. Although LSD interacts with other receptors, the activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors is thought to mediate the hallucinogenic properties of LSD. The goal of this study was to identify the brain sites activated by LSD and to determine the influence of 5-HT(2A) receptors in this activation. Rats were pretreated with the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist MDL 100907 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min prior to LSD (500 microg/kg, i.p.) administration and killed 3 h later. Brain tissue was examined for Fos protein expression by immunohistochemistry. LSD administration produced a five- to eight-fold increase in Fos-like immunoreactivity in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of amygdala. However, in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens no increase in Fos-like immunoreactivity was observed. Pretreatment with MDL 100907 completely blocked LSD-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, but only partially blocked LSD-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in amygdala. Double-labeled immunohistochemistry revealed that LSD did not induce Fos-like immunoreactivity in cortical cells expressing 5-HT(2A) receptors, suggesting an indirect activation of cortical neurons. These results indicate that the LSD activation of medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex is mediated by 5-HT(2A) receptors, whereas in amygdala 5-HT(2A) receptor activation is a component of the response. These findings support the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and perhaps the amygdala, are important regions involved in the production of hallucinations.

  16. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, X X; Jiang, D Y; Huang, X X; Guo, S L; Yuan, W; Dai, H P

    2015-12-21

    The specific role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis of mice, a model of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has not been characterized. We injected bleomycin intratracheally into TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. Twenty-one days after injection, mice were sacrificed and their lungs were harvested for pathological, hydroxyproline, mRNA expression, and collagen I analyses. Body weight changes and mortality were observed. Light microscopy showed that lung fibrosis was minimal in TLR4(-/-) compared to that in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin instillation. The Ashcroft score was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (3.667 ± 0.730 vs 4.945 ± 0.880, P < 0.05). Hydroxyproline content was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin injection (0.281 ± 0.022 vs 0.371 ± 0.047, P < 0.05). Compared to WT mice, bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice expressed significantly lower type I collagen mRNA levels (mesenchymal marker; 11.069 ± 2.627 vs 4.589 ± 1.440, P < 0.05). Collagen I was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (0.838 ± 0.352 vs 2.427 ± 0.551, P < 0.05). Bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice had a significantly lower mortality rate on day 21 than WT mice (33 vs 75%, P < 0.05). Body weight reduction was lower in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice; this difference was not statistically significant (-3.735 ± 5.276 vs -6.698 ± 3.218, P > 0.05). Thus, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is TLR4-dependent and TLR4 promoted fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice.

  17. Retinoids induce integrin-independent lymphocyte adhesion through RAR-α nuclear receptor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Jarrett T.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Jianming; Metts, Meagan E.; Nasser, Taj A.; McGoldrick, Liam J.; Bridges, Lance C.

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Transcription and translation are required for retinoid-induced lymphocyte adhesion. • RAR activation is sufficient to induced lymphocyte cell adhesion. • Vitamin D derivatives inhibit RAR-prompted lymphocyte adhesion. • Adhesion occurs through a novel binding site within ADAM disintegrin domains. • RARα is a key nuclear receptor for retinoid-dependent lymphocyte cell adhesion. - Abstract: Oxidative metabolites of vitamin A, in particular all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), have emerged as key factors in immunity by specifying the localization of immune cells to the gut. Although it is appreciated that isomers of retinoic acid activate the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors to elicit cellular changes, the molecular details of retinoic acid action remain poorly defined in immune processes. Here we employ a battery of agonists and antagonists to delineate the specific nuclear receptors utilized by retinoids to evoke lymphocyte cell adhesion to ADAM (adisintegrin and metalloprotease) protein family members. We report that RAR agonism is sufficient to promote immune cell adhesion in both immortal and primary immune cells. Interestingly, adhesion occurs independent of integrin function, and mutant studies demonstrate that atRA-induced adhesion to ADAM members required a distinct binding interface(s) as compared to integrin recognition. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids as well as 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, a vitamin D metabolite that prompts immune cell trafficking to the skin, potently inhibited the observed adhesion. Finally, our data establish that induced adhesion was specifically attributable to the RAR-α receptor isotype. The current study provides novel molecular resolution as to which nuclear receptors transduce retinoid exposure into immune cell adhesion.

  18. A Fortran program for the calculation of estrogen receptor contents in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zayas, A; Lage, A

    1981-01-01

    A computer program in Fortran-IV for the processing of data from estradiol receptor assays in human breast cancer is described. The program prints the results in two tables together with the Saturation graph and the Scatchard's Plot. It includes a systematic, operator-independent, method for the elimination of "deviated points".

  19. Correlation between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signal and moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Gigant, Lionel; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2012-07-01

    The possibility of using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for measuring the moisture content of fresh food samples is studied. The normalized line emission of oxygen is highly correlated with the moisture content of the sample, cheese in our case, and can be used as a moisture marker in situations where oxygen interference from the matrix is not a critical issue. The linear correlation between the oxygen signal and the moisture content in the sample shows great potential for using LIBS as an alternative spectroscopic method for moisture monitoring.

  20. Agonist-induced desensitization of dopamine D1 receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity is temporally and biochemically separated from D1 receptor internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, G Y; Trogadis, J; Stevens, J; Bouvier, M; O'Dowd, B F; George, S R

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of the dopamine D1 receptor was investigated by using c-myc epitope-tagged D1 receptors expressed in Sf9 (fall armyworm ovary) cells. Treatment of D1 receptors with 10 microM dopamine for 15 min led to a loss of the dopamine-detected high-affinity state of the receptor accompanying a 40% reduction in the ability of the receptor to mediate maximal dopamine stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. After 60 min of agonist exposure, 45 min after the occurrence of desensitization, 28% of the cell surface receptors were internalized into an intracellular light vesicular membrane fraction as determined by radioligand binding and supported by photoaffinity labeling, immunocytochemical staining, and immunoblot analysis. Pretreatment of cells with concanavalin A or sucrose completely blocked agonist-induced D1 receptor internalization without preventing agonist-induced desensitization, indicating a biochemical separation of these processes. Collectively, these findings indicate that the desensitization of D1 receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase activity and D1 receptor internalization are temporarily and biochemically distinct mechanisms regulating D1 receptor function following agonist activation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7479745

  1. Role of glutamate receptors in the dorsal reticular nucleus in formalin-induced secondary allodynia.

    PubMed

    Ambriz-Tututi, Mónica; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Ramirez-López, Fernanda; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Drucker-Colín, And René

    2013-10-01

    The role of glutamate receptors present in the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt) in the formalin test and formalin-induced secondary nociception was studied in rats. Secondary mechanical allodynia was assessed with von Frey filaments applied to the rat's hindpaw, and secondary thermal hyperalgesia was evaluated with the tail-immersion test. The selective glutamate receptor antagonists MK801 (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist), 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) (AMPA/KA receptor antagonist) and A841720 (metabotropic glutamate 1 receptor antagonist) were injected into the DRt before or 6 days after formalin injection in the rat. In the formalin test, the three antagonists significantly reduced the number of flinches in both phases of the test. DRt microinjection of MK801 or A841720, but not of CNQX, reduced both secondary nociceptive behaviors. Moreover, pre-treatment with the three antagonists injected into the DRt prevented the development of secondary mechanical allodynia and secondary thermal hyperalgesia. Similarly, in these rats, the number of c-Fos-like immunoreactive neurons were markedly reduced in both the superficial and deep lamina of the dorsal horn. Our findings support the role of DRt as a pain facilitator in acute and chronic pain states, and suggest a key role of glutamate receptors during the development and maintenance of formalin-induced secondary allodynia. PMID:23869620

  2. Involvement of central TRPV1 receptors in pentylenetetrazole and amygdala-induced kindling in male rats.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mohsen; Izadi, Mahin; Amin, Masoud; Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2014-08-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that is involved in modulation of diverse physiological processes. The role of this receptor in epilepsy has not been studied well. Therefore, we investigated the role of central TRPV1 receptors on the development of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and amygdala-induced kindling in rats. Male Wistar rats received subconvulsive dose of PTZ intraperitoneally, every other day. TRPV1 receptor agonist, OLDA and its antagonist, AMG-9810 were injected intracerebroventricularly 30 min prior to PTZ administration. In electrical kindling, stimulating and recording electrodes were implanted in the right amygdala of male rats. After kindling, the effect of TRPV1 receptor agonist or antagonist on afterdischarge duration (ADD), latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonuses (S4L) and duration of loss of equilibrium (stage 5 seizures, S5D) were measured. The results demonstrated that, OLDA at the doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/rat, significantly accelerated the incidence of all seizure stages, increased S5D and decreased S4L in the PTZ model of kindling. Also, in amygdala kindling, S5D and ADD were significantly reduced following the administration of AMG-9810. In contrast, OLDA significantly aggravated the indices of seizure in both models of epileptic seizure. This study demonstrated that central TRPV1 receptors may be involved in the development of electrical and PTZ-induced kindling.

  3. NOP receptor mediates anti-analgesia induced by agonist-antagonist opioids.

    PubMed

    Gear, R W; Bogen, O; Ferrari, L F; Green, P G; Levine, J D

    2014-01-17

    Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ∼90min after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J-113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

  4. Nigella sativa Relieves the Altered Insulin Receptor Signaling in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Balbaa, Mahmoud; El-Zeftawy, Marwa; Ghareeb, Doaa; Taha, Nabil; Mandour, Abdel Wahab

    2016-01-01

    The black cumin (Nigella sativa) "NS" or the black seeds have many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic properties. In this work, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with a high-fat diet were treated daily with NS oil (NSO) in order to study the effect on the blood glucose, lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, and the gene expression of some insulin receptor-induced signaling molecules. This treatment was combined also with some drugs (metformin and glimepiride) and the insulin receptor inhibitor I-OMe-AG538. The administration of NSO significantly induced the gene expression of insulin receptor compared to rats that did not receive NSO. Also, it upregulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and phosphoinositide-3 kinase, whereas the expression of ADAM-17 was downregulated. The expression of ADAM-17 is corroborated by the analysis of TIMP-3 content. In addition, the NSO significantly reduced blood glucose level, components of the lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, serum insulin/insulin receptor ratio, and the tumor necrosis factor-α, confirming that NSO has an antidiabetic activity. Thus, the daily NSO treatment in our rat model indicates that NSO has a potential in the management of diabetes as well as improvement of insulin-induced signaling. PMID:27579151

  5. Nigella sativa Relieves the Altered Insulin Receptor Signaling in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    El-Zeftawy, Marwa; Taha, Nabil; Mandour, Abdel Wahab

    2016-01-01

    The black cumin (Nigella sativa) “NS” or the black seeds have many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic properties. In this work, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with a high-fat diet were treated daily with NS oil (NSO) in order to study the effect on the blood glucose, lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, and the gene expression of some insulin receptor-induced signaling molecules. This treatment was combined also with some drugs (metformin and glimepiride) and the insulin receptor inhibitor I-OMe-AG538. The administration of NSO significantly induced the gene expression of insulin receptor compared to rats that did not receive NSO. Also, it upregulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and phosphoinositide-3 kinase, whereas the expression of ADAM-17 was downregulated. The expression of ADAM-17 is corroborated by the analysis of TIMP-3 content. In addition, the NSO significantly reduced blood glucose level, components of the lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, serum insulin/insulin receptor ratio, and the tumor necrosis factor-α, confirming that NSO has an antidiabetic activity. Thus, the daily NSO treatment in our rat model indicates that NSO has a potential in the management of diabetes as well as improvement of insulin-induced signaling. PMID:27579151

  6. Ligand-induced receptor-like kinase complex regulates floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzong; Zhou, Jinggeng; Tang, Jiao; Li, Bo; de Oliveira, Marcos V. V.; Chai, Jijie; He, Ping; Shan, Libo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Abscission is a developmental process that enables plants to shed unwanted organs. In Arabidopsis, the floral organ abscission is regulated by a signaling pathway consisting of the peptide ligand IDA, the receptor-like kinases (RLKs) HAE and HSL2, and a downstream MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade. However, little is known about the molecular link between ligand-receptor pairs and intracellular signaling. Here, we report that the SERK family RLKs function redundantly in regulating floral organ abscission downstream of IDA and upstream of the MAPK cascade. IDA induces heterodimerization of HAE/HSL2 and SERKs, which transphosphorylate each other. The SERK3 residues mediating its interaction with the immune receptor FLS2 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 are also required for IDA-induced HAE/HSL2-SERK3 interaction, suggesting SERKs serve as co-receptors of HAE/HSL2 in perceiving IDA. Thus, our study reveals the signaling activation mechanism in floral organ abscission by IDA-induced HAE/HSL2-SERK complex formation accompanied by transphosphorylation. PMID:26854226

  7. Opiate-induced constipation related to activation of small intestine opioid μ2-receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wency; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of opioid μ-receptor subtype in opiate-induced constipation (OIC). METHODS: The effect of loperamide on intestinal transit was investigated in mice. Ileum strips were isolated from 12-wk-old male BALB/c mice for identification of isometric tension. The ileum strips were precontracted with 1 μmol/L acetylcholine (ACh). Then, decrease in muscle tone (relaxation) was characterized after cumulative administration of 0.1-10 μmol/L loperamide into the organ bath, for a concentration-dependent study. Specific blockers or antagonists were used for pretreatment to compare the changes in loperamide-induced relaxation. RESULTS: In addition to the delay in intestinal transit, loperamide produced a marked relaxation in isolated ileum precontracted with ACh, in a dose-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished by cyprodime, a selective opioid μ-receptor antagonist, but not modified by naloxonazine at a dose sufficient to block opioid μ-1 receptors. Also, treatment with opioid μ-1 receptor agonist failed to modify the muscle tone. Moreover, the relaxation by loperamide was attenuated by glibenclamide at a dose sufficient to block ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, and by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, but was enhanced by an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). CONCLUSION: Loperamide induces intestinal relaxation by activation of opioid μ-2 receptors via the cAMP-PKA pathway to open KATP channels, relates to OIC. PMID:22493554

  8. Clobenpropit (VUF-9153), a new histamine H3 receptor antagonist, inhibits electrically induced convulsions in mice.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, H; Onodera, K; Maeyama, K; Sakurai, E; Iinuma, K; Leurs, R; Timmerman, H; Watanabe, T

    1994-07-21

    The effect of clobenpropit (VUF-9153), a new histamine H3 receptor antagonist, on electrically induced convulsions was studied in mice. Clobenpropit significantly and dose dependently decreased the duration of each convulsive phase. Its anticonvulsant effects were prevented by pretreatment with (R)-alpha-methylhistamine and imetit (VUF-8325), histamine H3 receptor agonists. These findings suggest that the effect of clobenpropit on electrically induced convulsions is due to an increase in endogenous histamine release in the brain, which is consistent with biochemical results that clobenpropit increased brain histidine decarboxylase activity dose dependently. The anticonvulsive effect of clobenpropit was antagonized by mepyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, but not by zolantidine, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, indicating that histamine released by the anticonvulsant effect of clobenpropit interacts with histamine H1 receptors of postsynaptic neurons. The present findings of the effect of clobenpropit on electrically induced convulsions are fully consistent with those of thioperamide as described previously (Yokoyama et al., 1993, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 234, 129), supporting the hypothesis that the central histaminergic neuron system is involved in the inhibition of seizures.

  9. Progesterone modulates the LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone-receptor independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Schander, Julieta Aylen; Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2015-12-15

    Genital tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria induce miscarriage and are one of the most common complications of human pregnancy. LPS administration to 7-day pregnant mice induces embryo resorption after 24h, with nitric oxide playing a fundamental role in this process. We have previously shown that progesterone exerts protective effects on the embryo by modulating the inflammatory reaction triggered by LPS. Here we sought to investigate whether the in vivo administration of progesterone modulated the LPS-induced nitric oxide production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant and non-pregnant mice. We found that progesterone downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone receptor-independent mechanism. Moreover, our results suggest a possible participation of glucocorticoid receptors in at least some of the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone.

  10. COX-2 mediates angiotensin II-induced (pro)renin receptor expression in the rat renal medulla.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xiaohan; Peng, Kexin; Zhou, Li; Li, Chunling; Wang, Weidong; Yu, Xueqing; Kohan, Donald E; Zhu, Shu-Feng; Yang, Tianxin

    2014-07-01

    (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) is predominantly expressed in the distal nephron where it is activated by angiotensin II (ANG II), resulting in increased renin activity in the renal medulla thereby amplifying the de novo generation and action of local ANG II. The goal of the present study was to test the role of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) in meditating ANG II-induced PRR expression in the renal medulla in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells to ANG II induced sequential increases in COX-2 and PRR protein expression. When the cells were pretreated with a COX-2 inhibitor NS-398, ANG II-induced upregulation of PRR protein expression was almost completely abolished, in parallel with the changes in medium active renin content. The inhibitory effect of NS-398 on the PRR expression was reversed by adding exogenous PGE2. A 14-day ANG II infusion elevated renal medullary PRR expression and active and total renin content in parallel with increased urinary renin, all of which were remarkably suppressed by the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. In contrast, plasma and renal cortical active and total renin content were suppressed by ANG II treatment, an effect that was unaffected by COX-2 inhibition. Systolic blood pressure was elevated with ANG II infusion, which was attenuated by the COX-2 inhibition. Overall, the results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies established a crucial role of COX-2 in mediating upregulation of renal medullary PRR expression and renin content during ANG II hypertension.

  11. A widely used retinoic acid receptor antagonist induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activity.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Michael; Curtin, Joshua C; Kim, Roy J; Billin, Andrew N; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2007-05-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcription factors whose activity is regulated by the binding of small lipophilic ligands, including hormones, vitamins, and metabolites. Pharmacological NR ligands serve as important therapeutic agents; for example, all-trans retinoic acid, an activating ligand for retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha), is used to treat leukemia. Another RARalpha ligand, (E)-S,S-dioxide-4-(2-(7-(heptyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-4,4-dimethyl-2H-1-benzothiopyran-6-yl)-1-propenyl)-benzoic acid (Ro 41-5253), is a potent antagonist that has been a useful and purportedly specific probe of RARalpha function. Here, we report that Ro 41-5253 also activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and target of widely prescribed antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Ro 41-5253 enhanced differentiation of mouse and human preadipocytes and activated PPARgamma target genes in mature adipocytes. Like the TZDs, Ro 41-5253 also down-regulated PPARgamma protein expression in adipocytes. In addition, Ro 41-5253 activated the PPARgamma-ligand binding domain in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. These effects were not prevented by a potent RARalpha agonist or by depleting cells of RARalpha, indicating that PPARgamma activation was not related to RARalpha antagonism. Indeed, Ro 41-5253 was able to compete with TZD ligands for binding to PPARgamma, suggesting that Ro 41-5253 directly affects PPAR activity. These results vividly demonstrate that pharmacological NR ligands may have "off-target" effects on other NRs. Ro 41-5253 is a PPARgamma agonist as well as an RARalpha antagonist whose pleiotropic effects on NRs may signify a unique spectrum of biological responses.

  12. Regulation of hippocampal Fas receptor and death-inducing signaling complex after kainic acid treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-12-01

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced brain neuronal cell death (especially in the hippocampus) was shown to be mainly mediated by the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway. This study investigated the regulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway mediated by Fas ligand/Fas receptor and components of the indispensable death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) in the hippocampus (marked changes) and cerebral cortex (modest changes) of KA-treated mice. KA (45mg/kg) induced a severe behavioral syndrome with recurrent motor seizures (scores; maximal at 60-90min; minimal at 72h) with activation of hippocampal pro-apoptotic JNK (+2.5 fold) and increased GFAP (+57%) and nuclear PARP-1 fragmentation (+114%) 72h post-treatment (delayed neurotoxicity). In the extrinsic apoptotic pathway (hippocampus), KA (72h) reduced Fas ligand (-92%) and Fas receptor aggregates (-24%). KA (72h) also altered the contents of major DISC components: decreased FADD adaptor (-44%), reduced activation of initiator caspase-8 (-47%) and increased survival FLIP-S (+220%). Notably, KA (72h) upregulated the content of anti-apoptotic p-Ser191 FADD (+41%) and consequently the expression of p-FADD/FADD ratio (+1.9-fold), a neuroplastic index. Moreover, the p-FADD dependent transcription factor NF-κB was also increased (+61%) in the hippocampus after KA (72h). The convergent adaptation of the extrinsic apoptotic machinery 72h after KA in mice (with otherwise normal gross behavior) is a novel finding which suggests the induction of survival mechanisms to partly counteract the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus.

  13. Regulation of hippocampal Fas receptor and death-inducing signaling complex after kainic acid treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-12-01

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced brain neuronal cell death (especially in the hippocampus) was shown to be mainly mediated by the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway. This study investigated the regulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway mediated by Fas ligand/Fas receptor and components of the indispensable death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) in the hippocampus (marked changes) and cerebral cortex (modest changes) of KA-treated mice. KA (45mg/kg) induced a severe behavioral syndrome with recurrent motor seizures (scores; maximal at 60-90min; minimal at 72h) with activation of hippocampal pro-apoptotic JNK (+2.5 fold) and increased GFAP (+57%) and nuclear PARP-1 fragmentation (+114%) 72h post-treatment (delayed neurotoxicity). In the extrinsic apoptotic pathway (hippocampus), KA (72h) reduced Fas ligand (-92%) and Fas receptor aggregates (-24%). KA (72h) also altered the contents of major DISC components: decreased FADD adaptor (-44%), reduced activation of initiator caspase-8 (-47%) and increased survival FLIP-S (+220%). Notably, KA (72h) upregulated the content of anti-apoptotic p-Ser191 FADD (+41%) and consequently the expression of p-FADD/FADD ratio (+1.9-fold), a neuroplastic index. Moreover, the p-FADD dependent transcription factor NF-κB was also increased (+61%) in the hippocampus after KA (72h). The convergent adaptation of the extrinsic apoptotic machinery 72h after KA in mice (with otherwise normal gross behavior) is a novel finding which suggests the induction of survival mechanisms to partly counteract the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus. PMID:26044520

  14. Subtype selective NMDA receptor antagonists induce recovery of synapses lost following exposure to HIV-1 Tat

    PubMed Central

    Shin, AH; Kim, HJ; Thayer, SA

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Neurocognitive disorders afflict approximately 20% of HIV-infected patients. HIV-1-infected cells in the brain shed viral proteins such as transactivator of transcription (Tat). Tat elicits cell death and synapse loss via processes initiated by NMDA receptor activation but mediated by separate downstream signalling pathways. Subunit selective NMDA receptor antagonists may differentially modulate survival relative to synaptic changes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Tat-evoked cell death was quantified by measuring propidium iodide uptake into rat hippocampal neurons in culture. The effects of Tat on synaptic changes were measured using an imaging-based assay that quantified clusters of the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density 95 fused to green fluorescent protein. KEY RESULTS Dizocilpine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, inhibited Tat-induced synapse loss, subsequent synapse recovery and Tat-induced cell death with comparable potencies. Memantine (10 µM) and ifenprodil (10 µM), which preferentially inhibit GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, protected from Tat-induced cell death with no effect on synapse loss. Surprisingly, memantine and ifenprodil induced synapse recovery in the presence of Tat. In contrast, the GluN2A-prefering antagonist TCN201 prevented synapse loss and recovery with no effect on cell death. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Synapse loss is a protective mechanism that enables the cell to cope with excess excitatory input. Thus, memantine and ifenprodil are promising neuroprotective drugs because they spare synaptic changes and promote survival. These GluN2B-preferring drugs induced recovery from Tat-evoked synapse loss, suggesting that synaptic pharmacology changed during the neurotoxic process. NMDA receptor subtypes differentially participate in the adaptation and death induced by excitotoxic insult. PMID:22142193

  15. TNF-α receptor antagonist attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    YANG, NENGLI; LIANG, YAFENG; YANG, PEI; WANG, WEIJIAN; ZHANG, XUEZHENG; WANG, JUNLU

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), a common clinical in aged patients, is characterized by deficits in cognitive functions in patients following anesthesia and surgery. It has been demonstrated that isoflurane may lead to cognitive impairment in aged rats; however, effective clinical interventions for preventing this disorder are limited. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has been suggested to be involved in neuroinflammation as well as the development of POCD. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate whether TNF-α signaling is involved in the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats, and whether TNF-α receptor antagonist are able to attenuate isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. A population of 20-month-old rats were administered TNF-α receptor antagonist R-7050 or an equal volume of saline by intraperitoneal injection 12 h prior to exposure to isoflurane to model cognitive impairment following anesthesia in old patients. Then the rats were exposed to 1.3% isoflurane for 4 h. In the control group, rats showed impaired cognitive functions evaluated by Morris water maze assay after isoflurane exposure. Furthermore, isoflurane exposure induced marked upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 in the hippocampus tissue. In the experimental group, intracisternal administration of TNF-α receptor antagonist R-7050 significantly attenuated isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Further investigation revealed that intracisternal administration of TNF-α receptor antagonist R-7050 notably suppressed isoflurane-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling. Collectively, the present results suggest that TNF-α receptor antagonist may serve as a potential agent for the prevention of anesthesia-induced cognitive decline in aged patients. PMID:27347079

  16. Liver X receptor β activation induces pyroptosis of human and murine colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Derangère, V; Chevriaux, A; Courtaut, F; Bruchard, M; Berger, H; Chalmin, F; Causse, S Z; Limagne, E; Végran, F; Ladoire, S; Simon, B; Boireau, W; Hichami, A; Apetoh, L; Mignot, G; Ghiringhelli, F; Rébé, C

    2014-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) have been proposed to have some anticancer properties, through molecular mechanisms that remain elusive. Here we report for the first time that LXR ligands induce caspase-1-dependent cell death of colon cancer cells. Caspase-1 activation requires Nod-like-receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and ATP-mediated P2 × 7 receptor activation. Surprisingly, LXRβ is mainly located in the cytoplasm and has a non-genomic role by interacting with pannexin 1 leading to ATP secretion. Finally, LXR ligands have an antitumoral effect in a mouse colon cancer model, dependent on the presence of LXRβ, pannexin 1, NLRP3 and caspase-1 within the tumor cells. Our results demonstrate that LXRβ, through pannexin 1 interaction, can specifically induce caspase-1-dependent colon cancer cell death by pyroptosis. PMID:25124554

  17. Dual-specific Phosphatase-6 (Dusp6) and ERK Mediate AMPA Receptor-induced Oligodendrocyte Death*

    PubMed Central

    Domercq, Maria; Alberdi, Elena; Sánchez-Gómez, Maria Victoria; Ariz, Usue; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the CNS, are highly vulnerable to glutamate excitotoxicity, a mechanism involved in tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Thus, understanding oligodendrocyte death at the molecular level is important to develop new therapeutic approaches to treat the disease. Here, using microarray analysis and quantitative PCR, we observed that dual-specific phosphatase-6 (Dusp6), an extracellular regulated kinase-specific phosphatase, is up-regulated in oligodendrocyte cultures as well as in optic nerves after AMPA receptor activation. In turn, Dusp6 is overexpressed in optic nerves from multiple sclerosis patients before the appearance of evident damage in this structure. We further analyzed the role of Dusp6 and ERK signaling in excitotoxic oligodendrocyte death and observed that AMPA receptor activation induces a rapid increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Blocking Dusp6 expression, which enhances ERK1/2 phosphorylation, significantly diminished AMPA receptor-induced oligodendrocyte death. In contrast, MAPK/ERK pathway inhibition with UO126 significantly potentiates excitotoxic oligodendrocyte death and increases cytochrome c release, mitochondrial depolarization, and mitochondrial calcium overload produced by AMPA receptor stimulation. Upstream analysis demonstrated that MAPK/ERK signaling alters AMPA receptor properties. Indeed, Dusp6 overexpression as well as incubation with UO126 produced an increase in AMPA receptor-induced inward currents and cytosolic calcium overload. Together, these data suggest that levels of phosphorylated ERK, controlled by Dusp6 phosphatase, regulate glutamate receptor permeability and oligodendroglial excitotoxicity. Therefore, targeting Dusp6 may be a useful strategy to prevent oligodendrocyte death in multiple sclerosis and other diseases involving CNS white matter. PMID:21300799

  18. Muscarinic Type 3 Receptor Induces Cytoprotective Signaling in Salivary Gland Cells through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kajiya, Mikihito; Ichimonji, Isao; Min, Christine; Zhu, Tongbo; Jin, Jun-O; Yu, Qing; Almazrooa, Soulafa A.; Cha, Seunghee

    2012-01-01

    Muscarinic type 3 receptor (M3R) plays a pivotal role in the induction of glandular fluid secretions. Although M3R is often the target of autoantibodies in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS), chemical agonists for M3R are clinically used to stimulate saliva secretion in patients with SjS. Aside from its activity in promoting glandular fluid secretion, however, it is unclear whether activation of M3R is related to other biological events in SjS. This study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of chemical agonist-mediated M3R activation on apoptosis induced in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. Carbachol (CCh), a muscarinic receptor-specific agonist, abrogated tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced apoptosis through pathways involving caspase 3/7, but its cytoprotective effect was decreased by a M3R antagonist, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, or an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Ligation of M3R with CCh transactivated EGFR and phosphorylated ERK and Akt, the downstream targets of EGFR. Inhibition of intracellular calcium release or protein kinase C δ, both of which are involved in the cell signaling of M3R-mediated fluid secretion, did not affect CCh-induced ERK or Akt phosphorylation. CCh stimulated Src phosphorylation and binding to EGFR. A Src inhibitor attenuated the CCh/M3R-induced cytoprotective effect and EGFR transactivation cascades. Overall, these results indicated that CCh/M3R induced transactivation of EGFR through Src activation leading to ERK and Akt phosphorylation, which in turn suppressed caspase 3/7-mediated apoptotic signals in HSG cells. This study, for the first time, proposes that CCh-mediated M3R activation can promote not only fluid secretion but also survival of salivary gland cells in the inflammatory context of SjS. PMID:22511543

  19. HIGH GLUCOSE INDUCES TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN MONOCYTES: MECHANISM OF ACTIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Hyperglycemia induced inflammation is central in diabetes complications and monocytes are important in orchestrating these effects. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune responses as well as inflammation. However, there is a paucity of data examining the expression a...

  20. Cannabinoid receptor signaling induces proliferation but not neurogenesis in the mouse olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hutch, Chelsea R; Hegg, Colleen C

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium actively generates neurons through adulthood, and this neurogenesis is tightly regulated by multiple factors that are not fully defined. Here, we examined the role of cannabinoids in the regulation of neurogenesis in the mouse olfactory epithelium. In vivo proliferation and cell lineage studies were performed in mice (C57BL/6 and cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptor deficient strains) treated with cannabinoids directly (WIN 55,212-2 or 2-arachidonylglycerol ether) or indirectly via inhibition of cannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes. Cannabinoids increased proliferation in neonatal and adult mice, and had no effect on proliferation in cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptor deficient adult mice. Pretreatment with the cannabinoid type1 receptor antagonist AM251 decreased cannabinoid-induced proliferation in adult mice. Despite a cannabinoid-induced increase in proliferation, there was no change in newly generated neurons or non-neuronal cells 16 d post-treatment. However, cannabinoid administration increased apoptotic cell death at 72 hours post-treatment and by 16 d the level of apoptosis dropped to control levels. Thus, cannabinoids induce proliferation, but do not induce neurogenesis nor non-neuronal cell generation. Cannabinoid receptor signaling may regulate the balance of progenitor cell survival and proliferation in adult mouse olfactory epithelium. PMID:27606334

  1. Profound and rapid reduction in body temperature induced by the melanocortin receptor agonists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid red...

  2. Hepatocyte Toll-like receptor 4 regulates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and thought to contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. Mice lacking Tlr4s are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammat...

  3. [Opioid μ receptors mediate the stress-induced spatial reference memory impairment].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lan-Qin; Wen, Jie; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-04-25

    Learning/memory impairment is one of the most serious problems induced by stress, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Opiates and opioid receptors are implicated in multiple physiological functions including learning and memory. However, there is no clear evidence whether the endogenous opioid system is involved in the formation of the stress-induced spatial reference memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of μ opioid receptor in the stress-induced spatial reference memory impairment by means of Morris water maze (MWM) test in a mouse elevated platform stress model. The mice were trained in the MWM for four trials a session for 4 consecutive days after receiving the elevated platform stress, and intracerebroventricular injection of μ opioid receptor agonist DAMGO, antagonist CTAP or saline. Retention of the spatial training was assessed 24 h after the last training session with a 60-s free-swim probe trial using a new starting position. The results showed that intracerebroventricular injection of μ opioid receptor agonist DAMGO but not antagonist CTAP before MWM training impaired the memory retrieval of mice. Elevated platform stress before MWM training also impaired memory retrieval, which could be reversed by pre-injection of CTAP, and aggravated by DAMGO. These results suggest that endogenous opioid system may play a crucial role in the formation of the stress-induced memory impairment.

  4. Toll Like Receptor-4 Mediates Vascular Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular dysfunction is a major complication of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The current studies were undertaken to determine if inflammatory responses are activated in the vasculature of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO), and if so, whether Toll Like Receptor-4 (TLR4), a ke...

  5. Aldosterone-Induced Vascular Remodeling and Endothelial Dysfunction Require Functional Angiotensin Type 1a Receptors.

    PubMed

    Briet, Marie; Barhoumi, Tlili; Mian, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman; Coelho, Suellen C; Ouerd, Sofiane; Rautureau, Yohann; Coffman, Thomas M; Paradis, Pierre; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the role of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AGTR1a) in vascular injury induced by aldosterone activation of mineralocorticoid receptors in Agtr1a(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with aldosterone for 14 days while receiving 1% NaCl in drinking water. Aldosterone increased systolic blood pressure (BP) by ≈30 mm Hg in WT mice and ≈50 mm Hg in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Aldosterone induced aortic and small artery remodeling, impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in WT mice, and enhanced fibronectin and collagen deposition and vascular inflammation. None of these vascular effects were observed in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Aldosterone effects were prevented by the AGTR1 antagonist losartan in WT mice. In contrast to aldosterone, norepinephrine caused similar BP increase and mesenteric artery remodeling in WT and Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Agtr1a(-/-) mice infused with aldosterone did not increase sodium excretion in response to a sodium chloride challenge, suggesting that sodium retention could contribute to the exaggerated BP rise induced by aldosterone. Agtr1a(-/-) mice had decreased mesenteric artery expression of the calcium-activated potassium channel Kcnmb1, which may enhance myogenic tone and together with sodium retention, exacerbate BP responses to aldosterone/salt in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. We conclude that although aldosterone activation of mineralocorticoid receptors raises BP more in Agtr1a(-/-) mice, AGTR1a is required for mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation to induce vascular remodeling and inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

  6. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extracts Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dimerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic has been used as a folk medicine for a long history. Numerous studies demonstrated that garlic extracts and its sulfur-containing compounds inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation induced by various receptor agonist including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These effects suggest that garl...

  7. MECHANISMS OF ZN-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECHANISMS OF Zn-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)
    James M. Samet*, Lee M. Graves? and Weidong Wu?. *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and ?Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North C...

  8. Tributyltin exposure influences predatory behavior, neurotransmitter content and receptor expression in Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ang; Wang, Xinli; Zuo, Zhenghong; Cai, Jiali; Wang, Chonggang

    2013-03-15

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous marine contaminant due to its extensive use as a biocide, fungicide and antifouling agent. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBT has not been extensively studied, especially in marine fish. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of TBT (10, 100 and 1000 ng/L) on the predatory behavior of Sebastiscus marmoratus and to look into the mechanism involved. The results showed that TBT exposure depressed predatory activity after 50 days exposure. Dopamine levels in the fish brains increased in a dose-dependent manner, while 5-hydroxytryptamine and norepinephrine levels decreased significantly in the TBT exposure group compared to the control. The mRNA levels of dopamine receptors, which have functions such as cognition, motor activity, motivation and reward, mood, attention and learning, were significantly down-regulated by TBT exposure. Although the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters, including glutamate, did not show marked alteration, the expression of the glutamatergic signaling pathway such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor, calmodulin, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases-II and cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element binding protein, was significantly reduced by TBT exposure, which indicated that central nerve activities were in a state of depression, thus affecting the predatory activities of the fish.

  9. Serotonergic modulation in neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin: effect on the 5HT2C receptor.

    PubMed

    Baptista-de-Souza, Daniela; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Zanardelli, Matteo; Micheli, Laura; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz; Canto-de-Souza, Azair; Ghelardini, Carla

    2014-07-15

    Fluoxetine has been shown to be effective in clinical and experimental studies of neuropathic pain. Besides to increase serotonin levels in the synaptic cleft, fluoxetine is able to block the serotonergic 5-HT2C receptor subtype, which in turn has been involved in the modulation of neuropathic pain. This study investigated the effect of repeated treatments with fluoxetine on the neuropathic nociceptive response induced by oxaliplatin and the effects of both treatments on 5-HT2C receptor mRNA expression and protein levels in the rat spinal cord (SC), rostral ventral medulla (RVM), midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and amygdala (Amy). Nociception was assessed by paw-pressure, cold plate and Von Frey tests. Fluoxetine prevented mechanical hypersensitivity and pain threshold alterations induced by oxaliplatin but did not prevent the impairment in weight gain induced by this anticancer drug. Ex vivo analysis revealed that oxaliplatin increased the 5-HT2C receptor mRNA expression and protein levels in the SC and PAG. Similar effects were observed in fluoxetine-treated animals but only within the PAG. While oxaliplatin decreased the 5-HT2C mRNA expression levels in the Amy, fluoxetine increased their protein levels in this area. Fluoxetine impaired the oxaliplatin effects on the 5-HT2C receptor mRNA expression in the SC and Amy and protein levels in the SC. All treatments increased of 5-HT2C receptor mRNA expression and protein levels in the PAG. These results suggest that the effects of fluoxetine on neuropathic pain induced by oxaliplatin are associated with quantitative changes in the 5-HT2C receptors located within important areas of the nociceptive system.

  10. Involvement of prefrontal AMPA receptors in encounter stimulation-induced hyperactivity in isolation-reared mice.

    PubMed

    Araki, Ryota; Ago, Yukio; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nishiyama, Saki; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Oka, Satoshi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2014-06-01

    We recently showed that social encounter stimulation induces hyperactivity in mice reared in social isolation from early life and this is associated with the transient activation of prefrontal dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In the present study, we examined the effect of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist 2, 3-dioxo-6-nitro-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX) on encounter-induced behavioural and neurochemical changes to study the role of the receptor in abnormal behaviours in isolation-reared mice. The encounter to an intruder mouse induced hyperactivity with transient increases in prefrontal dopamine and serotonin levels in isolation-reared mice. NBQX attenuated the encounter-induced hyperactivity and the associated neurochemical changes in isolation-reared mice. In addition, NBQX reduced aggressive behaviour and cognitive impairment in isolation-reared mice, but did not affect depressive-like behaviour or spontaneous hyper-locomotion in these animals. The AMPA receptor agonist (S)-AMPA increased prefrontal dopamine and serotonin release, and this effect was higher in isolation-reared mice than in the group-reared mice, suggesting higher prefrontal AMPA receptor activity in isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, isolation rearing increased the expression of AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1, GluR2 and GluR3) and GluR1 Ser845 phosphorylation in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus or nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results suggest that an increase in AMPA receptor activity in the prefrontal cortex contributes to some, but not all, abnormal behaviours in isolation-reared mice.

  11. High-Content Assay Multiplexing for Toxicity Screening in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Fabian Alexander; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Bittner, Michael; Rusyn, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Cell-based high-content screening (HCS) assays have become an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional in vitro and in vivo testing in pharmaceutical drug development and toxicological safety assessment. The time- and cost-effectiveness of HCS assays, combined with the organotypic nature of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cells, open new opportunities to employ physiologically relevant in vitro model systems to improve screening for potential chemical hazards. In this study, we used two human iPSC types, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, to test various high-content and molecular assay combinations for their applicability in a multiparametric screening format. Effects on cardiomyocyte beat frequency were characterized by calcium flux measurements for up to 90 min. Subsequent correlation with intracellular cAMP levels was used to determine if the effects on cardiac physiology were G-protein-coupled receptor dependent. In addition, we utilized high-content cell imaging to simultaneously determine cell viability, mitochondrial integrity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in both cell types. Kinetic analysis indicated that ROS formation is best detectable 30 min following initial treatment, whereas cytotoxic effects were most stable after 24 h. For hepatocytes, high-content imaging was also used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cytoskeletal integrity, as well as mitochondrial integrity and the potential for lipid accumulation. Lipid accumulation, a marker for hepatic steatosis, was most reliably detected 48 h following treatment with test compounds. Overall, our results demonstrate how a compendium of assays can be utilized for quantitative screening of chemical effects in iPSC cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes and enable rapid and cost-efficient multidimensional biological profiling of toxicity. PMID:26539751

  12. High-Content Assay Multiplexing for Toxicity Screening in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Fabian Alexander; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Bittner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cell-based high-content screening (HCS) assays have become an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional in vitro and in vivo testing in pharmaceutical drug development and toxicological safety assessment. The time- and cost-effectiveness of HCS assays, combined with the organotypic nature of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cells, open new opportunities to employ physiologically relevant in vitro model systems to improve screening for potential chemical hazards. In this study, we used two human iPSC types, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, to test various high-content and molecular assay combinations for their applicability in a multiparametric screening format. Effects on cardiomyocyte beat frequency were characterized by calcium flux measurements for up to 90 min. Subsequent correlation with intracellular cAMP levels was used to determine if the effects on cardiac physiology were G-protein-coupled receptor dependent. In addition, we utilized high-content cell imaging to simultaneously determine cell viability, mitochondrial integrity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in both cell types. Kinetic analysis indicated that ROS formation is best detectable 30 min following initial treatment, whereas cytotoxic effects were most stable after 24 h. For hepatocytes, high-content imaging was also used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cytoskeletal integrity, as well as mitochondrial integrity and the potential for lipid accumulation. Lipid accumulation, a marker for hepatic steatosis, was most reliably detected 48 h following treatment with test compounds. Overall, our results demonstrate how a compendium of assays can be utilized for quantitative screening of chemical effects in iPSC cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes and enable rapid and cost-efficient multidimensional biological profiling of toxicity. PMID:26539751

  13. Influence of apoE content on receptor binding of large, bouyant LDL in subjects with different LDL subclass phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, C M; Levine, G A; Blanche, P J; Ishida, B Y; Krauss, R M

    1998-03-01

    We investigated the influence of apolipoprotein (apo) E-containing particles on LDL receptor binding of large, buoyant LDL subfractions (LDL I) from subjects with predominantly large (phenotype A) and small (phenotype B) LDL particles. Direct binding by human fibroblast LDL receptors was tested at 4 degrees C before and after removal of apoE-containing particles by immunoaffinity chromatography. The binding affinity of total LDL I in phenotype B was greater than that in phenotype A (Kd of 1.83+/-0.3 and 3.43+/-0.9 nmol/L, respectively, P<.05). LDL I from phenotype B subjects had a higher apoE to apoB molar ratio than did that from phenotype A (0.16+/-0.04 versus 0.06+/-0.02, P<.05). Nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of apoE-containing LDL I isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography revealed a substantially larger peak particle diameter than in apoE-free LDL I, and comparison of LDL I composition before and after immunoaffinity chromatography suggested an increase in triglyceride content of apoE-containing particles. After removal of these particles, there was a greater than twofold reduction in LDL receptor affinity of phenotype B LDL (Kd of 1.83+/-0.3 to 3.76+/-0.6, P<.01), whereas in phenotype A no change was observed (Kd of 3.43+/-0.9 to 3.57+/-0.4, respectively). The receptor affinity of apoE-free LDL I from phenotype A and B subjects did not differ. These findings confirm that large, buoyant LDL particles from phenotype B subjects have a higher LDL receptor affinity than does LDL I from phenotype A subjects and suggest that this difference is due to an increased content of large, triglyceride-enriched, apoE-containing lipoproteins. It is possible that the accumulation of these particles reflects abnormalities in the metabolism of remnant lipoproteins that contribute to atherosclerosis risk in phenotype B subjects.

  14. Activation of spinal cannabinoid CB2 receptors inhibits neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, H; Ikegami, M; Kai, M; Ohsawa, M; Kamei, J

    2013-10-10

    The role of spinal cannabinoid systems in neuropathic pain of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice was studied. In normal mice, injection of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 (1 and 3μg, i.t.) dose-dependently prolonged the tail-flick latency, whereas there were no changes with the injection of either cannabinoid CB1 (AM 251, 1 μg, i.t.) or CB2 (AM 630, 4 μg, i.t.) receptor antagonists. AM 251 (1 μg, i.t.), but not AM 630 (4 μg, i.t.), significantly inhibited the prolongation of the tail-flick latency induced by WIN-55,212-2 (3 μg, i.t.). In STZ-induced diabetic mice, the tail-flick latency was significantly shorter than that in normal mice. A low dose of WIN-55,212-2 (1 μg, i.t.) significantly recovered the tail-flick latency in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The effect of WIN-55,212-2 (1 μg, i.t.) in STZ-induced diabetic mice was significantly inhibited by AM 630 (4 μg, i.t.), but not AM 251 (1 μg). The selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist L-759,656 (19 and 38 μg, i.t.) also dose-dependently recovered the tail-flick latency in STZ-induced diabetic mice, and this recovery was inhibited by AM 630 (4 μg, i.t.). The protein levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors and diacylglycerol lipase α (DGL-α), the enzyme that synthesizes endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in the spinal cord were examined using Western blotting. The protein levels of both cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors were increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, whereas the protein level of DGL-α was significantly decreased. These results indicate that spinal cannabinoid systems are changed in diabetic mice and suggest that cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists might have an ability to recover diabetic neuropathic pain.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} agonist-induced down-regulation of hepatic glucocorticoid receptor expression in SD rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiang; Li Ming; Sun Weiping; Bi Yan; Cai Mengyin; Liang Hua; Yu Qiuqiong; He Xiaoying; Weng Jianping

    2008-04-18

    It was reported that glucocorticoid production was inhibited by fenofibrate through suppression of type-1 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression in liver. The inhibition might be a negative-feedback regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}), which is quickly induced by glucocorticoid in the liver. However, it is not clear if GR expression is changed by fenofibrate-induced PPAR{alpha} activation. In this study, we tested this possibility in the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats. GR expression was reduced by fenofibrate in a time- and does-dependent manner. The inhibition was observed in liver, but not in fat and muscle. The corticosterone level in the blood was increased significantly by fenofibrate. These effects of fenofibrate were abolished by PPAR{alpha} inhibitor MK886, suggesting that fenofibrate activated through PPAR{alpha}. In conclusion, inhibition of GR expression may represent a new molecular mechanism for the negative feedback regulation of GR activity by PPAR{alpha}.

  16. Spinal D1-like dopamine receptors modulate NMDA receptor-induced hyperexcitability and NR1 subunit phosphorylation at serine 889.

    PubMed

    Aira, Zigor; Barrenetxea, Teresa; Buesa, Itsaso; Martínez, Endika; Azkue, Jon Jatsu

    2016-04-01

    Activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in dorsal horn neurons is recognized as a fundamental mechanism of central sensitization and pathologic pain. This study assessed the influence of dopaminergic, D1-like receptor-mediated input to the spinal dorsal horn on NMDAR function. Spinal superfusion with selective NMDAR agonist cis-ACPD significantly increased C-fiber-evoked field potentials in rats subjected to spinal nerve ligation (SNL), but not in sham-operated rats. Simultaneous application of D1LR antagonist SCH 23390 dramatically reduced hyperexcitability induced by cis-ACPD. Furthermore, cis-ACPD-induced hyperexcitability seen in nerve-ligated rats could be mimicked in unin-jured rats during stimulation of D1LRs by agonist SKF 38393 at subthreshold concentration. Phosphorylation of NMDAR subunit NR1 at serine 889 at postsynaptic sites was found to be increased in dorsal horn neurons 90 min after SNL, as assessed by increased co-localization with postsynaptic marker PSD-95. Increased NR1 phosphorylation was attenuated in the presence of SCH 23390 in the spinal superfusate. The present results support that D1LRs regulate most basic determinants of NMDAR function in dorsal horn neurons, suggesting a potential mechanism whereby dopaminergic input to the dorsal horn can modulate central sensitization and pathologic pain.

