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Sample records for receptor g2 subunit

  1. Stoichiometry of δ subunit containing GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B; Mortensen, M; Smart, T G

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the stoichiometry of the major synaptic αβγ subunit-containing GABAA receptors has consensus support for 2α:2β:1γ, a clear view of the stoichiometry of extrasynaptic receptors containing δ subunits has remained elusive. Here we examine the subunit stoichiometry of recombinant α4β3δ receptors using a reporter mutation and a functional electrophysiological approach. Experimental Approach Using site-directed mutagenesis, we inserted a highly characterized 9′ serine to leucine mutation into the second transmembrane (M2) region of α4, β3 and δ subunits that increases receptor sensitivity to GABA. Whole-cell, GABA-activated currents were recorded from HEK-293 cells co-expressing different combinations of wild-type (WT) and/or mutant α4(L297S), β3(L284S) and δ(L288S) subunits. Key Results Recombinant receptors containing one or more mutant subunits showed increased GABA sensitivity relative to WT receptors by approximately fourfold, independent of the subunit class (α, β or δ) carrying the mutation. GABA dose–response curves of cells co-expressing WT subunits with their respective L9′S mutants exhibited multiple components, with the number of discernible components enabling a subunit stoichiometry of 2α, 2β and 1δ to be deduced for α4β3δ receptors. Varying the cDNA transfection ratio by 10-fold had no significant effect on the number of incorporated δ subunits. Conclusions and Implications Subunit stoichiometry is an important determinant of GABAA receptor function and pharmacology, and δ subunit-containing receptors are important mediators of tonic inhibition in several brain regions. Here we demonstrate a preferred subunit stoichiometry for α4β3δ receptors of 2α, 2β and 1δ. PMID:24206220

  2. Deletion of the G2A receptor fails to attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Osmers, Inga; Smith, Sherry S.; Parks, Brian W.; Yu, Shaohua; Srivastava, Roshni; Wohler, Jillian E.; Barnum, Scott R.; Kabarowski, Janusz H.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a chemotactic lysolipid produced during inflammation by the hydrolytic action of phospholipase A2 enzymes. LPC stimulates chemotaxis of T cells in vitro through activation of the G protein-coupled receptor, G2A. This has led to the proposition that G2A contributes to the recruitment of T cells to sites of inflammation and thus promotes chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases associated with the generation and subsequent tissue infiltration of auto-antigen-specific effector T cells. However, one study suggests that G2A may negatively regulate T cell proliferative responses to antigen receptor engagement and thereby attenuates autoimmunity by reducing the generation of autoreactive T cells. To address the relative contribution of these G2A-mediated effects to the pathophysiology of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, we examined the impact of G2A inactivation on the onset and severity of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Wild type (G2A+/+) and G2A-deficient (G2A-/-) C57BL/6J mice exhibited a similar incidence and onset of disease following immunization with MOG35-55 peptide. Disease severity was only moderately reduced in G2A-/- mice. Similar numbers of MOG35-55 specific T cells were generated in secondary lymphoid organs of MOG35-55-immunized G2A+/+ and G2A-/- mice. Comparable numbers of T cells were detected in spinal cords of G2A+/+ and G2A-/- mice. We conclude that the proposed anti-proliferative and chemotactic functions of G2A are not manifested in vivo and therefore therapeutic targeting of G2A is unlikely to be beneficial in the treatment of MS. PMID:19135725

  3. Diversity of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew K; Sattelle, David B

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system and are targets of a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. They consist of five subunits arranged around a central ion channeL Since the subunit composition determines the functional and pharmacological properties of the receptor the presence of nAChR families comprising several subunit-encodinggenes provides a molecular basis for broad functional diversity. Analyses of genome sequences have shown that nAChR gene families remain compact in diverse insect species, when compared to their nematode andvertebrate counterparts. Thus, the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae), honey bee (Apis mellifera), silk worm (Bombyx mon) and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) possess 10-12 nAChR genes while human and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have 16 and 29 respectively. Although insect nAChRgene families are amongst the smallest known, receptor diversity can be considerably increased by the posttranscriptional processes alternative splicing and mRNA A-to-I editingwhich can potentially generate protein products which far outnumber the nAChR genes. These two processes can also generate species-specific subunit isoforms. In addition, each insect possesses at least one highly divergent nAChR subunit which may perform species-specific functions. Species-specific subunit diversification may offer promising targets for future rational design of insecticides that target specific pest insects while sparing beneficial species.

  4. Genetic analysis of heptad-repeat regions in the G2 fusion subunit of the Junin arenavirus envelope glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    York, Joanne . E-mail: joanne.york@umontana.edu; Agnihothram, Sudhakar S. . E-mail: sudhakar.agnihothram@umontana.edu; Romanowski, Victor . E-mail: victor@biol.unlp.edu.ar; Nunberg, Jack H. . E-mail: jack.nunberg@umontana.edu

    2005-12-20

    The G2 fusion subunit of the Junin virus envelope glycoprotein GP-C contains two hydrophobic heptad-repeat regions that are postulated to form a six-helix bundle structure required for the membrane fusion activity of Class I viral fusion proteins. We have investigated the role of these heptad-repeat regions and, specifically, the importance of the putative interhelical a and d position sidechains by using alanine-scanning mutagenesis. All the mutant glycoproteins were expressed and transported to the cell surface. Proteolytic maturation at the subtilisin kexin isozyme-1/site-1-protease (SKI-1/S1P) cleavage site was observed in all but two of the mutants. Among the adequately cleaved mutant glycoproteins, four positions in the N-terminal region (I333, L336, L347 and L350) and two positions in the C-terminal region (R392 and W395) were shown to be important determinants of cell-cell fusion. Taken together, our results indicate that {alpha}-helical coiled-coil structures are likely critical in promoting arenavirus membrane fusion. These findings support the inclusion of the arenavirus GP-C among the Class I viral fusion proteins and suggest pharmacologic and immunologic strategies for targeting arenavirus infection and hemorrhagic fever.

  5. The G2A receptor (GPR132) contributes to oxaliplatin-induced mechanical pain hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Stephan W; Angioni, Carlo; Tunaru, Sorin; Lee, Seungkyu; Woolf, Clifford J; Offermanns, Stefan; Geisslinger, Gerd; Scholich, Klaus; Sisignano, Marco

    2017-03-27

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain (CIPN) is a common and severe debilitating side effect of many widely used cytostatics. However, there is no approved pharmacological treatment for CIPN available. Among other substances, oxaliplatin causes CIPN in up to 80% of treated patients. Here, we report the involvement of the G-protein coupled receptor G2A (GPR132) in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain in mice. We found that mice deficient in the G2A-receptor show decreased mechanical hypersensitivity after oxaliplatin treatment. Lipid ligands of G2A were found in increased concentrations in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia of oxaliplatin treated mice. Calcium imaging and patch-clamp experiments show that G2A activation sensitizes the ligand-gated ion channel TRPV1 in sensory neurons via activation of PKC. Based on these findings, we conclude that targeting G2A may be a promising approach to reduce oxaliplatin-induced TRPV1-sensitization and the hyperexcitability of sensory neurons and thereby to reduce pain in patients treated with this chemotherapeutic agent.

  6. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  7. Analgesic-antitumor peptide inhibits the migration and invasion of HepG2 cells by an upregulated VGSC β1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guili; Cui, Yong; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Lili; Zhao, Mingyi; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jinghai; Liu, Yanfeng

    2016-03-01

    Analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP), one of the scorpion toxin polypeptides, has been shown to have an antitumor activity. Recombinant AGAP (rAGAP) was shown to affect the migration and invasion of HepG2 cells via a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) β1 subunit. The VGSC β1 subunit was validated as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. rAGAP suppresses the migration and invasion of HepG2 cells but has no significant effect of human liver HL7702 cells without β1 subunit expression. rAGAP inhibits the migration and invasion of the cells when the VGSC β1 subunit is overexpressed in HL7702 cells. To explain these findings, VGSC β1 subunit messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were measured. The β1 subunit protein level was upregulated in a dose-dependent manner following treatment with rAGAP while there was no significant change in the mRNA level, so rAGAP might be an active component of the VGSC β1 subunit.

  8. Stoichiometry of δ subunit containing GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Patel, B; Mortensen, M; Smart, T G

    2014-02-01

    Although the stoichiometry of the major synaptic αβγ subunit-containing GABAA receptors has consensus support for 2α:2β:1γ, a clear view of the stoichiometry of extrasynaptic receptors containing δ subunits has remained elusive. Here we examine the subunit stoichiometry of recombinant α4β3δ receptors using a reporter mutation and a functional electrophysiological approach. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we inserted a highly characterized 9' serine to leucine mutation into the second transmembrane (M2) region of α4, β3 and δ subunits that increases receptor sensitivity to GABA. Whole-cell, GABA-activated currents were recorded from HEK-293 cells co-expressing different combinations of wild-type (WT) and/or mutant α4(L297S), β3(L284S) and δ(L288S) subunits. Recombinant receptors containing one or more mutant subunits showed increased GABA sensitivity relative to WT receptors by approximately fourfold, independent of the subunit class (α, β or δ) carrying the mutation. GABA dose-response curves of cells co-expressing WT subunits with their respective L9'S mutants exhibited multiple components, with the number of discernible components enabling a subunit stoichiometry of 2α, 2β and 1δ to be deduced for α4β3δ receptors. Varying the cDNA transfection ratio by 10-fold had no significant effect on the number of incorporated δ subunits. Subunit stoichiometry is an important determinant of GABAA receptor function and pharmacology, and δ subunit-containing receptors are important mediators of tonic inhibition in several brain regions. Here we demonstrate a preferred subunit stoichiometry for α4β3δ receptors of 2α, 2β and 1δ. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Genetic analysis of neuronal ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Granger, Adam J; Gray, John A; Lu, Wei; Nicoll, Roger A

    2011-09-01

    In the brain, fast, excitatory synaptic transmission occurs primarily through AMPA- and NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. These receptors are composed of subunit proteins that determine their biophysical properties and trafficking behaviour. Therefore, determining the function of these subunits and receptor subunit composition is essential for understanding the physiological properties of synaptic transmission. Here, we discuss and evaluate various genetic approaches that have been used to study AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits. These approaches have demonstrated that the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is required for activity-dependent trafficking and contributes to basal synaptic transmission, while the GluA2 subunit regulates Ca(2+) permeability, homeostasis and trafficking to the synapse under basal conditions. In contrast, the GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits regulate synaptic AMPA receptor content, both during synaptic development and plasticity. Ongoing research in this field is focusing on the molecular interactions and mechanisms that control these functions. To accomplish this, molecular replacement techniques are being used, where native subunits are replaced with receptors containing targeted mutations. In this review, we discuss a single-cell molecular replacement approach which should arguably advance our physiological understanding of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits, but is generally applicable to study of any neuronal protein.

  10. Quantifying the cooperative subunit action in a multimeric membrane receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wongsamitkul, Nisa; Nache, Vasilica; Eick, Thomas; Hummert, Sabine; Schulz, Eckhard; Schmauder, Ralf; Schirmeyer, Jana; Zimmer, Thomas; Benndorf, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In multimeric membrane receptors the cooperative action of the subunits prevents exact knowledge about the operation and the interaction of the individual subunits. We propose a method that permits quantification of ligand binding to and activation effects of the individual binding sites in a multimeric membrane receptor. The power of this method is demonstrated by gaining detailed insight into the subunit action in olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated CNGA2 ion channels. PMID:26858151

  11. Expression of GABA receptor rho subunits in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Boue-Grabot, E; Roudbaraki, M; Bascles, L; Tramu, G; Bloch, B; Garret, M

    1998-03-01

    The GABA receptor rho1, rho2, and rho3 subunits are expressed in the retina where they form bicuculline-insensitive GABA(C) receptors. We used northern blot, in situ hybridization, and RT-PCR analysis to study the expression of rho subunits in rat brains. In situ hybridization allowed us to detect rho-subunit expression in the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus and in the cerebellar Purkinje cells. RT-PCR experiments indicated that (a) in retina and in domains that may contain functional GABA(C) receptors, rho2 and rho1 subunits are expressed at similar levels; and (b) in domains and in tissues that are unlikely to contain GABA(C) receptors, rho2 mRNA is enriched relative to rho1 mRNA. These results suggest that both rho1 and rho2 subunits are necessary to form a functional GABA(C) receptor. The use of RT-PCR also showed that, except in the superior colliculus, rho3 is expressed along with rho1 and rho2 subunits. We also raised an antibody against a peptide sequence unique to the rho1 subunit. The use of this antibody on cerebellum revealed the rat rho1 subunit in the soma and dendrites of Purkinje neurons. The allocation of GABA(C) receptor subunits to identified neurons paves the way for future electrophysiological studies.

  12. Subunit structure of the follitropin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, J.

    1985-01-01

    Both of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of intact human follitropin (FSH) were radioiodinated with /sup 125/I-FSH-sodium iodide and chloramine-T, and could be resolved on polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE). The electrophoretic mobility of radioiodinated FSH ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits as well as the ..cap alpha beta.. dimer changed markedly depending on the concentration of reducing agents. /sup 125/I-FSH (Ka = 1.4 x 10/sup 10/ M/sup -1/), complexes to the receptor on procine granulosa cells or in Triton X-100 extracts, was affinity-crosslinked with a cleavable (nondisulfide) homobifunctional reagent, bis(2-(succinimidooxycarbonyloxy)ethyl)sulfone, solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate with or without reducing agents, and electrophoresed. Crosslinked samples revealed three additional bands of slower electrophoretic mobility, corresponding to 65 (unreduced 62), 83 (unreduced 76) and 117 (unreduced 110)kDa, in addition to hormone bands. Formation of the three bands requires the /sup 125/I-FSH hormone to bind specifically to the receptor with subsequent cross-linking. The rate of formation and cleavage of the cross-linked complexes indicated a sequential and incremental addition of 22, 18, and 34 kDa components to the FSH ..cap alpha beta.. dimer. The results of reduction of cross-linked complexes demonstrated the existence of disulfide linkage between the three components. FSH was photoactively derivatized with N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of 4-azidobenzolyl-glycine and radioiodinated for photoaffinity labeling. When derivatized /sup 125/I-FSH (Ka = 1.12 10/sup 10/ M/sup -1/) bound to the cell was photolyzed for cross-linking and resolved on the SDS-PAGE, two new bands (106 and 61 kDa) under reducing condition appeared in addition to the hormone bands. Upon reduction with dithiotheitol and second-dimensional electrophoresis, the unreduced 104 kDa (reduced 106 kDa) band released two small components 31 and 14 kDa.

  13. Targeting the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1 subunit of hepatoma HepG2 cell line to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arresting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhong-Wei; Wang, Feng-Mei; Gao, Mo-Jie; Chen, Xiao-Yi; Hu, Wen-Liang; Xu, Rui-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1 subunit is a novel anti-cancer target, which plays pivotal roles in malignant cell ion transport, metabolism, migration and signal transduction. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of ouabain and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1 small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) on HepG2 cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle, and to explore the molecular mechanisms. The expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1 subunit in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), normal liver tissues and human HCC line (HepG2, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7402) has been investigated. Using the ouabain and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1 subunit siRNA, which target the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, we have evaluated the effects of inhibiting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1 in human HepG2 cells with respect to cell proliferation, morphology, cell cycle, impact on intracellular Ca2++, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, and correlated gene expression level on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein. Our data showed that the expression Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1 subunit in HCC tissues is higher than that in normal liver tissues. Ouabain and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1 siRNA could inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation. Ouabain could induce HepG2 cell apoptosis and generate S phase arrest, and siRNA could enhance the anti-cancer effect of ouabain that induced HepG2 cells apoptosis via an intracellular Ca(2+) and ROS increase-mediated, and generated cell cycle S phase arresting by decreasing the CyclinA1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)/proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) complex product and increasing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (P21(CIP1)). We believe that targeting of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1 subunit in human HCC cells could provide new sight into the treatment of HCC.

  14. Specific Roles of NMDA Receptor Subunits in Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, H.; Hagino, Y.; Kasai, S.; Ikeda, K.

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays important roles in learning and memory. NMDA receptors are a tetramer that consists of two glycine-binding subunits GluN1, two glutamate-binding subunits (i.e., GluN2A, GluN2B, GluN2C, and GluN2D), a combination of a GluN2 subunit and glycine-binding GluN3 subunit (i.e., GluN3A or GluN3B), or two GluN3 subunits. Recent studies revealed that the specific expression and distribution of each subunit are deeply involved in neural excitability, plasticity, and synaptic deficits. The present article summarizes reports on the dysfunction of NMDA receptors and responsible subunits in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autoimmune-induced glutamatergic receptor dysfunction, mood disorders, and autism. A key role for the GluN2D subunit in NMDA receptor antagonist-induced psychosis has been recently revealed. PMID:25817860

  15. Monomeric IgG2a promotes maturation of bone-marrow macrophages and expression of the mannose receptor.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, S; Blum, J S; Stenson, W F; MacDermott, R P; Stahl, P D; Teitelbaum, S L; Perkins, S L

    1991-03-01

    The macrophage mannose receptor, a 172-kDa lineage-specific glycoprotein, partakes in nonopsonin-mediated phagocytosis by recognition of terminal mannose residues on targeted particles. Because appearance of the receptor progresses with monocyte/macrophage differentiation, its expression is indicative of the maturational state of the cell. Monomeric IgG2a and IgG2b up-regulate mannose-receptor surface expression and biosynthesis by murine bone-marrow macrophage precursors as much as 7- to 12-fold in a dose-dependent manner. IgG2a accelerates macrophage mannose-receptor expression by several days during in vitro bone-marrow differentiation; however, treated and control cells ultimately express equivalent levels of receptor. Moreover, the effect is independent of cell cycle or ambient levels of colony-stimulating factor 1. The coinduction of another maturation-dependent lineage-specific antigen, F4/80, and the fact that macrophage precursors respond to IgG2a only within the first day of culture, indicate that the targeted cell is an early myelomonocytic precursor, responsive only during a short, early developmental window. The effect is specific for immunoglobulin molecules of the IgG2a and IgG2b subclasses and probably involves an Fc gamma-receptor signal-transduction pathway but not macrophage priming or activation. Most importantly, a paracrine mechanism of immunoglobulin-mediated bone-marrow macrophage differentiation is suggested by experiments in which basal levels of mannose-receptor expression are reduced by continual removal of B-cell-generated IgG from marrow cultures. Thus, IgG2a and IgG2b prompt mannose-receptor synthesis and bone-marrow macrophage differentiation and may, therefore, play a role in the regulation of macrophage differentiation in host defense.

  16. Glycine receptor subunits expression in the developing rat retina.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Velázquez-Flores, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz Esparza-Garrido, Ruth; Salceda, Rocío

    2017-09-01

    Glycine receptor (GlyR) consists of two α (1-4) and three β subunits. Considerable evidence indicates that the adult retina expresses the four types of α subunits; however, the proportion of these subunits in adult and immature retina is almost unknown. In this report we have studied mRNA and the protein expression of GlyR subunits in the retina during postnatal rat development by Real-Time qRT-PCR and western blot. mRNA and protein expression indicated a gradual increase of the α1, α3, α4 and β GlyR subunits during postnatal ages tested. The mRNA β subunit showed higher expression levels (∼3 fold) than those observed for the α1 and α3 subunits. Very interestingly, the α2 GlyR subunit had the highest expression in the retina, even in the adult. These results revealed the expression of GlyR at early postnatal ages, supporting its role in retina development. In addition, our results indicated that the adult retina expressed a high proportion of the α2 subunit, suggesting the expression of monomeric and/or heteromeric receptors. A variety of studies are needed to further characterize the role of the specific subunits in both adult and immature retina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mutational analysis of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit assembly

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The structural elements required for normal maturation and assembly of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit were investigated by expression of mutated subunits in transfected fibroblasts. Normally, the wild-type alpha subunit acquires high affinity alpha bungarotoxin binding in a time-dependent manner; however, mutation of the 128 and/or 142 cysteines to either serine or alanine, as well as deletion of the entire 14 amino acids in this region abolished all detectable high affinity binding. Nonglycosylated subunits that had a serine to glycine mutation in the consensus sequence also did not efficiently attain high affinity binding to toxin. In contrast, mutation of the proline at position 136 to glycine or alanine, or a double mutation of the cysteines at position 192 and 193 to serines had no effect on the acquisition of high affinity toxin binding. These data suggest that a disulfide bridge between cysteines 128 and 142 and oligosaccharide addition at asparagine 141 are required for the normal maturation of alpha subunit as assayed by high affinity toxin binding. The unassembled wild-type alpha subunit expressed in fibroblasts is normally degraded with a t1/2 of 2 h; upon assembly with the delta subunit, the degradation rate slows significantly (t1/2 greater than 13 h). All mutated alpha subunits retained the capacity to assemble with a delta subunit coexpressed in fibroblasts; however, mutated alpha subunits that were not glycosylated or did not acquire high affinity toxin binding were rapidly degraded (t1/2 = 20 min to 2 h) regardless of whether or not they assembled with the delta subunit. Assembly and rapid degradation of nonglycosylated acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits and subunit complexes were also observed in tunicamycin- treated BC3H-1 cells, a mouse musclelike cell line that normally expresses functional AChR. Hence, rapid degradation may be one form of regulation assuring that only correctly processed and assembled subunits

  18. Expression of glutamate receptor subunits in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Stepulak, Andrzej; Luksch, Hella; Gebhardt, Christine; Uckermann, Ortrud; Marzahn, Jenny; Sifringer, Marco; Rzeski, Wojciech; Staufner, Christian; Brocke, Katja S; Turski, Lechoslaw; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2009-10-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a role for glutamate and its receptors in the biology of cancer. This study was designed to systematically analyze the expression of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subunits in various human cancer cell lines, compare expression levels to those in human brain tissue and, using electrophysiological techniques, explore whether cancer cells respond to glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists. Expression analysis of glutamate receptor subunits NR1-NR3B, GluR1-GluR7, KA1, KA2 and mGluR1-mGluR8 was performed by means of RT-PCR in human rhabdomyosarcoma/medulloblastoma (TE671), neuroblastoma (SK-NA-S), thyroid carcinoma (FTC 238), lung carcinoma (SK-LU-1), astrocytoma (MOGGCCM), multiple myeloma (RPMI 8226), glioma (U87-MG and U343), lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT 29), T cell leukemia cells (Jurkat E6.1), breast carcinoma (T47D) and colon adenocarcinoma (LS180). Analysis revealed that all glutamate receptor subunits were differentially expressed in the tumor cell lines. For the majority of tumors, expression levels of NR2B, GluR4, GluR6 and KA2 were lower compared to human brain tissue. Confocal imaging revealed that selected glutamate receptor subunit proteins were expressed in tumor cells. By means of patch-clamp analysis, it was shown that A549 and TE671 cells depolarized in response to application of glutamate agonists and that this effect was reversed by glutamate receptor antagonists. This study reveals that glutamate receptor subunits are differentially expressed in human tumor cell lines at the mRNA and the protein level, and that their expression is associated with the formation of functional channels. The potential role of glutamate receptor antagonists in cancer therapy is a feasible goal to be explored in clinical trials.

  19. GABAB(1) receptor subunit isoforms differentially regulate stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Olivia F.; Felice, Daniela; Galimberti, Stefano; Savignac, Hélène M.; Bravo, Javier A.; Crowley, Tadhg; El Yacoubi, Malika; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events increase the susceptibility to developing psychiatric disorders such as depression; however, many individuals are resilient to such negative effects of stress. Determining the neurobiology underlying this resilience is instrumental to the development of novel and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. GABAB receptors are emerging therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders such as depression. These receptors are predominantly expressed as heterodimers of a GABAB(2) subunit with either a GABAB(1a) or a GABAB(1b) subunit. Here we show that mice lacking the GABAB(1b) receptor isoform are more resilient to both early-life stress and chronic psychosocial stress in adulthood, whereas mice lacking GABAB(1a) receptors are more susceptible to stress-induced anhedonia and social avoidance compared with wild-type mice. In addition, increased hippocampal expression of the GABAB(1b) receptor subunit is associated with a depression-like phenotype in the helpless H/Rouen genetic mouse model of depression. Stress resilience in GABAB(1b)−/− mice is coupled with increased proliferation and survival of newly born cells in the adult ventral hippocampus and increased stress-induced c-Fos activation in the hippocampus following early-life stress. Taken together, the data suggest that GABAB(1) receptor subunit isoforms differentially regulate the deleterious effects of stress and, thus, may be important therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression. PMID:25288769

  20. Subunit structure of the acetylcholine receptor from Electrophorus electricus.

    PubMed

    Conti-Tronconi, B M; Hunkapiller, M W; Lindstrom, J M; Raftery, M A

    1982-11-01

    The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the four major peptides (Mr 41,000, 50,000, 55,000, and 62,000) present in purified preparations of Electrophorus electricus nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) have been determined for 24 cycles by automated sequence analysis procedures yielding four unique polypeptide sequences. The sequences showed a high degree of similarity, having identical residues in a number of positions ranging between 37% and 50% for specific pairs of subunits. Comparison of the sequences obtained with those of the subunits of similar molecular weight from Torpedo californica AcChoR revealed an even higher degree of homology (from 46% to 71%) for these two highly diverged species. Simultaneous sequence analysis of the amino termini present in native, purified Electrophorus AcChoR showed that these four related sequences were the only ones present and that they occur in a ratio of 2:1:1:1, with the smallest subunit ("alpha 1") being present in two copies. Genealogical analysis suggests that the subunits of both Torpedo and Electrophorus AcChoRs derive from a common ancestral gene, the divergence having occurred early in the evolution of the receptor. This shared ancestry and the very early divergence of the four subunits, as well as the highly conserved structure of the AcChoR complex along animal evolution, suggest that each of the subunits evolved to perform discrete crucial roles in the physiological function of the AcChoR.

  1. The Signal Peptide of the Junín Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Is Myristoylated and Forms an Essential Subunit of the Mature G1-G2 Complex

    PubMed Central

    York, Joanne; Romanowski, Victor; Lu, Min; Nunberg, Jack H.

    2004-01-01

    Arenaviruses comprise a diverse family of rodent-borne viruses that are responsible for recurring and emerging outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. The Junín virus, a member of the New World arenaviruses, is endemic to the pampas grasslands of Argentina and is the etiologic agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. In this study, we have analyzed the assembly and function of the Junín virus envelope glycoproteins. The mature envelope glycoprotein complex is proteolytically processed from the GP-C precursor polypeptide and consists of three noncovalently associated subunits, G1, G2, and a stable 58-amino-acid signal peptide. This tripartite organization is found both on virions of the attenuated Candid 1 strain and in cells expressing the pathogenic MC2 strain GP-C gene. Replacement of the Junín virus GP-C signal peptide with that of human CD4 has little effect on glycoprotein assembly while abolishing the ability of the G1-G2 complex to mediate pH-dependent cell-cell fusion. In addition, we demonstrate that the Junín virus GP-C signal peptide subunit is myristoylated at its N-terminal glycine. Alanine substitution for the modified glycine residue in the GP-C signal peptide does not affect formation of the tripartite envelope glycoprotein complex but markedly reduces its membrane fusion activity. In contrast to the classical view that signal peptides act primarily in targeting nascent polypeptides to the endoplasmic reticulum, we suggest that the signal peptide of the arenavirus GP-C may serve additional functions in envelope glycoprotein structure and trafficking. PMID:15367645

  2. Adaptation of HepG2 cells to a steady-state reduction in the content of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) catalytic subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, Joan M.; Salomon, Arthur R.; Tantravahi, Umadevi; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2015-07-15

    Protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr phosphatase involved in an array of cellular processes. To assess the potential of PP6 as a therapeutic target in liver disorders, we attenuated expression of the PP6 catalytic subunit in HepG2 cells using lentiviral-transduced shRNA. Two PP6 knock-down (PP6KD) cell lines (90% reduction of PP6-C protein content) were studied in depth. Both proliferated at a rate similar to control cells. However, flow cytometry indicated G2/M cell cycle arrest that was accounted for by a shift of the cells from a diploid to tetraploid state. PP6KD cells did not show an increase in apoptosis, nor did they exhibit reduced viability in the presence of bleomycin or taxol. Gene expression analysis by microarray showed attenuated anti-inflammatory signaling. Genes associated with DNA replication were downregulated. Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic analysis yielded 80 phosphopeptides representing 56 proteins that were significantly affected by a stable reduction in PP6-C. Proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA damage repair and pre-mRNA splicing were overrepresented among these. PP6KD cells showed intact mTOR signaling. Our studies demonstrated involvement of PP6 in a diverse set of biological pathways and an adaptive response that may limit the effectiveness of targeting PP6 in liver disorders. - Highlights: • Lentiviral-transduced shRNA was used to generate a stable knockdown of PP6 in HepG2 cells. • Cells adapted to reduced PP6; cell proliferation was unaffected, and cell survival was normal. • However, PP6 knockdown was associated with a transition to a tetraploid state. • Genomic profiling showed downregulated anti-inflammatory signaling and DNA replication. • Phosphoproteomic profiling showed changes in proteins associated with DNA replication and repair.

  3. Binding interactions with the complementary subunit of nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Blum, Angela P; Van Arnam, Ethan B; German, Laurel A; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2013-03-08

    The agonist-binding site of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) spans an interface between two subunits of the pentameric receptor. The principal component of this binding site is contributed by an α subunit, and it binds the cationic moiety of the nicotinic pharmacophore. The other part of the pharmacophore, a hydrogen bond acceptor, has recently been shown to bind to the complementary non-α subunit via the backbone NH of a conserved Leu. This interaction was predicted by studies of ACh-binding proteins and confirmed by functional studies of the neuronal (CNS) nAChR, α4β2. The ACh-binding protein structures further suggested that the hydrogen bond to the backbone NH is mediated by a water molecule and that a second hydrogen bonding interaction occurs between the water molecule and the backbone CO of a conserved Asn, also on the non-α subunit. Here, we provide new insights into the nature of the interactions between the hydrogen bond acceptor of nicotinic agonists and the complementary subunit backbone. We studied both the nAChR of the neuromuscular junction (muscle-type) and a neuronal subtype, (α4)2(β4)3. In the muscle-type receptor, both ACh and nicotine showed a strong interaction with the Leu NH, but the potent nicotine analog epibatidine did not. This interaction was much attenuated in the α4β4 receptor. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for a functionally significant interaction with the backbone carbonyl of the relevant Asn in either receptor with an array of agonists.

  4. Serotonergic modulation of muscle acetylcholine receptors of different subunit composition.

    PubMed Central

    García-Colunga, J; Miledi, R

    1996-01-01

    Modulation of muscle acetylcholine (AcCho) receptors (AcChoRs) by serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)] and other serotonergic compounds was studied in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Various combinations of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunit RNAs were injected into oocytes, and membrane currents elicited by AcCho were recorded under voltage clamp. Judging by the amplitudes of AcCho currents generated, the levels of functional receptor expression were: alpha beta gamma delta > alpha beta delta > alpha beta gamma > alpha gamma delta. The alpha beta gamma delta and alpha beta delta AcChoR Subtypes were strongly blocked by 5HT, whereas the alpha beta gamma receptor was blocked only slightly. The order of blocking potency of AcChoRs by 5HT was: alpha beta delta > alpha beta gamma delta > alpha beta gamma. 5HT receptor antagonists, such as methysergide and spiperone, were even more potent blockers of AcChoRs than 5HT but did not show much subunit selectivity. Blockage of alpha beta gamma delta and alpha beta delta receptors by 5HT was voltage-dependent, and the voltage dependence was abolished when the delta subunit was omitted. These findings may need to be taken into consideration when trying to elucidate the mode of action of many clinically important serotonergic compounds. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8633003

  5. Subunit-Specific Trafficking of GABAA Receptors during Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Goodkin, Howard P.; Joshi, Suchitra; Mtchedlishvili, Zakaria; Brar, Jasmit; Kapur, Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed that a reduced surface expression of GABAA receptors (GABARs) contributes to the pathogenesis of status epilepticus (SE), a condition characterized by prolonged seizures. This hypothesis was based on the finding that prolonged epileptiform bursting (repetitive bursts of prolonged depolarizations with superimposed action potentials) in cultures of dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons (dissociated cultures) results in the increased intracellular accumulation of GABARs. However, it is not known whether this rapid modification in the surface-expressed GABAR pool results from selective, subunit-dependent or nonselective, subunit-independent internalization of GABARs. In hippocampal slices obtained from animals undergoing prolonged SE (SE-treated slices), we found that the surface expression of the GABARβ2/3 and γ2 subunits was reduced, whereas that of the δ subunit was not. Complementary electrophysiological recordings from dentate granule cells in SE-treated slices demonstrated a reduction in GABAR-mediated synaptic inhibition, but not tonic inhibition. A reduction in the surface expression of the γ2 subunit, but not the δ subunit was also observed in dissociated cultures and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures when incubated in an elevated KCl external medium or an elevated KCl external medium supplemented with NMDA, respectively. Additional studies demonstrated that the reduction in the surface expression of the γ2 subunit was independent of direct ligand binding of the GABAR. These findings demonstrate that the regulation of surface-expressed GABAR pool during SE is subunit-specific and occurs independent of ligand binding. The differential modulation of the surface expression of GABARs during SE has potential implications for the treatment of this neurological emergency. PMID:18322097

  6. The Biochemistry, Ultrastructure, and Subunit Assembly Mechanism of AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA-Rs) are tetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that play crucial roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Our knowledge about the ultrastructure and subunit assembly mechanisms of intact AMPA-Rs was very limited. However, the new studies using single particle EM and X-ray crystallography are revealing important insights. For example, the tetrameric crystal structure of the GluA2cryst construct provided the atomic view of the intact receptor. In addition, the single particle EM structures of the subunit assembly intermediates revealed the conformational requirement for the dimer-to-tetramer transition during the maturation of AMPA-Rs. These new data in the field provide new models and interpretations. In the brain, the native AMPA-R complexes contain auxiliary subunits that influence subunit assembly, gating, and trafficking of the AMPA-Rs. Understanding the mechanisms of the auxiliary subunits will become increasingly important to precisely describe the function of AMPA-Rs in the brain. The AMPA-R proteomics studies continuously reveal a previously unexpected degree of molecular heterogeneity of the complex. Because the AMPA-Rs are important drug targets for treating various neurological and psychiatric diseases, it is likely that these new native complexes will require detailed mechanistic analysis in the future. The current ultrastructural data on the receptors and the receptor-expressing stable cell lines that were developed during the course of these studies are useful resources for high throughput drug screening and further drug designing. Moreover, we are getting closer to understanding the precise mechanisms of AMPA-R-mediated synaptic plasticity. PMID:21080238

  7. Subunit structure of the acetylcholine receptor from Electrophorus electricus.

    PubMed Central

    Conti-Tronconi, B M; Hunkapiller, M W; Lindstrom, J M; Raftery, M A

    1982-01-01

    The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the four major peptides (Mr 41,000, 50,000, 55,000, and 62,000) present in purified preparations of Electrophorus electricus nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) have been determined for 24 cycles by automated sequence analysis procedures yielding four unique polypeptide sequences. The sequences showed a high degree of similarity, having identical residues in a number of positions ranging between 37% and 50% for specific pairs of subunits. Comparison of the sequences obtained with those of the subunits of similar molecular weight from Torpedo californica AcChoR revealed an even higher degree of homology (from 46% to 71%) for these two highly diverged species. Simultaneous sequence analysis of the amino termini present in native, purified Electrophorus AcChoR showed that these four related sequences were the only ones present and that they occur in a ratio of 2:1:1:1, with the smallest subunit ("alpha 1") being present in two copies. Genealogical analysis suggests that the subunits of both Torpedo and Electrophorus AcChoRs derive from a common ancestral gene, the divergence having occurred early in the evolution of the receptor. This shared ancestry and the very early divergence of the four subunits, as well as the highly conserved structure of the AcChoR complex along animal evolution, suggest that each of the subunits evolved to perform discrete crucial roles in the physiological function of the AcChoR. Images PMID:6959131

  8. Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard J.; Adams, Julian J.; Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Wan, Yu; McKinstry, William J.; Palethorpe, Kathryn; Seeber, Ruth M.; Monks, Thea A.; Eidne, Karin A.; Parker, Michael W.; Waters, Michael J.

    2010-07-13

    Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.

  9. Stable overexpression of pregnane X receptor in HepG2 cells increases its potential for bioartificial liver application.

    PubMed

    Nibourg, Geert A A; Huisman, Maarten T; van der Hoeven, Tessa V; van Gulik, Thomas M; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2010-09-01

    To bridge patients with acute liver failure to transplantation or liver regeneration, a bioartificial liver (BAL) is urgently needed. A BAL consists of an extracorporeal bioreactor loaded with a bioactive mass that would preferably be of human origin and display high hepatic functionality, including detoxification. The human hepatoma cell line HepG2 exhibits many hepatic functions, but its detoxification function is low. In this study, we investigated whether stable overexpression of pregnane X receptor (PXR), a master regulator of diverse detoxification functions in the liver [eg, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity], would increase the potential of HepG2 for BAL application. Stable overexpression was achieved by lentiviral expression of the human PXR gene, which yielded cell line cBAL119. In monolayer cultures of cBAL119 cells, PXR transcript levels increased 29-fold versus HepG2 cells. Upon activation of PXR by rifampicin, the messenger RNA levels of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 increased 49- to 213-fold versus HepG2 cells. According to reporter gene assays with different inducers, the highest increase in CYP3A4 promoter activity (131-fold) was observed upon induction with rifampicin. Inside BALs, the proliferation rates, as measured by the DNA content, were comparable between the 2 cell lines. The rate of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation, a measure of CYP3A function inside BALs, increased 4-fold in cBAL119 BALs versus HepG2 BALs. Other functions, such as apolipoprotein A1 synthesis, urea synthesis, glucose consumption, and lactate production, remained unchanged or increased. Thus, stable PXR overexpression markedly increases the potential of HepG2 for BAL application. (c) 2010 AASLD.

  10. Molecular Pathology of Genetic Epilepsies Associated with GABAA Receptor Subunit Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Robert L; Kang, Jing-Qiong

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in ligand-gated ion channel genes associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies have been reported in excitatory acetylcholine receptor α4 and β2 subunit genes linked to autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy and in inhibitory GABAA receptor α1, β3, γ2, and δ subunit genes associated with childhood absence epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, pure febrile seizures, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, and generalized epilepsy with tonic–clonic seizures. Recent studies suggest that these mutations alter receptor function or biogenesis, including impaired receptor subunit messenger RNA stability, receptor subunit protein folding and stability, receptor assembly, and receptor trafficking. PMID:19396344

  11. Knockdown of Decoy Receptor 3 Impairs Growth and Invasiveness of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line of HepG2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Na; Li, Guang-Ming; Xu, Ying-Chen; Zhao, Tuan-Jie; Wu, Ji-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) binds to Fas ligand (FasL) and inhibits FasL-induced apoptosis. The receptor is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and it is associated with the growth and metastatic spread of tumors. DcR3 holds promises as a new target for the treatment of HCC, but little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the oncogenic properties of DcR3. The present work, therefore, examined the role of DcR3 in regulating the growth and invasive property of liver cancer cell HepG2. Methods: HepG2 cells were stably transfected with lentivirus-based short hairpin RNA vector targeting DcR3. After the knockdown of DcR3 was confirmed, cell proliferation, clone formation, ability of migrating across transwell membrane, and wound healing were assessed in vitro. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP 9) and vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and D expressions of the DcR3 knockdown were also studied. Comparisons between multiple groups were done using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), while pairwise comparisons were performed using Student's t test. P < 0.05 was regarded statistically significant. Results: DcR3 was overexpressed in HepG2 compared to other HCC cell lines and normal hepatocyte Lo-2. Stable knockdown of DcR3 slowed down the growth of HepG2 (P < 0.05) and reduced the number of clones formed by 50% compared to those without DcR3 knockdown (P < 0.05). The knockdown also reduced the migration of HepG2 across transwell matrix membrane by five folds compared to the control (P < 0.05) and suppressed the closure of scratch wound (P < 0.05). In addition, the messenger RNA levels of MMP 9, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D were significantly suppressed by DcR3 knockdown by 90% when compared with the mock control (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Loss of DcR3 impaired the growth and invasive property of HCC cell line of HepG2. Targeting DcR3 may be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of HCC. PMID:27779171

  12. The multifaceted subunit interfaces of ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Green, Tim; Nayeem, Naushaba

    2015-01-01

    The past fifteen years has seen a revolution in our understanding of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) structure, starting with the first view of the ligand binding domain (LBD) published in 1998, and in many ways culminating in the publication of the full-length structure of GluA2 in 2009. These reports have revealed not only the central role played by subunit interfaces in iGluR function, but also myriad binding sites within interfaces for endogenous and exogenous factors. Changes in the conformation of inter-subunit interfaces are central to transmission of ligand gating into pore opening (itself a rearrangement of interfaces), and subsequent closure through desensitization. With the exception of the agonist binding site, which is located entirely within individual subunits, almost all modulatory factors affecting iGluRs appear to bind to sites in subunit interfaces. This review seeks to summarize what we currently understand about the diverse roles interfaces play in iGluR function, and to highlight questions for future research.

  13. The multifaceted subunit interfaces of ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Green, Tim; Nayeem, Naushaba

    2014-06-06

    The past fifteen years has seen a revolution in our understanding of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) structure, starting with the first view of the ligand binding domain (LBD) published in 1998, and in many ways culminating in the publication of the full-length structure of GluA2 in 2009. These reports have revealed not only the central role played by subunit interfaces in iGluR function, but also myriad binding sites within interfaces for endogenous and exogenous factors. Changes in the conformation of inter-subunit interfaces are central to transmission of ligand gating into pore opening (itself a rearrangement of interfaces), and subsequent closure through desensitization. With the exception of the agonist binding site, which is located entirely within individual subunits, almost all modulatory factors affecting iGluRs appear to bind to sites in subunit interfaces. This review seeks to summarize what we currently understand about the diverse roles interfaces play in iGluR function, and to highlight questions for future research.

  14. Galangin suppresses HepG2 cell proliferation by activating the TGF-β receptor/Smad pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajun; Wu, Jun; Lin, Biyun; Li, Xv; Zhang, Haitao; Ding, Hang; Chen, Xiaoyi; Lan, Liubo; Luo, Hui

    2014-12-04

    Galangin can suppress hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrated that galangin induced autophagy by activating the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptor/Smad pathway and increased TGF-β receptor I (RI), TGF-βRII, Smad1, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4 levels but decreased Smad6 and Smad7 levels. Autophagy induced by galangin appears to depend on the TGF-β receptor/Smad signalling pathway because the down-regulation of Smad4 by siRNA or inhibition of TGF-β receptor activation by LY2109761 blocked galangin-induced autophagy. The down-regulation of Beclin1, autophagy-related gene (ATG) 16L, ATG12 and ATG3 restored HepG2 cell proliferation and prevented galangin-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate a novel mechanism for galangin-induced autophagy via activation of the TGF-β receptor/Smad pathway. The induction of autophagy thus reflects the anti-proliferation effect of galangin on HCC cells.

  15. Cornichon proteins determine the subunit composition of synaptic AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Herring, Bruce E; Shi, Yun; Suh, Young Ho; Zheng, Chan-Ying; Blankenship, Sabine M; Roche, Katherine W; Nicoll, Roger A

    2013-03-20

    Cornichon-2 and cornichon-3 (CNIH-2/-3) are AMPA receptor (AMPAR) binding proteins that promote receptor trafficking and markedly slow AMPAR deactivation in heterologous cells, but their role in neurons is unclear. Using CNIH-2 and CNIH-3 conditional knockout mice, we find a profound reduction of AMPAR synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. This deficit is due to the selective loss of surface GluA1-containing AMPARs (GluA1A2 heteromers), leaving a small residual pool of synaptic GluA2A3 heteromers. The kinetics of AMPARs in neurons lacking CNIH-2/-3 are faster than those in WT neurons due to the fast kinetics of GluA2A3 heteromers. The remarkably selective effect of CNIHs on the GluA1 subunit is probably mediated by TARP γ-8, which prevents a functional association of CNIHs with non-GluA1 subunits. These results point to a sophisticated interplay between CNIHs and γ-8 that dictates subunit-specific AMPAR trafficking and the strength and kinetics of synaptic AMPAR-mediated transmission.

  16. Induction of Fas receptor and Fas ligand by nodularin is mediated by NF-{kappa}B in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Gong; Li Ying; Bai Yansheng

    2011-03-15

    Nodularin is a natural toxin with multiple features, including inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A as well as tumor initiator and promoter. One unique feature of nodularin is that this chemical is a hepatotoxin. It can accumulate into the liver after contact and lead to severe damage to hepatocyte, such as apoptosis. Fas receptor (Fas) and Fas ligand (FasL) system is a critical signaling network triggering apoptosis. In current study, we investigated whether nodularin can induce Fas and FasL expression in HepG2 cell, a well used in vitro model for the study of human hepatocytes. Our data showed nodularin induced Fas and FasL expression, at both mRNA and protein level, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We also found nodularin induced apoptosis at the concentration and incubation time that Fas and FasL were significantly induced. Neutralizing antibody to FasL reduced nodularin-induced apoptosis. Further studies demonstrated that nodularin promoted nuclear translocation and activation of p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B. By applying siRNA targeting p65, which knocked down p65 in HepG2 cells, we successfully impaired the activation of NF-{kappa}B by nodularin. In these p65 knockdown cells, we observed that Fas and FasL expression and apoptosis induced by nodularin were significantly reduced. These findings suggest the induction of Fas and FasL expression and thus cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells by nodularin is mediated through NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  17. GABAA receptors are differentially sensitive to zinc: dependence on subunit composition.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, T. G.; Moss, S. J.; Xie, X.; Huganir, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    GABAA receptors with different subunit composition, were expressed in kidney cells and studied by whole cell recording. Expressed GABAA receptors were differentially sensitive to inhibition by zinc; receptors which lacked the gamma subunit were inhibited by zinc. Embryonic neurons also exhibited zinc-sensitive GABA responses, in contrast to adult neurones. This developmentally-sensitive aspect of GABAA receptor pharmacology may be partly dependent on expression of the gamma subunit. PMID:1655141

  18. Differential Contribution of Subunit Interfaces to α9α10 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function.

    PubMed

    Boffi, Juan Carlos; Marcovich, Irina; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K; Corradi, Jeremías; Collins, Toby; Lipovsek, María Marcela; Moglie, Marcelo; Plazas, Paola V; Craig, Patricio O; Millar, Neil S; Bouzat, Cecilia; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén

    2017-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can be assembled from either homomeric or heteromeric pentameric subunit combinations. At the interface of the extracellular domains of adjacent subunits lies the acetylcholine binding site, composed of a principal component provided by one subunit and a complementary component of the adjacent subunit. Compared with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine cholinergic receptors (nAChRs) assembled from α and β subunits, the α9α10 receptor is an atypical member of the family. It is a heteromeric receptor composed only of α subunits. Whereas mammalian α9 subunits can form functional homomeric α9 receptors, α10 subunits do not generate functional channels when expressed heterologously. Hence, it has been proposed that α10 might serve as a structural subunit, much like a β subunit of heteromeric nAChRs, providing only complementary components to the agonist binding site. Here, we have made use of site-directed mutagenesis to examine the contribution of subunit interface domains to α9α10 receptors by a combination of electrophysiological and radioligand binding studies. Characterization of receptors containing Y190T mutations revealed unexpectedly that both α9 and α10 subunits equally contribute to the principal components of the α9α10 nAChR. In addition, we have shown that the introduction of a W55T mutation impairs receptor binding and function in the rat α9 subunit but not in the α10 subunit, indicating that the contribution of α9 and α10 subunits to complementary components of the ligand-binding site is nonequivalent. We conclude that this asymmetry, which is supported by molecular docking studies, results from adaptive amino acid changes acquired only during the evolution of mammalian α10 subunits.

  19. Differential Contribution of Subunit Interfaces to α9α10 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Boffi, Juan Carlos; Marcovich, Irina; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K.; Corradi, Jeremías; Collins, Toby; Lipovsek, María Marcela; Moglie, Marcelo; Plazas, Paola V.; Craig, Patricio O.; Millar, Neil S.; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can be assembled from either homomeric or heteromeric pentameric subunit combinations. At the interface of the extracellular domains of adjacent subunits lies the acetylcholine binding site, composed of a principal component provided by one subunit and a complementary component of the adjacent subunit. Compared with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine cholinergic receptors (nAChRs) assembled from α and β subunits, the α9α10 receptor is an atypical member of the family. It is a heteromeric receptor composed only of α subunits. Whereas mammalian α9 subunits can form functional homomeric α9 receptors, α10 subunits do not generate functional channels when expressed heterologously. Hence, it has been proposed that α10 might serve as a structural subunit, much like a β subunit of heteromeric nAChRs, providing only complementary components to the agonist binding site. Here, we have made use of site-directed mutagenesis to examine the contribution of subunit interface domains to α9α10 receptors by a combination of electrophysiological and radioligand binding studies. Characterization of receptors containing Y190T mutations revealed unexpectedly that both α9 and α10 subunits equally contribute to the principal components of the α9α10 nAChR. In addition, we have shown that the introduction of a W55T mutation impairs receptor binding and function in the rat α9 subunit but not in the α10 subunit, indicating that the contribution of α9 and α10 subunits to complementary components of the ligand-binding site is nonequivalent. We conclude that this asymmetry, which is supported by molecular docking studies, results from adaptive amino acid changes acquired only during the evolution of mammalian α10 subunits. PMID:28069778

  20. Respiratory and behavioral dysfunction following loss of the GABAA receptor α4 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Loria, C Jean; Stevens, Ashley M; Crummy, Ellen; Casadesus, Gemma; Jacono, Frank J; Dick, Thomas E; Siegel, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor plasticity participates in mediating adaptation to environmental change. Previous studies in rats demonstrated that extrasynaptic GABAA receptor subunits and receptors in the pons, a brainstem region involved in respiratory control, are upregulated by exposure to sustained hypobaric hypoxia. In these animals, expression of the mRNA encoding the extrasynaptic α4 subunit rose after 3 days in sustained hypoxia, while those encoding the α6 and δ subunits increased dramatically by 2 weeks. However, the participation of extrasynaptic subunits in maintaining respiration in normoxic conditions remains unknown. To examine the importance of α4 in a normal environment, respiratory function, motor and anxiety-like behaviors, and expression of other GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs were compared in wild-type (WT) and α4 subunit-deficient mice. Loss of the α4 subunit did not impact frequency, but did lead to reduced ventilatory pattern variability. In addition, mice lacking the subunit exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior. Finally, α4 subunit loss resulted in reduced expression of other extrasynaptic (α6 and δ) subunit mRNAs in the pons without altering those encoding the most prominent synaptic subunits. These findings on subunit-deficient mice maintained in normoxia, in conjunction with earlier findings on animals maintained in chronic hypoxia, suggest that the expression and regulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptor subunits in the pons is interdependent and that their levels influence respiratory control as well as adaptation to stress. PMID:23533098

  1. Screening for AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit specific modulators

    PubMed Central

    Azumaya, Caleigh M.; Days, Emily L.; Vinson, Paige N.; Stauffer, Shaun; Sulikowski, Gary; Weaver, C. David; Nakagawa, Terunaga

    2017-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPAR) are ligand gated ion channels critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. Their dysfunction is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurological diseases ranging from major depressive disorder to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Attempting to potentiate or depress AMPAR activity is an inherently difficult balancing act between effective treatments and debilitating side effects. A newly explored strategy to target subsets of AMPARs in the central nervous system is to identify compounds that affect specific AMPAR-auxiliary subunit complexes. This exploits diverse spatio-temporal expression patterns of known AMPAR auxiliary subunits, providing means for designing brain region-selective compounds. Here we report a high-throughput screening-based pipeline that can identify compounds that are selective for GluA2-CNIH3 and GluA2-stargazin complexes. These compounds will help us build upon the growing library of AMPAR-auxiliary subunit specific inhibitors, which have thus far all been targeted to TARP γ-8. We used a cell-based assay combined with a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) to identify changes in glutamate-gated cation flow across the membranes of HEK cells co-expressing GluA2 and an auxiliary subunit. We then used a calcium flux assay to further validate hits picked from the VSD assay. VU0612951 and VU0627849 are candidate compounds from the initial screen that were identified as negative and positive allosteric modulators (NAM and PAM), respectively. They both have lower IC50/EC50s on complexes containing stargazin and CNIH3 than GSG1L or the AMPAR alone. We have also identified a candidate compound, VU0539491, that has NAM activity in GluA2(R)-CNIH3 and GluA2(Q) complexes and PAM activity in GluA2(Q)-GSG1L complexes. PMID:28358902

  2. Genistein and daidzein induced apoA-1 transactivation in hepG2 cells expressing oestrogen receptor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Yee M; Leung, Lai K

    2008-05-01

    Studies have shown that soya consumption has been associated with low incidence of CVD. Because the chemical structures of soya isoflavones are similar to oestrogen, the beneficial outcome may be attributed to the oestrogenicity of these compounds. In this study, effect of the soya isoflavone genistein on the mRNA expression of apoA-1 in the human hepatoma HepG2 cell was investigated. Without oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha transfection, soya isoflavones in the physiological range had no effect on the apoA-1 transcription. Once ERalpha was ectopically expressed in these cells, soya isoflavone dramatically increased the apoA-1 mRNA abundance quantified by real-time PCR. ApoA-1-reporter assays with plasmid constructed from the 5'-flanking segment upstream to the coding region revealed that the transactivation of the apoA-1 promoter was induced by the soya isoflavone in HepG2 cells expressing ERalpha. This induction was reduced by the anti-oestrogen ICI 182780, but not the inhibitors of protein kinase (PK) C, PKA, or mitogen-activated PK. Based on the previously identified response elements on the promoter, a series of truncated promoter reporter plasmids were then constructed. An induction profile of genistein was built and insulin response core element at -411 to -404 appeared to be a potential site of interaction. This study illustrated that soya isoflavones at physiological concentrations could up regulate apoA-1 mRNA expression in ERalpha-transfected HepG2 cells.

  3. Identification of New Agonists and Antagonists of the Insect Odorant Receptor Co-Receptor Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sisi; Luetje, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insects detect attractive and aversive chemicals using several families of chemosensory receptors, including the OR family of olfactory receptors, making these receptors appealing targets for the control of insects. Insect ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, comprised of at least one common subunit (the odorant receptor co-receptor subunit, Orco) and at least one variable odorant specificity subunit. Each of the many ORs of an insect species is activated or inhibited by an unique set of odorants that interact with the variable odorant specificity subunits, making the development of OR directed insect control agents complex and laborious. However, several N-,2-substituted triazolothioacetamide compounds (VUAA1, VU0450667 and VU0183254) were recently shown to act directly on the highly conserved Orco subunit, suggesting that broadly active compounds can be developed. We have explored the chemical space around the VUAA1 structure in order to identify new Orco ligands. Principal Findings We screened ORs from several insect species, using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes and an electrophysiological assay, with a panel of 22 compounds structurally related to VUAA1. By varying the nitrogen position in the pyridine ring and altering the moieties decorating the phenyl ring, we identified two new agonists and a series of competitive antagonists. Screening smaller compounds, similar to portions of the VUAA1 structure, also yielded competitive antagonists. Importantly, we show that Orco antagonists inhibit odorant activation of ORs from several insect species. Detailed examination of one antagonist demonstrated inhibition to be through a non-competitive mechanism. Conclusions A similar pattern of agonist and antagonist sensitivity displayed by Orco subunits from different species suggests a highly conserved binding site structure. The susceptibility to inhibition of odorant activation by Orco antagonism is conserved across disparate insect species

  4. Early expression of GABA(A) receptor delta subunit in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Didelon, F; Mladinic', M; Cherubini, E; Bradbury, A

    2000-12-01

    The cDNA library screening strategy was used to identify the genes encoding for GABA(A) receptor subunits in the rat hippocampus during development. With this technique, genes encoding eleven GABA(A) receptor subunits were identified. The alpha5 subunit was by far the most highly expressed, followed by the gamma2, alpha2 and alpha4 subunits respectively. The expression of the beta2, alpha1, gamma1, beta1 and beta3 subunits was moderate, although that of the alpha3 and delta subunits was weak. In situ hybridization experiments, using digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes, confirmed that the delta subunit was expressed in the neonatal as well as in the adult hippocampus, and is likely to form functional receptors in association with other subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. When the more sensitive RT-PCR approach was used, the gamma3 subunit was also detected, suggesting that this subunit is present in the hippocampus during development but at low levels of expression. The insertion of the delta subunit into functional GABA(A) receptors may enhance the efficacy of GABA in the immediate postnatal period when this amino acid is still exerting a depolarizing and excitatory action.

  5. Cyclin G2 Is Degraded through the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Mediates the Antiproliferative Effect of Activin Receptor-like Kinase 7

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoxiong; Bernaudo, Stefanie; Fu, Guodong; Lee, Daniel Y.; Yang, Burton B.

    2008-01-01

    We have previously reported that Nodal, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, acts through activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) to inhibit ovarian cancer cell proliferation. To determine the mechanism underlying their effects, a cell cycle gene array was performed and cyclin G2 mRNA was found to be strongly up-regulated by Nodal and ALK7. To study the function and regulation of cyclin G2 in ovarian cancer cells, expression constructs were generated. We found that cyclin G2 protein level decreased rapidly after transfection, and this decrease was prevented by 26S proteasome inhibitors. Immunoprecipitation and pull-down studies showed that ubiquitin, Skp1, and Skp2 formed complexes with cyclin G2. Knockdown of Skp2 by siRNA increased, whereas overexpression of Skp2 decreased cyclin G2 levels. Nodal and ALK7 decreased the expression of Skp1 and Skp2 and increased cyclin G2 levels. Overexpression of cyclin G2 inhibited cell proliferation whereas cyclin G2-siRNA reduced the antiproliferative effect of Nodal and ALK7. Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that cyclin G2 is degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway and that Skp2 plays a role in regulating cyclin G2 levels. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that the antiproliferative effect of Nodal/ALK7 on ovarian cancer cells is in part mediated by cyclin G2. PMID:18784254

  6. Evidence for inhibition mediated by coassembly of GABAA and GABAC receptor subunits in native central neurons.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Carol J; Buckley, Noel J; Garret, Maurice; Deuchars, Jim; Deuchars, Susan A

    2004-08-18

    Fast inhibition in the nervous system is commonly mediated by GABA(A) receptors comprised of 2alpha/2beta/1gamma subunits. In contrast, GABA(C) receptors containing only rho subunits (rho1-rho3) have been predominantly detected in the retina. However, here using reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization we show that mRNA encoding the rho1 subunit is highly expressed in brainstem neurons. Immunohistochemistry localized the rho1 subunit to neurons at light and electron microscopic levels, where it was detected at synaptic junctions. Application of the GABA(C) receptor agonist cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (100-800 microM) requires the rho1 subunit to elicit responses, which surprisingly are blocked independently by antagonists to GABA(A) (bicuculline, 10 microM) and GABA(C) [(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA); 40-160 microM] receptors. Responses to GABA(C) agonists were also enhanced by the GABA(A) receptor modulator pentobarbitone (300 microM). Spontaneous and evoked IPSPs were reduced in amplitude but never abolished by TPMPA, but were completely blocked by bicuculline. We therefore tested the hypothesis that GABA(A) and GABA(C) subunits formed a heteromeric receptor. Immunohistochemistry indicated that rho1 and alpha1 subunits were colocalized at light and electron microscopic levels. Electrophysiology revealed that responses to GABA(C) receptor agonists were enhanced by the GABA(A) receptor modulator zolpidem (500 nm), which acts on the alpha1 subunit when the gamma2 subunit is also present. Finally, coimmunoprecipitation indicated that the rho1 subunit formed complexes that also containedalpha1 and gamma2 subunits. Taken together these separate lines of evidence suggest that the effects of GABA in central neurons can be mediated by heteromeric complexes of GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptor subunits.

  7. Mutation of glycine receptor subunit creates beta-alanine receptor responsive to GABA.

    PubMed

    Schmieden, V; Kuhse, J; Betz, H

    1993-10-08

    The amino acid at position 160 of the ligand-binding subunit, alpha 1, is an important determinant of agonist and antagonist binding to the glycine receptor. Exchange of the neighboring residues, phenylalanine at position 159 and tyrosine at position 161, increased the efficacy of amino acid agonists. Whereas wild-type alpha 1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes required 0.7 millimolar beta-alanine for a half-maximal response, the doubly mutated (F159Y,Y161F) alpha 1 subunit had an affinity for beta-alanine (which was more potent than glycine) that was 110-fold that of the wild type. Also, gamma-aminobutyric acid and D-serine, amino acids that do not activate wild-type alpha 1 receptors, efficiently gated the mutant channel. Thus, aromatic hydroxyl groups are crucial for ligand discrimination at inhibitory amino acid receptors.

  8. Subunit-dependent effects of nickel on NMDA receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Carla; Gavazzo, Paola

    2003-10-07

    Nickel (Ni2+) is a transition metal that affects different neuronal ionic channels. We investigated its effects on glutamate channels of the NMDA-type in the presence of saturating concentration of glutamate or NMDA (50 microM), in 0 external Mg and in the continuous presence of saturating glycine (30 microM). In neonatal rat cerebellar granule cells, Ni2+ inhibited the current evoked by NMDA at -60 mV with an IC50 close to 40 microM. The inhibition was weakly voltage-dependent and the current at +40 mV was inhibited with IC50=86 microM. Wash out of the metal unmasked a stimulatory effect which persisted for a few seconds. In HEK293 cells transiently transfected with recombinant NR1a-NR2A receptors, Ni2+ inhibited the current elicited by glutamate with an IC50=52 microM at -60 mV and 90 microM at +40 mV. In HEK293 expressing NR1a-NR2B receptors, 0.1-100 microM Ni2+ caused a potentiation of the current, with EC50=4 microM, while with 300 microM, a voltage-dependent block became apparent (IC50=170 microM). As previously reported, the current through both classes of recombinant receptors was steeply dependent on external pH, and in both cases the protonic block had an IC50 close to pH 7.2. Application of Ni2+ showed that stimulation of NR1a-NR2B receptor channels was dependent on external pH, while voltage-independent inhibition of NR1a-NR2A was less sensitive to pH change. These results indicate that Ni2+ has multiple and complex effects on NMDA channels, which are largely dependent on the NR2 subunit.

  9. Antibodies to the. cap alpha. -subunit of insulin receptor from eggs of immunized hens

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Yu, J.; Bai, D.H.; Hester, P.Y.; Kim, K.

    1985-11-01

    Simple methods for the generation, purification, and assay of antibodies to the ..cap alpha..-subunit of insulin receptor from eggs of immunized hen have been described. Chicken antibodies against the ..cap alpha..-subunit inhibit insulin binding to the receptor and stimulate glucose oxidation as well as autophosphorylation of the ..beta..-subunit. Thus the properties of chicken antibodies are very similar to those of antibodies found in human autoimmune diseases and different from rabbit antibodies obtained against the same antigen.

  10. Use of an α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit concatamer to characterize ganglionic receptor subtypes with specific subunit composition reveals species-specific pharmacologic properties.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Clare; Papke, Roger L

    2012-09-01

    Drug development for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) is challenged by subtype diversity arising from variations in subunit composition. On-target activity for neuronal heteromeric receptors is typically associated with CNS receptors that contain α4 and other subunits, while off-target activity could be associated with ganglionic-type receptors containing α3β4 binding sites and other subunits, including β4, β2, α5, or α3 as a structural subunit in the pentamer. Additional interest in α3 β4 α5-containing receptors arises from genome-wide association studies linking these genes, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in α5 in particular, to lung cancer and heavy smoking. While α3 and β4 readily form receptors in expression system such as the Xenopus oocyte, since α5 is not required for function, simple co-expression approaches may under-represent α5-containing receptors. We used a concatamer of human α3 and β4 subunits to form ligand-binding domains, and show that we can force the insertions of alternative structural subunits into the functional pentamers. These α3β4 variants differ in sensitivity to ACh, nicotine, varenicline, and cytisine. Our data indicated lower efficacy for varenicline and cytisine than expected for β4-containing receptors, based on previous studies of rodent receptors. We confirm that these therapeutically important α4 receptor partial agonists may present different autonomic-based side-effect profiles in humans than will be seen in rodent models, with varenicline being more potent for human than rat receptors and cytisine less potent. Our initial characterizations failed to find functional effects of the α5 SNP. However, our data validate this approach for further investigations.

  11. Antagonism of Secreted PCSK9 Increases Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression in HepG2 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Markey C.; Kwon, Hyock Joo; Chen, Chiyuan; Chen, Justin R.; Horton, Jay D.; Lagace, Thomas A.

    2009-07-10

    PCSK9 is a secreted protein that degrades low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in liver by binding to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. It is not known whether PCSK9 causes degradation of LDLRs within the secretory pathway or following secretion and reuptake via endocytosis. Here we show that a mutation in the LDLR EGF-A domain associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, H306Y, results in increased sensitivity to exogenous PCSK9-mediated cellular degradation because of enhanced PCSK9 binding affinity. The crystal structure of the PCSK9-EGF-A(H306Y) complex shows that Tyr-306 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp-374 in PCSK9 at neutral pH, which strengthens the interaction with PCSK9. To block secreted PCSK9 activity, LDLR (H306Y) subfragments were added to the medium of HepG2 cells stably overexpressing wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants associated with hypercholesterolemia (D374Y or S127R). These subfragments blocked secreted PCSK9 binding to cell surface LDLRs and resulted in the recovery of LDLR levels to those of control cells. We conclude that PCSK9 acts primarily as a secreted factor to cause LDLR degradation. These studies support the concept that pharmacological inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR interaction extracellularly will increase hepatic LDLR expression and lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels.

  12. Antagonism of secreted PCSK9 increases low density lipoprotein receptor expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    McNutt, Markey C; Kwon, Hyock Joo; Chen, Chiyuan; Chen, Justin R; Horton, Jay D; Lagace, Thomas A

    2009-04-17

    PCSK9 is a secreted protein that degrades low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in liver by binding to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. It is not known whether PCSK9 causes degradation of LDLRs within the secretory pathway or following secretion and reuptake via endocytosis. Here we show that a mutation in the LDLR EGF-A domain associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, H306Y, results in increased sensitivity to exogenous PCSK9-mediated cellular degradation because of enhanced PCSK9 binding affinity. The crystal structure of the PCSK9-EGF-A(H306Y) complex shows that Tyr-306 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp-374 in PCSK9 at neutral pH, which strengthens the interaction with PCSK9. To block secreted PCSK9 activity, LDLR (H306Y) subfragments were added to the medium of HepG2 cells stably overexpressing wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants associated with hypercholesterolemia (D374Y or S127R). These subfragments blocked secreted PCSK9 binding to cell surface LDLRs and resulted in the recovery of LDLR levels to those of control cells. We conclude that PCSK9 acts primarily as a secreted factor to cause LDLR degradation. These studies support the concept that pharmacological inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR interaction extracellularly will increase hepatic LDLR expression and lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels.

