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Sample records for receptor modulators sarms

  1. Development of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs)

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Coss, Christopher C.; Dalton, James T.

    2018-01-01

    The Androgen Receptor (AR), a member of the steroid hormone receptor family, plays important roles in the physiology and pathology of diverse tissues. AR ligands, which include circulating testosterone and locally synthesized dihydrotestosterone, bind to and activate the AR to elicit their effects. Ubiquitous expression of the AR, metabolism and cross reactivity with other receptors limit broad therapeutic utilization of steroidal androgens. However, the discovery of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and other tissue-selective nuclear hormone receptor modulators that activate their cognate receptors in a tissue-selective manner provides an opportunity to promote the beneficial effects of androgens and other hormones in target tissues with greatly reduced unwanted side-effects. In the last two decades, significant resources have been dedicated to the discovery and biological characterization of SARMs in an effort to harness the untapped potential of the AR. SARMs have been proposed as treatments of choice for various diseases, including muscle-wasting, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. This review provides insight into the evolution of SARMs from proof-of-concept agents to the cusp of therapeutic use in less than two decades, while covering contemporary views of their mechanisms of action and therapeutic benefits. PMID:28624515

  2. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) as Function Promoting Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The last decade has witnessed unprecedented discovery effort to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that improve physical function and bone health without adversely affecting the prostate and cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the historical evolution, the rationale for SARM development, and the mechanisms of testosterone action and SARM selectivity. Recent Findings While steroidal SARMs have been around since the 1940s, a number of nonsteroidal SARMs that do not serve as substrates for CYP19 aromatase or 5α-reductase, act as full agonists in muscle and bone and as partial agonists in prostate are in development. The differing interactions of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds with AR contribute to their unique pharmacologic actions. Ligand binding induces specific conformational changes in the ligand binding domain, which could modulate surface topology and protein-protein interactions between AR and coregulators, resulting in tissue-specific gene regulation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of SARMs to increase muscle and bone mass in preclinical rodent models with varying degree of prostate sparing. Phase I trials of SARMs in humans have reported modest increments in fat-free mass. Summary SARMs hold promise as a new class of function promoting anabolic therapies for a number of clinical indications, including functional limitations associated with aging and chronic disease, frailty, cancer cachexia, and osteoporosis. PMID:19357508

  3. Optimizing Ligand Efficiency of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) containing the 1-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol core have been optimized for androgen receptor (AR) potency and drug-like properties. We have taken advantage of the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) parameter as a guide to interpret the effect of structural changes on AR activity. Over the course of optimization efforts the LLE increased over 3 log units leading to a SARM 43 with nanomolar potency, good aqueous kinetic solubility (>700 μM), and high oral bioavailability in rats (83%). PMID:26819671

  4. Expanding the therapeutic use of androgens via selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenqing; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a novel class of androgen receptor (AR) ligands that might change the future of androgen therapy dramatically. With improved pharmacokinetic characteristics and tissue-selective pharmacological activities, SARMs are expected to greatly extend the clinical applications of androgens to osteoporosis, muscle wasting, male contraception and diseases of the prostate. Mechanistic studies with currently available SARMs will help to define the contributions of differential tissue distribution, tissue-specific expression of 5α-reductase, ligand-specific regulation of gene expression and AR interactions with tissue-specific coactivators to their observed tissue selectivity, and lead to even greater expansion of selective anabolic therapies. PMID:17331889

  5. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) negatively regulate triple-negative breast cancer growth and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Ahn, Sunjoo; Cheney, Misty D; Yepuru, Muralimohan; Miller, Duane D; Steiner, Mitchell S; Dalton, James T