  17. The serotonin 2C receptor potently modulates the head-twitch response in mice induced by a phenethylamine hallucinogen

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Clinton E.; Olaghere da Silva, Uade B.; Gresch, Paul J.; Watt, Erin E.; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Hallucinogenic serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor partial agonists, such as (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-phenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI), induce a frontal cortex-dependent head-twitch response (HTR) in rodents, a behavioral proxy of a hallucinogenic response that is blocked by 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. In addition to 5-HT2A receptors, DOI and most other serotonin-like hallucinogens have high affinity and potency as partial agonists at 5-HT2C receptors. Objectives We tested for involvement of 5-HT2C receptors in the HTR induced by DOI. Results Comparison of 5-HT2C receptor knockout and wild-type littermates revealed an approximately 50% reduction in DOI-induced HTR in knockout mice. Also, pretreatment with either the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB206553 or SB242084 eradicated a twofold difference in DOI-induced HTR between the standard inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, and decreased the DOI-induced HTR by at least 50% in both strains. None of several measures of 5-HT2A receptors in frontal cortex explained the strain difference, including 5-HT2A receptor density, Gαq or Gαi/o protein levels, phospholipase C activity, or DOI-induced expression of Egr1 and Egr2. 5-HT2C receptor density in the brains of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J was also equivalent, suggesting that 5-HT2C receptor-mediated intracellular signaling or other physiological modulators of the HTR may explain the strain difference in response to DOI. Conclusions We conclude that the HTR to DOI in mice is strongly modulated by 5-HT2C receptor activity. This novel finding invites reassessment of hallucinogenic mechanisms involving 5-HT2 receptors. PMID:20165943

  18. Early role of the κ opioid receptor in ethanol-induced reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Acevedo, Ma Belén; Spear, Norman E

    2012-03-20

    Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects of ethanol are significantly modulated by μ and δ opioid receptors, whereas μ but not δ receptors are involved in the motor stimulant effects of ethanol during early development. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system in the motivational effects of ethanol has been much less explored. The present study assessed, in preweanling (infant) rats, the modulatory role of the KOR system in several paradigms sensitive to ethanol-induced reinforcement. Kappa opioid activation and blockade were examined in second-order conditioned place preference with varied timing before conditioning and with varied ethanol doses. The role of KOR on ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol-induced taste conditioning was also explored. The experiments were based on the assumption that ethanol concurrently induces appetitive and aversive effects and that the latter may be mediated by activation of kappa receptors. The main result was that blockade of kappa function facilitated the expression of appetitive ethanol reinforcement in terms of tactile and taste conditioning. The effects of kappa activation on ethanol conditioning seemed to be independent from ethanol's stimulant effects. Kappa opioid activation potentiated the motor depressing effects of ethanol but enhanced motor activity in control subjects. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a reduced function of the KOR system in nondependent subjects should attenuate the aversive consequences of ethanol.

  19. Histamine H4 receptor antagonism reduces hapten-induced scratching behaviour but not inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, Kristine; Wendorff, Stephanie; Sander, Kerstin; Stark, Holger; Gutzmer, Ralf; Werfel, Thomas; Kietzmann, Manfred; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the histamine H(4) receptor antagonist JNJ 7777120 (1-[(5-chloro-1H-indol-2-yl)carbonyl]-4-methylpiperazine) were tested in two models of allergic contact dermatitis. Dermatitis was induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, which differ in their Th1-Th2 profile in that way that 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene is a classical contact allergen with a pronounced Th1-mediated inflammation, while the respiratory chemical allergen toluene-2,4-diisocyanate induces a Th2-dominated inflammation. JNJ 7777120 (15 mg/kg) administered 2 h and 30 min before and 1 h after challenge did not reduce the hapten-induced ear swelling determined 24 h after challenge. This was confirmed by histological evaluation of the ear skin. A repeated administration of the haptens to the rostral part of the back of sensitized animals resulted in a frequent scratching behaviour. An administration of JNJ 7777120 (15 mg/kg) 30 min before challenge reduced this hapten-induced scratching significantly. The H(1) receptor antagonist cetirizine also reduced the scratching bouts in sensitized mice. A combination of H(1) and H(4) receptor antagonists resulted in the strongest inhibition of scratching behaviour associated with allergic dermatitis. These results indicate that H(4) receptor antagonism fails to reduce the allergic inflammatory response but strongly inhibits allergen-induced itch. Thus, a combination of H(4) and H(1) receptor antagonism might be a new strategy to treat pruritus related to allergic diseases like atopic dermatitis.

  20. Enhanced AMPA receptor activity increases operant alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Reginald; Fisher, Kristen R; Durant, Brandon; Besheer, Joyce; Hodge, Clyde W

    2013-01-01

    Long-term alcohol exposure produces neuroadaptations that contribute to the progression of alcohol abuse disorders. Chronic alcohol consumption results in strengthened excitatory neurotransmission and increased α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPA) receptor signaling in animal models. However, the mechanistic role of enhanced AMPA receptor activity in alcohol-reinforcement and alcohol-seeking behavior remains unclear. This study examined the role of enhanced AMPA receptor function using the selective positive allosteric modulator, aniracetam, in modulating operant alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement. Male alcohol-preferring (P-) rats, trained to self-administer alcohol (15%, v/v) versus water were pre-treated with aniracetam to assess effects on maintenance of alcohol self-administration. To determine reinforcer specificity, P-rats were trained to self-administer sucrose (0.8%, w/v) versus water, and effects of aniracetam were tested. The role of aniracetam in modulating relapse of alcohol-seeking was assessed using a response contingent cue-induced reinstatement procedure in P-rats trained to self-administer 15% alcohol. Aniracetam pre-treatment significantly increased alcohol-reinforced responses relative to vehicle treatment. This increase was not attributed to aniracetam-induced hyperactivity as aniracetam pre-treatment did not alter locomotor activity. AMPA receptor involvement was confirmed because 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (AMPA receptor antagonist) blocked the aniracetam-induced increase in alcohol self-administration. Aniracetam did not alter sucrose-reinforced responses in sucrose-trained P-rats, suggesting that enhanced AMPA receptor activity is selective in modulating the reinforcing function of alcohol. Finally, aniracetam pre-treatment potentiated cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior versus vehicle-treated P-rats. These data suggest that enhanced glutamate activity at AMPA

  1. Oxidative stress effect on progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) binding to PIBF-receptor in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    de la Haba, Carlos; Palacio, José R; Palkovics, Tamas; Szekeres-Barthó, Júlia; Morros, Antoni; Martínez, Paz

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-ligand binding is an essential interaction for biological function. Oxidative stress can modify receptors and/or membrane lipid dynamics, thus altering cell physiological functions. The aim of this study is to analyze how oxidative stress may alter receptor-ligand binding and lipid domain distribution in the case of progesterone-induced blocking factor/progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor. For membrane fluidity regionalization analysis of MEC-1 lymphocytes, two-photon microscopy was used in individual living cells. Lymphocytes were also double stained with AlexaFluor647/progesterone-induced blocking factor and Laurdan to evaluate -induced blocking factor/progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor distribution in the different membrane domains, under oxidative stress. A new procedure has been developed which quantitatively analyzes the regionalization of a membrane receptor among the lipid domains of different fluidity in the plasma membrane. We have been able to establish a new tool which detects and evaluates lipid raft clustering from two-photon microscopy images of individual living cells. We show that binding of progesterone-induced blocking factor to progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor causes a rigidification of plasma membrane which is related to an increase of lipid raft clustering. However, this clustering is inhibited under oxidative stress conditions. In conclusion, oxidative stress decreases membrane fluidity, impairs receptor-ligand binding and reduces lipid raft clustering.

  2. Calcium-sensing receptor induces rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocyte apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yihua; Liu Meina; Li Hong; Shi Sa; Zhao Yajun; Wang Rui; Xu Changqing . E-mail: syh200415@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-12-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) exists in many tissues, and its expression has been identified in rat cardiac tissue. However, Physiological importance and pathophysiological involvement of CaSR in homeostatic regulation of cardiac function are unclear. To investigate the relation of CaSR and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, we examined the role of the CaSR activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) in rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes. Expression of the CaSR protein was observed by Western blot. The apoptotic ratio of rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes was measured with flow cytometry and immunofluorescence techniques. A laser scan confocal microscope was used to detect the intracellular concentration of calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes using the acetoxymethyl ester of fluo-3 (fluo-3/(AM)) as a fluorescent dye. The results showed that GdCl{sub 3} increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal protein kinases (JNK), and p38. GdCl{sub 3} also activated caspase 9 and increased apoptosis in myocyte by increasing [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. In conclusion, these results suggest that CaSR promotes cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and caspase 9 signaling pathways.

  3. Morphine-induced receptor endocytosis in a novel knockin mouse reduces tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joseph A; Bartlett, Selena; He, Li; Nielsen, Carsten K; Chang, Amy M; Kharazia, Viktor; Waldhoer, Maria; Ou, Chrissi J; Taylor, Stacy; Ferwerda, Madeline; Cado, Dragana; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2008-01-22

    Opioid drugs, such as morphine, are among the most effective analgesics available. However, their utility for the treatment of chronic pain is limited by side effects including tolerance and dependence. Morphine acts primarily through the mu-opioid receptor (MOP-R) , which is also a target of endogenous opioids. However, unlike endogenous ligands, morphine fails to promote substantial receptor endocytosis both in vitro, and in vivo. Receptor endocytosis serves at least two important functions in signal transduction. First, desensitization and endocytosis act as an "off" switch by uncoupling receptors from G protein. Second, endocytosis functions as an "on" switch, resensitizing receptors by recycling them to the plasma membrane. Thus, both the off and on function of the MOP-R are altered in response to morphine compared to endogenous ligands. To examine whether the low degree of endocytosis induced by morphine contributes to tolerance and dependence, we generated a knockin mouse that expresses a mutant MOP-R that undergoes morphine-induced endocytosis. Morphine remains an excellent antinociceptive agent in these mice. Importantly, these mice display substantially reduced antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence. These data suggest that opioid drugs with a pharmacological profile similar to morphine but the ability to promote endocytosis could provide analgesia while having a reduced liability for promoting tolerance and dependence.

  4. alpha-1 Adrenergic receptors stimulation induces the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Takeshi; Ihara, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2006-11-01

    The proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is regulated by classical neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, via its own receptors. Previous studies have reported that the depletion of L-norepinephrine decreases the proliferation of NPCs in the adult rat hippocampus and it has been suggested that L-norepinephrine regulates the proliferation of NPCs. However, it remains unknown whether or not adrenergic receptors are involved in the increased proliferation of NPCs. In the present study, an MTT cell proliferation assay was carried out in order to investigate the roles played by adrenergic receptors in the proliferation of NPCs. We demonstrated that L-epinephrine enhanced the proliferation of embryonic NPCs in vitro. In addition, the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist L-phenylephrine was found to enhance the proliferation of NPCs, whereas an alpha-adrenergic antagonist and selective alpha-1 antagonists significantly inhibited cell proliferation increases induced by L-epinephrine and L-phenylephrine. These results suggest that stimulation with alpha-1 adrenergic receptors induces the proliferation of embryonic NPCs.

  5. Effects of endothelin ETA receptor antagonism on granulocyte and lymphocyte accumulation in LPS-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, André L F; Rae, Giles A; Henriques, Maria das Graças M O

    2004-07-01

    Endothelin peptides play active roles in different aspects of inflammation. This study investigates the contribution of endogenous endothelins to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pulmonary inflammation by assessing the influence of ET(A) receptor antagonism on leukocyte accumulation, granulocyte adhesion molecule expression, and chemokine/cytokine modulation. Local pretreatment with BQ-123 or A-127722 (150 pmol), two selective and chemically unrelated endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonists, inhibits neutrophil and eosinophil accumulation in LPS-induced pleurisy at 24 h but not neutrophil migration at 4 h. The effect of endothelin antagonism on neutrophil accumulation at 24 h was concomitant with inhibition of eosinophil and CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte influx. It is surprising that the ET(A) receptor blockade did not inhibit the accumulation of gammadelta T lymphocytes, cells that are important for granulocyte recruitment in this model. Blockade of ET(A) receptors did not influence the expression of adhesion molecules (CD11b, CD49d) on granulocytes but abrogated the increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha levels 4 h after LPS stimulation and also markedly inhibited increases in levels of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1 but not eotaxin/chemokine ligand 11. Thus, acting via ET(A) receptors, endogenous endothelins play an important role in early cytokine/chemokine production and on granulocyte and lymphocyte mobilization in LPS-induced pleurisy.

  6. Histamine receptors expressed in circulating progenitor cells have reciprocal actions in ligation-induced arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Wang, Ke-Yong; Tanimoto, Akihide; Guo, Xin; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2013-09-01

    Histamine is synthesized as a low-molecular-weight amine from L-histidine by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). Recently, we demonstrated that carotid artery-ligated HDC gene-deficient mice (HDC(-/-)) showed less neointimal formation than wild-type (WT) mice, indicating that histamine participates in the process of arteriosclerosis. However, little is known about the roles of histamine-specific receptors (HHRs) in arteriosclerosis. To define the roles of HHRs in arteriosclerosis, we investigated intimal remodeling in ligated carotid arteries of HHR-deficient mice (H1R(-/-) or H2R(-/-)). Quantitative analysis showed that H1R(-/-) mice had significantly less arteriosclerogenesis, whereas H2R(-/-) mice had more, as compared with WT mice. Bone marrow transplantation from H1R(-/-) or H2R(-/-) to WT mice confirmed the above observation. Furthermore, the increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), adhesion molecules and liver X receptor (LXR)-related inflammatory signaling factors, including Toll-like receptor (TLR3), interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R), was consistent with the arteriosclerotic phenotype of H2R(-/-) mice. Peripheral progenitor cells in H2R(-/-) mice accelerate ligation-induced arteriosclerosis through their regulation of MCP-1, PDGF, adhesion molecules and LXR-related inflammatory signaling factors. In contrast, peripheral progenitor cells act to suppress arteriosclerosis in H1R(-/-) mice, indicating that HHRs reciprocally regulate inflammation in the ligation-induced arteriosclerosis.

  7. Ligustrazine attenuates inflammation and the associated chemokines and receptors in ovalbumine-induced mouse asthma model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ying; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hongying; Du, Xin; Luo, Qingli; Sun, Jing; Liu, Feng; Li, Mihui; Xu, Fei; Wei, Kai; Dong, Jingcheng

    2016-09-01

    Ligustrazine which is isolated from Chinese herb ligusticum chuanxiong hort, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for asthma treatment. In this study, we aim to observe the effect of ligustrazine on inflammation and the associated chemokines and receptors in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse asthma model. Our data demonstrates that ligustrazine suppresses airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and lung inflammation in OVA-induced mouse asthma model. Ligustrazine also induces inhibition of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. In addition, ligustrazine significantly reduces IL-4, IL-5, IL-17A, CCL3, CCL19 and CCL21 level in BALF of asthma mice. Furthermore, ligustrazine induces down-regulation of CCL19 receptor CCR7, STAT3 and p38 MAPK protein expression. Collectively, these results suggest that ligustrazine is effective in attenuation of allergic airway inflammatory changes and related chemokines and receptors in OVA-induced asthma model, and this action might be associated with inhibition of STAT3 and p38 MAPK pathway, which indicates that ligustrazine may be used as a potential therapeutic method to treat asthma. PMID:27438894

  8. Role of direct estrogen receptor signaling in wear particle-induced osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Nich, Christophe; Rao, Allison J.; Valladares, Roberto D.; Li, Chenguang; Christman, Jane E.; Antonios, Joseph K.; Yao, Zhenyu; Zwingenberger, Stefan; Petite, Hervé; Hamadouche, Moussa; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen withdrawal following surgical ovariectomy was recently shown to mitigate particle-induced osteolysis in the murine calvarial model. Currently, we hypothesize that estrogen receptors (ERs) were involved in this paradoxical phenomenon. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated polyethylene (PE) particle-induced osteolysis in the murine calvarial model, using wild type (WT) C57BL6J female mice, ERα deficient (ERαKO) mice, and WT mice either treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) or with the ER pan-antagonist ICI 182,780. According to micro-CT and histomorphometry, we showed that bone resorption was consistently altered in both ERαKO and ICI 182,780 treated mice as compared to WT and E2 groups. Then, we demonstrated that ER disruption consistently decreased both PE and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particle-induced production of TNF-α by murine macrophages in vitro. Similar results were obtained following ER blockade using ICI 182,780 in RAW 264.7 and WT macrophages. ER disruption and pre treatment with ICI 182,780 resulted in a consistent down-regulation of particle-induced TNF-α mRNA expression relative to WT macrophages or untreated RAW cells. These results indicate that the response to wear particles involves estrogen receptors in female mice, as part of macrophage activation. Estrogen receptors may be considered as a future therapeutic target for particle-induced osteolysis. PMID:23113918

  9. Development and Validation of a High-Content Screening Assay to Identify Inhibitors of Cytoplasmic Dynein-Mediated Transport of Glucocorticoid Receptor to the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Sunita N.; Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S.; Day, Billy W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Rapid ligand-induced trafficking of glucocorticoid nuclear hormone receptor (GR) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus is an extensively studied model for intracellular retrograde cargo transport employed in constructive morphogenesis and many other cellular functions. Unfortunately, potent and selective small-molecule disruptors of this process are lacking, which has restricted pharmacological investigations. We describe here the development and validation of a 384-well high-content screening (HCS) assay to identify inhibitors of the rapid ligand-induced retrograde translocation of cytoplasmic glucocorticoid nuclear hormone receptor green fluorescent fusion protein (GR-GFP) into the nuclei of 3617.4 mouse mammary adenocarcinoma cells. We selected 3617.4 cells, because they express GR-GFP under the control of a tetracycline (Tet)-repressible promoter and are exceptionally amenable to image acquisition and analysis procedures. Initially, we investigated the time-dependent expression of GR-GFP in 3617.4 cells under Tet-on and Tet-off control to determine the optimal conditions to measure dexamethasone (Dex)-induced GR-GFP nuclear translocation on the ArrayScan-VTI automated imaging platform. We then miniaturized the assay into a 384-well format and validated the performance of the GR-GFP nuclear translocation HCS assay in our 3-day assay signal window and dimethylsulfoxide validation tests. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays an essential role in the regulation of GR steroid binding affinity and ligand-induced retrograde trafficking to the nucleus. We verified that the GR-GFP HCS assay captured the concentration-dependent inhibition of GR-GFP nuclear translocation by 17-AAG, a benzoquinone ansamycin that selectively blocks the binding and hydrolysis of ATP by Hsp90. We screened the 1280 compound library of pharmacologically active compounds set in the Dex-induced GR-GFP nuclear translocation assay and used the multi-parameter HCS data to

  10. Arctigenin protects cultured cortical neurons from glutamate-induced neurodegeneration by binding to kainate receptor.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young P; Kim, So R; Choi, Young H; Kim, Jinwoong; Kim, Sang G; Markelonis, George J; Oh, Tae H; Kim, Young C

    2002-04-15

    We previously reported that arctigenin, a lignan isolated from the bark of Torreya nucifera, showed significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced toxicity in primary cultured rat cortical cells. In this study, the mode of action of arctigenin was investigated using primary cultures of rat cortical cells as an in vitro system. Arctigenin significantly attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity when added prior to or after an excitotoxic glutamate challenge. The lignan protected cultured neuronal cells more selectively from neurotoxicity induced by kainic acid than by N-methyl-D-aspartate. The binding of [(3)H]-kainate to its receptors was significantly inhibited by arctigenin in a competitive manner. Furthermore, arctigenin directly scavenged free radicals generated by excess glutamate and successfully reduced the level of cellular peroxide in cultured neurons. These results suggest that arctigenin exerted significant neuroprotective effects on glutamate-injured primary cultures of rat cortical cells by directly binding to kainic acid receptors and partly scavenging of free radicals.

  11. Genotype-Dependent Difference in 5-HT2C Receptor-Induced Hypolocomotion: Comparison with 5-HT2A Receptor Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bazovkina, Darya V.; Kondaurova, Elena M.; Naumenko, Vladimir S.; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    In the present study behavioral effects of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor were investigated in different mouse strains. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK-212 applied intraperitoneally induced significant dose-dependent reduction of distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac mice. This effect was receptor-specific because it was inhibited by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS102221. To study the role of genotype in 5-HT2C receptor-induced hypolocomotion, locomotor activity of seven inbred mouse strains was measured after MK-212 acute treatment. We found that the 5-HT2C receptor stimulation by MK-212 decreased distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac, C57Bl/6, C3H/He, and ICR mice, whereas it failed to affect locomotor activity in DBA/2J, Asn, and Balb/c mice. We also compared the interstrain differences in functional response to 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors activation measured by the quantification of receptor-mediated head-twitches. These experiments revealed significant positive correlation between 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors functional responses for all investigated mouse strains. Moreover, we found that 5-HT2A receptor activation with DOI did not change locomotor activity in CBA/Lac mice. Taken together, our data indicate the implication of 5-HT2C receptors in regulation of locomotor activity and suggest the shared mechanism for functional responses mediated by 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors. PMID:26380122

  12. Genotype-Dependent Difference in 5-HT2C Receptor-Induced Hypolocomotion: Comparison with 5-HT2A Receptor Functional Activity.

    PubMed

    Bazovkina, Darya V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Naumenko, Vladimir S; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    In the present study behavioral effects of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor were investigated in different mouse strains. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK-212 applied intraperitoneally induced significant dose-dependent reduction of distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac mice. This effect was receptor-specific because it was inhibited by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS102221. To study the role of genotype in 5-HT2C receptor-induced hypolocomotion, locomotor activity of seven inbred mouse strains was measured after MK-212 acute treatment. We found that the 5-HT2C receptor stimulation by MK-212 decreased distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac, C57Bl/6, C3H/He, and ICR mice, whereas it failed to affect locomotor activity in DBA/2J, Asn, and Balb/c mice. We also compared the interstrain differences in functional response to 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors activation measured by the quantification of receptor-mediated head-twitches. These experiments revealed significant positive correlation between 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors functional responses for all investigated mouse strains. Moreover, we found that 5-HT2A receptor activation with DOI did not change locomotor activity in CBA/Lac mice. Taken together, our data indicate the implication of 5-HT2C receptors in regulation of locomotor activity and suggest the shared mechanism for functional responses mediated by 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors. PMID:26380122

  13. Genotype-Dependent Difference in 5-HT2C Receptor-Induced Hypolocomotion: Comparison with 5-HT2A Receptor Functional Activity.

    PubMed

    Bazovkina, Darya V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Naumenko, Vladimir S; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    In the present study behavioral effects of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor were investigated in different mouse strains. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK-212 applied intraperitoneally induced significant dose-dependent reduction of distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac mice. This effect was receptor-specific because it was inhibited by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS102221. To study the role of genotype in 5-HT2C receptor-induced hypolocomotion, locomotor activity of seven inbred mouse strains was measured after MK-212 acute treatment. We found that the 5-HT2C receptor stimulation by MK-212 decreased distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac, C57Bl/6, C3H/He, and ICR mice, whereas it failed to affect locomotor activity in DBA/2J, Asn, and Balb/c mice. We also compared the interstrain differences in functional response to 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors activation measured by the quantification of receptor-mediated head-twitches. These experiments revealed significant positive correlation between 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors functional responses for all investigated mouse strains. Moreover, we found that 5-HT2A receptor activation with DOI did not change locomotor activity in CBA/Lac mice. Taken together, our data indicate the implication of 5-HT2C receptors in regulation of locomotor activity and suggest the shared mechanism for functional responses mediated by 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors.

  14. Purinergic receptors contribute to early mesangial cell transformation and renal vessel hypertrophy during angiotensin II-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Graciano, Miguel L.; Nishiyama, Akira; Jackson, Keith; Seth, Dale M.; Ortiz, Rudy M.; Prieto-Carrasquero, Minolfa C.; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Chronic ANG II infusions lead to increases in intrarenal ANG II levels, hypertension, and tissue injury. Increased blood pressure also elicits increases in renal interstitial fluid (RIF) ATP concentrations that stimulate cell proliferation. We evaluated the contribution of purinergic receptor activation to ANG II-induced renal injury in rats by treating with clopidogrel, a P2Y12 receptor blocker, or with PPADS, a nonselective P2 receptor blocker. α-Actin expression in mesangial cells, afferent arteriolar wall thickness (AAWT), cortical cell proliferation, and macrophage infiltration were used as early markers of renal injury. Clopidogrel and PPADS did not alter blood pressure, renin or kidney ANG II content. α-Actin expression increased from control of 0.6 ± 0.4% of mesangial area to 6.3 ± 1.9% in ANG II-infused rats and this response was prevented by clopidogrel (0.4 ± 0.2%) and PPADS. The increase in AAWT from 4.7 ± 0.1 to 6.0 ± 0.1 mm in ANG II rats was also prevented by clopidogrel (4.8 ± 0.1 mm) and PPADS. ANG II infusion led to interstitial macrophage infiltration (105 ± 16 vs. 62 ± 4 cell/mm2) and tubular proliferation (71 ± 15 vs. 20 ± 4 cell/mm2) and these effects were prevented by clopidogrel (52 ± 4 and 36 ± 3 cell/mm2) and PPADS. RIF ATP levels were higher in ANG II-infused rats than in control rats (11.8 ± 1.9 vs. 5.6 ± 0.6 nmol/l, P < 0.05). The results suggest that activation of vascular and glomerular purinergic P2 receptors may contribute to the mesangial cell transformation, renal inflammation, and vascular hypertrophy observed in ANG II-dependent hypertension. PMID:17989111

  15. Estrogen or estrogen receptor agonist inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced microglial activation and death.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua A; Das, Arabinda; Butler, Jonathan T; Ray, Swapan K; Banik, Naren L

    2011-09-01

    Inflammation is an important pathogenic mechanism in many neurodegenerative disorders. Activated microglia play a pivotal role in releasing pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) for inducing inflammation. While microglia mediated inflammation is essential in maintaining CNS homeostasis, chronic inflammation results in activation of proteases for cell death. Here, we examined the effect of PPT (estrogen receptor α agonist), DPN (estrogen receptor β agonist), and estrogen on rat primary microglia following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of microglia to LPS (200 ng/ml) for 24 h induced cell death. After LPS toxicity for 15 min, microglia were treated with 25 nM PPT, 25 nM DPN, or 100 nM estrogen that prevented cell death by attenuating the release of IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. Treatment of cells with 100 nM fulvestrant (estrogen receptor antagonist) prior to addition of PPT, DPN, or estrogen significantly decreased their ability to prevent cell death, indicating involvement of estrogen receptor (ER) in providing PPT, DPN, or estrogen mediated cytoprotection. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses showed alterations in mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2, calpain, and calpastatin during apoptosis. We also examined mRNA expression of ERβ and ERα following exposure of microglia to LPS and subsequent treatment with PPT, DPN, or estrogen. We found that estrogen or estrogen receptor agonists upregulated expression of ERs. Overall, results indicate that estrogen receptor agonist or estrogen uses a receptor mediated pathway to protect microglia from LPS toxicity.

  16. Bovine ovarian cells have (pro)renin receptors and prorenin induces resumption of meiosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dau, Andressa Minussi Pereira; da Silva, Eduardo Pradebon; da Rosa, Paulo Roberto Antunes; Bastiani, Felipe Tusi; Gutierrez, Karina; Ilha, Gustavo Freitas; Comim, Fabio Vasconcellos; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of a receptor that binds prorenin and renin in human endothelial and mesangial cells highlights the possible effect of renin-independent prorenin in the resumption of meiosis in oocytes that was postulated in the 1980s.This study aimed to identify the (pro)renin receptor in the ovary and to assess the effect of prorenin on meiotic resumption. The (pro)renin receptor protein was detected in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes, theca cells, granulosa cells, and in the corpus luteum. Abundant (pro)renin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells, while prorenin mRNA was identified in the cumulus cells only. Prorenin at concentrations of 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8)M incubated with oocytes co-cultured with follicular hemisections for 15h caused the resumption of oocyte meiosis. Aliskiren, which inhibits free renin and receptor-bound renin/prorenin, at concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-5), and 10(-3)M blocked this effect (P<0.05). To determine the involvement of angiotensin II in prorenin-induced meiosis resumption, cumulus-oocyte complexes and follicular hemisections were treated with prorenin and with angiotensin II or saralasin (angiotensin II antagonist). Prorenin induced the resumption of meiosis independently of angiotensin II. Furthermore, cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured with forskolin (200μM) and treated with prorenin and aliskiren did not exhibit a prorenin-induced resumption of meiosis (P<0.05). Only the oocytes' cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels seemed to be regulated by prorenin and/or forskolin treatment after incubation for 6h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the (pro)renin receptor in ovarian cells and to demonstrate the independent role of prorenin in the resumption of oocyte meiosis in cattle.

  17. Intracrine prostaglandin E(2) signalling regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression through retinoic acid receptor-β.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Jiménez, María I Arenas; Manzano, Victoria Moreno; Lucio-Cazaña, Francisco J

    2012-12-01

    We have previously found in human renal proximal tubular HK-2 cells that hypoxia- and all-trans retinoic acid-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α up-regulation is accompanied by retinoic acid receptor-β up-regulation. Here we first investigated whether hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression is dependent on retinoic acid receptor-β and our results confirmed it since (i) hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-inducing agents hypoxia, hypoxia-mimetic agent desferrioxamine, all-trans retinoic acid and interleukin-1β increased retinoic acid receptor-β expression, (ii) hypoxia-inducible factor-1α up-regulation was prevented by retinoic acid receptor-β antagonist LE-135 or siRNA retinoic acid receptor-β and (iii) there was direct binding of retinoic acid receptor-β to the retinoic acid response element in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α promoter upon treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and 16,16-dimethyl-prostaglandin E(2). Since intracellular prostaglandin E(2) mediates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α up-regulation in normoxia in HK-2 cells, we next investigated and confirmed, its role in the up-regulation of retinoic acid receptor-β in normoxia by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-inducing agents all-trans retinoic acid, interleukin-1β and 16,16-dimethyl-prostaglandin E(2) by inhibiting cyclooxygenases, prostaglandin influx transporter or EP receptors. Interestingly, the hypoxia-induced increase in retinoic acid receptor-β expression and accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was also blocked by the inhibitors tested. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that retinoic acid receptor-β signalling is involved in the control of the expression of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in both normoxia and hypoxia and that retinoic acid receptor-β expression is found to be strictly regulated by intracellular prostaglandin E(2). Given the relevance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in the kidney in terms of tumorigenesis, progressive renal failure, production

  18. Oxytocin Reduces Cocaine Seeking and Reverses Chronic Cocaine-Induced Changes in Glutamate Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Luyi; Sun, Wei-Lun; Young, Amy B.; Lee, Kunhee; McGinty, Jacqueline F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytocin, a neurohypophyseal neuropeptide, is a potential mediator and regulator of drug addiction. However, the cellular mechanisms of oxytocin in drug seeking remain unknown. Methods: In the present study, we used a self-administration/reinstatement model to study the effects of oxytocin on cocaine seeking and its potential interaction with glutamate function at the receptor level. Results: Systemic oxytocin dose-dependently reduced cocaine self-administration during various schedules of reinforcement, including fixed ratio 1, fixed ratio 5, and progressive ratio. Oxytocin also attenuated reinstatement to cocaine seeking induced by cocaine prime or conditioned cues. Western-blot analysis indicated that oxytocin increased phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor GluA1 subunit at the Ser 845 site with or without accompanying increases in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in several brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdala, and dorsal hippocampus. Immunoprecipitation of oxytocin receptor and GluA1 subunit receptors further demonstrated a physical interaction between these 2 receptors, although the interaction was not influenced by chronic cocaine or oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin also attenuated sucrose seeking in a GluA1- or extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. Conclusions: These findings suggest that oxytocin mediates cocaine seeking through interacting with glutamate receptor systems via second messenger cascades in mesocorticolimbic regions. PMID:25539504

  19. The Mannose Receptor Is Involved in the Phagocytosis of Mycobacteria-Induced Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, macrophages may undergo apoptosis, which has been considered an innate immune response. The pathways underlying the removal of dead cells in homeostatic apoptosis have been extensively studied, but little is known regarding how cells that undergo apoptotic death during mycobacterial infection are removed. This study shows that macrophages induced to undergo apoptosis with mycobacteria cell wall proteins are engulfed by J-774A.1 monocytic cells through the mannose receptor. This demonstration was achieved through assays in which phagocytosis was inhibited with a blocking anti-mannose receptor antibody and with mannose receptor competitor sugars. Moreover, elimination of the mannose receptor by a specific siRNA significantly diminished the expression of the mannose receptor and the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. As shown by immunofluorescence, engulfed apoptotic bodies are initially located in Rab5-positive phagosomes, which mature to express the phagolysosome marker LAMP1. The phagocytosis of dead cells triggered an anti-inflammatory response with the production of TGF-β and IL-10 but not of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and TNF-α. This study documents the previously unreported participation of the mannose receptor in the removal of apoptotic cells in the setting of tuberculosis (TB) infection. The results challenge the idea that apoptotic cell phagocytosis in TB has an immunogenic effect. PMID:27413759

  20. Structural insights into ligand-induced activation of the insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.; Lawrence, M.; Streltsov, V.; Garrett, T.; McKern, N.; Lou, M.-Z.; Lovrecz, G.; Adams, T.

    2008-04-29

    The current model for insulin binding to the insulin receptor proposes that there are two binding sites, referred to as sites 1 and 2, on each monomer in the receptor homodimer and two binding surfaces on insulin, one involving residues predominantly from the dimerization face of insulin (the classical binding surface) and the other residues from the hexamerization face. High-affinity binding involves one insulin molecule using its two surfaces to make bridging contacts with site 1 from one receptor monomer and site 2 from the other. Whilst the receptor dimer has two identical site 1-site 2 pairs, insulin molecules cannot bridge both pairs simultaneously. Our structures of the insulin receptor (IR) ectodomain dimer and the L1-CR-L2 fragments of IR and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) explain many of the features of ligand-receptor binding and allow the two binding sites on the receptor to be described. The IR dimer has an unexpected folded-over conformation which places the C-terminal surface of the first fibronectin-III domain in close juxtaposition to the known L1 domain ligand-binding surface suggesting that the C-terminal surface of FnIII-1 is the second binding site involved in high-affinity binding. This is very different from previous models based on three-dimensional reconstruction from scanning transmission electron micrographs. Our single-molecule images indicate that IGF-1R has a morphology similar to that of IR. In addition, the structures of the first three domains (L1-CR-L2) of the IR and IGF-1R show that there are major differences in the two regions governing ligand specificity. The implications of these findings for ligand-induced receptor activation will be discussed. This review summarizes the key findings regarding the discovery and characterization of the insulin receptor, the identification and arrangement of its structural domains in the sequence and the key features associated with ligand binding. The remainder of the review

  1. Exchange factors directly activated by cAMP mediate melanocortin 4 receptor-induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Evi; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Gs protein-coupled receptors regulate many vital body functions by activation of cAMP response elements (CRE) via cAMP-dependent kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB). Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are prototypical Gs-coupled receptors that orchestrate the hypothalamic control of food-intake and metabolism. Remarkably, the significance of PKA for MC4R-induced CRE-dependent transcription in hypothalamic cells has not been rigorously interrogated yet. In two hypothalamic cell lines, we observed that blocking PKA activity had only weak or no effects on reporter gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of exchange factors directly activated by cAMP-1/2 (EPAC-1/2) mitigated MC4R-induced CRE reporter activation and mRNA induction of the CREB-dependent genes c-fos and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2) activated by EPACs and not PKA are the elusive CREB kinases responsible for MC4R-induced CREB/CRE activation in hypothalamic cells. Overall, these data emphasize the pivotal role of EPACs rather than PKA in hypothalamic gene expression elicited by a prototypical Gs-coupled receptor. PMID:27612207

  2. Glufosinate aerogenic exposure induces glutamate and IL-1 receptor dependent lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Isabelle; Perche, Olivier; Pâris, Arnaud; Richard, Olivier; Gombault, Aurélie; Herzine, Ameziane; Pichon, Jacques; Huaux, Francois; Mortaud, Stéphane; Ryffel, Bernhard; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline

    2016-11-01

    Glufosinate-ammonium (GLA), the active component of an herbicide, is known to cause neurotoxicity. GLA shares structural analogy with glutamate. It is a powerful inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS) and may bind to glutamate receptors. Since these potentials targets of GLA are present in lung and immune cells, we asked whether airway exposure to GLA may cause lung inflammation in mice. A single GLA exposure (1 mg/kg) induced seizures and inflammatory cell recruitment in the broncho-alveolar space, and increased myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interstitial inflammation and disruption of alveolar septae within 6-24 h. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) was increased and lung inflammation depended on IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1). We demonstrate that glutamate receptor pathway is central, since the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibitor MK-801 prevented GLA-induced lung inflammation. Chronic exposure (0.2 mg/kg 3× per week for 4 weeks) caused moderate lung inflammation and enhanced airway hyperreactivity with significant increased airway resistance. In conclusion, GLA aerosol exposure causes glutamate signalling and IL-1R-dependent pulmonary inflammation with airway hyperreactivity in mice.

  3. Differential Use of Human Neutrophil Fcγ Receptors for Inducing Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation

    PubMed Central

    Alemán, Omar Rafael; Mora, Nancy; Cortes-Vieyra, Ricarda; Uribe-Querol, Eileen; Rosales, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant leukocytes in the blood. PMN migrate from the circulation to sites of infection, where they are responsible for antimicrobial functions. PMN use phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to kill microbes. NETs are fibers composed of chromatin and neutrophil-granule proteins. Several pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and also some pharmacological stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) are efficient inducers of NETs. Antigen-antibody complexes are also capable of inducing NET formation. However the particular Fcγ receptor involved in triggering this function is a matter of controversy. In order to provide some insight into what Fcγ receptor is responsible for NET formation, each of the two human Fcγ receptors was stimulated individually by specific monoclonal antibodies and NET formation was evaluated. FcγRIIa cross-linking did not promote NET formation. Cross-linking other receptors such as integrins also did not promote NET formation. In contrast FcγRIIIb cross-linking induced NET formation similarly to PMA stimulation. NET formation was dependent on NADPH-oxidase, PKC, and ERK activation. These data show that cross-linking FcγRIIIb is responsible for NET formation by the human neutrophil. PMID:27034964

  4. The Role of Hippocampal 5HT3 Receptors in Harmaline-Induced Memory Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Nasehi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The plethora of studies indicated that there is a cross talk relationship between harmaline and serotonergic (5-HT) system on cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of hippocampal 5-HT4 receptor on memory acquisition deficit induced by harmaline. Methods: Harmaline was injected peritoneally, while 5-HT4 receptor agonist (RS67333) and antagonist (RS23597-190) were injected intra-hippocampal. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance, open field and tail flick tasks were used for measurement of memory, locomotor activity and pain responses, respectively. Results: The data revealed that pre-training injection of higher dose of harmaline (1 mg/kg), RS67333 (0.5 ng/mouse) and RS23597-190 (0.5 ng/mouse) decreased memory acquisition process in the adult mice. Moreover, concurrent pre-training administration of subthreshold dose of RS67333 (0.005 ng/mouse) or RS23597-190 (0.005 ng/mouse) with subthreshold dose of harmaline (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) intensify impairment of memory acquisition. All above interventions did not change locomotion and tail flick behaviors. Discussion: The results demonstrated that the synergistic effect between both hippocampal 5-HT4 receptor agonist and antagonist with impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmaline, indicating a modulatory effect for hippocampal 5HT4 receptor on Harmaline induced amnesia. PMID:26904173

  5. Dexamethasone effects on ritodrine-induced changes in myometrial contractility and beta-adrenergic receptor function.

    PubMed

    Ward, S M; Caritis, S N; Chiao, J P; Moore, J J

    1988-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated in pregnant sheep that ritodrine infusion for 24 hours reduces myometrial beta-adrenergic receptor density and isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. These receptor-associated changes were accompanied by an increasing inability of ritodrine to inhibit uterine contractility induced by a bolus of oxytocin. In the present study, we evaluated whether these ritodrine-induced effects could be altered by dexamethasone. Ten pregnant sheep at gestational ages of 92 to 130 days received ritodrine 2 micrograms/kg/min for 24 hours. Five animals also received dexamethasone 10 mg intravascularly twice during the ritodrine infusion. Before and at 4 and 24 hours of ritodrine infusion, the animals were given an identical dose of oxytocin as a bolus, and the area under the uterine pressure-time curve was quantified. Myometrial biopsy specimens were obtained before and after ritodrine infusion. Dexamethasone treatment prevented ritodrine-induced reductions in beta-adrenergic receptor density and isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Despite these receptor-associated effects, dexamethasone did not prevent the loss of tocolytic efficacy associated with prolonged ritodrine infusion.

  6. Exchange factors directly activated by cAMP mediate melanocortin 4 receptor-induced gene expression.

    PubMed

    Glas, Evi; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Gs protein-coupled receptors regulate many vital body functions by activation of cAMP response elements (CRE) via cAMP-dependent kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB). Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are prototypical Gs-coupled receptors that orchestrate the hypothalamic control of food-intake and metabolism. Remarkably, the significance of PKA for MC4R-induced CRE-dependent transcription in hypothalamic cells has not been rigorously interrogated yet. In two hypothalamic cell lines, we observed that blocking PKA activity had only weak or no effects on reporter gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of exchange factors directly activated by cAMP-1/2 (EPAC-1/2) mitigated MC4R-induced CRE reporter activation and mRNA induction of the CREB-dependent genes c-fos and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2) activated by EPACs and not PKA are the elusive CREB kinases responsible for MC4R-induced CREB/CRE activation in hypothalamic cells. Overall, these data emphasize the pivotal role of EPACs rather than PKA in hypothalamic gene expression elicited by a prototypical Gs-coupled receptor. PMID:27612207

  7. Basolateral amygdala CB1 cannabinoid receptors mediate nicotine-induced place preference.

    PubMed

    Hashemizadeh, Shiva; Sardari, Maryam; Rezayof, Ameneh

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of bilateral microinjections of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist and antagonist into the basolateral amygdala (intra-BLA) on nicotine-induced place preference were examined in rats. A conditioned place preference (CPP) apparatus was used for the assessment of rewarding effects of the drugs in adult male Wistar rats. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of nicotine (0.2mg/kg) induced a significant CPP, without any effect on the locomotor activity during the testing phase. Intra-BLA microinjection of a non-selective cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2 (0.1-0.5 μg/rat) with an ineffective dose of nicotine (0.1mg/kg, s.c.) induced a significant place preference. On the other hand, intra-BLA administration of AM251 (20-60 ng/rat), a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist inhibited the acquisition of nicotine-induced place preference. It should be considered that the microinjection of the same doses of WIN 55,212-2 or AM251 into the BLA, by itself had no effect on the CPP score. The administration of a higher dose of AM251 (60 ng/rat) during the acquisition decreased the locomotor activity of animals on the testing phase. Interestingly, the microinjection of AM251 (20 and 40 ng/rat), but not WIN55,212-2 (0.1-0.5 μg/rat), into the BLA inhibited the expression of nicotine-induced place preference without any effect on the locomotor activity. Taken together, these findings support the possible role of endogenous cannabinoid system of the BLA in the acquisition and the expression of nicotine-induced place preference. Furthermore, it seems that there is a functional interaction between the BLA cannabinoid receptors and nicotine in producing the rewarding effects.

  8. Prevention of Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy Through Activation of the Central Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Mohamed; Xu, Jijun J.; Diaz, Philippe; Brown, David L.; Cogdell, David; Bie, Bihua; Hu, Jianhua; Craig, Suzanne; Hittelman, Walter N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy, especially after multiple courses of paclitaxel. The development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy is associated with the activation of microglia followed by the activation and proliferation of astrocytes, and the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn. Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors are expressed in the microglia in neurodegenerative disease models. Methods To explore the potential of CB2 agonists for preventing paclitaxel-induced neuropathy, we designed and synthesized a novel CB2-selective agonist, namely MDA7. The effect of MDA7 in preventing paclitaxel-induced allodynia was assessed in rats and in CB2+/+ and CB2–/– mice. We hypothesize that the CB2 receptor functions in a negative-feedback loop and that early MDA7 administration can blunt the neuroinflammatory response to paclitaxel and prevent mechanical allodynia through interference with specific signaling pathways. Results We found that MDA7 prevents paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia in rats and mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner without compromising paclitaxel's antineoplastic effect. MDA7's neuroprotective effect was absent in CB2-/- mice and was blocked by CB2 antagonists, suggesting that MDA7's action directly involves CB2 receptor activation. MDA7 treatment was found to interfere with early events in the paclitaxel-induced neuroinflammatory response as evidenced by relatively reduced Toll-like receptor and CB2 expression in the lumbar spinal cord, reduced levels of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activity, reduced numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes, and reduced secretion of proinflammatory mediators in vivo and in in vitro models. Conclusions Our findings suggest an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and may permit more aggressive use of active chemotherapeutic regimens with reduced long-term sequelae

  9. AMPA receptor pHluorin-GluA2 reports NMDA receptor-induced intracellular acidification in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Rathje, Mette; Fang, Huaqiang; Bachman, Julia L; Anggono, Victor; Gether, Ulrik; Huganir, Richard L; Madsen, Kenneth L

    2013-08-27

    NMDA receptor activation promotes endocytosis of AMPA receptors, which is an important mechanism underlying long-term synaptic depression. The pH-sensitive GFP variant pHluorin fused to the N terminus of GluA2 (pH-GluA2) has been used to assay NMDA-mediated AMPA receptor endocytosis and recycling. Here, we demonstrate that in somatic and dendritic regions of hippocampal neurons a large fraction of the fluorescent signal originates from intracellular pH-GluA2, and that the decline in fluorescence in response to NMDA and AMPA primarily describes an intracellular acidification, which quenches the pHluorin signal from intracellular receptor pools. Neurons expressing an endoplasmic reticulum-retained mutant of GluA2 (pH-GluA2 ΔC49) displayed a larger response to NMDA than neurons expressing wild-type pH-GluA2. A similar NMDA-elicited decline in pHluorin signal was observed by expressing cytosolic pHluorin alone without fusion to GluA2 (cyto-pHluorin). Intracellular acidification in response to NMDA was further confirmed by using the ratiometric pH indicator carboxy-SNARF-1. The NMDA-induced decline was followed by rapid recovery of the fluorescent signal from both cyto-pHluorin and pH-GluA2. The recovery was sodium-dependent and sensitive to Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE) inhibitors. Moreover, recovery was more rapid after shRNA-mediated knockdown of the GluA2 binding PDZ domain-containing protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1). Interestingly, the accelerating effect of PICK1 knockdown on the fluorescence recovery was eliminated in the presence of the NHE1 inhibitor zoniporide. Our results indicate that the pH-GluA2 recycling assay is an unreliable assay for studying AMPA receptor trafficking and also suggest a role for PICK1 in regulating intracellular pH via modulation of NHE activity. PMID:23940334

  10. High-content RNAi screening identifies the Type 1 inositol triphosphate receptor as a modifier of TDP-43 localization and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hwa; Zhan, Lihong; Hanson, Keith A; Tibbetts, Randal S

    2012-11-15

    Cytosolic aggregation of the nuclear RNA-binding protein (RBP) TDP-43 (43 kDa TAR DNA-binding domain protein) is a suspected direct or indirect cause of motor neuron deterioration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we implemented a high-content, genome-wide RNAi screen to identify pathways controlling TDP-43 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. We identified ∼60 genes whose silencing increased the cytosolic localization of TDP-43, including nuclear pore complex components and regulators of G2/M cell cycle transition. In addition, we identified the type 1 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (ITPR1), an IP3-gated, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Ca(2+) channel, as a strong modulator of TDP-43 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Knockdown or chemical inhibition of ITPR1 induced TDP-43 nuclear export in immortalized cells and primary neurons and strongly potentiated the recruitment of TDP-43 to Ubiquilin-positive autophagosomes, suggesting that diminished ITPR1 function leads to autophagosomal clearance of TDP-43. The functional significance of the TDP-43-ITPR1 genetic interaction was tested in Drosophila, where mutant alleles of ITPR1 were found to significantly extended lifespan and mobility of flies expressing TDP-43 under a motor neuron driver. These combined findings implicate IP3-gated Ca(2+) as a key regulator of TDP-43 nucleoplasmic shuttling and proteostasis and suggest pharmacologic inhibition of ITPR1 as a strategy to combat TDP-43-induced neurodegeneration in vivo.