  13. Stoichiometry of the Human Glycine Receptor Revealed by Direct Subunit counting

    PubMed Central

    Durisic, Nela; Godin, Antoine G.; Wever, Claudia M.; Heyes, Colin D.; Lakadamyali, Melike; Dent, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The subunit stoichiometry of heteromeric glycine-gated channels (GlyRs) determines fundamental properties of these key inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors; however the ratio of α1 to β-subunits per receptor remains controversial. We used single molecule imaging and stepwise photobleaching in Xenopus oocytes to directly determine the subunit stoichiometry of a glycine receptor to be 3α1:2β. This approach allowed us to determine the receptor stoichiometry in mixed populations consisting of both heteromeric and homomeric channels, additionally revealing the quantitative proportions for the two populations. PMID:22973015

  14. Single Expressed Glycine Receptor Domains Reconstitute Functional Ion Channels without Subunit-specific Desensitization Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Meiselbach, Heike; Vogel, Nico; Langlhofer, Georg; Stangl, Sabine; Schleyer, Barbara; Bahnassawy, Lamia'a; Sticht, Heinrich; Breitinger, Hans-Georg; Becker, Cord-Michael; Villmann, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Cys loop receptors are pentameric arrangements of independent subunits that assemble into functional ion channels. Each subunit shows a domain architecture. Functional ion channels can be reconstituted even from independent, nonfunctional subunit domains, as shown previously for GlyRα1 receptors. Here, we demonstrate that this reconstitution is not restricted to α1 but can be transferred to other members of the Cys loop receptor family. A nonfunctional GlyR subunit, truncated at the intracellular TM3–4 loop by a premature stop codon, can be complemented by co-expression of the missing tail portion of the receptor. Compared with α1 subunits, rescue by domain complementation was less efficient when GlyRα3 or the GABAA/C subunit ρ1 was used. If truncation disrupted an alternative splicing cassette within the intracellular TM3–4 loop of α3 subunits, which also regulates receptor desensitization, functional rescue was not possible. When α3 receptors were restored by complementation using domains with and without the spliced insert, no difference in desensitization was found. In contrast, desensitization properties could even be transferred between α1/α3 receptor chimeras harboring or lacking the α3 splice cassette proving that functional rescue depends on the integrity of the alternative splicing cassette in α3. Thus, an intact α3 splicing cassette in the TM3–4 loop environment is indispensable for functional rescue, and the quality of receptor restoration can be assessed from desensitization properties. PMID:25143388

  15. Indoxyl sulfate suppresses hepatic fetuin-A expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Akinobu; Mori, Katsuhito; Nakatani, Shinya; Emoto, Masanori; Morioka, Tomoaki; Motoyama, Koka; Fukumoto, Shinya; Imanishi, Yasuo; Shoji, Tetsuo; Ishimura, Eiji; Inaba, Masaaki

    2015-10-01

    Fetuin-A is a liver-derived circulating protein that has potent calcification-inhibitory activity. Uraemic patients exhibit decreased serum fetuin-A levels, increased vascular calcification and elevated cardiovascular mortality. Because the mechanisms for fetuin-A deficiency are unknown, we hypothesized that some uraemic toxins suppressed hepatic fetuin-A production, which resulted in accelerated vascular calcification and poor outcome. Among these potential candidates, indoxyl sulfate (IS) has highly toxic properties. We examined the direct effects of IS on hepatic fetuin-A expression using the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line. IS, but not p-cresyl sulfate, suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of fetuin-A in a dose- and time-dependent manner. As reported previously, IS stimulated p38 MAPK phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, although the knockdown of p38 and inhibition of ROS generation had no effect on IS-induced fetuin-A suppression. Then, because IS is a potent endogenous ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), we assessed whether IS suppresses fetuin-A production via AhR. The knockdown of AhR prevented IS-induced fetuin-A suppression. However, some attention should be paid to no effect of IS on fetuin-A expression in mouse and human primary cultured hepatocytes. These findings suggest that IS could suppress hepatic fetuin-A expression by activating AhR, suggesting a relationship between uraemia and fetuin-A deficiency. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  16. Acetylcholine receptor-inducing factor from chicken brain increases the level of mRNA encoding the receptor. alpha. subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.A.; Falls, D.L.; Dill-Devor, R.M.; Fischbach, G.D. )

    1988-03-01

    A 42-kDa glycoprotein isolated from chicken brain, referred to as acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity (ARIA), that stimulates the rate of incorporation of acetylcholine receptors into the surface of chicken myotubes may play a role in the nerve-induced accumulation of receptors at developing neuromuscular synapses. Using nuclease-protection assays, the authors have found that ARIA causes a 2- to 16-fold increase in the level of mRNA encoding the {alpha} subunit of the receptor, with little or no change in the levels of {gamma}- and {delta}-subunit messengers. ARIA also increases the amount of a putative nuclear precursor of {alpha}-subunit mRNA, consistent with an activation of gene transcription. These results suggest that the concentration of {alpha} subunit may limit the rate of biosynthesis of the acetylcholine receptors in chicken myotubes. They also indicate that neuronal factors can regulate the expression of receptor subunit genes in a selective manner. Tetrodotoxin, 8-bromo-cAMP, and forskolin also increase the amount of {alpha}-subunit mRNA, with little change in the amount of {gamma}- and {delta}-subunit mRNAs. Unlike ARIA, however, these agents have little effect on the concentration of the {alpha}-subunit nuclear precursor.

  17. Coexpression of striatal dopamine receptor subtypes and excitatory amino acid subunits.

    PubMed

    Ariano, M A; Larson, E R; Noblett, K L; Sibley, D R; Levine, M S

    1997-08-01

    The striatal cellular coexpression patterns for the D(1A) and D2 dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes and the ionotropic excitatory amino acid (EAA) subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-R1) and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) (GluR1 and GluR2/3) receptor subunits were examined morphologically. Their coincidence was assessed by visualization of mRNA transcripts, localization of encoded receptor proteins, and binding analysis using concurrently paired methods of fluorescence detection. The findings indicated that 1) mRNA transcripts for both receptor systems were detected in the medium-sized neuron population, and the distribution of receptor message closely reflected protein and binding patterns, with the exception of the GluR1 subunit; 2) both DA receptor mRNA transcripts were coexpressed with each ionotropic EAA receptor subunit examined and with each other, and NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits also showed coincident expression; 3) D(1A) DA receptor protein was detected in neurons which coexpressed EAA subunit proteins; and 4) GluR2/3 and NMDA-R1 subunit proteins were coexpressed in medium-sized neurons which also demonstrated D2 DA receptor binding sites. These findings suggest morphological receptor "promiscuity" since the coexpression patterns between DA and EAA receptors were found in all permutations. The results provide a spatial framework for physiological findings describing functional interactions between the two DA receptor types and between specific DA and EAA receptors in the striatum.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF SUBUNIT-DEPENDENT DIRECT GATING AND ALLOSTERIC MODULATORY EFFECTS OF CARISOPRODOL AT GABAA RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; González, Lorie A.; Dillon, Glenn H.

    2016-01-01

    Carisoprodol is a widely prescribed muscle relaxant, abuse of which has grown considerably in recent years. It directly activates and allosterically modulates α1β2γ2 GABAARs, although the site(s) of action are unknown. To gain insight into the actions of carisoprodol, subunit-dependent effects of this drug were assessed. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from HEK293 cells expressing α1β2, α1β3 or αxβzγ2 (where x = 1–6 and z = 1–3) GABAARs, and in receptors incorporating the δ subunit (modeling extrasynaptic receptors). The ability to directly gate and allosterically potentiate GABA-gated currents was observed for all configurations. Presence or absence of the γ2 subunit did not affect the ability of carisoprodol to directly gate or allosterically modulate the receptor. Presence of the β1 subunit conferred highest efficacy for direct activation relative to maximum GABA currents, while presence of the β2 subunit conferred highest efficacy for allosteric modulation of the GABA response. With regard to α subunits, carisoprodol was most efficacious at enhancing the actions of GABA in receptors incorporating the α1 subunit. The ability to directly gate the receptor was generally comparable regardless of the α subunit isoform, although receptors incorporating the α3 subunit showed significantly reduced direct gating efficacy and affinity. In extrasynaptic (α1β3δ and α4β3δ) receptors, carisoprodol had greater efficacy than GABA as a direct gating agonist. In addition, carisoprodol allosterically potentiated both EC20 and saturating GABA concentrations in these receptors. In assessing voltage-dependence, we found direct gating and inhibitory effects were insensitive to membrane voltage, whereas allosteric modulatory effects were affected by membrane voltage. Our findings demonstrate direct and allosteric effects of carisoprodol at synaptic and extrasynpatic GABAARs and that subunit isoform influences these effects. PMID:25896767

  19. Ocular myasthenia gravis induced by human acetylcholine receptor ϵ subunit immunization in HLA DR3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaorong; Tuzun, Erdem; Saini, Shamsher S; Wang, Jun; Li, Jing; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Huda, Ruksana; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2015-12-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOM) are preferentially involved in myasthenia gravis (MG) and acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody positive MG patients may occasionally present with isolated ocular symptoms. Although experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) induced by whole AChR immunization closely mimics clinical and immunopathological aspects of MG, EOM are usually not affected. We have previously developed an EAMG model, which imitates EOM symptoms of MG by immunization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic mice with α or γ-subunits of human AChR (H-AChR). To investigate the significance of the ϵ-subunit in ocular MG, we immunized HLA-DR3 and HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice with recombinant H-AChR ϵ-subunit expressed in Escherichia coli. HLA-DR3 transgenic mice showed significantly higher clinical ocular and generalized MG severity scores and lower grip strength values than HLA-DQ8 mice. H-AChR ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 transgenic mice had higher serum anti-AChR antibody (IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, IgG2c and IgM) levels, neuromuscular junction IgG and complement deposit percentages than ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice. Control mice immunized with E. coli extract or complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) did not show clinical and immunopathological features of ocular and generalized EAMG. Lymph node cells of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 mice showed significantly higher proliferative responses than those of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 mice, crude E. coli extract-immunized and CFA-immunized transgenic mice. Our results indicate that the human AChR ϵ-subunit is capable of inducing myasthenic muscle weakness. Diversity of the autoimmune responses displayed by mice expressing different HLA class II molecules suggests that the interplay between HLA class II alleles and AChR subunits might have a profound impact on the clinical course of MG.

  20. Functional properties of a cloned 5-hydroxytryptamine ionotropic receptor subunit: comparison with native mouse receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hussy, N; Lukas, W; Jones, K A

    1994-01-01

    1. A comparative study of the whole-cell and single-channel properties of cloned and native mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine ionotropic receptors (5-HT3) was undertaken using mammalian cell lines expressing the cloned 5-HT3 receptor subunit A (5-HT3R-A), superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurones and N1E-115 cells. 2. No pharmacological difference was found in the sensitivity to the agonists 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT, or to the antagonists d-tubocurare and 3-tropanyl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate (MDL-72222). 3. Current-voltage (I-V) relationships of whole-cell currents showed inward rectification in the three preparations. Rectification was stronger both in cells expressing the 5-HT3R-A subunit and in N1E-115 cells when compared with SCG neurones. 4. No clear openings could be resolved in 5-HT-activated currents in patches excised from cells expressing the 5-HT3R-A subunit or N1E-115 cells. Current fluctuation analysis of whole-cell and excised-patch records revealed a slope conductance of 0.4-0.6 pS in both preparations. Current-voltage relationships of these channels showed strong rectification that fully accounted for the whole-cell voltage dependence. 5. In contrast, single channels of about 10 pS were activated by 5-HT in patches excised from SCG neurones. The weak voltage dependence of their conductance did not account completely for the rectification of whole-cell currents. A lower unitary conductance (3.4 pS) was inferred from whole-cell noise analysis. 6. We conclude that the receptor expressed from the cloned cDNA is indistinguishable from the 5-HT3 receptor of N1E-115 cells, suggesting an identical structure for these two receptors. The higher conductance and different voltage dependence of the 5-HT3 receptor in SCG neurones might indicate the participation of an additional subunit in the structure of native ganglionic 5-HT3 receptors. Homo-oligomeric 5-HT3R-A channels may also be present as suggested by the lower conductance estimated by whole-cell noise analysis. PMID

  1. Recombinant GABAA receptor desensitization: the role of the gamma 2 subunit and its physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Perrot, C; Feltz, P; Poulter, M O

    1996-11-15

    1. The purpose of these investigations was to examine the role that the gamma 2 subunit plays in human GABAA receptor desensitization. Two different recombinant GABAA receptors (alpha 1 beta 3 and alpha 1 beta 3 gamma 2) were compared by measuring the relaxation of whole-cell currents during the application of GABA, isoguvacine or taurine. 2. At concentrations which trigger a maximum response (100-500 microM GABA) the current relaxation usually fitted the sum of two exponentials. For alpha 1 beta 3 subunit receptors these values were tau 1 = 145 +/- 12 ms and tau 2 = 6.3 +/- 2.1 s (means +/- S.E.M.). Receptors consisting of alpha 1 beta 3 gamma 2 subunits desensitized faster: tau 1 = 41.6 +/- 8.3 ms and tau 2 = 2.4 +/- 0.6 s. 3. The Hill slope, determined for each receptor subunit combination, was the same and greater than 1.0, implying two binding steps in the activation of both receptor subunit combinations. 4. For alpha 1 beta 3 subunit receptors the fast desensitization rates were unaltered by reducing the GABA concentration from the EC100 (100 microM) to the approximate EC50 values (10-20 microM), whereas for alpha 1 beta 3 gamma 2 subunit receptors a significant slowing was observed. The fast desensitization disappeared at agonist concentrations below the EC50 for both subunit combinations. In contrast, the slow desensitization appeared at agonist concentrations near the EC20. This rate was dependent on agonist concentration reaching a maximum near the EC60 value of GABA. 5. The fast desensitization rates were unaltered by changing the holding potential of the cell during agonist application. However, for alpha 1 beta 3 gamma 2 subunit receptors the slow desensitization rate increased by approximately 15- to 20-fold over the range of voltages of -60 to +40 mV. This indicates that the gamma 2 subunit makes GABAA receptor desensitization voltage dependent. 6. Recovery from desensitization was also biphasic. The first recovery phase was faster for alpha 1 beta 3

  2. In Vitro Analysis of CsA-Induced Hepatotoxicity in HepG2 Cell Line: Oxidative Stress and α2 and β1 Integrin Subunits Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh; Khademi, Fatemeh; Zal, Fatemeh; Sardarian, Ahmad Reza; Amini, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced hepatotoxicity could be due to a reduction in α2β1 integrin expression that may either be from the direct effect of CsA itself or from reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Objectives In this study we aimed to identify the cellular mechanisms underlying CsA-induced hepatic injury by investigating the activation patterns of the antioxidant enzymes, using HepG2 as an in vitro model. Materials and Methods HepG2 cells were cultured with different concentrations of CsA (0, 0.1, 1, 10 μg/ml) for 72 h. Effect of CsA on, 1) cellular integrity, 2) glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, 3) cellular levels of glutathione (GSH), 4) intracellular ROS, 5) ALT and AST activities, 6) urea production and 7) α2β1 integrin expression were assayed. Results CsA treatment demonstrated a dose dependent increase in intracellular levels of ROS, GPx activity and decrease in GSH levels (P<0.05). GR activity was mildly attenuated in 1 and 10 µg/ml concentrations of CsA. Alanine aminotranferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels increased in CsA treated cells, while urea synthesis was significantly decreased following treatment with higher concentrations of CsA (P<0.05). Significant down-regulation of β1integrin expression was observed in 1 and 10 µg/ml CsA treated cells while α2 integrin mRNA was significantly down-regulated in all CsA treated cells. Conclusions The observed reduction of α2β1 integrin expression following CsA treatment could be proposed as a possible pathway of CsA-induced hepatotoxicity. Further studies are required to elucidate whether this attenuated expression is due to the direct effect of CsA or caused by overproduction of ROS. PMID:24082890

  3. Determination of kainate receptor subunit ratios in mouse brain using novel chimeric protein standards.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Iida, Izumi; Konno, Kohtarou; Akashi, Kaori; Abe, Manabu; Natsume, Rie; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakimura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Kainate-type glutamate receptors (KARs) are tetrameric channels assembled from GluK1-5. GluK1-3 are low-affinity subunits that form homomeric and heteromeric KARs, while GluK4 and GluK5 are high-affinity subunits that require co-assembly with GluK1-3 for functional expression. Although the subunit composition is thought to be highly heterogeneous in the brain, the distribution of KAR subunits at the protein level and their relative abundance in given regions of the brain remain largely unknown. In the present study, we titrated C-terminal antibodies to each KAR subunit using chimeric GluA2-GluK fusion proteins, and measured their relative abundance in the P2 and post-synaptic density (PSD) fractions of the adult mouse hippocampus and cerebellum. Analytical western blots showed that GluK2 and GluK3 were the major KAR subunits, with additional expression of GluK5 in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In both regions, GluK4 was very low and GluK1 was below the detection threshold. The relative amount of low-affinity subunits (GluK2 plus GluK3) was several times higher than that of high-affinity subunits (GluK4 plus GluK5) in both regions. Of note, the highest ratio of high-affinity subunits to low-affinity subunits was found in the hippocampal PSD fraction (0.32), suggesting that heteromeric receptors consisting of high- and low-affinity subunits highly accumulate at hippocampal synapses. In comparison, this ratio was decreased to 0.15 in the cerebellar PSD fraction, suggesting that KARs consisting of low-affinity subunits are more prevalent in the cerebellum. Therefore, low-affinity KAR subunits are predominant in the brain, with distinct subunit combinations between the hippocampus and cerebellum. Kainate receptors, an unconventional member of the iGluR receptor family, have a tetrameric structure assembled from low-affinity (GluK1-3) and high-affinity (GluK4 and GluK5) subunits. We used a simple but novel procedure to measure the relative abundance of both low- and

  4. Lateral mobility and anchoring of recombinant GABAA receptors depend on subunit composition.

    PubMed

    Peran, M; Hicks, B W; Peterson, N L; Hooper, H; Salas, R

    2001-10-01

    The clustering of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA(A)R) at discrete and functionally significant domains on the nerve cell surface is an important determinant in the integration of synaptic inputs. To discern the role that the subunits of the GABA(A)R play in determining the receptor's cell surface topography and mobility, the alpha1, beta1, beta3, and gamma2s subunits were transfected into COS7, HEK293, and PC12 cells and the distribution and cell surface mobility of these recombinant receptors were examined. Our results show that alpha1 subunits are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum while beta1 and beta3 subunits are sorted to the plasma membrane where they form clusters. Co-expression and co-assembly of alpha1 and beta3 subunits result in the rescue of intracellular alpha1 subunits, which are transported as alphabeta subunit complexes to the cell surface where they formed clusters. Fluorescence photobleach recovery and single particle tracking of recombinant receptors show that, despite clustering, beta3 subunit homooligomers are mobile within a cell surface domain. Inclusion of alpha1 in beta3 or beta3gamma2s complexes, however, dramatically reduces the receptor's lateral mobility in COS 7 and PC12 cells and anchors GABA(A)Rs on the cell surface, suggesting the formation of a direct link to a component of the cytoskeleton. The mobility of recombinant receptors that include the alpha1 subunit mirrors the mobility of GABA(A)Rs on cell bodies and dendrites of cortical and spinal cord neurons. The results suggest that incorporation of alpha1 subunits give rise to a population of GABA(A)Rs that are immobilized on the cell surface.

  5. MMP-7 cleaves the NR1 NMDA receptor subunit and modifies NMDA receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Szklarczyk, Arek; Ewaleifoh, Osefame; Beique, Jean-Claude; Wang, Yue; Knorr, David; Haughey, Norman; Malpica, Tanya; Mattson, Mark P.; Huganir, Richard; Conant, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent enzymes that play a role in the inflammatory response. These enzymes have been well studied in the context of cancer biology and inflammation. Recent studies, however, suggest that these enzymes also play roles in brain development and neurodegenerative disease. Select MMPs can target proteins critical to synaptic structure and neuronal survival, including integrins and cadherins. Here, we show that one member of the MMP family, MMP-7, which may be released from cells, including microglia, can target a protein critical to synaptic function. Through analysis of extracts from murine cortical slice preparations, we show that MMP-7 cleaves the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to generate an N-terminal fragment of ∼65 kDa. Moreover, studies with recombinant protein show that MMP-7-mediated cleavage of NR1 occurs at amino acid 517, which is extracellular and just distal to the first transmembrane domain. Data suggest that NR2A, which shares sequence homology with NR1, is also cleaved following treatment of slices with MMP-7, while select AMPA receptor subunits are not. Consistent with a potential effect of MMP-7 on ligand binding, additional experiments demonstrate that NMDA-mediated calcium flux is significantly diminished by MMP-7 pretreatment of cultures. In addition, the AMPA/NMDA ratio is increased by MMP-7 pretreatment. These data suggest that synaptic function may be altered in neurological conditions associated with increased levels of MMP-7.—Szklarczyk, A., Ewaleifoh, O., Beique, J.-C., Wang, Y., Knorr, D., Haughey, N., Malpica, T., Mattson, M. P., Huganir, R., Conant, K. MMP-7 cleaves the NR1 NMDA receptor subunit and modifies NMDA receptor function. PMID:18644839

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone-induces miR-21 transcription in HepG2 cells through estrogen receptor β and androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yun; Litchfield, Lacey M.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Prough, Russell A.; Clark, Barbara J.; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Although oncomiR miR-21 is highly expressed in liver and overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its regulation is uncharacterized. We examined the effect of physiologically relevant nanomolar concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) on miR-21 expression in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. 10 nM DHEA and DHEA-S increase pri-miR-21 transcription in HepG2 cells. Dietary DHEA increased miR-21 in vivo in mouse liver. siRNA and inhibitor studies suggest that DHEA-S requires desulfation for activity and that DHEA-induced pri-miR-21 transcription involves metabolism to androgen and estrogen receptor (AR and ER) ligands. Activation of ERβ and AR by DHEA metabolites androst-5-ene-3,17-dione (ADIONE), androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol (ADIOL), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol (3β-Adiol) increased miR-21 transcription. DHEA-induced miR-21 increased cell proliferation and decreased Pdcd4 protein, a bona fide miR-21. Estradiol (E2) inhibited miR-21 expression via ERα. DHEA increased ERβ and AR recruitment to the miR-21 promoter within the VMP1/TMEM49 gene, with possible significance in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24845419

  7. Expression of functional receptors by the human γ-aminobutyric acid A γ2 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Miledi, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors are heteromeric membrane proteins formed mainly by various combinations of α, β, and γ subunits; and it is commonly thought that the γ2 subunit alone does not form functional receptors. In contrast, we found that cDNA encoding the γ2L subunit of the human GABAA receptor, injected alone into Xenopus oocytes, expressed functional GABA receptors whose properties were investigated by using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. GABA elicited desensitizing membrane currents that recovered after a few minutes' wash. Repetitive applications of GABA induced a “run-up” of GABA currents that nearly doubled the amplitude of the first response. The GABA currents inverted direction at about -30 mV, indicating that they are carried mainly by Cl- ions. The homomeric γ2L receptors were also activated by β-alanine > taurine > glycine, and, like some types of heteromeric GABAA receptors, the γ2L receptors were blocked by bicuculline and were potentiated by pentobarbital and flunitrazepam. These results indicate that the human γ2L subunit is capable of forming fully functional GABA receptors by itself in Xenopus oocytes and suggest that the roles proposed for the various subunits that make up the heteromeric GABAA receptors in situ require further clarification. PMID:14981251

  8. Expression of functional receptors by the human gamma-aminobutyric acid A gamma 2 subunit.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Miledi, Ricardo

    2004-03-02

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptors are heteromeric membrane proteins formed mainly by various combinations of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits; and it is commonly thought that the gamma 2 subunit alone does not form functional receptors. In contrast, we found that cDNA encoding the gamma 2L subunit of the human GABA(A) receptor, injected alone into Xenopus oocytes, expressed functional GABA receptors whose properties were investigated by using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. GABA elicited desensitizing membrane currents that recovered after a few minutes' wash. Repetitive applications of GABA induced a "run-up" of GABA currents that nearly doubled the amplitude of the first response. The GABA currents inverted direction at about -30 mV, indicating that they are carried mainly by Cl(-) ions. The homomeric gamma 2L receptors were also activated by beta-alanine > taurine > glycine, and, like some types of heteromeric GABA(A) receptors, the gamma 2L receptors were blocked by bicuculline and were potentiated by pentobarbital and flunitrazepam. These results indicate that the human gamma 2L subunit is capable of forming fully functional GABA receptors by itself in Xenopus oocytes and suggest that the roles proposed for the various subunits that make up the heteromeric GABA(A) receptors in situ require further clarification.

  9. Expression and functional properties of α7 acetylcholine nicotinic receptors are modified in the presence of other receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Criado, Manuel; Valor, Luis M; Mulet, José; Gerber, Susana; Sala, Salvador; Sala, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    Although α7 nicotinic receptors are predominantly homopentamers, previous reports have indicated that α7 and β2 subunits are able to form heteromers. We have studied whether other nicotinic receptor subunits can also assemble with α7 subunits and the effect of this potential association. Coexpression of α7 with α2, α3, or β4 subunits reduced to about half, surface α-bungarotoxin binding sites and acetylcholine-gated currents. This is probably because of inhibition of membrane trafficking, as the total amount of α7 subunits was similar in all cases and a significant proportion of mature α7 receptors was present inside the cell. Only β4 subunits appeared to directly associate with α7 receptors at the membrane and these heteromeric receptors showed some kinetic and pharmacological differences when compared with homomeric α7 receptors. Finally, we emulated the situation of bovine chromaffin cells in Xenopus laevis oocytes by using the same proportion of α3, β4, α5, and α7 mRNAs, finding that α-bungarotoxin binding was similarly reduced in spite of increased currents, apparently mediated by α3β4(α5) receptors.

  10. Comparison of the subunit structure of acetylcholine receptors from muscle and electric organ of Electrophorus electricus.

    PubMed

    Gullick, W J; Lindstrom, J M

    1983-08-02

    The acetylcholine receptors of the electric organ and muscle tissues of Electrophorus electricus are composed of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunits. Receptor subunits from the two tissues were compared by peptide mapping with monoclonal antibodies, an affinity-labeling reagent, and a lectin to characterize particular peptide fragments. These experiments indicate that the corresponding receptor subunits from the two tissues are extensively homologous or identical throughout their amino acid sequences. Small differences in the electrophoresis of peptide fragments of alpha subunits between the two tissues occurred on fragments which bound labeled lectin. These results suggest that the acetylcholine receptors in electric organ and muscle tissues of Electrophorus differ in structure only by minor posttranslational modifications perhaps involving carbohydrate.

  11. Influence of subunit composition on desensitization of neuronal acetylcholine receptors at low concentrations of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Fenster, C P; Rains, M F; Noerager, B; Quick, M W; Lester, R A

    1997-08-01

    The influence of alpha and beta subunits on the properties of nicotine-induced activation and desensitization of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes was examined. Receptors containing alpha4 subunits were more sensitive to activation by nicotine than alpha3-containing receptors. At low concentrations of nicotine, nAChRs containing beta2 subunits reached near-maximal desensitization more rapidly than beta4-containing receptors. The concentration of nicotine producing half-maximal desensitization was influenced by the particular alpha subunit expressed; similar to results for activation, alpha4-containing receptors were more sensitive to desensitizing levels of nicotine than alpha3-containing receptors. The alpha subunit also influenced the rate of recovery from desensitization; this rate was approximately inversely proportional to the apparent nicotine affinity for the desensitized state. The homomeric alpha7 receptor showed the lowest sensitivity to nicotine for both activation and desensitization; alpha7 nAChRs also demonstrated the fastest desensitization kinetics. These subunit-dependent properties remained in the presence of external calcium, although subtle, receptor subtype-specific effects on both the apparent affinities for activation and desensitization and the desensitization kinetics were noted. These data imply that the subunit composition of various nAChRs determines the degree to which receptors are desensitized and/or activated by tobacco-related levels of nicotine. The subtype-specific balance between receptor activation and desensitization should be considered important when the cellular and behavioral actions of nicotine are interpreted.

  12. The NMDA receptor NR2A subunit regulates proliferation of MKN45 human gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Kanako; Kanno, Takeshi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Miwa, Hiroto; Tashiro, Chikara; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2008-03-07

    The present study investigated proliferation of MKN28 and MKN45 human gastric cancer cells regulated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit. The NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) inhibited proliferation of MKN45 cells, but not MKN28 cells. Of the NMDA subunits such as NR1, NR2 (2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D), and NR3 (3A and 3B), all the NMDA subunit mRNAs except for the NR2B subunit mRNA were expressed in both MKN28 and MKN45 cells. MKN45 cells were characterized by higher expression of the NR2A subunit mRNA and lower expression of the NR1 subunit mRNA, but MKN28 otherwise by higher expression of the NR1 subunit mRNA and lower expression of the NR2A subunit mRNA. MKN45 cell proliferation was also inhibited by silencing the NR2A subunit-targeted gene. For MKN45 cells, AP5 or knocking-down the NR2A subunit increased the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of cell cycling and decreased the proportion in the S/G{sub 2} phase. The results of the present study, thus, suggest that blockage of NMDA receptors including the NR2A subunit suppresses MKN45 cell proliferation due to cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 1} phase; in other words, the NR2A subunit promotes MKN45 cell proliferation by accelerating cell cycling.

  13. Postsynaptic clustering of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors by the γ3 subunit in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Kristin; Essrich, Christian; Benson, Jack A.; Benke, Dietmar; Bluethmann, Horst; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Lüscher, Bernhard

    1999-01-01

    Synaptic localization of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors is a prerequisite for synaptic inhibitory function, but the mechanism by which different receptor subtypes are localized to postsynaptic sites is poorly understood. The γ2 subunit and the postsynaptic clustering protein gephyrin are required for synaptic localization and function of major GABAA receptor subtypes. We now show that transgenic overexpression of the γ3 subunit in γ2 subunit-deficient mice restores benzodiazepine binding sites, benzodiazepine-modulated whole cell currents, and postsynaptic miniature currents, suggesting the formation of functional, postsynaptic receptors. Moreover, the γ3 subunit can substitute for γ2 in the formation of GABAA receptors that are synaptically clustered and colocalized with gephyrin in vivo. These clusters were formed even in brain regions devoid of endogenous γ3 subunit, indicating that the factors present for clustering of γ2 subunit-containing receptors are sufficient to cluster γ3 subunit-containing receptors. The GABAA receptor and gephyrin-clustering properties of the ectopic γ3 subunit were also observed for the endogenous γ3 subunit, but only in the absence of the γ2 subunit, suggesting that the γ3 subunit is at a competitive disadvantage with the γ2 subunit for clustering of postsynaptic GABAA receptors in wild-type mice. PMID:10536013

  14. Decorin inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells by elevating the expression of transforming growth factor-β receptor II.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuesong; Wang, Zhaohui; Ju, Wenbo; Wang, Dawei

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of decorin (DCN) on the proliferation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the involvement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway. A vector containing DCN was transfected into HepG2 cells with the use of Lipofectamine 2000. Cell proliferation was assessed with an MTT assay, and western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression of TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI), phosphorylated TGF-βRI, p15 and TGF-βRII. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing was performed to knock down the target gene. The results indicated that, compared with the control group, cell proliferation was significantly decreased in HepG2 cells transfected with DCN. In addition, DCN transfection significantly increased the phosphorylation level of TGF-βRI in HepG2 cells. The expression of the downstream factor p15 was also significantly elevated in the DCN-transfected HepG2 cells. Furthermore, DCN transfection significantly elevated the expression level of TGF-βRII in HepG2 cells. By contrast, the silencing of TGF-βRII significantly decreased the phosphorylation of TGF-βRI in DCN-transfected HepG2 cells. In addition, TGF-βRII silencing abolished the effects of DCN on the proliferation of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, DCN elevated the expression level of TGF-βRII, increased the phosphorylation level of TGF-βRI, enhanced the expression of p15, and finally inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the role of DCN in the pathogenesis of hepatic carcinoma and assist in the disease treatment.

  15. Interleukin-18 Down-Regulates Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 Expression through Farnesoid X Receptor Associated with Nuclear Factor Kappa B and Yin Yang 1 in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-cong; Lian, Wei; Zhang, Liang-jun; Feng, Xin-chan; Gao, Yu; Li, Shao-xue; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Long; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Lei; Wang, Rong-quan; Chai, Jin; Chen, Wen-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) plays an important role in bile acid metabolism by transporting toxic organic anion conjugates, including conjugated bilirubin, glutathione, sulfate, and multifarious drugs. MRP2 expression is reduced in cholestatic patients and rodents. However, the molecular mechanism of MRP2 down-regulation remains elusive. In this report, we treated human hepatoma HepG2 cells with interleukin-18 (IL-18) and measured the expression of MRP2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) by quantitative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. We found that expression of MRP2 was repressed by IL-18 at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the activated NF-κB pathway increased YY1 and reduced FXR. These changes were all attenuated in HepG2 cells with knockdown of the NF-κB subunit, p65. The reduced expression of FXR and MRP2 in HepG2 cells that had been caused by IL-18 treatment was also attenuated by YY1 knockdown. We further observed significantly elevated IL-18, NF-κB, and YY1 expression and decreased FXR and MRP2 expression in bile duct-ligated Sprague Dawley rat livers. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays also showed that FXR bound to the promoter region in MRP2 was less abundant in liver extracts from bile duct-ligated rats than sham-operated rats. Our findings indicate that IL-18 down-regulates MRP2 expression through the nuclear receptor FXR in HepG2 cells, and may be mediated by NF-κB and YY1.

  16. G protein βγ subunits: Central mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Smrcka, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    G protein βγ subunits are central participants in G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways. They interact with receptors, G protein α subunits and downstream targets to coordinate multiple, different GPCR functions. Much is known about the biology of Gβγ subunits but mysteries remain. Here, we will review what is known about general aspects of structure and function of Gβγ as well as discuss emerging mechanisms for regulation of Gβγ signaling. Recent data suggest that Gβγ is a potential therapeutic drug target. Thus, a thorough understanding of the molecular and physiological functions of Gβγ has significant implications. PMID:18488142

  17. Kainate receptor subunit diversity underlying response diversity in retinal Off bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, Sarah H; Ryan, David G; Shi, Jun; DeVries, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Postsynaptic kainate receptors mediate excitatory synaptic transmission over a broad range of temporal frequencies. In heterologous systems, the temporal responses of kainate receptors vary when different channel-forming and auxiliary subunits are co-expressed but how this variability relates to the temporal differences at central synapses is incompletely understood. The mammalian cone photoreceptor synapse provides advantages for comparing the different temporal signalling roles of kainate receptors, as cones release glutamate over a range of temporal frequencies, and three functionally distinct Off bipolar cell types receive cone signals at synapses that contain either AMPA or kainate receptors, all with different temporal properties. A disadvantage is that the different receptor subunits are not identified. We used in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and pharmacology to identify the kainate receptor and auxiliary subunits in ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecimlineatus) cb1a/b, cb2, and cb3a/b Off bipolar cell types. As expected, the types showed distinct subunit expression patterns. Kainate receptors mediated ∼80% of the synaptic response in cb3a/b cells and were heteromers of GluK1 and GluK5. Cb3a/b cells contained message for GluK1 and GluK5, and also GluK3 and the auxiliary subunit Neto1. The synaptic responses in cb1a/b cells were mediated by GluK1-containing kainate receptors that behaved differently from the receptors expressed by cb3a/b cells. AMPA receptors mediated the entire synaptic response in cb2 cells and the remaining synaptic response in cb3a/b cells. We conclude that GluK1 is the predominant kainate receptor subunit in cb1 and cb3 Off bipolar cells. Different temporal response properties may result from selective association with GluK3, GluK5, or Neto1. PMID:24396054

  18. A Transmembrane Accessory Subunit that Modulates Kainate-Type Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; St-Gelais, Fannie; Grabner, Chad P.; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Sumioka, Akio; Morimoto-Tomita, Megumi; Kim, Kwang S.; Straub, Christoph; Burlingame, Alma L.; Howe, James R.; Tomita, Susumu

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Glutamate receptors play major roles in excitatory transmission in the vertebrate brain. Among ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, kainate, NMDA), AMPA receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission and require TARP auxiliary subunits. NMDA receptors and kainate receptors play roles in synaptic transmission, but it remains uncertain whether these ionotropic glutamate receptors also have essential subunits. Using a proteomic screen, we have identified NETO2, a brain-specific protein of unknown function, as an interactor with kainate-type glutamate receptors. NETO2 modulates the channel properties of recombinant and native kainate receptors without affecting trafficking of the receptors and also modulates kainate-receptor-mediated mEPSCs. Furthermore, we found that kainate receptors regulate the surface expression of NETO2 and that NETO2 protein levels and surface expression are decreased in mice lacking the kainate receptor GluR6. The results show that NETO2 is a kainate receptor subunit with significant effects on glutamate signaling mechanisms in brain. PMID:19217376

  19. Dancing partners at the synapse: auxiliary subunits that shape kainate receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Copits, Bryan A.; Swanson, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Kainate receptors are a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors whose physiological roles differ from those of other subtypes of glutamate receptors in that they predominantly serve as modulators, rather than mediators, of synaptic transmission. Neuronal kainate receptors exhibit unusually slow kinetic properties that have been difficult to reconcile with the behaviour of recombinant kainate receptors. Recently, however, the neuropilin and tolloid-like 1 (NETO1) and NETO2 proteins were identified as auxiliary kainate receptor subunits that shape both the biophysical properties and synaptic localization of these receptors. PMID:22948074

  20. GABAA receptor subunit composition and competition at synapses are tuned by GABAB receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Gerrow, K; Triller, A

    2014-05-01

    GABABRs have a well-established role in controlling neuronal excitability and presynaptic neurotransmitter release. We examined the role of GABABR activity in modulating the number and lateral diffusion of GABAARs at inhibitory synapses. Changes in diffusion of GABAARs at synapses were observed when subunit heterogeneity was taken into account. While α1-GABAARs were unaffected, α2- and α5-GABAARs showed inverse changes in enrichment and diffusion. The intracellular TM3-4 loop of α2 was sufficient to observe the changes in diffusion by GABABR activity, whereas the loop of α5 was not. The opposing effect on α2- and α5-GABAARs was caused by a competition between GABAARs for binding slots at synapses. Receptor immobilization by cross-linking revealed that α5-GABAAR trapping at synapses is regulated by modulation of α2-GABAAR mobility. Finally, PKC activity was determined to be part of the signaling pathway through which GABABR activity modulates α2-GABAAR diffusion at synapses. These results outline a novel mechanism for tuning inhibitory transmission in a subunit-specific manner, and for the first time describe competition between GABAARs with different subunit compositions for binding slots at synapses.

  1. Primary structure and functional expression of the AMPA/kainate receptor subunit 2 from human brain.

    PubMed

    Sun, W; Ferrer-Montiel, A V; Montal, M

    1994-01-12

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate (KA) receptor subunit 2 (HBGR2) was isolated from a human brain cDNA library. The HBGR2 cDNA has an open reading frame of approximately 2.7 kb that codes for an 883-residue protein. At the amino acid level, HBGR2 is 98% identical to its rat counterpart GluR2, and 69% to the AMPA/KA receptor subunit 1 from human brain (HBGR1). Injection of cRNA transcripts from the HBGR2 into oocytes produces barely detectable kainate-activated ionic currents, indicating that the HBGR2 subunit alone weakly expresses homomeric receptor channels. Coexpression of HBGR2 and HBGR1 transcripts, however, evokes kainate-dependent currents which activate at higher agonist concentration than those required by homomeric HBGR1 receptor channels. Coexpressed receptors display a linear current-to-voltage relationship at variance with the inwardly rectifying profile exhibited by HBGR1 homomers. Hence, the HBGR2 subunit coassembles with the HBGR1 subunit to form heteromeric receptor channels akin to the glutamate receptors from rodent brain.

  2. Glycine-extended progastrin processing intermediates induce H+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit gene expression through a novel receptor.

    PubMed

    Kaise, M; Muraoka, A; Seva, C; Takeda, H; Dickinson, C J; Yamada, T

    1995-05-12

    Biologically active amidated gastrin is synthesized by carboxyl-terminal alpha-amidation of a glycine-extended progastrin post-translational processing intermediate (G-Gly). Although plasma levels of G-Gly are equivalent to those of gastrin, G-Gly has essentially no acute effect on gastric acid secretion. However, we have observed that inhibition of gastrin amidation leads to increased plasma concentrations of G-Gly and enhanced gastric acid secretion. We hypothesized, therefore, that G-Gly might have a chronic effect to increase H+,K(+)-ATPase expression in gastric parietal cells. In the present studies, we observed that a 2-day preincubation with G-Gly significantly enhanced histamine-stimulated [14C]aminopyrine uptake by isolated canine gastric parietal cells but acutely administered G-Gly had no effect. On Northern blot analysis, both G-Gly and gastrin dose-dependently increased H+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit gene expression with maximal induction (225 +/- 35 and 170 +/- 29% of basal, mean +/- S.E.) achieved at concentrations of 10(-9) M G-Gly and 10(-8) M gastrin, respectively. Using an H+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit gene-luciferase chimeric reporter construct transfected into primary cultured parietal cells, we observed that both G-Gly and gastrin increased luciferase activity in a manner similar to that obtained by Northern blot analysis. L365,260, a specific gastrin/CCKB receptor antagonist, completely reversed the stimulation of luciferase activity induced by gastrin but had no effect on G-Gly-stimulated activity. Gastrin increased [Ca2+]i, although G-Gly did not, however, genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor) significantly reduced induction of luciferase activity by both G-Gly and gastrin. Specific binding of 125I-Leu15-G2-17-Gly to gastric parietal cells was dose-dependently displaced by G2-17-Gly but not by gastrin nor L365,260. Gastrin peptides truncated at the carboxyl- (G1-13) and amino terminus (G5-17-Gly) both induced H+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit

  3. Biosynthesis of the Torpedo californica Acetylcholine Receptor α Subunit in Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Norihisa; Nelson, Nathan; Fox, Thomas D.; Claudio, Toni; Lindstrom, Jon; Riezman, Howard; Hess, George P.

    1986-03-01

    Yeast cells were transformed with a plasmid containing complementary DNA encoding the α subunit of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor. These cells synthesized a protein that had the expected molecular weight, antigenic specificity, and ligand-binding properties of the α subunit. The subunit was inserted into the yeast plasma membrane, demonstrating that yeast has the apparatus to express a membrane-bound receptor protein and to insert such a foreign protein into its plasma membrane. The α subunit constituted approximately 1 percent of the total yeast membrane proteins, and its density was about the same in the plasma membrane of yeast and in the receptor-rich electric organ of Electrophorus electricus. In view of the available technology for obtaining large quantities of yeast proteins, it may now be possible to obtain amplified amounts of interesting membrane-bound proteins for physical and biochemical studies.

  4. Expression and Characterization of a Potent Long-Acting GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Chen, Fang; Wan, Deyou; Liu, Yunhui; Yang, Li; Feng, Hongru; Cui, Xinling; Gao, Xin; Song, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Human GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) can produce a remarkable improvement in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, its clinical benefits are limited by its short half-life, which is less than 2 min because of its small size and rapid enzymatic inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV. We engineered GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc, a 68-kDa fusion protein linking a variant human GLP-1 (A8G/G26E/R36G) to a human IgG2σ constant heavy-chain. A stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell line was obtained using electroporation. Western blotting showed that the expressed protein was immunoreactive to both GLP-1 and IgG antibodies. GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 cells in a dose- and glucose-dependent manner and increased insulin mRNA expression. The half-life of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc in cynomolgus monkeys was approximately 57.1 ± 4.5 h. In the KKAy mouse model of diabetes, one intraperitoneal injection of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc (1 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels for 5 days. A 4-week repeat-administration study identified sustained effects on blood glucose levels. Oral glucose tolerance tests conducted at the beginning and end of this 4-week period showed that GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc produced a stable glucose lowering effect. In addition, KKAy mice treated with GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc showed statistically significant weight loss from day 23. In conclusion, these properties of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc demonstrated that it represented a potential long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27232339

  5. Ethanol-induced GABAA receptor alpha4 subunit plasticity involves phosphorylation and neuroactive steroids.

    PubMed

    Werner, David F; Porcu, Patrizia; Boyd, Kevin N; O'Buckley, Todd K; Carter, Jenna M; Kumar, Sandeep; Morrow, A Leslie

    2016-04-01

    GABAA receptors containing α4 subunits are widely implicated in acute ethanol sensitivity, and their spatial and temporal regulation prominently contributes to ethanol-induced neuroplasticity in hippocampus and cortex. However, it is unknown if α4-containing GABAA receptors in the thalamus, an area of high α4 expression, display similar regulatory patterns following ethanol administration, and if so, by which molecular mechanisms. In the current study, thalamic GABAA receptor α4 subunit levels were increased following a 6-week-, but not a 2-week chronic ethanol diet. Following acute high-dose ethanol administration, thalamic GABAA receptor α4 subunit levels were regulated in a temporal fashion, as a decrease was observed at 2h followed by a delayed transient increase. PKCγ and PKCδ levels paralleled α4 temporal expression patterns following ethanol exposure. Initial decreases in α4 subunit expression were associated with reduced serine phosphorylation. Delayed increases in expression were not associated with a change in phosphorylation state, but were prevented by inhibiting neuroactive steroid production with the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Overall, these studies indicate that thalamic GABAA receptor α4 subunit expression following acute and chronic ethanol administration exhibits similar regulatory patterns as other regions and that transient expression patterns following acute exposure in vivo are likely dependent on both subunit phosphorylation state and neuroactive steroids.

  6. Roles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β subunits in function of human α4-containing nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Qiang; Yu, Kewei; Hu, Jun; Kuo, Yen-Ping; Segerberg, Marsha; St John, Paul A; Lukas, Ronald J

    2006-01-01

    Naturally expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) containing α4 subunits (α4*-nAChR) in combination with β2 subunits (α4β2-nAChR) are among the most abundant, high-affinity nicotine binding sites in the mammalian brain. β4 subunits are also richly expressed and colocalize with α4 subunits in several brain regions implicated in behavioural responses to nicotine and nicotine dependence. Thus, α4β4-nAChR also may exist and play important functional roles. In this study, properties were determined of human α4β2- and α4β4-nAChR heterologously expressed de novo in human SH-EP1 epithelial cells. Whole-cell currents mediated via human α4β4-nAChR have ∼4-fold higher amplitude than those mediated via human α4β2-nAChR and exhibit much slower acute desensitization and functional rundown. Nicotinic agonists induce peak whole-cell current responses typically with higher functional potency at α4β4-nAChR than at α4β2-nAChR. Cytisine and lobeline serve as full agonists at α4β4-nAChR but are only partial agonists at α4β2-nAChR. However, nicotinic antagonists, except hexamethonium, have comparable affinities for functional α4β2- and α4β4-nAChR. Whole-cell current responses show stronger inward rectification for α4β2-nAChR than for α4β4-nAChR at a positive holding potential. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that human nAChR β2 or β4 subunits can combine with α4 subunits to generate two forms of α4*-nAChR with distinctive physiological and pharmacological features. Diversity in α4*-nAChR is of potential relevance to nervous system function, disease, and nicotine dependence. PMID:16825297

  7. Rabies virus binding to an acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit peptide.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L

    1990-04-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled rabies virus to a synthetic peptide comprising residues 173-204 of the alpha 1-subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was investigated. Binding of rabies virus to the receptor peptide was dependent on pH, could be competed with by unlabeled homologous virus particles, and was saturable. Synthetic peptides of snake venom, curaremimetic neurotoxins and of the structurally similar segment of the rabies virus glycoprotein, were effective in competing with labeled virus binding to the receptor peptide at micromolar concentrations. Similarly, synthetic peptides of the binding domain on the acetylcholine receptor competed for binding. These findings suggest that both rabies virus and neurotoxins bind to residues 173-204 of the alpha 1-subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. Competition studies with shorter alpha-subunit peptides within this region indicate that the highest affinity virus binding determinants are located within residues 179-192. A rat nerve alpha 3-subunit peptide, that does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin, inhibited binding of virus to the alpha 1 peptide, suggesting that rabies binds to neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These studies indicate that synthetic peptides of the glycoprotein binding domain and of the receptor binding domain may represent useful antiviral agents by targeting the recognition event between the viral attachment protein and the host cell receptor, and inhibiting attachment of virus to the receptor.

  8. [Extracellular Y-box binding protein-1 promotes proliferation and metastasis of HepG2 cells through Notch3 receptor].

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Li, P; Zou, L; Chen, P; Zhang, L P

    2016-03-20

    To clarify whether HepG2 cells actively secrete Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) under stress conditions, and to investigate the pathological significance and mechanism of action of extracellular YB-1. HepG2 cells were stimulated and treated by gradient concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adriamycin, the supernatant of the culture solution was collected by centrifugation, and the established chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was used for real-time quantitative determination of YB-1 level in the supernatant. The co-immunoprecipitation assay was used to detect whether extracellular YB-1 specifically bound to Notch3 receptor, and Western blot was used to measure the expression of Notch-NICD. The gradient concentrations of recombinant YB-1 were co-cultured with HepG2 cells, and MTT and migration assays were used to analyze the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of HepG2 cells. One-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of data between multiple groups. The results of CLIA confirmed that the level of extracellular YB-1 in the supernatant was significantly higher than that in the control group (F= 10.54,P< 0.001), and the secretory expression of YB-1 reached its peak after 4 hours of stimulation (LPS: 8 ng/ml; adriamycin: 10 ng/ml). The results of co-immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot showed that extracellular YB-1 specifically bound to Notch3 receptor and upregulated the expression of the Notch3 receptor. MTT and migration assays showed that extracellular YB-1 significantly promoted the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of HepG2 cells (F= 9.405,P< 0.001). Under the stress conditions induced by chemotherapeutics, HepG2 cells can actively secrete YB-1 via non-classical pathways. Extracellular YB-1 can specifically bind to Notch3 receptor and further up-regulate its expression, and then promote the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of HepG2 cells. This study lays a foundation for further clarifying the pathogenesis of hepatocellular

  9. Cloning and characterization of the ionotropic GABA receptor subunit ρ1 from pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Limon, Agenor; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-01-13

    Since human and pig eyes have remarkably anatomical and physiological similitudes swine models have been broadly used for functional studies and therapeutic research. Recently, a GABAρ-mediated relaxation of retinal vascularity suggested that GABAρ signaling may be used to improve retinal blood flow in vascular-driven impaired vision, and a further molecular characterization of GABAρ receptors would be beneficial. However, none of the GABAρ type subunits from pigs has been yet cloned; Among the 19 subunits that compose the family of GABAA receptors, ρ1-3 subunits are capable of forming homomeric channels. These homomeric receptors are particularly interesting because their pharmacological and kinetic properties are notably different from receptors composed by other GABAA subunits. Here we report the cloning of the GABAρ1subunit from the pig and the functional expression of homomeric channels in Xenopus oocytes. The most notable difference found in the pig GABAρ1 receptor was the absence of a stretch of 17 amino acids near the amino terminus (R41-V58) conserved in the rat and the human. This sequence has a higher nucleotidic match with the transcript variant 2 of the human GABAρ1 subunit. Xenopus oocytes injected with cRNA from the receptor generated currents when exposed to GABA that shared all the characteristics of other GABAρ1 subunits in mammals, including its modulation by dopamine. This study will help to increase the knowledge of the genetics of the pig, further the understanding of this important neurotransmitter receptor family and will shed some light in the evolution of these genes among mammals.

  10. Regulation of AMPA receptor gating and pharmacology by TARP auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Milstein, Aaron D; Nicoll, Roger A

    2008-07-01

    Presynaptic glutamate release elicits brief waves of membrane depolarization in neurons by activating AMPA receptors. Depending on its precise size and shape, current through AMPA receptors gates downstream processes like NMDA receptor activation and action potential generation. Over a decade of research on AMPA receptor structure and function has identified binding sites on AMPA receptors for agonists, antagonists and allosteric modulators as well as key residues underlying differences in the gating behavior of various AMPA receptor subtypes. However, the recent discovery that AMPA receptors are accompanied in the synaptic membrane by a family of auxiliary subunits known as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) has revealed that the kinetics and pharmacology of neuronal AMPA receptors differ in many respects from those predicted by classical studies of AMPA receptors in heterologous systems. Here, we summarize recent work and discuss remaining questions concerning the structure and function of native TARP-AMPA receptor complexes.

  11. NMDA receptor surface mobility depends on NR2A-2B subunits

    PubMed Central

    Groc, Laurent; Heine, Martin; Cousins, Sarah L.; Stephenson, F. Anne; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent; Choquet, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The NR2 subunit composition of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) varies during development, and this change is important in NMDAR-dependent signaling. In particular, synaptic NMDAR switch from containing mostly NR2B subunit to a mixture of NR2B and NR2A subunits. The pathways by which neurons differentially traffic NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDARs are poorly understood. Using single-particle and -molecule approaches and specific antibodies directed against NR2A and NR2B extracellular epitopes, we investigated the surface mobility of native NR2A and NR2B subunits at the surface of cultured neurons. The surface mobility of NMDARs depends on the NR2 subunit subtype, with NR2A-containing NMDARs being more stable than NR2B-containing ones, and NR2A subunit overexpression stabilizes surface NR2B-containing NMDARs. The developmental change in the synaptic surface content of NR2A and NR2B subunits was correlated with a developmental change in the time spent by the subunits within synapses. This suggests that the switch in synaptic NMDAR subtypes depends on the regulation of the receptor surface trafficking. PMID:17124177

  12. Direct interaction of Ikaros and Foxp1 modulates expression of the G protein-coupled receptor G2A in B-lymphocytes and acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Roman-Trufero, Mónica; Sabbattini, Pierangela; Ferreiros-Vidal, Isabel; Gerrard, Gareth; Asnafi, Vahid; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Dillon, Niall

    2016-01-01

    Ikaros and Foxp1 are transcription factors that play key roles in normal lymphopoiesis and lymphoid malignancies. We describe a novel physical and functional interaction between the proteins, which requires the central zinc finger domain of Ikaros. The Ikaros-Foxp1 interaction is abolished by deletion of this region, which corresponds to the IK6 isoform that is commonly associated with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We also identify the Gpr132 gene, which encodes the orphan G protein-coupled receptor G2A, as a novel target for Foxp1. Increased expression of Foxp1 enhanced Gpr132 transcription and caused cell cycle changes, including G2 arrest. Co-expression of wild-type Ikaros, but not IK6, displaced Foxp1 binding from the Gpr132 gene, reversed the increase in Gpr132 expression and inhibited G2 arrest. Analysis of primary ALL samples revealed a significant increase in GPR132 expression in IKZF1-deleted BCR-ABL negative patients, suggesting that levels of wild-type Ikaros may influence the regulation of G2A in B-ALL. Our results reveal a novel effect of Ikaros haploinsufficiency on Foxp1 functioning, and identify G2A as a potential modulator of the cell cycle in Ikaros-deleted B-ALL. PMID:27588474

  13. Silencing of the scavenger receptor (Class B - Type 1) gene using siRNA-loaded chitosan nanaoparticles in a HepG2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Farid, Mariane M; Hathout, Rania M; Fawzy, Mahmoud; Abou-Aisha, Khaled

    2014-11-01

    Gene silencing mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has gained increasing interest through the past few decades. However, the partial negative charge and the susceptibility to degradation by nucleases have hampered its use in a naked form. In this study, we investigated the use of chitosan nanoparticles as non-viral delivery carriers of siRNA. As a model target, we selected the scavenger receptor (SR-B1), due to its proposed involvement in hepatitis C virus (HCV) internalization. Low molecular weight (LMW) chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by simple ionic gelation using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linking agent; a fixed chitosan and TPP concentration of 0.1% was used, and a chitosan to TPP weight ratios of 3:1, 5:1, and 9:1 were investigated. Nanoparticle uptake efficiency was measured using FITC-labeled chitosan nanoparticles and silencing of scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) in HepG2 cell line was tested using Western blot analysis. Nanoparticles produced were spherical in shape with an optimum particle size and distribution. The uptake of FITC-labeled nanoparticles by HepG2 cells was found to be both concentration and time dependent. Furthermore, Western Blot analysis showed that SR-B1 siRNA was able to silence the scavenger receptor for up to 96 h of incubation with HepG2 cells.

  14. Trace amines inhibit insect odorant receptor function through antagonism of the co-receptor subunit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sisi; Luetje, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Many insect behaviors are driven by olfaction, making insect olfactory receptors (ORs) appealing targets for insect control.  Insect ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, with each receptor thought to be composed of a representative from a large, variable family of odorant binding subunits and a highly conserved co-receptor subunit (Orco), assembled in an unknown stoichiometry.  Synthetic Orco directed agonists and antagonists have recently been identified.  Several Orco antagonists have been shown to act via an allosteric mechanism to inhibit OR activation by odorants.  The high degree of conservation of Orco across insect species results in Orco antagonists having broad activity at ORs from a variety of insect species and suggests that the binding site for Orco ligands may serve as a modulatory site for compounds endogenous to insects or may be a target of exogenous compounds, such as those produced by plants.  To test this idea, we screened a series of biogenic and trace amines, identifying several as Orco antagonists.  Of particular interest were tryptamine, a plant-produced amine, and tyramine, an amine endogenous to the insect nervous system.  Tryptamine was found to be a potent antagonist of Orco, able to block Orco activation by an Orco agonist and to allosterically inhibit activation of ORs by odorants.  Tyramine had effects similar to those of tryptamine, but was less potent.  Importantly, both tryptamine and tyramine displayed broad activity, inhibiting odorant activation of ORs of species from three different insect orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera), as well as odorant activation of six diverse ORs from a single species (the human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae).  Our results suggest that endogenous and exogenous natural compounds serve as Orco ligands modulating insect olfaction and that Orco can be an important target for the development of novel insect repellants. PMID:25075297

  15. Effects of the α subunit on imidacloprid sensitivity of recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, K; Buckingham, S D; Freeman, J C; Squire, M D; Baylis, H A; Sattelle, D B

    1998-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a new insecticide with selective toxicity for insects over vertebrates. Recombinant (α4β2) chicken neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and a hybrid nicotinic AChR formed by co-expression of a Drosophila melanogaster neuronal α subunit (SAD) with the chicken β2 subunit were heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes by nuclear injection of cDNAs. The agonist actions of imidacloprid and other nicotinic AChR ligands ((+)-epibatidine, (−)-nicotine and acetylcholine) were compared on both recombinant nicotinic AChRs by use of two-electrode, voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Imidacloprid alone of the 4 agonists behaved as a partial agonist on the α4β2 receptor; (+)-epibatidine, (−)-nicotine and acetylcholine were all full, or near full, agonists. Imidacloprid was also a partial agonist of the hybrid Drosophila SAD chicken β2 receptor, as was (−)-nicotine, whereas (+)-epibatidine and acetylcholine were full agonists. The EC50 of imidacloprid was decreased by replacing the chicken α4 subunit with the Drosophila SAD α subunit. This α subunit substitution also resulted in an increase in the EC50 for (+)-epibatidine, (−)-nicotine and acetylcholine. Thus, the Drosophila (SAD) α subunit contributes to the greater apparent affinity of imidacloprid for recombinant insect/vertebrate nicotinic AChRs. Imidacloprid acted as a weak antagonist of ACh-mediated responses mediated by SADβ2 hybrid receptors and as a weak potentiator of ACh responses mediated by α4β2 receptors. This suggests that imidacloprid has complex effects upon these recombinant receptors, determined at least in part by the α subunit. PMID:9504393

  16. Proteasome subunit Rpn13 is a novel ubiquitin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Husnjak, Koraljka; Elsasser, Suzanne; Zhang, Naixia; Chen, Xiang; Randles, Leah; Shi, Yuan; Hofmann, Kay; Walters, Kylie; Finley, Daniel; Dikic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Proteasomal receptors that recognize ubiquitin chains attached to substrates are key mediators of selective protein degradation in eukaryotes. Here we report the identification of a new ubiquitin receptor, Rpn13/ARM1, a known component of the proteasome. Rpn13 binds ubiquitin via a conserved N-terminal region termed the Pru domain (Pleckstrin-like receptor for ubiquitin), which binds K48-linked diubiquitin with an affinity of ∼90 nM. Like proteasomal ubiquitin receptor Rpn10/S5a, Rpn13 also binds ubiquitin-like domains of the UBL/UBA family of ubiquitin receptors. A synthetic phenotype results in yeast when specific mutations of the ubiquitin binding sites of Rpn10 and Rpn13 are combined, indicating functional linkage between these ubiquitin receptors. Since Rpn13 is also the proteasomal receptor for Uch37, a deubiquitinating enzyme, our findings suggest a coupling of chain recognition and disassembly at the proteasome. PMID:18497817

  17. The gamma 2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors is required for maintenance of receptors at mature synapses.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Claude; Balsiger, Sylvia; Bluethmann, Horst; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Mohler, Hanns; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2003-10-01

    The gamma2 subunit of GABA(A) receptor chloride channels is required for normal channel function and for postsynaptic clustering of these receptors during synaptogenesis. In addition, GABA(A) receptor function is thought to contribute to normal postnatal maturation of neurons. Loss of postsynaptic GABA(A) receptors in gamma2-deficient neurons might therefore reflect a deficit in maturation of neurons due to the reduced channel function. Here, we have used the Cre-loxP strategy to examine the clustering function of the gamma2 subunit at mature synapses. Deletion of the gamma2 subunit in the third postnatal week resulted in loss of benzodiazepine-binding sites and parallel loss of punctate immunoreactivity for postsynaptic GABA(A) receptors and gephyrin. Thus, the gamma2 subunit contributes to postsynaptic localization of GABA(A) receptors and gephyrin by a mechanism that is operant in mature neurons and not limited to immature neurons, most likely through interaction with proteins involved in trafficking of synaptic GABA(A) receptors.

  18. Ocular and generalized myasthenia gravis induced by human acetylcholine receptor γ subunit immunization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaorong; Tuzun, Erdem; Li, Jing; Xiao, Tianlin; Saini, Shamsher S; Qi, Huibin; Allman, Windy; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2012-02-01

    HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice develop ocular myasthenia gravis (oMG), which then progresses to generalized MG (gMG) when immunized with the human acetylcholine receptor (H-AChR) α subunit. Because the fetal AChR γ subunit is expressed in adult extraocular muscles, we anticipated that γ subunit immunization would generate an immune response to mouse AChR and induce MG in mice. H-AChR γ subunit immunization in HLA-DQ8 mice induced an autoimmune response to mouse AChR and led to the destruction of AChR in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) by anti-AChR antibody and complement activation, and it triggered upregulation of AChR gene transcription. Our findings indicate that oMG may be induced by immunity to the AChR γ subunit. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Kinetics of low-density lipoprotein receptor activity in Hep-G2 cells: derivation and validation of a Briggs-Haldane-based kinetic model for evaluating receptor-mediated endocytotic processes in which receptors recycle.

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, H J; Pellarin, L D

    1997-01-01

    The process of receptor-mediated endocytosis for receptors that recycle to the cell surface in an active form can be considered as being kinetically analogous to that of a uni-substrate, uni-product enzyme-catalysed reaction. In this study we have derived steady-state initial-velocity rate equations for this process, based on classical Briggs-Haldane and King-Altman kinetic approaches to multi-step reactions, and have evaluated this kinetic paradigm, using as a model system the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor-mediated endocytosis of the trapped label [14C]sucrose-LDL in uninduced, steady-state Hep-G2 cells. Using the derived rate equations, together with experimentally determined values for Bmax (123 fmol/mg of cell protein), Kd (14.3 nM), the endocytotic rate constant ke (analogous to kcat; 0.163 min-1), Km (80 nM) and maximal internalization velocity (26.4 fmol/min per mg), we have calculated the ratio ke/Km (0.00204 nM-1.min-1), the bimolecular rate constant for LDL and LDL-receptor association (0. 00248 nM-1.min-1), the first-order rate constant for LDL-LDL-receptor complex dissociation (0.0354 min-1), the total cellular content of LDL receptors (154 fmol/mg of cell protein), the intracellular LDL receptor concentration (30.7 fmol/mg of cell protein) and the pseudo-first-order rate constant for LDL receptor recycling (0.0653 min-1). Based on this mathematical model, the kinetic mechanism for the receptor-mediated endocytosis of [14C]sucrose-LDL by steady-state Hep-G2 cells is one of constitutive endocytosis via independent internalization sites that follows steady-state Briggs-Haldane kinetics, such that LDL-LDL-receptor interactions are characterized by a rapid-high-affinity ligand-receptor association, followed by ligand-receptor complex internalization that is rapid relative to complex dissociation, and by receptor recycling that is more rapid than complex internalization and that serves to maintain 80% of cellular LDL receptors on the cell surface in

  20. Distribution of NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits at thalamo-amygdaloid dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Radley, Jason J; Farb, Claudia R; He, Yong; Janssen, William G M; Rodrigues, Sarina M; Johnson, Luke R; Hof, Patrick R; LeDoux, Joseph E; Morrison, John H

    2007-02-23

    Synapses onto dendritic spines in the lateral amygdala formed by afferents from the auditory thalamus represent a site of plasticity in Pavlovian fear conditioning. Previous work has demonstrated that thalamic afferents synapse onto LA spines expressing glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits, but the GluR subunit distribution at the synapse and within the cytoplasm has not been characterized. Therefore, we performed a quantitative analysis for alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR3 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B by combining anterograde labeling of thalamo-amygdaloid afferents with postembedding immunoelectron microscopy for the GluRs in adult rats. A high percentage of thalamo-amygdaloid spines was immunoreactive for GluR2 (80%), GluR3 (83%), and NR1 (83%), while a smaller proportion of spines expressed NR2B (59%). To compare across the various subunits, the cytoplasmic to synaptic ratios of GluRs were measured within thalamo-amygdaloid spines. Analyses revealed that the cytoplasmic pool of GluR2 receptors was twice as large compared to the GluR3, NR1, and NR2B subunits. Our data also show that in the adult brain, the NR2B subunit is expressed in the majority of in thalamo-amygdaloid spines and that within these spines, the various GluRs are differentially distributed between synaptic and non-synaptic sites. The prevalence of the NR2B subunit in thalamo-amygdaloid spines provides morphological evidence supporting its role in the fear conditioning circuit while the differential distribution of the GluR subtypes may reflect distinct roles for their involvement in this circuitry and synaptic plasticity.

  1. Hesperidin from Citrus seed induces human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Wudtiwai, Benjawan; Khaw-On, Patompong; Rachakhom, Wasitta; Duangnil, Natthachai; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    Citrus seeds are full of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids. The aims of this study were to identify the types of flavonoids in Citrus seed extracts, the cytotoxic effect, mode of cell death, and signaling pathway in human hepatic cancer HepG2 cells. The flavonoids contain anticancer, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. Neohesperidin, hesperidin, and naringin, active flavanone glycosides, were identified in Citrus seed extract. The cytotoxic effect of three compounds was in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 levels were determined. The sensitivity of human HepG2 cells was as follows: hesperidin > naringin > neohesperidin > naringenin. Hesperidin induced HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by the externalization of phosphatidylserine and determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining using flow cytometry. Hesperidin did not induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which was determined by using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry method. The number of hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential increased concentration dependently, using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide employing flow cytometry. Caspase-9, -8, and -3 activities were activated and increased in hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells. Bcl-xL protein was downregulated whereas Bax, Bak, and tBid protein levels were upregulated after treatment with hesperidin in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the bioflavanone from Citrus seeds, hesperidin, induced human HepG2 cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Citrus seed flavonoids are beneficial and can be developed as anticancer drug or food supplement, which still needs further in vivo investigation in animals and human beings.