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in breast cancer with 75-95% of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and 40-70% of ER-negative breast cancers expressing AR. Though historically breast cancers were treated with steroidal androgens, their use fell from favor because of their virilizing side effects and the emergence of tamoxifen. Nonsteroidal, tissue selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may provide a novel targeted approach to exploit the therapeutic benefits of androgen therapy in breast cancer. Since MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells express mutated AR, PTEN, and p53, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells stably expressing wildtype AR (MDA-MB-231-AR) were used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects of SARMs. Microarray analysis and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) co-culture signaling studies were performed to understand the mechanisms of action. Dihydrotestosterone and SARMs, but not bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231-AR. The SARMs reduced the MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth and tumor weight by greater than 90%, compared to vehicle-treated tumors. SARM treatment inhibited the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through its actions on the AR. SARM treatment also inhibited the metastasis-promoting paracrine factors, IL6 and MMP13, and subsequent migration and invasion of epithelial:MSC co-cultures. 1. AR stimulation inhibits paracrine factors that are important for MSC interactions and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. 2. SARMs may provide promise as novel targeted therapies to treat AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer.

  6. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) Negatively Regulate Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Growth and Epithelial:Mesenchymal Stem Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Ahn, Sunjoo; Cheney, Misty D.; Yepuru, Muralimohan; Miller, Duane D.; Steiner, Mitchell S.; Dalton, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The androgen receptor (AR) is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in breast cancer with 75–95% of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and 40–70% of ER-negative breast cancers expressing AR. Though historically breast cancers were treated with steroidal androgens, their use fell from favor because of their virilizing side effects and the emergence of tamoxifen. Nonsteroidal, tissue selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may provide a novel targeted approach to exploit the therapeutic benefits of androgen therapy in breast cancer. Materials and Methods Since MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells express mutated AR, PTEN, and p53, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells stably expressing wildtype AR (MDA-MB-231-AR) were used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects of SARMs. Microarray analysis and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) co-culture signaling studies were performed to understand the mechanisms of action. Results Dihydrotestosterone and SARMs, but not bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231-AR. The SARMs reduced the MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth and tumor weight by greater than 90%, compared to vehicle-treated tumors. SARM treatment inhibited the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through its actions on the AR. SARM treatment also inhibited the metastasis-promoting paracrine factors, IL6 and MMP13, and subsequent migration and invasion of epithelial:MSC co-cultures. Conclusion 1. AR stimulation inhibits paracrine factors that are important for MSC interactions and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. 2. SARMs may provide promise as novel targeted therapies to treat AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:25072326

  7. Novel, non-steroidal, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) with anabolic activity in bone and muscle and improved safety profile.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J; Negro-Vilar, A

    2002-03-01

    A novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis in men, and possibly women, is the development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that can stimulate formation of new bone with substantially diminished proliferative activity in the prostate, as well as reduced virilizing activity in women. Over the last several years, we have developed a program to discover and develop novel, non-steroidal, orally-active selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that provide improved therapeutic benefits and reduce risk and side effects. In recent studies, we have used a skeletally mature orchiectomized (ORX) male rat as an animal model of male hypogonadism for assessing the efficacy of LGD2226, a nonsteroidal, non-aromatizable, and non-5alpha-reducible SARM. We assessed the activity of LGD2226 on bone turnover, bone mass and bone strength, and also evaluated the effects exerted on classic androgen-dependent targets, such as prostate, seminal vesicles and muscle. A substantial loss of bone density was observed in ORX animals, and this loss was prevented by SARMs, as well as standard androgens. Biochemical markers of bone turnover revealed an early increase of bone resorption in androgen-deficient rats that was repressed in ORX animals treated with the oral SARM, LGD2226, during a 4-month treatment period. Differences in architectural properties and bone strength were detected by histomorphometric and mechanical analyses, demonstrating beneficial effects of LGD2226 on bone quality in androgen-deficient rats. Histomorphometric analysis of cortical bone revealed distinct anabolic activity of LGD2226 in periosteal bone. LGD2226 was able to prevent bone loss and maintain bone quality in ORX rats by stimulating bone formation, while also inhibiting bone turnover. LGD2226 also exerted anabolic activity on the levator ani muscle. Taken together, these results suggest that orally-active, non-steroidal SARMs may be useful therapeutics for both muscle and bone in elderly

  8. Amelioration of sexual behavior and motor activity deficits in a castrated rodent model with a selective androgen receptor modulator SARM-2f

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Megumi; Amano, Yuichiro; Oka, Masahiro; Harada, Ayako; Fujita, Hisashi; Hikichi, Yukiko; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Yamaoka, Masuo