  11. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P; Ullrich, Stephen E

    2004-03-15

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependent manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin. PMID:15020195

  12. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor mediates excitotoxicity-induced neural progenitor proliferation and neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Tania; Romero, Eva; Monory, Krisztina; Palazuelos, Javier; Sendtner, Michael; Marsicano, Giovanni; Lutz, Beat; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2007-08-17

    Endocannabinoids are lipid signaling mediators that exert an important neuromodulatory role and confer neuroprotection in several types of brain injury. Excitotoxicity and stroke can induce neural progenitor (NP) proliferation and differentiation as an attempt of neuroregeneration after damage. Here we investigated the mechanism of hippocampal progenitor cell engagement upon excitotoxicity induced by kainic acid administration and the putative involvement of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in this process. Adult NPs express kainate receptors that mediate proliferation and neurosphere generation in vitro via CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Similarly, in vivo studies showed that excitotoxicity-induced hippocampal NPs proliferation and neurogenesis are abrogated in CB1-deficient mice and in wild-type mice administered with the selective CB1 antagonist rimonabant (N-piperidino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-3-pyrazolecarboxamide; SR141716). Kainate stimulation increased basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression in cultured NPs in a CB1-dependent manner as this response was prevented by rimonabant and mimicked by endocannabinoids. Likewise, in vivo analyses showed that increased hippocampal expression of bFGF, as well as of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and epidermal growth factor, occurs upon excitotoxicity and that CB1 receptor ablation prevents this induction. Moreover, excitotoxicity increased the number of CB1+ bFGF+ cells, and this up-regulation preceded NP proliferation. In summary, our results show the involvement of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in NP proliferation and neurogenesis induced by excitotoxic injury and support a role for bFGF signaling in this process.

  13. Activation of σ-receptors induces binge-like drinking in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro; Blasio, Angelo; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Conti, Bruno; Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2011-05-01

    Sigma (σ) receptors have been implicated in the behavioral and motivational effects of alcohol and psychostimulants. Sigma receptor antagonists reduce the reinforcing effects of alcohol and excessive alcohol intake in both genetic (alcohol-preferring rats) and environmental (chronic alcohol-induced) models of alcoholism. The present study tested the hypothesis that pharmacological activation of σ-receptors facilitates ethanol reinforcement and induces excessive, binge-like ethanol intake. The effects of repeated subcutaneous treatment with the selective σ-receptor agonist 1,3-di-(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG; 15 mg/kg, twice a day for 7 days) on operant ethanol (10%) self-administration were studied in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats. To confirm that the effect of DTG was mediated by σ-receptors, the effects of pretreatment with the selective σ-receptor antagonist BD-1063 (7 mg/kg, subcutaneously) were determined. To assess the specificity of action, the effects of DTG on the self-administration of equally reinforcing solutions of saccharin or sucrose were also determined. Finally, gene expression of opioid receptors in brain areas implicated in ethanol reinforcement was analyzed in ethanol-naive sP rats treated acutely or repeatedly with DTG, because of the well-established role of the opioid system in alcohol reinforcement and addiction. Repeatedly administered DTG progressively and dramatically increased ethanol self-administration in sP rats and increased blood alcohol levels, which reached mean values close to 100 mg% in 1 h drinking sessions. Repeated DTG treatment also increased the rats' motivation to work for alcohol under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement. BD-1063 prevented the effects of DTG, confirming that σ-receptors mediate the effects of DTG. Repeated DTG treatment also increased the self-administration of the non-drug reinforcers saccharin and sucrose. Naive sP rats repeatedly treated with DTG showed increased m

  14. Tryptase inhibitor APC 366 prevents hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting collagen synthesis induced by tryptase/protease-activated receptor 2 interactions in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Chen, Baian; Li, Shengli; Sun, Quan

    2014-06-01

    Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 2 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is activated by mast cell tryptase. PAR-2 activation augments profibrotic pathways through the induction of extracellular matrix proteins. PAR-2 is widely expressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), but the role of tryptase/PAR-2 interaction in liver fibrosis is unclear. We studied the development of bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats treated with mast cell tryptase inhibitor APC 366, and showed that APC 366 reduced hepatic fibrosis scores, collagen content and serum biochemical parameters. Reduced fibrosis was associated with decreased expression of PAR-2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Our findings demonstrate that mast cell tryptase induces PAR-2 activation to augment HSC proliferation and promote hepatic fibrosis in rats. Treatment with tryptase antagonists may be a novel therapeutic approach to prevent fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease.

  15. Tryptase inhibitor APC 366 prevents hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting collagen synthesis induced by tryptase/protease-activated receptor 2 interactions in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Chen, Baian; Li, Shengli; Sun, Quan

    2014-06-01

    Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 2 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is activated by mast cell tryptase. PAR-2 activation augments profibrotic pathways through the induction of extracellular matrix proteins. PAR-2 is widely expressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), but the role of tryptase/PAR-2 interaction in liver fibrosis is unclear. We studied the development of bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats treated with mast cell tryptase inhibitor APC 366, and showed that APC 366 reduced hepatic fibrosis scores, collagen content and serum biochemical parameters. Reduced fibrosis was associated with decreased expression of PAR-2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Our findings demonstrate that mast cell tryptase induces PAR-2 activation to augment HSC proliferation and promote hepatic fibrosis in rats. Treatment with tryptase antagonists may be a novel therapeutic approach to prevent fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:24735816

  16. Sulphur-containing compounds of durian activate the thermogenesis-inducing receptors TRPA1 and TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuko; Hosono, Takashi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko; Ito, Sohei; Narukawa, Masataka; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2014-08-15

    Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is classified as a body-warming food in Indian herbalism, and its hyperthermic effect is empirically known in Southeast Asia. To investigate the mechanism underlying this effect, we focused on the thermogenesis-inducing receptors, TRPA1 and TRPV1. Durian contains sulphides similar to the TRPA1 and TRPV1 agonists of garlic. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the thermogenic effect of durian is driven by sulphide-induced TRP channel activation. To investigate our hypothesis, we measured the TRPA1 and TRPV1 activity of the sulphur-containing components of durian and quantified their content in durian pulp. These sulphur-containing components had a stronger effect on TRPA1 than TRPV1. Furthermore, sulphide content in the durian pulp was sufficient to evoke TRP channel activation and the main agonist was diethyl disulphide. From these results, we consider that the body-warming effect of durian is elicited by TRPA1 activation with its sulphides, as can be seen in spices.

  17. Neurosteroid Agonist at GABAA receptor induces persistent neuroplasticity in VTA dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Vashchinkina, Elena; Manner, Aino K; Vekovischeva, Olga; den Hollander, Bjørnar; Uusi-Oukari, Mikko; Aitta-Aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R

    2014-02-01

    The main fast-acting inhibitory receptors in the mammalian brain are γ-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptors for which neurosteroids, a subclass of steroids synthesized de novo in the brain, constitute a group of endogenous ligands with the most potent positive modulatory actions known. Neurosteroids can act on all subtypes of GABAA receptors, with a preference for δ-subunit-containing receptors that mediate extrasynaptic tonic inhibition. Pathological conditions characterized by emotional and motivational disturbances are often associated with perturbation in the levels of endogenous neurosteroids. We studied the effects of ganaxolone (GAN)-a synthetic analog of endogenous allopregnanolone that lacks activity on nuclear steroid receptors-on the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system involved in emotions and motivation. A single dose of GAN in young mice induced a dose-dependent, long-lasting neuroplasticity of glutamate synapses of DA neurons ex vivo in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Increased α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)/N-methyl-D-aspartate ratio and rectification of AMPA receptor responses even at 6 days after GAN administration suggested persistent synaptic targeting of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. This glutamate neuroplasticity was not observed in GABAA receptor δ-subunit-knockout (δ-KO) mice. GAN (500 nM) applied locally to VTA selectively increased tonic inhibition of GABA interneurons and triggered potentiation of DA neurons within 4 h in vitro. Place-conditioning experiments in adult wild-type C57BL/6J and δ-KO mice revealed aversive properties of repeated GAN administration that were dependent on the δ-subunits. Prolonged neuroadaptation to neurosteroids in the VTA might contribute to both the physiology and pathophysiology underlying processes and changes in motivation, mood, cognition, and drug addiction. PMID:24077066

  18. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor mediates glucocorticoid effects on hormone secretion induced by volume and osmotic changes.

    PubMed

    Ruginsk, S G; Uchoa, E T; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

    2012-02-01

    The present study provides the first in vivo evidence that the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor mediates the effects of dexamethasone on hormone release induced by changes in circulating volume and osmolality. Male adult rats were administered with the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant (10 mg/Kg, p.o.), followed or not in 1 hour by dexamethasone (1 mg/Kg, i.p.). Extracellular volume expansion (EVE, 2 mL/100 g of body weight, i.v.) was performed 2 hours after dexamethasone or vehicle treatment using either isotonic (I-EVE, 0.15 mol/L) or hypertonic (H-EVE, 0.30 mol/L) NaCl solution. Five minutes after EVE, animals were decapitated and trunk blood was collected for all plasma measurements. Rimonabant potentiated oxytocin (OT) secretion induced by H-EVE and completely reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone in response to the same stimulus. These data suggest that glucocorticoid modulation of OT release is mediated by the CB(1) receptor. Although dexamethasone did not affect vasopressin (AVP) secretion induced by H-EVE, the administration of rimonabant potentiated AVP release in response to the same stimulus, supporting the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor regulates AVP secretion independently of glucocorticoid-mediated signalling. Dexamethasone alone did not affect atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release stimulated by I-EVE or H-EVE. However, pretreatment with rimonabant potentiated ANP secretion induced by H-EVE, suggesting a possible role for the CB(1) receptor in the control of peripheral factors that modulate cardiovascular function. Rimonabant also reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on H-EVE-induced corticosterone secretion, reinforcing the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor may be involved in the negative feedback exerted by glucocorticoids on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that the CB(1) receptor modulates neurohypophyseal hormone secretion and

  19. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-04-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million (ppm).

  20. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor-negative hepatoma and breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, E F; Koch, D C; Bisson, W H; Jang, H S; Kolluri, S K

    2014-01-01

    Identification of new molecular targets for the treatment of breast cancer is an important clinical goal, especially for triple-negative breast cancer, which is refractory to existing targeted treatments. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known primarily as the mediator of dioxin toxicity. However, the AhR can also inhibit cellular proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner and act as a tumor suppressor in mice, and thus may be a potential anticancer target. To investigate the AhR as an anticancer target, we conducted a small molecule screen to discover novel AhR ligands with anticancer properties. We identified raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator currently used in the clinic for prevention of ER-positive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, as an AhR activator. Raloxifene directly bound the AhR and induced apoptosis in ER-negative mouse and human hepatoma cells in an AhR-dependent manner, indicating that the AhR is a molecular target of raloxifene and mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in the absence of ER. Raloxifene selectively induced apoptosis of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells compared with non-transformed mammary epithelial cells via the AhR. Combined with recent data showing that raloxifene inhibits triple-negative breast cancer xenografts in vivo (Int J Oncol. 43(3):785-92, 2013), our results support the possibility of repurposing of raloxifene as an AhR-targeted therapeutic for triple-negative breast cancer patients. To this end, we also evaluated the role of AhR expression on survival of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. We found that higher expression of the AhR is significantly associated with increased overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival in both hormone-dependent (ER-positive) and hormone-independent (ER and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative) breast cancers. Together, our data strongly support the possibility of using the Ah

  1. Agonist-induced functional desensitization of the mu-opioid receptor is mediated by loss of membrane receptors rather than uncoupling from G protein.

    PubMed

    Pak, Y; Kouvelas, A; Scheideler, M A; Rasmussen, J; O'Dowd, B F; George, S R

    1996-11-01

    The effects of acute exposure of the opioid peptide [D-Ala2,N-MePhe4, Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) on the mu-opioid receptor were examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K-1 and baby hamster kidney stable transfectants. In the CHO cell line, acute 1-hr treatment with DAMGO decreased the density of receptors without affecting the affinity or proportion of agonist-detected sites and attenuated the ability of the agonist to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. In contrast, similar 1-hr treatment of baby hamster kidney cells did not affect receptor density or agonist ability to inhibit cAMP accumulation, but longer duration of agonist exposure resulted in a reduction in membrane receptor, identical to the CHO cells. These results suggested that for the mu-opioid receptor, alteration in receptor density was the major determinant for the observed agonist-induced desensitization. Consistent with this notion, the ratio of the DAMGO concentration yielding half-maximal occupation of the mu receptor to that yielding half-maximal functional response was < 1. This suggests the necessity for a high mu receptor occupancy rate for maximal functional response, so that any loss of cell surface opioid-binding sites was a critical determinant in reducing the maximal response. This hypothesis was further supported by the observation that irreversible inactivation of fixed proportions of opioid-binding sites with beta-chlorn-altrexamine demonstrated that there were few spare receptors, which is in contrast to what has been reported for other G protein-coupled receptors, including the delta-opioid receptor. Taken together, these data suggest that the opioid agonist DAMGO has a high affinity for the mu receptor but must occupy > 70% of the available receptors to generate the maximal second messenger-linked response.

  2. A small difference in the molecular structure of angiotensin II receptor blockers induces AT1 receptor-dependent and -independent beneficial effects

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Masahiro; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Kiya, Yoshihiro; Tominaga, Yukio; Matsuo, Yoshino; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Saku, Keijiro

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs) induce multiple pharmacological beneficial effects, but not all ARBs have the same effects and the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions are not certain. In this study, irbesartan and losartan were examined because of their different molecular structures (irbesartan has a cyclopentyl group whereas losartan has a chloride group). We analyzed the binding affinity and production of inositol phosphate (IP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and adiponectin. Compared with losartan, irbesartan showed a significantly higher binding affinity and slower dissociation rate from the AT1 receptor and a significantly higher degree of inverse agonism and insurmountability toward IP production. These effects of irbesartan were not seen with the AT1-Y113A mutant receptor. On the basis of the molecular modeling of the ARBs–AT1 receptor complex and a mutagenesis study, the phenyl group at Tyr113 in the AT1 receptor and the cyclopentyl group of irbesartan may form a hydrophobic interaction that is stronger than the losartan–AT1 receptor interaction. Interestingly, irbesartan inhibited MCP-1 production more strongly than losartan. This effect was mediated by the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation that was independent of the AT1 receptor in the human coronary endothelial cells. In addition, irbesartan, but not losartan, induced significant adiponectin production that was mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and this effect was not mediated by the AT1 receptor. In conclusion, irbesartan induced greater beneficial effects than losartan due to small differences between their molecular structures, and these differential effects were both dependent on and independent of the AT1 receptor. PMID:20668453

  3. Amelioration of cold injury-induced cortical brain edema formation by selective endothelin ETB receptor antagonists in mice.

    PubMed

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Nagase, Marina; Matsuyama, Emi; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Seno, Naoki; Fuka, Mayu; Yamamoto, Yui; Koyama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological condition that often occurs in stroke and head trauma. Following brain insults, endothelins (ETs) are increased and promote several pathophysiological responses. This study examined the effects of ETB antagonists on brain edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a mouse cold injury model (Five- to six-week-old male ddY mice). Cold injury increased the water content of the injured cerebrum, and promoted extravasation of both Evans blue and endogenous albumin. In the injury area, expression of prepro-ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 peptide increased. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of BQ788 (ETB antagonist), IRL-2500 (ETB antagonist), or FR139317 (ETA antagonist) prior to cold injury significantly attenuated the increase in brain water content. Bolus administration of BQ788, IRL-2500, or FR139317 also inhibited the cold injury-induced extravasation of Evans blue and albumin. Repeated administration of BQ788 and IRL-2500 beginning at 24 h after cold injury attenuated both the increase in brain water content and extravasation of markers. In contrast, FR139317 had no effect on edema formation when administrated after cold injury. Cold injury stimulated induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrocytes in the injured cerebrum. Induction of reactive astrocytes after cold injury was attenuated by ICV administration of BQ788 or IRL-2500. These results suggest that ETB receptor antagonists may be an effective approach to ameliorate brain edema formation following brain insults.

  4. Proteasome inhibition blocks ligand-induced dynamic processing and internalization of epidermal growth factor receptor via altered receptor ubiquitination and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kesarwala, Aparna H; Samrakandi, Mustapha M; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2009-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), a member of the EGF superfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, is a critical regulator of cell growth and an important target for single agent and combination anticancer therapeutics. To further investigate the dynamics of ligand-induced EGFR processing and regulation noninvasively, we developed a chimeric EGFR-firefly luciferase (FLuc) fusion reporter to directly monitor processing of EGFR in real-time. In a stable HeLa cell line expressing the reporter at physiologically relevant levels, bioluminescence imaging continuously monitored reporter dynamics, correlating with the ligand-induced response of endogenous EGFR as determined by Western blot, subcellular localization of an EGFR-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein, and validated pharmacologic responses. The signaling competency of the reporter was confirmed by gene rescue experiments in EGFR-null cells. Bioluminescence analysis further showed that proteasome inhibition with bortezomib or MG132 attenuated overall ligand-induced degradation of EGFR. In cells expressing EGFR-GFP, pretreatment with proteasome inhibitors trapped essentially all of the receptor at the cell membrane both before and after ligand-induced activation with EGF. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition enhanced receptor ubiquitination in both the basal and ligand-activated states as well as delayed the processing of ligand-activated phosphorylation of the receptor, kinetically correlating with attenuated receptor degradation. These observations point to a potential mechanism for the synergistic therapeutic effects of combination EGFR- and proteasome-targeted therapies.

  5. The thrombin receptor extracellular domain contains sites crucial for peptide ligand-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahou, W F; Coller, B S; Potter, C L; Norton, K J; Kutok, J L; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha-thrombin-induced

  6. Studies on the role of the Ah receptor in hexachloro-benzene-induced porphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Many of the effects of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) resemble those of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), whose effects are initiated by its binding to the AH receptor, the regulatory gene product of the Ah locus. I investigated the ability of HCB to interact with the AH receptor and the involvement of this protein in HCB-induced porphyria. The induction of two cytochrome P450 isozymes regulated by the Ah locus was also examined in light of their possible role in the pathogenesis of HCB- and TCDD-induced porphyria. HCB competitively inhibited the in vitro specific binding of ({sup 3}H)-TCDD to the rat hepatic Ah receptor (K{sub I} = 2.1 {mu}M) without affecting the solubility of ({sup 3}H)TCDD. Following the administration of HCB to rats, the number of ({sup 3}H)TCDD specific binding sites was reduced by up to 40%. HCB induced cytochromes P450b, P450e, P450c, and P450d, confirming that it is a mixed-type P450 inducer. The presence of porphyria in mice was assessed by measuring urinary and hepatic porphyrins and hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity.

  7. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kourouniotis, George; Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to EGF receptor (EGFR) stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ) and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP) at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. PMID:27463710

  8. The mitochondrial and death receptor pathways involved in the thymocytes apoptosis induced by aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xiaofeng; Li, Xiaochong; Jiang, Min; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Lai, Weimin; Zhou, Yi; Zhou, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent immunosuppressive agent in endotherms, which can be related to the up-regulated apoptosis of immune organs. In this study, we investigated the roles of the mitochondrial, death receptor, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways in Aflatoxin B1 induced thymocytes apoptosis. Chickens were fed an aflatoxin B1 containing diet (0.6 mg/kg AFB1) for 3 weeks. Our results showed that (1) AFB1 diet induced the decrease of T-cell subsets, morphological changes, and excessive apoptosis of thymus. (2) The excessive apoptosis involved the mitochondrial pathway (up-regulation of Bax, Bak, cytC and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and death receptor pathway (up-regulation of FasL, Fas and FADD). (3) Oxidative stress, an apoptosis inducer, was confirmed in the thymus. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that mitochondrial and death receptor pathways involved in AFB1 induced thymocytes apoptosis in broilers. PMID:26933817

  9. Berberine induces GLP-1 secretion through activation of bitter taste receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunli; Hao, Gang; Zhang, Quanying; Hua, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Wenjia; Zong, Shunlin; Huang, Ming; Wen, Xiaozhou

    2015-09-15

    Our previous studies revealed that berberine-mediated GLP-1 secretion was a possible mechanism for berberine exerting good effects on hyperglycemia. This study was designed to ascertain whether berberine-induced secretion of GLP-1 was related with activation of bitter taste receptors expressed in gastrointestinal tract. Western blotting results showed that TAS2R38, a subtype of bitter taste receptor, was expressed on human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells. GLP-1 secretion induced by berberine from NCI-H716 cells was inhibited by incubation with anti-TAS2R38 antibody. We further performed gene silencing using siRNA to knockdown TAS2R38 from NCI-H716 cells, which showed that siRNA knockdown of the TAS2R38 reduced berberine-mediated GLP-1 secretion. We adopted inhibitors of PLC and TRPM5 known to be involved in bitter taste transduction to investigate the underlying pathways mediated in berberine-induced GLP-1 secretion. It was found that PLC inhibitor U73122 inhibited berberine-induced GLP-1 release in NCI-H716 cells, while TRPM5 blocker quinine failed to attenuate berberine-induced secretion of GLP-1. The present results demonstrated that berberine stimulated GLP-1 secretion via activation of gut-expressed bitter taste receptors in a PLC-dependent manner. Because berberine was found to be a ligand of bitter taste receptor, the results of present study may provide an explanation for some bitter taste substance obtain hypoglycemic effect.

  10. Estrogen receptor beta inhibits transcriptional activity of hypoxia inducible factor-1 through the downregulation of arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Estrogen receptor (ER) β is predicted to play an important role in prevention of breast cancer development and metastasis. We have shown previously that ERβ inhibits hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α mediated transcription, but the mechanism by which ERβ works to exert this effect is not understood. Methods Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured in conditioned medium by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, luciferase assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to ascertain the implication of ERβ on HIF-1 function. Results In this study, we found that the inhibition of HIF-1 activity by ERβ expression was correlated with ERβ's ability to degrade aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) via ubiquitination processes leading to the reduction of active HIF-1α/ARNT complexes. HIF-1 repression by ERβ was rescued by overexpression of ARNT as examined by hypoxia-responsive element (HRE)-driven luciferase assays. We show further that ERβ attenuated the hypoxic induction of VEGF mRNA by directly decreasing HIF-1α binding to the VEGF gene promoter. Conclusions These results show that ERβ suppresses HIF-1α-mediated transcription via ARNT down-regulation, which may account for the tumour suppressive function of ERβ. PMID:21435239

  11. Receptor-dependent mechanisms of glucocorticoid and dioxin-induced cleft palate

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Glucocorticoids (triamcinolone) and dioxins (TCDD) are highly specific teratogens in the mouse, in that cleft palate is the major malformation observed. Glucocorticoids and TCDD both readily cross the yolk sac and placenta and appear in the developing secondary palate. Structure-activity relationships for glucocorticoid- and TCDD-induced cleft palate suggest a receptor involvement. Receptors for glucocorticoids and TCDD are present in the palate and their levels in various mouse strains are highly correlated with their sensitivity to cleft palate induction. Receptors for glucocorticoids appear to be more prevalent in the palatal mesenchymal cells whereas those for TCDD are probably located in the palatal epithelial cells. Glucocorticoids exert their teratogenic effect on the palate by inhibiting the growth of the palatal mesenchymal cells whereas TCDD alters the terminal cell differentiation of the media palatal epithelial cells. 71 references.

  12. Prediction of drug-induced catalepsy based on dopamine D1, D2, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor occupancies.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, K; Ito, K; Kotaki, H; Sawada, Y; Iga, T

    1997-06-01

    It is known that catalepsy serves as an experimental animal model of parkinsonism. In this study, the relationship between in vivo dopamine D1 and D2 receptor occupancies and catalepsy was investigated to predict the intensity of catalepsy induced by drugs that bind to D1 and D2 receptors nonselectively. 3H-SCH23390 and 3H-raclopride were used for the labeling of D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. The ternary complex model consisting of agonist or antagonist, receptor, and transducer was developed, and the dynamic parameters were determined. After coadministration of SCH23390 and nemonapride, catalepsy was stronger than sum of the values predicted by single administration of each drug, and it was intensified synergistically. This finding suggested the existence of interaction between D1 and D2 receptors, and the necessity for constructing the model including this interaction. To examine the validity of this model, catalepsy and in vivo dopamine receptor occupancy were measured after administration of drugs that induce or have a possibility to induce parkinsonism (haloperidol, flunarizine, manidipine, oxatomide, hydroxyzine, meclizine, and homochlorcycilzine). All of the tested drugs blocked both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Intensity of catalepsy was predicted with this dynamic model and was compared with the observed values. In contrast with haloperidol, flunarizine, manidipine, and oxatomide (which induced catalepsy), hydroxyzine, meclizine, and homochlorcyclizine failed to induce catalepsy. Intensities of catalepsy predicted with this dynamic model considering the interaction between D1 and D2 receptors overestimated the observed values, suggesting that these drugs have catalepsy-reducing properties as well. Because muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonists inhibit the induction of catalepsy, the anticholinergic activities of the drugs were investigated. After SCH23390, nemonapride and scopolamine were administered simultaneously; catalepsy and in

  13. Yokukansan Increases 5-HT1A Receptors in the Prefrontal Cortex and Enhances 5-HT1A Receptor Agonist-Induced Behavioral Responses in Socially Isolated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Kazushige; Yamaguchi, Takuji; Nishi, Akinori; Ikarashi, Yasushi; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan has an anxiolytic effect, which occurs after repeated administration. In this study, to investigate the underlying mechanisms, we examined the effects of repeated yokukansan administration on serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor density and affinity and its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of socially isolated mice. Moreover, we examined the effects of yokukansan on a 5-HT1A receptor-mediated behavioral response. Male mice were subjected to social isolation stress for 6 weeks and simultaneously treated with yokukansan. Thereafter, the density and affinity of 5-HT1A receptors were analyzed by a receptor-binding assay. Levels of 5-HT1A receptor protein and mRNA were also measured. Furthermore, (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; a 5-HT1A receptor agonist) was injected intraperitoneally, and rearing behavior was examined. Social isolation stress alone did not affect 5-HT1A receptor density or affinity. However, yokukansan significantly increased receptor density and decreased affinity concomitant with unchanged protein and mRNA levels. Yokukansan also enhanced the 8-OH-DPAT-induced decrease in rearing behavior. These results suggest that yokukansan increases 5-HT1A receptors in the PFC of socially isolated mice and enhances their function, which might underlie its anxiolytic effects. PMID:26681968

  14. Toll-like receptor and tumour necrosis factor dependent endotoxin-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Togbe, Dieudonnée; Schnyder-Candrian, Silvia; Schnyder, Bruno; Doz, Emilie; Noulin, Nicolas; Janot, Laure; Secher, Thomas; Gasse, Pamela; Lima, Carla; Coelho, Fernando Rodrigues; Vasseur, Virginie; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernhard; Couillin, Isabelle; Moser, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies on endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammatory response in the lung are reviewed. The acute airway inflammatory response to inhaled endotoxin is mediated through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 signalling as mice deficient for TLR4 or CD14 are unresponsive to endotoxin. Acute bronchoconstriction, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-12 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) production, protein leak and neutrophil recruitment in the lung are abrogated in mice deficient for the adaptor molecules myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), but independent of TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF). In particular, LPS-induced TNF is required for bronchoconstriction, but dispensable for inflammatory cell recruitment. Lipopolysaccharide induces activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Inhibition of pulmonary MAPK activity abrogates LPS-induced TNF production, bronchoconstriction, neutrophil recruitment into the lungs and broncho-alveolar space. In conclusion, TLR4-mediated, bronchoconstriction and acute inflammatory lung pathology to inhaled endotoxin are dependent on TLR4/CD14/MD2 expression using the adapter proteins TIRAP and MyD88, while TRIF, IL-1R1 or IL-18R signalling pathways are dispensable. Further downstream in this axis of signalling, TNF blockade reduces only acute bronchoconstriction, while MAPK inhibition abrogates completely endotoxin-induced inflammation. PMID:18039275

  15. B1-kinin receptors modulate Mesobuthus tamulus venom-induced vasosensory reflex responses in anesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjeev K.; Deshpande, Shripad B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Intra-arterial injection of Mesobuthus tamulus (BT) venom produces reflex vasosensory responses modulating cardiorespiratory parameters in albino rats. The present study was conducted to understand the role of kinin receptors in modulating vasosensory reflexes evoked by BT venom. Materials and Methods: In urethane-anesthetized rats, tracheostomy was performed to keep the airway patent. The femoral artery was cannulated proximally, as well as distally, to record the blood pressure (BP) and to inject the chemicals, respectively. Electrocardiographic and respiratory excursions were recorded to compute the heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR). A group of animals was pretreated with saline/kinin receptor antagonists intra-arterially (B1/B2 receptor antagonists) before the injection of venom. Results: After intra-arterial injection of BT venom (1 mg/kg), there was an immediate increase in RR, which reached to 40% within 30 s, followed by a decrease of 40%. Further, there was sustained increase in RR (50%) up to 60 min. The BP started to increase at 40 s, peaking at 5 min (50%), and remained above the initial level up to 60 min. The bradycardiac response started after 5 min which peaked (50% of initial) at 25 min and remained at that level up to 60 min. In B1 receptor antagonist (des-Arg) pretreated animals, venom-induced cardiovascular responses were attenuated (by 20–25% in mean arterial pressure and HR) significantly but not in B2 receptor antagonist (Hoe-140) pretreated animals. Either of the antagonists failed to alter the RR responses. Conclusions: BT venom-induced vasosensory reflex responses modulating cardiovascular parameters are mediated via B1-kinin receptors in anesthetized rats. PMID:27756949

  16. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  17. The prion protein selectively binds to and modulates the content of purinergic receptor P2X4R.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Mariana V; Americo, Tatiana A; Guimarães, Marilia Z P; Linden, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The GPI-anchored prion protein (PrP(C)) is involved in neurodegeneration, either through misfolding in the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE), or as a mediator of the neurotoxicity of peptide oligomers in Alzheimer's Disease. PrP(C) has been attributed pleiotropic functions, and appears to scaffold a variety of cell surface signaling modules, for example through its binding to several neurotransmitter receptors. Here we used transfected HEK293 cells to test for an interaction of PrP(C) with purinergic receptor P2X4R. The prion protein bound P2X4R in both overlay and co-immunoprecipitation assays, and co-localized mostly intracellularly, but occasionaly at the cell surface in confocal micrographs. Functional PrP(C):P2X4R interaction was tested by the uptake of a P2X4R-permeant compound, and by modulation of intracellular calcium. Unexpectedly, however, this interaction was traced to a selective effect of PrP(C) upon the content of co-transfected P2X4R. The results suggest a role of PrP(C) in proteostasis, dysfunctions of which may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as TSE and Alzheimer's Disease. PMID:26946358

  18. Pentoxifylline inhibits pulmonary inflammation induced by infrarenal aorticcross-clamping dependent of adenosine receptor A2A

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hali; Tan, Gang; Tong, Liquan; Han, Peng; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Bing; Sun, Xueying

    2016-01-01

    Infrarenal aortic cross-clamping (IAC) is commonly used during infrarenal vascular operations. Prolonged IAC causes ischemia-reperfusion injury to local tissues, resulting in the release of inflammatory cytokines and acute lung injury (ALI). Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a clinically used drug for chronic occlusive arterial diseases and exerts protective effects against ALI induced by various factors in experimental models. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of PTX in a rat model of IAC. Wistar rats underwent IAC for 2 h, followed by 4 h reperfusion. PTX alone, or in combination with ZM-241385 (an adenosine receptor A2A antagonist) or CGS-21680 (an A2A agonist), was pre-administered to rats 1 h prior to IAC, and the severity of lung injury and inflammation were examined. Administration of PTX significantly attenuated ALI induced by IAC, evidenced by reduced histological scores and wet lung contents, improved blood gas parameters, decreased cell counts and protein amounts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and inhibition of MPO activity and ICAM-1 expression in lung tissues, and lower plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and soluble ICAM-1. ZM-241385 significantly abrogated, while CGS-21680 slightly enhanced, the effects of PTX in ameliorating ALI and inhibiting pulmonary inflammation. In exploration of the mechanisms, we found that PTX stimulated IL-10 production through the phosphorylation of STAT3, and A2A receptor participated in this regulation. The study indicates PTX plays a protective role in IAC-induced ALI in rats by inhibiting pulmonary inflammation through A2A signaling pathways. PMID:27347328

  19. Pilocarpine-induced epilepsy alters the expression and daily variation of the nuclear receptor RORα in the hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves de Alencar; de Lima, Eliangela; do Amaral, Fernanda Gaspar; Peres, Rafael; Cipolla-Neto, José; Amado, Débora

    2016-02-01

    It is widely known that there is an increase in the inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Further, the seizures follow a circadian rhythmicity. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) is related to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant enzyme expression and is part of the machinery of the biological clock and circadian rhythms. However, the participation of RORα in this neurological disorder has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the RORα mRNA and protein content profiles in the hippocampus of rats submitted to a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model at different time points throughout the 24-h light-dark cycle analyzing the influence of the circadian rhythm in the expression pattern during the acute, silent, and chronic phases of the experimental model. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry results showed that RORα mRNA and protein expressions were globally reduced in both acute and silent phases of the pilocarpine model. However, 60days after the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (chronic phase), the mRNA expression was similar to the control except for the time point 3h after the lights were turned off, and no differences were found in immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that the status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine is able to change the expression and daily variation of RORα in the rat hippocampal area during the acute and silent phases. These findings enhance our understanding of the circadian pattern present in seizures as well as facilitate strategies for the treatment of seizures.

  20. Involvement of cannabinoid receptors in infrasonic noise-induced neuronal impairment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; He, Hua; Liu, Xuedong; Zhang, Guangyun; Li, Li; Yan, Song; Li, Kangchu; Shi, Ming

    2015-08-01

    Excessive exposure to infrasound, a kind of low-frequency but high-intensity sound noise generated by heavy transportations and machineries, can cause vibroacoustic disease which is a progressive and systemic disease, and finally results in the dysfunction of central nervous system. Our previous studies have demonstrated that glial cell-mediated inflammation may contribute to infrasound-induced neuronal impairment, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show that cannabinoid (CB) receptors may be involved in infrasound-induced neuronal injury. After exposure to infrasound at 16 Hz and 130 dB for 1-14 days, the expression of CB receptors in rat hippocampi was gradually but significantly decreased. Their expression levels reached the minimum after 7- to 14-day exposure during which the maximum number of apoptotic cells was observed in the CA1. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), an endogenous agonist for CB receptors, reduced the number of infrasound-triggered apoptotic cells, which, however, could be further increased by CB receptor antagonist AM251. In animal behavior performance test, 2-AG ameliorated the infrasound-impaired learning and memory abilities of rats, whereas AM251 aggravated the infrasound-impaired learning and memory abilities of rats. Furthermore, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1β in the CA1 were upregulated after infrasound exposure, which were attenuated by 2-AG but further increased by AM251. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that CB receptors may be involved in infrasound-induced neuronal impairment possibly by affecting the release of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:26058582

  1. Endothelial Mineralocorticoid Receptor Deletion Prevents Diet-Induced Cardiac Diastolic Dysfunction in Females.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guanghong; Habibi, Javad; DeMarco, Vincent G; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Ma, Lixin; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Aroor, Annayya R; Domeier, Timothy L; Zhu, Yi; Meininger, Gerald A; Barrett Mueller, Katelee; Jaffe, Iris Z; Sowers, James R

    2015-12-01

    Overnutrition and insulin resistance are especially prominent risk factors for the development of cardiac diastolic dysfunction in females. We recently reported that consumption of a Western diet (WD) containing excess fat (46%), sucrose (17.5%), and high fructose corn syrup (17.5%) for 16 weeks resulted in cardiac diastolic dysfunction and aortic stiffening in young female mice and that these abnormalities were prevented by mineralocorticoid receptor blockade. Herein, we extend those studies by testing whether WD-induced diastolic dysfunction and factors contributing to diastolic impairment, such as cardiac fibrosis, hypertrophy, inflammation, and impaired insulin signaling, are modulated by excess endothelial cell mineralocorticoid receptor signaling. Four-week-old female endothelial cell mineralocorticoid receptor knockout and wild-type mice were fed mouse chow or WD for 4 months. WD feeding resulted in prolonged relaxation time, impaired diastolic septal wall motion, and increased left ventricular filling pressure indicative of diastolic dysfunction. This occurred in concert with myocardial interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy that were associated with enhanced profibrotic (transforming growth factor β1/Smad) and progrowth (S6 kinase-1) signaling, as well as myocardial oxidative stress and a proinflammatory immune response. WD also induced cardiomyocyte stiffening, assessed ex vivo using atomic force microscopy. Conversely, endothelial cell mineralocorticoid receptor deficiency prevented WD-induced diastolic dysfunction, profibrotic, and progrowth signaling, in conjunction with reductions in macrophage proinflammatory polarization and improvements in insulin metabolic signaling. Therefore, our findings indicate that increased endothelial cell mineralocorticoid receptor signaling associated with consumption of a WD plays a key role in the activation of cardiac profibrotic, inflammatory, and growth pathways that lead to diastolic dysfunction in

  2. Subchronic treatment with antiepileptic drugs modifies pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice: Its correlation with benzodiazepine receptor binding

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Experiments using male CD1 mice were carried out to investigate the effects of subchronic (daily administration for 8 days) pretreatments with drugs enhancing GABAergic transmission (diazepam, 10 mg/kg, ip; gabapentin, 100 mg/kg, po; or vigabatrin, 500 mg/kg, po) on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, 24 h after the last injection. Subchronic administration of diazepam reduced latencies to clonus, tonic extension and death induced by PTZ. Subchronic vigabatrin produced enhanced latency to the first clonus but faster occurrence of tonic extension and death induced by PTZ. Subchronic gabapentin did not modify PTZ-induced seizures. Autoradiography experiments revealed reduced benzodiazepine receptor binding in several brain areas after subchronic treatment with diazepam or gabapentin, whereas subchronic vigabatrin did not induce significant receptor changes. The present results indicate differential effects induced by the subchronic administration of diazepam, vigabatrin, and gabapentin on the susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures, benzodiazepine receptor binding, or both. PMID:18830436

  3. Mechanisms intrinsic to 5-HT2B receptor-induced potentiation of NMDA receptor responses in frog motoneurones.

    PubMed

    Holohean, Alice M; Hackman, John C

    2004-10-01

    In the presence of NMDA receptor open-channel blockers [Mg(2+); (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801); 1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane (memantine)] and TTX, high concentrations (30-100 microm) of either 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-Me-5-HT) significantly potentiated NMDA-induced depolarizations of frog spinal cord motoneurones. Potentiation was blocked by LY-53,857 (10-30 microm), SB 206553 (10 microm), and SB 204741 (30 microm), but not by spiroxatrine (10 microm), WAY 100,635 (1-30 microm), ketanserin (10 microm), RS 102221 (10 microm), or RS 39604 (10-20 microm). Therefore, alpha-Me-5-HT's facilitatory effects appear to involve 5-HT(2B) receptors. These effects were G-protein dependent as they were prevented by prior treatment with guanylyl-5'-imidodiphosphate (GMP-PNP, 100 microm) and H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp-D-Trp-Met-NH(2) (GP antagonist 2A, 3-6 microm), but not by pertussis toxin (PTX, 3-6 ng ml(-1), 48 h preincubation). This potentiation was not reduced by protein kinase C inhibition with staurosporine (2.0 microm), U73122 (10 microm) or N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide HCl (H9) (77 microm) or by intracellular Ca(2+) depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microm) (which inhibits Ca(2+)/ATPase). Exposure of the spinal cord to the L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers nifedipine (10 microm), KN-62 (5 microm) or gallopamil (100 microm) eliminated alpha-Me-5-HT's effects. The calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalenesulfonamide (W7) (100 microm) diminished the potentiation. However, the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM Kinase II) blocker KN-93 (10 microm) did not block the 5-HT enhancement of the NMDA responses. In summary, activation of 5-HT(2B) receptors by alpha-Me-5-HT facilitates NMDA-depolarizations of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca(2+)](i) from the entry of extracellular Ca(2+) through L-type Ca(2

  4. Estradiol pretreatment attenuated nicotine-induced endothelial cell apoptosis via estradiol functional membrane receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-li; Zhao, Jian-li; Lau, Wayne-Bond; Zhang, Yan-qing; Qiao, Zhong-dong; Wang, Ya-jing

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly associated with increased cardiovascular disease complications. The female population, however, manifests reduced cardiovascular morbidity. We define nicotine's effect upon human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), determine whether estradiol might ameliorate endothelial dysfunction via its membrane estrogen receptor (mER), and attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Endothelial cells were pretreated with estradiol-BSA and measured resultant ion flux across the cells via the patch clamp technique to assess mER is functionality. Estradiol-BSA administration was associated with 30% decreased nicotine-induced apoptosis and also attenuated nicotine-activated phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. Pretreatment of estradiol-BSA triggered a low calcium influx, suggesting ahead low influx calcium played a critical role in the underlying protective mechanisms of estradiol. Furthermore, this estradiol-BSA protection against apoptosis remained effective in the presence of tamoxifen, an intracellular estrogen receptor (iER) inhibitor. Additionally, tamoxifen did not abolish estradiol-BSA's inhibitory effect upon p38 and ERK's activation, giving evidence to the obligatory role of p38 and ERK signaling in the estradiol-BSA's anti-apoptotic action via mER. Our study provides evidence that nicotine enhances endothelial cell apoptosis, but estrogen exerts anti-apoptotic effect through its functional membrane estrogen receptor. Clinically, the nicotine in cigarettes might contribute to endothelial dysfunction, whereas ambient estradiol may provide cellular protection against nicotine-induced injury through its functional membrane receptor via MAPK pathway downregulation.

  5. PICK1 mediates synaptic recruitment of AMPA receptors at neurexin-induced postsynaptic sites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyu; Kam, Chuen; Luo, Jian-Hong; Xia, Jun

    2014-11-12

    In the CNS, synapse formation and maturation play crucial roles in the construction and consolidation of neuronal circuits. Neurexin and neuroligin localize on the opposite sides of synaptic membrane and interact with each other to promote the assembly and specialization of synapses. However, the excitatory synapses induced by the neurexin-neuroligin complex are initially immature synapses that lack AMPA receptors. Previously, PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) was shown to cluster and regulate the synaptic localization of AMPA receptors. Here, we report that during synaptogenesis induced by neurexin in cultured neurons from rat hippocampus, PICK1 recruited AMPA receptors to immature postsynaptic sites. This synaptic recruitment of AMPA receptors depended on the interaction between GluA2 and PICK1, and on the lipid-binding ability of PICK1, but not the interaction between PICK1 and neuroligin. Last, our results demonstrated that the recruitment of GluA2 to synapses could be prevented by ICA69 (islet cell autoantigen 69 kDa), a key binding partner of PICK1. Our study showed that PICK1, being negatively regulated by ICA69, could facilitate synapse maturation.

  6. Muscarinic receptors and amylase secretion of rat pancreatic acini during cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Morisset, J; Wood, J; Solomon, T E; Larose, L

    1987-08-01

    This study examines the effects of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis on the secretory response of rat pancreatic acini to carbamylcholine and concentration of acinar muscarinic receptors. Rats were injected subcutaneously every 8 hr with cerulein, 12 micrograms/kg, for two days. They were sacrificed 2 and 4 hr after the first injection, 4 hr after the second and third, and 8 hr after the sixth. By 2 hr after the first injection, carbamylcholine showed decreased potency for stimulating amylase release; decreased potency becomes maximal after the second injection. Four hours after the first injection, carbamylcholine also showed decreased efficacy for causing maximal amylase release. In the course of development of pancreatitis, progressive reductions in muscarinic receptor concentrations were evident from 4 hr after the second injection. Following the complete treatment (8 hr after the sixth injection), no alteration could be observed in the affinity or proportions of each agonist class of muscarinic receptors. These studies indicate that the pancreatic acinar cells still remain functional after acute cerulein-induced pancreatitis, although significant reductions in potency and efficacy of carbamylcholine to cause amylase release and reduced muscarinic receptor concentration occur. PMID:2440647

  7. NMDA Receptors on Dopaminoceptive Neurons Are Essential for Drug-Induced Conditioned Place Preference.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Magdalena; Tokarski, Krzysztof; Bobula, Bartosz; Zajdel, Joanna; Jastrzębska, Kamila; Cieślak, Przemysław Eligiusz; Zygmunt, Magdalena; Sowa, Joanna; Smutek, Magdalena; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Engblom, David; Hess, Grzegorz; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Rodriguez Parkitna, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Plasticity of the brain's dopamine system plays a crucial role in adaptive behavior by regulating appetitive motivation and the control of reinforcement learning. In this study, we investigated drug- and natural-reward conditioned behaviors in a mouse model in which the NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity of dopaminoceptive neurons was disrupted. We generated a transgenic mouse line with inducible selective inactivation of the NR1 subunit in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors (the NR1(D1CreERT2) mice). Whole-cell recordings of spontaneous EPSCs on neurons in the nucleus accumbens confirmed that a population of neurons lacked the NMDA receptor-dependent component of the current. This effect was accompanied by impaired long-term potentiation in the nucleus accumbens and in the CA1 area of the ventral, but not the dorsal, hippocampus. Mutant mice did not differ from control animals when tested for pavlovian or instrumental conditioning. However, NR1(D1CreERT2) mice acquired no preference for a context associated with administration of drugs of abuse. In the conditioned place preference paradigm, mutant mice did not spend more time in the context paired with cocaine, morphine, or ethanol, although these mice acquired a preference for sucrose jelly and an aversion to naloxone injections, as normal. Thus, we observed that the selective inducible ablation of the NMDA receptors specifically blocks drug-associated context memory with no effect on positive reinforcement in general. PMID:27294197

  8. Profound and rapid reduction in body temperature induced by the melanocortin receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Kim, Eun Ran; Fan, Shengjie; Xia, Yan; Xu, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Qingchun

    2014-08-22

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid reduction in both body temperature and energy expenditure, which was independent of its effect on feeding and followed by a prolonged increase in energy expenditure. The rapid reduction was at least partly mediated by brain neurons since intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an endogenous melanocortin receptor agonist, produced a similar response. In addition, the body temperature-lowering effect of MTII was independent of the presence of MC4Rs, but in a similar fashion to the previously shown effect on body temperature by 5'AMP. Moreover, β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) were required for the recovery from low body temperature induced by MTII and further pharmacological studies showed that the MTII's effect on body temperature may be partially mediated by the vasopressin V1a receptors. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unappreciated role for the melanocortin pathway in rapidly lowering body temperature.