  2. Enrichment of GABAA Receptor α-Subunits on the Axonal Initial Segment Shows Regional Differences

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yudong; Heldt, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is generally recognized that certain α-subunits of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) form enriched clusters on the axonal initial segment (AIS), the degree to which these clusters vary in different brain areas is not well known. In the current study, we quantified the density, size, and enrichment ratio of fluorescently labeled α1-, α2-, or α3-subunits aggregates co-localized with the AIS-marker ankyrin G and compared them to aggregates in non-AIS locations among different brain areas including hippocampal subfields, basal lateral amygdala (BLA), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and sensory cortex (CTX). We found regional differences in the enrichment of GABAAR α-subunits on the AIS. Significant enrichment was identified in the CA3 of hippocampus for α1-subunits, in the CA1, CA3, and BLA for α2-subunits, and in the BLA for α3-subunits. Using α-subunit knock-out (KO) mice, we found that BLA enrichment of α2- and α3-subunits were physiologically independent of each other, as the enrichment of one subunit was unaffected by the genomic deletion of the other. To further investigate the unique pattern of α-subunit enrichment in the BLA, we examined the association of α2- and α3-subunits with the presynaptic vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT) and the anchoring protein gephyrin (Geph). As expected, both α2- and α3-subunits on the AIS within the BLA received prominent GABAergic innervation from vGAT-positive terminals. Further, we found that the association of α2- and α3-subunits with Geph was weaker in AIS versus non-AIS locations, suggesting that Geph might be playing a lesser role in the enrichment of α2- and α3-subunits on the AIS. Overall, these observations suggest that GABAARs on the AIS differ in subunit composition across brain regions. As with somatodendritic GABAARs, the distinctive expression pattern of AIS-located GABAAR α-subunits in the BLA, and other brain areas, likely contribute to unique forms of GABAergic inhibitory

  3. Similar GABAA receptor subunit composition in somatic and axon initial segment synapses of hippocampal pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kerti-Szigeti, Katalin; Nusser, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal cells (PCs) express many GABAAR subunit types and receive GABAergic inputs from distinct interneurons. Previous experiments revealed input-specific differences in α1 and α2 subunit densities in perisomatic synapses, suggesting distinct IPSC decay kinetics. However, IPSC decays evoked by axo-axonic, parvalbumin- or cholecystokinin-expressing basket cells were found to be similar. Using replica immunogold labeling, here we show that all CA1 PC somatic and AIS synapses contain the α1, α2, β1, β2, β3 and γ2 subunits. In CA3 PCs, 90% of the perisomatic synapses are immunopositive for the α1 subunit and all synapses are positive for the remaining five subunits. Somatic synapses form unimodal distributions based on their immunoreactivity for these subunits. The α2 subunit densities in somatic synapses facing Cav2.1 (i.e. parvalbumin) or Cav2.2 (cholecystokinin) positive presynaptic active zones are comparable. We conclude that perisomatic synapses made by three distinct interneuron types have similar GABAA receptor subunit content. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18426.001 PMID:27537197

  4. Α2 GABAA receptor sub-units in the ventral hippocampus and α5 GABAA receptor sub-units in the dorsal hippocampus mediate anxiety and fear memory.

    PubMed

    McEown, K; Treit, D

    2013-11-12

    Temporary neuronal inactivation of the ventral hippocampus with the GABAA agonist muscimol suppresses unconditioned fear behavior (anxiety) but inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus does not. On the other hand, inactivating the dorsal hippocampus disrupts fear memory, while inactivating the ventral hippocampus does not. Here we investigate the roles of hippocampal GABAA receptor sub-units in mediating these anxiolytic and amnesic effects of GABAA receptor agonists. We microinfused TPA023 (α2 agonist) or TB-21007 (inverse α5 agonist) into the dorsal or ventral hippocampus prior to testing rats in two animal models of anxiety: the elevated plus-maze and shock-probe burying test. Twenty-four hours later rats were re-tested in the shock-probe chamber with a non-electrified probe to assess their memory of the initial shock-probe experience (i.e., fear memory). We found that TPA023 was anxiolytic in the plus-maze and shock-probe burying tests when microinfused into the ventral hippocampus. However, TPA023 did not affect anxiety-related behavior when infused into the dorsal hippocampus. Conversely, we found that the α5 sub-unit inverse agonist TB-21007 impaired rats' memory of the initial shock-probe experience when infused into the dorsal hippocampus, but not when infused into the ventral hippocampus. This double dissociation suggests that α2 GABAA receptor sub-units in the ventral hippocampus mediate unconditioned fear or anxiety, while α5 GABAA receptor sub-units in the dorsal hippocampus mediate conditioned fear memory. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  6. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  7. Flexible subunit stoichiometry of functional human P2X2/3 heteromeric receptors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Maria; Hausmann, Ralf; Schmid, Julia; Dopychai, Anke; Stephan, Gabriele; Tang, Yong; Schmalzing, Günther; Illes, Peter; Rubini, Patrizia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to clarify whether heterotrimeric P2X2/3 receptors have a fixed subunit stoichiometry consisting of one P2X2 and two P2X3 subunits as previously suggested, or a flexible stoichiometry containing also the inverse subunit composition. For this purpose we transfected HEK293 cells with P2X2 and P2X3 encoding cDNA at the ratios of 1:2 and 4:1, and analysed the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the generated receptors by means of the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The concentration-response curves for the selective agonist α,β-meATP did not differ from each other under the two transfection ratios. However, co-expression of an inactive P2X2 mutant and the wild type P2X3 subunit and vice versa resulted in characteristic distortions of the α,β-meATP concentration-response relationships, depending on which subunit was expressed in excess, suggesting that HEK293 cells express mixtures of (P2X2)1/(P2X3)2 and (P2X2)2/(P2X3)1 receptors. Whereas the allosteric modulators H+ and Zn2+ failed to discriminate between the two possible heterotrimeric receptor variants, the α,β-meATP-induced responses were blocked more potently by the competitive antagonist A317491, when the P2X2 subunit was expressed in deficit of the P2X3 subunit. Furthermore, blue-native PAGE analysis of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK293 cells revealed that plasma membrane-bound P2X2/3 receptors appeared in two clearly distinct heterotrimeric complexes: a (P2X2-GFP)2/(P2X3)1 complex and a (P2X2-GFP)1/(P2X3)2 complex. These data strongly indicate that the stoichiometry of the heteromeric P2X2/3 receptor is not fixed, but determined in a permutational manner by the relative availability of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF NICOTINE ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR SUBUNITS IN THE COCKROACH Periplaneta americana MUSHROOM BODIES REVEALS A STRONG EXPRESSION OF β1 SUBUNIT: INVOLVEMENT IN NICOTINE-INDUCED CURRENTS.

    PubMed

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Thany, Steeve H

    2016-09-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels expressed in many insect structures, such as mushroom bodies, in which they play a central role. We have recently demonstrated using electrophysiological recordings that different native nicotinic receptors are expressed in cockroach mushroom bodies Kenyon cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that eight genes coding for cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits are expressed in the mushroom bodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments demonstrated that β1 subunit was the most expressed in the mushroom bodies. Moreover, antisense oligonucleotides performed against β1 subunit revealed that inhibition of β1 expression strongly decreases nicotine-induced currents amplitudes. Moreover, co-application with 0.5 μM α-bungarotoxin completely inhibited nicotine currents whereas 10 μM d-tubocurarine had a partial effect demonstrating that β1-containing neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes could be sensitive to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist α-bungarotoxin.

  9. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type B (GABAB) Receptor Internalization Is Regulated by the R2 Subunit*

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Saad; Wilkins, Megan E.; Dehghani-Tafti, Ebrahim; Thomas, Philip; Baddeley, Stuart M.; Smart, Trevor G.

    2011-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors are important for slow synaptic inhibition in the CNS. The efficacy of inhibition is directly related to the stability of cell surface receptors. For GABAB receptors, heterodimerization between R1 and R2 subunits is critical for cell surface expression and signaling, but how this determines the rate and extent of receptor internalization is unknown. Here, we insert a high affinity α-bungarotoxin binding site into the N terminus of the R2 subunit and reveal its dominant role in regulating the internalization of GABAB receptors in live cells. To simultaneously study R1a and R2 trafficking, a new α-bungarotoxin binding site-labeling technique was used, allowing α-bungarotoxin conjugated to different fluorophores to selectively label R1a and R2 subunits. This approach demonstrated that R1a and R2 are internalized as dimers. In heterologous expression systems and neurons, the rates and extents of internalization for R1aR2 heteromers and R2 homomers are similar, suggesting a regulatory role for R2 in determining cell surface receptor stability. The fast internalization rate of R1a, which has been engineered to exit the endoplasmic reticulum, was slowed to that of R2 by truncating the R1a C-terminal tail or by removing a dileucine motif in its coiled-coil domain. Slowing the rate of internalization by co-assembly with R2 represents a novel role for GPCR heterodimerization whereby R2 subunits, via their C terminus coiled-coil domain, mask a dileucine motif on R1a subunits to determine the surface stability of the GABAB receptor. PMID:21724853

  10. Immunochemical Localization of GABAA Receptor Subunits in the Freshwater Polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Concas, A; Imperatore, R; Santoru, F; Locci, A; Porcu, P; Cristino, L; Pierobon, P

    2016-11-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, responding to GABA positive allosteric modulators, are present in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), one of the most primitive metazoans to develop a nervous system. We examined the occurrence and distribution of GABAA receptor subunits in Hydra tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies against different GABAA receptor subunits were used in Hydra membrane preparations. Unique protein bands, inhibited by the specific peptide, appeared at 35, 60, ∼50 and ∼52 kDa in membranes incubated with α3, β1, γ3 or δ antibodies, respectively. Immunohistochemical screening of whole mount Hydra preparations revealed diffuse immunoreactivity to α3, β1 or γ3 antibodies in tentacles, hypostome, and upper part of the gastric region; immunoreactive fibers were also present in the lower peduncle. By contrast, δ antibodies revealed a strong labeling in the lower gastric region and peduncle, as well as in tentacles. Double labeling showed colocalization of α3/β1, α3/γ3 and α3/δ immunoreactivity in granules or cells in tentacles and gastric region. In the peduncle, colocalization of both α3/β1 and α3/γ3 immunoreactivity was found in fibers running horizontally above the foot. These data indicate that specific GABAA receptor subunits are present and differentially distributed in Hydra body regions. Subunit colocalization suggests that Hydra GABA receptors are heterologous multimers, possibly sub-serving different physiological activities.

  11. Ischaemia differentially regulates GABAB receptor subunits in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Cimarosti, Helena; Kantamneni, Sriharsha; Henley, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced synaptic inhibition due to dysfunction of ionotropic GABAA receptors has been proposed as one factor in cerebral ischaemia-induced excitotoxic cell death. However, the participation of the inhibitory metabotropic GABAB receptors in these pathological processes has not been extensively investigated. We used oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) and NMDA-induced excitotoxicity as models to investigate whether ischaemia-like challenges alter the protein levels of GABAB1 and GABAB2 receptor subunits in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Twenty-four hours after the insult both OGD and NMDA produced a marked decrease in the total levels of GABAB2 (~75%), while there was no significant change in the levels of GABAB1 after OGD, but an increase after NMDA treatment (~100%). The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (100 μM) was neuroprotective following OGD or NMDA treatment if added before or during the insult. GABAB receptors comprise heterodimers of GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits and our results suggest that the separate subunits are independently regulated in response to extreme neuronal stress. However, because GABAB2 is required for functional surface expression, down-regulation of this subunit removes an important inhibitory feedback mechanism under pathological conditions. PMID:19328818

  12. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of GABAA Receptor γ2-Subunit Regulates Tonic and Phasic Inhibition in the Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Nani, Francesca; Bright, Damian P.; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Tretter, Verena; Moss, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    GABA-mediated tonic and phasic inhibition of thalamic relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) was studied after ablating tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation of receptor γ2-subunits. As phosphorylation of γ2 Y365 and Y367 reduces receptor internalization, to understand their importance for inhibition we created a knock-in mouse in which these residues are replaced by phenylalanines. On comparing wild-type (WT) and γ2Y365/367F+/− (HT) animals (homozygotes are not viable in utero), the expression levels of GABAA receptor α4-subunits were increased in the thalamus of female, but not male mice. Raised δ-subunit expression levels were also observed in female γ2Y365/367F +/− thalamus. Electrophysiological analyses revealed no difference in the level of inhibition in male WT and HT dLGN, while both the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic activity and the tonic current were significantly augmented in female HT relay cells. The sensitivity of tonic currents to the δ-subunit superagonist THIP, and the blocker Zn2+, were higher in female HT relay cells. This is consistent with upregulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors containing α4- and δ-subunits to enhance tonic inhibition. In contrast, the sensitivity of GABAA receptors mediating inhibition in the female γ2Y356/367F +/− to neurosteroids was markedly reduced compared with WT. We conclude that disrupting tyrosine phosphorylation of the γ2-subunit activates a sex-specific increase in tonic inhibition, and this most likely reflects a genomic-based compensation mechanism for the reduced neurosteroid sensitivity of inhibition measured in female HT relay neurons. PMID:23904608

  13. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GABAA receptor γ2-subunit regulates tonic and phasic inhibition in the thalamus.

    PubMed

    Nani, Francesca; Bright, Damian P; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Tretter, Verena; Moss, Stephen J; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-07-31

    GABA-mediated tonic and phasic inhibition of thalamic relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) was studied after ablating tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation of receptor γ2-subunits. As phosphorylation of γ2 Y365 and Y367 reduces receptor internalization, to understand their importance for inhibition we created a knock-in mouse in which these residues are replaced by phenylalanines. On comparing wild-type (WT) and γ2(Y365/367F)+/- (HT) animals (homozygotes are not viable in utero), the expression levels of GABAA receptor α4-subunits were increased in the thalamus of female, but not male mice. Raised δ-subunit expression levels were also observed in female γ2(Y365/367F) +/- thalamus. Electrophysiological analyses revealed no difference in the level of inhibition in male WT and HT dLGN, while both the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic activity and the tonic current were significantly augmented in female HT relay cells. The sensitivity of tonic currents to the δ-subunit superagonist THIP, and the blocker Zn(2+), were higher in female HT relay cells. This is consistent with upregulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors containing α4- and δ-subunits to enhance tonic inhibition. In contrast, the sensitivity of GABAA receptors mediating inhibition in the female γ2(Y356/367F) +/- to neurosteroids was markedly reduced compared with WT. We conclude that disrupting tyrosine phosphorylation of the γ2-subunit activates a sex-specific increase in tonic inhibition, and this most likely reflects a genomic-based compensation mechanism for the reduced neurosteroid sensitivity of inhibition measured in female HT relay neurons.

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of a GABA receptor subunit from the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Vázquez, Eric N; Díaz-Velásquez, Clara E; Uribe, R M; Arias, Juan M; García, Ubaldo

    2016-02-01

    Molecular cloning has introduced an unexpected, large diversity of neurotransmitter hetero- oligomeric receptors. Extensive research on the molecular structure of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) has been of great significance for understanding how the nervous system works in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, only two examples of functional homo-oligomeric GABA-activated Cl(-) channels have been reported. In the vertebrate retina, the GABAρ1 subunit of various species forms homo-oligomeric receptors; in invertebrates, a cDNA encoding a functional GABA-activated Cl(-) channel has been isolated from a Drosophila melanogaster head cDNA library. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, these subunits function efficiently as a homo-oligomeric complex. To investigate the structure-function of GABA channels from the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, we cloned a subunit and expressed it in human embryonic kidney cells. Electrophysiological recordings show that this subunit forms a homo-oligomeric ionotropic GABAR that gates a bicuculline-insensitive Cl(-) current. The order of potency of the agonists was GABA > trans-4-amino-crotonic acid = cis-4-aminocrotonic acid > muscimol. These data support the notion that X-organ sinus gland neurons express at least two GABA subunits responsible for the formation of hetero-oligomeric and homo-oligomeric receptors. In addition, by in situ hybridization studies we demonstrate that most X-organ neurons from crayfish eyestalk express the isolated pcGABAA β subunit. This study increases the knowledge of the genetics of the crayfish, furthers the understanding of this important neurotransmitter receptor family, and provides insight into the evolution of these genes among vertebrates and invertebrates.

  15. Salicylate, an aspirin metabolite, specifically inhibits the current mediated by glycine receptors containing α1-subunits

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y-G; Tang, Z-Q; Ye, Z-Y; Wang, H-T; Huang, Y-N; Zhou, K-Q; Zhang, M; Xu, T-L; Chen, L

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Aspirin or its metabolite sodium salicylate is widely prescribed and has many side effects. Previous studies suggest that targeting neuronal receptors/ion channels is one of the pathways by which salicylate causes side effects in the nervous system. The present study aimed to investigate the functional action of salicylate on glycine receptors at a molecular level. Experimental approach: Whole-cell patch-clamp and site-directed mutagenesis were deployed to examine the effects of salicylate on the currents mediated by native glycine receptors in cultured neurones of rat inferior colliculus and by glycine receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. Key results: Salicylate effectively inhibited the maximal current mediated by native glycine receptors without altering the EC50 and the Hill coefficient, demonstrating a non-competitive action of salicylate. Only when applied simultaneously with glycine and extracellularly, could salicylate produce this antagonism. In HEK293T cells transfected with either α1-, α2-, α3-, α1β-, α2β- or α3β-glycine receptors, salicylate only inhibited the current mediated by those receptors that contained the α1-subunit. A single site mutation of I240V in the α1-subunit abolished inhibition by salicylate. Conclusions and implications: Salicylate is a non-competitive antagonist specifically on glycine receptors containing α1-subunits. This action critically involves the isoleucine-240 in the first transmembrane segment of the α1-subunit. Our findings may increase our understanding of the receptors involved in the side effects of salicylate on the central nervous system, such as seizures and tinnitus. PMID:19594751

  16. Deletion of α5 nicotine receptor subunits abolishes nicotinic aversive motivational effects in a manner that phenocopies dopamine receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Grieder, Taryn E; George, Olivier; Yee, Mandy; Bergamini, Michael A; Chwalek, Michal; Maal-Bared, Geith; Vargas-Perez, Hector; van der Kooy, Derek

    2017-07-01

    Nicotine addiction is a worldwide epidemic that claims millions of lives each year. Genetic deletion of α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits has been associated with increased nicotine intake, however, it remains unclear whether acute nicotine is less aversive or more rewarding, and whether mice lacking the α5 nAChR subunit can experience withdrawal from chronic nicotine. We used place conditioning and conditioned taste avoidance paradigms to examine the effect of α5 subunit-containing nAChR deletion (α5 -/-) on conditioned approach and avoidance behaviour in nondependent and nicotine-dependent and -withdrawn mice, and compared these motivational effects with those elicited after dopamine receptor antagonism. We show that nondependent α5 -/- mice find low, non-motivational doses of nicotine rewarding, and do not show an aversive conditioned response or taste avoidance to higher aversive doses of nicotine. Furthermore, nicotine-dependent α5 -/- mice do not show a conditioned aversive motivational response to withdrawal from chronic nicotine, although they continue to exhibit a somatic withdrawal syndrome. These effects phenocopy those observed after dopamine receptor antagonism, but are not additive, suggesting that α5 nAChR subunits act in the same pathway as dopamine and are critical for the experience of nicotine's aversive, but not rewarding motivational effects in both a nondependent and nicotine-dependent and -withdrawn motivational state. Genetic deletion of α5 nAChR subunits leads to a behavioural phenotype that exactly matches that observed after antagonizing dopamine receptors, thus we suggest that modulation of nicotinic receptors containing α5 subunits may modify dopaminergic signalling, suggesting novel therapeutic treatments for smoking cessation. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Selective Pyramidal Cell Reduction of GABAA Receptor α1 Subunit Messenger RNA Expression in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Glausier, Jill R; Lewis, David A

    2011-01-01

    Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for the α1 subunit of the GABAA receptor, which is present in 60% of cortical GABAA receptors, have been reported to be lower in layer 3 of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in subjects with schizophrenia. This subunit is expressed in both pyramidal cells and interneurons, and thus lower α1 subunit levels in each cell population would have opposite effects on net cortical excitation. We used dual-label in situ hybridization to quantify GABAA α1 subunit mRNA expression in calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II α (CaMKIIα)-containing pyramidal cells and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 kDa (GAD65)-containing interneurons in layer 3 of the PFC from matched schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects. In subjects with schizophrenia, mean GABAA α1 subunit mRNA expression was significantly 40% lower in pyramidal cells, but was not altered in interneurons. Lower α1 subunit mRNA expression in pyramidal cells was not attributable to potential confounding factors, and thus appeared to reflect the disease process of schizophrenia. These results suggest that pyramidal cell inhibition is reduced in schizophrenia, whereas inhibition of GABA neurons is maintained. The cell type specificity of these findings may reflect a compensatory response to enhance layer 3 pyramidal cell activity in the face of the diminished excitatory drive associated with the lower dendritic spine density on these neurons. PMID:21677653

  18. Energetic Contributions to Channel Gating of Residues in the Muscle Nicotinic Receptor β1 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Akk, Gustav; Eaton, Megan; Li, Ping; Zheng, Steven; Lo, Joshua; Steinbach, Joe Henry

    2013-01-01

    In the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family, transmitter binds in the extracellular domain and conformational changes result in channel opening in the transmembrane domain. In the muscle nicotinic receptor and other heteromeric members of the family one subunit does not contribute to the canonical agonist binding site for transmitter. A fundamental question is whether conformational changes occur in this subunit. We used records of single channel activity and rate-equilibrium free energy relationships to examine the β1 (non-ACh-binding) subunit of the muscle nicotinic receptor. Mutations to residues in the extracellular domain have minimal effects on the gating equilibrium constant. Positions in the channel lining (M2 transmembrane) domain contribute strongly and relatively late during gating. Positions thought to be important in other subunits in coupling the transmitter-binding to the channel domains have minimal effects on gating. We conclude that the conformational changes involved in channel gating propagate from the binding-site to the channel in the ACh-binding subunits and subsequently spread to the non-binding subunit. PMID:24194945

  19. Genetically encoding a light switch in an ionotropic glutamate receptor reveals subunit-specific interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shujia; Riou, Morgane; Yao, C. Andrea; Carvalho, Stéphanie; Rodriguez, Pamela C.; Bensaude, Olivier; Paoletti, Pierre; Ye, Shixin

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming receptors to artificially respond to light has strong potential for molecular studies and interrogation of biological functions. Here, we design a light-controlled ionotropic glutamate receptor by genetically encoding a photoreactive unnatural amino acid (UAA). The photo–cross-linker p-azido-l-phenylalanine (AzF) was encoded in NMDA receptors (NMDARs), a class of glutamate-gated ion channels that play key roles in neuronal development and plasticity. AzF incorporation in the obligatory GluN1 subunit at the GluN1/GluN2B N-terminal domain (NTD) upper lobe dimer interface leads to an irreversible allosteric inhibition of channel activity upon UV illumination. In contrast, when pairing the UAA-containing GluN1 subunit with the GluN2A subunit, light-dependent inactivation is completely absent. By combining electrophysiological and biochemical analyses, we identify subunit-specific structural determinants at the GluN1/GluN2 NTD dimer interfaces that critically dictate UV-controlled inactivation. Our work reveals that the two major NMDAR subtypes differ in their ectodomain-subunit interactions, in particular their electrostatic contacts, resulting in GluN1 NTD coupling more tightly to the GluN2B NTD than to the GluN2A NTD. It also paves the way for engineering light-sensitive ligand-gated ion channels with subtype specificity through the genetic code expansion. PMID:24715733

  20. Mutation causing congenital myasthenia reveals acetylcholine receptor β/δ subunit interaction essential for assembly

    PubMed Central

    Quiram, Polly A.; Ohno, Kinji; Milone, Margherita; Patterson, Marc C.; Pruitt, Ned J.; Brengman, Joan M.; Sine, Steven M.; Engel, Andrew G.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a severe postsynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome with marked endplate acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency caused by 2 heteroallelic mutations in the β subunit gene. One mutation causes skipping of exon 8, truncating the β subunit before its M1 transmembrane domain, and abolishing surface expression of pentameric AChR. The other mutation, a 3-codon deletion (β426delEQE) in the long cytoplasmic loop between the M3 and M4 domains, curtails but does not abolish expression. By coexpressing β426delEQE with combinations of wild-type subunits in 293 HEK cells, we demonstrate that β426delEQE impairs AChR assembly by disrupting a specific interaction between β and δ subunits. Studies with related deletion and missense mutants indicate that secondary structure in this region of the β subunit is crucial for interaction with the δ subunit. The findings imply that the mutated residues are positioned at the interface between β and δ subunits and demonstrate contribution of this local region of the long cytoplasmic loop to AChR assembly. J. Clin. Invest. 104:1403–1410 (1999). PMID:10562302

  1. Glycine Receptors Containing α2 or α3 Subunits Regulate Specific Ethanol-Mediated Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Black, Mendy; Leiter, Courtney R.; Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are broadly expressed in the central nervous system. Ethanol enhances the function of brain GlyRs, and the GlyRα1 subunit is associated with some of the behavioral actions of ethanol, such as loss of righting reflex. The in vivo role of GlyRα2 and α3 subunits in alcohol responses has not been characterized despite high expression levels in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, areas that are important for the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse. We used an extensive panel of behavioral tests to examine ethanol actions in mice lacking Glra2 (the gene encoding the glycine receptor alpha 2 subunit) or Glra3 (the gene encoding the glycine receptor alpha 3 subunit). Deletion of Glra2 or Glra3 alters specific ethanol-induced behaviors. Glra2 knockout mice demonstrate reduced ethanol intake and preference in the 24-hour two-bottle choice test and increased initial aversive responses to ethanol and lithium chloride. In contrast, Glra3 knockout mice show increased ethanol intake and preference in the 24-hour intermittent access test and increased development of conditioned taste aversion to ethanol. Mutants and wild-type mice consumed similar amounts of ethanol in the limited access drinking in the dark test. Other ethanol effects, such as anxiolysis, motor incoordination, loss of righting reflex, and acoustic startle response, were not altered in the mutants. The behavioral changes in mice lacking GlyRα2 or α3 subunits were distinct from effects previously observed in mice with knock-in mutations in the α1 subunit. We provide evidence that GlyRα2 and α3 subunits may regulate ethanol consumption and the aversive response to ethanol. PMID:25678534

  2. Hydrophobic interactions mediate binding of the glycine receptor beta-subunit to gephyrin.

    PubMed

    Kneussel, M; Hermann, A; Kirsch, J; Betz, H

    1999-03-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride channel proteins composed of alpha- and beta-subunits. GlyRs are located to and anchored at postsynaptic sites by the receptor-associated protein gephyrin. Previous work from our laboratory has identified a core motif for gephyrin binding in the cytoplasmic loop of the GlyR beta-subunit. Here, we localized amino acid residues implicated in gephyrin binding by site-directed mutagenesis. In a novel transfection assay, a green fluorescent protein-gephyrin binding motif fusion protein was used to monitor the consequences of amino acid substitutions for beta-subunit interaction with gephyrin. Only multiple, but not single, replacements of hydrophobic side chains abolished the interaction between the two proteins. Our data are consistent with gephyrin binding being mediated by the hydrophobic side of an imperfect amphipathic helix.

  3. EM colocalization of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits at synapses in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Kharazia, V N; Phend, K D; Rustioni, A; Weinberg, R J

    1996-05-24

    Electrophysiology and light microscopy suggest that a single excitatory synapse may use both amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Using immunogold electron microscopy, we here provide direct evidence for colocalization at individual synapses in sensorimotor cortex of adult rats. Colocalization was most commonly observed on dendritic spines; subunits of the two classes of receptors seemed to be independently distributed within the synaptic active zone.

  4. Ligand-guided homology modelling of the GABAB2 subunit of the GABAB receptor.

    PubMed

    Freyd, Thibaud; Warszycki, Dawid; Mordalski, Stefan; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Gabrielsen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and disturbances in the GABAergic system have been implicated in numerous neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. The GABAB receptor is a heterodimeric class C G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) consisting of GABAB1a/b and GABAB2 subunits. Two GABAB receptor ligand binding sites have been described, namely the orthosteric GABA binding site located in the extracellular GABAB1 Venus fly trap domain and the allosteric binding site found in the GABAB2 transmembrane domain. To date, the only experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of the GABAB receptor are of the Venus fly trap domain. GABAB receptor allosteric modulators, however, show great therapeutic potential, and elucidating the structure of the GABAB2 transmembrane domain may lead to development of novel drugs and increased understanding of the allosteric mechanism of action. Despite the lack of x-ray crystal structures of the GABAB2 transmembrane domain, multiple crystal structures belonging to other classes of GPCRs than class A have been released within the last years. More closely related template structures are now available for homology modelling of the GABAB receptor. Here, multiple homology models of the GABAB2 subunit of the GABAB receptor have been constructed using templates from class A, B and C GPCRs, and docking of five clusters of positive allosteric modulators and decoys has been undertaken to select models that enrich the active compounds. Using this ligand-guided approach, eight GABAB2 homology models have been chosen as possible structural representatives of the transmembrane domain of the GABAB2 subunit. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to describe homology modelling of the transmembrane domain of the GABAB2 subunit and the docking of positive allosteric modulators in the receptor.

  5. Ligand-guided homology modelling of the GABAB2 subunit of the GABAB receptor

    PubMed Central

    Freyd, Thibaud; Warszycki, Dawid; Mordalski, Stefan; Bojarski, Andrzej J.; Gabrielsen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and disturbances in the GABAergic system have been implicated in numerous neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. The GABAB receptor is a heterodimeric class C G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) consisting of GABAB1a/b and GABAB2 subunits. Two GABAB receptor ligand binding sites have been described, namely the orthosteric GABA binding site located in the extracellular GABAB1 Venus fly trap domain and the allosteric binding site found in the GABAB2 transmembrane domain. To date, the only experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of the GABAB receptor are of the Venus fly trap domain. GABAB receptor allosteric modulators, however, show great therapeutic potential, and elucidating the structure of the GABAB2 transmembrane domain may lead to development of novel drugs and increased understanding of the allosteric mechanism of action. Despite the lack of x-ray crystal structures of the GABAB2 transmembrane domain, multiple crystal structures belonging to other classes of GPCRs than class A have been released within the last years. More closely related template structures are now available for homology modelling of the GABAB receptor. Here, multiple homology models of the GABAB2 subunit of the GABAB receptor have been constructed using templates from class A, B and C GPCRs, and docking of five clusters of positive allosteric modulators and decoys has been undertaken to select models that enrich the active compounds. Using this ligand-guided approach, eight GABAB2 homology models have been chosen as possible structural representatives of the transmembrane domain of the GABAB2 subunit. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to describe homology modelling of the transmembrane domain of the GABAB2 subunit and the docking of positive allosteric modulators in the receptor. PMID:28323850

  6. Basal Levels of AMPA Receptor GluA1 Subunit Phosphorylation at Threonine 840 and Serine 845 in Hippocampal Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babiec, Walter E.; Guglietta, Ryan; O'Dell, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluA1 subunits at two sites, serine 845 (S845) and threonine 840 (T840), is thought to be involved in NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD). Importantly, the notion that dephosphorylation of these sites contributes to LTD assumes that a significant fraction of GluA1 subunits are…

  7. Basal Levels of AMPA Receptor GluA1 Subunit Phosphorylation at Threonine 840 and Serine 845 in Hippocampal Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babiec, Walter E.; Guglietta, Ryan; O'Dell, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluA1 subunits at two sites, serine 845 (S845) and threonine 840 (T840), is thought to be involved in NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD). Importantly, the notion that dephosphorylation of these sites contributes to LTD assumes that a significant fraction of GluA1 subunits are…

  8. Hypoxia induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression via HIF-1-dependent mechanisms in HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Ze; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Guo-Min; Ma, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Feng-Lin; Chen, Ming-Tai; Zhao, Hua-Lu; Yu, Jia; Zhang, Jun-Wu

    2014-02-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) can activate expression of a broad range of genes in response to hypoxia. It has been shown that the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) are influenced by changes in oxygen tension, and PPARγ plays a critical role in metabolism regulation and cancers. In this research, we observed an increased PPARγ mRNA and protein levels in company with increased HIF-1 protein levels in HepG2 cells in hypoxia as compared with in normoxia. Enforced expression of HIF-1α induced PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 expression, while knockdown of HIF-1α by small interference RNA deduced PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 expression in HepG2 cells under hypoxic conditions. By dual-luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay we confirmed a functional hypoxic response element (HRE) localized at 684bp upstream of the transcriptional start site (TSS) of PPARγ1 and a functional HRE localized at 204bp downstream of the TSS of PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells. Additionally we observed an increase and co-presence of PPARγ and HIF-1α, and a highly positive correlation between PPARγ expression and HIF-1α expression (r=0.553, p<0.0001), in the same tumor tissue areas of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Our data suggested a new mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma cells response to hypoxia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impaired Discrimination Learning in Mice Lacking the NMDA Receptor NR2A Subunit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigman, Jonathan L.; Feyder, Michael; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Mishina, Masayoshi; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate certain forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. We used a touchscreen system to assess NR2A subunit knockout mice (KO) for (1) pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning and (2) acquisition and extinction of an instrumental response requiring no pairwise discrimination. NR2A KO mice…

  10. Impaired Discrimination Learning in Mice Lacking the NMDA Receptor NR2A Subunit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigman, Jonathan L.; Feyder, Michael; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Mishina, Masayoshi; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate certain forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. We used a touchscreen system to assess NR2A subunit knockout mice (KO) for (1) pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning and (2) acquisition and extinction of an instrumental response requiring no pairwise discrimination. NR2A KO mice…

  11. d Subunit-Containing GABA[subscript A] Receptor Prevents Overgeneralization of Fear in Adult Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Han-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Yang; Liu, Wei-Zhu; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Yin, Xiao-Ping; Pan, Bing-Xing

    2017-01-01

    The role of d subunit-containing GABA[subscript A] receptor (GABA[subscript A](d)R) in fear generalization is uncertain. Here, by using mice with or without genetic deletion of GABA[subscript A](d)R and using protocols in which the conditioned tone stimuli were cross presented with different nonconditioned stimuli, we observed that when the two…

  12. Response kinetics and pharmacological properties of heteromeric receptors formed by coassembly of GABA rho- and gamma 2-subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, H; Ripps, H

    1999-01-01

    Two of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, GABAA and GABAC, are ligand-gated chloride channels expressed by neurons in the retina and throughout the central nervous system. The different subunit composition of these two classes of GABA receptor result in very different physiological and pharmacological properties. Although little is known at the molecular level as to the subunit composition of any native GABA receptor, it is thought that GABAC receptors are homomeric assemblies of rho-subunits. However, we found that the kinetic and pharmacological properties of homomeric receptors formed by each of the rho-subunits cloned from perch retina did not resemble those of the GABAC receptors on perch bipolar cells. Because both GABAA and GABAC receptors are present on retinal bipolar cells, we attempted to determine whether subunits of these two receptor classes are capable of interacting with each other. We report here that, when coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, heteromeric (rho 1B gamma 2) receptors formed by coassembly of the rho 1B-subunit with the gamma 2-subunit of the GABAA receptor displayed response properties very similar to those obtained with current recordings from bipolar cells. In addition to being unresponsive to bicuculline and diazepam, the time-constant of deactivation, and the sensitivities to GABA, picrotoxin and zinc closely approximated the values obtained from the native GABAC receptors on bipolar cells. These results provide the first direct evidence of interaction between GABA rho and GABAA receptor subunits. It seems highly likely that coassembly of GABAA and rho-subunits contributes to the molecular organization of GABAC receptors in the retina and perhaps throughout the nervous system. PMID:10643085

  13. The α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit influences ethanol-induced sedation.

    PubMed

    Kamens, Helen M; Hoft, Nicole R; Cox, Ryan J; Miyamoto, Jill H; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2012-08-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often co-used and data from human and animals studies have demonstrated that common genes underlie responses to these two drugs. Recently, the genes that code for the subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been implicated as a common genetic mediator for alcohol and nicotine responses. The mammalian genes that code for the α6 and β3 subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (Chrna6 and Chrnb3, respectively) are located adjacent to each other on human and mouse chromosome 8. These subunits have gained attention as potential regulators of drug behaviors because of their expression in the striatum where they have been shown to modulate dopamine release. Human genetic studies have shown that variation in these genes is associated with alcohol phenotypes. In the current experiments, mice lacking the Chrna6 or Chrnb3 gene were tested for three ethanol behaviors: choice ethanol consumption, ataxia, and sedation. Wildtype (WT), heterozygous (HET), and knockout (KO) mice of each strain went through a standard 2-bottle choice drinking paradigm, the balance beam, and the Loss of Righting Reflex (LORR) paradigm. No genotypic effects on any of the 3 behavioral tasks were observed in Chrnb3 animals. While the Chrna6 gene did not significantly influence ethanol consumption (g/kg) or ataxia, mice lacking the α6 subunit took significantly longer to recover their righting reflex than WT animals. These data provide evidence that receptors containing this subunit modulate the sedative effects of ethanol. Further work examining other models of ethanol consumption and behavioral responses to ethanol is needed to fully characterize the role of these receptor subunits in modulating ethanol responses.

  14. Molecular determinants of glycine receptor αβ subunit sensitivities to Zn2+-mediated inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paul S; Beato, Marco; Harvey, Robert J; Smart, Trevor G

    2005-01-01

    Glycine receptors exhibit a biphasic sensitivity profile in response to Zn2+-mediated modulation, with low Zn2+ concentrations potentiating (< 10 μm), and higher Zn2+ concentrations inhibiting submaximal responses to glycine. Here, a substantial 30-fold increase in sensitivity to Zn2+-mediated inhibition was apparent for the homomeric glycine receptor (GlyR) α1 subunit compared to either GlyR α2 or α3 subtypes. Swapping the divergent histidine (H107) residue in GlyR α1, which together with the conserved H109 forms part of an intersubunit Zn2+-binding site, for the equivalent asparagine residue present in GlyR α2 and α3, reversed this phenotype. Co-expression of heteromeric GlyR α1 or α2 with the ancillary β subunit yielded receptors that maintained their distinctive sensitivities to Zn2+ inhibition. However, GlyR α2β heteromers were consistently 2-fold more sensitive to inhibition compared to the GlyR α2 homomer. Comparative studies to elucidate the specific residue in the β subunit responsible for this differential sensitivity revealed instead threonine 133 in the α1 subunit as a new vital component for Zn2+-mediated inhibition. Further studies on heteromeric receptors demonstrated that a mutated β subunit could indeed affect Zn2+-mediated inhibition but only from one side of the intersubunit Zn2+-binding site, equivalent to the GlyR α1 H107 face. This strongly suggests that the α subunit is responsible for Zn2+-mediated inhibition and that this is effectively transduced, asymmetrically, from the side of the Zn2+-binding site where H109 and T133 are located. PMID:15905212

  15. LTP requires a reserve pool of glutamate receptors independent of subunit type.

    PubMed

    Granger, Adam J; Shi, Yun; Lu, Wei; Cerpas, Manuel; Nicoll, Roger A

    2013-01-24

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is thought to be an important cellular mechanism underlying memory formation. A widely accepted model posits that LTP requires the cytoplasmic carboxyl tail (C-tail) of the AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptor subunit GluA1. To find the minimum necessary requirement of the GluA1 C-tail for LTP in mouse CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, we used a single-cell molecular replacement strategy to replace all endogenous AMPA receptors with transfected subunits. In contrast to the prevailing model, we found no requirement of the GluA1 C-tail for LTP. In fact, replacement with the GluA2 subunit showed normal LTP, as did an artificially expressed kainate receptor not normally found at these synapses. The only conditions under which LTP was impaired were those with markedly decreased AMPA receptor surface expression, indicating a requirement for a reserve pool of receptors. These results demonstrate the synapse's remarkable flexibility to potentiate with a variety of glutamate receptor subtypes, requiring a fundamental change in our thinking with regard to the core molecular events underlying synaptic plasticity.

  16. Evidence that the subunit structure of gonadotropin receptor is preserved during regression of rat corpus luteum

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.; Menon, K.N.J.

    1986-05-29

    The level of hCG/LH receptor has been shown to undergo marked changes during the life span of rat corpus luteum. To evaluate whether these fluctuations are due to changes in the receptor subunit structure or receptor protein content, the /sup 125/I-hCG binding activity and the receptor subunit structure were determined during different time periods of pseudopregnancy. The maximum /sup 125/I-hCG binding activity was observed on day 7, after which it decreased by 20 and 45% on day 11 and day 14, respectively. The Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-hCG binding data showed that the decrease in binding activity was caused by a change in the number of binding sites rather than a change in the binding affinity. The LH/hCG receptor in ovarian membranes obtained on days 7, 11 and 14 were characterized by the method of affinity cross-linking. All four subunits of the LH/hCG receptor were detected in the ovarian membranes at all stages while the intensity decreased parallel to a decrease in hCG binding from day 7 to day 14.

  17. Rat gustatory neurons in the geniculate ganglion express glutamate receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Alejandro; Zucchi, Benedetta; Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D

    2004-07-01

    Taste receptor cells are innervated by primary gustatory neurons that relay sensory information to the central nervous system. The transmitter(s) at synapses between taste receptor cells and primary afferent fibers is (are) not yet known. By analogy with other sensory organs, glutamate might a transmitter in taste buds. We examined the presence of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in rat gustatory primary neurons in the ganglion that innervates the anterior tongue (geniculate ganglion). AMPA and NMDA type subunits were immunohistochemically detected with antibodies against GluR1, GluR2, GluR2/3, GluR4 and NR1 subunits. Gustatory neurons were specifically identified by retrograde tracing with fluorogold from injections made into the anterior portion of the tongue. Most gustatory neurons in the geniculate ganglion were strongly immunoreactive for GluR2/3 (68%), GluR4 (78%) or NR1 (71%). GluR1 was seen in few cells (16%). We further examined if glutamate receptors were present in the peripheral terminals of primary gustatory neurons in taste buds. Many axonal varicosities in fungiform and vallate taste buds were immunoreactive for GluR2/3 but not for NR1. We conclude that gustatory neurons express glutamate receptors and that glutamate receptors of the AMPA type are likely targeted to synapses within taste buds.

  18. Rescue of gamma2 subunit-deficient mice by transgenic overexpression of the GABAA receptor gamma2S or gamma2L subunit isoforms.

    PubMed

    Baer, K; Essrich, C; Balsiger, S; Wick, M J; Harris, R A; Fritschy, J M; Lüscher, B

    2000-07-01

    The gamma2 subunit is an important functional determinant of GABAA receptors and is essential for formation of high-affinity benzodiazepine binding sites and for synaptic clustering of major GABAA receptor subtypes along with gephyrin. There are two splice variants of the gamma2 subunit, gamma2 short (gamma2S) and gamma2 long (gamma2L), the latter carrying in the cytoplasmic domain an additional eight amino acids with a putative phosphorylation site. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing either the gamma2S or gamma2L subunit on a gamma2 subunit-deficient background are phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type. They express nearly normal levels of gamma2 subunit protein and [3H]flumazenil binding sites. Likewise, the distribution, number and size of GABAA receptor clusters colocalized with gephyrin are similar to wild-type in both juvenile and adult mice. Our results indicate that the two gamma2 subunit splice variants can substitute for each other and fulfil the basic functions of GABAA receptors, allowing in vivo studies that address isoform-specific roles in phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanisms.

  19. Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase-3 is a molecular target for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in HepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Aiqin; Li, Hai; Zhou, Yue; Wu, Minhao; Liu, Jingwen

    2010-05-28

    ACSL3 is a member of the long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) family that plays key roles in fatty acid metabolism in various tissues in an isozyme-specific manner. Our previous studies showed that ACSL3 was transcriptionally up-regulated by the cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) in HepG2 cells, accompanied by reduced cellular triglyceride content and enhanced beta-oxidation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the OSM-induced activation of ACSL3 gene transcription in HepG2 cells. We showed that OSM treatment resulted in a coordinated elevation of mRNA levels of ACSL3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta). The effect of OSM on ACSL3 mRNA expression was inhibited by cellular depletion of PPARdelta. By utilizing a PPARdelta agonist, L165041, we demonstrated that activation of PPARdelta led to increases in ACSL3 promoter activity, mRNA level, and protein level in HepG2 cells. Analysis of the ACSL3 promoter sequence identified two imperfect PPAR-responsive elements (PPRE) located in the ACSL3 promoter region -944 to -915, relative to the transcription start site. The up-regulation of ACSL3 promoter activity by PPARdelta was abolished by deletion of this PPRE-containing region or mutation to disrupt the binding sites. Direct interactions of PPARdelta with ACSL3-PPRE sequences were demonstrated by gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Finally, we provided in vivo evidence showing that activation of PPARdelta by L165041 in hamsters increased ACSL3 mRNA and protein levels in the liver. These new findings define ACSL3 as a novel molecular target of PPARdelta in HepG2 cells and provide a regulatory mechanism for ACSL3 transcription in liver tissue.

  20. Genetic disruption of the autism spectrum disorder risk gene PLAUR induces GABAA receptor subunit changes

    PubMed Central

    Eagleson, Kathie L.; Gravielle, Maria C.; SchlueterMcFadyen-Ketchum, Lisa J.; Russek, Shelley J.; Farb, David H.; Levitt, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Disruption of the GABAergic system has been implicated in multiple developmental disorders, including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The human gene encoding uPAR (PLAUR) has been shown recently to be associated with the risk of autism. The uPAR-/- mouse exhibits a regionally selective reduction in GABAergic interneurons in frontal and parietal regions of the cerebral cortex as well as in the CA1 and dentate gyrus subfields of the hippocampus. Behaviorally, these mice exhibit increased sensitivity to pharmacologically-induced seizures, heightened anxiety, and atypical social behavior. Here, we explore potential alterations in GABAergic circuitry that may occur in the context of altered interneuron development. Analysis of gene expression for 13 GABAA receptor subunits using quantitative real-time PCR indicates seven subunit mRNAs (α1, α2, α3, β2, β3, γ2S and γ2L) of interest. Semi-quantitative in situ hybridization analysis focusing on these subunit mRNAs reveals a complex pattern of potential gene regulatory adaptations. The levels of α2 subunit mRNAs increase in frontal cortex, CA1 and CA3, while those of α3 decrease in frontal cortex and CA1. In contrast, α1 subunit mRNAs are unaltered in any region examined. β2 subunit mRNAs are increased in frontal cortex whereas β3 subunit mRNAs are decreased in parietal cortex. Finally, γ2S subunit mRNAs are increased in parietal cortex while γ2L subunit mRNAs are increased in the dentate gyrus, potentially altering the γ2S:γ2L ratio in these two regions. For all subunits, no changes were observed in forebrain regions where GABAergic interneuron numbers are normal. We propose that disrupted differentiation of GABAergic neurons specifically in frontal and parietal cortices leads to regionally-selective alterations in local circuitry and subsequent adaptive changes in receptor subunit composition. Future electrophysiological studies will be useful in determining how alterations in network

  1. Altered GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and pharmacology in human Angelman syndrome cortex.

    PubMed

    Roden, William H; Peugh, Lindsey D; Jansen, Laura A

    2010-10-15

    The neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome is most frequently caused by deletion of the maternally derived chromosome 15q11-q13 region, which includes not only the causative UBE3A gene, but also the beta(3)-alpha(5)-gamma(3) GABA(A) receptor subunit gene cluster. GABAergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to contribute to the occurrence of epilepsy and cognitive and behavioral impairments in this condition. In the present study, analysis of GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and pharmacology was performed in cerebral cortex from four subjects with Angelman syndrome and compared to that from control tissue. The membrane fraction of frozen postmortem neocortical tissue was isolated and subjected to quantitative Western blot analysis. The ratios of beta(3)/beta(2) and alpha(5)/alpha(1) subunit protein expression in Angelman syndrome cortex were significantly decreased when compared with controls. An additional membrane fraction was injected into Xenopus oocytes, resulting in incorporation of the brain membrane vesicles with their associated receptors into the oocyte cellular membrane. Two-electrode voltage-clamp analysis of GABA(A) receptor currents was then performed. Studies of GABA(A) receptor pharmacology in Angelman syndrome cortex revealed increased current enhancement by the alpha(1)-selective benzodiazepine-site agonist zolpidem and by the barbiturate phenobarbital, while sensitivity to current inhibition by zinc was decreased. GABA(A) receptor affinity and modulation by neurosteroids were unchanged. This shift in GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and pharmacology in Angelman syndrome is consistent with impaired extrasynaptic but intact to augmented synaptic cortical GABAergic inhibition, which could contribute to the epileptic, behavioral, and cognitive phenotypes of the disorder.

  2. Altered GABAA Receptor Subunit Expression and Pharmacology in Human Angelman Syndrome Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Roden, William H.; Peugh, Lindsey D.; Jansen, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome is most frequently caused by deletion of the maternally-derived chromosome 15q11-q13 region, which includes not only the causative UBE3A gene, but also the β3-α5-γ3 GABAA receptor subunit gene cluster. GABAergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to contribute to the occurrence of epilepsy and cognitive and behavioral impairments in this condition. In the present study, analysis of GABAA receptor subunit expression and pharmacology was performed in cerebral cortex from four subjects with Angelman syndrome and compared to that from control tissue. The membrane fraction of frozen postmortem neocortical tissue was isolated and subjected to quantitative Western blot analysis. The ratios of β3/β2 and α5/α1 subunit protein expression in Angelman syndrome cortex were significantly decreased when compared with controls. An additional membrane fraction was injected into Xenopus oocytes, resulting in incorporation of the brain membrane vesicles with their associated receptors into the oocyte cellular membrane. Two-electrode voltage clamp analysis of GABAA receptor currents was then performed. Studies of GABAA receptor pharmacology in Angelman syndrome cortex revealed increased current enhancement by the α1-selective benzodiazepine site agonist zolpidem and by the barbiturate phenobarbital, while sensitivity to current inhibition by zinc was decreased. GABAA receptor affinity and modulation by neurosteroids were unchanged. This shift in GABAA receptor subunit expression and pharmacology in Angelman syndrome is consistent with impaired extrasynaptic but intact to augmented synaptic cortical GABAergic inhibition, which could contribute to the epileptic, behavioral, and cognitive phenotypes of the disorder. PMID:20692323

  3. Subunit Interfaces Contribute Differently to Activation and Allosteric Modulation of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Short, Caitlin A.; Cao, Angela T.; Wingfield, Molly A.; Doers, Matthew E.; Jobe, Emily M.; Wang, Nan; Levandoski, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are widely distributed in the nervous system and are implicated in many normal and pathological processes. The structural determinants of allostery in nAChRs are not well understood. One class of nAChR allosteric modulators, including the small molecule morantel (Mor), acts from a site that is structurally homologous to the canonical agonist site but exists in the β(+)/α(–) subunit interface. We hypothesized that all nAChR subunits move with respect to each other during channel activation and allosteric modulation. We therefore studied five pairs of residues predicted to span the interfaces of α3β2 receptors, one at the agonist interface and four at the modulator interface. Substituting cysteines in these positions, we used disulfide trapping to perturb receptor function. The pair α3Y168-β2D190, involving the C loop region of the β2 subunit, mediates modulation and agonist activation, because evoked currents were reduced up to 50% following oxidation (H2O2) treatment. The pair α3S125-β2Q39, below the canonical site, is also involved in channel activation, in accord with previous studies of the muscle-type receptor; however, the pair is differentially sensitive to ACh activation and Mor modulation (currents decreased 60% and 80%, respectively). The pairs α3Q37-β2A127 and α3E173-β2R46, both in the non-canonical interface, showed increased currents following oxidation, suggesting that subunit movements are not symmetrical. Together, our results from disulfide trapping and further mutation analysis indicate that subunit interface movement is important for allosteric modulation of nAChRs, but that the two types of interfaces contribute unequally to receptor activation. PMID:25486620

  4. Cannabinoid receptor activation correlates with the proapoptotic action of the β2-adrenergic agonist (R,R')-4-methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rajib K; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Scheers, Jade; Wersto, Robert P; Toll, Lawrence; Jimenez, Lucita; Bernier, Michel; Wainer, Irving W

    2012-10-01

    Inhibition of cell proliferation by fenoterol and fenoterol derivatives in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells is consistent with β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)-AR) stimulation. However, the events that result in fenoterol-mediated control of cell proliferation in other cell types are not clear. Here, we compare the effect of the β(2)-AR agonists (R,R')-fenoterol (Fen) and (R,R')-4-methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol (MNF) on signaling and cell proliferation in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells by using Western blotting and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assays. Despite the expression of β(2)-AR, no cAMP accumulation was observed when cells were stimulated with isoproterenol or Fen, although the treatment elicited both mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activation. Unexpectedly, isoproterenol and Fen promoted HepG2 cell growth, but MNF reduced proliferation together with increased apoptosis. The mitogenic responses of Fen were attenuated by 3-(isopropylamino)-1-[(7-methyl-4-indanyl)oxy]butan-2-ol (ICI 118,551), a β(2)-AR antagonist, whereas those of MNF were unaffected. Because of the coexpression of β(2)-AR and cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) and their impact on HepG2 cell proliferation, these Gα(i)/Gα(o)-linked receptors may be implicated in MNF signaling. Cell treatment with (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-napthalenylmethanone (WIN 55,212-2), a synthetic agonist of CB(1)R and CB(2)R, led to growth inhibition, whereas inverse agonists of these receptors blocked MNF mitogenic responses without affecting Fen signaling. MNF responses were sensitive to pertussis toxin. The β(2)-AR-deficient U87MG cells were refractory to Fen, but responsive to the antiproliferative actions of MNF and WIN 55,212-2. The data indicate that the presence of the naphthyl moiety in MNF results in functional coupling to the CBR pathway, providing one of the first examples of a dually acting β(2)-AR-CBR ligand.

  5. Extrasynaptic αβ subunit GABAA receptors on rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Martin; Smart, Trevor G

    2006-01-01

    Extrasynaptic GABAA receptors that are tonically activated by ambient GABA are important for controlling neuronal excitability. In hippocampal pyramidal neurons, the subunit composition of these extrasynaptic receptors may include α5βγ and/or α4βδ subunits. Our present studies reveal that a component of the tonic current in the hippocampus is highly sensitive to inhibition by Zn2+. This component is probably not mediated by either α5βγ or α4βδ receptors, but might be explained by the presence of αβ isoforms. Using patch-clamp recording from pyramidal neurons, a small tonic current measured in the absence of exogenous GABA exhibited both high and low sensitivity to Zn2+ inhibition (IC50 values, 1.89 and 223 μm, respectively). Using low nanomolar and micromolar GABA concentrations to replicate tonic currents, we identified two components that are mediated by benzodiazepine-sensitive and -insensitive receptors. The latter indicated that extrasynaptic GABAA receptors exist that are devoid of γ2 subunits. To distinguish whether the benzodiazepine-insensitive receptors were αβ or αβδ isoforms, we used single-channel recording. Expressing recombinant α1β3γ2, α5β3γ2, α4β3δ and α1β3 receptors in human embryonic kidney (HEK) or mouse fibroblast (Ltk) cells, revealed similar openings with high main conductances (∼25–28 pS) for γ2 or δ subunit-containing receptors whereas αβ receptors were characterized by a lower main conductance state (∼11 pS). Recording from pyramidal cell somata revealed a similar range of channel conductances, indicative of a mixture of GABAA receptors in the extrasynaptic membrane. The lowest conductance state (∼11 pS) was the most sensitive to Zn2+ inhibition in accord with the presence of αβ receptors. This receptor type is estimated to account for up to 10% of all extrasynaptic GABAA receptors on hippocampal pyramidal neurons. PMID:17023503

  6. Developmental Expression Patterns of GABAA Receptor Subunits in Layer 3 and 5 Pyramidal Cells of Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Datta, Dibyadeep; Arion, Dominique; Lewis, David A

    2015-08-01

    Cortical pyramidal neuron activity is regulated in part through inhibitory inputs mediated by GABAA receptors. The subunit composition of these receptors confers distinct functional properties. Thus, developmental shifts in subunit expression will likely influence the characteristics of pyramidal cell firing and the functional maturation of processes that depend on these neurons. We used laser microdissection and PCR to quantify postnatal developmental changes in the expression of GABAA receptor subunits (α1, α2, α5, β2, γ2, and δ) in layer 3 pyramidal cells of monkey prefrontal cortex, which are critical for working memory. To determine the specificity of these changes, we examined glutamate receptor subunits (AMPA Glur1 and NMDA Grin1) and conducted the same analyses in layer 5 pyramidal cells. Expression of GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs changed substantially, whereas glutamate receptor subunit changes were modest over postnatal development. Some transcripts (e.g., GABAA α1) progressively increased from birth until adulthood, whereas others (e.g., GABAA α2) declined with age. Changes in some transcripts were present in only one layer (e.g., GABAA δ). The development of GABAA receptor subunit expression in primate prefrontal pyramidal neurons is protracted and subunit- and layer-specific. These trajectories might contribute to the molecular basis for the maturation of working memory.

  7. Study of the nematode putative GABA type-A receptor subunits: evidence for modulation by ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-Peng; Hayashi, Jon; Beech, Robin N; Prichard, Roger K

    2002-11-01

    Two alleles of the HG1 gene, which encodes a putative GABA receptor alpha/gamma subunit, were isolated from Haemonchus contortus. These two alleles were shown previously to be associated with ivermectin susceptibility (HG1A) and resistance (HG1E), respectively. Sequence analysis indicates that they differ in four amino acids. To explore the functional properties of the two alleles, a full-length cDNA encoding the beta subunit, a key functional component of the GABA receptor, was isolated from Caenorhabditis elegans (gab-1, corresponding to the GenBank locus ZC482.1) and coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes with the HG1 alleles. When gab-1 was coexpressed with either the HG1A allele or the HG1E allele in Xenopus oocytes, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-responsive channels with different sensitivity to the agonist were formed. The effects of ivermectin on the hetero-oligomeric receptors were determined. Application of ivermectin alone had no effect on the receptors. However, when coapplied with 10 micro m GABA, ivermectin potentiated the GABA-evoked current of the GAB-1/HG1A receptor, but attenuated the GABA response of the GAB-1/HG1E receptor. We demonstrated that the coexpressed HG1 and GAB-1 receptors are GABA-responsive, and provide evidence for the possible involvement of GABA receptors in the mechanism of ivermectin resistance.

  8. Lifelong ethanol consumption and brain regional GABAA receptor subunit mRNA expression in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sarviharju, Maija; Hyytiä, Petri; Hervonen, Antti; Jaatinen, Pia; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Korpi, Esa R

    2006-11-01

    Brain regional gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunit mRNA expression was studied in ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol) rats after moderate ethanol drinking for up to 2 years of age. In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes specific for 13 different subunits was used with coronal cryostat sections of the brains. Selective alterations were observed by ethanol exposure and/or aging in signals for several subunits. Most interestingly, the putative highly ethanol-sensitive alpha4 and beta3 subunit mRNAs were significantly decreased in several brain regions. The age-related alterations in alpha4 subunit expression were parallel to those caused by lifelong ethanol drinking, whereas aging had no significant effect on beta3 subunit expression. The results suggest that prolonged ethanol consumption leading to blood concentrations of about 10 mM may downregulate the mRNA expression of selected GABAA receptor subunits and that aging might have partly similar effects.

  9. Sequence and functional expression of a single alpha subunit of an insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, J; Buckingham, S D; Shingai, R; Lunt, G G; Goosey, M W; Darlison, M G; Sattelle, D B; Barnard, E A

    1990-01-01

    We report the isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone that encodes a locust (Schistocerca gregaria) nervous system nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit (alpha L1). The calculated molecular weight of the unglycosylated polypeptide, which contains in the proposed extracellular domain two adjacent cysteine residues which are characteristic of alpha (ligand binding) subunits, is 60,641 daltons. Injection into Xenopus oocytes, of RNA synthesized from this clone in vitro, results in expression of functional nicotinic receptors in the oocyte membrane. In these, nicotine opens a cation channel; the receptors are blocked by both alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt) and kappa-bungarotoxin (kappa-Bgt). Reversible block of the expressed insect AChR by mecamylamine, d-tubocurarine, tetraethylammonium, bicuculline and strychnine has also been observed. These data are entirely consistent with previously reported electrophysiological studies on in vivo insect nicotinic receptors and also with biochemical studies on an alpha-Bgt affinity purified locust AChR. Thus, a functional receptor exhibiting the characteristic pharmacology of an in vivo insect nicotinic AChR can be expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection with a single subunit RNA. PMID:1702381

  10. Myasthenia gravis. CD4+ T epitopes on the embryonic gamma subunit of human muscle acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Protti, M P; Manfredi, A A; Wu, X D; Moiola, L; Dalton, M W; Howard, J F; Conti-Tronconi, B M

    1992-01-01

    In myasthenia gravis (MG) an autoimmune response against muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) occurs. Embryonic muscle AChR contains a gamma subunit, substituted in adult muscle by a homologous epsilon subunit. Antibodies and CD4+ cells specific for embryonic AChR have been demonstrated in MG patients. We identified sequence segments of the human gamma subunit forming epitopes recognized by four embryonic AChR-specific CD4+ T cell lines, propagated from MG patients' blood by stimulation with synthetic peptides corresponding to the human gamma subunit sequence. Each line had an individual epitope repertoire, but two 20-residue sequence regions were recognized by three lines of different HLA haplotype. Most T epitope sequences were highly diverged between the gamma and the other AChR subunits, confirming the specificity of the T cells for embryonic AChR. These T cells may have been sensitized against AChR expressed by a tissue other than innervated skeletal muscle, possibly the thymus, which expresses an embryonic muscle AChR-like protein, containing a gamma subunit. Several sequence segments forming T epitopes are similar to regions of microbial and/or mammalian proteins unrelated to the AChR. These findings are consistent with the possibility that T cell cross-reactivity between unrelated proteins ("molecular mimicry"), proposed as a cause of autoimmune responses, is not a rare event. PMID:1383275

  11. The expression of kainate receptor subunits in hippocampal astrocytes after experimentally induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jay R; Takahashi, D Koji; Thomson, Kyle E; Wilcox, Karen S

    2013-10-01

    Astrocytes have emerged as active participants of synaptic transmission and are increasingly implicated in neurologic disorders including epilepsy. Adult glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive hippocampal astrocytes are not known for ionotropic glutamate receptor expression under basal conditions. Using a chemoconvulsive status epilepticus (SE) model of temporal lobe epilepsy, we show by immunohistochemistry and colocalization analysis that reactive hippocampal astrocytes express kainate receptor (KAR) subunits after SE. In the CA1 region, GluK1, GluK2/3, GluK4, and GluK5 subunit expression was observed in GFAP-positive astrocytes during the seizure-free or "latent" period 1 week after SE. At 8 weeks after SE, a time after SE when spontaneous behavioral seizures occur, the GluK1 and GluK5 subunits remained expressed at significant levels. Kainate receptor subunit expression was found in astrocytes in the hippocampus and surrounding cortex but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes of striatum, olfactory bulb, or brainstem. To examine hippocampal KAR expression more broadly, astroglial-enriched tissue fractions were prepared from dissected hippocampi and were found to have greater GluK4 expression after SE than controls. These results demonstrate that astrocytes begin to express KARs after seizure activity and suggest that their expression may contribute to the pathophysiology of epilepsy.

  12. Anticancer effects of imperatorin isolated from Angelica dahurica: induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells through both death-receptor- and mitochondria-mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke-wang; Sun, Jian-guo; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Yang, Lu; Wu, Shi-hua; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Liu, Fei-yan

    2011-01-01

    Imperatorin (IM) is a furanocoumarin isolated from the root of Angelica dahurica, which is reported to have anticonvulsant and anticancer effects. In this study, the antiproliferative effect of IM on 9 human cancer cell lines was examined, and human hepatoma HepG2 cells were chosen as the target for preferential killing by IM. Particularly, the mechanism of IM-induced apoptosis and in vivo animal effects were also studied. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay, and apoptosis was detected by Hoechst staining, annexin V-PI staining, and DNA laddering assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 staining. Western blot analysis was employed to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. In addition, the in vivo anticancer effect of IM was examined in nude mice bearing HepG2 cells. IM inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells through apoptosis induction in a time- and dose-dependent manner by observation of the nuclear morphology, DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c into cytosol, and activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. As cell death could partly be prevented by the caspase-8 or caspase-9 inhibitor and was evidenced by the results of Western blot analysis, our results also suggest that IM-induced apoptosis is mediated through both death receptor and mitochondrial pathways. In the animal model, IM was found to effectively suppress tumor growth by 31.93 and 63.18% at dosages of 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, after treatment for 14 days. No significant weight loss or toxicity to the hosts was found. IM can function as a cancer suppressor by inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells through both death-receptor- and mitochondria-mediated pathways. Furthermore, the in vivo antitumor activities of IM are significant with negligible weight loss and damage to the host. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. AMPA and GABAA/B Receptor Subunit Expression in the Cortex of Adult Squirrel Monkeys during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, Todd M.; Walls, Sarah M.; Garraghty, Preston E.

    2014-01-01

    The primate somatosensory neuroaxis provides a highly translational model system with which to investigate adult neural plasticity. Here, we report immunohistochemical staining data for AMPA and GABAA/B receptor subunits in the area 3b cortex of adult squirrel monkeys one and five months after median nerve compression. This method of nerve injury was selected because it allows unique insight into how receptor expression changes during the regeneration of the peripheral nerve. One month after nerve compression, the pattern of subunit staining provides evidence that the cortex enters a state of reorganization. GABA 1 receptor subunits are significantly down-regulated in layer IV, V, and VI. Glur2/3 AMPA receptor subunits and postsynaptic GABABR1b receptor subunits are up and down regulated respectively across all layers of cortex. After five months of recovery from nerve compression, the pattern of AMPA and GABAA/B receptor subunits remain significantly altered in a layer specific manner. In layer II/III, GluR1, GluR2/3, and GABA 1 subunit expression is significantly up-regulated while post synaptic GABABR1b receptor subunits are significantly down regulated. In layer VI, V, and VI the GluR2/3 and presynaptic GABABR1a receptor subunits are significantly up-regulated, while the postsynaptic GABABR1b receptor subunits remain significantly down-regulated. Taken together, these results suggest that following nerve injury the cortex enters a state of reorganization that has persistent effects on cortical plasticity even after partial or total reinnervation of the peripheral nerve. PMID:23643858

  14. GABAA receptor epsilon subunit expression in identified peptidergic neurons of the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Moragues, Nathalie; Ciofi, Philippe; Lafon, Pierrette; Tramu, Gérard; Garret, Maurice

    2003-03-28

    Dual-labeling immunohistochemical or in situ hybridization studies for the recently cloned epsilon-subunit and several neuropeptides were performed in the rat hypothalamus. We revealed an extensive co-expression (>90%) with hypocretin (Hcrt), oxytocin (OT), the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) peptides, whereas occasional co-expression (<10%) with cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was found. Our results suggest that novel GABA(A) receptor subtypes comprising epsilon-subunit are important for metabolic and neuroendocrine functions.