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia and cachexia present characteristic features of a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and strength, anorexia, and lack of motivation. Treatments for these diseases have not yet been established, although selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are considered as therapeutic targets. We previously reported that a novel SARM compound, SARM-2f, exhibits anabolic effect on muscles, with less stimulatory effect on prostate weight compared with testosterone, in rat Hershberger assays and cancer cachexia models. In this study, we studied the mechanism of action for SARM-2f selectivity and also assessed whether the muscle increase by this compound might lead to improvement of muscle function and physical activity. First, we examined the tissue distribution of SARM-2f. Tissue concentration was 1.2-, 1.6-, and 1.9-fold as high as the plasma concentration in the levator ani muscle, brain, and prostate, respectively. This result showed that the tissue-selective pharmacological effect did not depend on SARM-2f concentration in the tissues. The ability of SARM-2f to influence androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcriptional activation was examined by reporter assays using human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and skeletal muscle cells (SKMC). SARM-2f exerted higher activity against AR in SKMC than in PrEC. Mammalian two hybrid assays showed different co-factor recruitment patterns between SARM-2f and dihydrotestosterone. Next, we studied the effect of SARM-2f on motivation and physical functions such as sexual behavior and motor activities in castrated rat or mouse models. SARM-2f restored the sexual behavior that was lost by castration in male rats. SARM-2f also increased voluntary running distance and locomotor activities. These results suggest that tissue-specific AR regulation by SARM-2f, but not tissue distribution, might account for its tissue specific androgenic effect, and that the muscle mass increase by SARM-2f leads to improvement of physical

  9. Design and synthesis of tricyclic tetrahydroquinolines as a new series of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

    PubMed

    Nagata, Naoya; Miyakawa, Motonori; Amano, Seiji; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Inoguchi, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-15

    Some tricyclic tetrahydroquinolines (THQs) were found to have the potential of a new series of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Compound 5b was first designed and synthesized under our hypothesis based on a four-point pharmacophoric requirement of the 3-carbonyl, 18-methyl, 17-hydroxyl, and 13-quaternary carbon groups of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). It was revealed that this compound exhibits not only a strong androgen receptor (AR) agonistic activity (EC(50)=9.2 nM) but also the highest selectivity in binding affinity to AR among the steroid hormone receptors. Furthermore, this compound showed a weak virilizing effect with retention of the desired anabolic effect as compared with DHT in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of the arylpropionamide-derived selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) S-4 (Andarine) in a black-market product.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Kamber, Matthias; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-08-01

    Non-steroidal and tissue-selective anabolic agents such as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent a promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases such as sarcopenia or cancer cachexia. Advanced compounds of SARMs are based on an arylpropionamide-derived structure and leading drug candidates have successfully completed phase-II-clinical trials. Although none of these therapeutics have been approved, their performance-enhancing qualities and the black-market availability of these products makes them a viable target for misuse in the athletic community. In 2008, SARMs were added to the Prohibited List established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). That SARMs are the subject of misuse even without clinical approval was proved for the first time by the detection of the drug candidate Andarine (also referred to as S-4, S-3-(4-acetylamino-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide), advertised, sold and supplied via the Internet. The oily liquids, declared as green tea extracts and face moisturizer, were assayed using state-of-the-art analytical procedures and S-4 was found at concentrations of approximately 150 mg/mL. The authenticity of the product was demonstrated in comparison to reference material by liquid chromatography, high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry using positive and negative electrospray ionization, and comparison to reference material. Moreover, an impurity resulting from poor product purification was detected, accounting for approximately 10% of S-4. This consisted of 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenylamino)-propionamide. The ease of purchasing non-approved drug candidates that could potentially increase athletic performance demonstrates the need to operate proactively in the continued fight against doping. The early inclusion of emerging drugs into routine sports drug testing procedures is a key

  11. Bone anabolic effects of S-40503, a novel nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), in rat models of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Keigo; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nejishima, Hiroaki; Ichikawa, Kiyonoshin; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Miyakawa, Motonori; Amano, Seiji; Sumita, Yuji; Oguro, Nao