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Retinoid Receptors in Diabetes-Induced Cardiac Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jing; Guleria, Rakeshwar S.; Zhu, Sen; Baker, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients, is characterized by ventricular dysfunction, in the absence of coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is no specific therapeutic strategy to effectively treat patients with DCM, due to a lack of a mechanistic understanding of the disease process. Retinoic acid, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is involved in a wide range of biological processes, through binding and activation of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR). RAR/RXR-mediated signaling has been implicated in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, it has been reported that activation of RAR/RXR has an important role in preventing the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy, through improving cardiac insulin resistance, inhibition of intracellular oxidative stress, NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses and the renin-angiotensin system. Moreover, downregulated RAR/RXR signaling has been demonstrated in diabetic myocardium, suggesting that impaired RAR/RXR signaling may be a trigger to accelerate diabetes-induced development of DCM. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of retinoid receptors in the regulation of cardiac metabolism and remodeling under diabetic conditions is important in providing the impetus for generating novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced cardiac complications and heart failure. PMID:26237391

  10. NMDA Receptors on Dopaminoceptive Neurons Are Essential for Drug-Induced Conditioned Place Preference123

    PubMed Central

    Tokarski, Krzysztof; Bobula, Bartosz; Zygmunt, Magdalena; Smutek, Magdalena; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Hess, Grzegorz; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plasticity of the brain’s dopamine system plays a crucial role in adaptive behavior by regulating appetitive motivation and the control of reinforcement learning. In this study, we investigated drug- and natural-reward conditioned behaviors in a mouse model in which the NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity of dopaminoceptive neurons was disrupted. We generated a transgenic mouse line with inducible selective inactivation of the NR1 subunit in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors (the NR1D1CreERT2 mice). Whole-cell recordings of spontaneous EPSCs on neurons in the nucleus accumbens confirmed that a population of neurons lacked the NMDA receptor-dependent component of the current. This effect was accompanied by impaired long-term potentiation in the nucleus accumbens and in the CA1 area of the ventral, but not the dorsal, hippocampus. Mutant mice did not differ from control animals when tested for pavlovian or instrumental conditioning. However, NR1D1CreERT2 mice acquired no preference for a context associated with administration of drugs of abuse. In the conditioned place preference paradigm, mutant mice did not spend more time in the context paired with cocaine, morphine, or ethanol, although these mice acquired a preference for sucrose jelly and an aversion to naloxone injections, as normal. Thus, we observed that the selective inducible ablation of the NMDA receptors specifically blocks drug-associated context memory with no effect on positive reinforcement in general. PMID:27294197

  11. Nitric oxide content and apoptosis rate in steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    BAI, RUI; LIU, WANLIN; ZHAO, AIQING; ZHAO, ZHENGQUN; JIANG, DIANMING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect on nitric oxide (NO) content and osteocyte apoptosis of steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH) in an animal model of SANFH. A total of 40 Japanese white rabbits, 5 months of age and weighing 2.5±0.5 kg, were randomly divided into groups A (hormone + endotoxin group), B (endotoxin + normal saline group), C (normal saline + hormone group) and D (control group). Following the establishment of the model, a blood sample was taken from the heart of each animal and centrifuged; the levels of NO in the serum were detected. The bilateral femoral heads were conventionally dissected, fixed, decalcified and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Subsequently, the empty bone lacunae were counted under an optical microscope. Changes in osteocyte morphology were observed using electron microscopy and osteocyte apoptosis was detected with a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. The percentage of empty bone lacunae in group A was significantly higher compared with that in groups B, C and D (P<0.01); however, there was no significant difference in percentage among groups B, C and D. The NO content in group A was significantly higher compared with that in groups B, C and D (P<0.01); however, there was no significant difference in NO content among groups B, C and D. The osteocyte apoptosis index in group A was significantly higher compared with that in the other groups (P<0.01); there was no significant difference among groups B, C and D. NO content was positively correlated with osteocyte apoptosis index (r=0.707). Thus, the present study found that NO content and the osteocyte apoptosis index were increased in SANFH, and that they play an important role in SANFH. The content of NO was positively correlated with the osteocyte apoptosis index, indicating that NO induces apoptosis. PMID:26622359

  12. Insights into cyclosporine A-induced atherosclerotic risk in transplant recipients: macrophage scavenger receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Song; Mathis, A Scott; Rosenblatt, Joseph; Minko, Tamara; Friedman, Gary S; Gioia, Kevin; Serur, David S; Knipp, Gregory T

    2004-02-27

    Clinical monitoring of organ-transplant recipients suggests that administration of cyclosporine (CsA) may increase the risk of atherosclerosis when compared with the general population. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the utility of the in vitro Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP)-1 human monocyte cell culture model for determining drug-related atherosclerotic potential in macrophages. The effect of CsA on the mRNA expression of macrophage scavenger receptor genes including CD36, CD68, scavenger receptor (SR)-A, SR-BII, and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1); the nuclear hormone receptors, including peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)gamma and liver-X-receptor (LXR)alpha; and the cholesterol efflux pump ABCA1 were investigated as markers of atherosclerotic progression. The THP-1 cells were cultured and differentiated into macrophages. The macrophages were then treated with CsA to assess gene expression. Time- (1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours) and dose- (concentrations [mg/L] corresponding to the trough [0.5], peak [1.25] and 4x peak [5]) dependency of CsA was assessed. The treated macrophage mRNA gene expression of CD36, CD68, and PPARgamma were up-regulated in the presence of CsA. Interestingly, SR-A, SR-BII, LOX-1, and LXRalpha expression appeared to be slightly down-regulated, and ABCA1 was relatively unchanged. Immunoblotting studies demonstrated that the protein expression of CD36 was unchanged or increased, PPARgamma was unchanged, and ABCA1 was unchanged or decreased at 4 and 8 hours. The results document CsA-induced mRNA and protein changes in receptors relevant to lipid-laden foam cell formation and demonstrate the utility of THP-1 macrophages for screening of atherosclerotic risk potential. PMID:15084924

  13. Insights into cyclosporine A-induced atherosclerotic risk in transplant recipients: macrophage scavenger receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Song; Mathis, A Scott; Rosenblatt, Joseph; Minko, Tamara; Friedman, Gary S; Gioia, Kevin; Serur, David S; Knipp, Gregory T

    2004-02-27

    Clinical monitoring of organ-transplant recipients suggests that administration of cyclosporine (CsA) may increase the risk of atherosclerosis when compared with the general population. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the utility of the in vitro Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP)-1 human monocyte cell culture model for determining drug-related atherosclerotic potential in macrophages. The effect of CsA on the mRNA expression of macrophage scavenger receptor genes including CD36, CD68, scavenger receptor (SR)-A, SR-BII, and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1); the nuclear hormone receptors, including peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)gamma and liver-X-receptor (LXR)alpha; and the cholesterol efflux pump ABCA1 were investigated as markers of atherosclerotic progression. The THP-1 cells were cultured and differentiated into macrophages. The macrophages were then treated with CsA to assess gene expression. Time- (1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours) and dose- (concentrations [mg/L] corresponding to the trough [0.5], peak [1.25] and 4x peak [5]) dependency of CsA was assessed. The treated macrophage mRNA gene expression of CD36, CD68, and PPARgamma were up-regulated in the presence of CsA. Interestingly, SR-A, SR-BII, LOX-1, and LXRalpha expression appeared to be slightly down-regulated, and ABCA1 was relatively unchanged. Immunoblotting studies demonstrated that the protein expression of CD36 was unchanged or increased, PPARgamma was unchanged, and ABCA1 was unchanged or decreased at 4 and 8 hours. The results document CsA-induced mRNA and protein changes in receptors relevant to lipid-laden foam cell formation and demonstrate the utility of THP-1 macrophages for screening of atherosclerotic risk potential.

  14. Ligand-Induced Dynamics of Neurotrophin Receptors Investigated by Single-Molecule Imaging Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Laura; Luin, Stefano; Bonsignore, Fulvio; de Nadai, Teresa; Beltram, Fabio; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophins are secreted proteins that regulate neuronal development and survival, as well as maintenance and plasticity of the adult nervous system. The biological activity of neurotrophins stems from their binding to two membrane receptor types, the tropomyosin receptor kinase and the p75 neurotrophin receptors (NRs). The intracellular signalling cascades thereby activated have been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, a comprehensive description of the ligand-induced nanoscale details of NRs dynamics and interactions spanning from the initial lateral movements triggered at the plasma membrane to the internalization and transport processes is still missing. Recent advances in high spatio-temporal resolution imaging techniques have yielded new insight on the dynamics of NRs upon ligand binding. Here we discuss requirements, potential and practical implementation of these novel approaches for the study of neurotrophin trafficking and signalling, in the framework of current knowledge available also for other ligand-receptor systems. We shall especially highlight the correlation between the receptor dynamics activated by different neurotrophins and the respective signalling outcome, as recently revealed by single-molecule tracking of NRs in living neuronal cells. PMID:25603178

  15. Methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity and behavioral sensitization: are dopamine d3 receptors involved?

    PubMed

    Jones, C D; Bartee, J A; Leite-Browning, M L; Blackshear, M A

    2007-05-15

    Drug sensitization is a behavioral phenomenon that occurs following repeated administration of methamphetamine (METH) and similar CNS stimulants. The mechanism of drug sensitization is unknown, but is believed to be due to downregulation of dopamine D3 receptors. It is hypothesized that repeated administration of dopamine D3 agonists results in downregulation of D3 receptors in methamphetamine-induced (METH-IND) sensitization. Furthermore, repeated administration of dopamine D3 antagonists and METH cause upregulation of D3 receptors and block METH-IND sensitization. The objective of this study was to determine the role of D3 receptors in METH-IND sensitization. To test these hypotheses, male mice received chronic injections (i.p.) of 2 mg/kg of the dopamine D3 agonist, PD128907 plus 0.5 mg/kg of METH or 8 mg/kg of D3 antagonist, U99194A and 0.5 mg\\kg of METH daily for 7-days. Drugs were withdrawn on day 8, and METH-IND sensitization was determined on day 18. Locomotor activity was measured for 75 minutes immediately after METH administration in an activity monitor. Acute administration of PD128907 decreased METH-IND locomotion, p < 0. 01, and acute U99194A increased it. However, chronic administration of these drugs did not alter the locomotor effects of METH (p > 0.05). These findings support in-part the hypothesis that dopamine D3 receptors are downregulated in METH-IND sensitization.

  16. Palonosetron: a unique 5-HT3-receptor antagonist for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced emesis.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Steven M; Koeller, James M

    2003-12-01

    Palonosetron (Aloxi) is a 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonist antiemetic indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and for acute nausea and vomiting following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Although it is the fourth member of this class to enter the US market, palonosetron is distinguished by distinct pharmacological characteristics. It has a higher binding affinity for the 5-HT(3 )receptor and a terminal serum half-life at least four times greater than any other available agent of this class (approximately 40 h). The high affinity and long half-life may explain the persistence of antiemetic effect throughout the delayed emesis risk period. The indications for palonosetron are supported by one dose-ranging study and three large, randomised, Phase III studies that all demonstrated at least equivalent activity (and in some cases, superior activity) compared to other 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists. In spite of the pharmacological differences, the side effect profile of palonosetron is comparable to that of other 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists. Palonosetron may prove valuable in combination therapy for delayed emesis and may be an appropriate agent for clinical settings, such as multiple-day chemotherapy, where acute emesis is repeatedly induced. Palonosetron provides a convenience advantage if multiple-day 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonist therapy is anticipated and is a unique addition to the antiemetic armamentarium. PMID:14640928

  17. Tamoxifen counteracts estradiol induced effects on striatal and hypophyseal dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Ferretti, C.; Blengio, M.; Ghi, P.; Racca, S.; Genazzani, E.; Portaleone, P.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the ability of Tamoxifen (TAM), an antiestrogen drug, to counteract the modification induced by estrogens on dopamine (DA) receptors on striatum and on adenohypophysis of ovex female rats. Subacute treatment with 17..beta..-estradiol (E/sub 2/) at both low (0.1 ..mu..g/kg) and high (20 ..mu..g/kg) doses confirmed its ability to increase the number of striatal /sup 3/H-Spiperone (/sup 3/H-SPI) binding sites in a dose dependent manner. By contrast in the pituitary, only high doses of estrogen were effective in reducing the number of DA receptors. We treated ovex female rats for 15 days with TAM alone or associated with E/sub 2/, to see if these estrogenic effects could be suppressed by an antiestrogenic drug. TAM did not affect the number of striatal DA receptors, but significantly increased the adenohypophy-seal DA binding sites, without varying their affinity. No changes were observed in pituitary and striatal DA receptor density, even when TAM was injected in association with estradiol. In conclusions: TAM is able to counteract the effects estrogens have on DA receptors. However there is some evidence that it could influence the pituitary DA systems independently of it antiestrogenic activity.

  18. Effects of electroacupuncture on the levels of retinal gamma-aminobutyric acid and its receptors in a guinea pig model of lens-induced myopia.

    PubMed

    Sha, F; Ye, X; Zhao, W; Xu, C-L; Wang, L; Ding, M-H; Bi, A-L; Wu, J-F; Jiang, W-J; Guo, D-D; Guo, J-G; Bi, H-S

    2015-02-26

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the retina and affects myopic development. Electroacupuncture (EA) is widely utilized to treat myopia in clinical settings. However, there are few reports on whether EA affects the level of retinal GABA during myopic development. To study this issue, in the present study, we explored the changes of retinal GABA content and the expression of its receptor subtypes, and the effects of EA stimulation on them in a guinea pig model with lens-induced myopia (LIM). Our results showed that the content of GABA and the expression of GABAA and GABAC receptors of retina were up-regulated during the development of myopia, and this up-regulation was inhibited by applying EA to Hegu (LI4) and Taiyang (EX-HN5) acupoints. Moreover, these effects of EA show a positional specificity. While applying EA at a sham acupoint, no apparent change of myopic retinal GABA and its receptor subtypes was observed. Taken together, our findings suggest that LIM is effective to up-regulate the level of retinal GABA, GABAA and GABAC receptors in guinea pigs and the effect may be inhibited by EA stimulation at LI4 and EX-HN5 acupoints.

  19. Cranberries inhibit LDL oxidation and induce LDL receptor expression in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Liu, Rui Hai

    2005-08-26

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in most industrialized countries. Cranberries were evaluated for their potential roles in dietary prevention of CVD. Cranberry extracts were found to have potent antioxidant capacity preventing in vitro LDL oxidation with increasing delay and suppression of LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of 100 g cranberries against LDL oxidation was equivalent to 1000 mg vitamin C or 3700 mg vitamin E. Cranberry extracts also significantly induced expression of hepatic LDL receptors and increased intracellular uptake of cholesterol in HepG2 cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that cranberries could enhance clearance of excessive plasma cholesterol in circulation. We propose that additive or synergistic effects of phytochemicals in cranberries are responsible for the inhibition of LDL oxidation, the induced expression of LDL receptors, and the increased uptake of cholesterol in hepatocytes.

  20. IFN-alpha/beta-dependent cross-priming induced by specific toll-like receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Durand, Vanessa; Wong, Simon Y C; Tough, David F; Le Bon, Agnes

    2006-04-12

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pattern recognition receptors that have been identified as crucial in the initiation of innate immune responses against pathogens. They are thought to be involved in shaping appropriate adaptive immune responses, although their precise contribution has not yet been fully characterised. Our aim was to investigate in vivo the effect of different TLR stimuli on cellular immune responses. We examined the ability of a range of TLR stimuli to induce CD8+ T cell responses against a model soluble protein antigen, ovalbumin (OVA). We found that TLR 3, TLR 4, and TLR 9 agonists induced functional cross-priming, and that this process was dependent on IFN-alpha/beta signalling pathway. PMID:16823911

  1. Angiotensin-(1-7) through Mas receptor activation induces peripheral antinociception by interaction with adrenoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Castor, Marina G M; Santos, Robson A S; Duarte, Igor D G; Romero, Thiago R L

    2015-07-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] develops its functions interacting with Mas receptor. Mas receptor was recently identified in the DRG and its activation by Ang-(1-7) resulted in peripheral antinociception against PGE2 hyperalgesia in an opioid-independent pathway. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which Ang-(1-7) induce peripheral antinociception was not yet elucidated. Considering that endogenous noradrenaline could induce antinociceptive effects by activation of the adrenoceptors the aim of this study was verify if the Ang-(1-7) is able to induce peripheral antinociception by interacting with the endogenous noradrenergic system. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (2μg). Ang-(1-7) was administered locally into the right hindpaw alone and after either agents, α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (5, 10 and 20 μg/paw), α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (10, 15 and 20 μg/paw), α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (0.5, 1 and 2 μg/paw), β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (150, 300 and 600 ng/paw). Noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (30 μg/paw) was administered prior to Ang-(1-7) low dose (20 ng) and guanetidine 3 days prior to experiment (30 mg/kg/animal, once a day), depleting NA storage. Intraplantar Ang-(1-7) induced peripheral antinociception against hyperalgesia induced by PGE2. This effect was reversed, in dose dependent manner, by intraplantar injection of yohimbine, rauwolscine, prazosin and propranolol. Reboxetine intensified the antinociceptive effects of low-dose of Ang-(1-7) and guanethidine, which depletes peripheral sympathomimetic amines, reversed almost 70% the Ang-(1-7)-induced peripheral antinociception. Then, this study provides evidence that Ang-(1-7) induce peripheral antinociception stimulating an endogenous noradrenaline release that activates peripheral adrenoceptors inducing antinociception.

  2. Exposure to nicotine increases dopamine receptor content in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of rat dams and offspring during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Younes-Rapozo, V; Lotufo, B M; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2015-09-01

    Nicotine exposure causes the release of dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We have previously shown that maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes hyperleptinemia in dams and pups, and leptin is known to decrease dopamine release from the VTA. Here we evaluated whether maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes changes in dopamine and leptin signaling pathways at the end of exposure and after 5days of withdrawal in the: VTA, NAc, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and dorsal striatum (DS). On postnatal day (PN) 2, lactating Wistar rats were implanted with minipumps releasing nicotine (NIC; 6mg/kg/day, s.c.) or saline (C) for 14days. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field on PN14 or PN20, and euthanized on PN15 or PN21. Entries into the open arms and head dips in the EPM were reduced in NIC pups at P20. At weaning (PN21), NIC dams had: lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), higher OBRb and SOCS3 contents in VTA; lower TH, higher D1R, D2R and DAT contents in NAc; higher TH content in DS; and higher D2R and SOCS3 contents in ARC. On PN15, NIC offspring had higher D1R, D2R and lower DAT contents in NAc, while on PN21, they had lower DAT in DS, and lower pSTAT3 content in ARC. We evidenced that postnatal nicotine exposure induces relevant changes in the brain reward system of dams and pups, possibly associated with changes in leptinemia and increased offspring anxiety-like behavior.

  3. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Isales, Gregory M.; Hipszer, Rachel A.; Raftery, Tara D.; Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M.; Volz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) – a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant – results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) – a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis – in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5-72 hours post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) – a primary TPP metabolite - were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) – a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish – and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may interact with human RARs, we then exposed Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with chimeric human RARα-, RARβ-, or RARγ to TPP in the presence of RA, and found that TPP significantly inhibited RA-induced luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our findings suggest that zebrafish RARs may be involved in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity, a mechanism of action that may have relevance to humans. PMID:25725299

  4. Dopamine D4 Receptor Counteracts Morphine-Induced Changes in μ Opioid Receptor Signaling in the Striosomes of the Rat Caudate Putamen

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Gago, Belén; Valderrama-Carvajal, Alejandra; Roales-Buján, Ruth; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Duchou, Jolien; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Medina-Luque, José; de la Calle, Adelaida; Fuxe, Kjell; Rivera, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The mu opioid receptor (MOR) is critical in mediating morphine analgesia. However, prolonged exposure to morphine induces adaptive changes in this receptor leading to the development of tolerance and addiction. In the present work we have studied whether the continuous administration of morphine induces changes in MOR protein levels, its pharmacological profile, and MOR-mediated G-protein activation in the striosomal compartment of the rat CPu, by using immunohistochemistry and receptor and DAMGO-stimulated [35S]GTPγS autoradiography. MOR immunoreactivity, agonist binding density and its coupling to G proteins are up-regulated in the striosomes by continuous morphine treatment in the absence of changes in enkephalin and dynorphin mRNA levels. In addition, co-treatment of morphine with the dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) agonist PD168,077 fully counteracts these adaptive changes in MOR, in spite of the fact that continuous PD168,077 treatment increases the [3H]DAMGO Bmax values to the same degree as seen after continuous morphine treatment. Thus, in spite of the fact that both receptors can be coupled to Gi/0 protein, the present results give support for the existence of antagonistic functional D4R-MOR receptor-receptor interactions in the adaptive changes occurring in MOR of striosomes on continuous administration of morphine. PMID:24451133

  5. Tumour-cell-induced endothelial cell necroptosis via death receptor 6 promotes metastasis.

    PubMed

    Strilic, Boris; Yang, Lida; Albarrán-Juárez, Julián; Wachsmuth, Laurens; Han, Kang; Müller, Ulrike C; Pasparakis, Manolis; Offermanns, Stefan

    2016-08-11

    Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death in humans. It is a complex multistep process during which individual tumour cells spread primarily through the circulatory system to colonize distant organs. Once in the circulation, tumour cells remain vulnerable, and their metastatic potential largely depends on a rapid and efficient way to escape from the blood stream by passing the endothelial barrier. Evidence has been provided that tumour cell extravasation resembles leukocyte transendothelial migration. However, it remains unclear how tumour cells interact with endothelial cells during extravasation and how these processes are regulated on a molecular level. Here we show that human and murine tumour cells induce programmed necrosis (necroptosis) of endothelial cells, which promotes tumour cell extravasation and metastasis. Treatment of mice with the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-inhibitor necrostatin-1 or endothelial-cell-specific deletion of RIPK3 reduced tumour-cell-induced endothelial necroptosis, tumour cell extravasation and metastasis. In contrast, pharmacological caspase inhibition or endothelial-cell-specific loss of caspase-8 promoted these processes. We furthermore show in vitro and in vivo that tumour-cell-induced endothelial necroptosis leading to extravasation and metastasis requires amyloid precursor protein expressed by tumour cells and its receptor, death receptor 6 (DR6), on endothelial cells as the primary mediators of these effects. Our data identify a new mechanism underlying tumour cell extravasation and metastasis, and suggest endothelial DR6-mediated necroptotic signalling pathways as targets for anti-metastatic therapies. PMID:27487218

  6. LPS-induced dental pulp inflammation increases expression of ionotropic purinergic receptors in rat trigeminal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangxi; Zhang, Li; Yang, Jingwen; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Zhi

    2014-09-10

    Severe toothache can be caused by dental pulp inflammation. The ionotropic purinergic receptor family (P2X) is reported to mediate nociception in primary afferent neurons. This study aims to investigate the involvement of P2X receptors in the sensitization of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) caused by dental pulp inflammation. Lipopolysaccharides were unilaterally applied to the pulp of the upper molar of the rat to induce dental pulp inflammation. Increased expression of c-fos, a marker of neuronal activity, was induced in V1-V2 division, indicating the activation of TG neurons. The expressions of P2X2, P2X3, and P2X5 were also increased in the V1-V2 division of TG, primarily in small-sized and medium-sized neurons. Markers of glutamatergic afferents, VGluT1, and GABAergic afferents, GAD67, were induced by lipopolysaccharides and coexpressed with P2X in small-sized TG neurons. The present findings suggest that the P2X2, P2X3, and P2X5 receptors are upregulated as part of the sensitization produced by dental pulp inflammation. PMID:25055139

  7. Fenugreek induced apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cells mediated independently by fas receptor change.

    PubMed

    Alshatwi, Ali Abdullah; Shafi, Gowhar; Hasan, Tarique Noorul; Syed, Naveed Ahmed; Khoja, Kholoud Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum in graecum (Fenugreek) is a traditional herbal plant used to treat disorders like diabetes, high cholesterol, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal ailments, and it is believed to have anti-tumor properties, although the mechanisms for the activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we prepared a methanol extract from Fenugreek whole plants and investigated the mechanism involved in its growth-inhibitory effect on MCF- 7 human breast cancer cells. Apoptosis of MCF-7 cells was evidenced by investigating trypan blue exclusion, TUNEL and Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, FADD, Bax and Bak by real-time PCR assays inducing activities, in the presence of FME at 65 μg/mL for 24 and 48 hours. FME induced apoptosis was mediated by the death receptor pathway as demonstrated by the increased level of Fas receptor expression after FME treatment. However, such change was found to be absent in Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, FADD, Bax and Bak, which was confirmed by a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. In summary, these data demonstrate that at least 90% of FME induced apoptosis in breast cell is mediated by Fas receptor-independently of either FADD, Caspase 8 or 3, as well as p53 interdependently. PMID:24289578

  8. Poly I:C-induced tumor cell apoptosis mediated by pattern-recognition receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangzhong; Ai, Miao; Guo, Yuqi; Zhou, Xianbin; Wang, Li; Li, Xia; Yao, Chengfang

    2012-11-01

    Poly I:C is a synthetic dsRNA that can imitate a viral infection and elicit host immune responses by triggering specific pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptor 3 and retinoic acid inducible gene I(RIG-I)-like receptors, including RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5. Activation of these PRRs by poly I:C triggers a signal transduction cascade that results in the activation of NF-κB and production of type I interferon. Poly I:C has been used as a vaccine adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy for several decades. Evidence from recent studies indicates that poly I:C can directly induce apoptosis in several types of tumor cells, thus providing a new therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the induction of apoptosis by poly I:C is still unclear. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of poly I:C-induced tumor cell apoptosis, focusing on the key molecules and pathways involved in this process.

  9. PreBotzinger complex neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons mediate opioid-induced respiratory depression.

    PubMed

    Montandon, Gaspard; Qin, Wuxuan; Liu, Hattie; Ren, Jun; Greer, John J; Horner, Richard L

    2011-01-26

    The analgesic properties of the opium poppy Papever somniferum were first mentioned by Hippocrates around 400 BC, and opioid analgesics remain the mainstay of pain management today. These drugs can cause the serious side-effect of respiratory depression that can be lethal with overdose, however the critical brain sites and neurochemical identity of the neurons mediating this depression are unknown. By locally manipulating neurotransmission in the adult rat, we identify the critical site of the medulla, the preBötzinger complex, that mediates opioid-induced respiratory depression in vivo. Here we show that opioids at the preBötzinger complex cause respiratory depression or fatal apnea, with anesthesia and deep-sleep being particularly vulnerable states for opioid-induced respiratory depression. Importantly, we establish that the preBötzinger complex is fully responsible for respiratory rate suppression following systemic administration of opioid analgesics. The site in the medulla most sensitive to opioids corresponds to a region expressing neurokinin-1 receptors, and we show in rhythmically active brainstem section in vitro that neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing preBötzinger complex neurons are selectively inhibited by opioids. In summary, neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing preBötzinger complex neurons constitute the critical site mediating opioid-induced respiratory rate depression, and the key therapeutic target for its prevention or reversal.

  10. [Determination of Acid-Insoluble Aluminum Content in Steel by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Jia, Yun-hai; Zhang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become a very attractive and popular chemical analysis technique in material science for its advantage of rapid analysis, non-contact measurement, micro surface analysis and online analysis. In this paper, LIBS were used to determine insoluble aluminum content by analyzing the scanning data on massive steel samples. Abnormal data were discarded by Nalimov criterion, and the remaining data was used to calculate the average and the standard deviation. The threshold to distinguish acid-insoluble aluminum and soluble aluminum was identified as the average value plus triple standard deviation. Two different mathematical models were proposed to calculate insoluble aluminum content, respectively according to the ratio of the total acid-insoluble aluminium signal strength to total aluminum signal strength and acid-insoluble signal number to total aluminum signal number. The total aluminum content was determined by the calibration curve. Insoluble aluminum content of certified reference materials and plate blank samples obtained by mathematical model is coincident to chemical wet method results. The result according to total acid-insoluble aluminium signal strength is much better. LIBS can be used as a rapid analysis method to characterize insoluble aluminum content in steel samples.

  11. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gang; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Hosomi, Naohisa; Lei, Bai; Nakano, Daisuke; Deguchi, Kazushi; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ma, Hong; Griendling, Kathy K.; Nishiyama, Akira

    2011-10-15

    Insulin resistance and hypertension have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the roles of insulin and mechanical force in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) remodeling. We investigated the contribution of mechanical stretch to insulin-induced VSMC proliferation. Thymidine incorporation was stimulated by insulin in stretched VSMCs, but not in un-stretched VSMCs. Insulin increased 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation in both stretched and un-stretched VSMCs. Mechanical stretch augmented insulin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and Src attenuated insulin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, as well as thymidine incorporation, whereas 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation was not affected by these inhibitors. Moreover, stretch augmented insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor expression, although it did not alter the expression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1. Insulin-induced ERK and Akt activation, and thymidine incorporation were inhibited by siRNA for the IGF-1 receptor. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via upregulation of IGF-1 receptor, and downstream Src/EGF receptor-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor expression was also augmented in hypertensive rats. These results provide a basis for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertensive patients with hyperinsulinemia. -- Highlights: {yields} Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via IGF-1 receptor. {yields} Src/EGFR-mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation are augmented in stretched VSMCs. {yields} Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor is increased in hypertensive rats. {yields} Results provide possible mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertension with DM.

  12. Neutrophils from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: relationship between impairment of granular contents, complement receptors, functional activities and disease status.

    PubMed

    Moretti, S; Lanza, F; Spisani, S; Latorraca, A; Rigolin, G M; Giuliani, A L; Castoldi, G L; Traniello, S

    1994-05-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are stem cell disorders of clonal origin in which infections and leukemic transformation are quite frequent. Neutrophils from 28 patients with MDS were analysed by flow cytometry for the expression of the two complement receptors CR1 and CR3, the antigenic reactivity of some granule constituents--myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, elastase, lactoferrin--and functional activities, such as locomotion, respiratory burst and cytotoxicity. The results were correlated with the FAB disease subtypes, grouped as low risk (RA) and high risk patients (RAEB, RAEB-t, CMML) and with 30 healthy subjects. A significant reduction in the percentage of neutrophil CR1, CR3 positivity and chemotaxis induced by endotoxin-activated serum was detected in the high risk group when compared with the low risk group and healthy controls. Furthermore, the high risk group also showed a low amount of myeloperoxidase, elastase, lysozyme and superoxide anion, but both low and high risk groups displayed reduced cellular cytotoxicity in comparison with the control. This work indicates that MDS patients belonging to the more advanced FAB categories frequently show multiple abnormalities in the expression of neutrophil complement receptors, and granular components (> 3), as well as in cell functions, suggesting the possibility of using these phenotypic abnormalities in the monitoring of disease progression. PMID:8069192

  13. Angiotensin receptor blockade attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung injury and rescues lung architecture in mice.

    PubMed

    Podowski, Megan; Calvi, Carla; Metzger, Shana; Misono, Kaori; Poonyagariyagorn, Hataya; Lopez-Mercado, Armando; Ku, Therese; Lauer, Thomas; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon; Berger, Alan; Cheadle, Christopher; Tuder, Rubin; Dietz, Harry C; Mitzner, Wayne; Wise, Robert; Neptune, Enid

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent smoking-related disease for which no disease-altering therapies currently exist. As dysregulated TGF-β signaling associates with lung pathology in patients with COPD and in animal models of lung injury induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), we postulated that inhibiting TGF-β signaling would protect against CS-induced lung injury. We first confirmed that TGF-β signaling was induced in the lungs of mice chronically exposed to CS as well as in COPD patient samples. Importantly, key pathological features of smoking-associated lung disease in patients, e.g., alveolar injury with overt emphysema and airway epithelial hyperplasia with fibrosis, accompanied CS-induced alveolar cell apoptosis caused by enhanced TGF-β signaling in CS-exposed mice. Systemic administration of a TGF-β-specific neutralizing antibody normalized TGF-β signaling and alveolar cell death, conferring improved lung architecture and lung mechanics in CS-exposed mice. Use of losartan, an angiotensin receptor type 1 blocker used widely in the clinic and known to antagonize TGF-β signaling, also improved oxidative stress, inflammation, metalloprotease activation and elastin remodeling. These data support our hypothesis that inhibition of TGF-β signaling through angiotensin receptor blockade can attenuate CS-induced lung injury in an established murine model. More importantly, our findings provide a preclinical platform for the development of other TGF-β-targeted therapies for patients with COPD.

  14. Effects of Estrogen Receptor Modulators on Morphine Induced Sensitization in Mice Memory

    PubMed Central

    Anoush, Mahdieh; Jani, Ali; Sahebgharani, Moosa; Jafari, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the effects of estradiol valerate and raloxifenea selective estrogen receptor modulator; (SERM) on morphine induced sensitization were examined in mice memory, according to the step-down passive avoidance task. Method: The mice received morphine or estradiol and raloxifene for three days alone or in combination with morphine. After a drug free period of 5 days, the subjects received saline or morphine as pre- training treatments followed by a pre-test saline administration. The memory retrieval was evaluated using step-down passive avoidance test both on the training and test day. Results: The results illustrated that the three- day administration of morphine induced sensitization through the enhancement of memory retrieval (morphine induced sensitization in mice memory). Both the three- day administration of estradiol valerate alone and with morphine (5 mg/kg) restored memory. On the other hand, the three- day administration of raloxifene had no effect on memory retrieval alone, but declined morphine induced sensitization in mice memory. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that there is an interaction between estrogen receptor modulators and morphine induced sensitization in mice memory. PMID:26877753

  15. The endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation increases body fat content and CB1 receptor levels in mice adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, C A; Castillo, V A; Llanos, M N

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate energy balance; thus, their premature activation may result in altered physiology of tissues involved in such a function. Activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEA treatment during lactation on epididymal and body fat content, in addition to CB1R protein level at weaning. With this purpose, male mice pups were orally treated with AEA (20 μg g−1 body weight) or vehicle during lactation. Mice (21 days old) were killed and epididymal fat was extracted to evaluate its amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels by western blot analysis. Total body fat percentage was also evaluated. Anandamide-treated mice showed an increased body fat content at 21 and 150 days of age. Moreover, epididymal adipose tissue amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels were higher in the AEA-treated group. This in vivo study shows for the first time that a progressive increase in body fat accumulation can be programmed in early stages of life by oral treatment with the endocannabinoid AEA, a fact associated with an increased amount of epididymal fat pads and a higher expression of CB1R in this tissue. PMID:26098446

  16. The endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation increases body fat content and CB1 receptor levels in mice adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, C A; Castillo, V A; Llanos, M N

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate energy balance; thus, their premature activation may result in altered physiology of tissues involved in such a function. Activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEA treatment during lactation on epididymal and body fat content, in addition to CB1R protein level at weaning. With this purpose, male mice pups were orally treated with AEA (20 μg g(-1) body weight) or vehicle during lactation. Mice (21 days old) were killed and epididymal fat was extracted to evaluate its amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels by western blot analysis. Total body fat percentage was also evaluated. Anandamide-treated mice showed an increased body fat content at 21 and 150 days of age. Moreover, epididymal adipose tissue amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels were higher in the AEA-treated group. This in vivo study shows for the first time that a progressive increase in body fat accumulation can be programmed in early stages of life by oral treatment with the endocannabinoid AEA, a fact associated with an increased amount of epididymal fat pads and a higher expression of CB1R in this tissue. PMID:26098446

  17. Antagonism effects of cypermethrin on interleukin-6-induced androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Li-Fang; Zhou, Ji-Long; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Wang, Hui; Ju, Qiang; Pan, Chen; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Zhang, Mei-Rong; Yu, Hong-Min; Xu, Li-Chun

    2015-07-01

    To identify whether androgen receptor (AR) antagonism by cypermethrin involves interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced ligand-independent AR signaling, we have developed the AR reporter gene assay. The reporter gene plasmid pMMTV-chloramphenicol transferase (CAT) was transfected into LNCaP cells. IL-6 increased expression of MMTV-CAT significantly (P<0.05). Cypermethrin decreased CAT reporter expression induced by IL-6 (50 ng/ml), and the significant inhibition was detected at 10(-5)M (P<0.05). IL-6 induces ligand-independent activation of AR. Cypermethrin exhibits inhibitory effects on IL-6-induced ligand-independent AR signaling. We provide a novel insight into cypermethrin-mediated antagonism of the IL-6-mediated ligand-independent activation of the AR.

  18. Anti-phospholipid antibodies restore mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury in complement receptor 2/complement receptor 1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sherry D; Egan, Ryan P; Chai, Chunyan; Girardi, Guillermina; Holers, V Michael; Salmon, Jane; Monestier, Marc; Tsokos, George C

    2004-12-01

    Complement receptor 2-deficient (Cr2(-/-)) mice are resistant to mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury because they lack a component of the natural Ab repertoire. Neither the nature of the Abs that are involved in I/R injury nor the composition of the target Ag, to which recognition is lacking in Cr2(-/-) mice, is known. Because anti-phospholipid Abs have been shown to mediate fetal growth retardation and loss when injected into pregnant mice, we performed experiments to determine whether anti-phospholipid Abs can also reconstitute I/R injury and, therefore, represent members of the injury-inducing repertoire that is missing in Cr2(-/-) mice. We demonstrate that both murine and human monoclonal and polyclonal Abs against negatively charged phospholipids can reconstitute mesenteric I/R-induced intestinal and lung tissue damage in Cr2(-/-) mice. In addition, Abs against beta2 glycoprotein I restore local and remote tissue damage in the Cr2(-/-) mice. Unlike Cr2(-/-) mice, reconstitution of I/R tissue damage in the injury-resistant Rag-1(-/-) mouse required the infusion of both anti-beta2-glycoprotein I and anti-phospholipid Ab. We conclude that anti-phospholipid Abs can bind to tissues subjected to I/R insult and mediate tissue damage. PMID:15557203

  19. β-adrenergic receptor mediation of stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in mice: roles for β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Vranjkovic, Oliver; Hang, Shona; Baker, David A; Mantsch, John R

    2012-08-01

    Stress can trigger the relapse of drug use in recovering cocaine addicts and reinstatement in rodent models through mechanisms that may involve norepinephrine release and β-adrenergic receptor activation. The present study examined the role of β-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the stressor-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-induced (15 mg/kg i.p.) conditioned place preference in mice. Forced swim (6 min at 22°C) stress or activation of central noradrenergic neurotransmission by administration of the selective α(2) adrenergic receptor antagonist 2-[(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-1H-isoindole (BRL-44,408) (10 mg/kg i.p.) induced reinstatement in wild-type, but not β- adrenergic receptor-deficient Adrb1/Adrb2 double-knockout, mice. In contrast, cocaine administration (15 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in reinstatement in both wild-type and β-adrenergic receptor knockout mice. Stress-induced reinstatement probably involved β(2) adrenergic receptors. The β(2) adrenergic receptor antagonist -(isopropylamino)-1-[(7-methyl-4-indanyl)oxy]butan-2-ol (ICI-118,551) (1 or 2 mg/kg i.p.) blocked reinstatement by forced swim or BRL-44,408, whereas administration of the nonselective β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (2 or 4 mg/kg i.p.) or the β(2) adrenergic receptor-selective agonist clenbuterol (2 or 4 mg/kg i.p.) induced reinstatement. Forced swim-induced, but not BRL-44,408-induced, reinstatement was also blocked by a high (20 mg/kg) but not low (10 mg/kg) dose of the β(1) adrenergic receptor antagonist betaxolol, and isoproterenol-induced reinstatement was blocked by pretreatment with either ICI-118,551 or betaxolol, suggesting a potential cooperative role for β(1) and β(2) adrenergic receptors in stress-induced reinstatement. Overall, these findings suggest that targeting β-adrenergic receptors may represent a promising pharmacotherapeutic strategy for preventing drug relapse, particularly in cocaine addicts whose drug use

  20. The influence of exercise-induced oxidative stress on binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by the receptors on erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Szcześniak, L; Karolkiewicz, J; Deskur, E; Rychlewski, T; Konys, L; Stankiewicz, K

    1998-09-01

    In the present work we investigated the influence of oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise on the affinity of a specific insulin receptors on human erythrocytes. 13 male members of the national basketball staff performed a maximal treadmill exercise test. In the blood samples collected before and directly after the test acid-base equilibrium parameters, lactic acid concentrations, glucose and insulin serum levels as well as 125I-insulin binding and degradation by receptor on erythrocytes were measured. As markers of oxidative stress, plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS) and red blood cells glutathione content (GSH) were determined. After the exercise test TBARS levels increased significantly and GSH concentrations decreased indicating that oxidative stress occurred. Binding of 125I-insulin to the receptors on erythrocytes decreased significantly during the test, while there was only insignificant reduction in 125I-insulin degradation. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression revealed that changes in insulin degradation by receptors on erythrocytes during exhaustive exercise are determined by oxidative stress, probably via oxidation of sulfhydryl groups of certain enzymes. The affinity of receptors for insulin seems to depend mainly on glucose concentrations.

  1. Senktide-induced gerbil foot tapping behaviour is blocked by selective tachykinin NK1 and NK3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Monika; Kristensson, Elin; Adolfsson, Rebecka; Leffler, Agnes; Ahlstedt, Ingela; Engberg, Susanna; Drmota, Tomas; Sigfridsson, Kalle; Jussila, Rainer; de Verdier, Jennie; Novén, Anna; Johansson, Anders; Påhlman, Ingrid; von Mentzer, Bengt; Lindström, Erik

    2007-12-22

    Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of tachykinin NK(1) receptor agonists induces tapping of the hind legs in gerbils, so-called gerbil foot tapping, which is thought to reflect a fear-related response. The aim of the present study was to examine how ligands selective for NK(1), NK(2) and NK(3) receptors affect the gerbil foot tap response. Agonists selective for NK receptor subtypes were administered i.c.v. and the gerbil foot tap response was monitored. The effect of systemically administered antagonists was also studied. The interaction of ligands with gerbil NK(1) receptors was evaluated using autoradiography on gerbil brain slices with [(3)H]-Sar,Met(O(2))-substance P or [(3)H]GR205171 as radioligand. The effects of ligands on NK(1) and NK(3) receptor-mediated increases in intracellular calcium in vitro were studied in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the cloned gerbil receptors. The selective NK(1) receptor agonist ASMSP and the selective NK(3) receptor agonist senktide induced dose-dependent increases in gerbil foot tapping with similar potency. The maximal effect of senktide was approximately 40% of the maximal response evoked by ASMSP. The effects of ASMSP and senktide were blocked by administration of the selective NK(1) receptor antagonist CP99,994 (10 micromol/kg s.c.). The effects of senktide, but not ASMSP, were blocked by administration of the selective NK(3) receptor antagonist SB223412 (50 micromol/kg i.p.). Senktide did not displace NK(1) receptor radioligand binding and was >1000-fold less potent than ASMSP at activating gerbil NK(1) receptors. The selective NK(3) receptor agonist senktide evokes fear-related gerbil foot tapping, an effect which probably involves indirect enhancement of NK(1) receptor signalling.

  2. sPLA2 IB induces human podocyte apoptosis via the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yangbin; Wan, Jianxin; Liu, Yipeng; Yang, Qian; Liang, Wei; Singhal, Pravin C.; Saleem, Moin A.; Ding, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is expressed in podocytes in human glomeruli. Group IB secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 IB), which is one of the ligands of the PLA2R, is more highly expressed in chronic renal failure patients than in controls. However, the roles of the PLA2R and sPLA2 IB in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases are unknown. In the present study, we found that more podocyte apoptosis occurs in the kidneys of patients with higher PLA2R and serum sPLA2 IB levels. In vitro, we demonstrated that human podocyte cells expressed the PLA2R in the cell membrane. After binding with the PLA2R, sPLA2 IB induced podocyte apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. sPLA2 IB-induced podocyte PLA2R upregulation was not only associated with increased ERK1/2 and cPLA2α phosphorylation but also displayed enhanced apoptosis. In contrast, PLA2R-silenced human podocytes displayed attenuated apoptosis. sPLA2 IB enhanced podocyte arachidonic acid (AA) content in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that sPLA2 IB has the potential to induce human podocyte apoptosis via binding to the PLA2R. The sPLA2 IB-PLA2R interaction stimulated podocyte apoptosis through activating ERK1/2 and cPLA2α and through increasing the podocyte AA content. PMID:25335547

  3. sPLA2 IB induces human podocyte apoptosis via the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yangbin; Wan, Jianxin; Liu, Yipeng; Yang, Qian; Liang, Wei; Singhal, Pravin C; Saleem, Moin A; Ding, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is expressed in podocytes in human glomeruli. Group IB secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 IB), which is one of the ligands of the PLA2R, is more highly expressed in chronic renal failure patients than in controls. However, the roles of the PLA2R and sPLA2 IB in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases are unknown. In the present study, we found that more podocyte apoptosis occurs in the kidneys of patients with higher PLA2R and serum sPLA2 IB levels. In vitro, we demonstrated that human podocyte cells expressed the PLA2R in the cell membrane. After binding with the PLA2R, sPLA2 IB induced podocyte apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. sPLA2 IB-induced podocyte PLA2R upregulation was not only associated with increased ERK1/2 and cPLA2α phosphorylation but also displayed enhanced apoptosis. In contrast, PLA2R-silenced human podocytes displayed attenuated apoptosis. sPLA2 IB enhanced podocyte arachidonic acid (AA) content in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that sPLA2 IB has the potential to induce human podocyte apoptosis via binding to the PLA2R. The sPLA2 IB-PLA2R interaction stimulated podocyte apoptosis through activating ERK1/2 and cPLA2α and through increasing the podocyte AA content.

  4. Attention-Induced Variance and Noise Correlation Reduction in Macaque V1 Is Mediated by NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Jose L.; Gieselmann, Marc A.; Sanayei, Mehdi; Thiele, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Summary Attention improves perception by affecting different aspects of the neuronal code. It enhances firing rates, it reduces firing rate variability and noise correlations of neurons, and it alters the strength of oscillatory activity. Attention-induced rate enhancement in striate cortex requires cholinergic mechanisms. The neuropharmacological mechanisms responsible for attention-induced variance and noise correlation reduction or those supporting changes in oscillatory activity are unknown. We show that ionotropic glutamatergic receptor activation is required for attention-induced rate variance, noise correlation, and LFP gamma power reduction in macaque V1, but not for attention-induced rate modulations. NMDA receptors mediate attention-induced variance reduction and attention-induced noise correlation reduction. Our results demonstrate that attention improves sensory processing by a variety of mechanisms that are dissociable at the receptor level. PMID:23719166

  5. UV-induced signal transduction in epidermal cells: from surface receptors to protein kinase C: a mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolnitz, Mikhail M.; Peshkova, Anna Y.

    2002-05-01

    In the paper the mathematical model of UV-induced PKC activation is presented. Phosphorylation of membrane receptors, activation of phospholipases and phospholipids turnover, diacylglycerol, inositol trisphosphate and arachidonic acid production, calcium releasing are taken into account.

  6. Inhibition of Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Palmitic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingyue; Lu, Lihui; Lei, Song; Chai, Hua; Wu, Siyuan; Tang, Xiaoju; Bao, Qinxue; Chen, Li; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is known to cause cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the important pathological features of PA-induced lipotoxicity, but the mechanism by which PA induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still unclear. Therefore, our study was to test whether necroptosis, a receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3-) dependent programmed necrosis, was involved in the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We used the PA-treated primary neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NCMs) or H9c2 cells to study lipotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by PA treatment, determined by upregulation of hypertrophic marker genes and cell surface area enlargement. Upon PA treatment, the expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 was increased. Pretreatment with the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, was attenuated. Knockdown of RIPK1 or RIPK3 by siRNA suppressed the PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Moreover, a crosstalk between necroptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was observed in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of RIPK1 with Nec-1, phosphorylation level of AKT (Ser473), and mTOR (Ser2481) was significantly reduced in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, RIPKs-dependent necroptosis might be crucial in PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Activation of mTOR may mediate the effect of necroptosis in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by PA. PMID:27057269

  7. Nitric oxide mediates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-induced activation of p21ras.

    PubMed

    Yun, H Y; Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Dawson, V L; Dawson, T M

    1998-05-12

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor-mediated increases in intracellular calcium are thought to play a critical role in synaptic plasticity. The mechanisms by which changes in cytoplasmic calcium transmit the glutamate signal to the nucleus, which is ultimately important for long-lasting neuronal responses, are poorly understood. We show that NMDA receptor stimulation leads to activation of p21(ras) (Ras) through generation of nitric oxide (NO) via neuronal NO synthase. The competitive NO synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester, prevents Ras activation elicited by NMDA and this effect is competitively reversed by the NO synthase substrate, L-arginine. NMDA receptor stimulation fails to activate Ras in neuronal cultures from mice lacking neuronal NO synthase. NMDA-induced Ras activation occurs through a cGMP-independent pathway as 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a potent and selective inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, has no effect on NMDA receptor-induced activation of Ras, and the cell-permeable cGMP analog, 8Br-cGMP, does not activate Ras. Furthermore, NO directly activates immunoprecipitated Ras from neurons. NMDA also elicits tyrosine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, a downstream effector pathway of Ras, through a NO/non-cGMP dependent mechanism, thus supporting the physiologic relevance of endogenous NO regulation of Ras. These results suggest that Ras is a physiologic target of endogenously produced NO and indicates a signaling pathway for NMDA receptor activation that may be important for long-lasting neuronal responses.