  15. Slow-dissociation effect of common signaling subunit beta c on IL5 and GM-CSF receptor assembly.

    PubMed

    Ishino, Tetsuya; Harrington, Adrian E; Zaks-Zilberman, Meirav; Scibek, Jeffery J; Chaiken, Irwin

    2008-05-01

    Receptor activation by IL5 and GM-CSF is a sequential process that depends on their interaction with a cytokine-specific subunit alpha and recruitment of a common signaling subunit beta (betac). In order to elucidate the assembly dynamics of these receptor subunits, we performed kinetic interaction analysis of the cytokine-receptor complex formation by a surface plasmon resonance biosensor. Using the extracellular domains of receptor fused with C-terminal V5-tag, we developed an assay method to co-anchor alpha and betac subunits on the biosensor surface. We demonstrated that dissociation of the cytokine-receptor complexes was slower when both subunits were co-anchored on the biosensor surface than when alpha subunit alone was anchored. The slow-dissociation effect of betac had a similar impact on GM-CSF receptor stabilization to that of IL5. The effects were abolished by alanine replacement of either Tyr18 or Tyr344 residue in betac, which together constitute key parts of a cytokine binding epitope. The data argue that betac plays an important role in preventing the ligand-receptor complexes from rapidly dissociating. This slow-dissociation effect of betac explains how, when multiple betac cytokine receptor alpha subunits are present on the same cell surface, selective betac usage can be controlled by sequestration in stabilized cytokine-alpha-betac complexes.

  16. Nicotine enhances the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of alpha4 subunits of neuronal nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y N; Edwards, S C; Wecker, L

    1997-12-01

    Studies determined whether alpha4beta2 or alpha3beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes are substrates for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and whether nicotine affects receptor phosphorylation. The cRNAs for the subunits were coinjected into oocytes, and cells were incubated for 24 h in the absence or presence of nicotine (50 nM for alpha4beta2 and 500 nM for alpha3beta2 receptors). Nicotine did not interfere with the isolation of the receptors. When receptors isolated from oocytes expressing alpha4beta2 receptors were incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP and the catalytic subunit of PKA, separated by electrophoresis, and visualized by autoradiography, a labeled phosphoprotein with the predicted molecular size of the alpha4 subunit was present. Phosphorylation of alpha4 subunits of alpha4beta2 receptors increased within the first 5 min of incubation with nicotine and persisted for 24 h. In contrast, receptors isolated from oocytes expressing alpha3beta2 receptors did not exhibit a labeled phosphoprotein corresponding to the size of the alpha3 subunit. Results suggest that the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of alpha4 and not alpha3 subunits may explain the differential inactivation by nicotine of these receptor subtypes expressed in oocytes.

  17. Electrophysiological properties and subunit composition of GABAA receptors in patients with gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Chang, Yongchang; Li, Guohui; Xue, Fenqin; DeChon, Jamie; Ellsworth, Kevin; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Kechun; Bahadroani, Nasim; Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Jianliang; Rekate, Harold; Rho, Jong M; Kerrigan, John F

    2007-07-01

    Abnormalities in GABA(A) receptor structure and/or function have been associated with various forms of epilepsy in both humans and animals. Whether this is true for patients with gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is unknown. In this study, we characterized the pharmacological properties and native subunit composition of GABA(A) receptors on acutely dissociated single neurons from surgically resected HH tissues using patch-clamp, immunocytochemical, and RT-PCR techniques. We found that 1) GABA induced an inward current (I(GABA)) at a holding potential of -60 mV; 2) I(GABA) was mimicked by the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol and blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline, suggesting that I(GABA) was mediated principally through the GABA(A) receptor; 3) the EC(50) and Hill coefficient derived from the I(GABA) concentration-response curve were 6.8 muM and 1.9, respectively; 4) the current-voltage curve was linear at a reversal potential close to zero; and 5) I(GABA) exhibited low sensitivity to zinc and diazepam but higher sensitivity to pentobarbital and pregnanolone. Additionally, using Xenopus oocytes microtransplanted with normal human hypothalamic tissue, we confirmed that the functional properties of GABA(A) receptors were similar to those seen in small isolated HH neurons. Finally, the expression profile of GABA(A) receptor subunits obtained from normal control human hypothalamic tissue was identical to that from surgically resected human HH tissue. Taken together, our data indicate that GABA(A) receptors on small HH neurons exhibit normal pharmacosensitivity and subunit composition. These findings bear relevance to a broader understanding of inhibitory neurotransmission in human HH tissue.

  18. Different functional roles of T1R subunits in the heteromeric taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Staszewski, Lena; Tang, Huixian; Adler, Elliot; Zoller, Mark; Li, Xiaodong

    2004-09-28

    The T1R receptors, a family of taste-specific class C G protein-coupled receptors, mediate mammalian sweet and umami tastes. The structure-function relationships of T1R receptors remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the different functional roles of T1R extracellular and transmembrane domains in ligand recognition and G protein coupling. Similar to other family C G protein-coupled receptors, the N-terminal Venus flytrap domain of T1R2 is required for recognizing sweeteners, such as aspartame and neotame. The G protein coupling requires the transmembrane domain of T1R2. Surprisingly, the C-terminal transmembrane domain of T1R3 is required for recognizing sweetener cyclamate and sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. Because T1R3 is the common subunit in the sweet taste receptor and the umami taste receptor, we tested the interaction of lactisole and cyclamate with the umami taste receptor. Lactisole inhibits the activity of the human T1R1/T1R3 receptor, and, as predicted, blocked the umami taste of l-glutamate in human taste tests. Cyclamate does not activate the T1R1/T1R3 receptor by itself, but potentiates the receptor's response to l-glutamate. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the different functional roles of T1R3 and T1R2 and the presence of multiple ligand binding sites on the sweet taste receptor.

  19. Different functional roles of T1R subunits in the heteromeric taste receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Staszewski, Lena; Tang, Huixian; Adler, Elliot; Zoller, Mark; Li, Xiaodong

    2004-01-01

    The T1R receptors, a family of taste-specific class C G proteincoupled receptors, mediate mammalian sweet and umami tastes. The structure–function relationships of T1R receptors remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the different functional roles of T1R extracellular and transmembrane domains in ligand recognition and G protein coupling. Similar to other family C G protein-coupled receptors, the N-terminal Venus flytrap domain of T1R2 is required for recognizing sweeteners, such as aspartame and neotame. The G protein coupling requires the transmembrane domain of T1R2. Surprisingly, the C-terminal transmembrane domain of T1R3 is required for recognizing sweetener cyclamate and sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. Because T1R3 is the common subunit in the sweet taste receptor and the umami taste receptor, we tested the interaction of lactisole and cyclamate with the umami taste receptor. Lactisole inhibits the activity of the human T1R1/T1R3 receptor, and, as predicted, blocked the umami taste of l-glutamate in human taste tests. Cyclamate does not activate the T1R1/T1R3 receptor by itself, but potentiates the receptor's response to l-glutamate. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the different functional roles of T1R3 and T1R2 and the presence of multiple ligand binding sites on the sweet taste receptor. PMID:15353592

  20. Candidate gene study of eight GABAA receptor subunits in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Crowe, R R; Wang, Z; Noyes, R; Albrecht, B E; Darlison, M G; Bailey, M E; Johnson, K J; Zoëga, T

    1997-08-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunit genes are candidate genes for panic disorder. Benzodiazepine agonists acting at this receptor can suppress panic attacks, and both inverse agonists and antagonists can precipitate them. The human GABAA receptor subtypes are composed of various combinations of 13 subunits, each encoded by a unique gene. The authors tested eight of these subunits in a candidate gene linkage study of panic disorder. In 21 U.S. and five Icelandic multiplex pedigrees of panic disorder, 104 individuals had DSM-III-R panic disorder (the narrowly defined affected phenotype) and 134 had either this diagnosis or subsyndromal panic disorder characterized by panic attacks that failed to meet either the criterion of attack frequency or the number of criterion symptoms necessary for a definite diagnosis (the broadly defined affected phenotype). The authors conducted lod score linkage analyses with both phenotypes using both a dominant and a recessive model of inheritance for the following loci: GABRA1-GABRA5 (alpha 1-alpha 5), GABRB1 (beta 1), GABRB3 (beta 3), and GABRG2 (gamma 2). The results failed to support the hypothesis that any of these genes cause panic disorder in a majority of the pedigrees. Within the limitations of the candidate gene linkage method, panic disorder does not appear to be caused by mutation in any of the eight GABAA receptor genes tested.

  1. Oestrogen receptor alpha is required for biochanin A-induced apolipoprotein A-1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ming Yan; Wai Man, Gho; Chen, Zhen-yu; Wang, Jun; Leung, Lai K

    2007-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that soya consumption may produce a better plasma lipid profile. The effect may be attributed to the phyto-oestrogens in soya. The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A has a chemical structure similar to those phyto-oestrogens found in soya beans, and is marketed as a nutraceutical for alleviating postmenopausal symptoms. In the present study we investigated the effect of biochanin A on the mRNA expression of ApoA-1 in the hepatic cell line HepG2. Real-time PCR revealed that biochanin A increased ApoA-1 mRNA abundance in cells expressing oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha. Without ERalpha transfection, biochanin A had no effect on mRNA abundance. In order to study the transcriptional control, a fragment of the 5'-flanking region of the ApoA-1 gene was amplified and inserted in a firefly luciferase reporter plasmid. The reporter assay indicated that the transactivation of the ApoA-1 promoter was induced by biochanin A in HepG2 cells transfected with the ERalpha expression plasmid. This induction was reduced by the anti-oestrogen ICI 182,780, whereas the inhibitors of protein kinase (PK) C, PKA, or mitogen-activated kinase (ERK) had no suppressive effect. The present study illustrated that biochanin A might up regulate hepatic apoA-1 mRNA expression through an ER-dependent pathway.

  2. The interleukin-6-type cytokine oncostatin M induces aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in a STAT3-dependent manner in human HepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Stobbe-Maicherski, Natalie; Wolff, Sandra; Wolff, Christian; Abel, Josef; Sydlik, Ulrich; Frauenstein, Katrin; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related environmental pollutants. Besides drug metabolism, several studies have provided evidence that the AHR and its downstream targets trigger important developmental, physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, in contrast to the molecular mechanisms of AHR-dependent signaling pathways, the transcriptional regulation of the AHR gene itself is as yet only marginally understood. We found that the pleiotropic interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) is an inducer of AHR mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. Analyses of the human AHR promoter revealed the existence of a putative signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-binding element 5'-upstream of the transcription start site. By means of site-directed mutagenesis, inhibitor experiments and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrated that this STAT motif is recognized by STAT3 to regulate basal and cytokine-inducible AHR expression in HepG2 cells. The identification of the AHR as a downstream target of IL-6-type cytokine-stimulated STAT3 signaling may contribute to a better understanding of the multiple facets of AHR during development, physiology and disease. © 2013 FEBS.

  3. Receptor-binding domain-based subunit vaccines against MERS-CoV.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naru; Tang, Jian; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying

    2015-04-16

    Development of effective vaccines, in particular, subunit-based vaccines, against emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by the MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) will provide the safest means of preventing the continuous spread of MERS in humans and camels. This review briefly describes the structure of the MERS-CoV spike (S) protein and its receptor-binding domain (RBD), discusses the current status of MERS vaccine development and illustrates the strategies used to develop RBD-based subunit vaccines against MERS. It also summarizes currently available animal models for MERS-CoV and proposes a future direction for MERS vaccines. Taken together, this review will assist researchers working to develop effective and safe subunit vaccines against MERS-CoV and any other emerging coronaviruses that might cause future pandemics.

  4. Voluntary wheel running modulates glutamate receptor subunit gene expression and stress hormone release in Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Makatsori, A; Duncko, R; Schwendt, M; Moncek, F; Johansson, B B; Jezova, D

    2003-07-01

    Lewis rats that are known to be addiction-prone, develop compulsive running if they have access to running wheels. The present experiments were aimed 1) to evaluate the activation of stress systems following chronic and acute voluntary wheel running in Lewis rats by measurement of hormone release and gene expression of neuropeptides related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and 2) to test the hypothesis that wheel running as a combined model of addictive behavior and stress exposure is associated with modulation of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the ventral tegmental area. Voluntary running for three weeks but not for one night resulted in a rise in plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (p<0.05) compared to those in control rats. Principal component analysis revealed the relation between POMC gene expression in the intermediate pituitary and running rate. Acute exposure of animals to voluntary wheel running induced a significant decrease in alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor GluR1 subunit mRNA levels (p<0.01), while repeated voluntary physical activity increased levels of GluR1 mRNA in the ventral tegmentum (p<0.05). Neither acute nor chronic wheel running influenced N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR1 mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area. Thus, the present study revealed changes in AMPA receptor subunit gene expression in a reward-related brain structure as well as an activation of HPA axis in response to compulsive wheel running in Lewis rats. It may be suggested that hormones of HPA axis and glutamate receptors belong to the factors that substantiate higher vulnerability to addictive behavior.

  5. Differences of AMPA and kainate receptor interactomes identify a novel AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit, GSG1L

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Natalie F.; Savas, Jeffrey N.; Maruo, Tomohiko; Cais, Ondrej; Hirao, Atsushi; Oe, Souichi; Ghosh, Anirvan; Noda, Yasuko; Greger, Ingo H.; Yates, John R.; Nakagawa, Terunaga

    2012-01-01

    AMPA receptor (AMPA-R) complexes consist of channel forming subunits, GluA1–4 and auxiliary proteins including TARPs, CNIHs, synDIG1, and CKAMP44, which can modulate AMPA-R function in specific ways. Combinatorial effects of four GluA subunits binding to various auxiliary subunits amplify the functional diversity of AMPA-Rs. The significance and magnitude of molecular diversity, however, remain elusive. To gain insight into the molecular complexity of AMPA and kainate receptors (KA-Rs), we compared the proteins that co-purify with each receptor type in rat brain. This interactome study identified the majority of known interacting proteins and more importantly, provides novel candidates for further studies. We validate the claudin homologue GSG1L as a novel binding protein and unique modulator of AMPA-R gating, as determined by detailed molecular, cellular, electrophysiological, and biochemical experiments. GSG1L extends the functional variety of AMPA-R complexes and further investigation of other candidates may reveal additional complexity of ionotropic glutamate receptor function. PMID:22813734

  6. Subunit structure of the follitropin (FSH) receptor. Photoaffinity labeling of the membrane-bound receptor follitropin complex in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.A.; Branca, A.A.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1985-11-15

    Human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) was acylated with N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate (HSAB) and radioiodinated (55 microCi/micrograms) for use as a photoaffinity probe to investigate the subunit structure of the FSH receptor in calf testis. After incubation with the photoaffinity probe and photolysis with UV light, the cross-linked hormone-receptor complex was solubilized from the membrane and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence and absence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. Autoradiography of the polyacrylamide gels revealed two major bands, 64 kDa and 84 kDa. These were equivalent in molecular mass to those observed in a previous study in which performed hormone-receptor complexes were solubilized with detergent prior to formation of covalent cross-linkages through the use of homobifunctional cross-linking reagents. Reduction with dithiothreitol resulted in the loss of radioactivity from the 84-kDa band with a concomitant increase in the intensity of the 64-kDa band. Since dithiothreitol increases the dissociation of intact radioiodinated azidobenzoyl-FSH into subunits, it is suggested that the conversion of the 84-kDa band to the 64-kDa band by dithiothreitol is due to the loss of non-cross-linked hFSH subunit from the 84-kDa band and that the two bands observed after photoaffinity labeling arise from covalent bond formation between hFSH and a receptor subunit having a relative molecular weight (Mr) of 48,000. In addition to the predominant photolabeling of the receptor to yield the 64-kDa and 84-kDa bands, several other, less intense bands (54 kDa, 76 kDa, 97 kDa, and 116 kDa) were also consistently observed on autoradiographs.

  7. Liver X receptor alpha mediated genistein induction of human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1) in Hep G2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shunfen; Zhou, Tianyan; Huang, Chaoqun; McLaughlin, Alicia; Chen, Guangping

    2013-04-15

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases are one of the major families of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Sulfotransferase-catalyzed sulfonation regulates hormone activities, metabolizes drugs, detoxifies xenobiotics, and bioactivates carcinogens. Human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1) plays important biological roles by sulfating endogenous hydroxysteroids and exogenous xenobiotics. Genistein, mainly existing in soy food products, is a naturally occurring phytoestrogen with both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Our previous studies have shown that genistein significantly induces hSULT2A1 in Hep G2 and Caco-2 cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of liver X receptor (LXRα) in the genistein induction of hSULT2A1. LXRs have been shown to induce expression of mouse Sult2a9 and hSULT2A1 gene. Our results demonstrate that LXRα mediates the genistein induction of hSULT2A1, supported by Western blot analysis results, hSULT2A1 promoter driven luciferase reporter gene assay results, and mRNA interference results. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay results demonstrate that genistein increase the recruitment of hLXRα binding to the hSULT2A1 promoter. These results suggest that hLXRα plays an important role in the hSULT2A1 gene regulation. The biological functions of phytoestrogens may partially relate to their induction activity toward hydroxysteroid SULT. - Highlights: ► Liver X receptor α mediated genistein induction of hSULT2A1 in Hep G2 cells. ► LXRα and RXRα dimerization further activated this induction. ► Western blot results agreed well with luciferase reporter gene assay results. ► LXRs gene silencing significantly decreased hSULT2A1 expression. ► ChIP analysis suggested that genistein enhances hLXRα binding to the hSULT2A1 promoter.

  8. Red wine polyphenolics increase LDL receptor expression and activity and suppress the secretion of ApoB100 from human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Ho, Nerissa; Santos, Carlos; Dubois, Paul; Mamo, John; Croft, Kevin; Allister, Emma

    2003-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that the consumption of red wine may lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. The cardioprotective effect of red wine has been attributed to the polyphenols present in red wine, particularly resveratrol (a stilbene, with estrogen-like activity), and the flavonoids, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and phenolic acids such as gallic acid. At present, very little is known about the mechanisms by which red wine phenolic compounds benefit the cardiovascular system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether red wine polyphenolics reduce lipoprotein production and clearance by the liver. Cultured HepG2 cells were incubated in the presence of dealcoholized red wine, alcohol-containing red wine and atorvastatin for 24 h. The apolipoprotien B100 (apoB100) protein (marker of hepatic lipoproteins) was quantified on Western blots with an anti-apoB100 antibody and the enhanced chemiluminescence detection system. Apolipoprotein B100 levels in the cells and that secreted into the media were significantly reduced by 50% in liver cells incubated with alcohol-stripped red wine compared with control cells. This effect of dealcoholized red wine on apoB100 production in HepG2 cells was similar to the effect of atorvastatin. Apo B100 production was significantly attenuated by 30% in cells incubated with alcoholized red wine, suggesting that the alcohol was masking the effect of red wine polyphenolics. Apo B100 production was significantly attenuated by 45% with the polyphenolic compounds resveratrol and quercertin. In addition, dealcoholized and alcoholized red wine and atorvastatin significantly increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase mRNA and LDL receptor binding activity relative to controls. Dealcoholized red wine also increased LDL receptor gene expression. Collectively, this study suggests that red wine polyphenolics regulate major pathways involved in lipoprotein metabolism.

  9. PPP1R16A, the membrane subunit of protein phosphatase 1beta, signals nuclear translocation of the nuclear receptor constitutive active/androstane receptor.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Moore, Rick; Sugatani, Junko; Matsumura, Yonehiro; Negishi, Masahiko

    2008-04-01

    Constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR), a member of the nuclear steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family, activates transcription of numerous hepatic genes upon exposure to therapeutic drugs and environmental pollutants. Sequestered in the cytoplasm, this receptor signals xenobiotic exposure, such as phenobarbital (PB), by translocating into the nucleus. Unlike other hormone receptors, translocation can be triggered indirectly without binding to xenobiotics. We have now identified a membrane-associated subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PPP1R16A, or abbreviated as R16A) as a novel CAR-binding protein. When CAR and R16A are coexpressed in mouse liver, CAR translocates into the nucleus. Close association of R16A and CAR molecule on liver membrane was shown by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis using expressed yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-CAR and CFP-R16A fusion proteins. R16A can form dimer through its middle region, where protein kinase A phosphorylation sites are recently identified. Translocation of CAR by R16A correlates with the ability of R16A to form an intermolecular interaction via the middle region. Moreover, this interaction is enhanced by PB treatment in mouse liver. R16A specifically interacted with PP1beta in HepG2 cells despite the highly conserved structure of PP1 family molecules. PP1beta activity was inhibited by R16A in vitro and coexpression of PP1beta in liver can prevent YFP-CAR translocation into mouse liver. Taken together, R16A at the membrane may mediate the PB signal to initiate CAR nuclear translocation, through a mechanism including its dimerization and inhibition of PP1beta activity, providing a novel model for the translocation of nuclear receptors in which direct interaction of ligands and the receptors may not be crucial.

  10. AMPA receptor/TARP stoichiometry visualized by single-molecule subunit counting.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Peter; Ulbrich, Maximilian H; Wang, Hui-Li; Arant, Ryan J; Lau, Anthony G; Zhang, Zhenjie; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Chen, Lu

    2013-03-26

    Members of the transmembrane AMPA receptor-regulatory protein (TARP) family modulate AMPA receptor (AMPA-R) trafficking and function. AMPA-Rs consist of four pore-forming subunits. Previous studies show that TARPs are an integral part of the AMPA-R complex, acting as accessory subunits for mature receptors in vivo. The TARP/AMPA-R stoichiometry was previously measured indirectly and found to be variable and dependent on TARP expression level, with at most four TARPs associated with each AMPA-R complex. Here, we use a single-molecule technique in live cells that selectively images proteins located in the plasma membrane to directly count the number of TARPs associated with each AMPA-R complex. Although individual GFP-tagged TARP subunits are observed as freely diffusing fluorescent spots on the surface of Xenopus laevis oocytes when expressed alone, coexpression with AMPA-R-mCherry immobilizes the stargazin-GFP spots at sites of AMPA-R-mCherry, consistent with complex formation. We determined the number of TARP molecules associated with each AMPA-R by counting bleaching steps for three different TARP family members: γ-2, γ-3, and γ-4. We confirm that the TARP/AMPA-R stoichiometry depends on TARP expression level and discover that the maximum number of TARPs per AMPA-R complex falls into two categories: up to four γ-2 or γ-3 subunits, but rarely above two for γ-4 subunit. This unexpected AMPA-R/TARP stoichiometry difference has important implications for the assembly and function of TARP/AMPA-R complexes.

  11. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  12. Effects of aging and caloric restriction on dentate gyrus synapses and glutamate receptor subunits

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Isabel G.; Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Linville, M. Constance; Pang, Hui; Tucker, Elizabeth M.; Riddle, David R.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2009-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) attenuates aging-related degenerative processes throughout the body. It is less clear, however, whether CR has a similar effect in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, an area important for learning and memory processes that often are compromised in aging. In order to evaluate the effect of CR on synapses across lifespan, we quantified synapses stereologically in the middle molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) of young, middle aged, and old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL) or a CR diet from 4 months of age. The results indicate that synapses are maintained across lifespan in both AL and CR rats. In light of this stability, we addressed whether aging and CR influence neurotransmitter receptor levels by measuring subunits of NMDA (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B) and AMPA (GluR1, GluR2) receptors in the DG of a second cohort of AL and CR rats across lifespan. The results reveal that the NR1 and GluR1 subunits decline with age in AL, but not CR rats. The absence of an aging-related decline in these subunits in CR rats, however, does not arise from increased levels in old CR rats. Instead, it is due to subunit decreases in young CR rats to levels that are sustained in CR rats throughout lifespan, but that are reached in AL rats only in old age. PMID:17433502

  13. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor gamma subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, T; Ballivet, M; Patrick, J; Heinemann, S

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence has been determined of a cDNA clone that codes for the 60,000-dalton gamma subunit of Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor. The length of the cDNA clone is 2,010 base pairs. The 5' and 3' untranslated regions have respective lengths of 31 and 461 base pairs. Data suggest that the putative polyadenylylation consensus sequence A-A-T-A-A-A may not be required for polyadenylylation of the mRNA corresponding to the cDNA clone described in this study. From the DNA sequence data, the amino acid sequence of the gamma subunit was deduced. The subunit is composed of 489 amino acids giving a molecular mass of 56,600 daltons. The deduced amino acid sequence data also indicate the presence of a 17-amino acid extension or signal peptide on this subunit. From these data, structural predictions for the gamma subunit are made such as potential membrane-spanning regions, possible asparagine-linked glycosylation sites, and the assignment of regions of the protein to the extracellular, internal, and cytoplasmic domains of the lipid bilayer. Images PMID:6573658

  14. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, G. Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R.P.; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C.; Bowie, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits. PMID:26924438

  15. Molecular characterisation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    PubMed

    Bass, Chris; Lansdell, Stuart J; Millar, Neil S; Schroeder, Iris; Turberg, Andreas; Field, Linda M; Williamson, Martin S

    2006-01-01

    As part of a program to monitor the susceptibility of cat flea populations to the insecticide imidacloprid we have examined the cat flea nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the target site protein of the neonicotinoid group of insecticides. Seven nAChR subunits (six alpha-type and one beta-type) were identified in cat flea using a degenerate PCR-based strategy. Five of these were expressed in vitro by creating chimeras containing the N-terminal ligand-binding domain of the cat flea subunits and the C-terminal region of the Drosophila Dalpha2 (SAD) subunit. Two of the five chimeric subunits, Cfalpha1/Dalpha2 and Cfalpha3/Dalpha2, when co-expressed with rat beta2 in Drosophila S2 cells, showed high-affinity binding of both epibatidine (Kd=1.6+/-0.6 and 0.13+/-0.06nM, respectively), and imidacloprid (Ki=142+/-34 and 28.7+/-2.4nM, respectively). It is likely therefore that Cfalpha1 and Cfalpha3 contribute to nAChR populations in vivo that are sensitive to imidacloprid. The identification of cat flea nAChR subunits that have a high affinity for imidacloprid presents candidate genes in which to look for resistance-associated mutations if target-site resistance to imidacloprid arises in domestic pet flea populations.

  16. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J. B.; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays were used to monitor expression of 8796 genes and probe sets in activated T-cells; analysis revealed that 217 genes were significantly upregulated within 4 h. Induced genes included transcription factors, cytokines and their receptor genes. Analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the significant induction of IL-2, IL-2R(gamma) and IL-2R(alpha). Forty-eight of the 217 induced genes are known to or predicted to be regulated by a CRE promoter/enhancer. We found that T-cell activation caused a significant increase in CREB phosphorylation furthermore, inhibition of the PKC pathway by GF109203 reduced CREB activation by 50% and inhibition of the PKA pathway caused a total block of CREB phosphorylation and significantly reduced IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha) gene expression by approximately 40% (p<0.001). PKC(theta) plays a major role in T-cell activation: inhibition of PKC significantly reduced the expression of IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Since PKC blocked activation of CREB, we studied potential cross-talk between the PKC and the PKA/MAPK pathways, PMA-stimulated Jurkat cells were studied with specific signal pathway inhibitors. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2) pathway was found to be significantly activated greater than seven-fold within 30 min; however, there was little activation of ERK-1 and no activation of JNK or p38 MAPK. Inhibition of the PKA pathway, but not the PKC pathway, resulted in inhibition of ERK1/2 activation at all time points, inhibition of MEK1 and 2 significantly blocked expression of IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Gene expression of IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) was dependent on PKA in S49 wt cells but not in kin- mutants. Using gel shift analysis, we found that forskolin activation of T-cells resulted in activation of AP1 sites; this increase in nuclear extract AP1 was significantly blocked by MEK1 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, these results suggest that the PKA in addition to PKC and

  17. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J. B.; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays were used to monitor expression of 8796 genes and probe sets in activated T-cells; analysis revealed that 217 genes were significantly upregulated within 4 h. Induced genes included transcription factors, cytokines and their receptor genes. Analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the significant induction of IL-2, IL-2R(gamma) and IL-2R(alpha). Forty-eight of the 217 induced genes are known to or predicted to be regulated by a CRE promoter/enhancer. We found that T-cell activation caused a significant increase in CREB phosphorylation furthermore, inhibition of the PKC pathway by GF109203 reduced CREB activation by 50% and inhibition of the PKA pathway caused a total block of CREB phosphorylation and significantly reduced IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha) gene expression by approximately 40% (p<0.001). PKC(theta) plays a major role in T-cell activation: inhibition of PKC significantly reduced the expression of IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Since PKC blocked activation of CREB, we studied potential cross-talk between the PKC and the PKA/MAPK pathways, PMA-stimulated Jurkat cells were studied with specific signal pathway inhibitors. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2) pathway was found to be significantly activated greater than seven-fold within 30 min; however, there was little activation of ERK-1 and no activation of JNK or p38 MAPK. Inhibition of the PKA pathway, but not the PKC pathway, resulted in inhibition of ERK1/2 activation at all time points, inhibition of MEK1 and 2 significantly blocked expression of IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Gene expression of IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) was dependent on PKA in S49 wt cells but not in kin- mutants. Using gel shift analysis, we found that forskolin activation of T-cells resulted in activation of AP1 sites; this increase in nuclear extract AP1 was significantly blocked by MEK1 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, these results suggest that the PKA in addition to PKC and

  18. Flunitrazepam rapidly reduces GABAA receptor subunit protein expression via a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jonathan D; Price, Sally A; Bristow, David R

    1998-01-01

    Acute flunitrazepam (1 μM) exposure for 1 h reduced GABAA receptor α1 (22±4%, mean±s.e.mean) and β2/3 (21±4%) subunit protein levels in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells. This rapid decrease in subunit proteins was completely prevented by bisindolymaleimide 1 (1 μM), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, but not by N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl)amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89, 4.8 μM), an inhibitor of protein kinases A and G. These results suggest the existence of a benzodiazepine-induced mechanism to rapidly alter GABAA receptor protein expression, that appears to be dependent on protein kinase C activity. PMID:9723942

  19. Heterogeneity of Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: SAD, a novel developmentally regulated alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Sawruk, E; Schloss, P; Betz, H; Schmitt, B

    1990-01-01

    Two genes, ard and als, are known to encode subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Drosophila. Here we describe the isolation of cDNA clones encoding a novel member (SAD, or alpha 2) of this receptor protein family. The deduced amino acid sequence displays high homology to the ALS protein and shares structural features with ligand binding nAChR alpha-subunits. Sad transcripts accumulate during major periods of neuronal differentiation and, in embryos, are localized in the central nervous system. Expression of SAD cRNA in Xenopus oocytes generates cation channels that are gated by nicotine. These data indicate heterogeneity of nAChRs in Drosophila. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1697262

  20. Identification of a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor structural subunit expressed in goldfish retina

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    A new non-alpha (n alpha) member of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene family designated GFn alpha-2 has been identified in goldfish retina by cDNA cloning. This cDNA clone encodes a protein with structural features common to all nAChR subunits sequenced to date; however, unlike all known alpha-subunits of the receptor, it lacks the cysteine residues believed to be involved in acetylcholine binding. Northern blot analysis shows multiple transcripts hybridizing to the GFn alpha-2 cDNA in goldfish retina but undetectable levels of hybridizable RNA in brain, muscle, or liver. S1 nuclease protection experiments indicate that multiple mRNAs are expressed in retina with regions identical or very similar to the GFn alpha-2 sequence. In situ hybridization shows that the gene encoding GFn alpha-2 is expressed predominantly in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. PMID:2465296

  1. Attenuated sensitivity to neuroactive steroids in γ-aminobutyrate type A receptor delta subunit knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mihalek, Robert M.; Banerjee, Pradeep K.; Korpi, Esa R.; Quinlan, Joseph J.; Firestone, Leonard L.; Mi, Zhi-Ping; Lagenaur, Carl; Tretter, Verena; Sieghart, Werner; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Sage, Jennifer R.; Fanselow, Michael S.; Guidotti, Alessandro; Spigelman, Igor; Li, Zhiwei; DeLorey, Timothy M.; Olsen, Richard W.; Homanics, Gregg E.

    1999-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission and have been implicated in responses to sedative/hypnotic agents (including neuroactive steroids), anxiety, and learning and memory. Using gene targeting technology, we generated a strain of mice deficient in the δ subunit of the GABA type A receptors. In vivo testing of various behavioral responses revealed a strikingly selective attenuation of responses to neuroactive steroids, but not to other modulatory drugs. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices revealed a significantly faster miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current decay time in null mice, with no change in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitude or frequency. Learning and memory assessed with fear conditioning were normal. These results begin to illuminate the novel contributions of the δ subunit to GABA pharmacology and sedative/hypnotic responses and behavior and provide insights into the physiology of neurosteroids. PMID:10536021

  2. Natriuretic peptide receptor A inhibition suppresses gastric cancer development through reactive oxygen species-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and cell death.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Ji-Wei; Wang, Wei-Zhi; Zhi, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Qun; Li, Bo-Wen; Wang, Lin-Jun; Xie, Kun-Ling; Tao, Jin-Qiu; Tang, Jie; Wei, Song; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Dian-Cai; Yang, Li; Xu, Ze-Kuan

    2016-10-01

    Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), the major receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), has been implicated in tumorigenesis; however, the role of ANP-NPRA signaling in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that NPRA expression was positively associated with gastric tumor size and cancer stage. NPRA inhibition by shRNA induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, cell death, and autophagy in gastric cancer cells, due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Either genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy led to caspase-dependent cell death. Therefore, autophagy induced by NPRA silencing may represent a cytoprotective mechanism. ROS accumulation activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). ROS-mediated activation of JNK inhibited cell proliferation by disturbing cell cycle and decreased cell viability. In addition, AMPK activation promoted autophagy in NPRA-downregulated cancer cells. Overall, our results indicate that the inhibition of NPRA suppresses gastric cancer development and targeting NPRA may represent a promising strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Catalytic activity is not required for secreted PCSK9 to reduce low density lipoprotein receptors in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    McNutt, Markey C; Lagace, Thomas A; Horton, Jay D

    2007-07-20

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a member of the proteinase K subfamily of subtilases, promotes internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) after binding the receptor on the surface of hepatocytes. PCSK9 has autocatalytic activity that releases the prodomain at the N terminus of the protein. The prodomain remains tightly associated with the catalytic domain as the complex transits the secretory pathway. It is not known whether enzymatic activity is required for the LDLR-reducing effects of PCSK9. Here we expressed the prodomain together with a catalytically inactive protease domain in cells and purified the protein from the medium. The ability of the catalytically inactive PCSK9 to bind and degrade LDLRs when added to culture medium of human hepatoma HepG2 cells at physiological concentrations was similar to that seen using wild-type protein. Similarly, a catalytic-dead version of a gain-of-function mutant, PCSK9(D374Y), showed no loss of activity compared with a catalytically active counterpart; both proteins displayed approximately 10-fold increased activity in degradation of cell surface LDLRs compared with wild-type PCSK9. We conclude that the ability of PCSK9 to degrade LDLRs is independent of catalytic activity and suggest that PCSK9 functions as a chaperone to prevent LDLR recycling and/or to target LDLRs for lysosomal degradation.

  4. Pathological reorganization of NMDA receptors subunits and postsynaptic protein PSD-95 distribution in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Leuba, Genevieve; Vernay, Andre; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Tardif, Eric; Riederer, Beat Michel; Savioz, Armand

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), synaptic alterations play a major role and are often correlated with cognitive changes. In order to better understand synaptic modifications, we compared alterations in NMDA receptors and postsynaptic protein PSD-95 expression in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and frontal cortex (FC; area 9) of AD and control brains. We combined immunohistochemical and image analysis methods to quantify on consecutive sections the distribution of PSD-95 and NMDA receptors GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B in EC and FC from 25 AD and control cases. The density of stained receptors was analyzed using multivariate statistical methods to assess the effect of neurodegeneration. In both regions, the number of neuronal profiles immunostained for GluN1 receptors subunit and PSD-95 protein was significantly increased in AD compared to controls (3-6 fold), while the number of neuronal profiles stained for GluN2A and GluN2B receptors subunits was on the contrary decreased (3-4 fold). The increase in marked neuronal profiles was more prominent in a cortical band corresponding to layers 3 to 5 with large pyramidal cells. Neurons positive for GluN1 or PSD-95 staining were often found in the same localization on consecutive sections and they were also reactive for the anti-tau antibody AD2, indicating a neurodegenerative process. Differences in the density of immunoreactive puncta representing neuropile were not statistically significant. Altogether these data indicate that GluN1 and PSD-95 accumulate in the neuronal perikarya, but this is not the case for GluN2A and GluN2B, while the neuropile compartment is less subject to modifications. Thus, important variations in the pattern of distribution of the NMDA receptors subunits and PSD-95 represent a marker in AD and by impairing the neuronal network, contribute to functional deterioration.

  5. Effects of cocaine administration on receptor binding and subunits mRNA of GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Abe, S; Yamaguchi, M; Baba, A; Hori, T; Shiraishi, H; Ito, T

    2000-11-01

    The effects of intermittent intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cocaine (20 mg/kg) on GABA(A)-benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors labeled by t-[(35)S]butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS), and on several types of mRNA subunits were investigated in rat brain by in vitro quantitative receptor autoradiography and in situ hybridization. Phosphor screen imaging with high sensitivity and a wide linear range of response was utilized for imaging analysis. There was a significant decrease in the level of alpha 1, alpha 6, beta 2, beta 3, and gamma 2 subunits mRNA, with no alteration of [(35)S]TBPS binding in any regions in the brain of rats at 1 h following a single injection of cocaine. In chronically treated animals, the mean scores of stereotyped behavior were increased with the number of injections. The level of beta 3 subunit mRNA was decreased in the cortices and caudate putamen, at 24 h after a final injection of chronic administrations for 14 days. In the withdrawal from cocaine, the frontal cortex and hippocampal complexes showed a significant increase in [(35)S]TBPS binding and alpha1 and beta 3 subunit mRNA in the rats 1 week after a cessation of chronic administration of cocaine. These findings suggest that the disruption of GABA(A)-BZD receptor formation is closely involved in the development of cocaine-related behavioral disturbances. Further studies on the physiological functions on GABA(A)-BZD receptor complex will be necessary for an explanation of the precise mechanisms underlying the acute effects, development of hypersensitization, and withdrawal state of cocaine. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Alterations in Purkinje cell GABAA receptor pharmacology following oxygen and glucose deprivation and cerebral ischemia reveal novel contribution of β1-subunit-containing receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Melissa H.; Ortiz, Justin; Shimizu, Kaori; Grewal, Himmat; Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) are particularly sensitive to cerebral ischemia, and decreased GABAA receptor function following injury is thought to contribute to PC sensitivity to ischemia-induced excitotoxicity. Here we examined the functional properties of the GABAA receptors that are spared following ischemia in cultured Purkinje cells from rat and in vivo ischemia in mouse. Using subunit-specific positive modulators of GABAA receptors, we observed that oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and cardiac arrest-induced cerebral ischemia cause a decrease in sensitivity to the β2/3-subunit-preferring compound, etomidate. However, sensitivity to propofol, a β-subunit-acting compound that modulates β1–3-subunits, was not affected by OGD. The α/γ-subunit-act-ing compounds, diazepam and zolpidem, were also unaffected by OGD. We performed single-cell reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction on isolated PCs from acutely dissociated cerebellar tissue and observed that PCs expressed the β1-subunit, contrary to previous reports examining GABAA receptor subunit expression in PCs. GABAA receptor β1-subunit protein was also detected in cultured PCs by western blot and by immunohistochemistry in the adult mouse cerebellum and levels remained unaffected by ischemia. High concentrations of loreclezole (30 µm) inhibited PC GABA-mediated currents, as previously demonstrated with β1-subunit-containing GABAA receptors expressed in heterologous systems. From our data we conclude that PCs express the β1-subunit and that there is a greater contribution of β1-subunit-containing GABAA receptors following OGD. PMID:23176253

  7. Extrasynaptic α6 Subunit-Containing GABAA Receptors Modulate Excitability in Turtle Spinal Motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Carmen; Aguilar, Justo; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Elias-Viñas, David; Felix, Ricardo; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Motoneurons are furnished with a vast repertoire of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors as well as ion channels responsible for maintaining the resting membrane potential and involved in the regulation of the mechanisms underlying its membrane excitability and firing properties. Among them, the GABAA receptors, which respond to GABA binding by allowing the flow of Cl− ions across the membrane, mediate two distinct forms of inhibition in the mature nervous system, phasic and tonic, upon activation of synaptic or extrasynaptic receptors, respectively. In a previous work we showed that furosemide facilitates the monosynaptic reflex without affecting the dorsal root potential. Our data also revealed a tonic inhibition mediated by GABAA receptors activated in motoneurons by ambient GABA. These data suggested that the high affinity GABAA extrasynaptic receptors may have an important role in motor control, though the molecular nature of these receptors was not determined. By combining electrophysiological, immunofluorescence and molecular biology techniques with pharmacological tools here we show that GABAA receptors containing the α6 subunit are expressed in adult turtle spinal motoneurons and can function as extrasynaptic receptors responsible for tonic inhibition. These results expand our understanding of the role of GABAA receptors in motoneuron tonic inhibition. PMID:25531288

  8. Alternative splicing in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from Locusta migratoria and its influence on acetylcholine potencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Yang; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Liu, Zewen

    2017-01-18

    Due to the great abundance within insect central nervous system (CNS), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play key roles in insect CNS, which makes it to be the targets of several classes of insecticides, such as neonicotinoids. Insect nAChRs are pentameric complexes consisting of five subunits, and a dozen subunits in one insect species can theoretically comprise diverse nAChRs. The alternative splicing in insect nAChR subunits may increase the diversity of insect nAChRs. In the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis Meyen), a model insect species with agricultural importance, the alternative splicing was found in six α subunits among nine α and two β subunits, such as missing conserved residues in Loop D from Locα1, Locα6 and Locα9, a 34-residue insertion in Locα8 cytoplasmic loop, and truncated transcripts for Locα4, Locα7 and Locα9. Hybrid nAChRs were successfully constructed in Xenopus oocytes through co-expression with rat β2 and one α subunit from L. migratoria, which included Locα1, Locα2, Locα3, Locα4, Locα5, Locα8 and Locα9. Influences of alternative splicing in Locα1, Locα8 and Locα9 on acetylcholine potency were tested on hybrid nAChRs. The alternative splicing in Locα1 and Locα9 could increase acetylcholine sensitivities on recombinant receptors, while the splicing in Locα8 showed significant influences on the current amplitudes of oocytes. The results revealed that the alternative splicing at or close to the ligand-binding sites, as well as at cytoplasmic regions away from the ligand-binding sites, in insect nAChR subunits would change the agonist potencies on the receptors, which consequently increased nAChR diversity in functional and pharmacological properties.

  9. Removal of GABAA Receptor γ2 Subunits from Parvalbumin Neurons Causes Wide-Ranging Behavioral Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Leppä, Elli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Vekovischeva, Olga Y.; Swinny, Jerome D.; Rantanen, Ville; Toppila, Esko; Höger, Harald; Sieghart, Werner; Wulff, Peer; Wisden, William; Korpi, Esa R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral significance of fast synaptic inhibition by αβγ2-type GABAA receptors on parvalbumin (Pv) cells. The GABAA receptor γ2 subunit gene was selectively inactivated in Pv-positive neurons by Cre/loxP recombination. The resulting Pv-Δγ2 mice were relatively healthy in the first postnatal weeks; but then as Cre started to be expressed, the mice progressively developed wide-ranging phenotypic alterations including low body weight, motor deficits and tremor, decreased anxiety levels, decreased pain sensitivity and deficient prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex and impaired spatial learning. Nevertheless, the deletion was not lethal, and mice did not show increased mortality even after one year. Autoradiography with t-butylbicyclophosphoro[35S]thionate suggested an increased amount of GABAA receptors with only α and β subunits in central nervous system regions that contained high levels of parvalbumin neurons. Using BAC-transgenesis, we reduced some of the Pv-Δγ2 phenotype by selectively re-expressing the wild-type γ2 subunit back into some Pv cells (reticular thalamic neurons and cerebellar Pv-positive neurons). This produced less severe impairments of motor skills and spatial learning compared with Pv-Δγ2 mice, but all other deficits remained. Our results reveal the widespread significance of fast GABAergic inhibition onto Pv-positive neurons for diverse behavioral modalities, such as motor coordination, sensorimotor integration, emotional behavior and nociception. PMID:21912668

  10. The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α5 Subunit Plays a Key Role in Attention Circuitry and Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Craig D. C.; De Biasi, Mariella; Fletcher, Paul J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.

    2010-01-01

    Stimulation of the prefrontal cortex by acetylcholine is critical for attention; however, the cellular mechanisms underlying its influence on attention pathways within the brain are not well understood. Pyramidal neurons in layer VI of the prefrontal cortex are believed to play an important role in this process because they are excited by acetylcholine and provide a major source of feedback projections to the thalamus. Here, we show using whole-cell electrophysiology that the relatively rare α5 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor powerfully enhances nicotinic currents in layer VI pyramidal neurons in prefrontal cortical brain slices from adult mice. In addition, behavioral experiments using the five-choice serial reaction time test show that the presence of the nicotinic receptor α5 subunit also increases the accuracy of adult mice on this visual attention task under highly demanding conditions. Together, these findings demonstrate a novel and important role for the nicotinic receptor α5 subunit in adult brain circuitry required for attentional performance. PMID:20610759

  11. An ER-resident membrane protein complex regulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit composition at the synapse

    PubMed Central

    Almedom, Ruta B; Liewald, Jana F; Hernando, Guillermina; Schultheis, Christian; Rayes, Diego; Pan, Jie; Schedletzky, Thorsten; Hutter, Harald; Bouzat, Cecilia; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are homo- or heteropentameric ligand-gated ion channels mediating excitatory neurotransmission and muscle activation. Regulation of nAChR subunit assembly and transfer of correctly assembled pentamers to the cell surface is only partially understood. Here, we characterize an ER transmembrane (TM) protein complex that influences nAChR cell-surface expression and functional properties in Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. Loss of either type I TM protein, NRA-2 or NRA-4 (nicotinic receptor associated), affects two different types of muscle nAChRs and causes in vivo resistance to cholinergic agonists. Sensitivity to subtype-specific agonists of these nAChRs is altered differently, as demonstrated by whole-cell voltage-clamp of dissected adult muscle, when applying exogenous agonists or after photo-evoked, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) mediated acetylcholine (ACh) release, as well as in single-channel recordings in cultured embryonic muscle. These data suggest that nAChRs desensitize faster in nra-2 mutants. Cell-surface expression of different subunits of the ‘levamisole-sensitive' nAChR (L-AChR) is differentially affected in the absence of NRA-2 or NRA-4, suggesting that they control nAChR subunit composition or allow only certain receptor assemblies to leave the ER. PMID:19609303

  12. Snake acetylcholine receptor: cloning of the domain containing the four extracellular cysteines of the alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Horowitz, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1989-01-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) at the neuromuscular junction of elapid snakes binds cholinergic ligands but unlike other muscle AcChoRs does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. Numerous studies indicate that the ligand-binding site of the AcChoR includes cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193 of the alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo AcChoR alpha subunit contains the essential elements of the ligand-binding site. In an attempt to elucidate the structural basis for the precise binding properties of snake AcChoR, we sequenced a portion of the snake AcChoR alpha subunit. First, a mouse AcChoR alpha-subunit cDNA probe was used to screen a size-selected snake (Natrix tessellata) genomic library. A genomic clone was isolated and was found to contain sequences homologous to the exon including the first two cysteines (Cys-128 and -142) of AcChoR alpha subunit. The domain of the alpha subunit from Natrix and cobra AcChoR (amino acid residues 119-222), which contains the four extracellular cysteines (128, 142, 192, and 193), was amplified by reverse transcription of mRNA and the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the snake alpha subunit contains the two tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193, resembling all other AcChoR alpha subunits. Sequence comparison revealed that the cloned region of the snake alpha subunit is highly homologous (75-80%) to other muscle AcChoRs and not to neuronal AcChoR, which also does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. In the presumed ligand-binding site, in the vicinity of Cys-192 and Cys-193, four major substitutions occur in the snake sequence--at positions 184 (Trp----Phe), 185 (Lys----Trp), 187 (Trp----Ser), and 194 (Pro----Leu). In addition, Asn-189 is a putative N-glycosylation site, present only in the snake. These changes, or part of them, may explain the lack of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding to snake Ac

  13. Snake acetylcholine receptor: cloning of the domain containing the four extracellular cysteines of the alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Horowitz, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1989-09-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) at the neuromuscular junction of elapid snakes binds cholinergic ligands but unlike other muscle AcChoRs does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. Numerous studies indicate that the ligand-binding site of the AcChoR includes cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193 of the alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo AcChoR alpha subunit contains the essential elements of the ligand-binding site. In an attempt to elucidate the structural basis for the precise binding properties of snake AcChoR, we sequenced a portion of the snake AcChoR alpha subunit. First, a mouse AcChoR alpha-subunit cDNA probe was used to screen a size-selected snake (Natrix tessellata) genomic library. A genomic clone was isolated and was found to contain sequences homologous to the exon including the first two cysteines (Cys-128 and -142) of AcChoR alpha subunit. The domain of the alpha subunit from Natrix and cobra AcChoR (amino acid residues 119-222), which contains the four extracellular cysteines (128, 142, 192, and 193), was amplified by reverse transcription of mRNA and the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the snake alpha subunit contains the two tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193, resembling all other AcChoR alpha subunits. Sequence comparison revealed that the cloned region of the snake alpha subunit is highly homologous (75-80%) to other muscle AcChoRs and not to neuronal AcChoR, which also does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. In the presumed ligand-binding site, in the vicinity of Cys-192 and Cys-193, four major substitutions occur in the snake sequence--at positions 184 (Trp----Phe), 185 (Lys----Trp), 187 (Trp----Ser), and 194 (Pro----Leu). In addition, Asn-189 is a putative N-glycosylation site, present only in the snake. These changes, or part of them, may explain the lack of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding to snake AcChoR.

  14. Identification of the A2 adenosine receptor binding subunit by photoaffinity crosslinking

    SciTech Connect

    Barrington, W.W.; Jacobson, K.A.; Hutchison, A.J.; Williams, M.; Stiles, G.L. )

    1989-09-01

    A high-affinity iodinated agonist radioligand for the A2 adenosine receptor has been synthesized to facilitate studies of the A2 adenosine receptor binding subunit. The radioligand 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC (125I-labeled 2-(4-(2-(2-((4- aminophenyl)methylcarbonylamino)ethylaminocarbonyl)- ethyl)phenyl)ethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) was synthesized and found to bind to the A2 adenosine receptor in bovine striatal membranes with high affinity (Kd = 1.5 nM) and A2 receptor selectivity. Competitive binding studies reveal the appropriate A2 receptor pharmacologic potency order with 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) greater than (-)-N6-((R)-1-methyl- 2-phenylethyl)adenosine (R-PIA) greater than (+)-N6-((S)-1-methyl-2- phenylethyl)adenosine (S-PIA). Adenylate cyclase assays, in human platelet membranes, demonstrate a dose-dependent stimulation of cAMP production. PAPA-APEC (1 microM) produces a 43% increase in cAMP production, which is essentially the same degree of increase produced by 5'-N- ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (the prototypic A2 receptor agonist). These findings combined with the observed guanine nucleotide-mediated decrease in binding suggest that PAPA-APEC is a full A2 agonist. The A2 receptor binding subunit was identified by photoaffinity-crosslinking studies using 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC and the heterobifunctional crosslinking agent N-succinimidyl 6-(4'-azido-2'-nitrophenylamino)hexanoate (SANPAH). After covalent incorporation, a single specifically radiolabeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa was observed on NaDodSO4/PAGE/autoradiography. Incorporation of 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC into this polypeptide is blocked by agonists and antagonists with the expected potency for A2 receptors and is decreased in the presence of 10(-4) M guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate.

  15. GABAA Receptor α1 Subunit Mutation A322D Associated with Autosomal Dominant Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Reduces the Expression and Alters the Composition of Wild Type GABAA Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Feng, Hua-Jun; Macdonald, Robert L.; Botzolakis, Emanuel J.; Hu, Ningning; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    A GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α1 subunit mutation, A322D (AD), causes an autosomal dominant form of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (ADJME). Previous studies demonstrated that the mutation caused α1(AD) subunit misfolding and rapid degradation, reducing its total and surface expression substantially. Here, we determined the effects of the residual α1(AD) subunit expression on wild type GABAAR expression to determine whether the AD mutation conferred a dominant negative effect. We found that although the α1(AD) subunit did not substitute for wild type α1 subunits on the cell surface, it reduced the surface expression of α1β2γ2 and α3β2γ2 receptors by associating with the wild type subunits within the endoplasmic reticulum and preventing them from trafficking to the cell surface. The α1(AD) subunit reduced surface expression of α3β2γ2 receptors by a greater amount than α1β2γ2 receptors, thus altering cell surface GABAAR composition. When transfected into cultured cortical neurons, the α1(AD) subunit altered the time course of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current kinetics and reduced miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitudes. These findings demonstrated that, in addition to causing a heterozygous loss of function of α1(AD) subunits, this epilepsy mutation also elicited a modest dominant negative effect that likely shapes the epilepsy phenotype. PMID:20551311

  16. β-Arrestin 1 has an essential role in neurokinin-1 receptor-mediated glioblastoma cell proliferation and G2/M phase transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Xin; Li, Xiao-Fang; Yuan, Guo-Qiang; Hu, Hui; Song, Xiao-Yun; Li, Jing-Yi; Miao, Xiao-Kang; Zhou, Tian-Xiong; Yang, Wen-Le; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Mou, Ling-Yun; Wang, Rui

    2017-05-26

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor and has a poor prognosis. Tachykinin receptor neurokinin-1 (NK1R) is a promising target in glioblastoma therapy because of its overexpression in human glioblastoma. NK1R agonists promote glioblastoma cell growth, whereas NK1R antagonists efficiently inhibit cell growth both in vitro and in vivo However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects are incompletely understood. β-Arrestins (ARRBs) serve as scaffold proteins and adapters to mediate intracellular signal transduction. Here we show that the ARRB1-mediated signaling pathway is essential for NK1-mediated glioblastoma cell proliferation. ARRB1 knockdown significantly inhibited NK1-mediated glioblastoma cell proliferation and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. ARRB1 knockdown cells showed remarkable down-regulation of CDC25C/CDK1/cyclin B1 activity. We also demonstrated that ARRB1 mediated prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt in glioblastoma cells induced by NK1R activation. ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation are involved in regulating CDC25C/CDK1/cyclin B1 activity. The lack of long-term ERK1/2 and Akt activation in ARRB1 knockdown cells was at least partly responsible for the delayed cell cycle progression and proliferation. Moreover, we found that ARRB1-mediated ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation regulated the transcriptional activity of both NF-κB and AP-1, which were involved in cyclin B1 expression. ARRB1 deficiency increased the sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to the treatment of NK1R antagonists. Taken together, our results suggest that ARRB1 plays an essential role in NK1R-mediated cell proliferation and G2/M transition in glioblastoma cells. Interference with ARRB1-mediated signaling via NK1R may have potential significance for therapeutic strategies targeting glioblastoma. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. AMPA receptor subunits expression and phosphorylation in cingulate cortex in rats following esophageal acid exposure

    PubMed Central

    BANERJEE, B.; MEDDA, B. K.; POCHIRAJU, S.; KANNAMPALLI, P.; LANG, I. M.; SENGUPTA, J. N.; SHAKER, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background We recently reported an increase in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit expression and CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of NR2B in the rostral cingulate cortical (rCC) neurons following esophageal acid exposure in rats. As α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors mediate the fast excitatory transmission and play a critical role in synaptic plasticity, in this study, we investigated the effect of esophageal acid exposure in rats on the expression of AMPA receptor subunits and the involvement of these molecular alterations in acid-induced sensitization of neurons in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and midcingulate (MCC) cortices. Methods In molecular study, we examined GluA1 and GluA2 expression and phosphorylation in membrane preparations and in the isolated postsynaptic densities (PSDs) from rats receiving acute esophageal exposure of either saline (control group) or 0.1 NHCl (experimental group). In electrophysiological study, the effect of selective AMPA receptor (Ca2+ permeable) antagonist IEM-1460 and CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 was tested on responses of cortical neurons during acid infusion to address the underlying molecular mechanism of acid-induced sensitization. Key Results The acid exposure significantly increased expression of GluA1, pGluA1Ser831, and phosphorylated CaMKIIThr286, in the cortical membrane preparations. In isolated PSDs, a significant increase in pGluA1Ser831 was observed in acid-treated rats compared with controls. Microinjection of IEM-1460 or KN-93 near the recording site significantly attenuated acid-induced sensitization of cortical neurons. Conclusions & Inferences The underlying mechanism of acid-induced cortical sensitization involves upregulation and CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of GluA1. These molecular changes of AMPA receptors subunit GluA1 in the cortical neurons might play an important role in acid-induced esophageal hypersensitivity. PMID:24118589

  18. Expression Profile of the Integrin Receptor Subunits in the Guinea Pig Sclera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin K; Metlapally, Ravikanth; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2017-06-01

    The ocular dimensional changes in myopia reflect increased scleral remodeling, and in high myopia, loss of scleral integrity leads to biomechanical weakening and continued scleral creep. As integrins, a type of cell surface receptors, have been linked to scleral remodeling, they represent potential targets for myopia therapies. As a first step, this study aimed to characterize the integrin subunits at the messenger RNA level in the sclera of the guinea pig, a more recently added but increasingly used animal model for myopia research. Primers for α and β integrin subunits were designed using NCBI/UCSC Genome Browser and Primer3 software tools. Total RNA was extracted from normal scleral tissue and isolated cultured scleral fibroblasts, as well as liver and lung, as reference tissues, all from guinea pig. cDNA was produced by reverse transcription, PCR was used to amplify products of predetermined sizes, and products were sequenced using standard methods. Guinea pig scleral tissue expressed all known integrin alpha subunits except αD and αE. The latter integrin subunits were also not expressed by cultured guinea pig scleral fibroblasts; however, their expression was confirmed in guinea pig liver. In addition, isolated cultured fibroblasts did not express integrin subunits αL, αM, and αX. This difference between results for cultured cells and intact sclera presumably reflects the presence in the latter of additional cell types. Both guinea pig scleral tissue and isolated scleral fibroblasts expressed all known integrin beta subunits. All results were verified through sequencing. The possible contributions of integrins to scleral remodeling make them plausible targets for myopia prevention. Data from this study will help guide future ex vivo and in vitro studies directed at understanding the relationship between scleral integrins and ocular growth regulation in the guinea pig model for myopia.

  19. NMDA receptor subunit expression and PAR2 receptor activation in colospinal afferent neurons (CANs) during inflammation induced visceral hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Suckow, Shelby K; Caudle, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Background Visceral hypersensitivity is a clinical observation made when diagnosing patients with functional bowel disorders. The cause of visceral hypersensitivity is unknown but is thought to be attributed to inflammation. Previously we demonstrated that a unique set of enteric neurons, colospinal afferent neurons (CANs), co-localize with the NR1 and NR2D subunits of the NMDA receptor as well as with the PAR2 receptor. The aim of this study was to determine if NMDA and PAR2 receptors expressed on CANs contribute to visceral hypersensitivity following inflammation. Recently, work has suggested that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptor mediate inflammation induced visceral hypersensitivity. Therefore, in order to study CAN involvement in visceral hypersensitivity, DRG neurons expressing the TRPV1 receptor were lesioned with resiniferatoxin (RTX) prior to inflammation and behavioural testing. Results CANs do not express the TRPV1 receptor; therefore, they survive following RTX injection. RTX treatment resulted in a significant decrease in TRPV1 expressing neurons in the colon and immunohistochemical analysis revealed no change in peptide or receptor expression in CANs following RTX lesioning as compared to control data. Behavioral studies determined that both inflamed non-RTX and RTX animals showed a decrease in balloon pressure threshold as compared to controls. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the NR1 cassettes, N1 and C1, of the NMDA receptor on CANs were up-regulated following inflammation. Furthermore, inflammation resulted in the activation of the PAR2 receptors expressed on CANs. Conclusion Our data show that inflammation causes an up-regulation of the NMDA receptor and the activation of the PAR2 receptor expressed on CANs. These changes are associated with a decrease in balloon pressure in response to colorectal distension in non-RTX and RTX lesioned animals. Therefore

  20. NMDA receptor subunit expression and PAR2 receptor activation in colospinal afferent neurons (CANs) during inflammation induced visceral hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Suckow, Shelby K; Caudle, Robert M

    2009-09-22

    Visceral hypersensitivity is a clinical observation made when diagnosing patients with functional bowel disorders. The cause of visceral hypersensitivity is unknown but is thought to be attributed to inflammation. Previously we demonstrated that a unique set of enteric neurons, colospinal afferent neurons (CANs), co-localize with the NR1 and NR2D subunits of the NMDA receptor as well as with the PAR2 receptor. The aim of this study was to determine if NMDA and PAR2 receptors expressed on CANs contribute to visceral hypersensitivity following inflammation. Recently, work has suggested that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptor mediate inflammation induced visceral hypersensitivity. Therefore, in order to study CAN involvement in visceral hypersensitivity, DRG neurons expressing the TRPV1 receptor were lesioned with resiniferatoxin (RTX) prior to inflammation and behavioural testing. CANs do not express the TRPV1 receptor; therefore, they survive following RTX injection. RTX treatment resulted in a significant decrease in TRPV1 expressing neurons in the colon and immunohistochemical analysis revealed no change in peptide or receptor expression in CANs following RTX lesioning as compared to control data. Behavioral studies determined that both inflamed non-RTX and RTX animals showed a decrease in balloon pressure threshold as compared to controls. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the NR1 cassettes, N1 and C1, of the NMDA receptor on CANs were up-regulated following inflammation. Furthermore, inflammation resulted in the activation of the PAR2 receptors expressed on CANs. Our data show that inflammation causes an up-regulation of the NMDA receptor and the activation of the PAR2 receptor expressed on CANs. These changes are associated with a decrease in balloon pressure in response to colorectal distension in non-RTX and RTX lesioned animals. Therefore, these data suggest that CANs

  1. A single mutation in the acetylcholine receptor δ-subunit causes distinct effects in two types of neuromuscular synapses.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee-Young; Mott, Meghan; Williams, Tory; Ikeda, Hiromi; Wen, Hua; Linhoff, Michael; Ono, Fumihito

    2014-07-30

    Mutations in AChR subunits, expressed as pentamers in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), cause various types of congenital myasthenic syndromes. In AChR pentamers, the adult ε subunit gradually replaces the embryonic γ subunit as the animal develops. Because of this switch in subunit composition, mutations in specific subunits result in synaptic phenotypes that change with developmental age. However, a mutation in any AChR subunit is considered to affect the NMJs of all muscle fibers equally. Here, we report a zebrafish mutant of the AChR δ subunit that exhibits two distinct NMJ phenotypes specific to two muscle fiber types: slow or fast. Homozygous fish harboring a point mutation in the δ subunit form functional AChRs in slow muscles, whereas receptors in fast muscles are nonfunctional. To test the hypothesis that different subunit compositions in slow and fast muscles underlie distinct phenotypes, we examined the presence of ε/γ subunits in NMJs using specific antibodies. Both wild-type and mutant larvae lacked ε/γ subunits in slow muscle synapses. These findings in zebrafish suggest that some mutations in human congenital myasthenic syndromes may affect slow and fast muscle fibers differently. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410211-08$15.00/0.

  2. Pharmacological properties of GABAA receptors in rat hypothalamic neurons expressing the epsilon-subunit.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Olga A; Andreeva, Nadja; Garret, Maurice; Scherer, Annette; Haas, Helmut L

    2005-01-05

    The pharmacological properties and functional role of native GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) were investigated in rat hypothalamic neurons expressing the epsilon-subunit with the help of whole-cell patch-clamp recording and single-cell reverse transcription-PCR. Two cell groups were identified: histaminergic tuberomamillary and orexinergic/hypocretinergic neurons. Approximately 25% of histaminergic and 70% of orexinergic neurons contained mRNA encoding for the epsilon-subunit. Double-immunofluorescence staining revealed a somatic localization of this protein in these two neuronal groups. Constitutive activity, diazepam modulation, fast desensitization of maximal currents, and activation by propofol (6-98 microm) of GABA(A)Rs did not correlate with epsilon-subunit expression. Propofol at 3-12 microm potentiated GABA-mediated currents similarly in all neurons. However, noise variance analysis of GABA-mediated currents enhanced by propofol revealed a significant difference between epsilon-positive and epsilon-negative neurons. The former displayed no difference between control and potentiated responses, and, in the latter, noise was decreased in the presence of propofol. Spontaneous IPSCs recorded in cultured hypothalamic neurons were prolonged in the presence of propofol in all epsilon-negative neurons, whereas propofol-resistant IPSCs were recorded in epsilon-positive cells. The infrequent expression of the epsilon-subunit may be a key factor in the recently discovered central role of the tuberomamillary nucleus in anesthesia.

  3. The DREAM protein negatively regulates the NMDA receptor through interaction with the NR1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Su, Ping; Liang, Ping; Liu, Tao; Liu, Xu; Liu, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Bo; Han, Tao; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Yin, Dong-Min; Li, Junfa; Zhou, Zhuan; Wang, Ke-Wei; Wang, Yun

    2010-06-02

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity has been implicated in the etiology of stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases. NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a pivotal role in excitotoxic injury; however, clinical trials testing NMDAR antagonists as neuroprotectants have been discouraging. The development of novel neuroprotectant molecules is being vigorously pursued. Here, we report that downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) significantly inhibits surface expression of NMDARs and NMDAR-mediated current. Overexpression of DREAM showed neuroprotection against excitotoxic neuronal injury, whereas knockdown of DREAM enhanced NMDA-induced toxicity. DREAM could directly bind to the C0 domain of the NR1 subunit. Although DREAM contains multiple binding sites for the NR1 subunit, residues 21-40 of the N terminus are the main binding site for the NR1 subunit. Thus, 21-40 residues might relieve the autoinhibition conferred by residues 1-50 and derepress the DREAM core domain by a competitive mechanism. Intriguingly, the cell-permeable TAT-21-40 peptide, constructed according to the critical binding site of DREAM to the NR1 subunit, inhibits NMDAR-mediated currents in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and has a neuroprotective effect on in vitro neuronal excitotoxic injury and in vivo ischemic brain damage. Moreover, both pretreatment and posttreatment of TAT-21-40 is effective against excitotoxicity. In summary, this work reveals a novel, negative regulator of NMDARs and provides an attractive candidate for the treatment of excitotoxicity-related disease.