    2003-11-01

    A novel nonsteroidal androgen receptor (AR) binder, S-40503, was successfully generated in order to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). We evaluated the binding specificity for nuclear receptors (NRs) and osteoanabolic activities of S-40503 in comparison with a natural nonaromatizable steroid, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The compound preferentially bound to AR with nanomolar affinity among NRs. When S-40503 was administrated into orchiectomized (ORX) rats for 4 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD) of femur and muscle weight of levator ani were increased as markedly as DHT, but prostate weight was not elevated over the normal at any doses tested. In contrast, DHT administration caused about 1.5-fold increase in prostate weight. The reduced virilizing activity was clearly evident from the result that 4-week treatment of normal rats with S-40503 showed no enlargement of prostate. To confirm the bone anabolic effect, S-40503 was given to ovariectomized (OVX) rats for 2 months. The compound significantly increased the BMD and biomechanical strength of femoral cortical bone, whereas estrogen, anti-bone resorptive hormone, did not. The increase in periosteal mineral apposition rate (MAR) of the femur revealed direct bone formation activity of S-40503. It was unlikely that the osteoanabolic effect of the compound was attribute to the enhancement of muscle mass, because immobilized ORX rats treated with S-40503 showed a marked increase in BMD of tibial cortical bone without any actions on the surrounding muscle tissue. Collectively, our novel compound served as a prototype for SARMs, which had unique tissue selectivity with high potency for bone formation and lower impact upon sex accessory tissues.

  12. Anti-androgenic effects of S-40542, a novel non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nejishima, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Suzuki, Mika; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Nagata, Naoya; Yamada, Shizuo

    2012-10-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) would provide alternative therapeutic agent for androgen-related diseases. We identified a tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) derivative, 1-(8-nitro-3a, 4, 5, 9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolin-4-yl) ethane-1, 2-diol (S-40542) as a novel SARM antagonist. Affinity for nuclear receptors of S-40542 was evaluated in receptor-binding studies. Androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity of S-40542 was investigated by luciferase reporter assay in DU145AR cells. Normal and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) model rats were repeatedly treated with S-40542 and flutamide. The tissue weights of prostate and levator ani muscle as well as blood levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone were measured. S-40542 bound to the AR with high affinity. S-40542 at relatively high concentrations increased the transcriptional activity. This agent also showed a concentration-dependent AR antagonistic action in the presence of 1 nM 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Repeated treatment with S-40542 and flutamide decreased dose-dependently the weights of the prostate to a similar extent. In contrast, the tissue weight-reducing effect by S-40542 treatment on the levator ani muscle was much weaker than that of flutamide. S-40542 had little effect on the blood level of testosterone and luteinizing hormone, whereas flutamide increased the level of both hormones. Furthermore, S-40542 decreased dose-dependently prostate weight of BPH rats. The current results indicate that S-40542 possesses the prostate-selective SARM activity, suggestive of clinical benefit against benign prostate hyperplasia. THQ compounds may be useful for the research of mode of action of SARMs and for the development of safe SARM antagonists. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Therapeutic potential of the SARMs: revisiting the androgen receptor for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Segal, Scott; Narayanan, Ramesh; Dalton, James T