  8. Low-Dose Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockade Prevents Western Diet-Induced Arterial Stiffening in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Vincent G; Habibi, Javad; Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R; Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Bender, Shawn B; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Sun, Zhe; Meininger, Gerald A; Manrique, Camila; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R

    2015-07-01

    Women are especially predisposed to development of arterial stiffening secondary to obesity because of consumption of excessive calories. Enhanced activation of vascular mineralocorticoid receptors impairs insulin signaling, induces oxidative stress, inflammation, and maladaptive immune responses. We tested whether a subpressor dose of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone (1 mg/kg per day) prevents aortic and femoral artery stiffening in female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/high-sugar western diet (WD) for 4 months (ie, from 4-20 weeks of age). Aortic and femoral artery stiffness were assessed using ultrasound, pressurized vessel preparations, and atomic force microscopy. WD induced weight gain and insulin resistance compared with control diet-fed mice and these abnormalities were unaffected by spironolactone. Blood pressures and heart rates were normal and unaffected by diet or spironolactone. Spironolactone prevented WD-induced stiffening of aorta and femoral artery, as well as endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, within aortic explants. Spironolactone prevented WD-induced impaired aortic protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling, as well as impaired endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation. Spironolactone ameliorated WD-induced aortic medial thickening and fibrosis and the associated activation of the progrowth extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 pathway. Finally, preservation of normal arterial stiffness with spironolactone in WD-fed mice was associated with attenuated systemic and vascular inflammation and an anti-inflammatory shift in vascular immune cell marker genes. Low-dose spironolactone may represent a novel prevention strategy to attenuate vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and growth pathway signaling and remodeling to prevent development of arterial stiffening secondary to consumption of a WD. PMID:26015449

  9. BMP type I receptor ALK2 is required for angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Mohd; Spagnolli, Ester; Ernande, Laura; Thoonen, Robrecht; Kolodziej, Starsha A; Leyton, Patricio A; Cheng, Juan; Tainsh, Robert E T; Mayeur, Claire; Rhee, David K; Wu, Mei X; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Buys, Emmanuel S; Zapol, Warren M; Bloch, Kenneth D; Bloch, Donald B

    2016-04-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling contributes to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the identity of the BMP type I receptor involved in cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. By using quantitative PCR and immunoblotting, we demonstrated that BMP signaling increased during phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs), as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of Smads 1 and 5 and induction of Id1 gene expression. Inhibition of BMP signaling with LDN193189 or noggin, and silencing of Smad 1 or 4 using small interfering RNA diminished the ability of phenylephrine to induce hypertrophy in NRCs. Conversely, activation of BMP signaling with BMP2 or BMP4 induced hypertrophy in NRCs. Luciferase reporter assay further showed that BMP2 or BMP4 treatment of NRCs repressed atrogin-1 gene expression concomitant with an increase in calcineurin protein levels and enhanced activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, providing a mechanism by which BMP signaling contributes to cardiac hypertrophy. In a model of cardiac hypertrophy, C57BL/6 mice treated with angiotensin II (A2) had increased BMP signaling in the left ventricle. Treatment with LDN193189 attenuated A2-induced cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition in left ventricles. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of BMP type I receptor ALK2 (activin-like kinase 2), but not ALK1 or ALK3, inhibited BMP signaling and mitigated A2-induced cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular fibrosis in mice. The results suggest that BMP signaling upregulates the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell pathway via BMP type I receptor ALK2, contributing to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID:26873969

  10. Low-Dose Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockade Prevents Western Diet-Induced Arterial Stiffening in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Vincent G; Habibi, Javad; Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R; Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Bender, Shawn B; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Sun, Zhe; Meininger, Gerald A; Manrique, Camila; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R

    2015-07-01

    Women are especially predisposed to development of arterial stiffening secondary to obesity because of consumption of excessive calories. Enhanced activation of vascular mineralocorticoid receptors impairs insulin signaling, induces oxidative stress, inflammation, and maladaptive immune responses. We tested whether a subpressor dose of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone (1 mg/kg per day) prevents aortic and femoral artery stiffening in female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/high-sugar western diet (WD) for 4 months (ie, from 4-20 weeks of age). Aortic and femoral artery stiffness were assessed using ultrasound, pressurized vessel preparations, and atomic force microscopy. WD induced weight gain and insulin resistance compared with control diet-fed mice and these abnormalities were unaffected by spironolactone. Blood pressures and heart rates were normal and unaffected by diet or spironolactone. Spironolactone prevented WD-induced stiffening of aorta and femoral artery, as well as endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, within aortic explants. Spironolactone prevented WD-induced impaired aortic protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling, as well as impaired endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation. Spironolactone ameliorated WD-induced aortic medial thickening and fibrosis and the associated activation of the progrowth extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 pathway. Finally, preservation of normal arterial stiffness with spironolactone in WD-fed mice was associated with attenuated systemic and vascular inflammation and an anti-inflammatory shift in vascular immune cell marker genes. Low-dose spironolactone may represent a novel prevention strategy to attenuate vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and growth pathway signaling and remodeling to prevent development of arterial stiffening secondary to consumption of a WD.

  11. Amygdala opioid receptors mediate the electroacupuncture-induced deterioration of sleep disruptions in epilepsy rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates that sleep and epilepsy reciprocally affect each other. Previous studies indicated that epilepsy alters sleep homeostasis; in contrast, sleep disturbance deteriorates epilepsy. If a therapy possesses both epilepsy suppression and sleep improvement, it would be the priority choice for seizure control. Effects of acupuncture of Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints on epilepsy suppression and insomnia treatment have been documented in the ancient Chinese literature, Lingshu Jing (Classic of the Miraculous Pivot). Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints on sleep disruptions in rats with focal epilepsy. Results Our result indicates that administration of pilocarpine into the left central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) induced focal epilepsy and decreased both rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. High-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints, in which a 30-min EA stimulation was performed before the dark period of the light:dark cycle in three consecutive days, further deteriorated pilocarpine-induced sleep disruptions. The EA-induced exacerbation of sleep disruption was blocked by microinjection of naloxone, μ- (naloxonazine), κ- (nor-binaltorphimine) or δ-receptor antagonists (natrindole) into the CeA, suggesting the involvement of amygdaloid opioid receptors. Conclusion The present study suggests that high-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints exhibits no benefit in improving pilocarpine-induced sleep disruptions; in contrast, EA further deteriorated sleep disturbances. Opioid receptors in the CeA mediated EA-induced exacerbation of sleep disruptions in epileptic rats. PMID:24215575

  12. Stress-induced sensitization of cortical adrenergic receptors following a history of cannabinoid exposure

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, B.A.S.; Szot, P.; Sikkema, C.; Cathel, A. M.; Kirby, L.G.; Van Bockstaele, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    The cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, increases extracellular norepinephrine levels in the rat frontal cortex under basal conditions, likely via desensitization of inhibitory α2-adrenergic receptors located on norepinephrine terminals. Here, the effect of WIN 55,212-2 on stress-induced norepinephrine release was assessed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats using in vivo microdialysis. Systemic administration of WIN 55,212-2 thirty minutes prior to stressor exposure prevented stress-induced cortical norepinephrine release induced by a single exposure to swim when compared to vehicle. To further probe cortical cannabinoid-adrenergic interactions, postsynaptic α2-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated responses were assessed in mPFC pyramidal neurons using electrophysiological analysis in an in vitro cortical slice preparation. We confirm prior studies showing that clonidine increases cortical pyramidal cell excitability and that this was unaffected by exposure to acute stress. WIN 55,212-2, via bath application, blocked postsynaptic α2-AR mediated responses in cortical neurons irrespective of exposure to stress. Interestingly, stress exposure prevented the desensitization of α2-AR mediated responses produced by a history of cannabinoid exposure. Together, these data indicate the stress-dependent nature of cannabinoid interactions via both pre- and postsynaptic ARs. In summary, microdialysis data indicate that cannabinoids restrain stress-induced cortical NE efflux. Electrophysiology data indicate that cannabinoids also restrain cortical cell excitability under basal conditions; however, stress interferes with these CB1-α2 AR interactions, potentially contributing to over-activation of pyramidal neurons in mPFC. Overall, cannabinoids are protective of the NE system and cortical excitability but stress can derail this protective effect, potentially contributing to stress-related psychopathology. These data add to the

  13. Niacin-induced hyperglycemia is partially mediated via niacin receptor GPR109a in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihua; So, Wing Yan; Li, Stephen Y T; Cheng, Qianni; Boucher, Barbara J; Leung, Po Sing

    2015-03-15

    The widely used lipid-lowering drug niacin is reported to induce hyperglycemia during chronic and high-dose treatments, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, the niacin receptor [G-protein-coupled receptor, (GPR) 109a], has been localized to islet cells while its potential role therein remains unclear. We, therefore, aimed at investigating how GPR109a regulates islet beta-cell function and its downstream signaling using high-fat diet-induced obese mice and INS-1E beta cells. Eight-week niacin treatment elevated blood glucose concentration in obese mice with increased areas under the curve at oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests. Additionally, niacin treatment significantly decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) but induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) and GPR109a expression in isolated pancreatic islets; concomitantly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were transiently increased, with decreases in GSIS, intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), but with increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2), Pparg and Gpr109a in INS-1E cells. Corroborating these findings, the decreases in GSIS, ΔΨm and cAMP production and increases in ROS, Pparg and GPR109a expression were abolished in INS-1E cells by GPR109a knockdown. Our data indicate that niacin-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction is probably modulated through activation of the islet beta-cell GPR109a-induced ROS-PPARγ-UCP2 pathways.

  14. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated Akt/PKB signalling: initiation by the D2S receptor and role in quinpirole-induced behavioural activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han-Ting; Ruan, Nan-Yu; Chen, Jin-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Yung

    2012-09-24

    The short and long isoforms of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2S and D2L respectively) are highly expressed in the striatum. Functional D2 receptors activate an intracellular signalling pathway that includes a cAMP-independent route involving Akt/GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3). To investigate the Akt/GSK3 response to the seldom-studied D2S receptor, we established a rat D2S receptor-expressing cell line [HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293/rD2S]. We found that in HEK-293/rD2S cells, the D2/D3 agonists bromocriptine and quinpirole significantly induced Akt and GSK3 phosphorylation, as well as ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activation. The D2S receptor-induced Akt signals were profoundly inhibited by the internalization blockers monodansyl cadaverine and concanavalin A. Activation of the D2S receptor in HEK-293/rD2S cells appeared to trigger Akt/phospho-Akt translocation to the cell membrane. In addition to our cell culture experiments, we studied D2 receptor-dependent Akt in vivo by systemic administration of the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole. The results show that quinpirole evoked Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation in the ventral striatum. Furthermore, intra-accumbens administration of wortmannin, a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitor, significantly suppressed the quinpirole-evoked behavioural activation. Overall, we demonstrate that activation of the dopamine D2S receptor stimulates Akt/GSK3 signalling. In addition, in vivo Akt activity in the ventral striatum appears to play an important role in systemic D2/D3 agonist-induced behavioural activation.

  15. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated Akt/PKB signalling: initiation by the D2S receptor and role in quinpirole-induced behavioural activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han-Ting; Ruan, Nan-Yu; Chen, Jin-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Yung

    2012-01-01

    The short and long isoforms of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2S and D2L respectively) are highly expressed in the striatum. Functional D2 receptors activate an intracellular signalling pathway that includes a cAMP-independent route involving Akt/GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3). To investigate the Akt/GSK3 response to the seldom-studied D2S receptor, we established a rat D2S receptor-expressing cell line [HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293/rD2S]. We found that in HEK-293/rD2S cells, the D2/D3 agonists bromocriptine and quinpirole significantly induced Akt and GSK3 phosphorylation, as well as ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activation. The D2S receptor-induced Akt signals were profoundly inhibited by the internalization blockers monodansyl cadaverine and concanavalin A. Activation of the D2S receptor in HEK-293/rD2S cells appeared to trigger Akt/phospho-Akt translocation to the cell membrane. In addition to our cell culture experiments, we studied D2 receptor-dependent Akt in vivo by systemic administration of the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole. The results show that quinpirole evoked Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation in the ventral striatum. Furthermore, intra-accumbens administration of wortmannin, a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitor, significantly suppressed the quinpirole-evoked behavioural activation. Overall, we demonstrate that activation of the dopamine D2S receptor stimulates Akt/GSK3 signalling. In addition, in vivo Akt activity in the ventral striatum appears to play an important role in systemic D2/D3 agonist-induced behavioural activation. PMID:22909302

  16. Insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 but not Shc can activate the insulin receptor independent of insulin and induce proliferation in CHO-IR cells

    SciTech Connect

    Niessen, Markus . E-mail: markus.niessen@usz.ch; Jaschinski, Frank; Item, Flurin; McNamara, Morgan P.; Spinas, Giatgen A.; Trueb, Thomas

    2007-02-15

    Ligand-activated insulin receptor (IR) attracts and phosphorylates various substrates such as insulin receptor substrates 1-4 (IRS) and Shc. To investigate how binding affinity for substrate affects signalling we generated chimeric receptors with the {beta}-chain of the insulin receptor containing NPXY motives with different affinities for receptor substrates. We found that the extent of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation positively correlates with binding affinity towards IRS1/2 but not towards Shc. Moreover, overexpression of IRS1 or IRS2 but not of Shc increased IR tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, also independent of insulin. Molecular truncations of IRS1 revealed that neither the isolated PH and PTB domains nor the C-terminus with the tyrosine phosphorylation sites alone are sufficient for substrate-dependent receptor activation. Overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 impaired insulin-induced internalization of the IR in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that IRS proteins prevent endosome-associated receptor dephosphorylation/inactivation. IRS1 and IRS2 could therefore target the activated IR to different cellular compartments. Overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 inhibited insulin-stimulated activation of the MAP kinases Erk1/2 while it increased/induced activation of Akt/PKB. Finally, overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 but not of Shc induced DNA synthesis in starved CHO-IR cells independent of exogenous growth factors. Our results demonstrate that variations in cellular IRS1 and IRS2 concentration affect insulin signalling both upstream and downstream and that IRS proteins could play instructive rather than just permissive roles in signal transmission.

  17. Involvement of ionotropic purinergic receptors in the histamine-induced enhancement of the cough reflex sensitivity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Junzo; Takahashi, Yoshiki

    2006-10-10

    We examined the effect of inhaled histamine on citric acid-induced coughs and clarified the role of ionotropic purinergic receptors in the resulting changes. Although the inhalation of 0.1 M citric acid by itself produced only a few coughs in guinea pigs, exposure to histamine, at concentrations of 0.3 to 1 mM, for 2 min concentration dependently increased the number of citric acid-induced coughs. This histamine-induced increase in the number of citric acid-induced coughs was dose dependently and significantly reduced when animals were pretreated with fexofenadine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist. The histamine-induced increase in the number of citric acid-induced coughs was completely reduced when animals were co-pretreated with 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) adenosine 5-triphosphate (TNP-ATP, 50 microM), a P2X receptor antagonist, and reactive blue 2, a P2Y receptor antagonist, for 2 min. Furthermore, the ATP-induced increase in the number of citric acid-induced coughs was dose dependently and significantly decreased when animals were pretreated with fexofenadine, at doses of 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that histamine enhances the excitability of rapidly adapting receptors to tussive stimuli via modulation of ATP release in the airways. Furthermore, ATP might act not only on P2X receptors to directly activate rapidly adapting receptors, but also on P2Y receptors to increase histamine release, indirectly increasing the cough reflex sensitivity.

  18. Angiotensin receptors alter myocardial infarction-induced remodeling of the guinea pig cardiac plexus.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Jean C; Ryan, Shannon E; Powers, Emily N; Southerland, E Marie; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-15

    Neurohumoral remodeling is fundamental to the evolution of heart disease. This study examined the effects of chronic treatment with an ACE inhibitor (captopril, 3 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), AT1 receptor antagonist (losartan, 3 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), or AT2 receptor agonist (CGP42112A, 0.14 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) on remodeling of the guinea pig intrinsic cardiac plexus following chronic myocardial infarction (MI). MI was surgically induced and animals recovered for 6 or 7 wk, with or without drug treatment. Intracellular voltage recordings from whole mounts of the cardiac plexus were used to monitor changes in neuronal responses to norepinephrine (NE), muscarinic agonists (bethanechol), or ANG II. MI produced an increase in neuronal excitability with NE and a loss of sensitivity to ANG II. MI animals treated with captopril exhibited increased neuronal excitability with NE application, while MI animals treated with CGP42112A did not. Losartan treatment of MI animals did not alter excitability with NE compared with untreated MIs, but these animals did show an enhanced synaptic efficacy. This effect on synaptic function was likely due to presynaptic AT1 receptors, since ANG II was able to reduce output to nerve fiber stimulation in control animals, and this effect was prevented by inclusion of losartan in the bath solution. Analysis of AT receptor expression by Western blot showed a decrease in both AT1 and AT2 receptors with MI that was reversed by all three drug treatments. These data indicate that neuronal remodeling of the guinea pig cardiac plexus following MI is mediated, in part, by activation of both AT1 and AT2 receptors.

  19. A dopamine receptor contributes to paraquat-induced neurotoxicity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cassar, Marlène; Issa, Abdul-Raouf; Riemensperger, Thomas; Petitgas, Céline; Rival, Thomas; Coulom, Hélène; Iché-Torres, Magali; Han, Kyung-An; Birman, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to environmental oxidative stressors, like the herbicide paraquat (PQ), has been linked to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), the most frequent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Paraquat is thus frequently used in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and other animal models to study PD and the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (DNs) that characterizes this disease. Here, we show that a D1-like dopamine (DA) receptor, DAMB, actively contributes to the fast central nervous system (CNS) failure induced by PQ in the fly. First, we found that a long-term increase in neuronal DA synthesis reduced DAMB expression and protected against PQ neurotoxicity. Secondly, a striking age-related decrease in PQ resistance in young adult flies correlated with an augmentation of DAMB expression. This aging-associated increase in oxidative stress vulnerability was not observed in a DAMB-deficient mutant. Thirdly, targeted inactivation of this receptor in glutamatergic neurons (GNs) markedly enhanced the survival of Drosophila exposed to either PQ or neurotoxic levels of DA, whereas, conversely, DAMB overexpression in these cells made the flies more vulnerable to both compounds. Fourthly, a mutation in the Drosophila ryanodine receptor (RyR), which inhibits activity-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+, also strongly enhanced PQ resistance. Finally, we found that DAMB overexpression in specific neuronal populations arrested development of the fly and that in vivo stimulation of either DNs or GNs increased PQ susceptibility. This suggests a model for DA receptor-mediated potentiation of PQ-induced neurotoxicity. Further studies of DAMB signaling in Drosophila could have implications for better understanding DA-related neurodegenerative disorders in humans. PMID:25158689

  20. Bone Cell-autonomous Contribution of Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor to Breast Cancer-induced Osteolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Marino, Silvia; Logan, John G.; Mollat, Patrick; Ralston, Stuart H.; Idris, Aymen I.

    2015-01-01

    The cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2) has previously been implicated as a regulator of tumor growth, bone remodeling, and bone pain. However, very little is known about the role of the skeletal CB2 receptor in the regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts changes associated with breast cancer. Here we found that the CB2-selective agonists HU308 and JWH133 reduced the viability of a variety of parental and bone-tropic human and mouse breast cancer cells at high micromolar concentrations. Under conditions in which these ligands are used at the nanomolar range, HU308 and JWH133 enhanced human and mouse breast cancer cell-induced osteoclastogenesis and exacerbated osteolysis, and these effects were attenuated in cultures obtained from CB2-deficient mice or in the presence of a CB2 receptor blocker. HU308 and JWH133 had no effects on osteoblast growth or differentiation in the presence of conditioned medium from breast cancer cells, but under these circumstances both agents enhanced parathyroid hormone-induced osteoblast differentiation and the ability to support osteoclast formation. Mechanistic studies in osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts showed that JWH133 and HU308 induced PI3K/AKT activity in a CB2-dependent manner, and these effects were enhanced in the presence of osteolytic and osteoblastic factors such as RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand) and parathyroid hormone. When combined with published work, these findings suggest that breast cancer and bone cells exhibit differential responses to treatment with CB2 ligands depending upon cell type and concentration used. We, therefore, conclude that both CB2-selective activation and antagonism have potential efficacy in cancer-associated bone disease, but further studies are warranted and ongoing. PMID:26195631

  1. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors increases paraoxon-induced apoptosis in cultured neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xuan; Tian Feng; Okagaki, Peter; Marini, Ann M. . E-mail: amarini@usuhs.mil

    2005-10-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds, used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents, are potent neurotoxins. We examined the neurotoxic effect of paraoxon (O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphate), an organophosphate compound, and the role of NMDA receptors as a mechanism of action in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Paraoxon is neurotoxic to cultured rat cerebellar granule cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cerebellar granule cells are less sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of paraoxon on day in vitro (DIV) 4 than neurons treated on DIV 8. Surprisingly, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801, enhances paraoxon-mediated neurotoxicity suggesting that NMDA receptors may play a protective role. Pretreatment with a subtoxic concentration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) [100 {mu}M] protects about 40% of the vulnerable neurons that would otherwise die from paraoxon-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, addition of a neuroprotective concentration of NMDA 3 h after treatment with paraoxon provides the same level of protection. Because paraoxon-mediated neuronal cell death is time-dependent, we hypothesized that apoptosis may be involved. Paraoxon increases apoptosis about 10-fold compared to basal levels. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor (Boc-D-FMK) and the caspase-9-specific inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) protect against paraoxon-mediated apoptosis, paraoxon-stimulated caspase-3 activity and neuronal cell death. MK-801 increases, whereas NMDA blocks paraoxon-induced apoptosis and paraoxon-stimulated caspase-3 activity. These results suggest that activation of NMDA receptors protect neurons against paraoxon-induced neurotoxicity by blocking apoptosis initiated by paraoxon.

  2. Potential of GRID2 receptor gene for preventing TNF-induced neurodegeneration in autism.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Zeynep; Durasi, İlknur Melis; Sezerman, Ugur; Atasever-Arslan, Belkis

    2016-05-01

    Autism is one of the most common subtypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent studies suggested a relationship between immune-dependent coding genes and ASD, indicating that long term neuroimmunological anomalies affect brain development and synaptic transmission among neural networks. Furthermore, various studies focused on biomarker potential of TNF-α in autism. Ionotropic receptors are also studied as potential marker for autism since altered gene expression levels are observed in autistic patients. GRID2 is a candidate ionotropic receptor which is involved glutamate transfer. In this study, to propose TNF-α dependent cellular processes involved in autism aetiology in relation to GRID2 we performed a bioinformatic network analysis and identified potential pathways and genes that are involved in TNF-α induced changes at GRID2 receptor levels. As a result, we ascertained the GRID2 receptor gene as a candidate gene and further studied the association between GRID2 expression levels and TNF-induced neurodegeneration. Our bioinformatic analyses and experimental results revealed that TNF-α regulates GRID2 gene expression by activating Cdc42 and GOPC genes. Moreover, increased TNF-α levels leads to increase of caspase-3 protein levels triggering neuronal apoptosis leading to neuronal deficiency, which is one of the major symptoms of autism. The study is the first to show the role of TNF-α in regulation of GRID2 gene expression and its signalling pathway. As a result, GRID2 gene can be a suppressor in TNF-induced neurodegeneration which may help to understand the main factors leading to autism.

  3. Selective activation of either mGlu2 or mGlu3 receptors can induce LTD in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Sarah J; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Collingridge, Graham L; Lodge, David

    2013-03-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are known to induce a long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission in many brain regions including the amygdala. However the roles of the individual receptor subtypes, mGlu2 and mGlu3, in LTD are not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether activation of mGlu3 receptors is sufficient to induce LTD at synapses in the CNS. In the present study, advantage was taken of a Wistar rat strain not expressing mGlu2 receptors (Ceolin et al., 2011) to investigate the function of mGlu3 receptors in the amygdala. In this preparation, the group II agonist, DCG-IV induced an LTD of the cortical, but not the intra-nuclear, synaptic input to the lateral amygdala. This LTD was concentration dependent and was blocked by the group II mGlu receptor antagonist, LY341495. To investigate further the role of mGlu3 receptors, we used LY395756 (an mGlu2 agonist and mGlu3 antagonist), which acts as a pure mGlu3 receptor antagonist in this rat strain. This compound alone had no effect on basal synaptic transmission, but blocked the LTD induced by DCG-IV. Furthermore, we found that DCG-IV also induces LTD in mGlu2 receptor knock-out (KO) mice to a similar extent as in wild-type mice. This confirms that the activation of mGlu3 receptors alone is sufficient to induce LTD at this amygdala synapse. To address whether mGlu2 activation alone is also sufficient to induce LTD at this synapse we used LY541850 (the active enantiomer of LY395756) in wild-type mice. LY541850 induced a substantial LTD showing that either receptor alone is capable of inducing LTD in this pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. PMID:22531751

  4. The neuroplastic index p-FADD/FADD and phosphoprotein PEA-15, interacting at GABAA receptor, are upregulated in brain cortex during midazolam-induced hypnosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Álvaro-Bartolomé, María; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-11-01

    Fas-associated death domain (FADD) adaptor is involved in the signaling of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors, whose agonists stimulate its phosphoryaltion (p) increasing p-FADD/FADD ratio in brain. Whether FADD might also participate in the activation of dissimilar receptors such as the ligand-gated ion channels is not known. This study investigated the role of FADD and phosphoprotein-enriched in astrocytes of 15 kDa (PEA-15, a FADD partner) in the activation of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor, which mediates the hypnotic effect of midazolam. The main findings revealed that during the time course of midazolam (60 mg/kg)-induced hypnosis in mice (about 2 h) p-FADD (and p-FADD/FADD ratio) as well as p-PEA (and its phosphorylating Akt1 kinase) were markedly increased (36-80%) in brain cortex, and these effects were partially (only p-FADD) or fully prevented by flumazenil (a neutral allosteric ligand) and FG 7142 (a partial negative allosteric ligand) acting at GABAA receptors. The upregulation of cortical p-FADD/FADD was exclusively observed in the nucleus (up to 2.8-fold), where the transciption factor NF-κB was also increased (up to 46%), and that of p-PEA/p-Akt1 only in the cytosol (up to 53%), suggesting that p-FADD/p-PEA/p-Akt1 are involved in sleep-induced neuroplasticity. Repeated treatment with midazolam (60 mg/kg, 4 days) induced behavioral (prolonged sleep latency and reduced sleeping time) and neurochemical (reduced p-FADD/p-PEA contents) tolerance. These findings indicated that p-FADD/p-PEA are novel molecules in GABAA receptor signaling and that cortical p-PEA and p-FADD, working in tandem, are involved in the complex molecular processes leading to the hypnotic effect of midazolam in mice.

  5. The neuroplastic index p-FADD/FADD and phosphoprotein PEA-15, interacting at GABAA receptor, are upregulated in brain cortex during midazolam-induced hypnosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Álvaro-Bartolomé, María; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-11-01

    Fas-associated death domain (FADD) adaptor is involved in the signaling of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors, whose agonists stimulate its phosphoryaltion (p) increasing p-FADD/FADD ratio in brain. Whether FADD might also participate in the activation of dissimilar receptors such as the ligand-gated ion channels is not known. This study investigated the role of FADD and phosphoprotein-enriched in astrocytes of 15 kDa (PEA-15, a FADD partner) in the activation of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor, which mediates the hypnotic effect of midazolam. The main findings revealed that during the time course of midazolam (60 mg/kg)-induced hypnosis in mice (about 2 h) p-FADD (and p-FADD/FADD ratio) as well as p-PEA (and its phosphorylating Akt1 kinase) were markedly increased (36-80%) in brain cortex, and these effects were partially (only p-FADD) or fully prevented by flumazenil (a neutral allosteric ligand) and FG 7142 (a partial negative allosteric ligand) acting at GABAA receptors. The upregulation of cortical p-FADD/FADD was exclusively observed in the nucleus (up to 2.8-fold), where the transciption factor NF-κB was also increased (up to 46%), and that of p-PEA/p-Akt1 only in the cytosol (up to 53%), suggesting that p-FADD/p-PEA/p-Akt1 are involved in sleep-induced neuroplasticity. Repeated treatment with midazolam (60 mg/kg, 4 days) induced behavioral (prolonged sleep latency and reduced sleeping time) and neurochemical (reduced p-FADD/p-PEA contents) tolerance. These findings indicated that p-FADD/p-PEA are novel molecules in GABAA receptor signaling and that cortical p-PEA and p-FADD, working in tandem, are involved in the complex molecular processes leading to the hypnotic effect of midazolam in mice. PMID:26282360

  6. Serotonin aggravates exercise-induced cardiac ischemia in the dog: effect of serotonin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Frédérique; Lainée, Pierre; Dubreuil, Brigitte; McCort, Gary; O'Connor, Stephen E; Janiak, Philip; Herbert, Jean-Marc

    2004-08-16

    We investigated the effects of serotonin (5-HT), SL65.0472 (7-fluoro-2-oxo-4-[2-[4-thieno[3,2-c]pyridine-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-1,2-dihydroquinoline-1-acetamide, a 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist) and ketanserin (a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist) during exercise-induced cardiac ischemia in conscious dogs. Dogs were administered a hypercholesterolemic diet and an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase to produce chronic endothelial dysfunction. Myocardial ischemia was induced by a treadmill exercise test associated with limitation of left anterior descending coronary blood flow. Infusion of serotonin during exercise produced dose-related cardiovascular changes (after 10 microg/kg/min; heart rate +27+/-6 bpm, systolic blood pressure +18+/-3 mm Hg, left circumflex coronary blood flow +64+/-8 ml/min, myocardial segment length shortening in the ischemic zone -5.9+/-1.9%, P<0.05). SL65.0472 blocked serotonin-induced increases in blood pressure, rate pressure product and circumflex coronary artery flow (100 microg/kg i.v., P<0.05) and reduced serotonin-induced ischemic myocardial segment length shortening (300 microg/kg i.v., P<0.05). Ketanserin (30-300 microg/kg i.v.) had no significant effect on any serotonin-induced changes during exercise. Thus, SL65.0472 opposes serotonin-induced myocardial dysfunction in a dog model of exercise-induced ischemia.

  7. Association between GABAA Receptor Subunit Gene Cluster and Zolpidem-Induced Complex Sleep Behaviors in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Lin, Hung-Hsun; Cheng, Kuang-hung; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate and elucidate the role of GABAA receptor subunits, specifically the 2 genetic markers at the GABAA α1 and GABAA α6 receptors, in zolpidem-induced complex sleep behaviors (CSBs). Design: Genetic association study. Setting: Kaohsiung Medical University-affiliated hospitals, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Patients: 30 zolpidem-induced CSB subjects and 37 controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The χ2 test demonstrated an association between the A15G variant at the GABAA α1 receptor subunit gene and zolpidem-induced CSBs (P = 0.007). The adjusted odds ratio of the GABAA α1 receptor subunit genotype for the risk of zolpidem-induced CSBs was approximately 10 (OR = 9.99, 95% CI = 1.82, 74.87; P = 0.013). Conclusions: The finding reveals that the A15G variant at the GABAA α1 receptor subunit gene confers a high risk of zolpidem-induced CSBs and may be considered in clinical services. Citation: Tsai JH; Yang P; Lin HH; Cheng Kh; Yang YH; Wu MT; Chen CC. Association between GABAA receptor subunit gene cluster and zolpidem-induced complex sleep behaviors in Han Chinese. SLEEP 2013;36(2):197–202. PMID:23372267

  8. Changes in hippocampal orexin 1 receptor expression involved in tooth pain-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Raoof, Ramin; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Raoof, Maryam; Sheibani, Vahid; Kooshki, Razieh; Amirkhosravi, Ladan; Rafie, Foroozan

    2015-04-01

    Orexin 1 receptor signaling plays a significant role in pain as well as learning and memory processes. This study was conducted to assess the changes in orexin 1 receptor expression levels in hippocampus following learning and memory impairment induced by tooth inflammatory pulpal pain. Adult male Wistar rats received intradental injection of 100 µg capsaicin to induce pulpal pain. After recording the pain scores, spatial learning and memory were assessed using Morris Water Maze test. The hippocampal levels of orexin 1 receptor mRNA and protein were determined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting respectively. The data showed that capsaicin-induced tooth inflammatory pulpal pain was correlated with learning and memory impairment. Intra-hippocampal injection of orexin A inhibited pain-induced learning and memory impairment. However, orexin 1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867, had no effect on learning and memory impairment. Moreover, capsaicin-induced pain significantly decreased hippocampal orexin 1 receptor mRNA and protein levels. Meanwhile, reversed changes took place in the ibuprofen-pretreated group (p < 0.05). It seems that decrease in orexin 1 receptor density and signaling could be involved in tooth pain-induced learning and memory impairment.

  9. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Chieri; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P

  10. Pavlovian conditioning of morphine-induced alterations of immune status: evidence for opioid receptor involvement.

    PubMed

    Coussons-Read, M E; Dykstra, L A; Lysle, D T

    1994-12-01

    Prior work in our laboratory has shown that morphine's immunomodulatory effects can become conditioned to environmental stimuli that predict drug administration. These immune alterations include conditioned changes in natural killer cell activity, interleukin-2 production, and mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. The present study examined the involvement of opioid receptor activity in the establishment and expression of conditioned morphine-induced alterations of immune status. During the training phase of the experiment, Lewis rats received two conditioning sessions during which a subcutaneous injection of 15 mg/kg morphine sulfate was paired with exposure to a distinctive environment. On the test day, animals were re-exposed to the distinctive environment alone prior to sacrifice. Saline or naltrexone (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) was administered during either the training or the test session. Administration of naltrexone prior to training antagonized the development of all of the conditioned alterations of immune status including changes in the mitogenic responsiveness of splenocytes, suppression of natural killer cell activity, and interleukin-2 production by splenocytes. Naltrexone administration prior to testing also was effective in antagonizing the expression of a subset of morphine-induced conditioned alterations in immune status. Taken together, these studies indicate that opioid receptor activity is involved in the establishment of conditioned morphine-induced immune alterations, as well as in the expression of a subset of these conditioned alterations of immune status.

  11. CB2 receptor activation ameliorates the proinflammatory activity in acute lung injury induced by paraquat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenning; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Hongyu; Zheng, Qiang; Xiao, Li; Zhao, Min

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat, a widely used herbicide, is well known to exhibit oxidative stress and lung injury. In the present study, we investigated the possible underlying mechanisms of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) activation to ameliorate the proinflammatory activity induced by PQ in rats. JWH133, a CB2 agonist, was administered by intraperitoneal injection 1 h prior to PQ exposure. After PQ exposure for 4, 8, 24, and 72 h, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected to determine levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, and the arterial blood samples were collected for detection of PaO2 level. At 72 h after PQ exposure, lung tissues were collected to determine the lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, myeloperoxidase activity, lung histopathology, the protein expression level of CB2, MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK1/2), and NF-κBp65. After rats were pretreated with JWH133, PQ-induced lung edema and lung histopathological changes were significantly attenuated. PQ-induced TNF-α and IL-1β secretion in BALF, increases of PaO2 in arterial blood, and MPO levels in the lung tissue were significantly reduced. JWH133 could efficiently activate CB2, while inhibiting MAPKs and NF-κB activation. The results suggested that activating CB2 receptor exerted protective activity against PQ-induced ALI, and it potentially contributed to the suppression of the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways. PMID:24963491

  12. Liver X receptor agonist prevents LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Zhengkai; Liu, Hui; Song, Xiaojing; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Wei; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor. Best known for its ability to regulate lipid metabolism and transport, LXRs have recently also been implicated in regulation of inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of synthetic LXR-α agonist T0901317 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. T0901317 was injected 1h before and 12h after induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The results showed that T0901317 significantly attenuated the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, and the activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO); down-regulated the level of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2 and PEG2; inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65, caused by LPS. Moreover, we report for the first time that LXR-α activation impaired LPS-induced mastitis. Taken together, these data indicated that T0901317 had protective effect on mastitis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of T0901317 on LPS induced mastitis in mice may be due to its ability to inhibit NF-κB signaling pathway. LXR-α activation can be used as a therapeutic approach to treat mastitis.

  13. G protein-coupled receptor 56 regulates mechanical overload-induced muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    White, James P.; Wrann, Christiane D.; Rao, Rajesh R.; Nair, Sreekumaran K.; Jedrychowski, Mark P.; You, Jae-Sung; Martínez-Redondo, Vicente; Gygi, Steven P.; Ruas, Jorge L.; Hornberger, Troy A.; Wu, Zhidan; Glass, David J.; Piao, Xianhua; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha 4 (PGC-1α4) is a protein isoform derived by alternative splicing of the PGC1α mRNA and has been shown to promote muscle hypertrophy. We show here that G protein-coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) is a transcriptional target of PGC-1α4 and is induced in humans by resistance exercise. Furthermore, the anabolic effects of PGC-1α4 in cultured murine muscle cells are dependent on GPR56 signaling, because knockdown of GPR56 attenuates PGC-1α4–induced muscle hypertrophy in vitro. Forced expression of GPR56 results in myotube hypertrophy through the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, which is dependent on Gα12/13 signaling. A murine model of overload-induced muscle hypertrophy is associated with increased expression of both GPR56 and its ligand collagen type III, whereas genetic ablation of GPR56 expression attenuates overload-induced muscle hypertrophy and associated anabolic signaling. These data illustrate a signaling pathway through GPR56 which regulates muscle hypertrophy associated with resistance/loading-type exercise. PMID:25336758

  14. Recycling of Acetylcholine Receptors at Ectopic Postsynaptic Clusters Induced by Exogenous Agrin in Living Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Hans Rudolf; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    During the development of the neuromuscular junction, motor axons induce the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and increase their metabolic stability in the muscle membrane. Here, we asked whether the synaptic organizer agrin might regulate the metabolic stability and density of AChRs by promoting the recycling of internalized AChRs, which would otherwise be destined for degradation, into synaptic sites. We show that at nerve-free AChR clusters induced by agrin in extrasynaptic membrane, internalized AChRs are driven back into the ectopic synaptic clusters where they intermingle with pre-existing and new receptors. The extent of AChR recycling depended on the strength of the agrin stimulus, but not on the development of junctional folds, another hallmark of mature postsynaptic membranes. In chronically denervated muscles, in which both AChR stability and recycling are significantly decreased by muscle inactivity, agrin maintained the amount of recycled AChRs at agrin-induced clusters at a level similar to that at denervated original endplates. In contrast, AChRs did not recycle at agrin-induced clusters in C2C12 or primary myotubes. Thus, in muscles in vivo, but not in cultured myotubes, neural agrin promotes the recycling of AChRs and thereby increases their metabolic stability. PMID:25093969

  15. Striatal dopamine and glutamate receptors modulate methamphetamine-induced cortical Fos expression.

    PubMed

    Gross, N B; Marshall, J F

    2009-07-21

    Methamphetamine (mAMPH) is a psychostimulant drug that increases extracellular levels of monoamines throughout the brain. It has previously been observed that a single injection of mAMPH increases immediate early gene (IEG) expression in both the striatum and cerebral cortex. Moreover, this effect is modulated by dopamine and glutamate receptors since systemic administration of dopamine or glutamate antagonists has been found to alter mAMPH-induced striatal and cortical IEG expression. However, because dopamine and glutamate receptors are found in extra-striatal as well as striatal brain regions, studies employing systemic injection of dopamine or glutamate antagonists fail to localize the effects of mAMPH-induced activation. In the present experiments, the roles of striatal dopamine and glutamate receptors in mAMPH-induced gene expression in the striatum and cerebral cortex were examined. The nuclear expression of Fos, the protein product of the IEG c-fos, was quantified in both the striatum and the cortex of animals receiving intrastriatal dopamine or glutamate antagonist administration. Intrastriatal infusion of dopamine (D1 or D2) or glutamate [N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)] antagonists affected not only mAMPH-induced striatal, but also cortical, Fos expression. Overall, the effects of the antagonists occurred dose-dependently, in both the infused and non-infused hemispheres, with greater influences occurring in the infused hemisphere. Finally, unilateral intrastriatal infusion of dopamine or glutamate antagonists changed the behavior of the rats from characteristic mAMPH-induced stereotypy to rotation ipsilateral to the infusion. These results demonstrate that mAMPH's actions on striatal dopamine and glutamate receptors modulate the widespread cortical activation induced by mAMPH. It is hypothesized that dopamine release from nigrostriatal terminals modulates activity within striatal efferent

  16. Lack of GABAB receptors modifies behavioural and biochemical alterations induced by precipitated nicotine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andrés P; Pedrón, Valeria T; Machado, Lirane Moutinho; Antonelli, Marta C; Bettler, Bernhard; Balerio, Graciela N

    2015-03-01

    The nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome is considered to be a major cause of the high relapse rate among individuals undergoing smoking cessation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible role of GABAB receptors in NIC withdrawal, by comparing GABAB1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. We analysed the time course of the global withdrawal score, the anxiety-like effects, monoamine concentrations, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, the corticosterone plasmatic levels and [(3)H]epibatidine binding sites during NIC withdrawal precipitated by mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist (MEC). In NIC withdrawn wild-type mice, we observed a global withdrawal score, an anxiety-like effect in the elevated plus maze, a decrease of the striatal dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations, an increase of corticosterone plasma levels, a reduction of BDNF expression in several brain areas and an increase of [(3)H]epibatidine binding sites in specific brain regions. Interestingly, the effects found in NIC withdrawn wild-type mice were absent in GABAB1 knockout mice, suggesting that GABAB1 subunit of the GABAB receptor is involved in the regulation of the behavioural and biochemical alterations induced by NIC withdrawal in mice. These results reveal an interaction between the GABAB receptors and the neurochemical systems through which NIC exerts its long-term effects.

  17. Wheat Germ Agglutinin Induces NADPH-Oxidase Activity in Human Neutrophils by Interaction with Mobilizable Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Anna

    1999-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), a lectin with specificity for N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid, was investigated with respect to its ability to activate the NADPH-oxidase of in vivo-exudated neutrophils (obtained from a skin chamber), and the activity was compared to that of peripheral blood neutrophils. The exudate cells responded to WGA, by both releasing reactive oxygen species into the extracellular milieu and producing oxygen metabolites intracellularly. The peripheral blood cells were unresponsive. To mimic the in vivo-exuded neutrophils with regards to receptor exposure, peripheral blood neutrophils were induced to mobilize their granules and vesicles to varying degrees (in vitro priming), prior to challenge with WGA. The oxidative response to WGA increased with increasing levels of granule mobilization, and the receptor(s) could be shown to reside in the secretory vesicles and/or the gelatinase granules in resting neutrophils. Several WGA-binding glycoproteins were detected in subcellular fractions containing these organelles. The extra- and intracellular NADPH-oxidase responses showed differences in sialic acid dependency, indicating that these two responses are mediated by different receptor structures. PMID:10377127

  18. Amisulpride-induced seizurogenic effect: a potential role of opioid receptor-linked transduction systems.

    PubMed

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Thakur Gurjeet; Chand, Prem

    2011-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of opioid receptors, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, mast cells and histamine receptors (H(1) subtype) in the seizurogenic effect of amisulpride on mice. A single injection of amisulpride (180 mg/kg) was employed to evaluate the seizurogenicity of the drug in mice. Seizures were assessed in terms of a composite seizure severity score (SSS), time of the onset of straub-like tail, onset of jerky movements of whole body, convulsions and death. Amisulpride administration (180 mg/kg) induced a significant pro-convulsant effect in mice as measured in terms of the SSS (21.12 ± 2.71) and a significant decrease in the time latency of the onset of straub-like tail (132.45 ± 12.31), jerky movements of whole body (153.28 ± 14.12), convulsions (184.97 ± 13.11) and death (100%). Moreover, prior administration of naloxone, cetrizine, sodium cromoglycate and gabapentin, respectively, attenuated this seizurogenic activity that amisulpride exerted on mice (p < 0.05). Therefore, it may be suggested that amisulpride exerts a seizurogenic effect on mice possibly via an opioid receptor activation-dependent release of histamine from the mast cells and a simultaneous inhibition of GABA release.

  19. Identification of the ETA receptor subtype that mediates endothelin induced autocrine proliferation of normal human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, A; Venuti, A; Di Castro, V; Marcante, M L

    1995-04-01

    Endothelin-1 has a wide range of pharmacological effects in various tissues and acts as autocrine/paracrine factor. The potential of ET-1 to function as an autocrine growth factor was evaluated in normal human keratinocytes. Radioligand binding studies showed that 125I-ET-1 bound to a single class of high-affinity-binding sites on the surface of the cells. The dissociation constant was 0.045 nM with receptor numbers of 1700 sites/cell. Treatment with serum caused increases in expression of binding sites (3500 sites/cell), with no change in binding affinity. ET-1 stimulated thymidine incorporation in these cells that expressed ET receptors. An ET antagonist selective for the ETA receptor subtype (BQ 123) inhibited DNA synthesis stimulated by ET-1 and reduced the basal growth rate of unstimulated cells. These data suggest that the ET-1 induced DNA synthesis is mediated by ETA receptor subtype and that endogenously produced ET-1 promotes the autocrine proliferation of keratinocytes.

  20. Interaction between 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors: effects of 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia in 5-HT(1B) receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gardier, A M; Gruwez, B; Trillat, A C; Jacquot, C; Hen, R; Bourin, M

    2001-06-15

    To test for adaptive compensatory changes that may have occurred in the functional activity of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) receptors during the development of constitutive "knockout" mice lacking the 5-HT(1B) receptor subtype (5-HT(1B) -/- KO), we assayed for decrease in body temperature induced by an acute subcutaneous injection of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy 2(di-n-propyl(amino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), either alone or in the presence of a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, N-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl) cyclo-hexanecarboxamide (WAY 100635). We compared dose-response curves, time course study, calculated ED(50) values (potency), maximal response to 8-OH-DPAT (efficacy) as well as measurements of the dose-dependent blockade of this response by WAY 100635 between wild-type controls and mutant mice. We found a higher efficacy of 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia in 5-HT(1B) -/- KO compared to wild-type mice suggesting that an adaptive thermoregulatory process involving the functional activity of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) receptors is altered in mutant mice lacking 5-HT(1B) receptors.