  4. The AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 regulates dendritic architecture of motor neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inglis, Fiona M.; Crockett, Richard; Korada, Sailaja; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Hollmann, Michael; Kalb, Robert G.

    2002-01-01

    The morphology of the mature motor neuron dendritic arbor is determined by activity-dependent processes occurring during a critical period in early postnatal life. The abundance of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 in motor neurons is very high during this period and subsequently falls to a negligible level. To test the role of GluR1 in dendrite morphogenesis, we reintroduced GluR1 into rat motor neurons at the end of the critical period and quantitatively studied the effects on dendrite architecture. Two versions of GluR1 were studied that differed by the amino acid in the "Q/R" editing site. The amino acid occupying this site determines single-channel conductance, ionic permeability, and other essential electrophysiologic properties of the resulting receptor channels. We found large-scale remodeling of dendritic architectures in a manner depending on the amino acid occupying the Q/R editing site. Alterations in the distribution of dendritic arbor were not prevented by blocking NMDA receptors. These observations suggest that the expression of GluR1 in motor neurons modulates a component of the molecular substrate of activity-dependent dendrite morphogenesis. The control of these events relies on subunit-specific properties of AMPA receptors.

  5. The AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 regulates dendritic architecture of motor neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inglis, Fiona M.; Crockett, Richard; Korada, Sailaja; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Hollmann, Michael; Kalb, Robert G.

    2002-01-01

    The morphology of the mature motor neuron dendritic arbor is determined by activity-dependent processes occurring during a critical period in early postnatal life. The abundance of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 in motor neurons is very high during this period and subsequently falls to a negligible level. To test the role of GluR1 in dendrite morphogenesis, we reintroduced GluR1 into rat motor neurons at the end of the critical period and quantitatively studied the effects on dendrite architecture. Two versions of GluR1 were studied that differed by the amino acid in the "Q/R" editing site. The amino acid occupying this site determines single-channel conductance, ionic permeability, and other essential electrophysiologic properties of the resulting receptor channels. We found large-scale remodeling of dendritic architectures in a manner depending on the amino acid occupying the Q/R editing site. Alterations in the distribution of dendritic arbor were not prevented by blocking NMDA receptors. These observations suggest that the expression of GluR1 in motor neurons modulates a component of the molecular substrate of activity-dependent dendrite morphogenesis. The control of these events relies on subunit-specific properties of AMPA receptors.

  6. Auxiliary Subunit GSG1L Acts to Suppress Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Thomas P.; Bats, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors are ligand-gated cation channels responsible for a majority of the fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Their behavior and calcium permeability depends critically on their subunit composition and the identity of associated auxiliary proteins. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) contribute to various forms of synaptic plasticity, and their dysfunction underlies a number of serious neurological conditions. For CP-AMPARs, the prototypical transmembrane AMPAR regulatory protein stargazin, which acts as an auxiliary subunit, enhances receptor function by increasing single-channel conductance, slowing channel gating, increasing calcium permeability, and relieving the voltage-dependent block by endogenous intracellular polyamines. We find that, in contrast, GSG1L, a transmembrane auxiliary protein identified recently as being part of the AMPAR proteome, acts to reduce the weighted mean single-channel conductance and calcium permeability of recombinant CP-AMPARs, while increasing polyamine-dependent rectification. To examine the effects of GSG1L on native AMPARs, we manipulated its expression in cerebellar and hippocampal neurons. Transfection of GSG1L into mouse cultured cerebellar stellate cells that lack this protein increased the inward rectification of mEPSCs. Conversely, shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous GSG1L in rat cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons led to an increase in mEPSC amplitude and in the underlying weighted mean single-channel conductance, revealing that GSG1L acts to suppress current flow through native CP-AMPARs. Thus, our data suggest that GSG1L extends the functional repertoire of AMPAR auxiliary subunits, which can act not only to enhance but also diminish current flow through their associated AMPARs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) are an important group of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. These receptors contribute to various forms of

  7. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C.; Weil, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects

  8. Molecular forms and subunit structure of the acetylcholine receptor in the central nervous system of insects.

    PubMed

    Breer, H; Kleene, R; Hinz, G

    1985-12-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as probed by alpha-bungarotoxin binding has been isolated from detergent-solubilized ganglionic membrane preparations from the insect, Locusta migratoria. The isolation and characterization of the receptor protein was achieved by preparation of membrane fragments, extraction by sodium deoxycholate, centrifugation on sucrose density gradient, affinity chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and immunoblotting. The purified receptor protein migrated as a single band on polyacrylamide when native (Mr = 250,000 to 300,000) but also under denaturing conditions (Mr = 65,000) and cross-reacted with some monoclonal antibodies against the Torpedo receptor. In immunohistochemical approaches using polyclonal antibodies the acetylcholine receptor antigenic sites could topochemically be identified at very distinct zones in the neuropil of locust ganglia. The results suggest that the acetylcholine receptor in the central nervous system of insects represents an oligomeric complex composed of four identical or very similar subunits and thus may represent a prototype of the recently proposed homo-oligomeric ancestral acetylcholine receptor.

  9. Subunit-specific mechanisms and proton sensitivity of NMDA receptor channel block.

    PubMed

    Dravid, Shashank M; Erreger, Kevin; Yuan, Hongjie; Nicholson, Katherine; Le, Phuong; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Almonte, Antoine; Murray, Ernest; Mosely, Cara; Barber, Jeremy; French, Adam; Balster, Robert; Murray, Thomas F; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2007-05-15

    We have compared the potencies of structurally distinct channel blockers at recombinant NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B, NR1/NR2C and NR1/NR2D receptors. The IC50 values varied with stereochemistry and subunit composition, suggesting that it may be possible to design subunit-selective channel blockers. For dizocilpine (MK-801), the differential potency of MK-801 stereoisomers determined at recombinant NMDA receptors was confirmed at native receptors in vitro and in vivo. Since the proton sensor is tightly linked both structurally and functionally to channel gating, we examined whether blocking molecules that interact in the channel pore with the gating machinery can differentially sense protonation of the receptor. Blockers capable of remaining trapped in the pore during agonist unbinding showed the strongest dependence on extracellular pH, appearing more potent at acidic pH values that promote channel closure. Determination of pK(a) values for channel blockers suggests that the ionization of ketamine but not of other blockers can influence its pH-dependent potency. Kinetic modelling and single channel studies suggest that the pH-dependent block of NR1/NR2A by (-)MK-801 but not (+)MK-801 reflects an increase in the MK-801 association rate even though protons reduce channel open probability and thus MK-801 access to its binding site. Allosteric modulators that alter pH sensitivity alter the potency of MK-801, supporting the interpretation that the pH sensitivity of MK-801 binding reflects the changes at the proton sensor rather than a secondary effect of pH. These data suggest a tight coupling between the proton sensor and the ion channel gate as well as unique subunit-specific mechanisms of channel block.

  10. Subunit-specific mechanisms and proton sensitivity of NMDA receptor channel block

    PubMed Central

    Dravid, Shashank M; Erreger, Kevin; Yuan, Hongjie; Nicholson, Katherine; Le, Phuong; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Almonte, Antoine; Murray, Ernest; Mosely, Cara; Barber, Jeremy; French, Adam; Balster, Robert; Murray, Thomas F; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2007-01-01

    We have compared the potencies of structurally distinct channel blockers at recombinant NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B, NR1/NR2C and NR1/NR2D receptors. The IC50 values varied with stereochemistry and subunit composition, suggesting that it may be possible to design subunit-selective channel blockers. For dizocilpine (MK-801), the differential potency of MK-801 stereoisomers determined at recombinant NMDA receptors was confirmed at native receptors in vitro and in vivo. Since the proton sensor is tightly linked both structurally and functionally to channel gating, we examined whether blocking molecules that interact in the channel pore with the gating machinery can differentially sense protonation of the receptor. Blockers capable of remaining trapped in the pore during agonist unbinding showed the strongest dependence on extracellular pH, appearing more potent at acidic pH values that promote channel closure. Determination of pKa values for channel blockers suggests that the ionization of ketamine but not of other blockers can influence its pH-dependent potency. Kinetic modelling and single channel studies suggest that the pH-dependent block of NR1/NR2A by (−)MK-801 but not (+)MK-801 reflects an increase in the MK-801 association rate even though protons reduce channel open probability and thus MK-801 access to its binding site. Allosteric modulators that alter pH sensitivity alter the potency of MK-801, supporting the interpretation that the pH sensitivity of MK-801 binding reflects the changes at the proton sensor rather than a secondary effect of pH. These data suggest a tight coupling between the proton sensor and the ion channel gate as well as unique subunit-specific mechanisms of channel block. PMID:17303642

  11. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment.

  12. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment. PMID:27424515

  13. α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUBUNIT STOICHIOMETRY AND FUNCTION AT THE SINGLE CHANNEL LEVEL.

    PubMed

    Mazzaferro, Simone; Bermudez, Isabel; Sine, Steven M

    2017-02-17

    Acetylcholine receptors comprising α4 and β2 subunits are the most abundant class of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the brain. They contribute to cognition, reward, mood, and nociception and are implicated in a range of neurological disorders. Previous measurements of whole-cell macroscopic currents showed that α4 and β2 subunits assemble in two predominant pentameric stoichiometries, which differ in their sensitivity to agonists, antagonists, and allosteric modulators. Here we compare agonist-elicited single channel currents from receptors assembled with an excess of either the α4 or β2 subunit, forming receptor populations biased toward one or the other stoichiometry, with currents from receptors composed of five concatemeric subunits in which the subunit stoichiometry is predetermined. Our results associate each subunit stoichiometry with a unique single channel conductance, mean open channel lifetime, and sensitivity to the allosteric potentiator 3-[3-(3-pyridinyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS-9283). Receptors with the composition (α4β2)2α4 exhibit high single channel conductance, brief mean open lifetime, and strong potentiation by NS-9283, whereas receptors with the composition (α4β2)2β2 exhibit low single channel conductance and long mean open lifetime and are not potentiated by NS-9283. Thus single channel current measurements reveal bases for the distinct functional and pharmacological properties endowed by different stoichiometries of α4 and β2 subunits and establish pentameric concatemers as a means to delineate interactions between subunits that confer these properties.

  14. Novel TPR-containing subunit of TOM complex functions as cytosolic receptor for Entamoeba mitosomal transport.

    PubMed

    Makiuchi, Takashi; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Under anaerobic environments, the mitochondria have undergone remarkable reduction and transformation into highly reduced structures, referred as mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), which include mitosomes and hydrogenosomes. In agreement with the concept of reductive evolution, mitosomes of Entamoeba histolytica lack most of the components of the TOM (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex, which is required for the targeting and membrane translocation of preproteins into the canonical aerobic mitochondria. Here we showed, in E. histolytica mitosomes, the presence of a 600-kDa TOM complex composed of Tom40, a conserved pore-forming subunit, and Tom60, a novel lineage-specific receptor protein. Tom60, containing multiple tetratricopeptide repeats, is localized to the mitosomal outer membrane and the cytosol, and serves as a receptor of both mitosomal matrix and membrane preproteins. Our data indicate that Entamoeba has invented a novel lineage-specific shuttle receptor of the TOM complex as a consequence of adaptation to an anaerobic environment.

  15. GABAA Receptors Containing ρ1 Subunits Contribute to In Vivo Effects of Ethanol in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Black, Mendy; Leiter, Courtney R.; Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth; Johnson, David; Borghese, Cecilia M.; Hanrahan, Jane R.; Johnston, Graham A. R.; Chebib, Mary; Harris, R. Adron

    2014-01-01

    GABAA receptors consisting of ρ1, ρ2, or ρ3 subunits in homo- or hetero-pentamers have been studied mainly in retina but are detected in many brain regions. Receptors formed from ρ1 are inhibited by low ethanol concentrations, and family-based association analyses have linked ρ subunit genes with alcohol dependence. We determined if genetic deletion of ρ1 in mice altered in vivo ethanol effects. Null mutant male mice showed reduced ethanol consumption and preference in a two-bottle choice test with no differences in preference for saccharin or quinine. Null mutant mice of both sexes demonstrated longer duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR), and males were more sensitive to ethanol-induced motor sedation. In contrast, ρ1 null mice showed faster recovery from acute motor incoordination produced by ethanol. Null mutant females were less sensitive to ethanol-induced development of conditioned taste aversion. Measurement of mRNA levels in cerebellum showed that deletion of ρ1 did not change expression of ρ2, α2, or α6 GABAA receptor subunits. (S)-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid (“ρ1” antagonist), when administered to wild type mice, mimicked the changes that ethanol induced in ρ1 null mice (LORR and rotarod tests), but the ρ1 antagonist did not produce these effects in ρ1 null mice. In contrast, (R)-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid (“ρ2” antagonist) did not change ethanol actions in wild type but produced effects in mice lacking ρ1 that were opposite of the effects of deleting (or inhibiting) ρ1. These results suggest that ρ1 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol, and a role for ρ2 may be revealed when ρ1 is deleted. We also found that ethanol produces similar inhibition of function of recombinant ρ1 and ρ2 receptors. These data indicate that ethanol action on GABAA receptors containing ρ1/ρ2 subunits may be important for specific effects of ethanol in vivo. PMID:24454882

  16. The β subunit dominates the relaxation kinetics of heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Figl, Antonio; Cohen, Bruce N

    2000-01-01

    The ACh-induced voltage-jump relaxation currents of the nicotinic receptors formed by pair-wise expression of the rat α2, α3, or α4 subunits with the β2 or β4 subunit in Xenopus oocytes were fitted best by the sum of two exponentials and a constant between -60 and -150 mV. As the ACh concentration approached zero, the relaxation time constants approached limiting values that should equal the single-channel burst duration at low ACh concentrations and the synaptic current decay time constants. β4 co-expression prolonged the zero ACh concentration limits for the relaxation time constants. The fast β4 zero ACh concentration limits ranged from 40 to 121 ms between -60 and -150 mV, and the slow β4 zero ACh concentration limits ranged from 274 to 1039 ms. In contrast, the fast β2 limits were 4–6 ms over the same voltage range and the slow β2 limits were 30–53 ms. Expression with the β4 subunit increased the voltage sensitivity of the α2, α3 and slow α4 relaxation time constants but not that of the fast α4 relaxation time constant. Reducing the temperature from 22°C to 8–9°C increased the α4β2 and α3β4 relaxation time constants 2.3- to 6.6-fold and reduced the fractional amplitude of the fast relaxation component. It also increased the voltage dependence of the fast α3β4 relaxation time constant and decreased that of the slow time constant. The Q10 for α4β2 and α3β4 relaxation time constants ranged from 1.9 to 3.9 between 10 and 20°C. The β subunit appears to have a dominant influence on the voltage-jump relaxation kinetics of heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors. PMID:10790151

  17. Formation of triads without the dihydropyridine receptor alpha subunits in cell lines from dysgenic skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Muscular dysgenesis (mdg/mdg), a mutation of the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) alpha 1 subunit, has served as a model to study the functions of the DHPR in excitation-contraction coupling and its role in triad formation. We have investigated the question of whether the lack of the DHPR in dysgenic skeletal muscle results in a failure of triad formation, using cell lines (GLT and NLT) derived from dysgenic (mdg/mdg) and normal (+/+) muscle, respectively. The lines were generated by transfection of myoblasts with a plasmid encoding a Large T antigen. Both cell lines express muscle-specific proteins and begin organization of sarcomeres as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. Similar to primary cultures, dysgenic (GLT) myoblasts show a higher incidence of cell fusion than their normal counterparts (NLT). NLT myotubes develop spontaneous contractile activity, and fluorescent Ca2+ recordings show Ca2+ release in response to depolarization. In contrast, GLTs show neither spontaneous nor depolarization-induced Ca2+ transients, but do release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in response to caffeine. Despite normal transverse tubule (T-tubule) formation, GLT myotubes lack the alpha 1 subunit of the skeletal muscle DHPR, and the alpha 2 subunit is mistargeted. Nevertheless, the ryanodine receptor (RyR) frequently develops its normal, clustered organization in the absence of both DHPR alpha subunits in the T-tubules. In EM, these RyR clusters correspond to T-tubule/SR junctions with regularly spaced feet. These findings provide conclusive evidence that interactions between the DHPR and RyR are not involved in the formation of triad junctions or in the normal organization of the RyR in the junctional SR. PMID:8707823

  18. Toward Understanding Functional Properties and Subunit Arrangement of α4β2δ γ-Aminobutyric Acid, Type A (GABAA) Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wongsamitkul, Nisa; Baur, Roland; Sigel, Erwin

    2016-08-26

    GABAA receptors are pentameric ligand-gated channels mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS. α4βxδ GABAA receptors are extrasynaptic receptors important for tonic inhibition. The functional properties and subunit arrangement of these receptors are controversial. We predefined subunit arrangement by using subunit concatenation. α4, β2, and δ subunits were concatenated to dimeric, trimeric, and, in some cases, pentameric subunits. We constructed in total nine different receptor pentamers in at least two different ways and expressed them in Xenopus oocytes. The δ subunit was substituted in any of the five positions in the α1β2 receptor. In addition, we investigated all receptors with the 2:2:1 subunit stoichiometry for α4, β2, and δ. Several functional receptors were obtained. Interestingly, all of these receptors had very similar EC50 values for GABA in the presence of the neurosteroid 3α, 21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). All functional receptors containing δ subunits were sensitive to 4-chloro-N-[2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl]benzamide (DS2). Moreover, none of the receptors was affected by ethanol up to 30 mm These properties recapitulate those of non-concatenated receptors expressed from a cRNA ratio of 1:1:5 coding for α4, β2, and δ subunits. We conclude that the subunit arrangement of α4β2δ GABAA receptors is not strongly predefined but is mostly satisfying the 2:2:1 subunit stoichiometry for α4, β2, and δ subunits and that several subunit arrangements result in receptors with similar functional properties tuned to physiological conditions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Alters GABAA Receptor Subunit Expression in Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Centanni, Samuel W.; Teppen, Tara; Risher, Mary-Louise; Fleming, Rebekah L.; Moss, Julia L.; Acheson, Shawn K.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Pandey, Subhash C.; Chandler, L. Judson; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-term consequences of adolescent alcohol abuse that persist into adulthood are poorly understood and have not been widely investigated. We have shown that intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence decreased the amplitude of GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents in hippocampal dentate granule cells in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enduring effects of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure during adolescence or adulthood on the expression of hippocampal GABAA receptors (GABAARs). Methods We used a previously characterized tissue fractionation method to isolate detergent resistant membranes and soluble fractions, followed by western blots to measure GABAAR protein expression. We also measured mRNA levels of GABAAR subunits using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Although the protein levels of α1-, α4- and δ-GABAAR subunits remained stable between postnatal day (PD) 30 (early adolescence) and PD71 (adulthood), the α5-GABAAR subunit was reduced across that period. In rats that were subjected to adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure between PD30–46, there was a significant reduction in the protein levels of the δ-GABAAR, in the absence of any changes in mRNA levels, at 48 hours and 26 days after the last ethanol exposure. Protein levels of the α4-GABAAR subunit were significantly reduced, but mRNA levels were increased, 26 days (but not 48 hours) after the last AIE exposure. Protein levels of α5-GABAAR were not changed by AIE, but mRNA levels were reduced at 48hrs but normalized 26 days after AIE. In contrast to the effects of AIE, chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol during adulthood (CIE) had no effect on expression of any of the GABAAR subunits examined. Conclusions AIE produced both short- and long-term alterations of GABAAR subunits mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus, whereas CIE produced no long lasting effects on those measures. The observed reduction of protein

  20. Identification of an inhibitory Zn2+ binding site on the human glycine receptor α1 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Robert J; Thomas, Philip; James, Colin H; Wilderspin, Andrew; Smart, Trevor G

    1999-01-01

    Whole-cell glycine-activated currents were recorded from human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells expressing wild-type and mutant recombinant homomeric glycine receptors (GlyRs) to locate the inhibitory binding site for Zn2+ ions on the human α1 subunit. Glycine-activated currents were potentiated by low concentrations of Zn2+ (<10 μm) and inhibited by higher concentrations (>100 μm) on wild-type α1 subunit GlyRs. Lowering the external pH from 7.4 to 5.4 inhibited the glycine responses in a competitive manner. The inhibition caused by Zn2+ was abolished leaving an overt potentiating effect at 10 μm Zn2+ that was exacerbated at 100 μm Zn2+. The identification of residues involved in the formation of the inhibitory binding site was also assessed using diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC), which modifies histidines. DEPC (1 mm) abolished Zn2+-induced inhibition and also the potentiation of glycine-activated currents by Zn2+. The reduction in glycine-induced whole-cell currents in the presence of high (100 μm) concentrations of Zn2+ did not increase the rate of glycine receptor desensitisation. Systematic mutation of extracellular histidine residues in the GlyR α1 subunit revealed that mutations H107A or H109A completely abolished inhibition of glycine-gated currents by Zn2+. However, mutation of other external histidines, H210, H215 and H419, failed to prevent inhibition by Zn2+ of glycine-gated currents. Thus, H107 and H109 in the extracellular domain of the human GlyR α1 subunit are major determinants of the inhibitory Zn2+ binding site. An examination of Zn2+ co-ordination in metalloenzymes revealed that the histidine- hydrophobic residue-histidine motif found to be responsible for binding Zn2+ in the human GlyR α1 subunit is also shared by some of these enzymes. Further comparison of the structure and location of this motif with a generic model of the GlyR α1 subunit suggests that H107 and H109 participate in the formation of the inhibitory Zn2+ binding site at the

  1. Triangular G2-Splines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    energy [1]. Judging the visual ap- pearance of the surfaces by their isophotes we got the best results with the 340 H. Prautzsch and G. Umlauf Fig. 7...An initial control net (left), parameter lines of the resulting G2-surface (middle), top-view of the surface showing isophotes (right). functional F...construction. The initial triangular control net has an irregular vertex of valence 5. The isophotes confirm that the resulting surface is G 2. Fig. 8

  2. The α5 subunit containing GABAA receptors contribute to chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Hernández, Mariana; Corleto, José A; Barragán-Iglesias, Paulino; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Pineda-Farias, Jorge B; Felix, Ricardo; Calcutt, Nigel A; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo; Marsala, Martin; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2016-03-01

    It has been recently proposed that α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors (α5-GABAA receptors) that mediate tonic inhibition might be involved in pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of α5-GABAA receptors in the loss of GABAergic inhibition and in formalin-induced, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced and L5 and L6 spinal nerve ligation-induced long-lasting hypersensitivity. Formalin or CFA injection and L5 and L6 spinal nerve ligation produced long-lasting allodynia and hyperalgesia. Moreover, formalin injection impaired the rate-dependent depression of the Hofmann reflex. Peripheral and intrathecal pretreatment or post-treatment with the α5-GABAA receptor antagonist, L-655,708 (0.15-15 nmol), prevented and reversed, respectively, these long-lasting behaviors. Formalin injection increased α5-GABAA receptor mRNA expression in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) mainly at 3 days. The α5-GABAA receptors were localized in the dorsal spinal cord and DRG colabeling with NeuN, CGRP, and IB4 which suggests their presence in peptidergic and nonpeptidergic neurons. These receptors were found mainly in small and medium sized neurons. Formalin injection enhanced α5-GABAA receptor fluorescence intensity in spinal cord and DRG at 3 and 6 days. Intrathecal administration of L-655,708 (15 nmol) prevented and reversed formalin-induced impairment of rate-dependent depression. These results suggest that α5-GABAA receptors play a role in the loss of GABAergic inhibition and contribute to long-lasting secondary allodynia and hyperalgesia.

  3. The α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors contribute to chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Hernández, Mariana; Corleto, José A.; Barragán-Iglesias, Paulino; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Pineda-Farias, Jorge B.; Felix, Ricardo; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo; Marsala, Martin; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors (α5-GABAA receptors) that mediate tonic inhibition might be involved in pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of α5-GABAA receptors in the loss of GABAergic inhibition and in formalin-, Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)- and L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation-induced long-lasting hypersensitivity. Formalin or CFA injection and L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation produced long-lasting allodynia and hyperalgesia. Moreover, formalin injection impaired the rate-dependent depression (RDD) of the Hofmann reflex. Peripheral and intrathecal pre-treatment or post-treatment with the α5-GABAA receptor antagonist, L-655,708 (0.15–15 nmol) prevented and reversed, respectively, these long-lasting behaviors. Formalin injection increased α5-GABAA receptors mRNA expression in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) mainly at 3 days. α5-GABAA receptors were localized in the dorsal spinal cord and DRG co-labeling with NeuN, CGRP and IB4 suggesting their presence in peptidergic and non-peptidergic neurons. These receptors were found mainly in small- and medium-size neurons. Formalin injection enhanced α5-GABAA receptors fluorescence intensity in spinal cord and DRG at 3 and 6 days. Intrathecal administration of L-655,708 (15 nmol) prevented and reversed formalin-induced impairment of RDD. These results suggest that α5-GABAA receptors play a role in the loss of GABAergic inhibition and contribute to long-lasting secondary allodynia and hyperalgesia. PMID:26545088

  4. Mapping of the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Safran, A; Gershoni, J M; Fuchs, S

    1986-01-01

    Synthetic peptides and their respective antibodies have been used in order to map the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. By using antibodies to a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 169-181 of the alpha subunit, we demonstrate that this sequence is included within the 18-kDa toxin binding fragment previously reported. Furthermore, the 18-kDa fragment was also found to bind a monoclonal antibody (5.5) directed against the cholinergic binding site. Sequential proteolysis of the acetylcholine receptor with trypsin, prior to Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion, resulted in a 15-kDa toxin binding fragment that is included within the 18-kDa fragment but is shorter than it only at its carboxyl terminus. This 15-kDa fragment therefore initiates beyond Asp-152 and terminates in the region of Arg-313/Lys-314. In addition, experiments are reported that indicate that in the intact acetylcholine receptor, Cys-128 and/or Cys-142 are not crosslinked by disulfide bridges with any of the cysteines (at positions 192, 193, and 222) that reside in the 15-kDa toxin binding fragment. Finally, the synthetic dodecapeptide Lys-His-Trp-Val-Tyr-Tyr-Thr-Cys-Cys-Pro-Asp-Thr, which is present in the 15-kDa fragment (corresponding to residues 185-196 of the alpha subunit) was shown to bind alpha-bungarotoxin directly. This binding was completely inhibited by competition with d-tubocurarine. Images PMID:3458258

  5. Mapping of the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Safran, A; Gershoni, J M; Fuchs, S

    1986-05-01

    Synthetic peptides and their respective antibodies have been used in order to map the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. By using antibodies to a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 169-181 of the alpha subunit, we demonstrate that this sequence is included within the 18-kDa toxin binding fragment previously reported. Furthermore, the 18-kDa fragment was also found to bind a monoclonal antibody (5.5) directed against the cholinergic binding site. Sequential proteolysis of the acetylcholine receptor with trypsin, prior to Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion, resulted in a 15-kDa toxin binding fragment that is included within the 18-kDa fragment but is shorter than it only at its carboxyl terminus. This 15-kDa fragment therefore initiates beyond Asp-152 and terminates in the region of Arg-313/Lys-314. In addition, experiments are reported that indicate that in the intact acetylcholine receptor, Cys-128 and/or Cys-142 are not crosslinked by disulfide bridges with any of the cysteines (at positions 192, 193, and 222) that reside in the 15-kDa toxin binding fragment. Finally, the synthetic dodecapeptide Lys-His-Trp-Val-Tyr-Tyr-Thr-Cys-Cys-Pro-Asp-Thr, which is present in the 15-kDa fragment (corresponding to residues 185-196 of the alpha subunit) was shown to bind alpha-bungarotoxin directly. This binding was completely inhibited by competition with d-tubocurarine.

  6. Inter- and Intra-Subunit Butanol/Isoflurane Sites of Action in the Human Glycine Receptor.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Mandy L; Gorini, Giorgio; McCracken, Lindsay M; Mayfield, R Dayne; Harris, R Adron; Trudell, James R

    2016-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) mediate inhibitory neurotransmission and are targets for alcohols and anesthetics in brain. GlyR transmembrane (TM) domains contain critical residues for alcohol/anesthetic action: amino acid A288 in TM3 forms crosslinks with TM1 (I229) in the adjacent subunit as well as TM2 (S267) and TM4 (Y406, W407, I409, Y410) in the same subunit. We hypothesized that these residues may participate in intra-subunit and inter-subunit sites of alcohol/anesthetic action. The following double and triple mutants of GLRA1 cDNA (encoding human glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit) were injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes: I229C/A288C, I229C/A288C/C290S, A288C/Y406C, A288C/W407C, A288C/I409C, and A288C/Y410C along with the corresponding single mutants and wild-type GLRA1. Butanol (22 mM) or isoflurane (0.6 mM) potentiation of GlyR-mediated currents before and after application of the cysteine crosslinking agent HgCl2 (10 μM) was measured using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. Crosslinking nearly abolished butanol and isoflurane potentiation in the I229C/A288C and I229C/A288C/C290S mutants but had no effect in single mutants or wild-type. Crosslinking also inhibited butanol and isoflurane potentiation in the TM3-4 mutants (A288C/Y406C, A288C/W407C, A288C/I409C, A288C/Y410C) with no effect in single mutants or wild-type. We extracted proteins from oocytes expressing I229C/288C, A288C/Y410C, or wild-type GlyRs, used mass spectrometry to verify their expression and possible inter-subunit dimerization, plus immunoblotting to investigate the biochemical features of proposed crosslinks. Wild-type GlyR subunits measured about 50 kDa; after crosslinking, the dimeric/monomeric 100:50 kDa band ratio was significantly increased in I229C/288C but not A288C/Y410C mutants or wild-type, providing support for TM1-3 inter-subunit and TM3-4 intra-subunit crosslinking. A GlyR homology model based on the GluCl template provides further evidence for a multi-site model

  7. Subunit-Selective Modulation of GABA Type A Receptor Neurotransmission and Cognition in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David A.; Cho, Raymond Y.; Carter, Cameron S.; Eklund, Kevin; Forster, Sarah; Kelly, Mary Ann; Montrose, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Deficits in working memory and cognitive control in schizophrenia are associated with impairments in prefrontal cortical function, including altered gamma band oscillations. These abnormalities are thought to reflect a deficiency in the synchronization of pyramidal cell activity that is dependent, in part, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission through GABA type A (GABAA) receptors containing α2 subunits. The authors conducted a proof-of-concept clinical trial designed to test the hypothesis that a novel compound with relatively selective agonist activity at GABAA receptors containing α2 subunits would improve cognitive function and gamma band oscillations in individuals with schizophrenia. Method: Participants were male subjects (N=15) with chronic schizophrenia who were randomly assigned to receive 4 weeks of treatment with the study drug MK-0777, a benzodiazepine-like agent with selective activity at GABAA receptors containing α2 or α3 subunits, or a matched placebo in a double-blind fashion. Outcome measures were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, three tests of working memory and/or cognitive control (N-back, AX Continuous Performance Test, and Preparing to Overcome Prepotency), and EEG measures of gamma band oscillations induced during the Preparing to Overcome Prepotency task. Results: Compared with placebo, the MK-0777 compound was associated with improved performance on the N-back, AX Continuous Performance Test, and Preparing to Overcome Prepotency tasks. The compound was also associated with increased frontal gamma band power during the Preparing to Overcome Prepotency task. No effects of the MK-0777 compound were detected in BPRS or Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status scores, with the exception of improvement on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status delayed memory index. The MK-0777 agent

  8. Evidence that TSH Receptor A-Subunit Multimers, Not Monomers, Drive Antibody Affinity Maturation in Graves' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aliesky, Holly A.; Chen, Chun-Rong; McLachlan, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The TSH receptor (TSHR) A-subunit shed from the cell surface contributes to the induction and/or affinity maturation of pathogenic TSHR autoantibodies in Graves' disease. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether the quaternary structure (multimerization) of shed A-subunits influences pathogenic TSHR autoantibody generation. Design: The isolated TSHR A-subunit generated by transfected mammalian cells exists in two forms; one (active) is recognized only by Graves' TSHR autoantibodies, the second (inactive) is recognized only by mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3BD10. Recent evidence suggests that both Graves' TSHR autoantibodies and mAb 3BD10 recognize the A-subunit monomer. Therefore, if the A-subunit monomer is an immunogen, Graves' sera should have antibodies to both active and inactive A-subunits. Conversely, restriction of TSHR autoantibodies to active A-subunits would be evidence of a role for shed A-subunit multimers, not monomers, in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. Therefore, we tested a panel of Graves' sera for their relative recognition of active and inactive A-subunits. Results: Of 34 sera from unselected Graves' patients, 28 were unequivocally positive in a clinical TSH binding inhibition assay. None of the latter sera, as well as 8/9 sera from control individuals, recognized inactive A-subunits on ELISA. In contrast to Graves' sera, antibodies induced in mice, not by shedding from the TSHR holoreceptor, but by immunization with adenovirus expressing the free human A-subunit, were directed to both the active and inactive A-subunit forms. Conclusions: The present study supports the concept that pathogenic TSHR autoantibody affinity maturation in Graves' disease is driven by A-subunit multimers, not monomers. PMID:25856215

  9. Evidence that TSH Receptor A-Subunit Multimers, Not Monomers, Drive Antibody Affinity Maturation in Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, Basil; Aliesky, Holly A; Chen, Chun-Rong; McLachlan, Sandra M

    2015-06-01

    The TSH receptor (TSHR) A-subunit shed from the cell surface contributes to the induction and/or affinity maturation of pathogenic TSHR autoantibodies in Graves' disease. This study aimed to determine whether the quaternary structure (multimerization) of shed A-subunits influences pathogenic TSHR autoantibody generation. The isolated TSHR A-subunit generated by transfected mammalian cells exists in two forms; one (active) is recognized only by Graves' TSHR autoantibodies, the second (inactive) is recognized only by mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3BD10. Recent evidence suggests that both Graves' TSHR autoantibodies and mAb 3BD10 recognize the A-subunit monomer. Therefore, if the A-subunit monomer is an immunogen, Graves' sera should have antibodies to both active and inactive A-subunits. Conversely, restriction of TSHR autoantibodies to active A-subunits would be evidence of a role for shed A-subunit multimers, not monomers, in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. Therefore, we tested a panel of Graves' sera for their relative recognition of active and inactive A-subunits. Of 34 sera from unselected Graves' patients, 28 were unequivocally positive in a clinical TSH binding inhibition assay. None of the latter sera, as well as 8/9 sera from control individuals, recognized inactive A-subunits on ELISA. In contrast to Graves' sera, antibodies induced in mice, not by shedding from the TSHR holoreceptor, but by immunization with adenovirus expressing the free human A-subunit, were directed to both the active and inactive A-subunit forms. The present study supports the concept that pathogenic TSHR autoantibody affinity maturation in Graves' disease is driven by A-subunit multimers, not monomers.

  10. NMDA receptor NR2B subunits contribute to PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal astrocytosis and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinjian; Dong, Jingde; Shen, Kai; Bai, Ying; Zhang, Yuan; Lv, Xuan; Chao, Jie; Yao, Honghong

    2015-05-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases, including epilepsy. The present study investigated the effect of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling-induced pathological and biochemical events in mice. Our results showed that PTZ-kindling up-regulates the expression of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits in the hippocampus and that kindled mice were characterized by significant astrocytosis and neuron loss in the hippocampus. Oxidative stress, including excessive malondialdehyde (MDA) production and decreased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), were detected in the hippocampus after the mice were fully kindled. Additionally, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus was found to be up-regulated in PTZ-kindled mice. However, selectively blocking NMDA receptor NR2B subunits by ifenprodil significantly suppressed PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal astrocytosis, oxidative stress and neuron loss. Furthermore, blocking NMDA receptor NR2B subunits also abolished PTZ-kindling-induced BDNF expression. These results indicate that NMDA receptor NR2B subunits contribute to epilepsy-associated pathological and biochemical events, including hippocampal astrocytosis, oxidative stress and neuron loss, and these events might be correlated with up-regulation of BDNF expression.

  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone effects on the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their coactivators in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Poczatková, H; Bogdanová, K; Uherková, L; Cervenková, K; Riegrová, D; Rypka, M; Veselý, J

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on intracellular mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and PPAR-gamma coactivators (PGCs), we conducted a quantitative real-time RT-PCR study using HepG2 cells. Treatment with 100 micromol/l DHEA for 2-20 h caused a time-dependent elevation of mRNA levels in the cells. Upon 20 h, PPAR-alpha, -gamma1, and -gamma2 mRNAs and PGC-1alpha and -1beta mRNAs increased to 157, 161, 155, 656, and 475% of control levels, respectively (p < 0.05 each). Treatment with actinomycin D for 2.5-8 h revealed a significant stabilization effect of DHEA on PPAR-gamma1 and PGC-1alpha mRNAs at both 2.5 and 8 h incubation periods and a mild but significant stabilization effect on PGC-1beta mRNA at the 8 h incubation period suggesting that DHEA can modulate turnover of these mRNA transcripts. Basal mRNA levels of PPAR-alpha and PGC-1alpha were significantly suppressed upon 20 h treatment with cycloheximide, while those of PPAR-gamma1, -gamma2, and PGC-1beta were elevated. Cycloheximide also significantly reduced DHEA-induced accumulation of PPAR-alpha, -gamma1, -gamma2, and PGC-1alpha mRNAs, demonstrating the dependence of the DHEA action on de novo protein synthesis. The findings demonstrate that a supraphysiological concentration of DHEA can substantially influence gene expression of the PPAR signalling machinery at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  12. mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their coactivators are affected by glucose deprivation and oleate in human hepatoma hepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Katerina; Uherkova, Lenka; Poczatkova, Hana; Rypka, Miroslav; Vesely, Jaroslav

    2007-12-01

    Very modest changes in mRNA stability can affect critical points in cellular energy pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of energy abundant substrates on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and PPAR-gamma coactivators (PGCs) mRNA's steady-state levels. Quantitative RT-PCR study was performed to assess the effect of zero or normal (5 mmol/l) glucose and/or oleic acid (0.3 mmol/l) on mRNA levels of (PPARs) (PGCs) in HepG2 cells. PGC-1alpha mRNA was significantly upregulated in glucose deprived cells (123 % of the control level; p < 0.05), while PGC-1beta mRNA was significantly enhanced in oleate-fed cells (134 % and 160 % of control levels for zero glucose plus oleate and normal glucose plus oleate, respectively; p < 0.05) during the 0.5 h incubation. Upon the 4 h incubation, PPAR-gamma1 and PGC-1alpha mRNAs were significantly elevated in cells lacking glucose (142 % and 163 % of control levels, respectively; p < 0.05). Oleate significantly suppressed PPAR-alpha and PGC-1beta mRNA levels in glucose-deprived cells (58 % and 49 % of control levels, respectively; p < 0.05). PPAR-gamma1 and -gamma2 mRNAs were significantly superinduced when the cells were treated with cycloheximide, whereas PPAR-alpha and PGC-1alpha and-1beta mRNAs were destabilized. Upon actinomycin D treatment, glucose shortage significantly stabilized PPAR-alpha mRNA, while PGC-1alpha mRNA was destabilized by oleate in glucose-deprived cells. Our findings provide evidence that transcriptional processes that are under the control of energetic substrates are interconnected with concurrent translational processes that can change stability of mRNAs.

  13. Relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity and cellular concentration of 14 perfluoroalkyl substances in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Ahrens, Lutz; le Godec, Théo; Lundqvist, Johan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2017-08-31

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a molecular target for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Little is known about the cellular uptake of PFASs and how it affects the PPARα activity. We investigated the relationship between PPARα activity and cellular concentration in HepG2 cells of 14 PFASs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Cellular concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and PPARα activity was determined in transiently transfected cells by reporter gene assay. Cellular uptake of the PFASs was low (0.04-4.1%) with absolute cellular concentrations in the range 4-2500 ng mg(-1) protein. Cellular concentration of PFCAs increased with perfluorocarbon chain length up to perfluorododecanoate. PPARα activity of PFCAs increased with chain length up to perfluorooctanoate. The maximum induction of PPARα activity was similar for short-chain (perfluorobutanoate and perfluoropentanoate) and long-chain PFCAs (perfluorododecanoate and perfluorotetradecanoate) (approximately twofold). However, PPARα activities were induced at lower cellular concentrations for the short-chain homologs compared to the long-chain homologs. Perfluorohexanoate, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate induced PPARα activities >2.5-fold compared to controls. The concentration-response relationships were positive for all the tested compounds, except perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOS and FOSA, and were compound-specific, as demonstrated by differences in the estimated slopes. The relationships were steeper for PFCAs with chain lengths up to and including PFNA than for the other studied PFASs. To our knowledge, this is the first report establishing relationships between PPARα activity and cellular concentration of a broad range of PFASs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Kynurenine, by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor, decreases erythropoietin and increases hepcidin production in HepG2 cells: A new mechanism for anemia of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Pissas, Georgios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    It is known that inadequate erythropoietin (EPO) production contributes to the pathogenesis of anemia of inflammation, although the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) may compete with hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α), the master regulator of EPO production, for binding with HIF-1β. The effect of kynurenine, an endogenous AhR activator that increases in inflammation, on EPO and hepcidin production was evaluated. HepG2 cells were treated with the hypoxia mimetic CoCl2, kynurenine, the AhR inhibitor CH223191, and combinations of these. EPO and hepcidin production was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HIF-2α and CYP1A1 levels, a transcriptional target of AhR, were assessed by Western blotting. CoCl2 increased EPO production and decreased hepcidin and CYP1A1. Kynurenine exerted the opposite effects. Wherever CH223191 was added, the inhibitor overcorrected kynurenine-induced alterations in both the presence and the absence of CoCl2. Also, treatment with CH223191 alone increased EPO and decreased hepcidin, indicating that there is a degree of constitutive AhR activation, possibly by other endogenous AhR activators. In conclusion, kynurenine, by competing with HIF-2α, may contribute to anemia of inflammation by decreasing EPO and increasing hepcidin production. The fact that inactivation of AhR alone induces EPO makes this transcription factor a potential therapeutic target in situations that require increased EPO. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitory transmission in locus coeruleus neurons expressing GABAA receptor epsilon subunit has a number of unique properties.

    PubMed

    Belujon, P; Baufreton, J; Grandoso, L; Boué-Grabot, E; Batten, T F C; Ugedo, L; Garret, M; Taupignon, A I

    2009-10-01

    Fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the brain relies on ionotropic GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R). Eighteen genes code for GABA(A)R subunits, but little is known about the epsilon subunit. Our aim was to identify the synaptic transmission properties displayed by native receptors incorporating epsilon. Immunogold localization detected epsilon at synaptic sites on locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. In situ hybridization revealed prominent signals from epsilon, and mRNAs, some low beta1 and beta3 signals, and no gamma signal. Using in vivo extracellular and in vitro patch-clamp recordings in LC, we established that neuron firing rates, GABA-activated currents, and mIPSC charge were insensitive to the benzodiazepine flunitrazepam (FLU), in agreement with the characteristics of recombinant receptors including an epsilon subunit. Surprisingly, LC provided binding sites for benzodiazepines, and GABA-induced currents were potentiated by diazepam (DZP) in the micromolar range. A number of GABA(A)R ligands significantly potentiated GABA-induced currents, and zinc ions were only active at concentrations above 1 muM, further indicating that receptors were not composed of only alpha and beta subunits, but included an epsilon subunit. In contrast to recombinant receptors including an epsilon subunit, GABA(A)R in LC showed no agonist-independent opening. Finally, we determined that mIPSCs, as well as ensemble currents induced by ultra-fast GABA application, exhibited surprisingly slow rise times. Our work thus defines the signature of native GABA(A)R with a subunit composition including epsilon: differential sensitivity to FLU and DZP and slow rise time of currents. We further propose that alpha(3,) beta(1/3,) and epsilon subunits compose GABA(A)R in LC.

  16. Protracted Developmental Trajectories of GABAA Receptor α1 and α2 Subunit Expression in Primate Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takanori; Nguyen, Quyen L.; Rotaru, Diana; Keenan, Tanya; Arion, Dominique; Beneyto, Monica; Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Lewis, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background In schizophrenia, working memory dysfunction is associated with altered expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor α1 and α2 subunits in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In rodents, cortical α subunit expression shifts from low α1 and high α2 to high α1 and low α2 during early postnatal development. Because these two α subunits confer different functional properties to the GABAA receptors containing them, we determined whether this shift in α1 and α2 subunit expression continues through adolescence in the primate DLPFC, potentially contributing to the maturation of working memory during this developmental period. Methods Levels of GABAA receptor α1 and α2 subunit mRNAs were determined in the DLPFC of monkeys aged 1 week, 4 weeks, 3 months, 15–17 months (prepubertal), and 43–47 months (postpubertal) and in adult monkeys using in situ hybridization, followed by the quantification of α1 subunit protein by western blotting. We also performed whole-cell patch clamp recording of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (mIPSPs) in DLPFC slices prepared from pre- and postpubertal monkeys. Results The mRNA and protein levels of α1 and α2 subunits progressively increased and decreased, respectively, throughout postnatal development including adolescence. Furthermore, as predicted by the different functional properties of α1-containing versus α2-containing GABAA receptors, the mIPSP duration was significantly shorter in postpubertal than in prepubertal animals. Conclusions In contrast to rodents, the developmental shift in GABAA receptor α subunit expression continues through adolescence in primate DLPFC, inducing a marked change in the kinetics of GABA neurotransmission. Disturbances in this shift might underlie impaired working memory in schizophrenia. PMID:19249749

  17. Mutations in Dalpha1 or Dbeta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits can confer resistance to neonicotinoids in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Perry, Trent; Heckel, David G; McKenzie, John A; Batterham, Philip

    2008-05-01

    Resistance to insecticides by modification of their molecular targets is a serious problem in chemical control of many arthropod pests. Neonicotinoids target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of arthropods. The spectrum of possible resistance-conferring mutations of this receptor is poorly understood. Prediction of resistance is complicated by the existence of multiple genes encoding the different subunits of this essential component of neurotransmission. We focused on the cluster of three Drosophila melanogaster nAChR subunit genes at cytological region 96A. EMS mutagenesis and selection for resistance to nitenpyram was performed on hybrids carrying a deficiency for this chromosomal region. Two complementation groups were defined for the four strains isolated. Molecular characterisation of the mutations found lesions in two nAChR subunit genes, Dalpha1 (encoding an alpha-type subunit) and Dbeta2 (beta-type). Mutations conferring resistance in beta-type receptors have not previously been reported, but we found several lesions in the Dbeta2 sequence, including locations distant from the predicted neonicotinoid-binding site. This study illustrates that mutations in a single-receptor subunit can confer nitenpyram resistance. Moreover, some of the mutations may protect the insect against nitenpyram by interfering with subunit assembly or channel activation, rather than affecting binding affinities of neonicotinoids to the channel.

  18. Acetylcholine receptor δ subunit mutations underlie a fast-channel myasthenic syndrome and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita

    PubMed Central

    Brownlow, Sharon; Webster, Richard; Croxen, Rebecca; Brydson, Martin; Neville, Brian; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Vincent, Angela; Newsom-Davis, John; Beeson, David

    2001-01-01

    Limitation of movement during fetal development may lead to multiple joint contractures in the neonate, termed arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Neuromuscular disorders are among the many different causes of reduced fetal movement. Many congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are due to mutations of the adult-specific ε subunit of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), and, thus, functional deficits do not arise until late in gestation. However, an earlier effect on the fetus might be predicted with some defects of other AChR subunits. We studied a child who presented at birth with joint contractures and was subsequently found to have a CMS. Mutational screening revealed heteroallelic mutation within the AChR δ subunit gene, δ756ins2 and δE59K. Expression studies demonstrate that δ756ins2 is a null mutation. By contrast, both fetal and adult AChR containing δE59K have shorter than normal channel activations that predict fast decay of endplate currents. Thus, δE59K causes dysfunction of fetal as well as the adult AChR and would explain the presence of joint contractures on the basis of reduced fetal movement. This is the first report of the association of AChR gene mutations with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. It is probable that mutations that severely disrupt function of fetal AChR will underlie additional cases. PMID:11435464

  19. Trace fear conditioning is enhanced in mice lacking the δ subunit of the GABAA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wiltgen, Brian J.; Sanders, Matthew J.; Ferguson, Carolyn; Homanics, Gregg E.; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    The δ subunit of the GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is highly expressed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Genetic deletion of this subunit reduces synaptic and extrasynaptic inhibition and decreases sensitivity to neurosteroids. This paper examines the effect of these changes on hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning. Compared to controls, δ knockout mice exhibited enhanced acquisition of tone and context fear. Hippocampus-independent delay conditioning was normal in these animals. These results suggest that reduced inhibition in the dentate gyrus facilitates the acquisition of trace fear conditioning. However, the enhancement in trace conditioning was only observed in female knockout mice. The sex-specificity of this effect may be a result of neuroactive steroids. These compounds vary during the estrus cycle, can increase GABAergic inhibition, and have been shown to impair hippocampus-dependent learning. We propose that activation of GABAARs by neuroactive steroids inhibits learning processes in the hippocampus. Knockouts are immune to this effect because of the reduced neurosteroid sensitivity that accompanies deletion of the δ subunit. Relationships between neurosteroids, hippocampal excitability, and memory are discussed. PMID:15897254

  20. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.

  1. SH2 domains of the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulate binding to growth factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    McGlade, C J; Ellis, C; Reedijk, M; Anderson, D; Mbamalu, G; Reith, A D; Panayotou, G; End, P; Bernstein, A; Kazlauskas, A

    1992-01-01

    The binding of cytoplasmic signaling proteins such as phospholipase C-gamma 1 and Ras GTPase-activating protein to autophosphorylated growth factor receptors is directed by their noncatalytic Src homology region 2 (SH2) domains. The p85 alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, which associates with several receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, also contains two SH2 domains. Both p85 alpha SH2 domains, when expressed individually as fusion proteins in bacteria, bound stably to the activated beta receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Complex formation required PDGF stimulation and was dependent on receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The bacterial p85 alpha SH2 domains recognized activated beta PDGF receptor which had been immobilized on a filter, indicating that SH2 domains contact autophosphorylated receptors directly. Several receptor tyrosine kinases within the PDGF receptor subfamily, including the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and the Steel factor receptor (Kit), also associate with PI 3-kinase in vivo. Bacterially expressed SH2 domains derived from the p85 alpha subunit of PI 3-kinase bound in vitro to the activated colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and to Kit. We infer that the SH2 domains of p85 alpha bind to high-affinity sites on these receptors, whose creation is dependent on receptor autophosphorylation. The SH2 domains of p85 are therefore primarily responsible for the binding of PI 3-kinase to activated growth factor receptors. Images PMID:1372092

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32-56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general.

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peckys, Diana B.; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32–56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general. PMID:24022088

  4. Differences in Gene Regulation by Dual Ligands of Nuclear Receptors Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) and Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) in HepG2 Cells Stably Expressing CAR/PXR.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Tanuma, Nobuaki; Yazawa, Saki; Zhao, Shuai; Inaba, Miki; Nakamura, Satoshi; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Inouye, Yoshio

    2016-08-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulate various genes involved in xenobiotics and drug metabolism. In many cases, CAR/PXR share ligands termed dual ligands of CAR/PXR. It is difficult to investigate the effect of CAR/PXR dual ligands in cell lines because CAR and PXR expression is scarcely detected in cultured cell lines. Here, we established a tetracycline-inducible human CAR and stably human PXR-overexpressing HepG2 cell line (HepTR/hCAR/hPXR) to examine CAR/PXR dual ligands. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, which are target genes of CAR/PXR, by dual ligands of CAR/PXR in two transfectants. Activation of CAR and PXR in cells treated with a high dose of CITCO [6-(4-chlorophenyl)-imidazo(2,1-b)thiazole-5-carbaldehyde] or cotreated with rifampicin and tetracycline resulted in synergistic enhancement of CYP3A4, but not CYP2B6, CYP2C9, or UGT1A1, mRNA expression in HepTR/hCAR/hPXR cells. In contrast, this synergistic effect was not observed in HepTR/hCAR cells. These observations were also demonstrated in human primary hepatocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that dual ligands of CAR/PXR show distinct gene regulation patterns by cross-talk between CAR and PXR. Furthermore, the two newly established cell lines are useful tools to investigate dual ligands of CAR/PXR.

  5. Mechanisms of anabolic androgenic steroid inhibition of mammalian ɛ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Brian L; Whiting, Paul J; Henderson, Leslie P

    2006-01-01

    GABAergic transmission regulates the activity of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area/hypothalamus that control the onset of puberty and the expression of reproductive behaviours. One of the hallmarks of illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is disruption of behaviours under neuroendocrine control. GnRH neurons are among a limited population of cells that express high levels of the ɛ-subunit of the GABAA receptor. To better understand the actions of AAS on neuroendocrine mechanisms, we have characterized modulation of GABAA receptor-mediated currents in mouse native GnRH neurons and in heterologous cells expressing recombinant α2β3ɛ-receptors. GnRH neurons exhibited robust currents in response to millimolar concentrations of GABA and a picrotoxin (PTX)-sensitive, bicuculline-insensitive current that probably arises from spontaneous openings of GABAA receptors. The AAS 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-MeT) inhibited spontaneous and GABA-evoked currents in GnRH neurons. For recombinant α2β3ɛ-receptors, 17α-MeT inhibited phasic and tonic GABA-elicited responses, accelerated desensitization and slowed paired pulse response recovery. Single channel analysis indicated that GABA-evoked events could be described by three open dwell components and that 17α-MeT enhanced residence in the intermediate dwell state. This AAS also inhibited a PTX-sensitive, spontaneous current (open probability, ∼0.15–0.2) in a concentration-dependent fashion (IC50 ≈ 9 μm). Kinetic modelling indicated that the inhibition induced by 17α-MeT occurs by an allosteric block in which the AAS interacts preferentially with a closed state and promotes accumulation in that state. Finally, studies with a G302S mutant ɛ-subunit suggest that this residue within the transmembrane domain TM2 plays a role in mediating AAS binding and modulation. In sum, our results indicate that inclusion of the ɛ-subunit significantly alters the profile of AAS

  6. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α6 subunits contribute to alcohol reward-related behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Powers, M. S.; Broderick, H. J.; Drenan, R. M.; Chester, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system are involved in mediating the reinforcing effects of alcohol. Midbrain DA neurons express high levels of α6 subunit-containing nAChRs that modulate DA transmission, implicating their involvement in reward-related behaviours. This study assessed the role of α6-containing nAChRs in modulating alcohol reward using transgenic mice expressing mutant, hyper-sensitive α6 nAChR subunits (α6L9′ S mice). α6L9′ S mice and littermate controls were tested in three well-established models of alcohol reward: 24-h two-bottle choice drinking, drinking in the dark (DID), and conditioned place preference (CPP). Confocal microscopy and patch-clamp electrophysiology were used to show the localization and function of hypersensitive α6 subunit-containing nAChRs. Results indicate that female α6L9′ S mice showed significantly higher alcohol intake at low concentrations of alcohol (3% and 6%) in the two-bottle choice procedure. Both male and female α6L9′ S mice drank significantly more in the DID procedure and displayed an alcohol-induced place preference using a low dose of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) that was ineffective in littermate controls. Confocal microscopy showed that α6 subunit-containing nAChRs are selectively expressed on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DAergic, but not GABAergic neurons. Patch-clamp electrophysiology showed that VTA DA neurons of α6L9′ S mice are hypersensitive to ACh. Collectively, these results suggest that α6L9′ S mice are more sensitive to the rewarding effects of alcohol, and suggest that VTA α6 subunit-containing nAChRs modulate alcohol reward. Thus, α6 subunit-containing nAChRs may be a promising therapeutic target for treatment of alcohol use disorders. PMID:23594044

  7. Nicotinic alpha5 subunit deletion locally reduces high-affinity agonist activation without altering nicotinic receptor numbers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert W B; Collins, Allan C; Lindstrom, Jon M; Whiteaker, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha5 mRNA is widely expressed in the CNS. An alpha5 gene polymorphism has been implicated in behavioral differences between mouse strains, and alpha5-null mutation induces profound changes in mouse acute responses to nicotine. In this study, we have examined the distribution and prevalence of alpha5* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mouse brain, and quantified the effects of alpha5-null mutation on pre-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function (measured using synaptosomal (86)Rb(+) efflux) and overall [(125)I]epibatidine binding site expression. alpha5* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression was found in nine of fifteen regions examined, although < 20% of the total nicotinic acetylcholine receptor population in any region contained alpha5. Deletion of the alpha5 subunit gene resulted in localized loss of function (thalamus, striatum), which was itself confined to the DHbetaE-sensitive receptor population. No changes in receptor expression were seen. Consequently, functional changes must occur as a result of altered function per unit of receptor. The selective depletion of high agonist activation affinity sites results in overall nicotinic function being reduced, and increases the overall agonist activation affinity. Together, these results describe the receptor-level changes underlying altered behavioral responses to nicotine in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha5 subunit-null mutants.

  8. Neural regulation of muscle acetylcholine receptor epsilon- and alpha- subunit gene promoters in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The effects of denervation were investigated in mice with transgenes containing promoter elements from the muscle acetylcholine receptor epsilon- and alpha-subunit genes. The promoter sequences were coupled to a nuclear localization signal-beta-galactosidase fusion gene (nlacZ) as a reporter. While many postsynaptic specializations form in the embryo, expression of the epsilon subunit is induced during the first two postnatal weeks. When muscles were denervated at birth, before the onset of epsilon expression, epsilon nlacZ still appeared at the former synaptic sites on schedule. This result suggests that the nerve leaves a localized "trace" in the muscle that can continue to regulate transcription. An additional finding was that epsilon nlacZ expression was much stronger in denervated than in intact muscles. This suggests that the epsilon promoter is similar to the other subunits in containing elements that are activated on cessation of neural activity. However, even after denervation, epsilon nlacZ expression was always confined to the synaptic region whereas alpha nlacZ expression increased in nuclei along the entire length of the fiber. This suggests that while the epsilon gene is similar in its activity dependence to other subunit genes, it is unique in that local nerve-derived signals are essential for its expression. Consequently, inactivity enhances epsilon expression only in synaptic nuclei where such signals are present, but enhances expression throughout the muscle fiber. Truncations and an internal deletion of the epsilon promoter indicate that cis-elements essential for the response to synaptic signals are contained within 280 bp of the transcription start site. In contrast to these results in young animals, denervation in older animals leads to an unexpected reduction in nlacZ activity. However, mRNA measurements indicated that transgene expression was increased in these animals. This discordance between nlacZ mRNA and enzyme activity, demonstrates a

  9. Stoichiometry of expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors depends on the ratio of subunit cDNA transfected.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Kelly R; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2010-05-07

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)R) is the target of many depressants, including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and alcohol. Although the highly prevalent alphabetagamma GABA(A)R subtype mediates the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain, receptors containing delta subunits also play a key role, mediating tonic inhibition and the actions of endogenous neurosteroids and alcohol. However, the fundamental properties of delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, such as subunit stoichiometry, are not well established. To determine subunit stoichiometry of expressed delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, we inserted the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site tag in the alpha(4), beta(2), and delta subunit N termini. An enhanced green fluorescent protein tag was also inserted into the beta(2) subunit to shift its molecular weight, allowing us to separate subunits using SDS-PAGE. Tagged alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs were expressed in HEK293T cells using various ratios of subunit cDNA, and receptor subunit stoichiometry was determined by quantitating fluorescent alpha-bungarotoxin bound to each subunit on Western blots of surface immunopurified tagged GABA(A)Rs. The results demonstrate that the subunit stoichiometry of alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs is regulated by the ratio of subunit cDNAs transfected. Increasing the ratio of delta subunit cDNA transfected increased delta subunit incorporation into surface receptors with a concomitant decrease in beta(2) subunit incorporation. Because receptor subunit stoichiometry can directly influence GABA(A)R pharmacological and functional properties, considering how the transfection protocols used affect subunit stoichiometry is essential when studying heterologously expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs. Successful bungarotoxin binding site tagging of GABA(A)R subunits is a novel tool with which to accurately quantitate subunit stoichiometry and will be useful for monitoring GABA(A)R trafficking in live cells.

  10. G2 quivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang-Hui

    2003-02-01

    We present, in explicit matrix representation and a modernity befitting the community, the classification of the finite discrete subgroups of G2 and compute the McKay quivers arising therefrom. Of physical interest are the classes of N = 1 gauge theories descending from M-theory and of mathematical interest are possible steps toward a systematic study of crepant resolutions to smooth G2 manifolds as well as generalised McKay Correspondences. This writing is a companion monograph to hep-th/9811183 and hep-th/9905212, wherein the analogues for Calabi-Yau three- and four-folds were considered.

  11. Multiple Thyrotropin β-Subunit and Thyrotropin Receptor-Related Genes Arose during Vertebrate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maugars, Gersende; Dufour, Sylvie; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle; Quérat, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is composed of a specific β subunit and an α subunit that is shared with the two pituitary gonadotropins. The three β subunits derive from a common ancestral gene through two genome duplications (1R and 2R) that took place before the radiation of vertebrates. Analysis of genomic data from phylogenetically relevant species allowed us to identify an additional Tshβ subunit-related gene that was generated through 2R. This gene, named Tshβ2, present in cartilaginous fish, little skate and elephant shark, and in early lobe-finned fish, coelacanth and lungfish, was lost in ray-finned fish and tetrapods. The absence of a second type of TSH receptor (Tshr) gene in these species suggests that both TSHs act through the same receptor. A novel Tshβ sister gene, named Tshβ3, was generated through the third genomic duplication (3R) that occurred early in the teleost lineage. Tshβ3 is present in most teleost groups but was lostin tedraodontiforms. The 3R also generated a second Tshr, named Tshrb. Interestingly, the new Tshrb was translocated from its original chromosomic position after the emergence of eels and was then maintained in its new position. Tshrb was lost in tetraodontiforms and in ostariophysians including zebrafish although the latter species have two TSHs, suggesting that TSHRb may be dispensable. The tissue distribution of duplicated Tshβs and Tshrs was studied in the European eel. The endocrine thyrotropic function in the eel would be essentially mediated by the classical Tshβ and Tshra, which are mainly expressed in the pituitary and thyroid, respectively. Tshβ3 and Tshrb showed a similar distribution pattern in the brain, pituitary, ovary and adipose tissue, suggesting a possible paracrine/autocrine mode of action in these non-thyroidal tissues. Further studies will be needed to determine the binding specificity of the two receptors and how these two TSH systems are interrelated. PMID:25386660

  12. NR2B subunit of the NMDA glutamate receptor regulates appetite in the parabrachial nucleus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Zheng, Ruimao; Srisai, Dollada; McKnight, G Stanley; Palmiter, Richard D

    2013-09-03

    Diphtheria toxin-mediated, acute ablation of hypothalamic neurons expressing agouti-related protein (AgRP) in adult mice leads to anorexia and starvation within 7 d that is caused by hyperactivity of neurons within the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Because NMDA glutamate receptors are involved in various synaptic plasticity-based behavioral modifications, we hypothesized that modulation of the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor in PBN neurons could contribute to the anorexia phenotype. We observed by Western blot analyses that ablation of AgRP neurons results in enhanced expression of NR2B along with a modest suppression of NR2A. Interestingly, systemic administration of LiCl in a critical time window before AgRP neuron ablation abolished the anorectic response. LiCl treatment suppressed NR2B levels in the PBN and ameliorated the local Fos induction that is associated with anorexia. This protective role of LiCl on feeding was blunted in vagotomized mice. Chronic infusion of RO25-6981, a selective NR2B inhibitor, into the PBN recapitulated the role of LiCl in maintaining feeding after AgRP neuron ablation. We suggest that the accumulation of NR2B subunits in the PBN contributes to aphagia in response to AgRP neuron ablation and may be involved in other forms of anorexia.

  13. Subunit-dependent postsynaptic expression of kainate receptors on hippocampal interneurons in area CA1.

    PubMed

    Wondolowski, Joyce; Frerking, Matthew

    2009-01-14

    Kainate receptors (KARs) contribute to postsynaptic excitation in only a select subset of neurons. To define the parameters that specify the postsynaptic expression of KARs, we examined the contribution of KARs to EPSCs on hippocampal interneurons in area CA1. Interneurons in stratum radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare express KARs both with and without the GluR5 subunit, but KAR-mediated EPSCs are generated mainly, if not entirely, by GluR5-containing KARs. Extrasynaptic glutamate spillover profoundly recruits AMPA receptors (AMPARs) with little effect on KARs, indicating that KARs are targeted at the synapse more precisely than AMPARs. However, spontaneous EPSCs with a conventional AMPAR component did not have a resolvable contribution of KARs, suggesting that the KARs that contribute to the evoked EPSCs are at a distinct set of synapses. GluR5-containing KARs on interneurons in stratum oriens do not contribute substantially to the EPSC. We conclude that KARs are localized to synapses by cell type-, synapse-, and subunit-selective mechanisms.

  14. Exercise-induced plasticity of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Real, Caroline C; Ferreira, Ana F B; Hernandes, Marina S; Britto, Luiz R G; Pires, Raquel S

    2010-12-02

    The aim of this study was to analyze the plastic effects of moderate exercise upon the motor cortex (M1 and M2 areas), cerebellum (Cb), and striatum (CPu) of the rat brain. This assessment was made by verifying the expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1 and GluR2/3). We used adult Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups based on duration of exercise training, namely 3 days (EX3), 7 days (EX7), 15 days (EX15), 30 days (EX30), and sedentary (S). The exercised animals were subjected to a treadmill exercise protocol at the speed of the 10 meters/min for 40 min. After exercise, the brains were subjected to immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting to analyze changes of GluR1 and GluR2/3, and plasma corticosterone was measured by ELISA in order to verify potential stress induced by physical training. Overall, the results of immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were similar and revealed that GluR subunits show distinct responses over the exercise periods and for the different structures analyzed. In general, there was increased expression of GluR subunits after longer exercise periods (such as EX30), although some opposite effects were seen after short periods of exercise (EX3). In a few cases, biphasic patterns with decreases and subsequent increases of GluR expression were seen and may represent the outcome of exercise-dependent, complex regulatory processes. The data show that the protocol used was able to promote plastic GluR changes during exercise, suggesting a specific involvement of these receptors in exercise-induced plasticity processes in the brain areas tested. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The atypical M2 segment of the beta subunit confers picrotoxinin resistance to inhibitory glycine receptor channels.