  1. Possible involvement of the Sigma-1 receptor chaperone in chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Tomohisa, Mori; Junpei, Ohya; Aki, Masumoto; Masato, Harumiya; Mika, Fukase; Kazumi, Yoshizawa; Teruo, Hayashi; Tsutomu, Suzuki

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that ligands of the sigma-1 receptor chaperone (Sig-1R) regulate pain-related behaviors. Clinical use of chemotherapeutics is often compromised due to their adverse side effects, particularly those related to neuropathy. Previous studies have shown that repeated administration of oxaliplatin and paclitaxel produces neuropathy in rodents. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the involvement of the Sig-1R in chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathy by examining the effects of oxaliplatin and paclitaxel on the Sig-1R levels in the spinal cord, and by examining the effects of Sig-1R agonist and antagonist on oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel-induced neuropathy in rats. Chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathic pain was accompanied by a significant reduction of the Sig-1R level in the spinal cord. Furthermore, the administration of paclitaxel to CHO cells that stably overexpressed Sig-1Rs induced the clustering of Sig-1Rs. We also found that the Sig-1R agonist SA4503 potently inhibited the neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel, whereas this action was abolished by the Sig-1R antagonist NE-100. These results suggest that the reduction of Sig-1R activity is involved in chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathy, and the Sig-1R agonist SA4503 could serve as a potential candidate for the treatment of chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathy. PMID:26234785

  2. Chemical carcinogen-induced decreases in genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, V L; Smith, R A; Longoria, J; Liotta, M A; Harper, C M; Harris, C C

    1987-01-01

    The genomic content of DNA 5-methyldeoxycytidine (m5dC) was measured in dividing normal human bronchial epithelial cells treated with a broad range of chemical carcinogens. At noncytotoxic concentrations, all of the carcinogenic agents tested significantly reduced cellular DNA m5dC content whereas the weakly carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic agents, benzo[e]pyrene and phenanthrene (respectively), did not. These reductions varied from 8% to 31% depending on the agent and the donor cells. The reductions in genomic m5dC levels were concentration dependent for the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene. We speculate that carcinogen-induced perturbation of DNA m5dC patterns may lead to heritable changes in gene expression and contribute to the molecular alterations involved in the initiation and the subsequent steps of the carcinogenesis process. PMID:3472209

  3. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces expression of the growth-promoting receptor ICOS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hongyi; Kantekure, Kanchan; Paterson, Jennifer C; Liu, Xiaobin; Schaffer, Andras; Paulos, Chrystal; Milone, Michael C; Odum, Niels; Turner, Suzanne; Marafioti, Teresa; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2011-09-15

    Here we report that T-cell lymphoma cells carrying the NPM-ALK fusion protein (ALK(+) TCL) frequently express the cell-stimulatory receptor ICOS. ICOS expression in ALK(+) TCL is moderate and strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK induces ICOS expression via STAT3, which triggers the transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene promoter. In addition, STAT3 suppresses the expression of miR-219 that, in turn, selectively inhibits ICOS expression. ALK(+) TCL cell lines display extensive DNA methylation of the CpG island located within intron 1, the putative enhancer region, of the ICOS gene, whereas cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines, which strongly express ICOS, show no methylation of the island. Treatment of the ALK(+) TCL cell lines with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor reversed the CpG island methylation and augmented the expression of ICOS mRNA and protein. Stimulation of the ICOS receptor with anti-ICOS antibody or ICOS ligand-expressing B cells markedly enhanced proliferation of the ALK(+) TCL cells. These results demonstrate that NPM-ALK, acting through STAT3 as the gene transcriptional activator, induces the expression of ICOS, a cell growth promoting receptor. These data also show that the DNA methylation status of the intronic CpG island affects transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene and, consequently, modulates the concentration of the expressed ICOS protein.

  4. Naltrexone pretreatment blocks microwave-induced changes in central cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Wen, Y.F.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rats to pulsed, circularly polarized microwaves (2,450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses at 500 pps, power density 1 mW/cm2, at an averaged, whole-body SAR of 0.6 W/kg) induced biphasic changes in the concentration of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the central nervous system. An increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 45-min sessions of microwave exposure, whereas a decrease in concentration was observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats exposed to ten 20-min sessions. These findings, which confirm earlier work in the authors' laboratory, were extended to include pretreatment of rats with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone (1 mg/kg, IP) before each session of exposure. The drug treatment blocked the microwave-induced changes in cholinergic receptors in the brain. These data further support the authors' hypothesis that endogenous opioids play a role in the effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems.

  5. Dopamine D3 Receptor Inactivation Attenuates Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Rui; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Peng, Xiao-Qing; Su, Rui-Bin; Yang, Ri-Fang; Li, Jin; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Gardner, Eliot L.

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) has received much attention in medication development for treatment of addiction. However, the functional role of the D3R in drug reward and addiction has been a matter of debate. We recently reported that D3 receptor-knockout (D3−/−) mice display increased vulnerability to cocaine self-administration, which we interpret as a compensatory response to attenuated cocaine reward after D3R deletion. Here we report that D3−/− mice displayed attenuated cocaine-induced conditioned place response (CPP) compared to wild-type mice. Similarly, blockade of brain D3Rs by YQA-14, a novel DA D3 receptor antagonist, significantly and dose-dependently inhibits acquisition and expression of cocaine-induced CPP in WT mice, but not in D3−/− mice. These findings suggest that: 1) D3Rs play an important role in mediating cocaine’s rewarding effects; and 2) YQA-14 is a highly potent and selective D3R antagonist in vivo, which deserves further study as a candidate for treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:23643749

  6. Saffron reduces ATP-induced retinal cytotoxicity by targeting P2X7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Corso, Lucia; Cavallero, Anna; Baroni, Debora; Garbati, Patrizia; Prestipino, Gianfranco; Bisti, Silvia; Nobile, Mario; Picco, Cristiana

    2016-03-01

    P2X7-type purinergic receptors are distributed throughout the nervous system where they contribute to physiological and pathological functions. In the retina, this receptor is found in both inner and outer cells including microglia modulating signaling and health of retinal cells. It is involved in retinal neurodegenerative disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Experimental studies demonstrated that saffron protects photoreceptors from light-induced damage preserving both retinal morphology and visual function and improves retinal flicker sensitivity in AMD patients. To evaluate a possible interaction between saffron and P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs), different cellular models and experimental approaches were used. We found that saffron positively influences the viability of mouse primary retinal cells and photoreceptor-derived 661W cells exposed to ATP, and reduced the ATP-induced intracellular calcium increase in 661W cells. Similar results were obtained on HEK cells transfected with recombinant rat P2X7R but not on cells transfected with rat P2X2R. Finally, patch-clamp experiments showed that saffron inhibited cationic currents in HEK-P2X7R cells. These results point out a novel mechanism through which saffron may exert its protective role in neurodegeneration and support the idea that P2X7-mediated calcium signaling may be a crucial therapeutic target in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26739703

  7. Antibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 induce myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chengyong; Lu, Yisheng; Zhang, Bin; Figueiredo, Dwight; Bean, Jonathan; Jung, Jiung; Wu, Haitao; Barik, Arnab; Yin, Dong-Min; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). MG is frequently caused by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and a kinase critical for NMJ formation, MuSK; however, a proportion of MG patients are double-negative for anti-AChR and anti-MuSK antibodies. Recent studies in these subjects have identified autoantibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), an agrin receptor also critical for NMJ formation. LRP4 autoantibodies have not previously been implicated in MG pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that mice immunized with the extracellular domain of LRP4 generated anti-LRP4 antibodies and exhibited MG-associated symptoms, including muscle weakness, reduced compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), and compromised neuromuscular transmission. Additionally, fragmented and distorted NMJs were evident at both the light microscopic and electron microscopic levels. We found that anti-LRP4 sera decreased cell surface LRP4 levels, inhibited agrin-induced MuSK activation and AChR clustering, and activated complements, revealing potential pathophysiological mechanisms. To further confirm the pathogenicity of LRP4 antibodies, we transferred IgGs purified from LRP4-immunized rabbits into naive mice and found that they exhibited MG-like symptoms, including reduced CMAP and impaired neuromuscular transmission. Together, these data demonstrate that LRP4 autoantibodies induce MG and that LRP4 contributes to NMJ maintenance in adulthood. PMID:24200689

  8. Blockade of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor function protects against in vivo disseminating brain damage following NMDA-induced excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik H; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Pons, Sebastián; Romero, Julián; García-Segura, Luis Miguel; Ramos, José Antonio; Hansen, Harald S; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

    2002-07-01

    The ability of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors to influence glutamatergic excitatory neurotransmission has fueled interest in how these receptors and their endogenous ligands may interact in conditions of excitotoxic insults. The present study characterized the impact of stimulated and inhibited CB(1) receptor function on NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Neonatal (6-day-old) rat pups received a systemic injection of a mixed CB(1) /CB(2) receptor agonist (WIN55,212-2) or their respective antagonists (SR141716A for CB(1) and SR144528 for CB(2) ) prior to an unilateral intrastriatal microinjection of NMDA. The NMDA-induced excitotoxic damage in the ipsilateral forebrain was not influenced by agonist-stimulated CB(1) receptor function. In contrast, blockade of CB(1), but not CB(2), receptor activity evoked a robust neuroprotective response by reducing the infarct area and the number of cortical degenerating neurons. These results suggest a critical involvement of CB(1) receptor tonus on neuronal survival following NMDA receptor-induced excitotoxicity in vivo.

  9. Stimulation of glutamate receptors in the ventral tegmental area is necessary for serotonin-2 receptor-induced increases in mesocortical dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Pehek, E A; Hernan, A E

    2015-04-01

    Modulation of dopamine (DA) released by serotonin-2 (5-HT2) receptors has been implicated in the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs. The mesocortical DA system has been implicated particularly in the cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Agonism at 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with increases in cortical DA release. Evidence indicates that 5-HT2A receptors in the cortex regulate mesocortical DA release through stimulation of a "long-loop" feedback system from the PFC to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and back. However, a causal role for VTA glutamate in the 5-HT2-induced increases in PFC DA has not been established. The present study does so by measuring 5-HT2 agonist-induced DA release in the cortex after infusions of glutamate antagonists into the VTA of the rat. Infusions of a combination of a N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) (AP-5: 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid) and an AMPA/kainate (CNQX: 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) receptor antagonist into the VTA blocked the increases in cortical DA produced by administration of the 5-HT2 agonist DOI [(±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine] (2.5mg/kg s.c.). These results demonstrate that stimulation of glutamate receptors in the VTA is necessary for 5-HT2 agonist-induced increases in cortical DA.

  10. Stimulation of glutamate receptors in the ventral tegmental area is necessary for serotonin-2 receptor-induced increases in mesocortical dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Pehek, E A; Hernan, A E

    2015-04-01

    Modulation of dopamine (DA) released by serotonin-2 (5-HT2) receptors has been implicated in the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs. The mesocortical DA system has been implicated particularly in the cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Agonism at 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with increases in cortical DA release. Evidence indicates that 5-HT2A receptors in the cortex regulate mesocortical DA release through stimulation of a "long-loop" feedback system from the PFC to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and back. However, a causal role for VTA glutamate in the 5-HT2-induced increases in PFC DA has not been established. The present study does so by measuring 5-HT2 agonist-induced DA release in the cortex after infusions of glutamate antagonists into the VTA of the rat. Infusions of a combination of a N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) (AP-5: 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid) and an AMPA/kainate (CNQX: 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) receptor antagonist into the VTA blocked the increases in cortical DA produced by administration of the 5-HT2 agonist DOI [(±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine] (2.5mg/kg s.c.). These results demonstrate that stimulation of glutamate receptors in the VTA is necessary for 5-HT2 agonist-induced increases in cortical DA. PMID:25637799

  11. Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation Inhibits Chemotherapy-induced Cell Death in High-grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stringer-Reasor, Erica M.; Baker, Gabrielle M.; Skor, Maxwell N.; Kocherginsky, Masha; Lengyel, Ernst; Fleming, Gini F.; Conzen, Suzanne D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation increases resistance to chemotherapy in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGS-OvCa) and that treatment with a GR antagonist will improve sensitivity to chemotherapy. Methods GR expression was assessed in OvCa cell lines by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis and in xenografts and primary human tumors using immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also examined the effect of GR activation versus inhibition on chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity in OvCa cell lines and in a xenograft model. Results With the exception of IGROV-1 cells, all OvCa cell lines tested had detectable GR expression by Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis. Twenty-five out of the 27 human primary HGS-OvCas examined expressed GR by IHC. No cell line expressed detectable progesterone receptor (PR) or androgen receptor (AR) by Western blot analysis. In vitro assays showed that in GR-positive HeyA8 and SKOV3 cells, dexamethasone (100 nM) treatment upregulated the pro-survival genes SGK1 and MKP1/DUSP1 and inhibited carboplatin/gemcitabine-induced cell death. Concurrent treatment with two GR antagonists, either mifepristone (100 nM) or CORT125134 (100 nM), partially reversed these effects. There was no anti-apoptotic effect of dexamethasone on chemotherapy-induced cell death in IGROV-1 cells, which did not have detectable GR protein. Mifepristone treatment alone was not cytotoxic in any cell line. HeyA8 OvCa xenograft studies demonstrated that adding mifepristone to carboplatin/gemcitabine increased tumor shrinkage by 48% compared to carboplatin/gemcitabine treatment alone (P=0.0004). Conclusions These results suggest that GR antagonism sensitizes GR+ OvCa to chemotherapy-induced cell death through inhibition of GR-mediated cell survival pathways. PMID:26115975

  12. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate inducible defense in the water flea Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Masanao; Colbourne, John K; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability held in many organisms to produce different phenotypes with a given genome in response to environmental stimuli, such as temperature, nutrition and various biological interactions. It seems likely that environmental signals induce a variety of mechanistic responses that influence ontogenetic processes. Inducible defenses, in which prey animals alter their morphology, behavior and/or other traits to help protect against direct or latent predation threats, are among the most striking examples of phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex forms tooth-like defensive structures, "neckteeth," in response to chemical cues or signals, referred to as "kairomones," in this case released from phantom midge larvae, a predator of D. pulex. To identify factors involved in the reception and/or transmission of a kairomone, we used microarray analysis to identify genes up-regulated following a short period of exposure to the midge kairomone. In addition to identifying differentially expressed genes of unknown function, we also found significant up-regulation of genes encoding ionotropic glutamate receptors, which are known to be involved in neurotransmission in many animal species. Specific antagonists of these receptors strongly inhibit the formation of neckteeth in D. pulex, although agonists did not induce neckteeth by themselves, indicating that ionotropic glutamate receptors are necessary but not sufficient for early steps of neckteeth formation in D. pulex. Moreover, using co-exposure of D. pulex to antagonists and juvenile hormone (JH), which physiologically mediates neckteeth formation, we found evidence suggesting that the inhibitory effect of antagonists is not due to direct inhibition of JH synthesis/secretion. Our findings not only provide a candidate molecule required for the inducible defense response in D. pulex, but also will contribute to the understanding of complex mechanisms underlying the recognition

  13. Serotonergic-postsynaptic receptors modulate gripping-induced immobility episodes in male taiep rats.

    PubMed

    Eguibar, José R; Cortés, M C; Ita, M L

    2009-09-01

    The Taiep rat is a myelin mutant with a motor syndrome characterized by tremor, ataxia, immobility, epilepsy, and paralysis. The rat shows a hypomyelination followed by a progressive demyelination. During immobilities taiep rats show a REM-like sleep pattern and a disorganized sleep-wake pattern suggesting taiep rats as a model of narcolepsy-cataplexy. Our study analyzed the role of postsynaptic serotonin receptors in the expression of gripping-induced immobility episodes (IEs) in 8-month-old male taiep rats. The specific postsynaptic serotonin agonist +/-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (+/-DOI) decreased the frequency of gripping-induced IEs, but that was not the case with alpha-methyl-serotonin maleate (alpha-methyl-5HT), a nonspecific postsynaptic agonist. Although the serotonin antagonists, ketanserine and metergoline, produced a biphasic effect, first a decrease followed by an increase with higher doses, similar effects were obtained with a mean duration of gripping-induced IEs. These findings correlate with the pharmacological observations in narcoleptic dogs and humans in which serotonin-reuptake inhibitors improve cataplexy, particularly in long-term treatment that could change the serotonin receptor levels. Polysomnographic recordings showed an increase in the awakening time and a decrease in the slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep concomitant with a decrease in immobilities after use of +/-DOI, this being stronger with the highest dose. Taken together, our results show that postsynaptic serotonin receptors are involved in the modulation in gripping-induced IEs caused by the changes in the organization of the sleep-wake cycle in taiep rats. It is possible that specific agonists, without side effects, could be a useful treatment in human narcoleptic patients. PMID:19484723

  14. TNF Receptor 1 Signaling is Critically Involved in Mediating Angiotensin-II-induced Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Duerrschmid, Clemens; Crawford, Jeffrey R.; Reineke, Erin; Taffet, George E.; Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L.; Haudek, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is associated with many conditions involving heart failure and pathologic hypertrophy. Ang-II induces the synthesis of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 that mediates the uptake of CD34+CD45+ monocytic cells into the heart. These precursor cells differentiate into collagen-producing fibroblasts and are responsible for the Ang-II-induced development of non-adaptive cardiac fibrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that in vitro, using a human monocyte-to-fibroblast differentiation model, Ang-II required the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) to induce fibroblast maturation from monocytes. In vivo, mice deficient in both TNF receptors did not develop cardiac fibrosis in response to 1 week Ang-II infusion. We then subjected mice deficient in either TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1-KO) or TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2-KO) to continuous Ang-II infusion. Compared to wild-type, in TNFR1-KO, but not in TNFR2-KO hearts, collagen deposition was greatly attenuated, and markedly fewer CD34+CD45+ cells were present. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a striking reduction of key fibrosis-related, as well as inflammation-related mRNA expression in Ang-II-treated TNFR1-KO hearts. TNFR1-KO animals also developed less cardiac remodeling, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension compared to wild-type and TNFR2-KO in response to Ang-II. Our data suggest that TNF induced Ang-II-dependent cardiac fibrosis by signaling through TNFR1, which enhances the generation of monocytic fibroblast precursors in the heart. PMID:23337087

  15. Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Mediate Inducible Defense in the Water Flea Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Masanao; Colbourne, John K.; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability held in many organisms to produce different phenotypes with a given genome in response to environmental stimuli, such as temperature, nutrition and various biological interactions. It seems likely that environmental signals induce a variety of mechanistic responses that influence ontogenetic processes. Inducible defenses, in which prey animals alter their morphology, behavior and/or other traits to help protect against direct or latent predation threats, are among the most striking examples of phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex forms tooth-like defensive structures, “neckteeth,” in response to chemical cues or signals, referred to as “kairomones,” in this case released from phantom midge larvae, a predator of D. pulex. To identify factors involved in the reception and/or transmission of a kairomone, we used microarray analysis to identify genes up-regulated following a short period of exposure to the midge kairomone. In addition to identifying differentially expressed genes of unknown function, we also found significant up-regulation of genes encoding ionotropic glutamate receptors, which are known to be involved in neurotransmission in many animal species. Specific antagonists of these receptors strongly inhibit the formation of neckteeth in D. pulex, although agonists did not induce neckteeth by themselves, indicating that ionotropic glutamate receptors are necessary but not sufficient for early steps of neckteeth formation in D. pulex. Moreover, using co-exposure of D. pulex to antagonists and juvenile hormone (JH), which physiologically mediates neckteeth formation, we found evidence suggesting that the inhibitory effect of antagonists is not due to direct inhibition of JH synthesis/secretion. Our findings not only provide a candidate molecule required for the inducible defense response in D. pulex, but also will contribute to the understanding of complex mechanisms underlying the

  16. Glycogen content regulates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-∂ (PPAR-∂) activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Philp, Andrew; MacKenzie, Matthew G; Belew, Micah Y; Towler, Mhairi C; Corstorphine, Alan; Papalamprou, Angela; Hardie, D Grahame; Baar, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Performing exercise in a glycogen depleted state increases skeletal muscle lipid utilization and the transcription of genes regulating mitochondrial β-oxidation. Potential candidates for glycogen-mediated metabolic adaptation are the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and the transcription factor/nuclear receptor PPAR-∂. It was therefore the aim of the present study to examine whether acute exercise with or without glycogen manipulation affects PGC-1α and PPAR-∂ function in rodent skeletal muscle. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups (n = 4): control [CON]; normal glycogen control [NG-C]; normal glycogen exercise [NG-E]; low glycogen control [LG-C]; and low glycogen exercise [LG-E]). Gastrocnemius (GTN) muscles were collected immediately following exercise and analyzed for glycogen content, PPAR-∂ activity via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, AMPK α1/α2 kinase activity, and the localization of AMPK and PGC-1α. Exercise reduced muscle glycogen by 47 and 75% relative to CON in the NG-E and LG-E groups, respectively. Exercise that started with low glycogen (LG-E) finished with higher AMPK-α2 activity (147%, p<0.05), nuclear AMPK-α2 and PGC-1α, but no difference in AMPK-α1 activity compared to CON. In addition, PPAR-∂ binding to the CPT1 promoter was significantly increased only in the LG-E group. Finally, cell reporter studies in contracting C2C12 myotubes indicated that PPAR-∂ activity following contraction is sensitive to glucose availability, providing mechanistic insight into the association between PPAR-∂ and glycogen content/substrate availability. The present study is the first to examine PPAR-∂ activity in skeletal muscle in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Our data would suggest that a factor associated with muscle contraction and/or glycogen depletion activates PPAR-∂ and initiates AMPK translocation in skeletal muscle in

  17. Distinct roles of the Y1 and Y2 receptors on neuropeptide Y-induced sensitization to sedation.

    PubMed

    Naveilhan, P; Canals, J M; Arenas, E; Ernfors, P

    2001-09-01

    Intracranial injection of neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases the sensitivity to sodium pentobarbital and ketamin sedation and has similar properties as GABA agonists on sleep. Mice sensitive to sedation have increased levels of NPY in many brain regions and Y1(-/-) mice show a marked resistance to barbiturates. Here we characterized the role of the NPY Y receptors in anesthetic-induced sedation. We show that Y1 and Y2, but not Y5, receptors participate in the modulation of sedation. Administration of a Y1 agonist increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sedation and Y1(-/-) mice were less sensitive to this anesthetic. However, Y2(-/-) mice display increased sensitivity, showing that Y2 modulates GABAergic induced sedation both pharmacologically and physiologically and has a functionally opposing role to the Y1 receptor. Analysis of Y1(-/-)/Y2(-/-) double mutant mice show that increased sensitivity by Y1 occurs independent of the Y2 receptor, while the decreased sensitivity mediated by Y2 depend on an intact Y1 receptor. In contrast to sodium pentobarbital, both Y1 and Y2 receptors increase the sensitivity in a collaborative fashion to NMDA antagonist-induced sedation. These data demonstrate the physiological and pharmacological impact of the Y1 and Y2 receptors on sedation.

  18. Involvement of histamine H1 and H2 receptors in hypothermia induced by ionizing radiation in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-induced hypothermia was examined in guinea pigs. Exposure to the head alone or whole-body irradiation-induced hypothermia, whereas exposure of the body alone produced a small insignificant response. Systemic injection of disodium cromoglycate (a mast cell stabilizer) and cimetidine (H2-receptor antagonist) had no effect on radiation-induced hypothermia, whereas systemic and central administration of mepyramine (H1-receptor antagonist) or central administration disodium cromoglycate or cimetidine attenuated it, indicating the involvement of central histamine through both H1 and H2 receptors in this response. Serotonin is not involved, since the serotonin antagonist methysergide had no effect on radiation-induced hypothermia. These results indicate that central histaminergic systems may be involved in radiation-induced hypothermia.

  19. Involvement of histamine H1 and H2 receptors in hypothermia induced by ionizing radiation in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-induced hypothermia was examined in guinea pigs. Exposure to the head alone or whole-body irradiation induced hypothermia, whereas exposure of the body alone produced a small insignificant response. Systemic injection of disodium cromoglycate (a mast cell stabilizer) and cimetidine (H2-receptor antagonist) had no effect on radiation-induced hypothermia, whereas systemic and central administration of mepyramine (H1-receptor antagonist) or central administration of disodium cromoglycate or cimetidine attenuated it, indicating the involvement of central histamine through both H1 and H2 receptors in this response. Serotonin is not involved, since the serotonin antagonist methysergide had no effect on radiation-induced hypothermia. These results indicate that central histaminergic systems may be involved in radiation-induced hypothermia. 34 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Determination of copper content in soils and ores by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labutin, T. A.; Popov, A. M.; Zaytsev, S. M.; Cal'ko, I. A.; Zorov, N. B.

    2016-09-01

    It is demonstrated that the method of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry can be applied for quantitative determination of the copper content at a level of 500-40000 g/t, typical for copper ores and soil in the outcrop areas. To avoid the self-absorption of the resonance copper lines, we studied the most intense nonresonant lines of copper atoms and ions. It is shown that the Cu I 521.82-nm line is rather intense and provides the linear calibration. The copper detection limit for this line of 280 g/t allows its use for rapid mapping of outcrop areas.

  1. Parathyroid hormone induces the Nrna family of nuclear orphan receptors in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Pirih, Flavia Q. . E-mail: fqpirih@ucla.edu; Aghaloo, Tara L. . E-mail: taghaloo@ucla.edu; Bezouglaia, Olga . E-mail: obezougl@ucla.edu; Nervina, Jeanne M. . E-mail: jnervina@ucla.edu; Tetradis, Sotirios; E-mail: sotirist@dent.ucla.edu

    2005-07-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has both anabolic and catabolic effects on bone metabolism, although the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are largely unknown. Among the transcription factors induced by Pth in osteoblasts are the nerve growth factor-inducible factor B (NR4A; NGFI-B) family of orphan nuclear receptors: Nurr1, Nur77, and NOR-1. PTH induces NR4A members through the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in vitro. We report here that PTH rapidly and transiently induced expression of all three NR4A genes in PTH-target tissues in vivo. In calvaria, long bones, and kidneys, NR4A induction was maximal 0.5-1 h after a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 80 {mu}g/kg PTH. Nur77 demonstrated the highest expression, followed, in order, by Nurr1 and NOR-1. In calvaria and long bone, PTH-induced expression of each NR4A gene was detectable at 10 {mu}g/kg i.p. with maximum induction at 40-80 {mu}g/kg. PTH (3-34) did not induce NR4A mRNA levels in calvaria, long bone, and kidney in vivo, confirming our in vitro results that NR4A genes are induced primarily through the cAMP-PKA pathway. The magnitude of PTH-induced NR4A expression was comparable in vivo and in vitro. However, NR4A mRNA levels peaked and returned to baseline faster in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro, PTH induced NR4A pre-mRNA levels suggesting that induction of these genes is, at least in part, through activation of mRNA synthesis. The in vivo induction of the NR4A family members by PTH suggests their involvement in, at least some, PTH-induced changes in bone metabolism.

  2. Corticosterone-activated mineralocorticoid receptor contributes to salt-induced sympathoexcitation in pressure overload mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Koji; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We previously reported that pressure overload (PO) activates the hypothalamic mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). Moreover, salt intake further activates the hypothalamic MR and AT1R, resulting in salt-induced sympathoexcitation. However, the mechanism underlying this pathway activation in response to a high salt intake remains unknown. Although the role of aldosterone is extensively examined as a ligand for MR, corticosterone is able to bind to MR. Therefore, we hypothesized that corticosterone contributes to salt-induced sympathoexcitation in PO-mice. Four weeks after aortic banding to produce PO-mice, or a sham operation for controls, the mice were fed a high-salt diet for an additional 4 weeks. Compared to Sham-mice, the expression levels of hypothalamic MR, serum glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (a marker of MR activity) and AT1R increased in PO-mice. Salt intake further increased the expression levels of these proteins only in PO-mice with the increases in sympathetic activity evaluated on the basis of the excretion of 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion. Bilateral adrenalectomy or the intraperitoneal infusion of metyrapone, a corticosterone synthase inhibitor, attenuated salt-induced sympathoexcitation via inhibition of the hypothalamic MR and AT1R activity. These adrenalectomy-induced alterations disappeared after corticosterone replacement therapy. We also found decreased expression levels of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, suggesting that corticosterone is apt to bind to MR. These results indicate that salt intake in PO-mice causes sympathoexcitation via, at least in part, corticosterone-induced MR and AT1R activation in the hypothalamus. PMID:24490674

  3. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Is Required for Opioid-Induced Microglia Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Junying; Jiang, Yulin; Zhang, Yi; Xiao, Zuoxiang; Hanley, Gregory; Li, Yi; Zhang, Xiumei; LeSage, Gene; Peng, Ying; Yin, Deling

    2011-01-01

    Opioids have been widely applied in clinics as one of the most potent pain relievers for centuries, but their abuse has deleterious physiological effects beyond addiction. However, the underlying mechanism by which microglia in response to opioids remains largely unknown. Here we show that morphine induces the expression of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), a key mediator of innate immunity and inflammation. Interestingly, TLR9 deficiency significantly inhibited morphine-induced apoptosis in microglia. Similar results were obtained when endogenous TLR9 expression was suppressed by the TLR9 inhibitor CpGODN. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by its specific inhibitor SB203580 attenuated morphine-induced microglia apoptosis in wild type microglia. Morphine caused a dramatic decrease in Bcl-2 level but increase in Bax level in wild type microglia, but not in TLR9 deficient microglia. In addition, morphine treatment failed to induce an increased levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and MAP kinase kinase 3/6 (MKK3/6), the upstream MAPK kinase of p38 MAPK, in either TLR9 deficient or µ-opioid receptor (µOR) deficient primary microglia, suggesting an involvement of MAPK and µOR in morphine-mediated TLR9 signaling. Moreover, morphine-induced TLR9 expression and microglia apoptosis appears to require μOR. Collectively, these results reveal that opioids prime microglia to undergo apoptosis through TLR9 and µOR as well. Taken together, our data suggest that inhibition of TLR9 and/or blockage of µOR is capable of preventing opioid-induced brain damage. PMID:21559519

  4. Colony-stimulating Factor-1 Receptor Utilizes Multiple Signaling Pathways to Induce Cyclin D2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Arunangsu; She, Hongyun; Kim, Leopold; Boruch, Allan; Guris, Deborah L.; Carlberg, Kristen; Sebti, Saïd M.; Woodley, David T.; Imamoto, Akira; Li, Wei

    2000-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) induces expression of immediate early gene, such as c-myc and c-fos and delayed early genes such as D-type cyclins (D1 and D2), whose products play essential roles in the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle. Little is known, however, about the cytoplasmic signal transduction pathways that connect the surface CSF-1 receptor to these genes in the nucleus. We have investigated the signaling mechanism of CSF-1-induced D2 expression. Analyses of CSF-1 receptor autophosphorylation mutants show that, although certain individual mutation has a partial inhibitory effect, only multiple combined mutations completely block induction of D2 in response to CSF-1. We report that at least three parallel pathways, the Src pathway, the MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, and the c-myc pathway, are involved. Induction of D2 is partially inhibited in Src−/− bone marrow-derived macrophages and by Src inhibitor PP1 and is enhanced in v-Src-overexpressing cells. Activation of myc's transactivating activity selectively induces D2 but not D1. Blockade of c-myc expression partially blocks CSF-1-induced D2 expression. Complete inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway causes 50% decrease of D2 expression. Finally, simultaneous inhibition of Src, MEK activation, and c-myc expression additively blocks CSF-1-induced D2 expression. This study indicates that multiple signaling pathways are involved in full induction of a single gene, and this finding may also apply broadly to other growth factor-inducible genes. PMID:11071910

  5. Serotonergic receptor mechanisms underlying antidepressant-like action in the progesterone withdrawal model of hormonally induced depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Raaby, Kasper F; Sánchez, Connie; Gulinello, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Hormonally induced mood disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) are characterized by a range of physical and affective symptoms including anxiety, irritability, anhedonia, social withdrawal and depression. Studies demonstrated rodent models of progesterone withdrawal (PWD) have a high level of constructive and descriptive validity to model hormonally-induced mood disorders in women. Here we evaluate the effects of several classes of antidepressants in PWD female Long-Evans rats using the forced swim test (FST) as a measure of antidepressant activity. The study included fluoxetine, duloxetine, amitriptyline and an investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine (5-HT(3), 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1D) receptor antagonist; 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist; 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist; inhibitor of the serotonin transporter (SERT)). After 14 days of administration, amitriptyline and vortioxetine significantly reduced immobility in the FST whereas fluoxetine and duloxetine were ineffective. After 3 injections over 48 h, neither fluoxetine nor duloxetine reduced immobility, whereas amitriptyline and vortioxetine significantly reduced FST immobility during PWD. When administered acutely during PWD, the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, flesinoxan, significantly reduced immobility, whereas the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, increased immobility. The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, ondansetron, significantly reduced immobility, whereas the 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, SR-57227, increased immobility. The 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, SB-269970, was inactive, although the 5-HT(7) receptor agonist, AS-19, significantly increased PWD-induced immobility. None of the compounds investigated (ondansetron, flesinoxan and SB-269970) improved the effect of fluoxetine during PWD. These data indicate that modulation of specific 5-HT receptor subtypes is critical for manipulating FST immobility in this model of hormone-induced depression.

  6. SPINAL CORD MECHANISMS MEDIATING BEHAVIORAL HYPERALGESIA INDUCED BY NEUROKININ-1 TACHYKININ RECEPTOR ACTIVATION IN THE ROSTRAL VENTROMEDIAL MEDULLA

    PubMed Central

    Lagraize, S. C.; Guo, W.; Yang, K.; Wei, F.; Ren, K.; Dubner, R.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperalgesia in animal injury models is linked to activation of descending raphespinal modulatory circuits originating in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). A neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist microinjected into the RVM before or after inflammation produced by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) resulted in an attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia. A transient (acute) or a continuous infusion of Substance P (SP) microinjected into the RVM of non-inflamed animals led to similar pain hypersensitivity. Intrathecal pretreatment or post-treatment of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (Y-25130 or ondansetron) blocked the SP-induced hyperalgesia. The SP-induced hyperalgesia was both GABAA and NMDA receptor-dependent after pre- and post-treatment with selective antagonists at the spinal level. A microinjection of SP into the RVM also led to increased NMDA NR1 receptor subunit phosphorylation in spinal cord tissue. The GABAA receptor-mediated hyperalgesia involved a shift in the anionic gradient in dorsal horn nociceptive neurons and an increase in phosphorylated NKCC1 protein (isoform of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter). Following a low dose of SP infused into the RVM, intrathecal muscimol (GABAA agonist) increased SP-induced thermal hyperalgesia, phosphorylated NKCC1 protein expression, and NMDA NR1 subunit phosphorylation in the spinal cord. The thermal hyperalgesia was blocked by intrathecal gabazine, the GABAA receptor antagonist, and MK-801, the NMDA receptor channel blocker. These findings indicate that NK-1 receptors in the RVM are involved in SP-induced thermal hyperalgesia, this hyperalgesia is 5-HT3-receptor dependent at the spinal level, and involves the functional interaction of spinal GABAA and NMDA receptors. PMID:20888891

  7. Cannabinoid-induced mesenteric vasodilation through an endothelial site distinct from CB1 or CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Járai, Z; Wagner, J A; Varga, K; Lake, K D; Compton, D R; Martin, B R; Zimmer, A M; Bonner, T I; Buckley, N E; Mezey, E; Razdan, R K; Zimmer, A; Kunos, G

    1999-11-23

    Cannabinoids, including the endogenous ligand arachidonyl ethanolamide (anandamide), elicit not only neurobehavioral but also cardiovascular effects. Two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, have been cloned, and studies with the selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A have implicated peripherally located CB1 receptors in the hypotensive action of cannabinoids. In rat mesenteric arteries, anandamide-induced vasodilation is inhibited by SR141716A, but other potent CB1 receptor agonists, such as HU-210, do not cause vasodilation, which implicates an as-yet-unidentified receptor in this effect. Here we show that "abnormal cannabidiol" (Abn-cbd) is a neurobehaviorally inactive cannabinoid that does not bind to CB1 receptors, yet causes SR141716A-sensitive hypotension and mesenteric vasodilation in wild-type mice and in mice lacking CB1 receptors or both CB1 and CB2 receptors. Hypotension by Abn-cbd is also inhibited by cannabidiol (20 microgram/g), which does not influence anandamide- or HU-210-induced hypotension. In the rat mesenteric arterial bed, Abn-cbd-induced vasodilation is unaffected by blockade of endothelial NO synthase, cyclooxygenase, or capsaicin receptors, but it is abolished by endothelial denudation. Mesenteric vasodilation by Abn-cbd, but not by acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, or capsaicine, is blocked by SR141716A (1 microM) or by cannabidiol (10 microM). Abn-cbd-induced vasodilation is also blocked in the presence of charybdotoxin (100 nM) plus apamin (100 nM), a combination of K(+)-channel toxins reported to block the release of an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). These findings suggest that Abn-cbd and cannabidiol are a selective agonist and antagonist, respectively, of an as-yet-unidentified endothelial receptor for anandamide, activation of which elicits NO-independent mesenteric vasodilation, possibly by means of the release of EDHF.

  8. Thyroid iodine content measured by x-ray fluorescence in amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Leger, A.F.; Fragu, P.; Rougier, P.; Laurent, M.F.; Tubiana, M.; Savole, J.C.

    1983-07-01

    Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis (IiT) is characterized by (a) a low radioiodine uptake, increased by exogenous TSH, and (b) a spontaneous evolution towards cure within a few months. An hypothetical pathogenesis of IiT is an initial inflation in the stores of thyroid hormones during iodine excess, followed by their sudden discharge into the circulation. Thyroid iodine content was measured by fluorescent scanning in 10 patients with amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis and in various control groups. Results were found to be high at the onset of the disease and to decrease during its course. The data agree with the hypothetical pathogenesis. Furthermore they may permit exclusion of a painless subacute thyroiditis, which is the main differential diagnosis of IiT.

  9. Gallium Content in PuO{sub 2} Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.A.; Martinez, M.A.; Veirs, D.K.

    1999-08-29

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the semi-quantitative analysis of gallium in plutonium oxide at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The oxide samples were generated by the Thermally Induced Gallium Removal (TIGR) process, a pretreatment step prior to MOX fuel processing. The TIGR process uses PuO{sub 2} containing 1 wt% gallium (nominal) as feed material. Following the TIGR process, gallium content was analyzed by LIBS and also by conventional wet chemical analysis (ICP-MS). Although the data range was insufficient to obtain an adequate calibration, general agreement between the two techniques was good. LIBS was found to have a useful analytical range of 34-400 ppm for Ga in PuO{sub 2}.

  10. Antagonist of prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 induces metabolic alterations in liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Limin; An, Yanpeng; Zhang, Lulu; Song, Yipeng; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2015-03-01

    Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) is one of the receptors for prostaglandin E2 and plays important roles in various biological functions. EP4 antagonists have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs. To investigate the effects of an EP4 antagonist (L-161982) on the endogenous metabolism in a holistic manner, we employed a mouse model, and obtained metabolic and transcriptomic profiles of multiple biological matrixes, including serum, liver, and urine of mice with and without EP4 antagonist (L-161982) exposure. We found that this EP4 antagonist caused significant changes in fatty acid metabolism, choline metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. EP4 antagonist exposure also induced oxidative stress to mice. Our research is the first of its kind to report information on the alteration of metabolism associated with an EP4 antagonist. This information could further our understanding of current and new biological functions of EP4.

  11. Nanoparticle-induced unfolding of fibrinogen promotes Mac-1 receptor activation and inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhou J.; Liang, Mingtao; Monteiro, Michael; Toth, Istvan; Minchin, Rodney F.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition, size, shape and surface characteristics of nanoparticles affect the way proteins bind to these particles, and this in turn influences the way in which nanoparticles interact with cells and tissues. Nanomaterials bound with proteins can result in physiological and pathological changes, including macrophage uptake, blood coagulation, protein aggregation and complement activation, but the mechanisms that lead to these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we show that negatively charged poly(acrylic acid)-conjugated gold nanoparticles bind to and induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes interaction with the integrin receptor, Mac-1. Activation of this receptor increases the NF-κB signalling pathway, resulting in the release of inflammatory cytokines. However, not all nanoparticles that bind to fibrinogen demonstrated this effect. Our results show that the binding of certain nanoparticles to fibrinogen in plasma offers an alternative mechanism to the more commonly described role of oxidative stress in the inflammatory response to nanomaterials.

  12. Mechanistic Assessment of PD-1H Coinhibitory Receptor-Induced T Cell Tolerance to Allogeneic Antigens.

    PubMed

    Flies, Dallas B; Higuchi, Tomoe; Chen, Lieping

    2015-06-01

    PD-1H is a recently identified cell surface coinhibitory molecule of the B7/CD28 immune modulatory gene family. We showed previously that single injection of a PD-1H agonistic mAb protected mice from graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In this study, we report two distinct mechanisms operate in PD-1H-induced T cell tolerance. First, signaling via PD-1H coinhibitory receptor potently arrests alloreactive donor T cells from activation and expansion in the initiation phase. Second, donor regulatory T cells are subsequently expanded to maintain long-term tolerance and GVHD suppression. Our study reveals the crucial function of PD-1H as a coinhibitory receptor on alloreactive T cells and its function in the regulation of T cell tolerance. Therefore, PD-1H may be a target for the modulation of alloreactive T cells in GVHD and transplantation. PMID:25917101

  13. The H3 receptor antagonist clobenpropit protects against Abeta42-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated rat PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiuli; Dai, Haibin; He, Ping; Hu, Weiwei; Fan, Yanying; Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Zhong

    2010-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the H3 antagonist clobenpropit on neurotoxicity induced by Abeta42 in differentiated rat PC12 cells. PC12 cells were exposed to Abeta42 (5 microM) for 24h after clobenpropit applied for 18 h. Cell viability, glutamate release or cell surface expression of NMDA receptors were examined. Pretreatment with clobenpropit ameliorated cell impairment induced by Abeta42. In the presence of Abeta42, clobenpropit increased glutamate release, although there were no differences between the Abeta42-treated sample and control. Meanwhile, in the absence of Abeta42, clobenpropit increased the surface expression of NMDA receptors when the total expression of NMDA receptors was not influenced. These results indicate that one of the mechanisms by which clobenpropit attenuates Abeta42-induced neurotoxicity may act through regulation of glutamate release and NMDA receptor trafficking.

  14. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.

  15. Mas receptor deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced cerebral and systemic inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Lima, Onésia C; Pinto, Mauro C X; Duchene, Johan; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Souza, Laura L; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A S; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana

    2015-12-01

    Beyond the classical actions of the renin-angiotensin system on the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis, several studies have shown its involvement in acute and chronic inflammation. The G protein-coupled receptor Mas is a functional binding site for the angiotensin-(1-7); however, its role in the immune system has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of genetic deletion of Mas receptor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and cerebral inflammation in mice. Inflammatory response was triggered in Mas deficient (Mas(-/-)) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (8-12 weeks-old) by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Mas(-/-) mice presented more intense hypothermia compared to WT mice 24 h after LPS injection. Systemically, the bone marrow of Mas(-/-) mice contained a lower number of neutrophils and monocytes 3 h and 24 h after LPS injection, respectively. The plasma levels of inflammatory mediators KC, MCP-1 and IL-10 were higher in Mas(-/-) mice 24 h after LPS injection in comparison to WT. In the brain, Mas(-/-) animals had a significant increase in the number of adherent leukocytes to the brain microvasculature compared to WT mice, as well as, increased number of monocytes and neutrophils recruited to the pia-mater. The elevated number of adherent leukocytes on brain microvasculature in Mas(-/-) mice was associated with increased expression of CD11b - the alpha-subunit of the Mac-1 integrin - in bone marrow neutrophils 3h after LPS injection, and with increased brain levels of chemoattractants KC, MIP-2 and MCP-1, 24 h later. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Mas receptor deficiency results in exacerbated inflammation in LPS-challenged mice, which suggest a potential role for the Mas receptor as a regulator of systemic and brain inflammatory response induced by LPS.

  16. Role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in an experimental model of epilepsy-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Carvalho, Andressa Daiane; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Bassi, Gabriel Shimizu; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibrahim; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2004-10-01

    The blockade of GABA-mediated Cl(-) influx with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was used in the present work to induce seizures in animals. The neurotransmission in the postictal period has been the focus of many studies, and there is evidence suggesting antinociceptive mechanisms following tonic-clonic seizures in both animals and men. The aim of this work was to study the involvement of acetylcholine in the antinociception induced by convulsions elicited by peripheral administration of PTZ (64 mg/kg). Analgesia was measured by the tail-flick test in eight albino Wistar rats per group. Convulsions were followed by significant increases in tail-flick latencies (TFLs) at least for 120 min of the postictal period. Peripheral administration of atropine (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg) caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the TFL in seizing animals, as compared to controls. These data were corroborated by peripheral administration of mecamylamine, a nicotinic cholinergic receptor blocker, at the same doses (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg) used for the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist. The recruitment of the muscarinic receptor was made 10 min postconvulsions and in subsequent periods of postictal analgesia, whereas the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor was implicated only after 30 min postseizures. The cholinergic antagonists caused a minimal reduction in body temperature, but did not impair baseline TFL, spontaneous exploration or motor coordination in the rotarod test at the maximal dose of 4 mg/kg. These results indicate that acetylcholine may be involved as a neurotransmitter in postictal analgesia.

  17. Differential proinflammatory responses induced by diesel exhaust particles with contrasting PAH and metal content.

    PubMed

    Totlandsdal, Annike I; Låg, Marit; Lilleaas, Edel; Cassee, Flemming; Schwarze, Per

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust particles (DEPs), representing a complex and variable mixture of components, has been linked with cellular production and release of several types of mediators related to pulmonary inflammation. A key challenge is to identify the specific components, which may be responsible for these effects. The aim of this study was to compare the proinflammatory potential of two DEP-samples with contrasting contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. The DEP-samples were compared with respect to their ability to induce cytotoxicity, expression and release of proinflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-8), activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and expression of CYP1A1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. In addition, dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid assays were performed in order to examine the oxidative potential of the PM samples. The DEP-sample with the highest PAH and lowest metal content was more potent with respect to cytotoxicity and expression and release of proinflammatory mediators, CYP1A1 and HO-1 expression and MAPK activation, than the DEP-sample with lower PAH and higher metal content. The DEP-sample with the highest PAH and lowest metal content also possessed a greater oxidative potential. The present results indicate that the content of organic components may be determinant for the proinflammatory effects of DEP. The findings underscore the importance of considering the chemical composition of particulate matter-emissions, when evaluating the potential health impact and implementation of air pollution regulations. PMID:23900936

  18. Differential proinflammatory responses induced by diesel exhaust particles with contrasting PAH and metal content.

    PubMed

    Totlandsdal, Annike I; Låg, Marit; Lilleaas, Edel; Cassee, Flemming; Schwarze, Per

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust particles (DEPs), representing a complex and variable mixture of components, has been linked with cellular production and release of several types of mediators related to pulmonary inflammation. A key challenge is to identify the specific components, which may be responsible for these effects. The aim of this study was to compare the proinflammatory potential of two DEP-samples with contrasting contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. The DEP-samples were compared with respect to their ability to induce cytotoxicity, expression and release of proinflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-8), activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and expression of CYP1A1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. In addition, dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid assays were performed in order to examine the oxidative potential of the PM samples. The DEP-sample with the highest PAH and lowest metal content was more potent with respect to cytotoxicity and expression and release of proinflammatory mediators, CYP1A1 and HO-1 expression and MAPK activation, than the DEP-sample with lower PAH and higher metal content. The DEP-sample with the highest PAH and lowest metal content also possessed a greater oxidative potential. The present results indicate that the content of organic components may be determinant for the proinflammatory effects of DEP. The findings underscore the importance of considering the chemical composition of particulate matter-emissions, when evaluating the potential health impact and implementation of air pollution regulations.

  19. Repeated potentiation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulates behavioural and GABAergic deficits induced by early postnatal phencyclidine (PCP) treatment.

    PubMed

    Kjaerby, Celia; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Fejgin, Kim; Kristiansen, Uffe; Dalby, Nils Ole

    2013-09-01

    The underlying mechanism of the GABAergic deficits observed in schizophrenia has been proposed to involve NMDA receptor hypofunction. An emerging treatment strategy therefore aims at enhancing GABAergic signalling by increasing the excitatory transmission onto interneurons. We wanted to determine whether behavioural and GABAergic functional deficits induced by the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), could be reversed by repeated administration of two drugs known to enhance GABAergic transmission: the positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), ADX47273, and the partial agonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), SSR180711. Adolescent rats (4-5 weeks) subjected to PCP treatment during the second postnatal week displayed a consistent deficit in prepulse inhibition (PPI), which was reversed by a one-week treatment with ADX47273 or SSR180711. We examined GABAergic transmission by whole cell patch-clamp recordings of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) in pyramidal neurons in layer II/III of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and by activation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABAA receptors by THIP. Following PCP treatment, pyramidal neurons displayed a reduced mIPSC frequency and up-regulation of extrasynaptic THIP-induced current. ADX47273 treatment restored this up-regulation of THIP-induced current. Reduced receptor function seems to be the underlying cause of the reported changes, since repeated treatment with ADX47273 and SSR180711 decreased the induction of spontaneous inhibitory current caused by acute and direct agonism of mGluR5s and α7 nAChRs in slices. These results show that repeated administration of ADX47273 or SSR180711 reverses certain behavioural and functional deficits induced by PCP, likely through down-regulation or desensitisation of mGluR5s and α7 nAChRs, respectively. PMID:23643744

  20. Novel Receptor-Based Countermeasures to Microgravity-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Bert W.

    1999-01-01

    The biological actions mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and Ca(sup 2+) (sub o) -sensing receptor (CaR) play key roles in the normal control of bone growth and skeletal turnover that is necessary for skeletal health. These receptors act by controlling the differentiation and/or function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and other cell types within the bone and bone marrow microenvironment. The appropriate use of selective ER modulators (SERMS) which target bone, vitamin D analogs that favor bone formation relative to resorption, and CaR agonists may both stimulate osteoblastogenesis and inhibit osteoclastogenesis and the function of mature osteoclasts, should make it possible to prevent the reduction in bone formation and increase in bone resorption that normally contribute to the bone loss induced by weightlessness. Indeed, there may be synergistic interactions among these receptors that enhance the actions of any one used alone. Therefore, we proposed to: 1) assess the in vitro ability of novel ER, VDR and CaR agonists, alone or in combination, to modulate osteoblastogenesis and mature osteoblast function under conditions of 1g and simulated microgravity; 2) assess the in vitro ability of novel ER, VDR and CaR agonists, alone or in combination, to modulate osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption under conditions of lg and simulated microgravity; and 3) carry out baseline studies on the skeletal localization of the CaR in normal rat bone as well as the in vivo actions of our novel ER- and VDR-based therapeutics in the rat in preparation for their use, alone or in combination, in well-established ground-based models of microgravity and eventually in space flight.

  1. Spinal 5-HT7 receptor activation induces long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M S; Mitchell, G S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Acute intermittent hypoxia elicits a form of serotonin-dependent respiratory plasticity known as phrenic long term facilitation (pLTF). Episodic spinal serotonin-2 (5-HT2) receptor activation on or near phrenic motor neurons is necessary for pLTF. A hallmark of pLTF is the requirement for serotonin-dependent synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and activation of its high affinity receptor, TrkB. Activation of spinal Gs protein-coupled adenosine 2A receptors (GsPCRs) elicits a unique form of long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (PMF), but via unique mechanisms (BDNF independent TrkB trans-activation). We hypothesized that other GsPCRs elicit PMF, specifically serotonin-7 (5-HT7) receptors, which are expressed in phrenic motor neurons. Cervical spinal (C4) injections of a selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS-19 (10 μm, 5 μl; 3 × 5 min), in anaesthetized, vagotomized and ventilated male Sprague–Dawley rats elicited long-lasting PMF (>120 min), an effect prevented by pretreatment with a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (SB 269970; 5 mm, 7 μl). GsPCR activation ‘trans-activates’ TrkB by increasing synthesis of an immature TrkB isoform. Spinal injection of a TrkB inhibitor (k252a) and siRNAs that prevent TrkB (but not BDNF) mRNA translation both blocked 5-HT7 agonist-induced PMF, confirming a requirement for TrkB synthesis and activity. k252a affected late PMF (≥90 min) only. Spinal inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway blocked 5-HT7 agonist-induced PMF, whereas MEK/ERK inhibition delayed, but did not block, PMF. An understanding of signalling mechanisms giving rise to PMF may guide development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat ventilatory control disorders associated with respiratory insufficiency, such as spinal injury and motor neuron disease. PMID:21242254

  2. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-..beta..-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC/sub 50/) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds.

  3. Role for the epidermal growth factor receptor in chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Bichsel, Kyle J; Gogia, Navdeep; Malouff, Timothy; Pena, Zachary; Forney, Eric; Hammiller, Brianna; Watson, Patrice; Hansen, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapeutics like cyclophosphamide often causes alopecia as a result of premature and aberrant catagen. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signals anagen hair follicles to enter catagen, we hypothesized that EGFR signaling may be involved in cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. To test this hypothesis, skin-targeted Egfr mutant mice were generated by crossing floxed Egfr and Keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment of control mice resulted in alopecia while Egfr mutant skin was resistant to cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Egfr mutant skin entered catagen normally, as indicated by dermal papilla condensation and decreased follicular proliferation, but did not progress to telogen as did Egfr wild type follicles. Egfr mutant follicles responded with less proliferation, apoptosis, and fewer p53-positive cells after cyclophosphamide. Treatment of control mice with the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib similarly suppressed alopecia and catagen progression by cyclophosphamide. Secondary analysis of clinical trials utilizing EGFR-targeted therapies and alopecia-inducing chemotherapy also revealed evidence for involvement of EGFR in chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Taken together, our results demonstrated the involvement of EGFR signaling in chemotherapy-induced alopecia, which will help in the design of novel therapeutic regimens to minimize chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  4. GLUCOSE-INDUCED INTESTINAL VASODILATION VIA ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS REQUIRES NITRIC OXIDE BUT NOT K+ATP CHANNELS

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Paul J.; Li, Na; Harris, Patrick D.; Zakaria, El Rasheid; Garrison, R. Neal

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Both nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine A1 receptor activation mediate microvascular vasodilation during intestinal glucose absorption. Our overall hypothesis is that ATP utilization during glucose absorption would increase adenosine metabolite release, which acts on adenosine A1 receptors to alter endothelial production of NO and/or activate ATP-dependent potassium channels (K+ATP) to dilate intestinal microvessels. METHODS Intravital videomicroscopy of the rat jejunum was used to record the vascular responses of inflow (termed 1A) arterioles and proximal (p3A) and distal (d3A) premucosal arterioles during exposure to isotonic glucose or mannitol solutions alone or in the presence of the selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-NMMA), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX)), or a K+ATP channel inhibitor (glibenclamide). RESULTS As expected, glucose exposure caused rapid dilation of both p3A and d3A arterioles, while mannitol exposure had no effect on microvascular diameters. Adenosine A1 receptor blockade completely prevented glucose-induced dilation of the premucosal arterioles. NOS inhibition significantly blunted the glucose-induced vasodilation of the premucosal arterioles, but had little effect in the mannitol group. Simultaneous application of both the NOS inhibitor and the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist gave the same reduction in glucose-induced dilation of the premucosal arterioles as the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist alone. Blockade of K+ATP channels with glibenclamide did not attenuate glucose-induced vasodilation of the premucosal arterioles. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that glucose-induced vasodilation of premucosal jejunal arterioles is mediated through adenosine A1 receptors, and NO at least partially mediates the adenosine A1 receptor-induced vasodilation. In addition, K+ATP channels are not involved in premucosal arteriolar vasodilation during intestinal glucose exposure. PMID

  5. Rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells express inducible macrophage scavenger receptor messenger RNA that is absent from endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, P E; Freeman, M W

    1992-01-01

    Scavenger receptors mediate uptake of modified low density lipoproteins by macrophages. The accumulation of lipids via this process is thought to lead to foam cell formation in developing atherosclerotic plaques. Smooth muscle cells, which can also be converted to foam cells in vivo, have not been shown to express the same scavenger receptor previously cloned in macrophages. We report the cloning of two cDNAs that encode type I and type II scavenger receptors isolated from rabbit smooth muscle cells. The deduced protein sequences of these isolates are highly homologous to the scavenger receptors previously isolated from macrophages. Treatment of smooth muscle cells with phorbol esters induced a marked increase in scavenger receptor mRNA and a fivefold increase in receptor degradation activity. Rabbit venous endothelial cells in primary culture and a bovine aortic endothelial cell line had no detectable scavenger receptor mRNA, despite having scavenger receptor degradation activity. The latter finding suggests that endothelial cells may possess a scavenger receptor which is structurally distinct from that found in macrophages and smooth muscle cells. The isolation of cDNAs encoding the rabbit scavenger receptor should prove useful for in vitro and in vivo studies that employ the rabbit as a model of human atherosclerosis. Images PMID:1401078

  6. Involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.C.; Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-12-31

    In this paper we examine the role of growth factors (GF) and their receptors (GFR) in radon-induced rat lung tumors. Inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters induced lung tumors in rats, but the molecule/cellular mechanisms are not known. Recent evidence suggests that GF/GFR play a critical role in the growth and development of lung cancer in humans and animals. We have developed immunocytochemical methods for identifying sites of production and action of GF/GFR at the cellular level; for example, the avidin-biotin horseradish peroxidase technique. In radon-induced rat epidermoid carcinomas, epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF-receptors (EGF-R), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}), and bombesin were found to be abnormally expressed. These abnormal expressions, mainly associated with epidermoid carcinomas of the lung, were not found in any other lung tumor types. Our data suggest that EGF, EGF-R, TGF-{alpha}, and bombesin are involved in radon oncogenesis in rat lungs, especially in epidermoid carcinomas, possibly through the autocrine/paracrine pathway.

  7. The effects of CA1 5HT4 receptors in MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Tabatabaie, Maryam; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effects of 5-HT4 receptors of the CA1 on MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion were examined. One-trial step-down method was used to assess memory retention and then, the hole-board method to assess exploratory behaviors. The results showed that post-training intra-CA1 administration of RS67333 (62.5 and 625 ng/mouse) and RS23597 (1 and 10 ng/mouse) decreased memory consolidation, but it did not alter head-dip counts, head-dip latency and locomotor activity. Similarly, MK801 (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse) decreased memory consolidation, but had no effect on head-dip counts and head-dip latency. Interestingly, it increased locomotor activity. The results also showed that post-training intra-CA1 injection of a sub-threshold dose of RS67333 (6.25 ng/mouse) or RS23597 (0.1 ng/mouse) could heighten MK801 induced amnesia and decrease locomotor activity, but it did not alter head-dip counts and head-dip latency. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the CA1 5-HT4 receptors are involved in MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion.

  8. RANTES expression induced by Toll-like receptor 4 ligand in rat airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Okayasu, Kaori; Tamaoka, Meiyo; Takayama, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Yasunari; Sumi, Yuki; Inase, Naohiko; Yoshizawa, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) have been reported to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and take part in the pathogenesis of asthma exacerbation. Though TLRs were found to activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in airway epithelial cells, little is known about the association of TLR ligands with EGFR signaling pathways in ASMCs. Using primary cultured ASMCs from Brown Norway rats, TLR4, eotaxin, and RANTES mRNA were examined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The concentration of RANTES protein in culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. The effect of EGFR signaling inhibitors on RANTES expression was examined as well. Phosphorylation of EGFR after stimulation was examined by Western Blotting. Rat ASMCs expressed TLR4 and eotaxin, and LPS upregulated RANTES production. The EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor GM6001 inhibited RANTES expression induced by LPS. LPS phosphorylated EGFR. TLR4 activation can induce RANTES expression via EGFR transactivation and PI3K/Akt pathway in rat ASMCs. MMP-induced EGFR proligand cleavage and ligand binding to EGFR seem to be involved in this pathway. These findings may be critical in the pathogenesis of asthma exacerbation by airway infection. PMID:23896774

  9. Propacetamol-Induced Injection Pain Is Associated with Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Channels.

    PubMed

    Schillers, Florian; Eberhardt, Esther; Leffler, Andreas; Eberhardt, Mirjam

    2016-10-01

    Propacetamol (PPCM) is a prodrug of paracetamol (PCM), which was generated to increase water solubility of PCM for intravenous delivery. PPCM is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma esterases to PCM and diethylglycine and shares some structural and metabolic properties with lidocaine. Although PPCM is considered to be comparable to PCM regarding its analgesic properties, injection pain is a common side effect described for PPCM but not PCM. Injection pain is a frequent and unpleasant side effect of numerous drugs in clinical use, and previous reports have indicated that the ligand gated ion channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) can mediate this effect on sensory neurons. This study aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms by which PPCM, in contrast to PCM, causes injection pain. Therefore, human TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp and ratiometric calcium imaging. PPCM (but not PCM) activated TRPV1, sensitized heat-induced currents, and caused an increase in intracellular calcium. In TRPA1-expressing cells however, both PPCM and PCM evoked calcium responses but failed to induce inward currents. Intracutaneous injection of PPCM, but not of PCM, in human volunteers induced an intense and short-lasting pain and an increase in superficial blood flow, indicating activation of nociceptive C fibers and subsequent neuropeptide release. In conclusion, activation of human TRPV1 by PPCM seems to be a relevant mechanism for induction of pain upon intracutaneous injection and thus also for pain reported as an adverse side effect upon intravenous administration. PMID:27457427

  10. Propacetamol-Induced Injection Pain Is Associated with Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Channels.

    PubMed

    Schillers, Florian; Eberhardt, Esther; Leffler, Andreas; Eberhardt, Mirjam

    2016-10-01

    Propacetamol (PPCM) is a prodrug of paracetamol (PCM), which was generated to increase water solubility of PCM for intravenous delivery. PPCM is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma esterases to PCM and diethylglycine and shares some structural and metabolic properties with lidocaine. Although PPCM is considered to be comparable to PCM regarding its analgesic properties, injection pain is a common side effect described for PPCM but not PCM. Injection pain is a frequent and unpleasant side effect of numerous drugs in clinical use, and previous reports have indicated that the ligand gated ion channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) can mediate this effect on sensory neurons. This study aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms by which PPCM, in contrast to PCM, causes injection pain. Therefore, human TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp and ratiometric calcium imaging. PPCM (but not PCM) activated TRPV1, sensitized heat-induced currents, and caused an increase in intracellular calcium. In TRPA1-expressing cells however, both PPCM and PCM evoked calcium responses but failed to induce inward currents. Intracutaneous injection of PPCM, but not of PCM, in human volunteers induced an intense and short-lasting pain and an increase in superficial blood flow, indicating activation of nociceptive C fibers and subsequent neuropeptide release. In conclusion, activation of human TRPV1 by PPCM seems to be a relevant mechanism for induction of pain upon intracutaneous injection and thus also for pain reported as an adverse side effect upon intravenous administration.

  11. The membrane estrogen receptor GPR30 mediates cadmium-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xinyuan; Filardo, Edward J.; Shaikh, Zahir A.

    2010-05-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metal that is dispersed throughout the environment. It is an endocrine-disrupting element which mimics estrogen, binds to estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), and promotes cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. We have previously published that Cd promotes activation of the extracellular regulated kinases, erk-1 and -2 in both ER-positive and ER-negative human breast cancer cells, suggesting that this estrogen-like effect of Cd is not associated with the ER. Here, we have investigated whether the newly appreciated transmembrane estrogen receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), may be involved in Cd-induced cell proliferation. Towards this end, we compared the effects of Cd in ER-negative human SKBR3 breast cancer cells in which endogenous GPR30 signaling was selectively inhibited using a GPR30 interfering mutant. We found that Cd concentrations from 50 to 500 nM induced a proliferative response in control vector-transfected SKBR3 cells but not in SKBR3 cells stably expressing interfering mutant. Similarly, intracellular cAMP levels increased about 2.4-fold in the vector transfectants but not in cells in which GPR30 was inactivated within 2.5 min after treatment with 500 nM Cd. Furthermore, Cd treatment rapidly activated (within 2.5 min) raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, mek-1, extracellular signal regulated kinases, erk-1/2, ribosomal S6 kinase, rsk, and E-26 like protein kinase, elk, about 4-fold in vector transfectants. In contrast, the activation of these signaling molecules in SKBR3 cells expressing the GPR30 mutant was only about 1.4-fold. These results demonstrate that Cd-induced breast cancer cell proliferation occurs through GPR30-mediated activation in a manner that is similar to that achieved by estrogen in these cells.

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid induces anxiety-like behavior via its receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Misa; Tsukagoshi, Mai; Hashimoto, Tomio; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2015-03-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent bioactive lipid mediator with diverse biological properties. We previously found altered expression of the LPA-related genes in rodents after treatment with sertraline, which is widely used to treat anxiety disorders and depression. However, little is known about the behavioral effects of LPA. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral effects of intracerebroventricular injection of LPA in adult mice. LPA did not significantly affect spontaneous locomotor activity, suggesting that LPA does not induce hyperactivity, ataxia, or sedation. We next investigated the emotional effects of LPA via the hole-board test. LPA significantly increased the number of head-dips in a dose- and time-related manner. A significant induction of head-dip counts occurred 15 and 30 min after LPA administration. To clarify the involvement of LPA receptors, we examined the effect of the non-selective LPA1-4 receptor antagonist, 1-bromo-3(S)-hydroxy-4-(palmitoyloxy)butyl-phosphonate (BrP-LPA) co-administered with LPA. BrP-LPA dose-dependently inhibited LPA-induced head-dip counts. We next investigated anxiety-like behavior via the elevated plus-maze test. LPA significantly reduced the percentage of time spent in the open arms and BrP-LPA dose-dependently inhibited this anxiety-like behavior. In conclusion, LPA induced anxiety-like behavior in mice via LPA receptors. Our results suggest that LPA signaling plays an important role in regulating anxiety in mice.

  13. Upregulation of M3 muscarinic receptor inhibits cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-mAChR) is stably expressed in the myocardium, but its pathophysiological role remains largely undefined. This study aimed to investigate the role of M3-mAChR in cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Cardiac-specific M3-mAChR overexpression transgenic (TG) mice and rat H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with ectopic expression of M3-mAChR were established. Models of cardiac hypertrophy were induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or Ang II infusion in the mice in vivo, and by isoproterenol (ISO) or Ang II treatment of H9c2 cells in vitro. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by electrocardiography (ECG) measurement, hemodynamic measurement and histological analysis. mRNA and protein expression were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results M3-mAChR was upregulated in hypertrophic heart, while M2-mAChR expression did not change significantly. M3-mAChR overexpression significantly attenuated the increased expression of atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain induced by Ang II both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, M3-mAChR overexpression downregulated AT1 receptor expression and inhibited the activation of MAPK signaling in the heart. Conclusion The upregulation of M3-mAChR during myocardial hypertrophy could relieve the hypertrophic response provoked by Ang II, and the mechanism may involve the inhibition of MAPK signaling through the downregulation of AT1 receptor. PMID:24028210

  14. The effect of BLA GABA(A) receptors in anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit induced by ACPA

    PubMed Central

    Kangarlu-Haghighi, Katayoon; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    The roles of GABAergic receptors of the Basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist (arachydonilcyclopropylamide; ACPA)-induced anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit in adult male mice were examined in elevated plus-maze task. Results showed that pre-test intra-peritoneal injection of ACPA induced anxiolytic-like effect (at dose of 0.05 mg/kg) and aversive memory deficit (at doses of 0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg). The results revealed that Pre-test intra-BLA infusion of muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist; at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 µg/mouse) or bicuculline (GABAA receptor antagonist; at all doses) impaired and did not alter aversive memory, respectively. All previous GABA agents did not have any effects on anxiety-like behaviors. Interestingly, pretreatment with a sub-threshold dose of muscimol (0.025 µg/mouse) and bicuculline (0.025 µg/mouse) did not alter anxiolytic-like behaviors induced by ACPA, while both drugs restored ACPA-induced amnesia. Moreover, muscimol or bicuculline increased and decreased ACPA-induced locomotor activity, respectively. Finally the data may indicate that BLA GABAA receptors have critical and different roles in anxiolytic-like effect, aversive memory deficit and locomotor activity induced by ACPA. PMID:26648818

  15. Role of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonists in treatment of experimentally induced mammary tumor: does montelukast modulate antitumor and immunosuppressant effects of doxorubicin?

    PubMed

    El-Sisi, Alaa El-Din E; Sokar, Samia S; Salem, Tarek A; Abu Risha, Sally E

    2015-11-01

    It has been reported that a leukotriene (LT)-D4 receptor (i.e. cysteinyl LT1 receptor; CysLT1R) has an important role in carcinogenesis. The current study was carried out to assess the possible antitumor effects of montelukast (MON), a CysLT1R antagonist, in a mouse mammary carcinoma model, that is, a solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC). Effects of MON on tumor-induced immune dysfunction and the possibility that MON may modulate the antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of doxorubicin (DOX) were also studied. The effects in tumor-bearing hosts of several dosings with MON (10 mg/kg, per os), with and without the added presence of DOX (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), were investigated in vivo; end points evaluated included assessment of tumor volume, splenic lymphocyte profiles/functionality, tumor necrosis factor-α content, as well as apoptosis and expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) among the tumor cells. The data indicate that MON induced significant antitumor activity against the SEC. MON treatments also significantly mitigated both tumor- and DOX-induced declines in immune parameters assessed here. Moreover, MON led to decreased NF-κB nuclear expression and, in doing so, appeared to chemosensitize these tumor cells to DOX-induced apoptosis. PMID:26499992

  16. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles: Histomorphometry and mineral content of the rib

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Hurst, D.; Miller, S.; Sacco-Gibson, N.

    1997-08-01

    The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized (OV) or sham-operated (SO) dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) just prior to each postoperative biopsy to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential biopsies provided a means to follow the response to ovariectomy over time and compare each animal against its own baseline. Examination of sequential biopsies indicated that cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. Ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at one month after surgery, but substantial differences were observed at later times. Ovariectomy stimulated a transient increase in bone formation and was increased six-fold over that of SO dogs at four months. Ribs were also analyzed for mineral content at necropsy. The rib was heterogeneous along its length for calcium content and concentration. In the midrib where biopsies for histomorphometric analysis were taken, ovariectomy induced a decrease in mass and mineral content; total calcium was decreased by approximately 31%. These data demonstrate that the rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in female dogs.

  17. Characterization of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Microvesicle Genesis, Morphology and Pluripotent Content.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Ghoroghi, Shima; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Wu, Hao; Unachukwu, Uchenna John; Einbond, Linda Saxe; Guariglia, Sara; Peinado, Hector; Redenti, Stephen

    2016-01-22

    Microvesicles (MVs) are lipid bilayer-covered cell fragments that range in diameter from 30 nm-1 uM and are released from all cell types. An increasing number of studies reveal that MVs contain microRNA, mRNA and protein that can be detected in the extracellular space. In this study, we characterized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) MV genesis, content and fusion to retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in vitro. Nanoparticle tracking revealed that iPSCs released approximately 2200 MVs cell/hour in the first 12 hrs with an average diameter of 122 nm. Electron and light microscopic analysis of iPSCs showed MV release via lipid bilayer budding. The mRNA content of iPSC MVs was characterized and revealed the presence of the transcription factors Oct-3/4, Nanog, Klf4, and C-Myc. The protein content of iPSCs MVs, detected by immunogold electron microscopy, revealed the presence of the Oct-3/4 and Nanog. Isolated iPSC MVs were shown to fuse with RPCs in vitro at multiple points along the plasma membrane. These findings demonstrate that the mRNA and protein cargo in iPSC MVs have established roles in maintenance of pluripotency. Building on this work, iPSC derived MVs may be shown to be involved in maintaining cellular pluripotency and may have application in regenerative strategies for neural tissue.

  18. Implication of prostaglandins and histamine H1 and H2 receptors in radiation-induced temperature responses of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Mickley, G.A.

    1988-04-01

    Exposure of rats to 1-15 Gy gamma radiation (/sup 60/Co) induced hyperthermia, whereas 20-200 Gy induced hypothermia. Exposure either to the head or to the whole body to 10 Gy induced hyperthermia, while body-only exposure produced hypothermia. This observation indicates that radiation-induced fever is a result of a direct effect on the brain. The hyperthermia due to 10 Gy was significantly attenuated by the pre- or post-treatment with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. Hyperthermia was also altered by the central administration of a mu-receptor antagonist naloxone but only at low doses of radiation. These findings suggest that radiation-induced hyperthermia may be mediated through the synthesis and release of prostaglandins in the brain and to a lesser extent to the release of endogenous opioid peptides. The release of histamine acting on H1 and H2 receptors may be involved in radiation-induced hypothermia, since both the H1 receptor antagonist, mepyramine, and H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, antagonized the hypothermia. The results of these studies suggest that the release of neurohumoral substances induced by exposure to ionizing radiation is dose dependent and has different consequences on physiological processes such as the regulation of body temperature. Furthermore, the antagonism of radiation-induced hyperthermia by indomethacin may have potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of fever resulting from accidental irradiations.

  19. Implication of prostaglandins and histamine h1 and h2 receptors in radiation-induced temperature responses of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Mickley, G.A .

    1988-01-01

    Exposure of rats to 1-15 Gy cobalt 60 gamma radiation induced hyperthermia, whereas 20-200 Gy induced hypothermia. Exposure either to the head or to the whole body to 10 Gy induced hyperthermia, while body-only exposure produced hypothermia. This observation indicates that radiation-induced fever is a result of a direct effect on the brain. The hyperthermia due to 10 Gy was significantly attenuated by the pre- or post-treatment with a cyclooxgenase inhibitor, indomethacin. Hyperthermia was also altered by the central administration of a mu receptor antagonist naloxone but only at low doses of radiation. These findings suggest that radiation-induced hyperthermia may be mediated through the synthesis and release of prostaglandins in the brain and to a lesser extent to the release of endogenous opioid peptides. The release of histamine acting on H(1) and H(2) receptors may be involved in radiation-induced hypothermia since both the H(1) receptor antagonist, mepyramine, and H(2) receptor antagonist, cimetidine, antagonized the hypothermia. The results of these studies suggested that the release of neurohumoral substances induced by exposure to ionizing radiation is dose dependent and has different consequences on physiological processes such as the regulation of body temperature. Furthermore, the antagonism of radiation-induced hyperthermia by indomethacin may have potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of fever resulting from accidental irradiations.

  20. DEPENDENCE OF PPAR LIGAND-INDUCED MAPK SIGNALING ON EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TRANSACTIVATION HEPARIN-BINDING EGF CLEAVAGE MEDIATES ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR PHOSPHORYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that function as ligand-activated transcription factors regulating lipid metabolism and homeostasis. In addition to their ability to regulate PPAR-mediated gene transcription, PPARalpha and gamma li...

  1. Role of Prostaglandin D2 and DP1 Receptor on Japanese Cedar Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Kidani, Yujiro; Goto, Kumiko; Furue, Shingo; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Inagaki, Naoki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shichijo, Michitaka

    2016-05-01

    Although we previously demonstrated the contribution of the DP1receptor in nasal obstruction using animals sensitized with ovalbumin in the presence of adjuvant, the contribution of the DP1receptor in sneezing is unclear. Here, we developed a mouse model of Japanese cedar (JC:Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis to evaluate the symptoms of sneezing. To achieve this, we used JC pollen crude extract in the absence of adjuvant to sensitize mice to develop a model closer to the pathophysiology of human JC pollinosis. The immunologic and pharmacologic features of this model are highly similar to those observed in JC pollinosis in humans. Using this model, we found that DP1receptor antagonists suppressed JC pollen extract-induced sneezing and that a DP1receptor agonist induced sneezing. Moreover, JC pollen extract-induced sneezing was diminished in DP1receptor knockout mice. In conclusion, we developed a novel mouse model of allergic rhinitis that closely mimics human JC pollinosis. A strong contribution of DP1receptor signaling to sneezing was demonstrated using this model, suggesting that DP1receptor antagonists could suppress sneezing and nasal obstruction, and therefore these agents could be a new therapeutic option for allergic rhinitis.

  2. Role of Prostaglandin D2 and DP1 Receptor on Japanese Cedar Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Kidani, Yujiro; Goto, Kumiko; Furue, Shingo; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Inagaki, Naoki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shichijo, Michitaka

    2016-05-01

    Although we previously demonstrated the contribution of the DP1receptor in nasal obstruction using animals sensitized with ovalbumin in the presence of adjuvant, the contribution of the DP1receptor in sneezing is unclear. Here, we developed a mouse model of Japanese cedar (JC:Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis to evaluate the symptoms of sneezing. To achieve this, we used JC pollen crude extract in the absence of adjuvant to sensitize mice to develop a model closer to the pathophysiology of human JC pollinosis. The immunologic and pharmacologic features of this model are highly similar to those observed in JC pollinosis in humans. Using this model, we found that DP1receptor antagonists suppressed JC pollen extract-induced sneezing and that a DP1receptor agonist induced sneezing. Moreover, JC pollen extract-induced sneezing was diminished in DP1receptor knockout mice. In conclusion, we developed a novel mouse model of allergic rhinitis that closely mimics human JC pollinosis. A strong contribution of DP1receptor signaling to sneezing was demonstrated using this model, suggesting that DP1receptor antagonists could suppress sneezing and nasal obstruction, and therefore these agents could be a new therapeutic option for allergic rhinitis. PMID:26945086

  3. Localization of tachykinin receptors and Fos-like immunoreactivity induced by substance P in guinea-pig brain.

    PubMed

    Yip, J; Chahl, L A

    2000-11-01

    1. In the present study, a comparison was made between the distribution of tachykinin NK1 and NK3 receptor immunoreactivity and the distribution of Fos-like immunoreactivity induced by the tachykinin agonist substance P (SP) in the guinea-pig brain. 2. In agreement with results from previous studies in rat brain, NK1 receptor-immunoreactive neurons were found to be widely distributed throughout the brain in the striatum and in diencephalic and mesencephalic structures, while NK3 receptor-immunoreactive neurons were mainly in telencephalic structures. Considerable overlap was observed between NK1 and NK3 receptor distributions. 3. Substance P induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) in extensive areas of the guinea-pig brain. The induction of Fos-LI was markedly inhibited in many areas by pretreatment with the NK1 receptor antagonist SR 140333. The NK3 receptor antagonist SR 142801 reduced Fos-LI staining in fewer areas, although a reduction was observed in the cortex, striatum and hypothalamus. 4. In general, tachykinin receptors were located at sites corresponding to areas of functional activation by SP, as shown by Fos-LI. These results extend previous studies by adding a functional dimension to tachykinin receptor localization studies.

  4. Roles of μ-Opioid Receptors and Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Peptide Receptors in Buprenorphine-Induced Physiological Responses in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Cremeans, Colette M.; Gruley, Erin; Kyle, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Buprenorphine is known as a μ-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonist, but its antinociception is compromised by the activation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of MOP and NOP receptors in regulating buprenorphine-induced physiological responses in primates (rhesus monkeys). The effects of MOP antagonist (naltrexone), NOP antagonist [(±)-1-[(3R*,4R*)-1-(cyclooctylmethyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-3-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (J-113397)], and NOP agonists [(1S,3aS)-8-(2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-phenalen-1-yl)-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triaza-spiro[4.5] decan-4-one (Ro 64-6198) and 3-endo-8-[bis(2-methylphenyl)methyl]-3-phenyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol (SCH 221510)] on buprenorphine were studied in three functional assays for measuring analgesia, respiratory depression, and itch in primates. Over the dose range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/kg, buprenorphine dose-dependently produced antinociception, respiratory depression, and itch/scratching responses, and there was a ceiling effect at higher doses (0.1–1 mg/kg). Naltrexone (0.03 mg/kg) produced similar degrees of rightward shifts of buprenorphine's dose-response curves for all three endpoints. Mean pKB values of naltrexone (8.1–8.3) confirmed that MOP receptors mediated mainly buprenorphine-induced antinociception, respiratory depression, and itch/scratching. In contrast, J-113397 (0.1 mg/kg) did not change buprenorphine-induced physiological responses, indicating that there were no functional NOP receptors in buprenorphine-induced effects. More importantly, both NOP agonists, Ro 64-6198 and SCH 221510, enhanced buprenorphine-induced antinociception without respiratory depression and itch/ scratching. The dose-addition analysis revealed that buprenorphine in combination with the NOP agonist synergistically produced antinociceptive effects. These findings provided functional evidence that the activation of NOP receptors did not

  5. Antimicrobial Peptide Lactoferricin B-Induced Rapid Leakage of Internal Contents from Single Giant Unilamellar Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Alam, Jahangir Md; Dohra, Hideo; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-09-29

    the surface charges. Analysis of Lfcin B-induced shape changes indicated that the binding of Lfcin B increased the area of the outer monolayer of GUVs. These results indicate that Lfcin B-induced damage of the plasma membrane of E. coli with its concomitant rapid leakage of internal contents is a key factor for the bactericidal activity of LfcinB.

  6. Antimicrobial Peptide Lactoferricin B-Induced Rapid Leakage of Internal Contents from Single Giant Unilamellar Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Alam, Jahangir Md; Dohra, Hideo; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-09-29

    the surface charges. Analysis of Lfcin B-induced shape changes indicated that the binding of Lfcin B increased the area of the outer monolayer of GUVs. These results indicate that Lfcin B-induced damage of the plasma membrane of E. coli with its concomitant rapid leakage of internal contents is a key factor for the bactericidal activity of LfcinB. PMID:26368853

  7. Selective endothelin-A receptor blockade attenuates endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Endothelin-1 is a potent mediator of sepsis-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The pulmonary vascular effects of selective blockade of endothelin receptor subtype A (ETAR) during endotoxemia remain unknown. We hypothesized that selective ETAR antagonism attenuates endotoxin-induced PH and improves pulmonary artery (PA) vasoreactivity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–450 g) received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Salmonella typhimurium; 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle 6 hours before hemodynamic assessment and tissue harvest. The selective ETAR antagonist sitaxsentan (10 or 20 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intravenously 3 hours after receipt of LPS. Right ventricular systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), oxygenation (P/F ratio), and serum bicarbonate were measured. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell differential and lung wet-to-dry ratios were obtained. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxations were determined in isolated PA rings. PA interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured. LPS caused PH, decreased MAP, CO, and serum bicarbonate, and increased PA IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and iNOS mRNA. Sitaxsentan attenuated sepsis-induced PH and increased MAP. The P/F ratio, CO, serum bicarbonate, and BAL neutrophilia were not affected by sitaxsentan. In isolated PA rings, while not affecting phenylephrine-induced vasocontraction or endothelium-dependent relaxation, sitaxsentan dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced alterations in endothelium-independent relaxation. PA cytokine mRNA levels were not significantly attenuated by ETAR blockade. We conclude that ETAR blockade attenuates endotoxin-induced alterations in systemic and PA pressures without negatively affecting oxygenation. This protective effect appears to be mediated not by attenuation of sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, acidosis, or alveolar

  8. GABAB1 receptor subunit isoforms exert a differential influence on baseline but not GABAB receptor agonist-induced changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Laura H; Bettler, Bernhard; Kaupmann, Klemens; Cryan, John F

    2006-12-01

    GABA(B) receptor agonists produce hypothermia and motor incoordination. Two GABA(B(1)) receptor subunit isoforms exist, but because of lack of specific molecular or pharmacological tools, the relevance of these isoforms in controlling basal body temperature, locomotor activity, or in vivo responses to GABA(B) receptor agonists has been unknown. Here, we used mice deficient in the GABA(B(1a)) and GABA(B(1b)) subunit isoforms to examine the influence of these isoforms on both baseline motor behavior and body temperature and on the motor-incoordinating and hypothermic responses to the GABA(B) receptor agonists l-baclofen and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). GABA(B(1b))(-/-) mice were hyperactive in a novel environment and showed slower habituation than either GABA(B(1a))(-/-) or wild-type mice. GABA(B(1b))(-/-) mice were hyperactive throughout the circadian dark phase. Hypothermia in response to l-baclofen (6 and 12 mg/kg) or GHB (1 g/kg), baclofen-induced ataxia as determined on the fixed-speed Rotarod, and GHB-induced hypolocomotion were significantly, but for the most part similarly, attenuated in both GABA(B(1a))(-/-) and GABA(B(1b))(-/-) mice. We conclude that l-baclofen and GHB are nonselective for either GABA(B(1)) receptor isoform in terms of in vivo responses. However, GABA(B(1)) receptor isoforms have distinct and different roles in mediating locomotor behavioral responses to a novel environment. Therefore, GABA(B(1a)) and GABA(B(1b)) isoforms are functionally relevant molecular variants of the GABA(B(1)) receptor subunit, which are differentially involved in specific neurophysiological processes and behaviors.

  9. Serotonin 2A and 2B receptor-induced phrenic motor facilitation: differential requirement for spinal NADPH oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, P.M.; Vinit, S.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) facilitates phrenic motor output by a mechanism that requires spinal serotonin (type 2) receptor activation, NADPH oxidase activity and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Episodic spinal serotonin (5-HT) receptor activation alone, without changes in oxygenation, is sufficient to elicit NADPH oxidase-dependent phrenic motor facilitation (pMF). Here we investigated: 1) whether serotonin 2A and/or 2B (5-HT2a/b) receptors are expressed in identified phrenic motor neurons, and 2) which receptor subtype is capable of eliciting NADPH-oxidase-dependent pMF. In anesthetized, artificially ventilated adult rats, episodic C4 intrathecal injections (3 × 6µl injections, 5 min intervals) of a 5-HT2a (DOI) or 5-HT2b (BW723C86) receptor agonist elicited progressive and sustained increases in integrated phrenic nerve burst amplitude (i.e. pMF), an effect lasting at least 90 minutes post-injection for both receptor subtypes. 5-HT2a and 5-HT2b receptor agonist-induced pMF were both blocked by selective antagonists (ketanserin and SB206553, respectively), but not by antagonists to the other receptor subtype. Single injections of either agonist failed to elicit pMF, demonstrating a need for episodic receptor activation. Phrenic motor neurons retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin B fragment expressed both 5-HT2a and 5-HT2b receptors. Pre-treatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitors (apocynin and DPI) blocked 5-HT2b, but not 5-HT2a-induced pMF. Thus, multiple spinal type 2 serotonin receptors elicit pMF, but they act via distinct mechanisms that differ in their requirement for NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:21223996

  10. Laser-induced transepidermal elimination of dermal content by fractional photothermolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hantash, Basil M.; Bedi, Vikramaditya P.; Sudireddy, Vasanthi; Struck, Steven K.; Herron, G. Scott; Chan, Kin Foong

    2006-07-01

    The wound healing process in skin is studied in human subjects treated with fractional photothermolysis. In-vivo histological evaluation of vacuoles formed over microthermal zones (MTZs) and their content is undertaken. A 30-W, 1550-nm single-mode fiber laser system delivers an array of 60 µm or 140 µm 1/e2 incidence microbeam spot size at variable pulse energy and density. Treatments span from 6 to 20 mJ with skin excisions performed 1-day post-treatment. Staining with hematoxylin and eosin demonstrates an intact stratum corneum with vacuolar formation within the epidermis. The re-epithelialization process with repopulation of melanocytes and keratinocytes at the basal layer is apparent by 1-day post-treatment. The dermal-epidermal (DE) junction is weakened and separated just above zones of dermal coagulation. Complete loss of dermal cell viability is noted within the confines of the MTZs 1-day post-treatment, as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase. All cells falling outside the irradiation field remain viable. Content within the epidermal vacuoles stain positively with Gomori trichrome, suggesting a dermal origin. However, the positive staining could be due to loss of specificity after thermal alteration. Nevertheless, this dermal extrusion hypothesis is supported by very specific positive staining with an antihuman elastin antibody. Fractional photothermolysis creates microthermal lesions that allow transport and extrusion of dermal content through a compromised DE junction. Some dermal material is incorporated into the microepidermal necrotic debris and shuttled up the epidermis to eventually be exfoliated through the stratum corneum. This is the first report of a nonablative laser-induced transport mechanism by which dermal content can be predictably extruded biologically through the epidermis. Thus, treatment with the 1550-nm fiber laser may provide the first therapeutic option for clinical indications, including pigmentary disorders such as medically

  11. Laser-induced transepidermal elimination of dermal content by fractional photothermolysis.

    PubMed

    Hantash, Basil M; Bedi, Vikramaditya P; Sudireddy, Vasanthi; Struck, Steven K; Herron, G Scott; Chan, Kin Foong

    2006-01-01

    The wound healing process in skin is studied in human subjects treated with fractional photothermolysis. In-vivo histological evaluation of vacuoles formed over microthermal zones (MTZs) and their content is undertaken. A 30-W, 1550-nm single-mode fiber laser system delivers an array of 60 microm or 140 microm 1e2 incidence microbeam spot size at variable pulse energy and density. Treatments span from 6 to 20 mJ with skin excisions performed 1-day post-treatment. Staining with hematoxylin and eosin demonstrates an intact stratum corneum with vacuolar formation within the epidermis. The re-epithelialization process with repopulation of melanocytes and keratinocytes at the basal layer is apparent by 1-day post-treatment. The dermal-epidermal (DE) junction is weakened and separated just above zones of dermal coagulation. Complete loss of dermal cell viability is noted within the confines of the MTZs 1-day post-treatment, as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase. All cells falling outside the irradiation field remain viable. Content within the epidermal vacuoles stain positively with Gomori trichrome, suggesting a dermal origin. However, the positive staining could be due to loss of specificity after thermal alteration. Nevertheless, this dermal extrusion hypothesis is supported by very specific positive staining with an antihuman elastin antibody. Fractional photothermolysis creates microthermal lesions that allow transport and extrusion of dermal content through a compromised DE junction. Some dermal material is incorporated into the microepidermal necrotic debris and shuttled up the epidermis to eventually be exfoliated through the stratum corneum. This is the first report of a nonablative laser-induced transport mechanism by which dermal content can be predictably extruded biologically through the epidermis. Thus, treatment with the 1550-nm fiber laser may provide the first therapeutic option for clinical indications, including pigmentary disorders such as medically

  12. Toll-like Receptor 9 Can be Activated by Endogenous Mitochondrial DNA to Induce Podocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wenduona; Xia, Hong; Liang, Yaojun; Ye, Yuting; Lu, Yuqiu; Xu, Xiaodong; Duan, Aiping; He, Jing; Chen, Zhaohong; Wu, Yan; Wang, Xia; Zheng, Chunxia; Liu, Zhihong; Shi, Shaolin

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) senses bacterial DNA characteristic of unmethylated CpG motifs to induce innate immune response. TLR9 is de novo expressed in podocytes of some patients with glomerular diseases, but its role in podocyte injury remains undetermined. Since TLR9 activates p38 MAPK and NFkB that are known to mediate podocyte apoptosis, we hypothesized that TLR9 induces podocyte apoptosis in glomerular diseases. We treated immortalized podocytes with puromycin aminonucleosides (PAN) and observed podocyte apoptosis, accompanied by TLR9 upregulation. Prevention of TLR9 upregulation by siRNA significantly attenuated NFκB p65 or p38 activity and apoptosis, demonstrating that TLR9 mediates podocyte apoptosis. We next showed that endogenous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whose CpG motifs are also unmethylated, is the ligand for TLR9, because PAN induced mtDNA accumulation in endolysosomes where TLR9 is localized, overexpression of endolysosomal DNase 2 attenuated PAN-induced p38 or p65 activity and podocyte apoptosis, and DNase 2 silencing was sufficient to activate p38 or p65 and induce apoptosis. In PAN-treated rats, TLR9 was upregulated in the podocytes, accompanied by increase of apoptosis markers. Thus, de novo expressed TLR9 may utilize endogenous mtDNA as the ligand to facilitate podocyte apoptosis, a novel mechanism underlying podocyte injury in glomerular diseases. PMID:26934958

  13. Paclitaxel induces acute pain via directly activating toll like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xisheng; Maixner, Dylan W; Yadav, Ruchi; Gao, Mei; Li, Pei; Bartlett, Michael G; Weng, Han-Rong

    2015-12-01

    Paclitaxel, a powerful anti-neoplastic drug, often causes pathological pain, which significantly reduces the quality of life in patients. Paclitaxel-induced pain includes pain that occurs immediately after paclitaxel treatment (paclitaxel-associated acute pain syndrome, P-APS) and pain that persists for weeks to years after cessation of paclitaxel treatment (paclitaxel induced chronic neuropathic pain). Mechanisms underlying P-APS remain unknown. In this study, we found that paclitaxel causes acute pain in rodents in a dose-dependent manner. The paclitaxel-induced acute pain occurs within 2 hrs after a single intravenous injection of paclitaxel. This is accompanied by low levels of paclitaxel penetrating into the cerebral spinal fluid and spinal dorsal horn. We demonstrated that an intrathecal injection of paclitaxel induces mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Paclitaxel causes activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglions. Through activating TLR4, paclitaxel increases glutamatergic synaptic activities and reduces glial glutamate transporter activities in the dorsal horn. Activations of TLR4 are necessary in the genesis of paclitaxel-induced acute pain. The cellular and molecular signaling pathways revealed in this study could provide rationales for the development of analgesics and management strategies for P-APS in patients. PMID:25775962

  14. Class A scavenger receptor deficiency augments angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lingling; Li, Xiaoyu; Fang, Ru; Wang, Zhuoyun; Xu, Yiming; Zhang, Hanwen; Bai, Hui; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Xudong; Ben, Jingjing; Xu, Yong; Chen, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is a multifunctional molecule that participates in macrophage-mediated inflammation. Here we evaluated the role of SR-A in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive vascular remodeling. Chronic infusion of Ang II leads to an increased systolic blood pressure both in SR-A knockout (SR-A(-/-)) and wild type (SR-A(+/+)) mice with no significant difference between these two groups. SR-A(-/-) hypertensive mice, however, exhibited a marked augmentation of arterial wall thickening and vascular cell proliferation compared with SR-A(+/+) hypertensive mice. M1 macrophage markers were increased whereas M2 macrophage markers were decreased in vascular tissues of SR-A(-/-) mice. Co-culture experiments revealed that more pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α were produced by SR-A(-/-) peritoneal macrophages leading to a stronger proliferation of primary vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In addition, SR-A(-/-) macrophages were more prone to lipopolysaccharide-induced M1 differentiation while resisting interleukin-4-induced M2 differentiation. Importantly, transplantation of SR-A(-/-) bone marrow into SR-A(+/+) mice significantly augmented Ang II-induced vascular remodeling. These results show that SR-A is critical for Ang II-induced vascular remodeling by regulating macrophage polarization. Therefore, SR-A may be a useful therapeutic target for the intervention of hypertensive vascular remodeling. PMID:24875449

  15. Hindbrain GLP-1 receptor mediation of cisplatin-induced anorexia and nausea.

    PubMed

    De Jonghe, Bart C; Holland, Ruby A; Olivos, Diana R; Rupprecht, Laura E; Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    While chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are clinically controlled in the acute (<24 h) phase following treatment, the anorexia, nausea, fatigue, and other illness-type behaviors during the delayed phase (>24 h) of chemotherapy are largely uncontrolled. As the hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system contributes to energy balance and mediates aversive and stressful stimuli, here we examine the hypothesis that hindbrain GLP-1 signaling mediates aspects of chemotherapy-induced nausea and reductions in feeding behavior in rats. Specifically, hindbrain GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) blockade, via 4th intracerebroventricular (ICV) exendin-(9-39) injections, attenuates the anorexia, body weight reduction, and pica (nausea-induced ingestion of kaolin clay) elicited by cisplatin chemotherapy during the delayed phase (48 h) of chemotherapy-induced nausea. Additionally, the present data provide evidence that the central GLP-1-producing preproglucagon neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the caudal brainstem are activated by cisplatin during the delayed phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as cisplatin led to a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in NTS GLP-1-immunoreactive neurons. These data support a growing body of literature suggesting that the central GLP-1 system may be a potential pharmaceutical target for adjunct anti-emetics used to treat the delayed-phase of nausea and emesis, anorexia, and body weight loss that accompany chemotherapy treatments.