    PubMed Central

    Pribilla, I; Takagi, T; Langosch, D; Bormann, J; Betz, H

    1992-01-01

    Purified preparations of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) contain alpha and beta subunits, which share homologous primary structures and a common transmembrane topology with other members of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. Here, a beta subunit-specific antiserum was shown to precipitate the [3H]strychnine binding sites localized on alpha subunits from membrane extracts of both rat spinal cord and mammalian cells co-transfected with alpha and beta cDNAs. Further, inhibition of alpha homo-oligomeric GlyRs by picrotoxinin, a non-competitive blocker of ion flow, was reduced 50- to 200-fold for alpha/beta hetero-oligomeric receptors generated by cotransfection. Site-directed mutagenesis identified residues within the second predicted transmembrane segment (M2) of the beta subunit as major determinants of picrotoxinin resistance. These data implicate the M2 segment in blocker binding to and lining of the GlyR chloride channel. PMID:1385113

  16. Involvement of neuronal β2 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nicotine reward and withdrawal: Implications for pharmacotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Steven J.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY What is known and objective Tobacco smoking remains a major health problem. Nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which can cause addiction and withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of nicotine administration. Pharmacotherapies for nicotine addiction target brain alterations that underlie withdrawal symptoms. This review will delineate the involvement of the β2 subunit of neuronal nAChRs in nicotine reward and in generating withdrawal symptoms to better understand the efficacy of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Comment Chronic nicotine desensitizes and upregulates β2 subunit-containing nAChRs, and the prolonged upregulation of receptors may underlie symptoms of withdrawal. Experimental research has demonstrated that the β2 subunit of neuronal nAChRs is necessary for generating nicotine reward and withdrawal symptoms. What is new and conclusion Smoking cessation pharmacotherapies act on β2 subunit-containing nAChRs to reduce nicotine reward and withdrawal symptom severity. PMID:24828779

  17. Valerenic acid derivatives as novel subunit-selective GABAA receptor ligands –in vitro and in vivo characterization

    PubMed Central

    Khom, S; Strommer, B; Ramharter, J; Schwarz, T; Schwarzer, C; Erker, T; Ecker, GF; Mulzer, J; Hering, S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Subunit-specific modulators of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABAA) receptors can help to assess the physiological function of receptors with different subunit composition and also provide the basis for the development of new drugs. Valerenic acid (VA) was recently identified as a β2/3 subunit-specific modulator of GABAA receptors with anxiolytic potential. The aim of the present study was to generate VA derivatives as novel GABAA receptor modulators and to gain insight into the structure–activity relation of this molecule. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The carboxyl group of VA was substituted by an uncharged amide or amides with different chain length. Modulation of GABAA receptors composed of different subunit compositions by the VA derivatives was studied in Xenopus oocytes by means of the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Half-maximal stimulation of GABA-induced chloride currents (IGABA) through GABAA receptors (EC50) and efficacies (maximal stimulation of IGABA) were estimated. Anxiolytic activity of the VA derivatives was studied in mice, applying the elevated plus maze test. KEY RESULTS Valerenic acid amide (VA-A) displayed the highest efficacy (more than twofold greater IGABA enhancement than VA) and highest potency (EC50= 13.7 ± 2.3 µM) on α1β3 receptors. Higher efficacy and potency of VA-A were also observed on α1β2γ2s and α3β3γ2s receptors. Anxiolytic effects were most pronounced for VA-A. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Valerenic acid derivatives with higher efficacy and affinity can be generated. Greater in vitro action of the amide derivative correlated with a more pronounced anxiolytic effect in vivo. The data give further confidence in targeting β3 subunit containing GABAA receptors for development of anxiolytics. PMID:20718740

  18. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; Simmons, David K; Mayer, Mark L

    2015-11-03

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysis reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. We hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species.

  19. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes

    DOE PAGES

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; ...

    2015-10-12

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysismore » reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. In this paper, we hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and finally suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species.« less

  20. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; Simmons, David K.; Mayer, Mark L.

    2015-10-12

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysis reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. In this paper, we hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and finally suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species.

  1. Regulation of the Nicotinic Receptor Alpha7 Subunit by Chronic Stress and Corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Richard G.; Bloss, Erik B.; McCarthy, Katharine J.; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    The α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (NAchRα7) is one of the principal brain receptors for nicotine and is thought to be a mediator of nicotine’s pro-cognitive effects. While nicotine is known to interact with the stress axis, little is known about the effect of stress or corticosteroids on the expression in the hippocampus, a brain region important to both cognition and stress reactivity. We examined the effects of chronic (21 day) restraint stress (CRS) and adrenalectomy with hormone replacement with the selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) agonist aldosterone, the selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist RU28,362 or corticosterone for 7 days, on the hippocampal expression of NAchRα7 mRNA and protein, as measured by 125I α-Bungarotoxin autoradiography. We found that CRS increase the levels of NAchRα7 mRNA in the CA1, CA3 and Dentate gyrus while levels of the protein were lowered by the same treatment. Corticosteroid replacement showed a GR specific increase in NAchRα7 mRNA, consistent with a corticosteroid mediated effect of CRS. While the mechanism behind these observations is as yet unclear, they may be neuroprotective against the damaging effects of CRS or an example of adaptation to the allostatic load produced by CRS. PMID:20153739

  2. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; Simmons, David K.; Mayer, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysis reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. We hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species. PMID:26460032

  3. Early chronic blockade of NR2B subunits and transient activation of NMDA receptors modulate LTP in mouse auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuting; Zang, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jiping; Sun, Xinde

    2006-02-16

    In the auditory cortex, the properties of NMDA receptors depend primarily on the ratio of NR2A and NR2B subunits. NR2B subunit expression is high at the beginning of critical period and lower in adulthood. Because NMDA receptors are crucial in triggering long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression, developmental or experience-dependent modification of NMDAR subunit composition is likely to influence synaptic plasticity. To examine how NMDA subunit change during postnatal development affect the adult synaptic plasticity, we employed chronic ifenprodil blockade of NR2B subunits and analyzed evoked field potentials in adult C57BL/6 mice auditory cortex (AC). We found that chronic loss of NR2B activity led to a decline in LTP magnitude in the AC of adult mice. Adding NMDA to the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) in blocked mice had the opposite effect, producing LTP magnitudes at or exceeding those found in treated or untreated animals. These results suggest that, even in adulthood when NR2B expression is downregulated, these receptor subunits play an important role in experience-dependent plasticity of mouse auditory cortex. Blockade from P60 did not result in any decrease of LTP amplitude, suggesting that chronic block in postnatal period may permanently affect cortical circuits so that they cannot produce significant LTP in adulthood.

  4. Giα and Gβ subunits both define selectivity of G protein activation by α2-adrenergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Scott K.; Gilman, Alfred G.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of the specificity of receptor interactions with G protein subunits in living cells have relied on measurements of second messengers or other downstream responses. We have examined the selectivity of interactions between α2-adrenergic receptors (α2R) and various combinations of Giα and Gβ subunit isoforms by measuring changes in FRET between Giα–yellow fluorescent protein and cyan fluorescent protein–Gβ chimeras in HeLa cells. All combinations of Giα1, -2, or -3 with Gβ1, -2, or -4 were activated to some degree by endogenous α2Rs as judged by agonist-dependent decreases in FRET. The degree of G protein activation is determined by the combination of Giα and Gβ subunits rather than by the identity of an individual subunit. RT-PCR analysis and small interfering RNA knockdown of α2R subtypes, followed by quantification of radiolabeled antagonist binding, demonstrated that HeLa cells express α2a- and α2b-adrenergic receptor isoforms in a 2:1 ratio. Increasing receptor number by overexpression of the α2aR subtype minimized the differences among coupling preferences for Giα and Gβ isoforms. The molecular properties of each Giα, Gβ, and α2-adrenergic receptor subtype influence signaling efficiency for the α2-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:16371464

  5. Antiseizure Activity of Midazolam in Mice Lacking δ-Subunit Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sandesh D.; Younus, Iyan; Clossen, Bryan L.

    2015-01-01

    Midazolam is a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant with rapid onset and short duration of action. Midazolam is the current drug of choice for acute seizures and status epilepticus, including those caused by organophosphate nerve agents. The antiseizure activity of midazolam is thought to result from its allosteric potentiation of synaptic GABAA receptors in the brain. However, there are indications that benzodiazepines promote neurosteroid synthesis via the 18-kDa cholesterol transporter protein (TSPO). Therefore, we investigated the role of neurosteroids and their extrasynaptic GABAA receptor targets in the antiseizure activity of midazolam. Here, we used δ-subunit knockout (DKO) mice bearing a targeted deletion of the extrasynaptic receptors to investigate the contribution of the extrasynaptic receptors to the antiseizure activity of midazolam using the 6-Hz and hippocampus kindling seizure models. In both models, midazolam produced rapid and dose-dependent protection against seizures (ED50, 0.4 mg/kg). Moreover, the antiseizure potency of midazolam was undiminished in DKO mice compared with control mice. Pretreatment with PK11195 [1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide], a TSPO blocker, or finasteride, a 5α-reductase neurosteroid inhibitor, did not affect the antiseizure effect of midazolam. The antiseizure activity of midazolam was significantly reversed by pretreatment with flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist. Plasma and brain levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone were not significantly greater in midazolam-treated animals. These studies therefore provide strong evidence that neurosteroids and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors are not involved in the antiseizure activity of midazolam, which mainly occurs through synaptic GABAA receptors via direct binding to benzodiazepine sites. This study reaffirms midazolam’s use for controlling acute seizures and status epilepticus. PMID:25784648

  6. GABAA Receptor α Subunits Differentially Contribute to Diazepam Tolerance after Chronic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vinkers, Christiaan H.; van Oorschot, Ruud; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø.; Cook, James M.; Hansen, Henrik H.; Groenink, Lucianne; Olivier, Berend; Mirza, Naheed R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Within the GABAA-receptor field, two important questions are what molecular mechanisms underlie benzodiazepine tolerance, and whether tolerance can be ascribed to certain GABAA-receptor subtypes. Methods We investigated tolerance to acute anxiolytic, hypothermic and sedative effects of diazepam in mice exposed for 28-days to non-selective/selective GABAA-receptor positive allosteric modulators: diazepam (non-selective), bretazenil (partial non-selective), zolpidem (α1 selective) and TPA023 (α2/3 selective). In-vivo binding studies with [3H]flumazenil confirmed compounds occupied CNS GABAA receptors. Results Chronic diazepam treatment resulted in tolerance to diazepam's acute anxiolytic, hypothermic and sedative effects. In mice treated chronically with bretazenil, tolerance to diazepam's anxiolytic and hypothermic, but not sedative, effects was seen. Chronic zolpidem treatment resulted in tolerance to diazepam's hypothermic effect, but partial anxiolytic tolerance and no sedative tolerance. Chronic TPA023 treatment did not result in tolerance to diazepam's hypothermic, anxiolytic or sedative effects. Conclusions Our data indicate that: (i) GABAA-α2/α3 subtype selective drugs might not induce tolerance; (ii) in rodents quantitative and temporal variations in tolerance development occur dependent on the endpoint assessed, consistent with clinical experience with benzodiazepines (e.g., differential tolerance to antiepileptic and anxiolytic actions); (iii) tolerance to diazepam's sedative actions needs concomitant activation of GABAA-α1/GABAA-α5 receptors. Regarding mechanism, in-situ hybridization studies indicated no gross changes in expression levels of GABAA α1, α2 or α5 subunit mRNA in hippocampus or cortex. Since selective chronic activation of either GABAA α2, or α3 receptors does not engender tolerance development, subtype-selective GABAA drugs might constitute a promising class of novel drugs. PMID:22912786

  7. Do specific NMDA receptor subunits act as gateways for addictive behaviors?

    PubMed

    Hopf, F W

    2017-01-01

    Addiction to alcohol and drugs is a major social and economic problem, and there is considerable interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms that promote addictive drives. A number of proteins have been identified that contribute to expression of addictive behaviors. NMDA receptors (NMDARs), a subclass of ionotropic glutamate receptors, have been of particular interest because their physiological properties make them an attractive candidate for gating induction of synaptic plasticity, a molecular change thought to mediate learning and memory. NMDARs are generally inactive at the hyperpolarized resting potentials of many neurons. However, given sufficient depolarization, NMDARs are activated and exhibit long-lasting currents with significant calcium permeability. Also, in addition to stimulating neurons by direct depolarization, NMDARs and their calcium signaling can allow strong and/or synchronized inputs to produce long-term changes in other molecules (such as AMPA-type glutamate receptors) which can last from days to years, binding internal and external stimuli in a long-term memory trace. Such memories could allow salient drug-related stimuli to exert strong control over future behaviors and thus promote addictive drives. Finally, NMDARs may themselves undergo plasticity, which can alter subsequent neuronal stimulation and/or the ability to induce plasticity. This review will address recent and past findings suggesting that NMDAR activity promotes drug- and alcohol-related behaviors, with a particular focus on GluN2B subunits as possible central regulators of many addictive behaviors, as well as newer studies examining the importance of non-canonical NMDAR subunits and endogenous NMDAR cofactors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. A novel glycine receptor alpha Z1 subunit variant in the zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Devignot, V; Prado de Carvalho, L; Bregestovski, P; Goblet, C

    2003-01-01

    Alpha subunits of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) display genetic heterogeneity in mammals and zebrafish. This diversity is increased in mammals by the alternative splicing mechanism. We report here in zebrafish, the characterization of a new alphaZ1 subunit likely arising from alphaZ1 gene by an alternative splice process (alphaZ1L). This novel cDNA possesses 45 supplementary nucleotides at the putative exon2/exon3 boundary. The corresponding protein contains 15 additional amino acids in the NH2-terminal domain. Heterologous expression of homomeric GlyRalphaZ1L in human embryonic kidney-293 cells generates glycine-gated strychnine-sensitive chloride channels with no obvious discrepancy with pharmacological properties of GlyRalphaZ1. Moreover, zinc modulation of glycine-induced currents is identical in alphaZ1 and alphaZ1L glycine receptors. During ontogenesis, simultaneous alphaZ1 and alphaZ1L mRNA synthesis have been observed. Embryonic and adult alphaZ1 and alphaZ1L mRNA expressions are restricted to the CNS. Embryonic alphaZ1L mRNA anatomical pattern of expression is, however, highly restrained and strictly limited to the rostral part of the brain revealing a highly regionalized function of alphaZ1L in the CNS. This report contributes to the characterization of the diversity of glycine receptor isoforms in zebrafish and emphasizes the common mechanism used among vertebrates for creating GlyR variety and specificity.

  9. The murine DUB-1 gene is specifically induced by the betac subunit of interleukin-3 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y; Pless, M; Inhorn, R; Mathey-Prevot, B; D'Andrea, A D

    1996-01-01

    Cytokines regulate cell growth and differentiation by inducing the expression of specific target genes. We have recently isolated a cytokine-inducible, immediate-early cDNA, DUB-1, that encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme. The DUB-1 mRNA was specifically induced by the receptors for interleukin-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-5, suggesting a role for the beta common (betac subunit known to be shared by these receptors. In order to identify the mechanism of cytokine induction, we isolated a murine genomic clone for DUB-1 containing a functional promoter region. The DUB-1 gene contains two exons, and the nucleotide sequence of its coding region is identical to the sequence of DUB-1 cDNA. Various regions of the 5' flanking region of the DUB-1 gene were assayed for cytokine-inducible activity. An enhancer region that retains the beta c-specific inducible activity of the DUB-1 gene was identified. Enhancer activity was localized to a 112-bp fragment located 1.4 kb upstream from the ATG start codon. Gel mobility shift assays revealed two specific protein complexes that bound to this minimal enhancer region. One complex was induced by betac signaling, while the other was noninducible. Finally, the membrane-proximal region of human betac was required for DUB-1 induction. In conclusion, DUB-1 is the first example of an immediate-early gene that is induced by a specific subunit of a cytokine receptor. Further analysis of the DUB-1 enhancer element may reveal specific determinants of a betac-specific signaling pathway. PMID:8756639

  10. Kainate receptor pore‐forming and auxiliary subunits regulate channel block by a novel mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Aurousseau, Mark R. P.; Musgaard, Maria; Biggin, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Kainate receptor heteromerization and auxiliary subunits, Neto1 and Neto2, attenuate polyamine ion‐channel block by facilitating blocker permeation.Relief of polyamine block in GluK2/GluK5 heteromers results from a key proline residue that produces architectural changes in the channel pore α‐helical region.Auxiliary subunits exert an additive effect to heteromerization, and thus relief of polyamine block is due to a different mechanism.Our findings have broad implications for work on polyamine block of other cation‐selective ion channels. Abstract Channel block and permeation by cytoplasmic polyamines is a common feature of many cation‐selective ion channels. Although the channel block mechanism has been studied extensively, polyamine permeation has been considered less significant as it occurs at extreme positive membrane potentials. Here, we show that kainate receptor (KAR) heteromerization and association with auxiliary proteins, Neto1 and Neto2, attenuate polyamine block by enhancing blocker permeation. Consequently, polyamine permeation and unblock occur at more negative and physiologically relevant membrane potentials. In GluK2/GluK5 heteromers, enhanced permeation is due to a single proline residue in GluK5 that alters the dynamics of the α‐helical region of the selectivity filter. The effect of auxiliary proteins is additive, and therefore the structural basis of polyamine permeation and unblock is through a different mechanism. As native receptors are thought to assemble as heteromers in complex with auxiliary proteins, our data identify an unappreciated impact of polyamine permeation in shaping the signalling properties of neuronal KARs and point to a structural mechanism that may be shared amongst other cation‐selective ion channels. PMID:26682513

  11. Immunohistochemical Localization of AMPA Type Glutamate Receptor Subunits in the Striatum of Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yun-Ping; Shelby, Evan; Reiner, Anton J.

    2010-01-01

    Corticostriatal and thalamostriatal projections utilize glutamate as their neurotransmitter. Their influence on striatum is mediated, in part, by ionotropic AMPA-type glutamate receptors, which are heteromers composed of GluR1-4 subunits. While the cellular localization of AMPA-type subunits in the basal ganglia has been well characterized in rodents, the cellular localization of AMPA subunits in primate basal ganglia is not. We thus carried out immunohistochemical studies of GluR1-4 distribution in rhesus monkey basal ganglia in conjunction with characterization of each major neuron type. In striatum, about 65% of striatal neurons immunolabeled for GluR1, 75%-79% immunolabeled for GluR2 or GluR2/3, and only 2.5% possessed GluR4. All neurons the large size of cholinergic interneurons (mean diameter 26.1μm) were moderately labeled for GluR1, while all neurons in the size range of parvalbuminergic interneurons (mean diameter 13.8μm) were intensely rich in GluR1. Additionally, somewhat more than half of neurons in the size range of projection neurons (mean diameter 11.6μm) immunolabeled for GluR1, and about one third of these were very rich in GluR1. About half of neurons the size of cholinergic interneurons were immunolabeled for GluR2, and the remainder of the neurons that were immunolabeled for GluR2 coincided with projection neurons in size and shape (GluR2 diameter=10.7μm), indicating that the vast majority of striatal projection neurons possess immunodectible GluR2. Similar results were observed with GluR2/3 immunolabeling. Half of the neurons the size of cholinergic interneurons immunolabeled for GluR4 and seemingly all neurons in the size range of parvalbuminergic interneurons possessed GluR4. These results indicate that AMPA receptor subunit combinations for striatal projection neurons in rhesus monkey are similar to those for the corresponding neuron types in rodents, and thus their AMPA responses to glutamate likely to be similar to those demonstrated

  12. Ultrastructural localization of the alpha4-subunit of the neuronal acetylcholine nicotinic receptor in the rat substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Jim nez, M M; Bourgeois, J P; Marubio, L M; Le Sourd, A M; Ottersen, O P; Rinvik, E; Fairén, A; Changeux, J P

    1999-08-01

    The distribution of the alpha4-subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the rat brain was examined at light and electron microscopy levels using immunohistochemical staining. In the present study we demonstrate the specificity, in both tissue homogenates and brain sections, of a polyclonal antibody raised against the rat nAChR alpha4-subunit. The characterization of this antibody involved: (1) Western blot analysis of rat brain homogenates and membrane extracts from cells previously transfected with diverse combinations of neuronal nAChR subunits, and (2) immunohistochemistry using transfected cells and rat brain tissue. At the light microscope level, the alpha4-subunit-like-immunoreactivity (LI) was widely distributed in the rat brain and matched the distribution of the alpha4-subunit transcripts observed previously by in situ hybridization. Strong immunohistochemical labeling was detected in the mesencephalic dopaminergic nuclei. The nAChRs in this region are thought to be responsible for the modulation of dopaminergic transmission. The neurotransmitter identity of alpha4-immunolabeled neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the ventral tegmental area was thus assessed by investigating the possible colocalization of the nAChR alpha4-subunit with tyrosine hydroxylase using confocal microscopy. The double labeling experiments unambiguously indicated that the alpha4-subunit-LI is present in dopaminergic neurons. At the electron microscope level, the neurons in the SNpc exhibited alpha4-subunit-LI in association with a minority of postsynaptic densities, suggesting that the alpha4-subunit may be a component of functional nAChRs mediating synaptic transmission between midbrain cholinergic neurons and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

  13. Subunit-selective role of the M3 transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in channel gating.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, María José; Corradi, Jeremías; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2008-02-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) can be either hetero-pentameric, composed of alpha and non-alpha subunits, or homo-pentameric, composed of alpha7 subunits. To explore the subunit-selective contributions of transmembrane domains to channel gating we analyzed single-channel activity of chimeric muscle AChRs. We exchanged M3 between alpha1 and epsilon or alpha7 subunits. The replacement of M3 in alpha1 by epsilonM3 significantly alters activation properties. Channel activity appears as bursts of openings whose durations are 20-fold longer than those of wild-type AChRs. In contrast, 7-fold briefer openings are observed in AChRs containing the reverse epsilon chimeric subunit. The duration of the open state decreases with the increase in the number of alpha1M3 segments, indicating additive contributions of M3 of all subunits to channel closing. Each alpha1M3 segment decreases the energy barrier of the closing process by approximately 0.8 kcal/mol. Partial chimeric subunits show that small stretches of the M3 segment contribute additively to the open duration. The replacement of alpha1 sequence by alpha7 in M3 leads to 3-fold briefer openings whereas in M1 it leads to 10-fold prolonged openings, revealing that the subunit-selective role is unique to each transmembrane segment.

  14. Artemin growth factor increases nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunit expression and activity in nociceptive sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Artemin (Artn), a member of the glial cell line-derived growth factor (GDNF) family, supports the development and function of a subpopulation of peptidergic, TRPV1-positive sensory neurons. Artn (enovin, neublastin) is elevated in inflamed tissue and its injection in skin causes transient thermal hyperalgesia. A genome wide expression analysis of trigeminal ganglia of mice that overexpress Artn in the skin (ART-OE mice) showed elevation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, suggesting these ion channels contribute to Artn-induced sensitivity. Here we have used gene expression, immunolabeling, patch clamp electrophysiology and behavioral testing assays to investigate the link between Artn, nicotinic subunit expression and thermal hypersensitivity. Results Reverse transcriptase-PCR validation showed increased levels of mRNAs encoding the nAChR subunits α3 (13.3-fold), β3 (4-fold) and β4 (7.7-fold) in trigeminal ganglia and α3 (4-fold) and β4 (2.8-fold) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of ART-OE mice. Sensory ganglia of ART-OE mice had increased immunoreactivity for nAChRα3 and exhibited increased overlap in labeling with GFRα3-positive neurons. Patch clamp analysis of back-labeled cutaneous afferents showed that while the majority of nicotine-evoked currents in DRG neurons had biophysical and pharmacological properties of α7-subunit containing nAChRs, the Artn-induced increase in α3 and β4 subunits resulted in functional channels. Behavioral analysis of ART-OE and wildtype mice showed that Artn-induced thermal hyperalgesia can be blocked by mecamylamine or hexamethonium. Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) inflammation of paw skin, which causes an increase in Artn in the skin, also increased the level of nAChR mRNAs in DRG. Finally, the increase in nAChRs transcription was not dependent on the Artn-induced increase in TRPV1 or TRPA1 in ART-OE mice since nAChRs were elevated in ganglia of TRPV1/TRPA1 double knockout mice. Conclusions

  15. The essential role of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit RNA editing in the normal and diseased brain

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Amanda; Vissel, Bryce

    2012-01-01

    α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are comprised of different combinations of GluA1–GluA4 (also known asGluR1–GluR4 and GluR-A to GluR-D) subunits. The GluA2 subunit is subject to RNA editing by the ADAR2 enzyme, which converts a codon for glutamine (Gln; Q), present in the GluA2 gene, to a codon for arginine (Arg; R) found in the mRNA. AMPA receptors are calcium (Ca2+)-permeable if they contain the unedited GluA2(Q) subunit or if they lack the GluA2 subunit. While most AMPA receptors in the brain contain the edited GluA2(R) subunit and are therefore Ca2+-impermeable, recent evidence suggests that Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors are important in synaptic plasticity, learning, and disease. Strong evidence supports the notion that Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors are usually GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors, with little evidence to date for a significant role of unedited GluA2 in normal brain function. However, recent detailed studies suggest that Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors containing unedited GluA2 do in fact occur in neurons and can contribute to excitotoxic cell loss, even where it was previously thought that there was no unedited GluA2.This review provides an update on the role of GluA2 RNA editing in the healthy and diseased brain and summarizes recent insights into the mechanisms that control this process. We suggest that further studies of the role of unedited GluA2 in normal brain function and disease are warranted, and that GluA2 editing should be considered as a possible contributing factor when Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors are observed. PMID:22514516

  16. The diversity of GABA(A) receptor subunit distribution in the normal and Huntington's disease human brain.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel, H J; Faull, R L M

    2015-01-01

    GABA(A) receptors are assembled into pentameric receptor complexes from a total of 19 different subunits derived from a variety of different subunit classes (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ɛ, θ, and π) which surround a central chloride ion channel. GABA(A) receptor complexes are distributed heterogeneously throughout the brain and spinal cord and are activated by the extensive GABAergic inhibitory system. In this chapter, we describe the heterogeneous distribution of six of the most widely distributed subunits (α1, α2, α3, β2,3, and γ2) throughout the human basal ganglia. This review describes the studies we have carried out on the normal and Huntington's disease human basal ganglia using autoradiographic labeling and immunohistochemistry in the human basal ganglia. GABA(A) receptors are known to react to changing conditions in the brain in neurological disorders, especially in Huntington's disease and display a high degree of plasticity which is thought to compensate for loss of function caused by disease. In Huntington's disease, the variable loss of GABAergic medium spiny striatopallidal projection neurons is associated with a loss of GABA(A) receptor subunits in the striosome and/or the matrix compartments of the striatum. By contrast in the globus pallidus, a loss of the GABAergic striatal projection neurons results in a dramatic upregulation of subunits on the large postsynaptic pallidal neurons; this is thought to be a compensatory plastic mechanism resulting from the loss of striatal GABAergic input. Most interestingly, our studies have revealed that the subventricular zone overlying the caudate nucleus contains a variety of proliferating progenitor stem cells that possess a heterogeneity of GABA(A) receptor subunits which may play a role in human brain repair mechanisms.

  17. Open G2 strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; de Medeiros, Paul; El-Showk, Sheer; Sinkovics, Annamaria

    2008-02-01

    We consider an open string version of the topological twist previously proposed for sigma-models with G2 target spaces. We determine the cohomology of open strings states and relate these to geometric deformations of calibrated submanifolds and to flat or anti-self-dual connections on such submanifolds. On associative three-cycles we show that the worldvolume theory is a gauge-fixed Chern-Simons theory coupled to normal deformations of the cycle. For coassociative four-cycles we find a functional that extremizes on anti-self-dual gauge fields. A brane wrapping the whole G2 induces a seven-dimensional associative Chern-Simons theory on the manifold. This theory has already been proposed by Donaldson and Thomas as the higher-dimensional generalization of real Chern-Simons theory. When the G2 manifold has the structure of a Calabi-Yau times a circle, these theories reduce to a combination of the open A-model on special Lagrangians and the open B + B-bar-model on holomorphic submanifolds. We also comment on possible applications of our results.

  18. UPSS and G2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dito, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    The Universal Propellant Servicing System (UPSS) is a dedicated mobile launcher propellant delivery method that will minimize danger and complexity in order to allow vehicles to be serviced and ultimately launched from a variety of locations previously not seen fit for space launch. The UPPS/G2 project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to the rocket for testing purposes. To accomplish this, the project is using the programming language/environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. We have learned G2 through classes and trial-and-error, and are now in the process of building the application that will soon be able to be tested on apparatuses here at Kennedy Space Center, and eventually on the actual unit. The UPSS will bring near-autonomous control of launches to those that need it, as well it will be a great addition to NASA and KSC's operational viability and the opportunity to bring space launches to parts of the world, and in time constraints, once not thought possible.

  19. Early continuous white noise exposure alters l-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 and gamma-aminobutyric acid type a receptor subunit beta3 protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Zhang, Jiping; Cai, Rui; Sun, Xinde

    2010-02-15

    Auditory experience during the postnatal critical period is essential for the normal maturation of auditory function. Previous studies have shown that rearing infant rat pups under conditions of continuous moderate-level noise delayed the emergence of adult-like topographic representational order and the refinement of response selectivity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) beyond normal developmental benchmarks and indefinitely blocked the closure of a brief, critical-period window. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of these physiological changes after noise rearing, we studied expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta3 in the auditory cortex after noise rearing. Our results show that continuous moderate-level noise rearing during the early stages of development decreases the expression levels of GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3. Furthermore, noise rearing also induced a significant decrease in the level of GABA(A) receptors relative to AMPA receptors. However, in adult rats, noise rearing did not have significant effects on GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3 expression or the ratio between the two units. These changes could have a role in the cellular mechanisms involved in the delayed maturation of auditory receptive field structure and topographic organization of A1 after noise rearing.

  20. Localisation of GABA(A) receptor epsilon-subunit in cholinergic and aminergic neurones and evidence for co-distribution with the theta-subunit in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Moragues, N; Ciofi, P; Tramu, G; Garret, M

    2002-01-01

    In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical methodologies suggest the existence of a large diversity of GABA(A) receptor subtypes in the brain. These are hetero-oligomeric proteins modulated by a number of clinically important drugs, depending on their subunit composition. We recently cloned and localised the rat GABA(A) receptor epsilon-subunit by in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical procedures. Here, in a dual-labelling immunohistochemical study in the rat brain, we used our affinity-purified antiserum to epsilon with antisera to markers of cholinergic, catecholaminergic, and serotonergic neurones. As far as cholinergic systems were concerned, epsilon-immunoreactivity was expressed in all forebrain cell-groups, as well as in the caudal lateral pontine tegmentum and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. As far as dopaminergic systems were concerned, epsilon-immunoreactivity was found to be expressed in a great number of hypothalamic cell-groups (A15, A14 and A12) and in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The noradrenergic, and to a lesser extent, adrenergic cell-groups were all epsilon-immunoreactive. Also, epsilon-immunoreactivity was detected in all serotonergic cell-groups. We also revealed by in situ hybridisation in a monkey brain that epsilon mRNA was expressed in the locus coeruleus, as previously observed in rats. Finally, by using in situ hybridisation in rat brains, we compared the distribution of the mRNA of epsilon with that of the recently cloned theta-subunit of the GABA(A) receptor. Both subunits showed strikingly overlapping expression patterns throughout the brain, especially in the septum, preoptic areas, various hypothalamic nuclei, amygdala, and thalamus, as well as the aforementioned monoaminergic cell-groups. No theta-mRNA signals were detected in cholinergic cell-groups. Taken together with previously published evidence of the presence of the alpha3-subunit in monoamine- or acetylcholine-containing systems, our data suggest

  1. cDNA cloning and expression of a gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor epsilon-subunit in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Moragues, N; Ciofi, P; Lafon, P; Odessa, M F; Tramu, G; Garret, M

    2000-12-01

    A cDNA encoding a GABA(A) receptor subunit was isolated from rat brain. The predicted protein is 70% identical to the human epsilon-subunit. It was recently reported [Sinkkonen et al. (2000), J. Neurosci., 20, 3588-3595] that the rodent epsilon-subunit mRNA encoded an additional sequence ( approximately 400 residues). We provide evidence that human and rat epsilon-subunit are similar in size. The distribution of cells expressing the GABA(A) epsilon-subunit was examined in the rat brain. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that epsilon-subunit mRNA is expressed by neurons located in septal and preoptic areas, as well as in various hypothalamic nuclei, including paraventricular, arcuate, dorsomedial and medial tuberal nuclei. The mRNA was also detected in major neuronal groups with broad-range influence, such as the cholinergic (basal nucleus), dopaminergic (substantia nigra compacta), serotonergic (raphe nuclei), and noradrenergic (locus coeruleus) systems. Immunohistochemistry using an affinity-purified antiserum directed towards the N-terminal sequence unique to the rat epsilon-subunit revealed the presence of epsilon-subunit immunoreactivity over the somatodendritic domain of neurons with a distribution closely matching that of mRNA-expressing cells. Moreover, using in situ hybridization, alpha3, theta and epsilon GABA(A) subunit mRNAs were all detected with an overlapping distribution in neurons of the dorsal raphe and the locus coeruleus. Our results suggest that novel GABA(A) receptors may regulate, neuroendocrine and modulatory systems in the brain.

  2. Immunocytochemical localization of the NMDA-R2A receptor subunit in the cat retina.

    PubMed

    Goebel, D J; Aurelia, J L; Tai, Q; Jojich, L; Poosch, M S

    1998-10-19

    Immunocytochemical studies were performed to determine the distribution and cellular localization of the NMDA-R2A receptor subunit (R2A) in the cat retina. R2A-immunoreactivity (R2A-IR) was noted in all layers of the retina, with specific localizations in the outer segments of red/green and blue cone photoreceptors, B-type horizontal cells, several types of amacrine cells, Müller cells and the majority of cells in the ganglion cell layer. In the inner nuclear layer, 48% of all cells residing in the amacrine cell layer were R2A-IR including a cell resembling the GABAergic A17 amacrine cell. Interestingly, the AII rod amacrine cell was devoid of R2A-IR. Although the localization of the R2A subunit was anticipated in ganglion cells, amacrines and Müller cells, the presence of this receptor subunit to the cells in the outer retina was not expected. Here, both the R2A and the R2B subunits were found to be present in the outer segments of cone photoreceptors and to the tips of rod outer segments. Although the function of these receptor subunits in rod and cone photoreceptors remains to be determined, the fact that both R2A and R2B receptor subunits are localized to cone outer segments suggests a possible alternative pathway for calcium entry into a region where this cation plays such a crucial role in the process of phototransduction. To further classify the cells that display NR2A-IR, we performed dual labeling experiments showing the relationship between R2A-labeled cells with GABA. Results showed that all GABAergic-amacrines and displaced amacrines express the R2A-subunit protein. In addition, approximately 11% of the NR2A-labeled amacrines, did not stain for GABA. These findings support pharmacological data showing that NMDA directly facilitates GABA release in retina and retinal cultures [I.L. Ferreira, C.B. Duarte, P.F. Santos, C.M. Carvalho, A.P. Carvalho, Release of [3H]GABA evoked by glutamate receptor agonist in cultured chick retinal cells: effect of Ca2

  3. Role of the large cytoplasmic loop of the alpha 7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in receptor expression and function.

    PubMed

    Valor, Luis M; Mulet, José; Sala, Francisco; Sala, Salvador; Ballesta, Juan J; Criado, Manuel

    2002-06-25

    The role of the large intracellular loop of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha7 subunit in the expression of functional channels was studied. For this purpose, systematic deletions and substitutions were made throughout the loop and the ability of the mutated alpha7 subunits to support expression of functional nAChRs at the Xenopus oocyte membrane was tested. Surface nAChR expression was abolished upon removal of sequences at two regions, a 29-amino acid segment close to the N-terminus of the loop (amino acids 297-325) and adjacent to the third transmembrane region and an 11-amino acid segment near the fourth transmembrane region. Some residues (amino acids 317-322) within the 29 amino acids N-terminal segment could be substituted by others but not deleted without loss of expression, suggesting that a certain structure, determined by the number of amino acids rather than by their identity, has to be maintained in this region. The contiguous sequence M323 K324 R325 did not tolerate deletions and substitutions. Removal of the rest of the cytoplasmic loop was not deleterious; even higher expression levels (2-4-fold) were obtained upon large deletions of the loop (Delta399-432 and Delta339-370). High expression levels were observed provided that a minimal sequence of three amino acids (E371, G372, and M373) was present. In addition, some electrophysiological properties of mutant nAChRs were modified. Substitution of the EGM sequence by other protein segments produced a variety of effects, but, in general, insertions were not well tolerated, suggesting the existence of tight structural restrictions in the large cytoplasmic region of the rat alpha7 subunit.

  4. The paracaspase MALT1 cleaves the LUBAC subunit HOIL1 during antigen receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Douanne, Tiphaine; Gavard, Julie; Bidère, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Antigen-receptor-mediated activation of lymphocytes relies on a signalosome comprising CARMA1 (also known as CARD11), BCL10 and MALT1 (the CBM complex). The CBM activates nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factors by recruiting the 'linear ubiquitin assembly complex' (LUBAC), and unleashes MALT1 paracaspase activity. Although MALT1 enzyme shapes NF-κB signaling, lymphocyte activation and contributes to lymphoma growth, the identity of its substrates continues to be elucidated. Here, we report that the LUBAC subunit HOIL1 (also known as RBCK1) is cleaved by MALT1 following antigen receptor engagement. HOIL1 is also constitutively processed in the 'activated B-cell-like' (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which exhibits aberrant MALT1 activity. We further show that the overexpression of MALT1-insensitive HOIL1 mitigates T-cell-receptor-mediated NF-κB activation and subsequent cytokine production in lymphocytes. Thus, our results unveil HOIL1 as a negative regulator of lymphocyte activation cleaved by MALT1. This cleavage could therefore constitute an appealing therapeutic target for modulating immune responses.

  5. Subunit profiling and functional characteristics of acetylcholine receptors in GT1-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yuki; Ishii, Hirotaka; Kobayashi, Makito; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2017-03-01

    GnRH neurons form a final common pathway for the central regulation of reproduction. Although the involvement of acetylcholine in GnRH secretion has been reported, direct effects of acetylcholine and expression profiles of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) still remain to be studied. Using immortalized GnRH neurons (GT1-7 cells), we analyzed molecular expression and functionality of AChRs. Expression of the mRNAs were identified in the order α7 > β2 = β1 ≧ α4 ≧ α5 = β4 = δ > α3 for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and m4 > m2 for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes. Furthermore, this study revealed that α7 nAChRs contributed to Ca(2+) influx and GnRH release and that m2 and m4 mAChRs inhibited forskolin-induced cAMP production and isobutylmethylxanthine-induced GnRH secretion. These findings demonstrate the molecular profiles of AChRs, which directly contribute to GnRH secretion in GT1-7 cells, and provide one possible regulatory action of acetylcholine in GnRH neurons.

  6. Amino-terminal domains of kainate receptors determine the differential dependence on Neto auxiliary subunits for trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Nengyin; Shi, Yun Stone; Nicoll, Roger A.

    2017-01-01

    The kainate receptor (KAR), a subtype of glutamate receptor, mediates excitatory synaptic responses at a subset of glutamatergic synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the trafficking of its different subunits are poorly understood. Here we use the CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cell, which lacks KAR-mediated synaptic currents, as a null background to determine the minimal requirements for the extrasynaptic and synaptic expression of the GluK2 subunit. We find that the GluK2 receptor itself, in contrast to GluK1, traffics to the neuronal surface and synapse efficiently and the auxiliary subunits Neto1 and Neto2 caused no further enhancement of these two trafficking processes. However, the regulation of GluK2 biophysical properties by Neto proteins is the same as that of GluK1. We further determine that it is the amino-terminal domains (ATDs) of GluK1 and GluK2 that control the strikingly different trafficking properties between these two receptors. Moreover, the ATDs are critical for synaptic expression of heteromeric receptors at mossy fiber–CA3 synapses and also mediate the differential dependence on Neto proteins for surface and synaptic trafficking of GluK1 and GluK2. These results highlight the fundamental differences between the two major KAR subunits and their interplay with Neto auxiliary proteins. PMID:28100490

  7. Amino-terminal domains of kainate receptors determine the differential dependence on Neto auxiliary subunits for trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Nengyin; Shi, Yun Stone; Nicoll, Roger A

    2017-01-31

    The kainate receptor (KAR), a subtype of glutamate receptor, mediates excitatory synaptic responses at a subset of glutamatergic synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the trafficking of its different subunits are poorly understood. Here we use the CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cell, which lacks KAR-mediated synaptic currents, as a null background to determine the minimal requirements for the extrasynaptic and synaptic expression of the GluK2 subunit. We find that the GluK2 receptor itself, in contrast to GluK1, traffics to the neuronal surface and synapse efficiently and the auxiliary subunits Neto1 and Neto2 caused no further enhancement of these two trafficking processes. However, the regulation of GluK2 biophysical properties by Neto proteins is the same as that of GluK1. We further determine that it is the amino-terminal domains (ATDs) of GluK1 and GluK2 that control the strikingly different trafficking properties between these two receptors. Moreover, the ATDs are critical for synaptic expression of heteromeric receptors at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses and also mediate the differential dependence on Neto proteins for surface and synaptic trafficking of GluK1 and GluK2. These results highlight the fundamental differences between the two major KAR subunits and their interplay with Neto auxiliary proteins.

  8. The expression of GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) receptor subunits in the cNS differs from that in peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Calver, A R; Medhurst, A D; Robbins, M J; Charles, K J; Evans, M L; Harrison, D C; Stammers, M; Hughes, S A; Hervieu, G; Couve, A; Moss, S J; Middlemiss, D N; Pangalos, M N

    2000-01-01

    GABA(B) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the slow and prolonged synaptic actions of GABA in the CNS via the modulation of ion channels. Unusually, GABA(B) receptors form functional heterodimers composed of GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits. The GABA(B1) subunit is essential for ligand binding, whereas the GABA(B2) subunit is essential for functional expression of the receptor dimer at the cell surface. We have used real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to analyse expression levels of these subunits, and their associated splice variants, in the CNS and peripheral tissues of human and rat. GABA(B1) subunit splice variants were expressed throughout the CNS and peripheral tissues, whereas surprisingly GABA(B2) subunit splice variants were neural specific. Using novel antisera specific to individual GABA(B) receptor subunits, we have confirmed these findings at the protein level. Analysis by immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of the GABA(B1) subunit, but not the GABA(B2) subunit, in uterus and spleen. Furthermore, we have shown the first immunocytochemical analysis of the GABA(B2) subunit in the brain and spinal cord using a GABA(B2)-specific antibody. We have, therefore, identified areas of non-overlap between GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunit expression in tissues known to contain functional GABA(B) receptors. Such areas are of interest as they may well contain novel GABA(B) receptor subunit isoforms, expression of which would enable the GABA(B1) subunit to reach the cell surface and form functional GABA(B) receptors.

  9. The β4 nicotinic receptor subunit modulates the chronic antidepressant effect mediated by bupropion.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Santamaría, Abel; Escobar, Liliana; Arias, Hugo Rubén

    2013-10-25

    The objective of the current study is to investigate the role of the nicotinic receptor β4 subunit in the antidepressant activity of bupropion. Wild-type (β4+/+) and knockout (β4-/-) mice were intraperitoneally administered with normal saline (control) or bupropion (40mg/kg) daily for the first two weeks. Forced swim tests were performed on day 1 to determine the acute effect of bupropion at 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60min after the injection, and after two weeks of daily treatment to determine the chronic effects. To examine the remnant effects of bupropion after withdrawal, forced swim tests were performed one and two weeks after the last day of treatment with bupropion. Our results indicate that: (1) the acute treatment with bupropion increases the swimming time (i.e., antidepressant effect) in β4+/+ and β4-/- mice from both genders, (2) the antidepressant effect after the chronic treatment is seen only in female β4+/+ mice, and (3) the residual antidepressant effect of bupropion persists only in male β4+/+ mice after one week withdrawal. We conclude that the β4 subunit plays a modulatory role in the chronic antidepressant effect mediated by bupropion, and that its effect is gender-specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit and myogenin mRNAs in thymus and thymomas.

    PubMed Central

    Kornstein, M. J.; Asher, O.; Fuchs, S.

    1995-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder characterized in most cases by serological antibody against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Evidence for intrathymic localization of AChR suggests that the thymus has an important role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Using reverse transcription followed by the polymerase chain reaction, we have demonstrated AChR alpha-subunit mRNA in thymuses and thymomas from patients with and without myasthenia gravis. We have also studied the expression of myogenin which is known to be involved in the regulation of AChR expression. By using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we found myogenin mRNAs in all of the thymuses and thymomas. Thus, both AChR alpha-subunit and myogenin mRNA are present in all of these specimens. By immunohistochemistry myoid cells (desmin and myoglobin positive) were present in all (four of four) thymuses studied and in two of five thymomas. Thus, in thymomas, nonmyoid cells might express both AChR and myogenin. These results indicate that cells within the thymus and thymoma express AChR and its regulatory protein myogenin and that such cells, under certain conditions, might play a role in the triggering of myasthenia gravis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7778671

  11. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-based Structural Analysis of the Dihydropyridine Receptor α1S Subunit Reveals Conformational Differences Induced by Binding of the β1a Subunit.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Mohana; Perez, Claudio F; Fessenden, James D

    2016-06-24

    The skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor α1S subunit plays a key role in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling by sensing membrane voltage changes and then triggering intracellular calcium release. The cytoplasmic loops connecting four homologous α1S structural domains have diverse functions, but their structural arrangement is poorly understood. Here, we used a novel FRET-based method to characterize the relative proximity of these intracellular loops in α1S subunits expressed in intact cells. In dysgenic myotubes, energy transfer was observed from an N-terminal-fused YFP to a FRET acceptor, ReAsH (resorufin arsenical hairpin binder), targeted to each α1S intracellular loop, with the highest FRET efficiencies measured to the α1S II-III loop and C-terminal tail. However, in HEK-293T cells, FRET efficiencies from the α1S N terminus to the II-III and III-IV loops and the C-terminal tail were significantly lower, thus suggesting that these loop structures are influenced by the cellular microenvironment. The addition of the β1a dihydropyridine receptor subunit enhanced FRET to the II-III loop, thus indicating that β1a binding directly affects II-III loop conformation. This specific structural change required the C-terminal 36 amino acids of β1a, which are essential to support EC coupling. Direct FRET measurements between α1S and β1a confirmed that both wild type and truncated β1a bind similarly to α1S These results provide new insights into the role of muscle-specific proteins on the structural arrangement of α1S intracellular loops and point to a new conformational effect of the β1a subunit in supporting skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-based Structural Analysis of the Dihydropyridine Receptor α1S Subunit Reveals Conformational Differences Induced by Binding of the β1a Subunit*

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Mohana; Perez, Claudio F.; Fessenden, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor α1S subunit plays a key role in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling by sensing membrane voltage changes and then triggering intracellular calcium release. The cytoplasmic loops connecting four homologous α1S structural domains have diverse functions, but their structural arrangement is poorly understood. Here, we used a novel FRET-based method to characterize the relative proximity of these intracellular loops in α1S subunits expressed in intact cells. In dysgenic myotubes, energy transfer was observed from an N-terminal-fused YFP to a FRET acceptor, ReAsH (resorufin arsenical hairpin binder), targeted to each α1S intracellular loop, with the highest FRET efficiencies measured to the α1S II-III loop and C-terminal tail. However, in HEK-293T cells, FRET efficiencies from the α1S N terminus to the II-III and III-IV loops and the C-terminal tail were significantly lower, thus suggesting that these loop structures are influenced by the cellular microenvironment. The addition of the β1a dihydropyridine receptor subunit enhanced FRET to the II-III loop, thus indicating that β1a binding directly affects II-III loop conformation. This specific structural change required the C-terminal 36 amino acids of β1a, which are essential to support EC coupling. Direct FRET measurements between α1S and β1a confirmed that both wild type and truncated β1a bind similarly to α1S. These results provide new insights into the role of muscle-specific proteins on the structural arrangement of α1S intracellular loops and point to a new conformational effect of the β1a subunit in supporting skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:27129199

  13. NMDA Receptors Containing the GluN2D Subunit Control Neuronal Function in the Subthalamic Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Swanger, Sharon A; Vance, Katie M; Pare, Jean-François; Sotty, Florence; Fog, Karina; Smith, Yoland; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2015-12-02

    The GluN2D subunit of the NMDA receptor is prominently expressed in the basal ganglia and associated brainstem nuclei, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus, striatum, and substantia nigra. However, little is known about how GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors contribute to synaptic activity in these regions. Using Western blotting of STN tissue punches, we demonstrated that GluN2D is expressed in the rat STN throughout development [age postnatal day 7 (P7)-P60] and in the adult (age P120). Immunoelectron microscopy of the adult rat brain showed that GluN2D is predominantly expressed in dendrites, unmyelinated axons, and axon terminals within the STN. Using subunit-selective allosteric modulators of NMDA receptors (TCN-201, ifenprodil, CIQ, and DQP-1105), we provide evidence that receptors containing the GluN2B and GluN2D subunits mediate responses to exogenously applied NMDA and glycine, as well as synaptic NMDA receptor activation in the STN of rat brain slices. EPSCs in the STN were mediated primarily by AMPA and NMDA receptors and GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors controlled the slow deactivation time course of EPSCs in the STN. In vivo recordings from the STN of anesthetized adult rats demonstrated that the spike firing rate was increased by the GluN2C/D potentiator CIQ and decreased by the GluN2C/D antagonist DQP-1105, suggesting that NMDA receptor activity can influence STN output. These data indicate that the GluN2B and GluN2D NMDA receptor subunits contribute to synaptic activity in the STN and may represent potential therapeutic targets for modulating subthalamic neuron activity in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515971-13$15.00/0.

  14. Amyloid-β effects on synapses and memory require AMPA receptor subunit GluA3

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Niels R.; Pao, Yvonne; Renner, Maria C.; da Silva-Matos, Carla M.; Lodder, Tessa R.; Malinow, Roberto; Kessels, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a prime suspect for causing cognitive deficits during the early phases of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Experiments in AD mouse models have shown that soluble oligomeric clusters of Aβ degrade synapses and impair memory formation. We show that all Aβ-driven effects measured in these mice depend on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA3. Hippocampal neurons that lack GluA3 were resistant against Aβ-mediated synaptic depression and spine loss. In addition, Aβ oligomers blocked long-term synaptic potentiation only in neurons that expressed GluA3. Furthermore, although Aβ-overproducing mice showed significant memory impairment, memories in GluA3-deficient congenics remained unaffected. These experiments indicate that the presence of GluA3-containing AMPARs is critical for Aβ-mediated synaptic and cognitive deficits. PMID:27708157

  15. Exon-intron structure of the human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit (CHRNA4)

    SciTech Connect

    Steinlein, O.; Weiland, S.; Stoodt, J.; Propping, P.

    1996-03-01

    The human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) is located in the candidate region for three different phenotypes: benign familial neonatal convulsions, autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, and low-voltage EEG. Recently, a missense mutation in transmembrane domain 2 of CHRNA4 was found to be associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in one extended pedigree. We have determined the genomic organization of CHRNA4, which consists of six exons distributed over approximately 17 kb of genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequence obtained from the genomic regions adjacent to the exon boundaries enabled us to develop a set of primer pairs for PCR amplification of the complete coding region. The sequence analysis provides the basis for a comprehensive mutation screening of CHRNA4 in the above-mentioned phenotypes and possibly in other types of idopathic epilepsies. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Block of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by philanthotoxins is strongly dependent on their subunit composition

    PubMed Central

    Kachel, Hamid S.; Patel, Rohit N.; Franzyk, Henrik; Mellor, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Philanthotoxin-433 (PhTX-433) is an active component of the venom from the Egyptian digger wasp, Philanthus triangulum. PhTX-433 inhibits several excitatory ligand-gated ion channels, and to improve selectivity two synthetic analogues, PhTX-343 and PhTX-12, were developed. Previous work showed a 22-fold selectivity of PhTX-12 over PhTX-343 for embryonic muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in TE671 cells. We investigated their inhibition of different neuronal nAChR subunit combinations as well as of embryonic muscle receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell currents in response to application of acetylcholine alone or co-applied with PhTX analogue were studied by using two-electrode voltage-clamp. α3β4 nAChRs were most sensitive to PhTX-343 (IC50 = 12 nM at −80 mV) with α4β4, α4β2, α3β2, α7 and α1β1γδ being 5, 26, 114, 422 and 992 times less sensitive. In contrast α1β1γδ was most sensitive to PhTX-12 along with α3β4 (IC50 values of 100 nM) with α4β4, α4β2, α3β2 and α7 being 3, 3, 26 and 49 times less sensitive. PhTX-343 inhibition was strongly voltage-dependent for all subunit combinations except α7, whereas this was not the case for PhTX-12 for which weak voltage dependence was observed. We conclude that PhTX-343 mainly acts as an open-channel blocker of nAChRs with strong subtype selectivity. PMID:27901080

  17. Subunit rotation models activation of serotonin 5-HT3AB receptors by agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksay, Gábor; Simonyi, Miklós; Bikádi, Zsolt

    2004-10-01

    The N-terminal extracellular regions of heterooligomeric 3AB-type human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (5-HT 3ABR) were modelled based on the crystal structure of snail acetylcholine binding protein AChBP. Stepwise rotation of subunit A by 5° was performed between -10° and 15° to mimic agonist binding and receptor activation. Anticlockwise rotation reduced the size of the binding cavity in interface AB and reorganised the network of hydrogen bonds along the interface. AB subunit dimers with different rotations were applied for docking of ligands with different efficacies: 5-HT, m-chlorophenylbiguanide, SR 57227, quinolinyl piperazine and lerisetron derivatives. All ligands were docked into the dimer with -10° rotation representing ligand-free, open binding cavities similarly, without pharmacological discrimination. Their ammonium ions were in hydrogen bonding distance to the backbone carbonyl of W183. Anticlockwise rotation and contraction of the binding cavity led to distinctive docking interactions of agonists with E129 and cation-π interactions of their ammonium ions. Side chains of several further amino acids participating in docking (Y143, Y153, Y234 and E236) are in agreement with the effects of point mutations in the binding loops. Our model postulates that 5-HT binds to W183 in a hydrophobic cleft as well as to E236 in a hydrophilic vestibule. Then it elicits anticlockwise rotation to draw in loop C via π-cation-π interactions of␣its ammonium ion with W183 and Y234. Finally, closure of the binding cavity might end in rebinding of 5-HT to E129 in the hydrophilic vestibule.

  18. PPAR Agonists: I. Role of Receptor Subunits in Alcohol Consumption in Male and Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Blednov, Yuri A; Black, Mendy; Benavidez, Jillian M; Stamatakis, Eleni E; Harris, R Adron

    2016-03-01

    Several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists reduce voluntary alcohol consumption in rodent models, and evidence suggests that PPARα and γ subunits play an important role in this effect. To define the subunit dependence of this action, we tested selective PPARα and α/γ agonists and antagonists in addition to null mutant mice lacking PPARα. The effects of fenofibrate (PPARα agonist) and tesaglitazar (PPARα/γ agonist) on continuous and intermittent 2-bottle choice drinking tests were examined in male and female wild-type mice and in male mice lacking PPARα. We compared the ability of MK886 (PPARα antagonist) and GW9662 (PPARγ antagonist) to inhibit the effects of fenofibrate and tesaglitazar in wild-type mice. The estrogen receptor antagonist, tamoxifen, can inhibit PPARγ-dependent transcription and was also studied in male and female mice. Fenofibrate and tesaglitazar reduced ethanol (EtOH) consumption and preference in wild-type mice, but these effects were not observed in mice lacking PPARα. MK886 inhibited the action of fenofibrate, but not tesaglitazer, while GW9662 did not inhibit either agonist. The PPAR agonists were more effective in male mice compared to females, and drinking in the continuous 2-bottle choice test was more sensitive to fenofibrate and tesaglitazar compared to drinking in the intermittent access test. Tamoxifen also reduced EtOH consumption in male mice and this action was inhibited by GW9662, but not MK886, suggesting that it acts by activation of PPARγ. Our study using selective PPAR agonists, antagonists, and null mutant mice indicates a key role for PPARα in mediating reduced EtOH consumption by fenofibrate and tesaglitazar. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Galpha-subunits differentially alter the conformation and agonist affinity of kappa-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feng; Mosier, Philip D; Westkaemper, Richard B; Roth, Bryan L

    2008-02-12

    Although ligand-induced conformational changes in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well-documented, there is little direct evidence for G protein-induced changes in GPCR conformation. To investigate this possibility, the effects of overexpressing Galpha-subunits (Galpha16 or Galphai2) with the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) were examined. The changes in KOR conformation were subequently examined via the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) in transmembrane domains 6 (TM6) and 7 (TM7) and extracellular loop 2 (EL2). Significant conformational changes were observed on TM7, the extracellular portion of TM6, and EL2. Seven SCAM-sensitive residues (S3107.33, F3147.37, and I3167.39 to Y3207.43) on TM7 presented a cluster pattern when the KOR was exposed to baseline amounts of G protein, and additional residues became sensitive upon overexpression of various G proteins. In TM7, S3117.34 and N3267.49 were found to be sensitive in Galpha16-overexpressed cells and Y3137.36, N3227.45, S3237.46, and L3297.52 in Galphai2-overexpressed cells. In addition, the degree of sensitivity for various TM7 residues was augmented, especially in Galphai2-overexpressed cells. A similar phenomenon was also observed for residues in TM6 and EL2. In addition to an enhanced sensitivity of certain residues, our findings also indicated that a slight rotation was predicted to occur in the upper part of TM7 upon G protein overexpression. These relatively modest conformational changes engendered by G protein overexpression had both profound and differential effects on the abilities of agonists to bind to KOR. These data are significant because they demonstrate that Galpha-subunits differentially modulate the conformation and agonist affinity of a prototypical GPCR.

  20. Differential agonist sensitivity of glycine receptor α2 subunit splice variants

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paul S; Harvey, Robert J; Smart, Trevor G

    2004-01-01

    The glycine receptor (GlyR) α2A and α2B splice variants differ by a dual, adjacent amino acid substitution from α2AV58,T59 to α2BI58,A59 in the N-terminal extracellular domain. Comparing the effects of the GlyR agonists, glycine, β-alanine and taurine, on the GlyR α2 isoforms, revealed a significant increase in potency for all three agonists at the α2B variant. The sensitivities of the splice variants to the competitive antagonist, strychnine, and to the biphasic modulator Zn2+, were comparable. In contrast, the allosteric inhibitor picrotoxin was more potent on GlyR α2A compared to GlyR α2B receptors. Coexpression of α2A or α2B subunits with the GlyR β subunit revealed that the higher agonist potencies observed with the α2B homomer were retained for the α2Bβ heteromer. The identical sensitivity to strychnine combined with a reduction in the maximum current induced by the partial agonist taurine at the GlyR α2A homomer, suggested that the changed sensitivity to agonists is in accordance with a modulation of agonist efficacy rather than agonist affinity. An effect on agonist efficacy was also supported by using a structural model of the GlyR, localising the region of splice variation to the proposed docking region between GlyR loop 2 and the TM2-3 loop, an area associated with channel activation. The existence of a spasmodic mouse phenotype linked to a GlyR α1A52S mutation, the equivalent position to the source of the α2 splice variation, raises the possibility that the GlyR α2 splice variants may be responsible for distinct roles in neuronal function. PMID:15302677

  1. Differential agonist sensitivity of glycine receptor alpha2 subunit splice variants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul S; Harvey, Robert J; Smart, Trevor G

    2004-09-01

    1. The glycine receptor (GlyR) alpha2A and alpha2B splice variants differ by a dual, adjacent amino acid substitution from alpha2A(V58,T59) to alpha2B(I58,A59) in the N-terminal extracellular domain. 2. Comparing the effects of the GlyR agonists, glycine, beta-alanine and taurine, on the GlyR alpha2 isoforms, revealed a significant increase in potency for all three agonists at the alpha2B variant. 3. The sensitivities of the splice variants to the competitive antagonist, strychnine, and to the biphasic modulator Zn(2+), were comparable. In contrast, the allosteric inhibitor picrotoxin was more potent on GlyR alpha2A compared to GlyR alpha2B receptors. 4. Coexpression of alpha2A or alpha2B subunits with the GlyR beta subunit revealed that the higher agonist potencies observed with the alpha2B homomer were retained for the alpha2Bbeta heteromer. 5. The identical sensitivity to strychnine combined with a reduction in the maximum current induced by the partial agonist taurine at the GlyR alpha2A homomer, suggested that the changed sensitivity to agonists is in accordance with a modulation of agonist efficacy rather than agonist affinity. 6. An effect on agonist efficacy was also supported by using a structural model of the GlyR, localising the region of splice variation to the proposed docking region between GlyR loop 2 and the TM2-3 loop, an area associated with channel activation. 7. The existence of a spasmodic mouse phenotype linked to a GlyR alpha1(A52S) mutation, the equivalent position to the source of the alpha2 splice variation, raises the possibility that the GlyR alpha2 splice variants may be responsible for distinct roles in neuronal function.

  2. Differentiated human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells express excitatory strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors containing α2β subunits.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Florian; Kraft, Robert; Busse, Kathy; Härtig, Wolfgang; Ahrens, Jörg; Leffler, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Schwarz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Human fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) may deliver a tissue source for drug screening and regenerative cell therapy to treat Parkinson's disease. While glutamate and GABA(A) receptors play an important role in neurogenesis, the involvement of glycine receptors during human neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation as well as their molecular and functional characteristics in NPCs are largely unknown. Here we investigated NPCs in respect to their glycine receptor function and subunit expression using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Whole-cell recordings demonstrate the ability of NPCs to express functional strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors after differentiation for 3 weeks in vitro. Pharmacological and molecular analyses indicate a predominance of glycine receptor heteromers containing α2β subunits. Intracellular calcium measurements of differentiated NPCs suggest that glycine evokes depolarisations mediated by strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and not by D-serine-sensitive excitatory glycine receptors. Culturing NPCs with additional glycine, the glycine-receptor antagonist strychnine, or the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1)-inhibitor bumetanide did not significantly influence cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. These data indicate that NPCs derived from human fetal midbrain tissue acquire essential glycine receptor properties during neuronal maturation. However, glycine receptors seem to have a limited functional impact on neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation of NPCs in vitro.

  3. Inducible expression of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase light subunit by t-butylhydroquinone in HepG2 cells is not dependent on an antioxidant-responsive element.

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, D C; McLellan, L I

    1998-01-01

    Mutation analysis of putative regulatory elements located in the 5'-flanking region of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GLCLR) revealed that neither an antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) nor an activator protein-1 (AP-1) site regulates inducible expression by t-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ). The AP-1 site was found to modulate basal expression of GLCLR. A 42 bp region between nucleotides -303 and -344, not containing an ARE, was found to regulate inducible expression of GLCLR by tBHQ. PMID:9841862

  4. Expression of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNAs in rat hippocampal GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Son, Jong-Hyun; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H

    2008-11-10

    Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons are a diverse population of cells widely scattered in the hippocampus, where they regulate hippocampal circuit activity. The hippocampus receives cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain, and functional studies have suggested the presence of different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons. Single-cell polymerase chain reaction analysis had confirmed that several nAChR subunit mRNAs are co-expressed with glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), the marker for GABAergic interneurons. In this anatomical study, we systematically investigated the co-expression of GAD67 with different nAChR subunits by using double in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled GAD67 probe and (35)S-labeled probes for nAChR subunits (alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, alpha7, beta2, beta3, and beta4). The results revealed that most GAD67-positive interneurons expressed beta2, and 67 % also expressed alpha7 mRNA. In contrast, mRNA expression of other subunits was limited; only 13 % of GAD67-positive neurons co-expressed alpha4, and less than 10% expressed transcripts for alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, or beta4. Most GAD67/alpha2 co-expression was located in CA1/CA3 stratum oriens, and GAD67/alpha5 co-expression was predominantly detected in CA1/CA3 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare and the dentate gyrus. Expression of alpha6 and beta3 mRNAs was rarely detected in the hippocampus, and mRNAs were not co-expressed with GAD67. These findings suggest that the majority of nicotinic responses in GABAergic interneurons should be mediated by a homomeric alpha7 or heteromeric alpha7*-containing nAChRs. Other possible combinations such as alpha2beta2*, alpha4beta2*, or alpha5beta2* heteromeric nAChRs could contribute to functional nicotinic response in subsets of GABAergic interneurons but overall would have a minor role.

  5. Taste responses in mice lacking taste receptor subunit T1R1

    PubMed Central

    Kusuhara, Yoko; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Voigt, Anja; Hübner, Sandra; Maeda, Katsumasa; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-01-01

    The T1R1 receptor subunit acts as an umami taste receptor in combination with its partner, T1R3. In addition, metabotropic glutamate receptors (brain and taste variants of mGluR1 and mGluR4) are thought to function as umami taste receptors. To elucidate the function of T1R1 and the contribution of mGluRs to umami taste detection in vivo, we used newly developed knock-out (T1R1−/−) mice, which lack the entire coding region of the Tas1r1 gene and express mCherry in T1R1-expressing cells. Gustatory nerve recordings demonstrated that T1R1−/− mice exhibited a serious deficit in inosine monophosphate-elicited synergy but substantial residual responses to glutamate alone in both chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves. Interestingly, chorda tympani nerve responses to sweeteners were smaller in T1R1−/− mice. Taste cell recordings demonstrated that many mCherry-expressing taste cells in T1R1+/− mice responded to sweet and umami compounds, whereas those in T1R1−/− mice responded to sweet stimuli. The proportion of sweet-responsive cells was smaller in T1R1−/− than in T1R1+/− mice. Single-cell RT-PCR demonstrated that some single mCherry-expressing cells expressed all three T1R subunits. Chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve responses to glutamate were significantly inhibited by addition of mGluR antagonists in both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice. Conditioned taste aversion tests demonstrated that both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice were equally capable of discriminating glutamate from other basic taste stimuli. Avoidance conditioned to glutamate was significantly reduced by addition of mGluR antagonists. These results suggest that T1R1-expressing cells mainly contribute to umami taste synergism and partly to sweet sensitivity and that mGluRs are involved in the detection of umami compounds. PMID:23339178

  6. Neonicotinoid binding, toxicity and expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Beloula, Abdelhamid; Quinchard, Sophie; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie; Daguin, Antoine; Servent, Denis; Tagu, Denis; Thany, Steeve H; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI), thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLT). Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16 ± 0.04 nM and 41.7 ± 5.9 nM) and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008 ± 0.002 nM and 1.135 ± 0.213 nM). Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml) and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml) were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml). The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies.

  7. Neonicotinoid Binding, Toxicity and Expression of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits in the Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Beloula, Abdelhamid; Quinchard, Sophie; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie; Daguin, Antoine; Servent, Denis; Tagu, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI), thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLT). Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16±0.04 nM and 41.7±5.9 nM) and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008±0.002 nM and 1.135±0.213 nM). Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml) and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml) were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml). The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies. PMID:24801634

  8. The C-terminal domains of the GABA(b) receptor subunits mediate intracellular trafficking but are not required for receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Calver, A R; Robbins, M J; Cosio, C; Rice, S Q; Babbs, A J; Hirst, W D; Boyfield, I; Wood, M D; Russell, R B; Price, G W; Couve, A; Moss, S J; Pangalos, M N

    2001-02-15

    GABA(B) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the brain and spinal cord. These receptors are heterodimers assembled from GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits, neither of which is capable of producing functional GABA(B) receptors on homomeric expression. GABA(B1,) although able to bind GABA, is retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when expressed alone. In contrast, GABA(B2) is able to access the cell surface when expressed alone but does not couple efficiently to the appropriate effector systems or produce any detectable GABA-binding sites. In the present study, we have constructed chimeric and truncated GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits to explore further GABA(B) receptor signaling and assembly. Removal of the entire C-terminal intracellular domain of GABA(B1) results in plasma membrane expression without the production of a functional GABA(B) receptor. However, coexpression of this truncated GABA(B1) subunit with either GABA(B2) or a truncated GABA(B2) subunit in which the C terminal has also been removed is capable of functional signaling via G-proteins. In contrast, transferring the entire C-terminal tail of GABA(B1) to GABA(B2) leads to the ER retention of the GABA(B2) subunit when expressed alone. These results indicate that the C terminal of GABA(B1) mediates the ER retention of this protein and that neither of the C-terminal tails of GABA(B1) or GABA(B2) is an absolute requirement for functional coupling of heteromeric receptors. Furthermore although GABA(B1) is capable of producing GABA-binding sites, GABA(B2) is of central importance in the functional coupling of heteromeric GABA(B) receptors to G-proteins and the subsequent activation of effector systems.

  9. Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA Receptor Subunit Alters the Expression of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, David J.; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Bannerman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit selectively impairs short-term memory for spatial locations. We further investigated this deficit by examining memory for discrete nonspatial visual stimuli in an operant chamber. Unconditioned suppression of magazine responding to visual stimuli was measured in wild-type and GluA1 knockout mice.…

  10. Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA Receptor Subunit Alters the Expression of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, David J.; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Bannerman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit selectively impairs short-term memory for spatial locations. We further investigated this deficit by examining memory for discrete nonspatial visual stimuli in an operant chamber. Unconditioned suppression of magazine responding to visual stimuli was measured in wild-type and GluA1 knockout mice.…

  11. Loop-F of the α-subunit determines the pharmacologic profile of novel competitive inhibitors of GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Mihalik, Balázs; Pálvölgyi, Adrienn; Bogár, Ferenc; Megyeri, Katalin; Ling, István; Barkóczy, József; Bartha, Ferenc; Martinek, Tamás A; Gacsályi, István; Antoni, Ferenc A

    2017-03-05

    The neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) has a fundamental role in CNS function and ionotropic (GABAA) receptors that mediate many of the actions of GABA are important therapeutic targets. This study reports the mechanism of action of novel GABAA antagonists based on a tricyclic oxazolo-2,3-benzodiazepine scaffold. These compounds are orthosteric antagonists of GABA on heteropentameric GABAA receptors of αxβ2γ2 configuration expressed in HEK293 cells. In silico modelling predicted that the test compounds docked in the GABA binding-pocket and would interact with amino-acid residues in the α- and β-subunit interface that are known to be important for the binding of GABA. Intriguingly, optimal docking also required an interaction with the non-conserved amino-terminal segment of Loop-F of the α-subunit. Testing of a compound with altered regiochemistry of the oxazolone moiety supported the model with respect to the conserved GABA-interacting residues in vitro as well as in vivo. The prediction regarding loop-F was examined by replacing the amino-terminal variable segment of loop-F of the α5-subunit with the corresponding residues in the α1- and α2-subunits. When tested with the novel inhibitors, the receptors formed by the modified α5-subunits displayed the pharmacologic phenotype of the source of loop-F. In summary, these data show that the variable amino-terminal segment of loop-F of the α-subunit determines the pharmacologic selectivity of the novel tricyclic inhibitors of GABAA receptors.

  12. A Transmembrane Amino Acid in the GABAA Receptor β2 Subunit Critical for the Actions of Alcohols and Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Mandy L.; Borghese, Cecilia M.; Trudell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohols and inhaled anesthetics enhance the function of GABAA receptors containing α, β, and γ subunits. Molecular analysis has focused on the role of the α subunits; however, there is evidence that the β subunits may also be important. The goal of our study was to determine whether Asn265, which is homologous to the site implicated in the α subunit (Ser270), contributes to an alcohol and volatile anesthetic binding site in the GABAA receptor β2 subunit. We substituted cysteine for Asn265 and exposed the mutant to the sulfhydryl-specific reagent octyl methanethiosulfonate (OMTS). We used two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus laevis oocytes and found that, after OMTS application, GABA-induced currents were irreversibly potentiated in mutant α1β2(N265C)γ2S receptors [but not α1β2(I264C)γ2S], presumably because of the covalent linking of octanethiol to the thiol group in the substituted cysteine. It is noteworthy that this effect was blocked when OMTS was applied in the presence of octanol. We found that potentiation by butanol, octanol, or isoflurane in the N265C mutant was nearly abolished after the application of OMTS, suggesting that an alcohol and volatile anesthetic binding site at position 265 of the β2 subunit was irreversibly occupied by octanethiol and consequently prevented butanol or isoflurane from binding and producing their effects. OMTS did not affect modulation or direct activation by pentobarbital, but there was a partial reduction of allosteric modulation by flunitrazepam and alphaxalone in mutant α1β2(N265C)γ2S receptors after OMTS was applied. Our findings provide evidence that Asn265 may contribute to an alcohol and anesthetic binding site. PMID:20826568

  13. Diminution of the NMDA receptor NR2B subunit in cortical and subcortical areas of WAG/Rij rats.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Fariba; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Jafarian, Maryam; Mohamadpour, Maliheh; Kazemi, Hadi; Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi; Gorji, Ali

    2013-12-01

    Modulation of glutamatergic NMDA receptors affects the synchronization of spike discharges in in WAG/Rij rats, a valid genetic animal model of absence epilepsy. In this study, we describe the alteration of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors expression in WAG/Rij rats in different somatosensory cortical layers and in hippocampal CA1 area. Experimental groups were divided into four groups of six rats of both WAG/Rij and Wistar strains with 2 and 6 months of age. The distribution of NR2B receptors was assessed by immunohistochemical staining in WAG/Rij and compared with age-matched Wistar rats. The expression of NR2B subunit was significantly decreased in different somatosensory cortical layers in 2- and 6-month-old WAG/Rij rats. In addition, the distribution of NR2B in hippocampal CA1 area was lower in 6-month-old WAG/Rij compared with age-matched Wistar rats. The reduction of NR2B receptors in different brain areas points to disturbance of glutamate receptors expression in cortical and subcortical areas in WAG/Rij rats. An altered subunit assembly of NMDA receptors may underlie cortical hyperexcitability in absence epilepsy.

  14. Affinity labeling of the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific receptor of rat hepatocytes: preferential labeling of one of the subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.T.; Lee, Y.C.

    1987-10-06

    The galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific receptor (also known as asialoglycoprotein receptor) of rat hepatocytes consists of three subunits, one of which (43 kilodalton (kDa)) exists in a greater abundance (up to 70% of total protein) over the two minor species (52 and 60 kDa). When the receptor on the hepatocyte membranes was photoaffinity labeled with an /sup 125/I-labeled high-affinity reagent the labeling occurred mainly (51-80%) on one of the minor bands (52 kDa). Similarly, affinity-bound, N-acetylgalactosamine-modified lactoperoxidase radioiodinated the same 52-kDa band preferentially. In contrast, both the photoaffinity labeling and lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of the purified, detergent-solubilized receptor resulted in a distribution of the label that is comparable to the Coomassie blue staining pattern of the three bands; i.e., the 43-kDa band was the major band labeled. These and other experimental results suggest that the preferential labeling of the minor band and inefficient labeling of the major band on the hepatocyte membrane resulted from a specific topological arrangement of these subunits on the membranes. The authors postulate that in the native, membrane-bound state of the receptor, the 52-kDa minor band is topologically prominent, while the major (43 kDa) band is partially masked. This partial masking may result from a tight packing of the receptor subunits on the membranes to form a lattice work.

  15. Increased sensitivity of the neuronal nicotinic receptor alpha 2 subunit causes familial epilepsy with nocturnal wandering and ictal fear.

    PubMed

    Aridon, Paolo; Marini, Carla; Di Resta, Chiara; Brilli, Elisa; De Fusco, Maurizio; Politi, Fausta; Parrini, Elena; Manfredi, Irene; Pisano, Tiziana; Pruna, Dario; Curia, Giulia; Cianchetti, Carlo; Pasqualetti, Massimo; Becchetti, Andrea; Guerrini, Renzo; Casari, Giorgio

    2006-08-01

    Sleep has traditionally been recognized as a precipitating factor for some forms of epilepsy, although differential diagnosis between some seizure types and parasomnias may be difficult. Autosomal dominant frontal lobe epilepsy is characterized by nocturnal seizures with hyperkinetic automatisms and poorly organized stereotyped movements and has been associated with mutations of the alpha 4 and beta 2 subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We performed a clinical and molecular genetic study of a large pedigree segregating sleep-related epilepsy in which seizures are associated with fear sensation, tongue movements, and nocturnal wandering, closely resembling nightmares and sleep walking. We identified a new genetic locus for familial sleep-related focal epilepsy on chromosome 8p12.3-8q12.3. By sequencing the positional candidate neuronal cholinergic receptor alpha 2 subunit gene (CHRNA2), we detected a heterozygous missense mutation, I279N, in the first transmembrane domain that is crucial for receptor function. Whole-cell recordings of transiently transfected HEK293 cells expressing either the mutant or the wild-type receptor showed that the new CHRNA2 mutation markedly increases the receptor sensitivity to acetylcholine, therefore indicating that the nicotinic alpha 2 subunit alteration is the underlying cause. CHRNA2 is the third neuronal cholinergic receptor gene to be associated with familial sleep-related epilepsies. Compared with the CHRNA4 and CHRNB2 mutations reported elsewhere, CHRNA2 mutations cause a more complex and finalized ictal behavior.

  16. GluN2A Subunit-Containing NMDA Receptors Are the Preferential Neuronal Targets of Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Sibarov, Dmitry A.; Abushik, Polina A.; Giniatullin, Rashid; Antonov, Sergei M.

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine (HCY) is an endogenous redox active amino acid, best known as contributor to various neurodegenerative disorders. Although it is known that HCY can activate NMDA receptors (NMDARs), the mechanisms of its action on receptors composed of different NMDA receptor subunits remains almost unknown. In this study, using imaging and patch clamp technique in cultured cortical neurons and heterologous expression in HEK293T cells we tested the agonist activity of HCY on NMDARs composed of GluN1 and GluN2A subunits (GluN1/2A receptors) and GluN1 and GluN2B subunits (GluN1/2B receptors). We demonstrate that the time courses of Ca2+ transients and membrane currents activated by HCY and NMDA in cortical neurons are drastically different. Application of HCY to cortical neurons induced responses, which in contrast to currents induced by NMDA (both in the presence of glycine) considerably decreased to steady state of small amplitude. In contrast to NMDA, HCY-activated currents at steady state were resistant to the selective GluN2B subunit inhibitor ifenprodil. In calcium-free external solution the decrease of NMDA evoked currents was abolished, suggesting the Ca2+-dependent NMDAR desensitization. Under these conditions HCY evoked currents still declined almost to the baseline suggesting Ca2+-independent desensitization. In HEK293T cells HCY activated NMDARs of GluN1/2A and GluN1/2B subunit compositions with EC50s of 9.7 ± 1.8 and 61.8 ± 8.9 μM, respectively. Recombinant GluN1/2A receptors, however, did not desensitize by HCY, whereas GluN1/2B receptors were almost fully desensitized by HCY. Thus, HCY is a high affinity agonist of NMDARs preferring the GluN1/2A subunit composition. Our data suggest that HCY induced native NMDAR currents in neurons are mainly mediated by the “synaptic type” GluN1/2A NMDARs. This implies that in hyperhomocysteinemia, a disorder with enlarged level of HCY in plasma, HCY may persistently contribute to post-synaptic responses mediated

  17. PICK1 and phosphorylation of the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) AMPA receptor subunit regulates GluR2 recycling after NMDA receptor-induced internalization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Da-Ting; Huganir, Richard L

    2007-12-12

    Changes in surface trafficking of AMPA receptors play an important role in synaptic plasticity. Phosphorylation of the C terminus of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) and the binding of GluR2 to the PDZ [postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1]-domain containing protein, protein interacting with protein kinase C (PICK1), have been proposed to play an important role in NMDA receptor dependent internalization of GluR2. However, the fate of internalized GluR2 after NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation is still unclear. Both recycling and degradation of GluR2 after the activation of NMDAR have been reported. Here, we used a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein variant, pHluorin, tagged to the N terminus of GluR2 (pH-GluR2) to study the dynamic internalization and recycling of GluR2 after NMDAR activation. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleach (FRAP), we directly demonstrate that internalized pH-GluR2 subunits recycle back to the cell surface after NMDAR activation. We further demonstrate that changing the phosphorylation state of the S880 residue at the C terminus of GluR2 does not affect NMDAR-dependent GluR2 internalization, but alters the recycling of GluR2 after NMDAR activation. In addition, mutation of the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) binding site in the pH-GluR2 slows receptor recycling. Finally, neurons lacking PICK1 display normal NMDAR dependent GluR2 internalization compared with wild-type neurons, but demonstrate accelerated GluR2 recycling after NMDAR activation. These results indicate that phosphorylation of GluR2 S880 and NSF and PICK1 binding to GluR2 dynamically regulate GluR2 recycling.

  18. Expression and characterization of a glycine-binding fragment of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1.

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, J; Nakanishi, S; Jingami, H

    1999-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels are composed of an NR1 subunit and at least one of the NR2 subunits (NR2A-D). Activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor requires the co-agonists glycine and glutamate. It has been proposed that the NR1 subunit possesses a glycine-binding site. We have expressed a soluble form of the NR1 subunit, which was produced by connecting the N-terminal extracellular region with the extracellular loop between the third and fourth membrane segments, by a baculovirus system along with full-length and truncated membrane-bound forms. The soluble NR1 receptor was efficiently secreted into the culture medium and showed a high affinity for ligands. The Kd of a glycine-site antagonist, [3H]MDL 105,519 [(E)-3-(2-phenyl-2-carboxyethenyl)-4, 6-dichloro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid], for the soluble receptor was 3.89+/-0.97 nM, which was comparable to the Kd of 4.47+/-1.39 nM for the membrane-bound full-length form. These values were close to the values reported previously with the use of rat brain membranes and Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the full-length form of the NR1 subunit. The Ki values of other glycine-site antagonists, L-689,560 (trans-2-carboxy-5,7-dichloro - 4 - phenylaminocarbonylamino - 1,2,3,4 - tetrahydroquinoline), 5, 7-dichlorokynurenate and 5,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, for the soluble receptor were also similar to those for the full-length form of NR1. [3H]MDL 105,519 binding was also inhibited by the agonists glycine and d-serine. Thus the affinity and selectivity of ligand-binding characteristics of the NR1 subunit is conferred on the soluble form of the NR1 subunit. This soluble receptor provides a good experimental tool for initiating a biophysical analysis of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor channel protein. PMID:10359652

  19. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations.

  20. Nicotine normalizes intracellular subunit stoichiometry of nicotinic receptors carrying mutations linked to autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Son, Cagdas D; Moss, Fraser J; Cohen, Bruce N; Lester, Henry A

    2009-05-01

    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is linked with high penetrance to several distinct nicotinic receptor (nAChR) mutations. We studied (alpha4)(3)(beta2)(2) versus (alpha4)(2)(beta2)(3) subunit stoichiometry for five channel-lining M2 domain mutations: S247F, S252L, 776ins3 in alpha4, V287L, and V287M in beta2. alpha4 and beta2 subunits were constructed with all possible combinations of mutant and wild-type (WT) M2 regions, of cyan and yellow fluorescent protein, and of fluorescent and nonfluorescent M3-M4 loops. Sixteen fluorescent subunit combinations were expressed in N2a cells. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was analyzed by donor recovery after acceptor photobleaching and by pixel-by-pixel sensitized emission, with confirmation by fluorescence intensity ratios. Because FRET efficiency is much greater for adjacent than for nonadjacent subunits and the alpha4 and beta2 subunits occupy specific positions in nAChR pentamers, observed FRET efficiencies from (alpha4)(3)(beta2)(2) carrying fluorescent alpha4 subunits were significantly higher than for (alpha4)(2)(beta2)(3); the converse was found for fluorescent beta2 subunits. All tested ADNFLE mutants produced 10 to 20% increments in the percentage of intracellular (alpha4)(3)(beta2)(2) receptors compared with WT subunits. In contrast, 24- to 48-h nicotine (1 muM) exposure increased the proportion of (alpha4)(2)(beta2)(3) in WT receptors and also returned subunit stoichiometry to WT levels for alpha4S248F and beta2V287L nAChRs. These observations may be relevant to the decreased seizure frequency in patients with ADNFLE who use tobacco products or nicotine patches. Fluorescence-based investigations of nAChR subunit stoichiometry may provide efficient drug discovery methods for nicotine addiction or for other disorders that result from dysregulated nAChRs.

  1. Interleukin 2 (IL2) PE40 is cytotoxic to cells displaying either the p55 or p70 subunit of the IL2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Lorberboum-Galski, H; Kozak, R W; Waldmann, T A; Bailon, P; FitzGerald, D J; Pastan, I

    1988-12-15

    IL2-PE40 is a chimeric protein composed of human interleukin 2 (IL2) genetically fused to the amino terminus of a modified form of pseudomonas exotoxin (PE). Internalization of IL2 via the individual p55 and p70 subunits of the IL2 receptor was studied using IL2-PE40 on several mouse and human cell lines expressing either the p55, the p70, or both IL2 receptor subunits. Internalization was assessed by measuring inhibition of protein synthesis caused by the toxin moiety of IL2-PE40. The results demonstrate that IL2 internalization is mediated by either the p55 receptor subunit or by the p70 subunit but is much more efficient when high affinity receptors composed of both subunits are present. IL2-PE40 is a powerful reagent for studying IL2 receptor interactions and for analyzing pathways of the immune response and its regulation.

  2. GABA A receptor π subunit promotes apoptosis of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblastic cells: Implications in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junjie; Zhang, Qian; Tan, Dongmei; Luo, Wenping; Zhao, Hai; Ma, Jing; Liang, Hao; Tan, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions primarily as an inhibitory neurotransmitter through its receptors in the mature central nervous system. The GABA type A receptor π subunit (GABRP) has been identified in the tissues of the reproductive system, particularly in the uterus. In addition, we have previously detected GABRP expression in both human and mouse placentas. To examine the role of GABRP in trophoblastic cell invasion, we constructed a pIRES2-GABRP-EGFP plasmid which was used for the transfection of a human placental cell line derived from first trimester extravillous trophoblasts (HTR-8/SVneo). The number of invaded cells was decreased by GABRP overexpression. Notably, the decrease in the invasive cell number may be due to the increased apoptosis of the HTR-8/SVneo cells following GABRP transfection, which was further confirmed by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. Based on the increased apoptosis of trophoblastic cells in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) and the fact that GABRP promotes the apoptosis of trophoblastic cells, we hypothesized that GABRP expression is increased in the placental tissues from patients with PE compared with that in the normal groups and this hypothesis was confirmed by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Taken together, these findings imply that GABRP plays an important role in placentation and this pathway may be a promising molecular target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for PE.

  3. The A-Current Modulates Learning via NMDA Receptors Containing the NR2B Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Suárez-Pereira, Irene; González-Forero, David; Carrión, Ángel Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity involves short- and long-term events, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are not fully understood. The transient A-type K+ current (IA) controls the excitability of the dendrites from CA1 pyramidal neurons by regulating the back-propagation of action potentials and shaping synaptic input. Here, we have studied how decreases in IA affect cognitive processes and synaptic plasticity. Using wild-type mice treated with 4-AP, an IA inhibitor, and mice lacking the DREAM protein, a transcriptional repressor and modulator of the IA, we demonstrate that impairment of IA decreases the stimulation threshold for learning and the induction of early-LTP. Hippocampal electrical recordings in both models revealed alterations in basal electrical oscillatory properties toward low-theta frequencies. In addition, we demonstrated that the facilitated learning induced by decreased IA requires the activation of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit. Together, these findings point to a balance between the IA and the activity of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the regulation of learning. PMID:21966384

  4. Developmental origin dictates interneuron AMPA and NMDA receptor subunit composition and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Matta, Jose A; Pelkey, Kenneth A; Craig, Michael T; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Jeffries, Brian W; McBain, Chris J

    2013-08-01

    Disrupted excitatory synapse maturation in GABAergic interneurons may promote neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. However, establishing developmental programs for nascent synapses in GABAergic cells is confounded by their sparsity, heterogeneity and late acquisition of subtype-defining characteristics. We investigated synaptic development in mouse interneurons targeting cells by lineage from medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) or caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) progenitors. MGE-derived interneuron synapses were dominated by GluA2-lacking AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), with little contribution from NMDA-type receptors (NMDARs) throughout development. In contrast, CGE-derived cell synapses had large NMDAR components and used GluA2-containing AMPARs. In neonates, both MGE- and CGE-derived interneurons expressed primarily GluN2B subunit-containing NMDARs, which most CGE-derived interneurons retained into adulthood. However, MGE-derived interneuron NMDARs underwent a GluN2B-to-GluN2A switch that could be triggered acutely with repetitive synaptic activity. Our findings establish ganglionic eminence-dependent rules for early synaptic integration programs of distinct interneuron cohorts, including parvalbumin- and cholecystokinin-expressing basket cells.

  5. Sequential mutations in the interleukin-3 (IL3)/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL5 receptor beta-subunit genes are necessary for the complete conversion to growth autonomy mediated by a truncated beta C subunit.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, J; Hara, T; Kawai, M; Miyajima, A; Ostertag, W; Stocking, C

    1995-05-01

    An amino-terminally truncated beta C receptor (beta C-R) subunit of the interleukin-3 (IL3)/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL5 receptor complex mediates factor-independent and tumorigenic growth in two spontaneous mutants of a promyelocytic cell line. The constitutive activation of the JAK2 protein kinase in these mutants confirms that signaling occurs through the truncated receptor protein. Noteworthily, in addition to a 10-kb deletion in the beta C-R subunit gene encoding the truncated receptor, several secondary and independent mutations that result in the deletion or functional inactivation of the allelic beta C-R subunit and the closely related beta IL3-R subunit genes were observed in both mutants, suggesting that such mutations are necessary for the full oncogenic penetrance of the truncated beta C-R subunit. Reversion of these mutations by the expression of the wild-type beta C-R in the two mutants resulted in a fivefold decrease in cloning efficiency of the mutants in the absence of IL3, confirming a functional interaction between the wild-type and truncated proteins. Furthermore, expression of the truncated beta C-R subunit in factor-dependent myeloid cells did not immediately render the cells autonomous but increased the spontaneous frequency to factor-independent growth by 4 orders of magnitude. Implications for both leukemogenic progression and receptor-subunit interaction and signaling are discussed.

  6. Mutations in the main cytoplasmic loop of the GABA(A) receptor α4 and δ subunits have opposite effects on surface expression.

    PubMed

    Bracamontes, John R; Li, Ping; Akk, Gustav; Steinbach, Joe Henry

    2014-07-01

    We examined the role of putative trafficking sequences in two GABA(A) receptor subunits: α4 and δ. These subunits assemble with a β subunit to form a subtype of GABA(A) receptor involved in generating the "tonic" outward current. Both α4 and δ subunits contain dibasic retention motifs in homologous positions. When basic residues are mutated to alanine in the α4 subunit, surface expression of epitope-tagged δ subunits is increased. When basic residues in homologous regions of the δ subunit are mutated, however, surface expression is reduced. We focused on the mutants that had the maximal effects to increase (in α4) or reduce (in δ) surface expression. The total expression of δ subunits is significantly decreased by the δ mutation, suggesting an effect on subunit maturation. We also examined surface expression of the β2 subunit. Expression of the mutated α4 subunit resulted in increased surface expression of β2 compared with wild-type α4, indicating enhanced forward trafficking. In contrast, mutated δ resulted in decreased surface expression of β2 compared with wild-type δ and to α4 and β2 in the absence of any δ. This observation suggests that the mutated δ incorporates into multimeric receptors and reduces the overall forward trafficking of receptors. These observations indicate that the roles of trafficking motifs are complex, even when located in homologous positions in related subunits. The physiologic properties of receptors containing mutated subunits were not significantly affected, indicating that the mutations in the α4 subunit will be useful to enhance surface expression.

  7. GluN2A and GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors in hippocampal plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, Olivia A.; Paulsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity is a strong candidate to mediate learning and memory processes that require the hippocampus. This plasticity is bidirectional, and how the same receptor can mediate opposite changes in synaptic weights remains a conundrum. It has been suggested that the NMDAR subunit composition could be involved. Specifically, one subunit composition of NMDARs would be responsible for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas NMDARs with a different subunit composition would be engaged in the induction of long-term depression (LTD). Unfortunately, the results from studies that have investigated this hypothesis are contradictory, particularly in relation to LTD. Nevertheless, current evidence does suggest that the GluN2B subunit might be particularly important for plasticity and may make a synapse bidirectionally malleable. In particular, we conclude that the presence of GluN2B subunit-containing NMDARs at the postsynaptic density might be a necessary, though not a sufficient, condition for the strengthening of individual synapses. This is owing to the interaction of GluN2B with calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and is distinct from its contribution as an ion channel. PMID:24298164

  8. Role for the NR2B Subunit of the NMDA Receptor in Mediating Light Input to the Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, LM; Schroeder, A; Loh, D; Smith, D; Lin, K; Han, JH; Michel, S; Hummer, DL; Ehlen, JC; Albers, HE; Colwell, CS

    2008-01-01

    Light information reaches the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) through a subpopulation of retinal ganglion cells that utilize glutamate as a neurotransmitter. A variety of evidence suggests that the release of glutamate then activates N-methyl-Daspartate (NMDA) receptors within the SCN and triggers a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to phase shifts in the circadian system. In this study, we first sought to explore the role of the NR2B subunit in mediating the effects of light on the circadian system. We found that localized microinjection of the NR2B subunit antagonist ifenprodil into the SCN region inhibits the magnitude of light-induced phase shifts of the circadian rhythm in wheel-running activity. Next, we found that the NR2B message and levels of phospho-NR2B levels vary with time of day in SCN tissue using semi-quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Functionally, we found that blocking the NR2B subunit with ifenprodil significantly reduced the magnitude of NMDA currents recorded in SCN neurons. Ifenprodil also significantly reduced the magnitude of NMDA-induced calcium changes in SCN cells. Together, these results demonstrate that the NR2B subunit is an important component of NMDA receptor mediated responses within SCN neurons and that this subunit contributes to light-induced phase shifts of the mammalian circadian system. PMID:18380671

  9. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptor plasticity is mediated by subunit-specific interactions with PICK1 and NSF.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Stephanie M; Takamiya, Kogo; Xia, Jun; Suh, Jun-Gyo; Johnson, Richard; Yu, Sandy; Huganir, Richard L

    2005-03-24

    A recently described form of synaptic plasticity results in dynamic changes in the calcium permeability of synaptic AMPA receptors. Since the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit confers calcium permeability, this plasticity is thought to occur through the dynamic exchange of synaptic GluR2-lacking and GluR2-containing receptors. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this calcium-permeable AMPA receptor plasticity (CARP), we examined whether AMPA receptor exchange was mediated by subunit-specific protein-protein interactions. We found that two GluR2-interacting proteins, the PDZ domain-containing Protein interacting with C kinase (PICK1) and N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein (NSF), are specifically required for CARP. Furthermore, PICK1, but not NSF, regulates the formation of extrasynaptic plasma membrane pools of GluR2-containing receptors that may be laterally mobilized into synapses during CARP. These results demonstrate that PICK1 and NSF dynamically regulate the synaptic delivery of GluR2-containing receptors during CARP and thus regulate the calcium permeability of AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses.

  10. Resistance to cycloxaprid in Laodelphax striatellus is associated with altered expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueliang; Han, Yangchun; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Lihua; He, Peng; Liu, Zewen; Guo, Huifang; Fang, Jichao

    2017-10-09

    Cycloxaprid is a new oxabridged cis-configuration neonicotinoid insecticide, the resistance development potential and underlying resistance mechanism of which were investigated in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), an important agricultural pest of rice. A cycloxaprid-resistant strain (YN-CPD) only achieved 10-fold resistance, in contrast to 106-fold resistance to buprofezin and 332-fold resistance to chlorpyrifos achieved after exposure to similar selection pressure, and the cycloxaprid selected line showed no cross-resistance to the buprofezin and chlorpyrifos-selected resistance strains. Moreover, we identified 10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits from the transcriptome of L. striatellus, and 6 segments had open reading frames (ORFs). While we did not find mutations in the nAChR genes of L. striatellus, subunits Lsα1 and Lsβ1 exhibited respectively 9.60-fold and 3.36-fold higher expression in the resistant strain, while Lsα8 exhibited 0.44-fold lower expression. Suppression of Lsα1 through ingestion of dsLsα1 led to an increase in susceptibility to cycloxaprid. The findings indicate that resistance to cycloxaprid develops slowly compared to other chemicals and without cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos or buprofezin; over-expressed Lsα1 is associated with low cycloxaprid resistance levels, but the importance of over-expressed Lsβ1 and reduced expression of Lsα8 could not be excluded. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional characterisation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α subunit from the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus☆

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Kristin; Jones, Andrew K.; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Akamatsu, Miki; Sattelle, David B.; Woods, Debra J.; Bowman, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases have a major impact on human and animal health worldwide. Current control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical acaricides, most of which target the CNS and with increasing resistance, new drugs are urgently needed. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are targets of highly successful insecticides. We isolated a full-length nAChR α subunit from a normalised cDNA library from the synganglion (brain) of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Phylogenetic analysis has shown this R. sanguineus nAChR to be most similar to the insect α1 nAChR group and has been named Rsanα1. Rsanα1 is distributed in multiple tick tissues and is present across all life-stages. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes Rsanα1 failed to function as a homomer, with and without the addition of either Caenorhabditis elegans resistance-to-cholinesterase (RIC)-3 or X. laevis RIC-3. When co-expressed with chicken β2 nAChR, Rsanα1 evoked concentration-dependent, inward currents in response to acetylcholine (ACh) and showed sensitivity to nicotine (100 μM) and choline (100 μM). Rsanα1/β2 was insensitive to both imidacloprid (100 μM) and spinosad (100 μM). The unreliable expression of Rsanα1 in vitro suggests that additional subunits or chaperone proteins may be required for more robust expression. This study enhances our understanding of nAChRs in arachnids and may provide a basis for further studies on the interaction of compounds with the tick nAChR as part of a discovery process for novel acaricides. PMID:24291321

  12. Tocilizumab Contributes to the Inflammatory Status of Mature Dendritic Cells through Interleukin-6 Receptor Subunits Modulation.

    PubMed

    Meley, Daniel; Héraud, Audrey; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valerie; Ivanes, Fabrice; Velge-Roussel, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor α (IL-6Rα) is widely used in the treatment of a panel of pathologies such as adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the systemic form of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children. Its indications are expected to be largely extended to other inflammatory diseases in close future. Dendritic cells (DCs) appear to be deeply involved in the immunopathology of these diseases, yet the effects of tocilizumab on these cells were poorly studied. In this study, we explored the effect of tocilizumab on the regulation of IL-6R subunits [gp130, soluble form of IL-6Rα (sIL-6Rα), and mIL-6Rα] in human monocyte-derived DCs. Human DCs were derived from CD14(+) monocytes purified with beads with IL-4 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Ex vivo cultures of DCs were performed in the presence of tocilizumab. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) maturation of DCs, we demonstrated that tocilizumab did not inhibit IL-6 secretion, enhanced mIL-6Rα expression, and largely increased sIL-6Rα secretion. MAPK modulated STAT3 phosphorylation and surface expression of IL-6Rα in LPS-DCs. Tocilizumab had no impact on STAT3 phosphorylation in LPS-DCs while both LPS and IL-6 increased its activation. Tocilizumab modulated the regulation of IL-6R subunits leading to an inflammatory status of DCs and a massive secretion of IL-6Rα. Our results demonstrate that DCs acquire a pro-inflammatory profile following tocilizumab treatment, becoming a major source of IL-6 trans-signaling activation that might explain the poor clinical benefit in some RA patients.

  13. Tocilizumab Contributes to the Inflammatory Status of Mature Dendritic Cells through Interleukin-6 Receptor Subunits Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Meley, Daniel; Héraud, Audrey; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valerie; Ivanes, Fabrice; Velge-Roussel, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor α (IL-6Rα) is widely used in the treatment of a panel of pathologies such as adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the systemic form of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children. Its indications are expected to be largely extended to other inflammatory diseases in close future. Dendritic cells (DCs) appear to be deeply involved in the immunopathology of these diseases, yet the effects of tocilizumab on these cells were poorly studied. In this study, we explored the effect of tocilizumab on the regulation of IL-6R subunits [gp130, soluble form of IL-6Rα (sIL-6Rα), and mIL-6Rα] in human monocyte-derived DCs. Human DCs were derived from CD14+ monocytes purified with beads with IL-4 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Ex vivo cultures of DCs were performed in the presence of tocilizumab. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) maturation of DCs, we demonstrated that tocilizumab did not inhibit IL-6 secretion, enhanced mIL-6Rα expression, and largely increased sIL-6Rα secretion. MAPK modulated STAT3 phosphorylation and surface expression of IL-6Rα in LPS-DCs. Tocilizumab had no impact on STAT3 phosphorylation in LPS-DCs while both LPS and IL-6 increased its activation. Tocilizumab modulated the regulation of IL-6R subunits leading to an inflammatory status of DCs and a massive secretion of IL-6Rα. Our results demonstrate that DCs acquire a pro-inflammatory profile following tocilizumab treatment, becoming a major source of IL-6 trans-signaling activation that might explain the poor clinical benefit in some RA patients. PMID:28861079

  14. T helper cell recognition of muscle acetylcholine receptor in myasthenia gravis. Epitopes on the gamma and delta subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Manfredi, A A; Protti, M P; Dalton, M W; Howard, J F; Conti-Tronconi, B M

    1993-01-01

    We tested the response of CD4+ cells and/or total lymphocytes from the blood of 22 myasthenic patients and 10 healthy controls to overlapping synthetic peptides, 20 residues long, to screen the sequence of the gamma and delta subunits of human muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The gamma subunit is part of the AChR expressed in embryonic muscle and is substituted in the AChRs of most adult muscles by an epsilon subunit. The delta subunit is present in both embryonic and adult AChRs. Adult extrinsic ocular muscles, which are preferentially and sometimes uniquely affected by myasthenic symptoms, and thymus, which has a still obscure but important role in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis, express the embryonic gamma subunit. Anti-AChR CD4+ responses were more easily detected after CD8+ depletion. All responders recognized epitopes on both the gamma and delta subunits and had severe symptoms. In four patients the CD4+ cell response was tested twice, when the symptoms were severe and during a period of remission. Consistently, the response was only detectable, or larger, when the patients were severely affected. Images PMID:7688757

  15. Constitutive Effects of Lead on Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Gene Battery and Protection by β-carotene and Ascorbic Acid in Human HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Wageh S; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant that can get entry into human body through contaminated foods, drinks, and inhaled air leading to severe biological consequences, and has been responsible for many deaths worldwide. The objectives of this study were 1st to investigate the modulatory effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb on AhR gene battery, which is controlling xenobiotics metabolism. 2nd, trials to reduce Pb-induced adverse effects were done using some phytochemicals like β-carotene or ascorbic acid. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines were exposed to a wide range of Pb concentrations varying from physiological to toxic levels (0 to 10 mg/L) for 24 h. High Pb concentrations (1 to 10 mg/L) significantly reduced phase I (CYP1A1 and 1A2) and phase II (UGT1A6 and NQO1) xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme mRNA expression in a mechanistic manner through the AhR regulation pathway. Additionally, these Pb concentrations induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells in terms of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent phenomenon. Coexposure of HepG2 cells to physiological concentrations of some micronutrients, like β-carotene (10 μM) or ascorbic acid (0.1 mM), along with Pb (1 mg/L) for 24 h significantly reduced the levels of ROS production and recovered AhR mRNA expression into the normal levels. Thus, consumption of foods rich in these micronutrients may help to reduce the adverse effects of lead in areas with high levels of pollution.

  16. Transgenic Over Expression of Nicotinic Receptor Alpha 5, Alpha 3, and Beta 4 Subunit Genes Reduces Ethanol Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C.; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol’s as well as nicotine’s effects. PMID:22459873

  17. NMDA Receptors Containing the GluN2D Subunit Control Neuronal Function in the Subthalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Swanger, Sharon A.; Vance, Katie M.; Pare, Jean-François; Sotty, Florence; Fog, Karina; Smith, Yoland

    2015-01-01

    The GluN2D subunit of the NMDA receptor is prominently expressed in the basal ganglia and associated brainstem nuclei, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus, striatum, and substantia nigra. However, little is known about how GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors contribute to synaptic activity in these regions. Using Western blotting of STN tissue punches, we demonstrated that GluN2D is expressed in the rat STN throughout development [age postnatal day 7 (P7)–P60] and in the adult (age P120). Immunoelectron microscopy of the adult rat brain showed that GluN2D is predominantly expressed in dendrites, unmyelinated axons, and axon terminals within the STN. Using subunit-selective allosteric modulators of NMDA receptors (TCN-201, ifenprodil, CIQ, and DQP-1105), we provide evidence that receptors containing the GluN2B and GluN2D subunits mediate responses to exogenously applied NMDA and glycine, as well as synaptic NMDA receptor activation in the STN of rat brain slices. EPSCs in the STN were mediated primarily by AMPA and NMDA receptors and GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors controlled the slow deactivation time course of EPSCs in the STN. In vivo recordings from the STN of anesthetized adult rats demonstrated that the spike firing rate was increased by the GluN2C/D potentiator CIQ and decreased by the GluN2C/D antagonist DQP-1105, suggesting that NMDA receptor activity can influence STN output. These data indicate that the GluN2B and GluN2D NMDA receptor subunits contribute to synaptic activity in the STN and may represent potential therapeutic targets for modulating subthalamic neuron activity in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key component of the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei that control movement and are dysregulated in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Subthalamic neurons receive direct excitatory input, but the pharmacology of excitatory

  18. Med1 subunit of the mediator complex in nuclear receptor-regulated energy metabolism, liver regeneration, and hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuzhi; Viswakarma, Navin; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-01-01

    Several nuclear receptors regulate diverse metabolic functions that impact on critical biological processes, such as development, differentiation, cellular regeneration, and neoplastic conversion. In the liver, some members of the nuclear receptor family, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptor (LXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and others, regulate energy homeostasis, the formation and excretion of bile acids, and detoxification of xenobiotics. Excess energy burning resulting from increases in fatty acid oxidation systems in liver generates reactive oxygen species, and the resulting oxidative damage influences liver regeneration and liver tumor development. These nuclear receptors are important sensors of exogenous activators as well as receptor-specific endogenous ligands. In this regard, gene knockout mouse models revealed that some lipid-metabolizing enzymes generate PPARα-activating ligands, while others such as ACOX1 (fatty acyl-CoA oxidase1) inactivate these endogenous PPARα activators. In the absence of ACOX1, the unmetabolized ACOX1 substrates cause sustained activation of PPARα, and the resulting increase in energy burning leads to hepatocarcinogenesis. Ligand-activated nuclear receptors recruit the multisubunit Mediator complex for RNA polymerase II-dependent gene transcription. Evidence indicates that the Med1 subunit of the Mediator is essential for PPARα, PPARγ, CAR, and GR signaling in liver. Med1 null hepatocytes fail to respond to PPARα activators in that these cells do not show induction of peroxisome proliferation and increases in fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Med1-deficient hepatocytes show no increase in cell proliferation and do not give rise to liver tumors. Identification of nuclear receptor-specific coactivators and Mediator subunits should further our understanding of the complexities of metabolic

  19. Med1 Subunit of the Mediator Complex in Nuclear Receptor-Regulated Energy Metabolism, Liver Regeneration, and Hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuzhi; Viswakarma, Navin; Reddy, Janardan K.

    2014-01-01

    Several nuclear receptors regulate diverse metabolic functions that impact on critical biological processes, such as development, differentiation, cellular regeneration, and neoplastic conversion. In the liver, some members of the nuclear receptor family, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptor (LXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and others, regulate energy homeostasis, the formation and excretion of bile acids, and detoxification of xenobiotics. Excess energy burning resulting from increases in fatty acid oxidation systems in liver generates reactive oxygen species, and the resulting oxidative damage influences liver regeneration and liver tumor development. These nuclear receptors are important sensors of exogenous activators as well as receptor-specific endogenous ligands. In this regard, gene knockout mouse models revealed that some lipid-metabolizing enzymes generate PPARα-activating ligands, while others such as ACOX1 (fatty acyl-CoA oxidase1) inactivate these endogenous PPARα activators. In the absence of ACOX1, the unmetabolized ACOX1 substrates cause sustained activation of PPARα, and the resulting increase in energy burning leads to hepatocarcinogenesis. Ligand-activated nuclear receptors recruit the multisubunit Mediator complex for RNA polymerase II-dependent gene transcription. Evidence indicates that the Med1 subunit of the Mediator is essential for PPARα, PPARγ, CAR, and GR signaling in liver. Med1 null hepatocytes fail to respond to PPARα activators in that these cells do not show induction of peroxisome proliferation and increases in fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Med1-deficient hepatocytes show no increase in cell proliferation and do not give rise to liver tumors. Identification of nuclear receptor-specific coactivators and Mediator subunits should further our understanding of the complexities of metabolic

  20. Chronic intermittent ethanol treatment selectively alters N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit surface expression in cultured cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Mei; Denny, Ashley D; Ticku, Maharaj K

    2007-07-01

    A chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure regimen consists of repeated episodes of ethanol intoxication and withdrawal. CIE treatment has been reported to result in a significant enhancement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic responses in vivo, and trafficking of NMDA receptors is emerging a key regulatory mechanism that underlies the channel function. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of CIE on NMDA receptor subunit surface expression. Cultured cortical neurons were exposed to 75 mM ethanol for 14 h followed by 10 h of withdrawal, repeated this cycle five times, and followed by 2 or 5 days of withdrawal. Surface-expressed NMDA receptor subunits and their endocytosis were measured by biotinylation and Western blots. CIE significantly increased NMDA receptor (NR) 1 and NR2B but not NR2A subunit surface expression after 5 days of treatment. However, CIE treatment did not reduce the NMDA receptor endocytosis. Quantification of immunocytochemistry confirmed CIE-induced increase in both the total number of NR1 and NR2B subunit clusters and their targeting to synaptic sites. It is noteworthy that this effect persisted even after ethanol withdrawal with a peak expression occurring between 0 and 2 days after withdrawal, and the expression on the plasma membrane was still at high levels after 5 days of withdrawal. In addition, this was accompanied by significant increases in postsynaptic density protein 95 clusters. Protein kinase A inhibitor completely reversed CIE-induced increase in NR1 and partially in NR2B surface level and a long-lasting effect. These changes may contribute to the development of ethanol-induced neurotoxicity and ethanol dependence.

  1. Short-term sleep deprivation impairs spatial working memory and modulates expression levels of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Meilan; Yan, Jie; He, Chao; Yang, Li; Tan, Gang; Li, Chao; Hu, Zhian; Wang, Jiali

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning memory is sensitive to sleep deprivation (SD). Although the ionotropic glutamate receptors play a vital role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, however, whether the expression of these receptor subunits is modulated by sleep loss remains unclear. In the present study, western blotting was performed by probing with specific antibodies against the ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and against the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subunits GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B. In hippocampus, down regulation of surface GluA1 and GluN2A surface expression were observed in both SD groups. However, surface expression level of GluA2, GluA3, GluN1 and GluN2B was significantly up-regulated in 8h-SD rats when compared to the 4h-SD rats. In parallel with the complex changes in AMPA and NMDA receptor subunit expressions, we found the 8h-SD impaired rat spatial working memory in 30-s-delay T-maze task, whereas no impairment of spatial learning was observed in 4h-SD rats. These results indicate that sleep loss alters the relative expression levels of the AMPA and NMDA receptors, thus affects the synaptic strength and capacity for plasticity and partially contributes to spatial memory impairment.

  2. Null mutation of the β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit attenuates nicotine withdrawal-induced anhedonia in mice.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Astrid K; Marks, Michael J; Markou, Athina

    2015-04-15

    The anhedonic signs of nicotine withdrawal are predictive of smoking relapse rates in humans. Identification of the neurobiological substrates that mediate anhedonia will provide insights into the genetic variations that underlie individual responses to smoking cessation and relapse. The present study assessed the role of β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nACh receptor) subunits in nicotine withdrawal-induced anhedonia using β2 nACh receptor subunit knockout (β2(-/-)) and wildtype (β2(+/+)) mice. Anhedonia was assessed with brain reward thresholds, defined as the current intensity that supports operant behavior in the discrete-trial current-intensity intracranial self-stimulation procedure. Nicotine was delivered chronically through osmotic minipumps for 28 days (40 mg/kg/day, base), and withdrawal was induced by either administering the broad-spectrum nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (i.e., antagonist-precipitated withdrawal) in mice chronically treated with nicotine or terminating chronic nicotine administration (i.e., spontaneous withdrawal). Mecamylamine (6 mg/kg, salt) significantly elevated brain reward thresholds in nicotine-treated β2(+/+) mice compared with saline-treated β2(+/+) mice and nicotine-treated β2(-/-) mice. Spontaneous nicotine withdrawal similarly resulted in significant elevations in thresholds in nicotine-withdrawing β2(+/+) mice compared with saline-treated β2(+/+) and nicotine-treated β2(-/-) mice, which remained at baseline levels. These results showed that precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal-induced anhedonia was attenuated in β2(-/-) mice. The reduced expression of anhedonic signs during nicotine withdrawal in β2(-/-) mice may have resulted from the lack of neuroadaptations in β2 nACh receptor subunit expression and function that may have occurred during either nicotine exposure or nicotine withdrawal in wildtype mice. In conclusion, individuals with genetic variations that result in diminished

  3. Nicotine-induced up-regulation and desensitization of alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptors depend on subunit ratio.

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Gretchen Y; Sánchez-Padilla, Javier; Ortiz-Acevedo, Alejandro; Lizardi-Ortiz, José; Salas-Vincenty, Janice; Rojas, Legier V; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2004-09-03

    Desensitization induced by chronic nicotine exposure has been hypothesized to trigger the up-regulation of the alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the central nervous system. We studied the effect of acute and chronic nicotine exposure on the desensitization and up-regulation of different alpha4beta2 subunit ratios (1alpha:4beta, 2alpha:3beta, and 4alpha:1beta) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The presence of alpha4 subunit in the oocyte plasmatic membrane increased linearly with the amount of alpha4 mRNA injected. nAChR function and expression were assessed during acute and after chronic nicotine exposure using a two-electrode voltage clamp and whole-mount immunofluorescence assay along with confocal imaging for the detection of the alpha4 subunit. The 2alpha4:3beta2 subunit ratio displayed the highest ACh sensitivity. Nicotine dose-response curves for the 1alpha4:4beta2 and 2alpha4:3beta2 subunit ratios displayed a biphasic behavior at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 300 microm. A biphasic curve for 4alpha4:1beta2 was obtained at nicotine concentrations higher than 300 microm. The 1alpha4:4beta2 subunit ratio exhibited the lowest ACh- and nicotine-induced macroscopic current, whereas 4alpha4:1beta2 presented the largest currents at all agonist concentrations tested. Desensitization by acute nicotine exposure was more evident as the ratio of beta2:alpha4 subunits increased. All three alpha4beta2 subunit ratios displayed a reduced state of activation after chronic nicotine exposure. Chronic nicotine-induced up-regulation was obvious only for the 2alpha4: 3beta2 subunit ratio. Our data suggest that the subunit ratio of alpha4beta2 determines the functional state of activation, desensitization, and up-regulation of this neuronal nAChR. We propose that independent structural sites regulate alpha4beta2 receptor activation and desensitization.

  4. AMPA receptor subunits are differentially expressed in parvalbumin- and calretinin-positive neurons of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Catania, M V; Bellomo, M; Giuffrida, R; Giuffrida, R; Stella, A M; Albanese, V

    1998-11-01

    Recent studies suggest a functional diversity of native alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate-type glutamate receptor channels (AMPARs). In several types of interneurons, AMPARs are characterized by higher Ca2+ permeability and faster kinetics than AMPARs in principal cells. We studied the expression profile of AMPAR subunits in the hippocampal parvalbumin (PV)- and calretinin (CR)-positive cells, which represent different populations of non-principal cells. To this end, non-radioactive in situ hybridization with AMPAR subunit specific cRNAs was combined with immunocytochemistry for PV or CR. Double-immunolabelling using antibodies against AMPAR subunits and PV or CR was also performed. PV-containing neurons represent a fairly homogeneous population of cells expressing high levels of GluR-A and GluR-D mRNAs, moderate levels of GluR-C and low levels of GluR-B mRNAs in all the examined regions of hippocampus. The vast majority of CR-containing cells have a much lower expression of GluR-A, -C and -D mRNA than PV-positive neurons, although similarly featuring low levels of GluR-B mRNA. Only a subpopulation of CR-containing cells, the spiny neurons of the dentate gyrus and CA3 region of the hippocampus were characterized by a strong expression of GluR-A and -D subunit mRNAs. The differential pattern found for the AMPAR subunit mRNA expression was confirmed by immunocytochemistry at protein level. Despite the common feature of low GluR-B subunit expression, PV- and CR-containing interneurons differ with respect to the density and combination of their expressed AMPAR subunits. The different combination of subunits might subserve different properties of the AMPA channels featured by these cell types, with implications for the functioning of the hippocampal network.

  5. Antineoplastic effects of α-santalol on estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells through cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Santha, Sreevidya; Bommareddy, Ajay; Rule, Brittny; Guillermo, Ruth; Kaushik, Radhey S; Young, Alan; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer efficacy and the mechanism of action of α-santalol, a terpenoid isolated from sandalwood oil, were investigated in human breast cancer cells by using p53 wild-type MCF-7 cells as a model for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and p53 mutated MDA-MB-231 cells as a model for ER-negative breast cancer. α-Santalol inhibited cell viability and proliferation in a concentration and time-dependent manner in both cells regardless of their ER and/or p53 status. However, α-santalol produced relatively less toxic effect on normal breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A. It induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell cycle arrest induced by α-santalol was associated with changes in the protein levels of BRCA1, Chk1, G2/M regulatory cyclins, Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), Cell division cycle 25B (Cdc25B), Cdc25C and Ser-216 phosphorylation of Cdc25C. An up-regulated expression of CDK inhibitor p21 along with suppressed expression of mutated p53 was observed in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with α-santalol. On the contrary, α-santalol did not increase the expression of wild-type p53 and p21 in MCF-7 cells. In addition, α-santalol induced extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis in both cells with activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9. It led to the activation of the executioner caspase-6 and caspase-7 in α-santalol-treated MCF-7 cells and caspase-3 and caspase-6 in MDA-MB-231 cells along with strong cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in both cells. Taken together, this study for the first time identified strong anti-neoplastic effects of α-santalol against both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer cells.

  6. [Beta]-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Rescues Theta Frequency Stimulation-Induced LTP Deficits in Mice Expressing C-Terminally Truncated NMDA Receptor GluN2A Subunits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Teena D.; Watabe, Ayako M.; Indersmitten, Tim; Komiyama, Noboru H.; Grant, Seth G. N.; O'Dell, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Through protein interactions mediated by their cytoplasmic C termini the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) have a key role in the formation of NMDAR signaling complexes at excitatory synapses. Although these signaling complexes are thought to have a crucial role in NMDAR-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term…

  7. [Beta]-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Rescues Theta Frequency Stimulation-Induced LTP Deficits in Mice Expressing C-Terminally Truncated NMDA Receptor GluN2A Subunits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Teena D.; Watabe, Ayako M.; Indersmitten, Tim; Komiyama, Noboru H.; Grant, Seth G. N.; O'Dell, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Through protein interactions mediated by their cytoplasmic C termini the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) have a key role in the formation of NMDAR signaling complexes at excitatory synapses. Although these signaling complexes are thought to have a crucial role in NMDAR-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term…

  8. Regulation of benzodiazepine receptor binding and GABA(A) subunit mRNA expression by punishment and acute alprazolam administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Glowa, J R

    2000-12-22

    Quantitative autoradiography of benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors and competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to characterize changes in BZ binding and GABA(A) receptor subunit transcription levels associated with the anxiolytic effects of alprazolam. Effects were assessed on punished and non-suppressed water consumption using a lick suppression (Vogel) paradigm. Alprazolam had no effect on non-suppressed licking, [(3)H]Ro 15-1788 binding or receptor subunit transcript levels, compared to non-drug controls. When each fifth lick produced a shock (0-0.5 mA), responding was suppressed in an intensity-related manner. The highest intensity significantly decreased licking (85%), [(3)H]Ro 15-1788 binding (12%) and alpha1 transcript levels (63%) in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, and [(3)H]Ro 15-1788 binding in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (15%), compared to non-punished controls. Punishment increased the ratio of gamma2L/S transcripts in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala. Alprazolam blocked or reversed each of these effects. These results show that punishment has similar effects on BZ binding and GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and that alprazolam can block or reverse those effects. Such changes may be related to the anxiolytic effects of alprazolam.

  9. Cloning of the mouse GABA-benzodiazepine receptor. alpha. 1 subunit in a study of alcohol neurosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Keir, W.J.; Deitrich, R.A.; Sikela, J.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The inhibitory action of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is mediated by its binding to the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor and opening of a chloride channel. This receptor contains a variety of binding sites for several behavorially active drugs. Recent studies with SS and LS mice which were selected for differential neurosensitivity to ethanol, suggest that the GABAergic system plays a role in this differential sensitivity. Thus genes controlling the GABAergic system may also influence the acute hypnotic actions of ethanol. As a fist step towards verifying this hypothesis we have cloned and partially sequenced the mouse GABA-BDZ {alpha}1 subunit cDNA using a 40 bp oligonucleotide derived from the N terminus of a published bovine {alpha} subunit cDNA. A positive clone from a mouse brain cDNA library was identified and contains an insert of approximately 2.5 Kb. Partial sequence analysis indicates that this clone corresponds to the mouse homolog of the {alpha}1 subunit of the GABA-BDZ receptor. This clone is being used as a probe to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms in several mouse genotypes which differ in their neurosensitivity to ethanol in an attempt to identify molecular genetic changes in the GABA-BDZ receptor that are related to differential ethanol neurosensitivity.

  10. A new chromanone derivative isolated from Hypericum lissophloeus (Hypericaceae) potentiates GABAA receptor currents in a subunit specific fashion.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Sara; Baur, Roland; Kunert, Olaf; Belaj, Ferdinand; Sigel, Erwin

    2016-02-15

    A phytochemical investigation of the lipophilic extract of Hypericum lissophloeus (smoothbark St. John's wort, Hypericaceae) was conducted, resulting in the isolation and identification of a new chromanone derivative: 5,7-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-chroman-4-one (1). This compound was demonstrated to act as a potent stimulator of currents elicited by GABA in recombinant α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors, with a half-maximal potentiation observed at a concentration of about 4μM and a maximal potentiation of >4000%. Significant potentiation was already evident at a concentration as low as 0.1μM. Extent of potentiation strongly depends on the type of α subunit, the type of β subunit and the presence of the γ subunit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tryptic mapping and membrane topology of the benzodiazepine receptor alpha-subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Lentes, K.U.; Venter, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Rat brain membrane benzodiazepine receptors (BZR) were photoaffinity labelled specifically (in presence or absence of 6 ..mu..M clonazepam) with 10 nM /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (FNZ). Digestion of the FNZ-labelled, membrane-bound BZR with 200 ..mu..g trypsin/mg membrane protein yielded H/sub 2/O-soluble BZR-fragments of molecular mass (M/sub r/) 34, 31, 28, 24, 21, 18, 16, 12, 10 and 7kDa. Because the 34kDa-peptide is the largest fragment containing a FNZ-binding site they conclude that this represents the extracellular domain of the BZR. In the remaining pellet two labelled peptides with M/sub r/ of 44kDa and 28kDa were found that required the use of detergents for their solubilization; they therefore contain the membrane anchoring domain. Digestion of the 0.5% Na-deoxycholate solubilized, intact BZR (M/sub r/ 51kDa) resulted in the same tryptic pattern as the membrane form of the receptor plus two larger fragments of M/sub r/ 45kDa and 40kDa. Arrangement of all tryptic fragments with reference to the FNZ binding site reveals a membrane topology of the BZR alpha-subunit with 67% (34kDa) for the extracellular domain, 21% (11kDa) for the membrane anchoring domain and 12% (6kDa) for a putative cytoplasmic domain. The overlap between some of the labelled fragments suggest that the BZ binding site must be located near the membrane surface of the extracellular domain.

  12. Investigation of autism and GABA receptor subunit genes in multiple ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Ann L.; Ma, Deqiong; Whitehead, Patrice L.; Martin, Eden R.; Wright, Harry H.; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hussman, John P.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Gilbert, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder of complex genetics, characterized by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive behavior. Multiple lines of evidence, including alterations in levels of GABA and GABA receptors in autistic patients, indicate that the GABAergic system, which is responsible for synaptic inhibition in the adult brain, may be involved in autism. Previous studies in our lab indicated association of noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a GABA receptor subunit gene on chromosome 4, GABRA4, and interaction between SNPs in GABRA4 and GABRB1 (also on chromosome 4), within Caucasian autism patients. Studies of genetic variation in African-American autism families are rare. Analysis of 557 Caucasian and an independent population of 54 African-American families with 35 SNPs within GABRB1 and GABRA4 strengthened the evidence for involvement of GABRA4 in autism risk in Caucasians (rs17599165, p=0.0015; rs1912960, p=0.0073; and rs17599416, p=0.0040) and gave evidence of significant association in African-Americans (rs2280073, p=0.0287 and rs16859788, p=0.0253). The GABRA4 and GABRB1 interaction was also confirmed in the Caucasian dataset (most significant pair, rs1912960 and rs2351299; p=0.004). Analysis of the subset of families with a positive history of seizure activity in at least one autism patient revealed no association to GABRA4; however, three SNPs within GABRB1 showed significant allelic association; rs2351299 (p=0.0163), rs4482737 (p=0.0339), and rs3832300 (p=0.0253). These results confirmed our earlier findings, indicating GABRA4 and GABRB1 as genes contributing to autism susceptibility, extending the effect to multiple ethnic groups and suggesting seizures as a stratifying phenotype. PMID:16770606

  13. Methanandamide allosterically inhibits in vivo the function of peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the alpha 7-subunit.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, Urszula; Göthert, Manfred; Rudz, Radoslaw; Malinowska, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    Methanandamide (MAEA), the stable analog of the endocannabinoid anandamide, has been proven in Xenopus oocytes to allosterically inhibit the function of the alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in a cannabinoid (CB) receptor-independent manner. The present study aimed at demonstrating that this mechanism can be activated in vivo. In anesthetized and vagotomized pithed rats treated with atropine, we determined the tachycardic response to electrical stimulation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves via the pithing rod or to i.v. nicotine (0.7 micromol/kg) activating nAChRs on the cardiac postganglionic sympathetic neurons. MAEA (3 and 10 micromol/kg) inhibited the electrically induced tachycardia (maximally by 15-20%; abolished by the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM 251 [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide]; 3 micromol/kg) in pentobarbitone-anesthetized pithed rats, but not in urethane-anesthetized pithed rats, which, thus, are suitable to study the CB(1) receptor-independent inhibition of nicotine-evoked tachycardia. The subunit-nonselective nAChR antagonist hexamethonium (100 micromol/kg) and the selective alpha7-subunit antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA; 3 and 10 micromol/kg) decreased the nicotine-induced tachycardia by 100 and 40%, respectively (maximal effects), suggesting that nAChRs containing the alpha7-subunit account for 40% of the nicotine-induced tachycardia. MAEA (3 micromol/kg) produced an AM 251-insensitive inhibition (maximum again by 40%) of the nicotine-induced tachycardia. Simultaneous or sequential coadministration of MLA and MAEA inhibited the nicotine-induced tachycardia to the same extent (maximally by 40%) as each of the drugs alone. In conclusion, according to nonadditivity of the effects, MAEA mediates in vivo inhibition by the same receptors as MLA, namely alpha7-subunit-containing nAChRs, although at an allosteric instead of the orthosteric site.

  14. Glutamate receptor subunits in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius and other regions of the medulla oblongata in the cat.

    PubMed

    Ambalavanar, R; Ludlow, C L; Wenthold, R J; Tanaka, Y; Damirjian, M; Petralia, R S

    1998-12-07

    The nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) is a primary termination zone for laryngeal, gustatory, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and other visceral afferents. Although considerable information is available on the neurochemical aspects of the NTS in general, very little is known about glutamate receptors that may underlie many of the different functions mediated by the NTS. In addition, most previous glutamate receptor distribution studies were performed in the rat, whereas the cat, the subject of many physiological experiments involving the NTS, has received little attention. In the present study, the immunohistochemical distribution of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-selective glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1, GluR2/3, GluR4) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR1 in the cat caudal brainstem was investigated by using subunit-specific antibodies. In the NTS, statistically significant differences were seen in the distribution of each antibody. Highest labeling was seen for GluR2/3 in most subnuclei, whereas GluR1-immunoreactive neurons were found more frequently than were NR1- or GluR4-immunoreactive neurons. GluR1 immunolabeling was particularly high in the interstitial subnucleus, whereas GluR2/3 immunolabeling was particularly high in the intermediate subnucleus. Qualitatively, labeling for GluR4 was most common in glia. The present results indicate that glutamate receptors show different subunit distributions in the subnuclei of the NTS and in other adjacent structures. This finding suggests that neurons in these structures are designed to respond differently to excitatory input.

  15. Tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptor alpha1, beta2 and gamma2 subunits following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure of cultured cortical neurons of mice.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, C R Marutha; Ticku, Maharaj K

    2006-09-01

    There is evidence that many of the GABA(A) receptor subunits contain consensus sequence for tyrosine kinase, and phosphorylation may play a key role in ethanol's regulation of GABA(A) receptors. Recently, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure of ethanol (CE) on tyrosine kinase phosphorylation and reported that there was an up-regulation in tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of the beta(2)- and gamma(2)- subunits and no effect on alpha(1)-subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in the cultured cortical neurons of mice. In the present study, we have further investigated the effect of chronic intermittent administration of ethanol (CIE) on tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of the GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha(1), beta(2), and gamma(2)) in the mouse cultured cortical neurons by immunoprecipitation and Western blot techniques. We observed that there was an up-regulation in the tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of the GABA(A )receptor beta(2)- and gamma(2)-subunits following CIE exposure, and no effect on alpha(1)-subunit in the cultured cortical neurons of mice. These CIE changes, unlike CE, were not reverted back to the control level following ethanol withdrawal even after 7 days. Acute exposure of ethanol did not cause any change in the tyrosine kinase regulation of the GABA(A) receptor subunits. In conclusion, the CIE exposure, unlike chronic/acute ethanol exposure, regulates the tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of the selective population of GABA(A )receptors in a long lasting manner.

  16. Characterization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene Mdalpha2 from the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian-Rong; Deacutis, Juliane M; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2007-01-01

    A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene, Mdalpha2, was isolated and characterized from the house fly, Musca domestica. This is the first nAChR family member cloned from house flies. Mdalpha2 had a cDNA of 2,607 bp, which included a 696 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame of 1,692 bp, and a 219 bp 3'-UTR. Its deduced amino acid sequence possesses the typical characteristics of nAChRs. Mdalpha2 genomic sequence was 11.2 kb in length in the aabys strain and 10.9 kb in the OCR strain, including eight exons and seven introns. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, Mdalpha2 had the closest phylogenetic relationship to the Drosophila melanogaster Dalpha2 and Anopheles gambiae Agamalpha2, and a similar genomic structure to Dalpha2. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that Mdalpha2 is expressed in the head and the thorax at 150- and 8.5-fold higher levels than in the abdomen. Linkage analysis of a Mdalpha2 polymorphism indicates this gene is on autosome 2. The importance of these results in understanding the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of insect nAChRs, the physiology of nAChRs in the house fly, and the utility of nAChR sequences in resistance detection/monitoring is discussed.

  17. Cloning and characterization of an ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit expressed in the squid nervous system.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, A A; Nardi, G; Steinhardt, A; Novakovic, A; Gentile, S; Iaccarino Idelson, P; Gilly, W F; de Santis, A

    2003-06-01

    In this paper we describe the cloning of a putative ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit, SqGluR, and its distribution in the nervous system of the squid. A full-length cDNA was assembled from a cDNA library of the stellate ganglion/giant fibre lobe complex of Loligo opalescens. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature SqGluR displayed 44-46% amino acid identity with mammalian GluR1-GluR4 and 53% with Lym-eGluR1 from Lymnaea stagnalis. In situ hybridizations in adult squid confirmed that the SqGluR mRNA is abundant in giant fibre lobe neurons, in large, presumptive motor neurons of the stellate ganglion proper and in the supraoesophageal and optic lobes of the central nervous system. In newborn squid, SqGluR mRNA expression was detected throughout the nervous system but not elsewhere. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the last 15 amino acids of the SqGluR C-terminus was used to generate polyclonal antibodies, which were used for immunoblot analysis to demonstrate widespread expression in the squid central and peripheral nervous systems. Injection of the synthetic peptide into the postsynaptic side of the giant synapse inhibited synaptic transmission.

  18. The cytoplasmic domain of the T-cell receptor zeta subunit does not form disordered dimers

    PubMed Central

    Nourse, Amanda; Mittag, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions in proteins play active roles in recognition, signaling and molecular sorting. They often undergo coupled folding and binding giving rise to largely ordered interfaces with their binding partners. The cytoplasmic region of the T-cell receptor zeta subunit (ζcyt) has previously been proposed to specifically dimerize in the absence of a disorder-to-order transition, suggesting an intriguing dimerization mechanism that may involve multiple transient interfaces. We show here using analytical ultracentrifugation, NMR, size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering that neither ζcyt nor the cytoplasmic region of CD3ε significantly populate a dimeric state, but that they are mostly monomers in solution up to millimolar concentrations. They experience a salt- and concentration-dependent shift of their elution volume in size exclusion chromatography previously interpreted as dimerization. Our data shows that ζcyt does not form a highly disordered protein complex and leaves open the question as to whether completely disordered dimers (or other oligomers) exist in nature. PMID:24120941

  19. The cytoplasmic domain of the T-cell receptor zeta subunit does not form disordered dimers.

    PubMed

    Nourse, Amanda; Mittag, Tanja

    2014-01-09

    Intrinsically disordered regions in proteins play active roles in recognition, signaling and molecular sorting. They often undergo coupled folding and binding giving rise to largely ordered interfaces with their binding partners. The cytoplasmic region of the T-cell receptor zeta subunit (ζcyt) has been previously proposed to specifically dimerize in the absence of a disorder-to-order transition, suggesting an intriguing dimerization mechanism that may involve multiple transient interfaces. We show here using analytical ultracentrifugation, NMR, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and multi-angle light scattering that neither ζcyt nor the cytoplasmic region of CD3ε significantly populates a dimeric state but that they are mostly monomers in solution up to millimolar concentrations. They experience a salt- and concentration-dependent shift of their elution volume in SEC previously interpreted as dimerization. Our data show that ζcyt does not form a highly disordered protein complex and leaves open the question as to whether completely disordered dimers (or other oligomers) exist in nature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Retinal waves in mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Warland, David K; Ballesteros, Jose M; van der List, Deborah; Chalupa, Leo M

    2008-09-09

    The structural and functional properties of the visual system are disrupted in mutant animals lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In particular, eye-specific retinogeniculate projections do not develop normally in these mutants. It is widely thought that the developing retinas of beta2(-/-) mutants do not manifest correlated activity, leading to the notion that retinal waves play an instructional role in the formation of eye-specific retinogeniculate projections. By multielectrode array recordings, we show here that the beta2(-/-) mutants have robust retinal waves during the formation of eye-specific projections. Unlike in WT animals, however, the mutant retinal waves are propagated by gap junctions rather than cholinergic circuitry. These results indicate that lack of retinal waves cannot account for the abnormalities that have been documented in the retinogeniculate pathway of the beta2(-/-) mutants and suggest that other factors must contribute to the deficits in the visual system that have been noted in these animals.