  16. Simultaneous Activation of Induced Heterodimerization between CXCR4 Chemokine Receptor and Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Reveals a Mechanism for Regulation of Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Coke, Christopher J; Scarlett, Kisha A; Chetram, Mahandranauth A; Jones, Kia J; Sandifer, Brittney J; Davis, Ahriea S; Marcus, Adam I; Hinton, Cimona V

    2016-05-01

    The G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 generates signals that lead to cell migration, cell proliferation, and other survival mechanisms that result in the metastatic spread of primary tumor cells to distal organs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that CXCR4 can form homodimers or can heterodimerize with other G-protein-coupled receptors to form receptor complexes that can amplify or decrease the signaling capacity of each individual receptor. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches, we found that CXCR4 can form an induced heterodimer with cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in human breast and prostate cancer cells. Simultaneous, agonist-dependent activation of CXCR4 and CB2 resulted in reduced CXCR4-mediated expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and ultimately reduced cancer cell functions such as calcium mobilization and cellular chemotaxis. Given that treatment with cannabinoids has been shown to reduce invasiveness of cancer cells as well as CXCR4-mediated migration of immune cells, it is plausible that CXCR4 signaling can be silenced through a physical heterodimeric association with CB2, thereby inhibiting subsequent functions of CXCR4. Taken together, the data illustrate a mechanism by which the cannabinoid system can negatively modulate CXCR4 receptor function and perhaps tumor progression. PMID:26841863

  17. Role of GABAB Receptor and L-Arg in GABA-Induced Vasorelaxation in Non-diabetic and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Rezaei, Sana; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Farsi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to determine the role of gamma amino butyric acid B (GABAB) receptor and L-arginine (L-Arg) in GABA-induced vasorelaxation in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat vessels. Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Eight weeks later, superior mesenteric arteries of all groups were isolated and perfused according to the McGregor method. Results: Baseline perfusion pressure of STZ diabetic rats was significantly higher than non-diabetic rats in both intact and denuded endothelium. In the presence of faclofen, a selective GABAB receptor blocker, GABA-induced relaxation in intact and denuded endothelium mesenteric beds of STZ diabetic rats was suppressed, but this response in non-diabetic rats was not suppressed. Our results showed that in the presence of L-Arg, a nitric oxide precursor, GABA induced vasorelaxation in both diabetic and non-diabetic vessels. Conclusion: From the results of this study, it may be concluded that the vasorelaxatory effect of GABA in diabetic vessel is mediated by the GABAB receptor and nitric oxide, but it seems that in non-diabetic vessel GABAB receptor does not play any role in GABA-induced vasorelaxation, but nitric oxide induced GABA relaxation in non-diabetic vessel. PMID:25864813

  18. CO2-induced ocean acidification increases anxiety in Rockfish via alteration of GABAA receptor functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Holcombe, Adam; Tresguerres, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The average surface pH of the ocean is dropping at a rapid rate due to the dissolution of anthropogenic CO2, raising concerns for marine life. Additionally, some coastal areas periodically experience upwelling of CO2-enriched water with reduced pH. Previous research has demonstrated ocean acidification (OA)-induced changes in behavioural and sensory systems including olfaction, which is due to altered function of neural gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. Here, we used a camera-based tracking software system to examine whether OA-dependent changes in GABAA receptors affect anxiety in juvenile Californian rockfish (Sebastes diploproa). Anxiety was estimated using behavioural tests that measure light/dark preference (scototaxis) and proximity to an object. After one week in OA conditions projected for the next century in the California shore (1125 ± 100 µatm, pH 7.75), anxiety was significantly increased relative to controls (483 ± 40 µatm CO2, pH 8.1). The GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol, but not the antagonist gabazine, caused a significant increase in anxiety consistent with altered Cl− flux in OA-exposed fish. OA-exposed fish remained more anxious even after 7 days back in control seawater; however, they resumed their normal behaviour by day 12. These results show that OA could severely alter rockfish behaviour; however, this effect is reversible. PMID:24285203

  19. Temperature receptors in cutaneous nerve endings are thermostat molecules that induce thermoregulatory behaviors against thermal load

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    When skin temperature falls below a set-point, mammals experience “cold in the skin” and exhibit heat-seeking behaviors for error correction. Physiological thermostats should perform the behavioral thermoregulation, and it is important to identify the thermostats. A classical model of the sensory system states that thermoreceptors (e.g., thermoTRPs) in skin nerve endings are sensors that transform temperature into the firing rate codes that are sent to the brain, where the codes are decoded as “cold” by a labeled line theory. However, the view that the temperature code is transformed into “cold” (not temperature) is conflicting. Another model states that a thermostat exists in the brain based on the view that a skin thermo-receptor is a sensor. However, because animals have no knowledge of the principle of temperature measurement, the brain is unable to measure skin temperature with a thermometer calibrated based on a code table of each sensor in the skin. Thus, these old models cannot identify the thermostats. We have proposed a new model in which temperature receptors in a nerve ending are molecules of the thermostats. When skin temperature falls below a set-point, these molecules as a whole induce impulses as command signals sent to the brain, where these impulses activate their target neurons for “cold” and heat-seeking behaviors for error correction. Our study challenges the famous models that sensory receptor is a sensor and the brain is a code processor. PMID:27227048

  20. Yawning and locomotor behavior induced by dopamine receptor agonists in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Min; Collins, Gregory T; Paul, Noel M; Grundt, Peter; Newman, Amy H; Xu, Ming; Grandy, David K; Woods, James H; Katz, Jonathan L

    2010-05-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) agonist-induced yawning in rats seems to be mediated by DA D3 receptors, and low doses of several DA agonists decrease locomotor activity, an effect attributed to presynaptic D2 receptors. Effects of several DA agonists on yawning and locomotor activity were examined in rats and mice. Yawning was reliably produced in rats, and by the cholinergic agonist, physostigmine, in both the species. However, DA agonists were ineffective in producing yawning in Swiss-Webster or DA D2R and DA D3R knockout or wild-type mice. The drugs significantly decreased locomotor activity in rats at one or two low doses, with activity returning to control levels at higher doses. In mice, the drugs decreased locomotion across a 1000-10 000-fold range of doses, with activity at control levels (U-91356A) or above control levels [(+/-)-7-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin HBr, quinpirole] at the highest doses. Low doses of agonists decreased locomotion in all mice except the DA D2R knockout mice, but were not antagonized by DA D2R or D3R antagonists (L-741 626, BP 897, or PG01037). Yawning does not provide a selective in-vivo indicator of DA D3R agonist activity in mice. Decreases in mouse locomotor activity by the DA agonists seem to be mediated by D2 DA receptors.

  1. The role of adrenergic receptor blockade in serotonin-induced changes in the pulmonary circulation.

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, E; Rolston, W A; Stern, S

    1977-01-01

    1. In dogs i.v. injection of serotonin caused a rise in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary arteriocapillary resistance that persisted even after alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade; pulmonary venous resistance also increased, but this was abolished by pretreatment with either propranolol or phenoxybenzamine. 2. The injection of serotonin into the ascending aorta produced an immediate rise in systemic, pulmonary arterial and pulmonary venous pressures and pulmonary venous resistance. After phenoxybenzmine, the rise in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures remained unchanged, but previously observed increases in pulmonary venous pressure and resistance were blocked. In contrast, propranolol failed to abolish the rise in pulmonary venous resistance after serotonin injection into the ascending aorta. 3. These results confirm the observation that the vasoconstrictor effect attributed to intravenously injected serotonin on the arterial side of the pulmonary circulation is independent of the known sympathetic pathways. The data suggest that the pulmonary venoconstriction induced by intravenous serotonin is of reflex origin, abolished by alpha and beta receptor blockade, whereas the efferent arm of the reflex pulmonary venoconstriction following injection of serotonin into the ascending aorta is mediated via alpha-adrenergic receptors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:599427

  2. Receptor FGFRL1 does not promote cell proliferation but induces cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    YANG, XIAOCHEN; STEINBERG, FLORIAN; ZHUANG, LEI; BESSEY, RALPH; TRUEB, BEAT

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-like protein 1 (FGFRL1) is the most recently discovered member of the FGFR family. Owing to the fact that it interacts with FGF ligands, but lacks the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain, several researchers have speculated that it may function as a decoy receptor and exert a negative effect on cell proliferation. In this study, we performed overexpression experiments with TetOn-inducible cell clones and downregulation experiments with siRNA oligonucleotides, and found that FGFRL1 had absolutely no effect on cell growth and proliferation. Likewise, we did not observe any influence of FGFRL1 on ERK1/2 activation and on the phosphorylation of 250 other signaling proteins analyzed by the Kinexus antibody microarray. On the other hand, with bacterial petri dishes, we observed a clear effect of FGFRL1 on cell adhesion during the initial hours after cell seeding. Our results suggest that FGFRL1 is a cell adhesion protein similar to the nectins rather than a signaling receptor similar to FGFR1-FGFR4. PMID:27220341

  3. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells express functional NKp30 receptor inducing type 2 cytokine production1

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Maryam; Xue, Luzheng; Jolin, Helen; Hardman, Clare; Cousins, David J.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Ogg, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are important in effector functions for eliciting allergic inflammation, parasite defence, epithelial repair and lipid homeostasis. ILC2 lack rearranged antigen-specific receptors, and while many soluble factors such as cytokines and lipid mediators can influence ILC2, direct interaction of these cells with microenvironment and other cells has been less explored. Natural cytotoxicity receptors are expressed by subsets of ILC1 and ILC3 and thought to be important for their effector function, but have not been shown to be expressed by ILC2. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression and functional properties of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 on human group 2 innate lymphoid cells. A subset of ex vivo and cultured ILC2 express NKp30 that upon interaction with its cognate activatory ligand B7-H6 induces rapid production of type 2 cytokines. This interaction can be blocked by NKp30 blocking antibody and an inhibitory ligand, galectin-3. Higher expression of B7-H6 was observed in lesional skin biopsies of patients with atopic dermatitis; and incubation of keratinocytes with pro-inflammatory and type 2 cytokines upregulated B7-H6 leading to increased ILC2 cytokine production. NKp30-B7-H6 interaction is a novel cell contact mechanism that mediates activation of ILC2 and identifies a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics for atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases. PMID:26582946

  4. Temperature receptors in cutaneous nerve endings are thermostat molecules that induce thermoregulatory behaviors against thermal load.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    When skin temperature falls below a set-point, mammals experience "cold in the skin" and exhibit heat-seeking behaviors for error correction. Physiological thermostats should perform the behavioral thermoregulation, and it is important to identify the thermostats. A classical model of the sensory system states that thermoreceptors (e.g., thermoTRPs) in skin nerve endings are sensors that transform temperature into the firing rate codes that are sent to the brain, where the codes are decoded as "cold" by a labeled line theory. However, the view that the temperature code is transformed into "cold" (not temperature) is conflicting. Another model states that a thermostat exists in the brain based on the view that a skin thermo-receptor is a sensor. However, because animals have no knowledge of the principle of temperature measurement, the brain is unable to measure skin temperature with a thermometer calibrated based on a code table of each sensor in the skin. Thus, these old models cannot identify the thermostats. We have proposed a new model in which temperature receptors in a nerve ending are molecules of the thermostats. When skin temperature falls below a set-point, these molecules as a whole induce impulses as command signals sent to the brain, where these impulses activate their target neurons for "cold" and heat-seeking behaviors for error correction. Our study challenges the famous models that sensory receptor is a sensor and the brain is a code processor.

  5. Temperature receptors in cutaneous nerve endings are thermostat molecules that induce thermoregulatory behaviors against thermal load.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    When skin temperature falls below a set-point, mammals experience "cold in the skin" and exhibit heat-seeking behaviors for error correction. Physiological thermostats should perform the behavioral thermoregulation, and it is important to identify the thermostats. A classical model of the sensory system states that thermoreceptors (e.g., thermoTRPs) in skin nerve endings are sensors that transform temperature into the firing rate codes that are sent to the brain, where the codes are decoded as "cold" by a labeled line theory. However, the view that the temperature code is transformed into "cold" (not temperature) is conflicting. Another model states that a thermostat exists in the brain based on the view that a skin thermo-receptor is a sensor. However, because animals have no knowledge of the principle of temperature measurement, the brain is unable to measure skin temperature with a thermometer calibrated based on a code table of each sensor in the skin. Thus, these old models cannot identify the thermostats. We have proposed a new model in which temperature receptors in a nerve ending are molecules of the thermostats. When skin temperature falls below a set-point, these molecules as a whole induce impulses as command signals sent to the brain, where these impulses activate their target neurons for "cold" and heat-seeking behaviors for error correction. Our study challenges the famous models that sensory receptor is a sensor and the brain is a code processor. PMID:27227048

  6. Inhibitory effects of imidazoline receptor ligands on basal and kainic acid-induced neurotoxic signalling in mice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2016-09-01

    This in vivo study assessed the potential of the imidazoline receptor (IR) ligands moxonidine (selective I1-IR), BU224 (selective I2-IR) and LSL61122 (mixed I1/I2-IR) to dampen excitotoxic signalling induced by kainic acid (KA; 45 mg/kg) in the mouse brain (hippocampus and cerebral cortex). KA triggered a strong behavioural syndrome (seizures; maximal at 60-90 minutes) and sustained stimulation (at 72 hours with otherwise normal mouse behaviour) of pro-apoptotic c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) and calpain with increased cleavage of p35 into neurotoxic p25 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5 [Cdk5] activators) in mouse hippocampus. Pretreatment (five days) with LSL61122 (10 mg/kg), but not moxonidine (1 mg/kg) or BU224 (20 mg/kg), attenuated the KA-induced behavioural syndrome, and all three IR ligands inhibited JNK and calpain activation, as well as p35/p25 cleavage after KA in the hippocampus (effects also observed after acute IR drug treatments). Efaroxan (I1-IR, 10 mg/kg) and idazoxan (I2-IR, 10 mg/kg), postulated IR antagonists, did not antagonise the effects of moxonidine and LSL61122 on KA targets (these IR ligands showed agonistic properties inhibiting pro-apoptotic JNK). Brain subcellular preparations revealed reduced synaptosomal postsynaptic density-95 protein contents (a mediator of JNK activation) and indicated increased p35/Cdk5 complexes (with pro-survival functions) after treatment with moxonidine, BU224 and LSL61122. These results showed that I1- and I2-IR ligands (moxonidine and BU224), and especially the mixed I1/I2-IR ligand LSL61122, are partly neuroprotective against KA-induced excitotoxic signalling. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of IR drugs in disorders associated with glutamate-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:27302941

  7. Inhibitory effects of imidazoline receptor ligands on basal and kainic acid-induced neurotoxic signalling in mice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2016-09-01

    This in vivo study assessed the potential of the imidazoline receptor (IR) ligands moxonidine (selective I1-IR), BU224 (selective I2-IR) and LSL61122 (mixed I1/I2-IR) to dampen excitotoxic signalling induced by kainic acid (KA; 45 mg/kg) in the mouse brain (hippocampus and cerebral cortex). KA triggered a strong behavioural syndrome (seizures; maximal at 60-90 minutes) and sustained stimulation (at 72 hours with otherwise normal mouse behaviour) of pro-apoptotic c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) and calpain with increased cleavage of p35 into neurotoxic p25 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5 [Cdk5] activators) in mouse hippocampus. Pretreatment (five days) with LSL61122 (10 mg/kg), but not moxonidine (1 mg/kg) or BU224 (20 mg/kg), attenuated the KA-induced behavioural syndrome, and all three IR ligands inhibited JNK and calpain activation, as well as p35/p25 cleavage after KA in the hippocampus (effects also observed after acute IR drug treatments). Efaroxan (I1-IR, 10 mg/kg) and idazoxan (I2-IR, 10 mg/kg), postulated IR antagonists, did not antagonise the effects of moxonidine and LSL61122 on KA targets (these IR ligands showed agonistic properties inhibiting pro-apoptotic JNK). Brain subcellular preparations revealed reduced synaptosomal postsynaptic density-95 protein contents (a mediator of JNK activation) and indicated increased p35/Cdk5 complexes (with pro-survival functions) after treatment with moxonidine, BU224 and LSL61122. These results showed that I1- and I2-IR ligands (moxonidine and BU224), and especially the mixed I1/I2-IR ligand LSL61122, are partly neuroprotective against KA-induced excitotoxic signalling. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of IR drugs in disorders associated with glutamate-mediated neurodegeneration.

  8. High glucose induces inflammatory cytokine through protein kinase C-induced toll-like receptor 2 pathway in gingival fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shao-Yun; Wei, Cong-Cong; Shang, Ting-Ting; Lian, Qi; Wu, Chen-Xuan; Deng, Jia-Yin

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose increased NF-{kappa}B p65 nuclear activity, IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PKC-{alpha}/{delta}-TLR2 pathway is involved in periodontal inflammation under high glucose. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune response and inflammation, especially in periodontitis. Meanwhile, hyperglycemia can induce inflammation in diabetes complications. However, the activity of TLRs in periodontitis complicated with hyperglycemia is still unclear. In the present study, high glucose (25 mmol/l) significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts (p < 0.05). Also, high glucose increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 nuclear activity, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-l{beta} (IL-1{beta}) levels. Protein kinase C (PKC)-{alpha} and {delta} knockdown with siRNA significantly decreased TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 expression (p < 0.05), whereas inhibition of PKC-{beta} had no effect on TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 under high glucose (p < 0.05). Additional studies revealed that TLR2 knockdown significantly abrogated high-glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Collectively, these data suggest that high glucose stimulates TNF-{alpha} and IL-1{beta} secretion via inducing TLR2 through PKC-{alpha} and PKC-{delta} in human gingival fibroblasts.

  9. Unique presentations of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-induced papulopustular eruption related to bacterial superinfection.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Lauren Elyse; Choi, Jennifer Nam

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have been reported to induce numerous cutaneous side effects, the most notable of which is a papulopustular eruption on the face, scalp, and central chest. The typical presentation consists of inflamed papules, often with pustules, favoring a seborrheic distribution. The pustules of the EGFR inhibitor-induced papulopustular eruption are commonly sterile but bacterial superinfection is not uncommon. We report two unique presentations of the papulopustular eruption that were found to be associated with Staphylococcus aureus superinfection. One patient presented with an abrupt onset of nearly confluent red plaques on the cheeks, forehead, chin, and neck, with innumerable studded pinpoint pustules. The other patient had a long-standing untreated papulopustular eruption on the scalp, which resulted in widespread erythema, large thick plaques of serous crust, pustular exudate, and associated alopecia. Both patients quickly resolved with non-tetracycline oral antibiotics combined with topical steroid treatment. PMID:23552005

  10. Regulation of transferrin receptor expression and ferritin content in human mononuclear phagocytes. Coordinate upregulation by iron transferrin and downregulation by interferon gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, T F; Horwitz, M A

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of key human iron binding proteins in mononuclear phagocytes by IFN gamma and iron transferrin. In a previous study, we demonstrated that IFN gamma downregulates the expression on human monocytes of transferrin receptors, the major source of iron for the cell. In the present study, we show that IFN gamma also downregulates the intracellular concentration of ferritin, the major iron storage protein in the cell. By radioimmunoassay, the mean ferritin content of nonactivated monocytes was 361 +/- 107 fg/monocyte (mean +/- SEM) whereas the mean ferritin content of IFN gamma-activated monocytes was 64 +/- 13 fg/monocyte, an 82% reduction with activation (P < 0.01, t test). Consistent with its downregulating effect on these iron proteins, IFN gamma treatment also results in decreased iron incorporation. IFN gamma-activated monocytes incorporated 33% less iron from 59Fe-transferrin than nonactivated monocytes (P < 0.05, t test). Gel filtration chromatography revealed that incorporated iron is located primarily in ferritin in both nonactivated and IFN gamma-activated monocytes. Ferritin in IFN gamma-activated monocytes is saturated with approximately three times as much 59Fe as ferritin in nonactivated monocytes. We have also explored the effect of iron transferrin on transferrin receptor expression and intracellular ferritin content in human monocytes. We have found that iron transferrin markedly upregulates both transferrin receptor expression and intracellular ferritin content in both nonactivated (2.3- and 1.3-fold, respectively) and IFN gamma-activated (3.4- and 2.9-fold, respectively) monocytes. This study demonstrates that transferrin receptor expression and intracellular ferritin content in human monocytes is unidirectionally and coordinately upregulated by iron transferrin and unidirectionally and coordinately downregulated by IFN gamma. PMID:8450071

  11. Colistin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice Involves the Mitochondrial, Death Receptor, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chongshan; Li, Jichang; Tang, Shusheng

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is the dose-limiting factor for colistin, but the exact mechanism is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the roles of the mitochondrial, death receptor, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways in colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. Mice were intravenously administered 7.5 or 15 mg of colistin/kg of body weight/day (via a 3-min infusion and divided into two doses) for 7 days. Renal function, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were measured. Representative biomarkers involved in the mitochondrial, death receptor, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways were investigated, and the key markers involved in apoptosis and autophagy were examined. After 7-day colistin treatment, significant increase was observed with blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and malondialdehyde, while activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase decreased in the kidneys. Acute tubular necrosis and mitochondrial dysfunction were detected, and colistin-induced apoptosis was characterized by DNA fragmentation, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1), increase of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and activation of caspases (caspase-8, -9, and -3). It was evident that colistin-induced apoptosis involved the mitochondrial pathway (downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of cytochrome C [cytC] and Bax), death receptor pathway (upregulation of Fas, FasL, and Fas-associated death domain [FADD]), and endoplasmic reticulum pathway (upregulation of Grp78/Bip, ATF6, GADD153/CHOP, and caspase-12). In the 15-mg/kg/day colistin group, expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) significantly increased (P < 0.05), while in the 7.5-mg/kg/day colistin group, a large number of autophagolysosomes and classic autophagy were observed. Western blot results of Beclin-1 and LC3B indicated that autophagy may play a protective role in colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that all three major apoptosis pathways

  12. Novel function of histamine signaling in hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis: Histamine H1 receptors protect and H2 receptors accelerate atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Wang, Ke-Yong; Tanimoto, Akihide; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Histamine is not only essential for acute inflammatory reactions, but it also participates in a chronic inflammatory disorder. We generated apolipoprotein E (apoE) and histamine receptors (HHRs), including the major H1 and H2 receptors (HH1R, HH2R) double knockout mice (DKO) to clarify the role of HHRs in hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis, in which apoE-KO and DKO mice were fed a high cholesterol diet. We found that pronounced hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerotic progression occurred in HH1R/apoE-DKO mice, but in HH2R/apoE-DKO mice less atherosclerosis, despite pro-atherogenic serum cholesterol levels compared with apoE-KO mice. Furthermore, the increased expressions of scavenger receptors (SRs), such as SR-A, CD36 and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1), nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or liver X receptor (LXR)-related inflammatory signaling factors, were consistent with the pro-atherogenic phenotype of HH2R/apoE-DKO mice. We hypothesize that histamine/HH1R and HH2R signaling has conflicting innate functions, inflammatory/atherogenic and anti-inflammatory/anti-atherogenic actions, and that there are innate links between histamine signaling and hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis, independently of serum cholesterol metabolism. Specific histamine signaling blockers, in particular, HH2R blockers, are a possible novel therapeutic target for hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis. PMID:25581821

  13. Novel function of histamine signaling in hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis: Histamine H1 receptors protect and H2 receptors accelerate atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Wang, Ke-Yong; Tanimoto, Akihide; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Histamine is not only essential for acute inflammatory reactions, but it also participates in a chronic inflammatory disorder. We generated apolipoprotein E (apoE) and histamine receptors (HHRs), including the major H1 and H2 receptors (HH1R, HH2R) double knockout mice (DKO) to clarify the role of HHRs in hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis, in which apoE-KO and DKO mice were fed a high cholesterol diet. We found that pronounced hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerotic progression occurred in HH1R/apoE-DKO mice, but in HH2R/apoE-DKO mice less atherosclerosis, despite pro-atherogenic serum cholesterol levels compared with apoE-KO mice. Furthermore, the increased expressions of scavenger receptors (SRs), such as SR-A, CD36 and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1), nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or liver X receptor (LXR)-related inflammatory signaling factors, were consistent with the pro-atherogenic phenotype of HH2R/apoE-DKO mice. We hypothesize that histamine/HH1R and HH2R signaling has conflicting innate functions, inflammatory/atherogenic and anti-inflammatory/anti-atherogenic actions, and that there are innate links between histamine signaling and hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis, independently of serum cholesterol metabolism. Specific histamine signaling blockers, in particular, HH2R blockers, are a possible novel therapeutic target for hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis.

  14. Prostaglandin E2-prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) signaling mediates UV irradiation-induced systemic immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Soontrapa, Kitipong; Honda, Tetsuya; Sakata, Daiji; Yao, Chengcan; Hirata, Takako; Hori, Shohei; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kita, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Takao; Kabashima, Kenji; Narumiya, Shuh

    2011-04-19

    UV radiation induces systemic immunosuppression. Because nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suppress UV-induced immunosuppression, prostanoids have been suspected as a crucial mediator of this UV effect. However, the identity of the prostanoid involved and its mechanism of action remain unclear. Here, we addressed this issue by subjecting mice deficient in each prostanoid receptor individually or mice treated with a subtype-specific antagonist to UV irradiation. Mice treated with an antagonist for prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4), but not those deficient in other prostanoid receptors, show impaired UV-induced immunosuppression, whereas administration of an EP4 agonist rescues the impairment of the UV-induced immunosuppression in indomethacin-treated mice. The EP4 antagonist treatment suppresses an increase in the number of CD4(+)/forkhead box P3-positive (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) and dendritic cells expressing DEC205 in the LNs and the skin after UV irradiation. Furthermore, the EP4 antagonist treatment down-regulates UV-induced expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in skin keratinocytes. Finally, administration of anti-RANKL antibody abolishes the restoration of UV-induced immunosuppression by EP4 agonism in indomethacin-treated mice. Thus, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-EP4 signaling mediates UV-induced immunosuppression by elevating the number of Treg cells through regulation of RANKL expression in the epidermis.

  15. Phosphorylation of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (p55) protects macrophages from silica-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gambelli, Federica; Di, Peter; Niu, Xiaomei; Friedman, Mitchell; Hammond, Timothy; Riches, David W H; Ortiz, Luis A

    2004-01-16

    Macrophages play a fundamental role in silicosis in part by removing silica particles and producing inflammatory mediators in response to silica. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is a prominent mediator in silicosis. Silica induction of apoptosis in macrophages might be mediated by TNFalpha. However, TNFalpha also activates signal transduction pathways (NF-kappaB and AP-1) that rescue cells from apoptosis. Therefore, we studied the TNFalpha-mediated mechanisms that confer macrophage protection against the pro-apoptotic effects of silica. We will show that exposure to silica induced TNFalpha production by RAW 264.7 cells, but not by IC-21. Silica-induced activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 was only observed in RAW 264.7 macrophages. ERK activation in response to silica exposure was only observed in RAW 264.7 macrophages, whereas activation of p38 phosphorylation was predominantly observed in IC-21 macrophages. No changes in JNK activity were observed in either cell line in response to silica exposure. Silica induced apoptosis in both macrophage cell lines, but the induction of apoptosis was significantly larger in IC-21 cells. Protection against apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells in response to silica was mediated by enhanced NF-kappaB activation and ERK-mediated phosphorylation of the p55 TNFalpha receptor. Inhibition of these two protective mechanisms by specific pharmacological inhibitors or transfection of dominant negative mutants that inhibit IkappaBalpha or ERK phosphorylation significantly increased silica-induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These data suggest that NF-kappaB activation and ERK-mediated phosphorylation of the p55 TNF receptor are important cell survival mechanisms in the macrophage response to silica exposure. PMID:14570868

  16. Chronic stress accelerates ligature-induced periodontitis by suppressing glucocorticoid receptor-α signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huaixiu; Xu, Minguang; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shisen; Gu, Jing; Lin, Songshan; Zhao, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease. Recent studies have shown that chronic stress (CS) might modulate periodontal disease, but there are few models of CS-induced periodontitis, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study established a rat model of periodontitis associated with CS induced by nylon thread ligatures. The severity of periodontitis was evaluated in this model by radiographic and pathological examination. The inflammatory reaction indicated by the elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and glucocorticoid receptor-α (GR-α) expressions were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR and western blotting. Open-field tests and serum corticosterone were used to evaluate CS. The results showed that CS induced behavioral changes and increased corticosterone levels of the animals with periodontitis. CS stimulation markedly increased alveolar bone loss, periodontal pocket depth and the number of plaques. It also enhanced the inflammatory reaction. These results suggest that CS accelerated the ligature-induced pathological changes associated with periodontitis. Further analysis of the mechanisms involved showed that GR-α expression was significantly downregulated in periodontal tissues of the animals undergoing CS. Blocking GR-α signaling in lipopolysaccharide and corticosteroid-treated human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells in vitro significantly upregulated the expression of p-Akt (protein kinase B) and TLR4, promoted nuclear factor-κB activity and increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. This research suggests that CS might accelerate the pathological progression of periodontitis by a GR-α signaling-mediated inflammatory response and that this may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of periodontal disease, particularly in patients with CS. PMID:27012709

  17. Differential immunomodulatory activity of tumor cell death induced by cancer therapeutic toll-like receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Klein, Johanna C; Wild, Clarissa A; Lang, Stephan; Brandau, Sven

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands stimulate defined immune cell subsets and are currently tested as novel immunotherapeutic agents against cancer with, however, varying clinical efficacy. Recent data showed the expression of TLR receptors also on tumor cells. In this study we investigated immunological events associated with the induction of tumor cell death by poly(I:C) and imiquimod. A human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line was exposed to poly(I:C) and imiquimod, which were delivered exogenously via culture medium or via electroporation. Cell death and cell biological consequences thereof were analyzed. For in vivo analyses, a human xenograft and a syngeneic immunocompetent mouse model were used. Poly(I:C) induced cell death only if delivered by electroporation into the cytosol. Cell death induced by poly(I:C) resulted in cytokine release and activation of monocytes in vitro. Monocytes activated by the supernatant of cancer cells previously exposed to poly(I:C) recruited significantly more Th1 cells than monocytes exposed to control supernatants. If delivered exogenously, imiquimod also induced tumor cell death and some release of interleukin-6, but cell death was not associated with release of Th1 cytokines, interferons, monocyte activation and Th1 recruitment. Interestingly, intratumoral injection of poly(I:C) triggered tumor cell death in tumor-bearing mice and reduced tumor growth independent of TLR signaling on host cells. Imiquimod did not affect tumor size. Our data suggest that common cancer therapeutic RNA compounds can induce functionally diverse types of cell death in tumor cells with implications for the use of TLR ligands in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27034235

  18. Chronic stress accelerates ligature-induced periodontitis by suppressing glucocorticoid receptor-α signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huaixiu; Xu, Minguang; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shisen; Gu, Jing; Lin, Songshan; Zhao, Lisheng

    2016-03-25

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease. Recent studies have shown that chronic stress (CS) might modulate periodontal disease, but there are few models of CS-induced periodontitis, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study established a rat model of periodontitis associated with CS induced by nylon thread ligatures. The severity of periodontitis was evaluated in this model by radiographic and pathological examination. The inflammatory reaction indicated by the elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and glucocorticoid receptor-α (GR-α) expressions were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR and western blotting. Open-field tests and serum corticosterone were used to evaluate CS. The results showed that CS induced behavioral changes and increased corticosterone levels of the animals with periodontitis. CS stimulation markedly increased alveolar bone loss, periodontal pocket depth and the number of plaques. It also enhanced the inflammatory reaction. These results suggest that CS accelerated the ligature-induced pathological changes associated with periodontitis. Further analysis of the mechanisms involved showed that GR-α expression was significantly downregulated in periodontal tissues of the animals undergoing CS. Blocking GR-α signaling in lipopolysaccharide and corticosteroid-treated human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells in vitro significantly upregulated the expression of p-Akt (protein kinase B) and TLR4, promoted nuclear factor-κB activity and increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. This research suggests that CS might accelerate the pathological progression of periodontitis by a GR-α signaling-mediated inflammatory response and that this may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of periodontal disease, particularly in patients with CS.

  19. Estrogen receptors regulate the estrous behavior induced by progestins, peptides, and prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Lima-Hernández, F J; Gómora-Arrati, P; García-Juárez, M; Blaustein, J D; Etgen, A M; Beyer, C; González-Flores, O

    2014-07-01

    The role of classical estrogen receptors (ERs) in priming female reproductive behavior has been studied previously; however, the participation of this receptor during activation of estrous behavior has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this work was to test the possibility that the facilitation of lordosis behavior in estrogen-primed rats by progesterone (P) and its 5α- and 5β-reduced metabolites, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), leptin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and vagino-cervical stimulation (VCS) involves interactions with classical ERs by using the selective ER modulator, tamoxifen. To further assess the role of ERs, we also explored the effects of the pure ER antagonist, ICI182780 (ICI), on estrous behavior induced by P and GnRH. Ovariectomized, estrogen-primed rats (5μg estradiol benzoate 40h earlier) were injected intraventricularly with the above-mentioned compounds, or they received VCS. All compounds and VCS effectively facilitated estrous behavior when tested at 60, 120 or 240min after infusion or application of VCS. Intraventricular infusion of tamoxifen (5μg), 30min before, significantly attenuated estrous behaviors induced in estradiol-primed rats by P, most of its 5α- and 5β-reduced metabolites, GnRH, and PGE2, but not by VCS. Although there was a trend for reduction, tamoxifen did not significantly decrease lordosis in females treated with 5β-pregnan-3,20-dione. ICI also inhibited lordosis behavior induced by P and GnRH at some testing intervals. These results suggest that activation of classical ERs participates in the triggering effects on estrous behavior induced by agents with different chemical structures that do not bind directly to ERs.

  20. The hippocampal NMDA receptors may be involved in acquisition, but not expression of ACPA-induced place preference.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Sharaf-Dolgari, Elmira; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the functional interactions between the endocannabinoid and glutamate systems in the hippocampus. The present study was made to test whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) are implicated in ACPA (a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist)-induced place preference. Using a 3-day schedule of conditioning, it was found that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ACPA (0.02mg/kg) caused a significant conditioned place preference (CPP) in male albino NMRI mice. Intra-CA1 microinjection of the NMDA or D-[1]-2-amino-7-Phosphonoheptanoic acid (D-AP7, NMDA receptor antagonist), failed to induce CPP or CPA (condition place aversion), while NMDA (0.5μg/mouse) potentiated the ACPA (0.01mg/kg)-induced CPP; and D-AP7 (a specific NMDA receptor antagonist; 0.5 and 1μg/mouse) reversed the ACPA (0.02mg/kg)-induced CPP. Moreover, microinjection of different doses of glutamatergic agents on the testing day did not alter the expression of ACPA-induced place preference. None of the treatments, with the exception of ACPA (0.04mg/kg), had an effect on locomotor activity. In conclusion, these observations provide evidence that glutamate NMDA receptors of the CA1 may be involved in the potentiation of ACPA rewarding properties in the acquisition, but not expression, of CPP in mice.

  1. Effects of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Muzaffar; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2016-07-15

    Evidence indicates that microglial activation contributes to the pathophysiology and maintenance of neuroinflammatory pain involving central nervous system alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of 3a,4,5,9b-Tetrahydro-4-(1-naphthalenyl)-3H-cyclopentan[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide (TQS), an alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM), on tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia following lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation in hippocampus, a neuroinflammatory pain model in mice. In addition, we examined the effects of TQS on microglial activation marker, an ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), in the hippocampus may be associated with neuroinflammatory pain. Pretreatment of TQS (4mg/kg) significantly reduced LPS (1mg/kg)-induced tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Moreover, pretreatment of methyllycaconitine (3mg/kg) significantly reversed TQS-induced antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic responses indicating the involvement of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pretreatment of TQS significantly decreased LPS-induced increased in hippocampal Iba-1 expression. Overall, these results suggest that TQS reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammatory pain like symptoms via modulating microglial activation likely in the hippocampus and/or other brain region by targeting alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Therefore, alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PAM such as TQS could be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of neuroinflammatory pain.

  2. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors induce calcium mobilization through cross-talk with Gq-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, Eric; Vauquelin, Georges; Dautzenberg, Frank M

    2010-09-10

    The cross-talk between corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and muscarinic receptors was investigated by measuring evoked transient increases in cytosolic calcium concentration. HEK293 cells stably expressing human CRF type 1 (hCRF(1)) and type 2(a) (hCRF(2(a))) receptors were stimulated with the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol and shortly after by a CRF agonist. Unexpectedly, this second response was enhanced when compared to stimulating naive cells either with carbachol or CRF agonist only. Priming with 100 microM carbachol increased the maximal CRF agonist response and shifted its concentration-response curve to the left to attain almost the same potency as for stimulating the production of the natural second messenger cyclic AMP. Yet, priming did not affect CRF agonist-stimulated cyclic AMP production itself. Carbachol priming was not restricted to recombinant CRF receptors only since endogenously expressed beta(2)-adrenoceptors also started to produce a robust calcium signal. Without priming no such signal was observed. Similar findings were made in the human retinoblastoma cell line Y79 for endogenously expressed CRF(1) receptors and the type 1 pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptors but not for the CRF(2(a)) receptors. This differentiation between CRF(1) and CRF(2) receptors was further supported by use of selective agonists and antagonists. The results suggest that stimulating a Gq-coupled receptor shortly before stimulating a Gs-coupled receptor may result in a parallel signaling event on top of the classical cyclic AMP pathway. PMID:20594969

  3. beta-Adrenergic receptors contribute to hypoxaemia induced vasodilation in man.

    PubMed Central

    Blauw, G J; Westendorp, R G; Simons, M; Chang, P C; Frölich, M; Meinders, A E

    1995-01-01

    1. It was the aim of the present study to investigate the role of the beta-adrenergic receptor in hypoxaemia induced vasodilatation in the human forearm. 2. The study was performed in 12 non-smoking male volunteers. In six subjects the local vascular effects of intra-arterially (i.a.) infused propranolol (0.1 mu kg-1 min-1) was determined during normoxaemia and hypoxaemia (peripheral oxygen saturation; SpO2 80%), and compared with the contra-lateral (control) arm. beta-adrenergic receptor blockade by propranolol was confirmed by i.a. infusions of adrenaline. In six other subjects the effects of incremental hypoxaemia (SpO2 90, 85, 80%) on forearm- and finger blood flow was investigated. A difference between these vascular beds is the absence of vascular beta-adrenergic receptors in the finger. Forearm- and finger blood flow were measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Plasma levels of (nor-)adrenaline were determined in both arterial and venous blood samples. Hypoxaemia was attained by gradual decompression of a hypobaric chamber and individually adjusted. 3. During normoxaemia the single infusion of propranolol did not influence forearm vascular resistance. In contrast, during hypoxaemia a net vasoconstriction was observed in the arm treated with propranolol, which was significantly different (P = 0.009) from the vasodilatation in the control arm (mean difference in response 40%; 95% confidence interval 13.2-66.8). The net arterio-venous spillover of noradrenaline from the forearm increased after the first 15 min of hypoxaemia (P < 0.05) and returned to baseline in the next 15 min. Arterial and venous plasma levels of adrenaline during hypoxaemia remained unchanged compared with normoxaemia. In the second set of experiments incremental levels of hypoxaemia induced a vasoconstriction in the finger, which was significantly different (P = 0.025) from the vasodilatation in the forearm (mean difference in response 300%; 95% confidence interval 63-537). 4. The

  4. Cocaine withdrawal-induced trafficking of delta-opioid receptors in rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Ambrose-Lanci, Lisa M; Peiris, Niluk B; Unterwald, Ellen M; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2008-05-19

    Interactions between the opioidergic and dopaminergic systems in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) play a critical role in mediating cocaine withdrawal-induced effects on cell signaling and behavior. In support of this, increased activation of striatal dopamine-D1 receptors (D1R) results in desensitization of delta-opioid receptor (DOR) signaling through adenylyl cyclase during early cocaine withdrawal. A potential cellular substrate underlying receptor desensitization is receptor internalization. The present study examined the effect of cocaine withdrawal on subcellular localization of DOR in dendrites of the NAcb core (NAcbC) and shell (NAcbS) using immunoelectron microscopy. Female and male rats received binge-pattern cocaine or saline for 14 days and subsequently underwent 48 h withdrawal. Animals were transcardially perfused and tissue sections were processed for immunogold-silver localization of DOR. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed that cocaine withdrawal caused an increase in the percentage of DOR localized intracellularly in the NAcbS of male and female rats and the NAcbC of male rats compared to saline controls. In contrast, in the NAcbC of female rats, there was an increase in DOR associated with the plasma membrane following cocaine withdrawal. To determine whether modulation of D1R could directly impact DOR containing neurons, the hypothesis that DOR and D1R co-exist in common neurons of the NAcb was examined in naïve rats. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed a subset of profiles containing both DOR and D1R immunoreactivities. The present findings demonstrate a redistribution of DOR in the NAcb following cocaine withdrawal and provide anatomical evidence supporting D1R regulation of DOR function in a subset of NAcb neurons. PMID:18417105

  5. 5-HT(1A)-like receptor activation inhibits abstinence-induced methamphetamine withdrawal in planarians.

    PubMed

    Rawls, Scott M; Shah, Hardik; Ayoub, George; Raffa, Robert B

    2010-10-29

    No pharmacological therapy is approved to treat methamphetamine physical dependence, but it has been hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT)-enhancing drugs might limit the severity of withdrawal symptoms. To test this hypothesis, we used a planarian model of physical dependence that quantifies withdrawal as a reduction in planarian movement. Planarians exposed to methamphetamine (10 μM) for 60 min, and then placed (tested) into drug-free water for 5 min, displayed less movement (i.e., withdrawal) than either methamphetamine-naïve planarians tested in water or methamphetamine-exposed planarians tested in methamphetamine. A concentration-related inhibition of withdrawal was observed when methamphetamine-exposed planarians were placed into a solution containing either methamphetamine and 5-HT (0.1-100 μM) or methamphetamine and the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (10, 20 μM). Planarians with prior methamphetamine exposure displayed enhanced withdrawal when tested in a solution of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY 100635) (1 μM). Methamphetamine-induced withdrawal was not affected by the 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPZ) (0.1-20 μM). These results provide pharmacological evidence that serotonin-enhancing drugs inhibit expression of methamphetamine physical dependence in an invertebrate model of withdrawal, possibly through a 5-HT(1A)-like receptor-dependent mechanism.

  6. Proximity effect of magnetic permalloy nanoelements used to induce AMR changes in magnetic biosensor nanowires at specific receptor sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Iain; Ding, An; Xu, Yongbing

    2015-08-01

    We present simulated, substrate bound, permalloy nanowires with receptor sites for magnetic, aqueously suspended nanoelements that are able to induce an anisotropic magnetoresistive effect in nanowire circuits. The permalloy nanoelements were also simulated to determine the remanent spin configuration and were designed to be bound by antibody mediated interactions with biological ligands at the receptor sites in order to act as a biosensor. All results were simulated using micromagnetic simulations by the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF). The simulations revealed that anisotropic magnetoresistive changes were induced at the bridging sections between adjacent nanowires, next to the receptor sites, which connect the two adjacent nanowires. The electrical resistance across the nanowires reduced after the inclusion of the nanoelements at the receptor sites. We therefore conclude that this nanowire configuration is useful for an inexpensive diagnostic biosensor.

  7. Involvement of Mouse Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Acifluorfen-Induced Liver Injury and Subsequent Tumor Development.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Inoue, Kaoru; Ichimura, Ryohei; Takahashi, Miwa; Kodama, Yukio; Shibutani, Makoto; Yoshida, Midori

    2016-06-01

    Acifluorfen (ACI), a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PROTOX) inhibitor herbicide, promotes the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), and induces tumors in the rodent liver. Porphyria is a risk factor for liver tumors in humans; however, the specific mechanisms through which ACI induces hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents are unclear. Here, we investigated the mode of action of ACI-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, focusing on constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), which is essential for the development of rodent liver tumors in response to certain cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducers. Dietary treatment with 2500 ppm ACI for up to 13 weeks increased Cyp2b10 expression in the livers of wild-type (WT) mice, but not in CAR-knockout (CARKO) mice. Microscopically, ACI treatment-induced cytotoxic changes, including hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation, and caused regenerative changes accompanied by prolonged increases in the numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive hepatocytes in WT mice. In contrast, these cytotoxic and regenerative changes in hepatocytes were significantly attenuated, but still observed, in CARKO mice. ACI treatment also increased liver PPIX levels similarly in both genotypes; however, no morphological evidence of porphyrin deposition was found in hepatocytes from either genotype. Treatment with 2500 ppm ACI for 26 weeks after initiation with diethylnitrosamine increased the incidence and multiplicities of altered foci and adenomas in hepatocytes from WT mice; these effects were significantly reduced in CARKO mice. These results indicated that prolonged cytotoxicity in the liver was a key factor for ACI-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, and that CAR played an important role in ACI-induced liver injury and tumor development in mice. PMID:26928356

  8. Serotonin 2C receptor antagonists induce fast-onset antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Opal, M D; Klenotich, S C; Morais, M; Bessa, J; Winkle, J; Doukas, D; Kay, L J; Sousa, N; Dulawa, S M

    2014-10-01

    Current antidepressants must be administered for several weeks to produce therapeutic effects. We show that selective serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) antagonists exert antidepressant actions with a faster-onset (5 days) than that of current antidepressants (14 days) in mice. Subchronic (5 days) treatment with 5-HT2C antagonists induced antidepressant behavioral effects in the chronic forced swim test (cFST), chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm and olfactory bulbectomy paradigm. This treatment regimen also induced classical markers of antidepressant action: activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). None of these effects were induced by subchronic treatment with citalopram, a prototypical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Local infusion of 5-HT2C antagonists into the ventral tegmental area was sufficient to induce BDNF in the mPFC, and dopamine D1 receptor antagonist treatment blocked the antidepressant behavioral effects of 5-HT2C antagonists. 5-HT2C antagonists also activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) in the mPFC, effects recently linked to rapid antidepressant action. Furthermore, 5-HT2C antagonists reversed CMS-induced atrophy of mPFC pyramidal neurons. Subchronic SSRI treatment, which does not induce antidepressant behavioral effects, also activated mTOR and eEF2 and reversed CMS-induced neuronal atrophy, indicating that these effects are not sufficient for antidepressant onset. Our findings reveal that 5-HT2C antagonists are putative fast-onset antidepressants, which act through enhancement of mesocortical dopaminergic signaling. PMID:24166413

  9. The Succinate Receptor GPR91 Is Involved in Pressure Overload-Induced Ventricular Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang; Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Zhang, Wei-yan; Yin, Ning; Mo, Xu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by increased pressure overload that leads to right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). GPR91 is a formerly orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been characterized as a receptor for succinate; however, its role in RVH remains unknown. Methods and Results We investigated the role of succinate-GPR91 signaling in a pulmonary arterial banding (PAB) model of RVH induced by pressure overload in SD rats. GPR91 was shown to be located in cardiomyocytes. In the sham and PAB rats, succinate treatment further aggravated RVH, up-regulated RVH-associated genes and increased p-Akt/t-Akt levels in vivo. In vitro, succinate treatment up-regulated the levels of the hypertrophic gene marker anp and p-Akt/t-Akt in cardiomyocytes. All these effects were inhibited by the PI3K antagonist wortmannin both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we noted that the GPR91-PI3K/Akt axis was also up-regulated compared to that in human RVH. Conclusions Our findings indicate that succinate-GPR91 signaling may be involved in RVH via PI3K/Akt signaling in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, GPR91 may be a novel therapeutic target for treating pressure overload-induced