  1. Orphan Glutamate Receptor δ1 Subunit Required for High-Frequency Hearing▿

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jiangang; Maison, Stéphane F.; Wu, Xudong; Hirose, Keiko; Jones, Sherri M.; Bayazitov, Ildar; Tian, Yong; Mittleman, Guy; Matthews, Douglas B.; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Liberman, M. Charles; Zuo, Jian

    2007-01-01

    The function of the orphan glutamate receptor delta subunits (GluRδ1 and GluRδ2) remains unclear. GluRδ2 is expressed exclusively in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, and GluRδ1 is prominently expressed in inner ear hair cells and neurons of the hippocampus. We found that mice lacking the GluRδ1 protein displayed significant cochlear threshold shifts for frequencies of >16 kHz. These deficits correlated with a substantial loss of type IV spiral ligament fibrocytes and a significant reduction of endolymphatic potential in high-frequency cochlear regions. Vulnerability to acoustic injury was significantly enhanced; however, the efferent innervation of hair cells and the classic efferent inhibition of outer hair cells were unaffected. Hippocampal and vestibular morphology and function were normal. Our findings show that the orphan GluRδ1 plays an essential role in high-frequency hearing and ionic homeostasis in the basal cochlea, and the locus encoding GluRδ1 represents a candidate gene for congenital or acquired high-frequency hearing loss in humans. PMID:17438141

  2. Adenosine Receptor Antagonists and Behavioral Activation in NF-κB p50 Subunit Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaobin; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Arbogast, Lydia A.; Trammell, Rita A.; Hughes, Larry F.; Toth, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Our previous work revealed that mice lacking the p50 subunit of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) (p50 KO mice) and genetically intact F2 mice have similar locomotion under basal conditions, yet p50 KO mice show greater locomotor activation after caffeine ingestion. In this report, we test whether KO mice display altered caffeine pharmacokinetics or increased caffeine-induced DA turnover relative to F2 mice, and evaluate the impact of intraperitoneal administration of specific adenosine and DA receptor antagonists on locomotor activity. Main methods Concentrations of DA and caffeine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. DA turnover was measured after treatment of mice with an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase. Locomotor activity was measured using telemetry. Key findings The data reveal that 1) caffeine concentrations in blood and brain are similar in KO and F2 mice after oral or intraperitoneal administration; 2) KO mice show greater DA turnover under basal conditions, but turnover is similar in both strains after caffeine administration; 3) the specific A2AAR antagonist SCH 58261 induces greater locomotion in KO versus F2 mice; and 4) the activating effect of SCH 58261 in KO mice is prevented by prior treatment with the D2R antagonist raclopride. Significance These findings support the conclusions that 1) A2AAR has a major impact on behavioral activation of p50 KO mice, and 2) D2R mediated neurotransmission is critical to this effect. PMID:19508875

  3. Adenosine receptor antagonists and behavioral activation in NF-kappaB p50 subunit knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaobin; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Arbogast, Lydia A; Trammell, Rita A; Hughes, Larry F; Toth, Linda A

    2009-07-31

    Our previous work revealed that mice lacking the p50 subunit of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) (p50 KO mice) and genetically intact F2 mice have similar locomotion under basal conditions, yet p50 KO mice show greater locomotor activation after caffeine ingestion. In this report, we test whether KO mice display altered caffeine pharmacokinetics or increased caffeine-induced DA turnover relative to F2 mice, and evaluate the impact of intraperitoneal administration of specific adenosine and DA receptor antagonists on locomotor activity. Concentrations of DA and caffeine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. DA turnover was measured after treatment of mice with an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase. Locomotor activity was measured using telemetry. The data reveal that 1) caffeine concentrations in blood and brain are similar in KO and F2 mice after oral or intraperitoneal administration; 2) KO mice show greater DA turnover under basal conditions, but turnover is similar in both strains after caffeine administration; 3) the specific A2AAR antagonist SCH 58261 induces greater locomotion in KO versus F2 mice; and 4) the activating effect of SCH 58261 in KO mice is prevented by prior treatment with the D2R antagonist raclopride. These findings support the conclusions that 1) A2AAR has a major impact on behavioral activation of p50 KO mice, and 2) D2R mediated neurotransmission is important to this effect.

  4. Squalene isolated from Schizochytrium mangrovei is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist that regulates lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thi Minh Hien; Nguyen, Cam Ha; Le, Thi Thom; Hoang, Thi Huong Quynh; Ngo, Thi Hoai Thu; Hoang, Thi Lan Anh; Dang, Diem Hong

    2016-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor that has critical roles in the treatment of atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Squalene is a novel nature PPARα agonist, identified from reporter gene assay and qPCR analysis. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with squalene exhibited significantly decreased cellular triacylglycerols and cholesterol concentrations, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that expression of genes related to fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis and reverse cholesterol transport metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed in cell treated with squalene. Squalene is hypolipidemic by activation of PPARα via a ligand-mediated mechanism that regulates the expression of lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  5. Reinforcing Effects Of Compounds Lacking Intrinsic Efficacy At α1 Subunit-Containing GABAA Receptor Subtypes in Midazolam- But Not Cocaine-Experienced Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Shinday, Nina M; Sawyer, Eileen K; Fischer, Bradford D; Platt, Donna M; Licata, Stephanie C; Atack, John R; Dawson, Gerard R; Reynolds, David S; Rowlett, James K

    2013-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are prescribed widely but their utility is limited by unwanted side effects, including abuse potential. The mechanisms underlying the abuse-related effects of benzodiazepines are not well understood, although α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptors have been proposed to have a critical role. Here, we examine the reinforcing effects of several compounds that vary with respect to intrinsic efficacy at α2, α3, and α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors but lack efficacy at α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptors (‘α1-sparing compounds'): MRK-623 (functional selectivity for α2/α3 subunit-containing receptors), TPA023B (functional selectivity for α2/α3/α5 subunit-containing receptors), and TP003 (functional selectivity for α3 subunit-containing receptors). The reinforcing effects of the α1-sparing compounds were compared with those of the non-selective benzodiazepine receptor partial agonist MRK-696, and non-selective benzodiazepine receptor full agonists, midazolam and lorazepam, in rhesus monkeys trained to self-administer midazolam or cocaine, under a progressive-ratio schedule of intravenous (i.v.) drug injection. The α1-sparing compounds were self-administered significantly above vehicle levels in monkeys maintained under a midazolam baseline, but not under a cocaine baseline over the dose ranges tested. Importantly, TP003 had significant reinforcing effects, albeit at lower levels of self-administration than non-selective benzodiazepine receptor agonists. Together, these results suggest that α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptors may have a role in the reinforcing effects of benzodiazepine-type compounds in monkeys with a history of stimulant self-administration, whereas α3 subunit-containing GABAA receptors may be important mediators of the reinforcing effects of benzodiazepine-type compounds in animals with a history of sedative-anxiolytic/benzodiazepine self-administration. PMID:23303046

  6. Variations in activin receptor, inhibin/activin subunit and follistatin mRNAs in human prostate tumour tissues

    PubMed Central

    Schaik, R H N van; Wierikx, C D J; Timmerman, M A; Oomen, M H; Weerden, W M van; Kwast, T H van der; Steenbrugge, G J van; Jong, F H de

    1999-01-01

    The possible role of activin in the regulation of malignant prostatic growth was studied using RNAase protection assays of activin receptors, inhibin/activin subunits and follistatin mRNAs in the human prostatic carcinoma cell lines LNCaP-FGC, -R and -LNO, in human prostatic carcinoma xenografts and in human prostatic tissue. Activin receptor types IA (ActRIA), IB (ActRIB), IIA (ActRIIA) and IIB (ActRIIB) mRNAs were generally expressed in prostate pithelial cells, with significantly lower levels of ActRIB mRNA in prostate tumour aterial when compared to non-malignant tissue (P< 0.05; Mann–Whitney U -test). Inhibin/activin βA- and βB-subunit mRNA expression was also found in prostate tissue. Androgen-independent xenografts expressed significantly lower amounts of βB-subunit mRNA when compared to androgen-dependent xenografts (P< 0.05). While βB-subunit mRNA was expressed by LNCaP-FGC and -LNO cells, virtually no expression was found in the androgen-independent LNCaP-R line. Inhibin α-subunit mRNA levels were low or undetectable in all samples investigated. Follistatin mRNA was undetectable in LNCaP-sublines, while low levels were found in prostatic tissues. In androgen-independent LNCaP-R cells, activin inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that prostate tumour progression is accompanied by a decrease of the inhibitory effect of locally produced activin by either a decrease in the expression of activin βB-subunit mRNA or by a decrease of ActRIB mRNA levels. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10638976

  7. Control of N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Function by the NR2 Subunit Amino-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hongjie; Hansen, Kasper B.; Vance, Katie M.; Ogden, Kevin K.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    NMDA receptors comprised of different NR2 subunits exhibit strikingly unique biophysical and pharmacological properties. Here we report that the extracellular amino-terminal domain (ATD) of the NR2 subunit controls pharmacological and kinetic properties of recombinant NMDA receptors, such as agonist potency, deactivation time course, open probability (POPEN), and mean open/shut duration. Using ATD deletion mutants of NR2A, NR2B, NR2C, NR2D and chimeras of NR2A and NR2D with interchanged ATD (NR2A-(2D-ATD) and NR2D-(2A-ATD)), we show that the ATD contributes to the low glutamate potency of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors and the high glutamate potency of NR2D-containing receptors. The ATD influences the deactivation time courses of NMDA receptors, as removal of the ATD from NR2A slows the deactivation rate, while removal of the ATD from NR2B, NR2C and NR2D accelerates the deactivation rate. Open probability also is influenced by the ATD. Removal of the ATD from NR2A or replacement of the NR2A-ATD with that of NR2D decreases POPEN in single channel recordings from outside-out patches of HEK 293 cells. By contrast, deletion of the ATD from NR2D or replacement of the NR2D ATD with that of NR2A increases POPEN and mean open duration. These data demonstrate the modular nature of NMDA receptors and show that the ATD of the different NR2 subunits plays an important role in fine-tuning the functional properties of the individual NMDA receptor subtypes. PMID:19793963

  8. Barbiturates require the N terminus and first transmembrane domain of the delta subunit for enhancement of alpha1beta3delta GABAA receptor currents.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Macdonald, Robert L

    2010-07-30

    GABA(A) receptors are composed predominantly of alphabetagamma receptors, which mediate primarily synaptic inhibition, and alphabetadelta receptors, which mediate primarily extrasynaptic inhibition. At saturating GABA concentrations, the barbiturate pentobarbital substantially increased the amplitude and desensitization of the alpha1beta3delta receptor but not the alpha1beta3gamma2L receptor currents. To explore the structural domains of the delta subunit that are involved in pentobarbital potentiation and increased desensitization of alpha1beta3delta currents, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by progressive replacement of gamma2L subunit sequence with a delta subunit sequence or a delta subunit sequence with a gamma2L subunit sequence, and HEK293T cells were co-transfected with alpha1 and beta3 subunits or alpha1 and beta3 subunits and a gamma2L, delta, or chimeric subunit. Currents evoked by a saturating concentration of GABA or by co-application of GABA and pentobarbital were recorded using the patch clamp technique. By comparing the extent of enhancement and changes in kinetic properties produced by pentobarbital among chimeric and wild type receptors, we concluded that although potentiation of alpha1beta3delta currents by pentobarbital required the delta subunit sequence from the N terminus to proline 241 in the first transmembrane domain (M1), increasing desensitization of alpha1beta3delta currents required a delta subunit sequence from the N terminus to isoleucine 235 in M1. These findings suggest that the delta subunit N terminus and N-terminal portion of the M1 domain are, at least in part, involved in transduction of the allosteric effect of pentobarbital to enhance alpha1beta3delta currents and that this effect involves a distinct but overlapping structural domain from that involved in altering desensitization.

  9. Pharmacological characterisation of a cell line expressing GABA B1b and GABA B2 receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Warren D; Babbs, Adam J; Green, Andrew; Minton, Jayne A L; Shaw, Tracy E; Wise, Alan; Rice, Simon Q; Pangalos, Menelas N; Price, Gary W

    2003-04-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(B)) receptor has been shown to be a heterodimer consisting of two receptor subunits, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2). We have stably co-expressed these two subunits in a CHO cell line, characterised its pharmacology and compared it to the native receptor in rat brain membranes. Radioligand binding using [3H]CGP54626A demonstrated a similar rank order of potency between recombinant and native receptors: CGP62349>CGP54626A>SCH 50911>3-aminopropylphosphinicacid(3-APPA)>GABA>baclofen>saclofen>phaclofen. However, differences were observed in the affinity of agonists, which were higher at the native receptor, suggesting that in the recombinant system a large number of the receptors were in the low agonist affinity state. In contrast, [35S]GTPgammaS binding studies did not show any differences between recombinant and native receptors with the full agonists GABA and 3-APPA. Measurement of cAMP accumulation in the cells revealed a degree of endogenous coupling of the receptors to G-proteins. This is most likely to be due to the high expression levels of receptors (B(max)=22.5+/-2.5pmol/mg protein) in this experimental system. There was no evidence of GABA(B2) receptors, when expressed alone, binding [3H]CGP54626A, [3H]GABA, [3H]3-APPA nor of GABA having any effect on basal [35S]GTPgammaS binding or cAMP levels.

  10. NMDA receptor subunit expression in the supraoptic nucleus of adult rats: Dominance of NR2B and NR2D

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Faye C; Sladek, Celia D

    2011-01-01

    The supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus contains magnocellular neurosecretory neurons (MNC) which synthesize and release the peptide hormones vasopressin and oxytocin. Glutamate is a prominent excitatory neurotransmitter in the SON and regulates MNC excitability. NMDA receptors (NMDAR), a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, mediate synaptic plasticity of MNCs and are necessary for characteristic burst firing patterns which serve to maximize hormone release. NMDARs are di- or tri-heteromeric complexes of NR1 and NR2 subunits. Receptor properties depend on NR2 subunit composition and variable splicing of NR1. We investigated the expression profile of NR1 and NR2 subunits in the SON at the mRNA and protein levels, plus protein expression of NR1 splice variants in control and salt-loaded adult rats. There was robust mRNA expression of all subunits, with NR2D levels being the highest. At the protein level, NR1, NR2B and NR2D were robustly expressed, while NR2A was weakly expressed. NR2C protein was not detected with either of two antibodies. All four NR1 splice variant cassettes (N1, C1, C2, C2’) were detected in the SON, though NR1 N1 expression was too low for accurate analysis. Three days of salt-loading did not alter mRNA, protein or splice variant expression of NMDAR subunits in the SON. Robust NR2D protein expression has not been previously shown in MNCs, and is uncommon in the adult brain. Though the functional significance of this unusual expression profile is unknown, it may contribute to important physiological characteristics of SON neurons, such as burst firing and resistance to excitotoxicity. PMID:21397592

  11. Quinone-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 in HepG2 cells through increased interaction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Yumi; Lin, Fang-Yu; Lee, Hsinyu; Puga, Alvaro; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    While it has long been believed that benzenes and naphthalenes are unable to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) because they are poor ligands, we recently reported that these quinoid metabolites upregulated cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in Hepa1c1c7 cells (Abiko et al., 2015). In the current study, AhR activation, measured with a bioluminescence-based cell free assay, was induced by 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), a metabolite of naphthalene. Consistent with this, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), tert-butyl-1,4-BQ, and 1,4-NQ, as well as 1,2-NQ, all electrophilic mono- and bi-cyclic quinones, upregulated CYP1A1 mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells, whereas their parent aromatic hydrocarbons had little effect. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that these quinones enhanced translocation of AhR to the nucleus.

  12. Recombinant GABAC receptors expressed in rat hippocampal neurons after infection with an adenovirus containing the human ρ1 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Filippova, Natalia; Sedelnikova, Anna; Tyler, William J; Whitworth, Terri L; Fortinberry, Henry; Weiss, David S

    2001-01-01

    A recombinant adenovirus was generated with the human ρ1 GABAC receptor subunit (adeno-ρ). Patch-clamp and antibody staining were employed to confirm functional expression of recombinant ρ1 receptors after infection of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293 cell line), human embryonic retinal cells (911 cell line), dissociated rat hippocampal neurons and cultured rat hippocampal slices. Standard whole-cell recording and Western blot analysis using ρ1 GABAC receptor antibodies revealed that recombinant ρ1 receptors were expressed in HEK293 and 911 cells after adeno-ρ infection and exhibited properties similar to those of ρ1 receptors after standard transfection. Cultured rat hippocampal neurons (postnatal day (P)3-P5) did not show a native GABAC-like current. After adeno-ρ infection, however, a GABAC-like current appeared in 70-90 % of the neurons. Five days after infection, expression of GABAC receptors in hippocampal neurons significantly decreased native GABAA receptor currents from 1200 ± 300 to 150 ± 70 pA (n = 10). The native glutamate-activated current was unchanged. Hippocampal slices (P8) did not show a native GABAC-like current, although recombinant ρ1 receptors could be expressed in cultured hippocampal slices after adeno-ρ infection. These data indicate that an adenovirus can be used to express recombinant GABAC receptors in hippocampal neurons. This finding could represent an important step towards the gene therapy of CNS receptor-related diseases. PMID:11507165

  13. Subunit-specific coupling between gamma-aminobutyric acid type A and P2X2 receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Boué-Grabot, Eric; Toulmé, Estelle; Emerit, Michel B; Garret, Maurice

    2004-12-10

    ATP and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are two fast neurotransmitters co-released at central synapses, where they co-activate excitatory P2X and inhibitory GABAA (GABA type A) receptors. We report here that co-activation of P2X2 and various GABAA receptors, co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, leads to a functional cross-inhibition dependent on GABAA subunit composition. Sequential applications of GABA and ATP revealed that alphabeta- or alphabetagamma-containing GABAA receptors inhibited P2X2 channels, whereas P2X2 channels failed to inhibit gamma-containing GABAA receptors. This functional cross-talk is independent of membrane potential, changes in current direction, and calcium. Non-additive responses observed between cation-selective GABAA and P2X2 receptors further indicate the chloride independence of this process. Overexpression of minigenes encoding either the C-terminal fragment of P2X2 or the intracellular loop of the beta3 subunit disrupted the functional cross-inhibition. We previously demonstrated functional and physical cross-talk between rho1 and P2X2 receptors, which induced a retargeting of rho1 channels to surface clusters when co-expressed in hippocampal neurons (Boue-Grabot, E., Emerit, M. B., Toulme, E., Seguela, P., and Garret, M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 6967-6975). Co-expression of P2X2 and chimeric rho1 receptors with the C-terminal sequences of alpha2, beta3, or gamma2 subunits indicated that only rho1-beta3 and P2X2 channels exhibit both functional cross-inhibition in Xenopus oocytes and co-clustering/retargeting in hippocampal neurons. Therefore, the C-terminal domain of P2X2 and the intracellular loop of beta GABAA subunits are required for the functional interaction between ATP- and GABA-gated channels. This gamma subunit-dependent cross-talk may contribute to the regulation of synaptic activity.

  14. The mongoose acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit: analysis of glycosylation and alpha-bungarotoxin binding.

    PubMed

    Asher, O; Jensen, B S; Lupu-Meiri, M; Oron, Y; Fuchs, S

    1998-04-17

    The mongoose AChR alpha-subunit has been cloned and shown to be highly homologous to other AChR alpha-subunits, with only six differences in amino acid residues at positions that are conserved in animal species that bind alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX). Four of these six substitutions cluster in the ligand binding site, and one of them, Asn-187, forms a consensus N-glycosylation site. The mongoose glycosylated alpha-subunit has a higher apparent molecular mass than that of the rat glycosylated alpha-subunit, probably resulting from the additional glycosylation at Asn-187 of the mongoose subunit. The in vitro translated mongoose alpha-subunit, in a glycosylated or non-glycosylated form, does not bind alpha-BTX, indicating that lack of alpha-BTX binding can be achieved also in the absence of glycosylation.

  15. Up-regulation of GABA transporters and GABA(A) receptor α1 subunit in tremor rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoyuan; Guo, Feng; Yu, Junling; Min, Dongyu; Wang, Zhanyou; Xie, Ni; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris; Cai, Jiqun

    2010-12-17

    The loss of GABAergic neurotransmission has been closely linked with epileptogenesis. The modulation of the synaptic activity occurs both via the removal of GABA from the synaptic cleft and by GABA transporters (GATs) and by modulation of GABA receptors. The tremor rat (TRM; tm/tm) is the parent strain of the spontaneously epileptic rat (SER; zi/zi, tm/tm), which exhibits absence-like seizure after 8 weeks of age. However, there are no reports that can elucidate the effects of GATs and GABA(A) receptors (GABARs) on TRMs. The present study was conducted to detect GATs and GABAR α1 subunit in TRMs hippocampus at mRNA and protein levels. In this study, total synaptosomal GABA content was significantly decreased in TRMs hippocampus compared with control Wistar rats by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); mRNA and protein expressions of GAT-1, GAT-3 and GABAR α1 subunit were all significantly increased in TRMs hippocampus by real time PCR and Western blot, respectively; GAT-1 and GABAR α1 subunit proteins were localized widely in TRMs and control rats hippocampus including CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions whereas only a wide distribution of GAT-3 was observed in CA1 region by immunohistochemistry. These data demonstrate that excessive expressions of GAT-1 as well as GAT-3 and GABAR α1 subunit in TRMs hippocampus may provide the potential therapeutic targets for genetic epilepsy. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Expression profile of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats given chronic nicotine treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junran; Nesil, Tanseli; Wang, Shaolin; Chang, Sulie L; Li, Ming D

    2016-10-01

    Abuse of addictive substances, including cigarettes, is much greater in HIV-1-infected individuals than in the general population and challenges the efficiency of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat, an animal model used to study drug addiction in HIV-1-infected patients on HAART, displays abnormal neurobehavioral responses to addictive substances. Given that the cholinergic system plays an essential part in the central reward circuitry, we evaluated the expression profile of nine nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes in the central nervous system (CNS) of HIV-1Tg rats. We found that nAChR subunits were differentially expressed in various brain regions in HIV-1Tg rats compared to F344 control rats, with more subunits altered in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the HIV-1Tg rats than in other brain regions. We also found that chronic nicotine treatment (0.4 mg/kg/day) decreased the mRNA expression of nAChR subunits α6, β3, and β4 in the VTA of HIV-1Tg rats, whereas expression of α4 and α6 subunits in the NAc increased. No such changes were observed in F344 rats. Together, our data suggest that HIV-1 proteins alter the expression of nAChRs, which may contribute to the vulnerability to cigarette smoking addiction in HIV-1 patients.

  17. Effect of Spontaneous seizures on GABAA α4 receptor subunit expression in an animal model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Grabenstatter, Heidi L; Cogswell, Meaghan; Cruz Del Angel, Yasmin; Carlsen, Jessica; Gonzalez, Marco I; Raol, Yogendra H; Russek, Shelley J; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is frequently medically intractable and often progressive. Compromised inhibitory neurotransmission due to altered GABAA receptor α4 (GABARα4) subunit expression has been emphasized as a potential contributor to the initial development of epilepsy following a brain insult (primary epileptogenesis), but the regulation of GABARα4 during chronic epilepsy, specifically, how expression is altered following spontaneous seizures, is less well understood. Methods Continuous video-EEG recordings from rats with pilocarpine-induced TLE were used to capture epileptic animals within 3 hours of a spontaneous seizure (SS) or greater than 24 hours after the last SS to determine whether recent occurrence of a seizure was associated with altered levels of GABARα4 subunit expression. We further evaluated whether this GABARα4 subunit plasticity is regulated by signaling mechanisms active in primary epileptogenesis, specifically, increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and early growth response factor 3 (Egr3). Results Elevated levels of GABARα4 subunit mRNA and protein were observed following spontaneous seizures, and were associated with higher levels of BDNF and Egr3 mRNA Significance These data suggest that spontaneous, recurrent seizures that define chronic epilepsy may influence changes in GABARα4 subunit expression, and that signaling pathways known to regulate GABARα4 expression after SE may also be activated after spontaneous seizures in chronically epileptic animals. PMID:25223733

  18. Sub-Toxic Dose of Apigenin Sensitizes HepG2 Cells to TRAIL through ERK-Dependent Up-Regulation of TRAIL Receptor DR5

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Yu, Ji Sun; Yang, Mihi; Kim, An Keun

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is regarded as a promising candidate for anticancer therapy due to its selective toxicity to cancer cells. Nevertheless, because of TRAIL resistance in some cancer cells, combined treatment with sensitizing agents is required to enhance the anticancer potential of TRAIL. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of apigenin-induced sensitization of HepG2 cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. Synergistic induction of apoptosis by combination was confirmed by examining the typical morphology changes of apoptosis, PARP-cleavage, and activation of effector caspases. Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, inhibited the enhanced cell death by combined treatment of apigenin and TRAIL, demonstrating that a caspase-dependent pathway is involved in apigenin/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. In addition, we found that apigenin/TRAIL co-treatment up-regulates DR5 cell surface expression. The synergistic induction of cell death by the apigenin/TRAIL combination was significantly attenuated by DR5 blocking chimera antibody. Next, using pharmacological inhibitors, we found that ERK activation is involved in the induction of DR5 expression. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 significantly decreased the apigenin/TRAIL-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis. Taken together, our results indicate that apigenin can enhance the apoptotic effect of TRAIL via ERK-induced up-regulation of DR5. PMID:23224239

  19. A combination of transcriptomics and metabolomics uncovers enhanced bile acid biosynthesis in HepG2 cells expressing CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Blazquez, Marina; Carretero, Aitor; Ellis, James K; Athersuch, Toby J; Cavill, Rachel; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Keun, Hector C; Castell, José V; Lahoz, Agustín; Bort, Roque

    2013-06-07

    The development of hepatoma-based in vitro models to study hepatocyte physiology is an invaluable tool for both industry and academia. Here, we develop an in vitro model based on the HepG2 cell line that produces chenodeoxycholic acid, the main bile acid in humans, in amounts comparable to human hepatocytes. A combination of adenoviral transfections for CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) decreased intracellular glutamate, succinate, leucine, and valine levels in HepG2 cells, suggestive of a switch to catabolism to increase lipogenic acetyl CoA and increased anaplerosis to replenish the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Transcripts of key genes involved in bile acid synthesis were significantly induced by approximately 160-fold. Consistently, chenodeoxycholic acid production rate was increased by more than 20-fold. Comparison between mRNA and bile acid levels suggest that 12-alpha hydroxylation of 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one is the limiting step in cholic acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. These data reveal that introduction of three hepatocyte-related transcription factors enhance anabolic reactions in HepG2 cells and provide a suitable model to study bile acid biosynthesis under pathophysiological conditions.

  20. The molecular cloning and characterisation of cDNA coding for the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Sumikawa, K; Houghton, M; Smith, J C; Bell, L; Richards, B M; Barnard, E A

    1982-01-01

    A rare cDNA coding for most of the alpha subunit of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has been cloned into bacteria. The use of a mismatched oligonucleotide primer of reverse transcriptase facilitated the design of an efficient, specific probe for recombinant bacteria. DNA sequence analysis has enabled the elucidation of a large part of the polypeptide primary sequence which is discussed in relation to its acetylcholine binding activity and the location of receptor within the plasma membrane. When used as a radioactive probe, the cloned cDNA binds specifically to a single Torpedo mRNA species of about 2350 nucleotides in length but fails to show significant cross-hybridisation with alpha subunit mRNA extracted from cat muscle. Images PMID:6183641

  1. N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit Changes after Traumatic Injury to the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    GIZA, CHRISTOPHER C.; MARIA, NAOMI S.SANTA; HOVDA, DAVID A.

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability in the pediatric population and can result in abnormal development. Experimental studies conducted in animals have revealed impaired plasticity following developmental TBI, even in the absence of significant anatomical damage. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is clearly involved in both normal development and in the pathophysiology of TBI. Following lateral fluid percussion injury in postnatal day (PND) 19 rats, we tested the hypothesis that TBI sustained at an early age would result in impaired NMDAR expression. Using immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), protein and RNA levels of NMDAR subunits were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus on post-injury days (PID) 1, 2, 4, and 7 (though the PID7 analysis was only for protein) and compared with age-matched shams. Significant effects of hemisphere (analysis of variance [ANOVA], p < 0.01), and interactions between hemisphere and injury (ANOVA, p < 0.05) and hemisphere and PID (ANOVA, p < 0.05) were found for synaptic protein levels of the NR2A subunit in hippocampus. Specifically, within the ipsilateral hippocampus, NR2A was reduced by 9.9%, 47.9%, 40.8%, and 6.3% on PID1, PID2, PID4, and PID7, respectively. Within the cortex, there was a significant effect of injury (ANOVA, p < 0.05) without any hemispheric differences. These bilateral cortical reductions measured 30.5%, 3.2%, 5.7%, and 13.4% at the same timepoints after injury. Injury had no significant main effect on NR1 or NR2B protein levels. RT-PCR analysis showed no significant changes in NR1, NR2A, or NR2B gene expression; however, as a positive control, hsp70 was induced more than twofold in ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus on PID1. It is known that NR2A expression levels increase during normal development, and in response to environmental stimuli. Our data suggest that injury-induced reduction in the expression of NR2A is one likely

  2. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit changes after traumatic injury to the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Giza, Christopher C; Maria, Naomi S Santa; Hovda, David A

    2006-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability in the pediatric population and can result in abnormal development. Experimental studies conducted in animals have revealed impaired plasticity following developmental TBI, even in the absence of significant anatomical damage. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is clearly involved in both normal development and in the pathophysiology of TBI. Following lateral fluid percussion injury in postnatal day (PND) 19 rats, we tested the hypothesis that TBI sustained at an early age would result in impaired NMDAR expression. Using immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), protein and RNA levels of NMDAR subunits were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus on post-injury days (PID) 1, 2, 4, and 7 (though the PID7 analysis was only for protein) and compared with age-matched shams. Significant effects of hemisphere (analysis of variance [ANOVA], p<0.01), and interactions between hemisphere and injury (ANOVA, p<0.05) and hemisphere and PID (ANOVA, p<0.05) were found for synaptic protein levels of the NR2A subunit in hippocampus. Specifically, within the ipsilateral hippocampus, NR2A was reduced by 9.9%, 47.9%, 40.8%, and 6.3% on PID1, PID2, PID4, and PID7, respectively. Within the cortex, there was a significant effect of injury (ANOVA, p<0.05) without any hemispheric differences. These bilateral cortical reductions measured 30.5%, 3.2%, 5.7%, and 13.4% at the same timepoints after injury. Injury had no significant main effect on NR1 or NR2B protein levels. RT-PCR analysis showed no significant changes in NR1, NR2A, or NR2B gene expression; however, as a positive control, hsp70 was induced more than twofold in ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus on PID1. It is known that NR2A expression levels increase during normal development, and in response to environmental stimuli. Our data suggest that injury-induced reduction in the expression of NR2A is one likely mechanism for

  3. Distinct contributions of T1R2 and T1R3 taste receptor subunits to the detection of sweet stimuli.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yiling; Vigues, Stephan; Hobbs, Jeanette R; Conn, Graeme L; Munger, Steven D

    2005-11-08

    Animals utilize hundreds of distinct G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-type chemosensory receptors to detect a diverse array of chemical signals in their environment, including odors, pheromones, and tastants. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these receptors selectively interact with their cognate ligands remain poorly understood. There is growing evidence that many chemosensory receptors exist in multimeric complexes, though little is known about the relative contributions of individual subunits to receptor functions. Here, we report that each of the two subunits in the heteromeric T1R2:T1R3 sweet taste receptor binds sweet stimuli though with distinct affinities and conformational changes. Furthermore, ligand affinities for T1R3 are drastically reduced by the introduction of a single amino acid change associated with decreased sweet taste sensitivity in behaving mice. Thus, individual T1R subunits increase the receptive range of the sweet taste receptor, offering a functional mechanism for phenotypic variations in sweet taste.

  4. Proton modulation of recombinant GABAA receptors: influence of GABA concentration and the β subunit TM2–TM3 domain

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Megan E; Hosie, Alastair M; Smart, Trevor G

    2005-01-01

    Regulation of GABAA receptors by extracellular pH exhibits a dependence on the receptor subunit composition. To date, the molecular mechanism responsible for the modulation of GABAA receptors at alkaline pH has remained elusive. We report here that the GABA-activated current can be potentiated at pH 8.4 for both αβ and αβγ subunit-containing receptors, but only at GABA concentrations below the EC40. Site-specific mutagenesis revealed that a single lysine residue, K279 in the β subunit TM2–TM3 linker, was critically important for alkaline pH to modulate the function of both α1β2 and α1β2γ2 receptors. The ability of low concentrations of GABA to reveal different pH titration profiles for GABAA receptors was also examined at acidic pH. At pH 6.4, GABA activation of αβγ receptors was enhanced at low GABA concentrations. This effect was ablated by the mutation H267A in the β subunit. Decreasing the pH further to 5.4 inhibited GABA responses via αβγ receptors, whereas those responses recorded from αβ receptors were potentiated. Inserting homologous β subunit residues into the γ2 subunit to recreate, in αβγ receptors, the proton modulatory profile of αβ receptors, established that in the presence of β2H267, the mutation γ2T294K was necessary to potentiate the GABA response at pH 5.4. This residue, T294, is homologous to K279 in the β subunit and suggests that a lysine at this position is an important residue for mediating the allosteric effects of both acidic and alkaline pH changes, rather than forming a direct site for protonation within the GABAA receptor. PMID:15946973

  5. Localization of a gene for a glutamate binding subunit of a NMDA receptor (GRINA) to 8q24

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.B.; DuPont, B.R.; Leach, R.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the localization of a gene for a glutamate binding subunit of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, called GRINA, to human chromosome 8q24 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and radiation hybridization mapping. This gene mapped outside the critical region for benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC), a rare form of epilepsy; however, GRINA could be the causative genetic factor inducing idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Further studies need to be conducted. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Analysis of ligand binding to the synthetic dodecapeptide 185-196 of the acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Fridkin, M; Fuchs, S

    1986-01-01

    A synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit, which contains the adjacent cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193, was recently shown by us to contain the essential elements for alpha-bungarotoxin binding. In the present study, we have used Sepharose-linked peptides for quantitative analysis of the cholinergic binding properties of this and other synthetic peptides. Sepharose-linked peptides corresponding to residues 1-20, 126-143, 143-158, 169-181, 185-196, 193-210, and 394-409 of the alpha subunit of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor, as well as a peptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the alpha subunit of human acetylcholine receptor, were tested for their toxin-binding capacity. Of these immobilized peptides, only peptide 185-196 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor bound toxin significantly, thus verifying that this synthetic peptide contains essential components of the receptor toxin-binding site. Analysis of toxin binding to the peptide yielded a dissociation constant of 3.5 X 10(-5) M. This binding was inhibited by various cholinergic ligands. The inhibition potency obtained was alpha-bungarotoxin greater than Naja naja siamensis toxin greater than d-tubocurarine greater than decamethonium greater than acetylcholine greater than carbamoylcholine. This pharmacological profile resembles that of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and therefore suggests that the synthetic dodecapeptide also includes the neurotransmitter binding site. Reduction and carboxymethylation of the cysteine residues on peptide 185-196 inhibit its capacity to bind toxin, demonstrating that an intact disulfide is required for toxin binding. A decrease in toxin binding was also obtained following chemical modification of the tryptophan residue at position 187, thus implying its possible involvement in toxin binding. The failure to detect binding of toxin to the corresponding human sequence 185-196, in which the

  7. Analysis of ligand binding to the synthetic dodecapeptide 185-196 of the acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Fridkin, M; Fuchs, S

    1986-12-01

    A synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit, which contains the adjacent cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193, was recently shown by us to contain the essential elements for alpha-bungarotoxin binding. In the present study, we have used Sepharose-linked peptides for quantitative analysis of the cholinergic binding properties of this and other synthetic peptides. Sepharose-linked peptides corresponding to residues 1-20, 126-143, 143-158, 169-181, 185-196, 193-210, and 394-409 of the alpha subunit of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor, as well as a peptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the alpha subunit of human acetylcholine receptor, were tested for their toxin-binding capacity. Of these immobilized peptides, only peptide 185-196 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor bound toxin significantly, thus verifying that this synthetic peptide contains essential components of the receptor toxin-binding site. Analysis of toxin binding to the peptide yielded a dissociation constant of 3.5 X 10(-5) M. This binding was inhibited by various cholinergic ligands. The inhibition potency obtained was alpha-bungarotoxin greater than Naja naja siamensis toxin greater than d-tubocurarine greater than decamethonium greater than acetylcholine greater than carbamoylcholine. This pharmacological profile resembles that of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and therefore suggests that the synthetic dodecapeptide also includes the neurotransmitter binding site. Reduction and carboxymethylation of the cysteine residues on peptide 185-196 inhibit its capacity to bind toxin, demonstrating that an intact disulfide is required for toxin binding. A decrease in toxin binding was also obtained following chemical modification of the tryptophan residue at position 187, thus implying its possible involvement in toxin binding. The failure to detect binding of toxin to the corresponding human sequence 185-196, in which the

  8. Agonist pharmacology of neonatal and adult glycine receptor alpha subunits: identification of amino acid residues involved in taurine activation.

    PubMed Central

    Schmieden, V; Kuhse, J; Betz, H

    1992-01-01

    The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) is a pentameric chloride channel protein which mediates postsynaptic inhibition in the mammalian central nervous system. In spinal cord, different GlyR isoforms originate from the sequential expression of developmentally regulated variants of the ligand binding alpha subunit. Here, neonatal alpha 2 and adult alpha 1 subunits are shown to generate GlyRs with distinct agonist activation profiles upon heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. Whereas alpha 1 receptors are efficiently gated by beta-alanine and taurine, alpha 2 GlyRs show only a low relative response to these agonists, which also display a reduced sensitivity to inhibition by the glycinergic antagonist strychnine. Construction of an alpha 2/alpha 1 subunit chimera and site-directed mutagenesis of the extracellular region of the alpha 1 sequence identified amino acid positions 111 and 212 as important determinants of taurine activation. Our results indicate the existence of distinct subsites for agonists on alpha 1 and alpha 2 GlyRs and suggest that the ligand binding pocket of these receptor proteins is formed from discontinuous domains of their extracellular region. Images PMID:1376243

  9. Parafascicular thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation decreases NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit gene expression in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cabrera, Mónica R; Selvas, Abraham; Miguéns, Miguel; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Vale-Martínez, Anna; Ambrosio, Emilio; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma

    2017-04-21

    The rodent parafascicular nucleus (PFn) or the centromedian-parafascicular complex of primates is a posterior intralaminar nucleus of the thalamus related to cortical activation and maintenance of states of consciousness underlying attention, learning and memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the PFn has been proved to restore arousal and consciousness in humans and to enhance performance in learning and memory tasks in rats. The primary expected effect of PFn DBS is to induce plastic changes in target neurons of brain areas associated with cognitive function. In this study, Wistar rats were stimulated for 20mins in the PFn following a DBS protocol that had previously facilitated memory in rats. NMDA and GABAB receptor binding, and gene expression of the GluN1subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) were assessed in regions related to cognitive functions, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The results showed that PFn DBS induced a decrease in NMDAR GluN1 subunit gene expression in the cingulate and prelimbic cortices, but no significant statistical differences were found in the density of NMDA or GABAB receptors in any of the analyzed regions. Taken together, our findings suggest a possible role for the NMDAR GluN1 subunit in the prefrontal cortex in the procognitive actions of the PFn DBS.

  10. Hexachlorobenzene induces cell proliferation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression (AhR) in rat liver preneoplastic foci, and in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. AhR is a mediator of ERK1/2 signaling, and cell cycle regulation in HCB-treated HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    de Tomaso Portaz, Ana Clara; Caimi, Giselle Romero; Sánchez, Marcela; Chiappini, Florencia; Randi, Andrea S; Kleiman de Pisarev, Diana L; Alvarez, Laura

    2015-10-02

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread environmental pollutant, and a liver tumor promoter in rodents. Depending on the particular cell lines studied, exposure to these compounds may lead to cell proliferation, terminal differentiation, or apoptosis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. AhR can also modulate a variety of cellular and physiological processes that can affect cell proliferation and cell fate determination. The mechanisms by which AhR ligands, both exogenous and endogenous, affect these processes involve multiple interactions between AhR and other signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined the effect of HCB on cell proliferation and AhR expression, using an initiation-promotion hepatocarcinogenesis protocol in rat liver and in the human-derived hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Female Wistar rats were initiated with a single dose of 100 mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at the start of the experiment. Two weeks later, daily dosing of 100 mg/kg HCB was maintained for 10 weeks. Partial hepatectomy was performed 3 weeks after initiation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase-P (GST-P)-positive foci, in the rat liver were used as biomarkers of liver precancerous lesions. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, along with enhanced AhR protein expression in hepatocytes within GST-P-positive foci of (DEN HCB) group, when compared to DEN. In a similar manner, Western blot analysis demonstrated that HCB induced PCNA and AhR protein expression in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometry assay indicated that the cells were accumulated at S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. HCB increased cyclin D1 protein levels and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with a selective MEK1 inhibitor, prevented HCB-stimulatory effect on PCNA and cyclinD1, indicating that these effects

  11. Inhibition of net HepG2 cell apolipoprotein B secretion by the citrus flavonoid naringenin involves activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, independent of insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Borradaile, Nica M; de Dreu, Linda E; Huff, Murray W

    2003-10-01

    The flavonoid naringenin improves hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-treated rats. In HepG2 human hepatoma cells, naringenin inhibits apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion primarily by inhibiting microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and enhances LDL receptor (LDLr)-mediated apoB-containing lipoprotein uptake. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation by insulin increases sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 and LDLr expression and inhibits apoB secretion in hepatocytes. Thus, we determined whether naringenin activates this pathway. Insulin and naringenin induced PI3K-dependent increases in cytosolic and nuclear SREBP-1 and LDLr expression. Similar PI3K-mediated increases in SREBP-1 were observed in McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells, which express predominantly SREBP-1c. Reductions in HepG2 cell media apoB with naringenin were partially attenuated by wortmannin, whereas the effect of insulin was completely blocked. Both treatments reduced apoB100 secretion in wild-type and LDLr(-/-) mouse hepatocytes to the same extent. Insulin and naringenin increased HepG2 cell PI3K activity and decreased insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 levels. In sharp contrast to insulin, naringenin did not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1. We conclude that naringenin increases LDLr expression in HepG2 cells via PI3K-mediated upregulation of SREBP-1, independent of IRS-1 phosphorylation. Although this pathway may not regulate apoB secretion in primary hepatocytes, PI3K activation by this novel mechanism may explain the insulin-like effects of naringenin in vivo.

  12. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  13. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  14. Phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit regulates memory load capacity.

    PubMed

    Olivito, Laura; Saccone, Paola; Perri, Valentina; Bachman, Julia L; Fragapane, Paola; Mele, Andrea; Huganir, Richard L; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Memory capacity (MC) refers to the number of elements one can maintain for a short retention interval. The molecular mechanisms underlying MC are unexplored. We have recently reported that mice as well as humans have a limited MC, which is reduced by hippocampal lesions. Here, we addressed the molecular mechanisms supporting MC. GluA1 AMPA-receptors (AMPA-R) mediate the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain and are critically involved in memory. Phosphorylation of GluA1 at serine residues S831 and S845 is promoted by CaMKII and PKA, respectively, and regulates AMPA-R function in memory duration. We hypothesized that AMPA-R phosphorylation may also be a key plastic process for supporting MC because it occurs in a few minutes, and potentiates AMPA-R ion channel function. Here, we show that knock-in mutant mice that specifically lack both of S845 and S831 phosphorylation sites on the GluA1 subunit had reduced MC in two different behavioral tasks specifically designed to assess MC in mice. This demonstrated a causal link between AMPA-R phosphorylation and MC. We then showed that information load regulates AMPA-R phosphorylation within the hippocampus, and that an overload condition associated with impaired memory is paralleled by a lack of AMPA-R phosphorylation. Accordingly, we showed that in conditions of high load, but not of low load, the pharmacological inhibition of the NMDA-CaMKII-PKA pathways within the hippocampus prevents memory as well as associated AMPA-R phosphorylation. These data provide the first identified molecular mechanism that regulates MC.

  15. Modulation of TNF Release by Choline Requires α7 Subunit Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, William R; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Ochani, Mahendar; Ochani, Kanta; Yang, Li-Hong; Hudson, LaQueta; Lin, Xinchun; Patel, Nirav; Johnson, Sarah M; Chavan, Sangeeta; Goldstein, Richard S; Czura, Christopher J; Miller, Edmund J; Al-Abed, Yousef; Tracey, Kevin J; Pavlov, Valentin A

    2008-01-01

    The α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is an essential component in the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that regulates the levels of TNF, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and other cytokines during inflammation. Choline is an essential nutrient, a cell membrane constituent, a precursor in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, and a selective natural α7nAChR agonist. Here, we studied the anti-inflammatory potential of choline in murine endotoxemia and sepsis, and the role of the α7nAChR in mediating the suppressive effect of choline on TNF release. Choline (0.1–50 mM) dose-dependently suppressed TNF release from endotoxin-activated RAW macrophage-like cells, and this effect was associated with significant inhibition of NF-κB activation. Choline (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) treatment prior to endotoxin administration in mice significantly reduced systemic TNF levels. In contrast to its TNF suppressive effect in wild type mice, choline (50 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to inhibit systemic TNF levels in α7nAChR knockout mice during endotoxemia. Choline also failed to suppress TNF release from endotoxin-activated peritoneal macrophages isolated from α7nAChR knockout mice. Choline treatment prior to endotoxin resulted in a significantly improved survival rate as compared with saline-treated endotoxemic controls. Choline also suppressed HMGB1 release in vitro and in vivo, and choline treatment initiated 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis significantly improved survival in mice. In addition, choline suppressed TNF release from endotoxin-activated human whole blood and macrophages. Collectively, these data characterize the anti-inflammatory efficacy of choline and demonstrate that the modulation of TNF release by choline requires α7nAChR-mediated signaling. PMID:18584048

  16. Glycine receptor α3 and α2 subunits mediate tonic and exogenous agonist-induced currents in forebrain.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Lindsay M; Lowes, Daniel C; Salling, Michael C; Carreau-Vollmer, Cyndel; Odean, Naomi N; Blednov, Yuri A; Betz, Heinrich; Harris, R Adron; Harrison, Neil L

    2017-08-22

    Neuronal inhibition can occur via synaptic mechanisms or through tonic activation of extrasynaptic receptors. In spinal cord, glycine mediates synaptic inhibition through the activation of heteromeric glycine receptors (GlyRs) composed primarily of α1 and β subunits. Inhibitory GlyRs are also found throughout the brain, where GlyR α2 and α3 subunit expression exceeds that of α1, particularly in forebrain structures, and coassembly of these α subunits with the β subunit appears to occur to a lesser extent than in spinal cord. Here, we analyzed GlyR currents in several regions of the adolescent mouse forebrain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis). Our results show ubiquitous expression of GlyRs that mediate large-amplitude currents in response to exogenously applied glycine in these forebrain structures. Additionally, tonic inward currents were also detected, but only in the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex (PFC). These tonic currents were sensitive to both strychnine and picrotoxin, indicating that they are mediated by extrasynaptic homomeric GlyRs. Recordings from mice deficient in the GlyR α3 subunit (Glra3(-/-)) revealed a lack of tonic GlyR currents in the striatum and the PFC. In Glra2(-/Y) animals, GlyR tonic currents were preserved; however, the amplitudes of current responses to exogenous glycine were significantly reduced. We conclude that functional α2 and α3 GlyRs are present in various regions of the forebrain and that α3 GlyRs specifically participate in tonic inhibition in the striatum and PFC. Our findings suggest roles for glycine in regulating neuronal excitability in the forebrain.

  17. Low concentrations of ethanol do not affect radioligand binding to the delta-subunit-containing GABAA receptors in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ashok K; Marutha Ravindran, C R; Ticku, Maharaj K

    2007-08-24

    In the present study, we investigated the co-localization pattern of the delta subunit with other subunits of GABA(A) receptors in the rat brain using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting techniques. Furthermore, we investigated whether low concentrations of ethanol affect the delta-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptor assemblies in the rat brain using radioligand binding to the rat brain membrane homogenates as well as to the immunoprecipitated receptor assemblies. Our results revealed that delta subunit is not co-localized with gamma(2) subunit but it is associated with the alpha(1), alpha(4) or alpha(6), beta(2) and/or beta(3) subunit(s) of GABA(A) receptors in the rat brain. Ethanol (1-50 mM) neither affected [(3)H]muscimol (3 nM) binding nor diazepam-insensitive [(3)H]Ro 15-4513 (2 nM) binding in the rat cerebellum and cerebral cortex membranes. However, a higher concentration of ethanol (500 mM) inhibited the binding of these radioligands to the GABA(A) receptors partially in the rat cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Similarly, ethanol (up to 50 mM) did not affect [(3)H]muscimol (15 nM) binding to the immunoprecipitated delta-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptor assemblies in the rat cerebellum and hippocampus but it inhibited the binding partially at a higher concentration (500 mM). These results suggest that the native delta-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors do not play a major role in the pharmacology of clinically relevant low concentrations of ethanol.

  18. The Optimization of TaqMan Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for Transcriptional Profiling of GABA-A Receptor Subunit Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gangisetty, Omkaram; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2009-01-01

    The GABA-A receptor plays a critical role in inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. Quantitation of GABA-A receptor subunits in various brain regions is essential to understand their role in plasticity and brain disorders. However, conventional RNA assays are tedious and less sensitive for use in studies of subunit plasticity. Here we describe optimization of a sensitive assay of GABA-A receptor subunit gene expression by TaqMan real-time PCR. For each subunit gene, a set of primers and TaqMan fluorogenic probe were designed to specifically amplify the target template. The TaqMan methodology was optimized for quantification of mouse GABA-A receptor subunits (α1–6, β1–3, γ2, and δ) and GAPDH. The TaqMan reaction detected very low levels of gene expression (~100 template copies of cDNA). A standard curve for GAPDH and one of the target genes, constructed using the cDNA, revealed slopes around −3.4 (r2=0.990), reflecting similar optimum PCR efficiencies. The methodology was utilized for quantification of the GABA-A receptor α4 subunit, which is known to upregulate following withdrawal from chronic progesterone or neurosteroids. Our results show that the α4-subunit expression increased threefold in the hippocampus following neurosteroid withdrawal in mice. The TaqMan PCR assay allows sensitive, high-throughput transcriptional profiling of complete GABA-A receptor subunit family, and thus provides specific tool for studies of GABA-A receptor subunit plasticity in neurological and psychiatric animal models. PMID:19406150

  19. Thromboxane A2 Receptor Inhibition Suppresses Multiple Myeloma Cell Proliferation by Inducing p38/c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-mediated G2/M Progression Delay and Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Tao, Bo; Liu, Guizhu; Chen, Guilin; Zhu, Qian; Yu, Ying; Yu, Yu; Xiong, Hong

    2016-02-26

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy without effective therapeutics. Thromboxane A2 (TxA2)/TxA2 receptor (T prostanoid receptor (TP)) modulates the progression of some carcinomas; however, its effects on MM cell proliferation remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and downstream prostaglandin profiles in human myeloma cell lines RPMI-8226 and U-266 and analyzed the effects of COX-1/-2 inhibitors SC-560 and NS-398 on MM cell proliferation. Our observations implicate COX-2 as being involved in modulating cell proliferation. We further incubated MM cells with prostaglandin receptor antagonists or agonists and found that only the TP antagonist, SQ29548, suppressed MM cell proliferation. TP silencing and the TP agonist, U46619, further confirmed this finding. Moreover, SQ29548 and TP silencing promoted MM cell G2/M phase delay accompanied by reducing cyclin B1/cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1) mRNA and protein expression. Notably, cyclin B1 overexpression rescued MM cells from G2/M arrest. We also found that the TP agonist activated JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPK depressed U46619-induced proliferation and cyclin B1/CDK1 protein expression. In addition, SQ29548 and TP silencing led to the MM cell apoptotic rate increasing with improving caspase 3 activity. The knockdown of caspase 3 reversed the apoptotic rate. Taken together, our results suggest that TxA2/TP promotes MM cell proliferation by reducing cell delay at G2/M phase via elevating p38 MAPK/JNK-mediated cyclin B1/CDK1 expression and hindering cell apoptosis. The TP inhibitor has potential as a novel agent to target kinase cascades for MM therapy.

  20. Thromboxane A2 Receptor Inhibition Suppresses Multiple Myeloma Cell Proliferation by Inducing p38/c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-mediated G2/M Progression Delay and Cell Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Tao, Bo; Liu, Guizhu; Chen, Guilin; Zhu, Qian; Yu, Ying; Yu, Yu; Xiong, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy without effective therapeutics. Thromboxane A2 (TxA2)/TxA2 receptor (T prostanoid receptor (TP)) modulates the progression of some carcinomas; however, its effects on MM cell proliferation remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and downstream prostaglandin profiles in human myeloma cell lines RPMI-8226 and U-266 and analyzed the effects of COX-1/-2 inhibitors SC-560 and NS-398 on MM cell proliferation. Our observations implicate COX-2 as being involved in modulating cell proliferation. We further incubated MM cells with prostaglandin receptor antagonists or agonists and found that only the TP antagonist, SQ29548, suppressed MM cell proliferation. TP silencing and the TP agonist, U46619, further confirmed this finding. Moreover, SQ29548 and TP silencing promoted MM cell G2/M phase delay accompanied by reducing cyclin B1/cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1) mRNA and protein expression. Notably, cyclin B1 overexpression rescued MM cells from G2/M arrest. We also found that the TP agonist activated JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPK depressed U46619-induced proliferation and cyclin B1/CDK1 protein expression. In addition, SQ29548 and TP silencing led to the MM cell apoptotic rate increasing with improving caspase 3 activity. The knockdown of caspase 3 reversed the apoptotic rate. Taken together, our results suggest that TxA2/TP promotes MM cell proliferation by reducing cell delay at G2/M phase via elevating p38 MAPK/JNK-mediated cyclin B1/CDK1 expression and hindering cell apoptosis. The TP inhibitor has potential as a novel agent to target kinase cascades for MM therapy. PMID:26724804

  1. Increase of AMPA receptor glutamate receptor 1 subunit and B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 gene expression in hippocampus of fatigued mice.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Masaki; Tamaki, Keisuke; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Yoneda, Yukio

    2005-10-14

    Central fatigue is an indispensable biosignal for maintaining life, but the neuronal and molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we searched for genes differentially expressed in the hippocampus of fatigued mice to elucidate the mechanisms underlying fatigue. Mice were forced to swim in an adjustable-current water pool, and the maximum swimming time (endurance) until fatigue was measured thrice. Fatigued and nonfatigued mice with equal swimming capacity and body weight were compared. We found that the genes of GluR1 and B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31), which acts as a transport molecule in the secretory pathway or as a mediator of apoptosis, were upregulated in the hippocampus of fatigued mice, and increases of GluR1 and Bap31 were confirmed by Northern blotting and real-time PCR. No change of gene expression of AMPA receptor subunits other than GluR1 was observed. These results suggest that a compositional change of AMPA receptor (increase of GluR1) and upregulation of the Bap31 gene may be implicated in fatigue in mice.

  2. Targeting the γ-Aminobutyric Acid A Receptor α4 Subunit in Airway Smooth Muscle to Alleviate Bronchoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Gallos, George; Zhang, Yi; Jahan, Rajwana; Stephen, Michael Rajesh; Varagic, Zdravko; Cook, James M.; Emala, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells express γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors (GABAARs), and that GABAAR agonists acutely relax ASM. Among the GABAAR α subunits, human ASM cells express only α4 and α5, providing the opportunity for selective pharmacologic targeting. Novel GABAAR-positive allosteric modulators designed for enhanced α4/α6 subunit selectivity were synthesized using iterative computational analyses (CMD-45 and XHe-III-74). Studies using oocyte heterologous expression systems confirmed that CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 led to significantly greater augmentation of currents induced by a 3% maximal effective concentration (EC3) of GABA [EC3]–induced currents in oocytes expressing α4 or α6 subunits (along with β3 and γ2) compared with other α subunits. CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 also led to greater ex vivo relaxation of contracted wild-type mouse tracheal rings compared with tracheal rings from GABAAR α4 subunit (Gabra4) knockout mice. Furthermore, CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 significantly relaxed precontracted human ASM ex vivo, and, at a low concentration, both ligands led to a significant leftward shift in albuterol-mediated ASM relaxation. In vivo, inhaled XHe-III-74 reduced respiratory system resistance in an asthmatic mouse model. Pretreatment of human ASM cells with CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 inhibited histamine-induced increases in intracellular calcium concentrations in vitro, an effect that was lost when calcium was omitted from the extracellular buffer, suggesting that inhibition of calcium influx due to alterations in plasma membrane potential may play a role in the mechanism of ASM relaxation. Selective targeting of the GABAAR α4 subunit with inhaled ligands may be a novel therapeutic pathway to treat bronchoconstriction, while avoiding sedative central nervous system effects, which are largely mediated by α1–3 subunit–containing GABAARs in the brain. PMID:26405827

  3. Expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in non-small-cell lung cancer reveals differences between smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Lam, David Chi-Leung; Girard, Luc; Ramirez, Ruben; Chau, Wing-Shun; Suen, Wai-sing; Sheridan, Shelley; Tin, Vicky P C; Chung, Lap-ping; Wong, Maria P; Shay, Jerry W; Gazdar, Adi F; Lam, Wah-kit; Minna, John D

    2007-05-15

    Nicotine and its derivatives, by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) on bronchial epithelial cells, can regulate cellular proliferation and apoptosis via activating the Akt pathway. Delineation of nAChR subtypes in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) may provide information for prevention or therapeutic targeting. Expression of nAChR subunit genes in 66 resected primary NSCLCs, 7 histologically non-involved lung tissues, 13 NSCLC cell lines, and 6 human bronchial epithelial cell lines (HBEC) was analyzed with quantitative PCR and microarray analysis. Five nonmalignant HBECs were exposed to nicotine in vitro to study the variation of nAChR subunit gene expression with nicotine exposure and removal. NSCLCs from nonsmokers showed higher expression of nAChR alpha6 (P < 0.001) and beta3 (P = 0.007) subunit genes than those from smokers, adjusted for gender. In addition, nAChR alpha4 (P < 0.001) and beta4 (P = 0.029) subunit gene expression showed significant difference between NSCLCs and normal lung. Using Affymetrix GeneChip U133 Sets, 65 differentially expressed genes associated with NSCLC nonsmoking nAChR alpha6beta3 phenotype were identified, which gave high sensitivity and specificity of prediction. nAChR alpha1, alpha5, and alpha7 showed significant reversible changes in expression levels in HBECs upon nicotine exposure. We conclude that between NSCLCs from smokers and nonsmokers, different nAChR subunit gene expression patterns were found, and a 65-gene expression signature was associated with nonsmoking nAChR alpha6beta3 expression. Finally, nicotine exposure in HBECs resulted in reversible differences in nAChR subunit gene expression. These results further implicate nicotine in bronchial carcinogenesis and suggest targeting nAChRs for prevention and therapy in lung cancer.

  4. Differential dendritic targeting of AMPA receptor subunit mRNAs in adult rat hippocampal principal neurons and interneurons.

    PubMed

    Cox, David J; Racca, Claudia

    2013-06-15

    In hippocampal neurons, AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory postsynaptic responses at glutamatergic synapses, and are involved in various forms of synaptic plasticity. Dendritic local protein synthesis of selected AMPAR subunit mRNAs is considered an additional mechanism to independently and rapidly control the strength of individual synapses. We have used fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to analyze the localization of AMPAR subunit (GluA1-4) mRNAs and their relationship with the translation machinery in principal cells and interneurons of the adult rat hippocampus. The mRNAs encoding all four AMPAR subunits were detected in the somata and dendrites of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells and those of six classes of CA1 γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons. GluA1-4 subunit mRNAs were highly localized to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells, whereas in interneurons they were present in multiple dendrites. In contrast, in the dentate gyrus, GluA1-4 subunit mRNAs were virtually restricted to the somata and were absent from the dendrites of granule cells. These different regional and cell type-specific labeling patterns also correlated with the localization of markers for components of the protein synthesis machinery. Our results support the local translation of GluA1-4 mRNAs in dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal cells and CA1 interneurons but not in granule cells of the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, the regional and cell type-specific differences we observed suggest that each cell type uses distinct ways of regulating the local translation of AMPAR subunits.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor transactivational effects in HepG2 cells of cembranoids from the soft coral Lobophytum crassum Von Marenzeller.

    PubMed

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Dat, Le Duc; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Song, Seok Bean; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate the expression of multiple genes involved in metabolic, anti-inflammatory, and developmental processes. This study evaluated the PPARs transactivational effects of thirteen cembranoid diterpenoids 1-13 from the soft coral Lobophytum crassum, using PPAR-responsive elements-luciferase reporter and GAL4-PPAR chimera assays. All isolated compounds activated the transcription of PPARs in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 values ranging from 2.07 ± 1.73 to 130.20 ± 1.85 μM. Moreover, compounds 6-9 affected the transactivation of all three PPAR types, PPARα, γ, β(δ), in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 values in a ranging from 11.92 ± 1.23 to 122.50 ± 2.12 μM. These results provide a scientific rationale for further studies on the soft coral L. crassum and its diterpenoid constituents to develop medicinal products against inflammatory and metabolic diseases.

  6. Adult naked mole-rat brain retains the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2D associated with hypoxia tolerance in neonatal mammals.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bethany L; Park, Thomas J; Larson, John

    2012-01-11

    Adult naked mole-rats show a number of systemic adaptations to a crowded underground habitat that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. Remarkably, brain slice tissue from adult naked mole-rats also is extremely tolerant to oxygen deprivation as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under hypoxic conditions as well as by a delayed neuronal depolarization during anoxia. These characteristics resemble hypoxia tolerance in brain slices from neonates in a variety of mammal species. An important component of neonatal tolerance to hypoxia involves the subunit composition of NMDA receptors. Neonates have a high proportion of NMDA receptors with GluN2D subunits which are protective because they retard calcium entry into neurons during hypoxic episodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that adult naked mole-rats retain a protective, neonatal-like, NMDA receptor subunit profile. We used immunoblotting to assess age-related changes in NMDA receptor subunits in naked mole-rats and mice. The results show that adult naked mole-rat brain retains a much greater proportion of the hypoxia-protective GluN2D subunit compared to adult mice. However, age-related changes in other subunits (GluN2A and GluN2B) from the neonatal period to adulthood were comparable in mice and naked mole-rats. Hence, adult naked mole-rat brain only retains the neonatal NMDA receptor subunit that is associated with hypoxia tolerance.

  7. Distinct Contributions of T1R2 and T1R3 Taste Receptor Subunits to the Detection of Sweet Stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Nie,Y.; Vigues, S.; Hobbs, J.; Conn, G.; Munger, S.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-type chemosensory receptors of animals selectively interact with their cognate ligands remain poorly understood. There is growing evidence that many chemosensory receptors exist in multimeric complexes, though little is known about the relative contributions of individual subunits to receptor functions. This study showed that each of the two subunits in the mammalian heteromeric T1R2:T1R3 sweet taste receptor binds sweet stimuli, though with distinct affinities and conformational changes. Furthermore, ligand affinities for T1R3 are drastically reduced by the introduction of a single amino acid change associated with decreased sweet taste sensitivity in mice. Thus, individual T1R subunits increase the receptive range of the sweet taste receptor, offering a functional mechanism for phenotypic variations in sweet taste.

  8. Individual stress vulnerability is predicted by short-term memory and AMPA receptor subunit ratio in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mathias V; Trümbach, Dietrich; Weber, Peter; Wagner, Klaus; Scharf, Sebastian H; Liebl, Claudia; Datson, Nicole; Namendorf, Christian; Gerlach, Tamara; Kühne, Claudia; Uhr, Manfred; Deussing, Jan M; Wurst, Wolfgang; Binder, Elisabeth B; Holsboer, Florian; Müller, Marianne B

    2010-12-15

    Increased vulnerability to aversive experiences is one of the main risk factors for stress-related psychiatric disorders as major depression. However, the molecular bases of vulnerability, on the one hand, and stress resilience, on the other hand, are still not understood. Increasing clinical and preclinical evidence suggests a central involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of major depression. Using a mouse paradigm, modeling increased stress vulnerability and depression-like symptoms in a genetically diverse outbred strain, and we tested the hypothesis that differences in AMPA receptor function may be linked to individual variations in stress vulnerability. Vulnerable and resilient animals differed significantly in their dorsal hippocampal AMPA receptor expression and AMPA receptor binding. Treatment with an AMPA receptor potentiator during the stress exposure prevented the lasting effects of chronic social stress exposure on physiological, neuroendocrine, and behavioral parameters. In addition, spatial short-term memory, an AMPA receptor-dependent behavior, was found to be predictive of individual stress vulnerability and response to AMPA potentiator treatment. Finally, we provide evidence that genetic variations in the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 are linked to the vulnerable phenotype. Therefore, we propose genetic variations in the AMPA receptor system to shape individual stress vulnerability. Those individual differences can be predicted by the assessment of short-term memory, thereby opening up the possibility for a specific treatment by enhancing AMPA receptor function.

  9. Differential sensitivity of Ctenocephalides felis and Drosophila melanogaster nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α1 and α2 subunits in recombinant hybrid receptors to nicotinoids and neonicotinoid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Dederer, Helene; Werr, Margaret; Ilg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the binding sites for nicotinoid drugs, such as nicotine and epibatidine, and are the molecular targets of the selectively insecticidal neonicotinoids. In this study we report the full length cDNA cloning of the three Ctenocephalides (C.) felis (cat flea) nAChR α subunits