    2006-04-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMS) bind to the androgen receptor and demonstrate anabolic activity in a variety of tissues; however, unlike testosterone and other anabolic steroids, these nonsteroidal agents are able to induce bone and muscle growth, as well as shrinking the prostate. The potential of SARMS is to maximise the positive attributes of steroidal androgens as well as minimising negative effects, thus providing therapeutic opportunities in a variety of diseases, including muscle wasting associated with burns, cancer, end-stage renal disease, osteoporosis, frailty and hypogonadism. This review summarises androgen physiology, the current status of the R&D of SARMS and potential therapeutic indications for this emerging class of drugs.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) Part III: Discovery of 4-(5-oxopyrrolidine-1-yl)benzonitrile derivative 2f as a clinical candidate.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Katsuji; Asano, Moriteru; Ono, Koji; Habuka, Noriyuki; Yano, Jason; Wilson, Keith; Fujita, Hisashi; Kandori, Hitoshi; Hara, Takahito; Morimoto, Megumi; Santou, Takashi; Yamaoka, Masuo; Nakayama, Masaharu; Hasuoka, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    We previously reported that 4-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzonitrile derivative 1b was a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) that exhibited anabolic effects on organs such as muscles and the central nervous system (CNS), but neutral effects on the prostate. From further modification, we identified that 4-(5-oxopyrrolidine-1-yl)benzonitrile derivative 2a showed strong AR binding affinity with improved metabolic stabilities. Based on these results, we tried to enhance the AR agonistic activities by modifying the substituents of the 5-oxopyrrolidine ring. As a consequence, we found that 4-[(2S,3S)-2-ethyl-3-hydroxy-5-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl]-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile (2f) had ideal SARM profiles in Hershberger assay and sexual behavior induction assay. Furthermore, 2f showed good pharmacokinetic profiles in rats, dogs, monkeys, excellent nuclear selectivity and acceptable toxicological profiles. We also determined its binding mode by obtaining the co-crystal structures with AR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 exerts anti-androgenic activity in the prostate cancer xenograft R-3327G and anabolic activity on skeletal muscle mass & function in castrated mice.

    PubMed

    Chisamore, Michael J; Gentile, Michael A; Dillon, Gregory Michael; Baran, Matthew; Gambone, Carlo; Riley, Sean; Schmidt, Azriel; Flores, Osvaldo; Wilkinson, Hilary; Alves, Stephen E

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor super family of transcription factors. Androgens play an essential role in the development, growth, and maintenance of male sex organs, as well as the musculoskeletal and central nervous systems. Yet with advancing age, androgens can drive the onset of prostate cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in males within the United States. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by pharmacologic and/or surgical castration induces apoptosis of prostate cells and subsequent shrinkage of the prostate and prostate tumors. However, ADT is associated with significant musculoskeletal and behavioral adverse effects. The unique pharmacological activity of selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 recently has been reported as an AR antagonist with 5α-reductase inhibitor function. The molecule inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in AR positive, androgen dependent prostate cancer cells. Importantly, MK-4541 inhibited androgen-dependent prostate growth in male rats yet maintained lean body mass and bone formation following ovariectomy in female rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of SARM MK-4541 in the androgen-dependent Dunning R3327-G prostate carcinoma xenograft mouse model as well as on skeletal muscle mass and function, and AR-regulated behavior in mice. MK-4541 significantly inhibited the growth of R3327-G prostate tumors, exhibited anti-androgen effects on the seminal vesicles, reduced plasma testosterone concentrations in intact males, and inhibited Ki67 expression. MK-4541 treated xenografts appeared similar to xenografts in castrated mice. Importantly, we demonstrate that MK-4541 exhibited anabolic activity in androgen deficient conditions, increasing lean body mass and muscle function in adult castrated mice. Moreover, MK-4541 treatment restored general activity levels in castrated mice. Thus, MK-4541 exhibits an optimum profile as an adjuvant therapy to ADT

  16. Sarm1 deficiency impairs synaptic function and leads to behavioral deficits, which can be ameliorated by an mGluR allosteric modulator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wen; Chen, Chiung-Ya; Cheng, Sin-Jhong; Hu, Hsiao-Tang; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Innate immune responses have been shown to influence brain development and function. Dysregulation of innate immunity is significantly associated with psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, which are well-known neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent studies have revealed that critical players of the innate immune response are expressed in neuronal tissues and regulate neuronal function and activity. For example, Sarm1, a negative regulator that acts downstream of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and 4, is predominantly expressed in neurons. We have previously shown that Sarm1 regulates neuronal morphogenesis and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the brain, which then affects learning ability, cognitive flexibility, and social interaction. Because impaired neuronal morphogenesis and dysregulation of cytokine expression may disrupt neuronal activity, we investigated whether Sarm1 knockdown affects the synaptic responses of neurons. We here show that reduced Sarm1 expression impairs metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) formation but enhances N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation production in hippocampal CA1 neurons. The expression levels of post-synaptic proteins, including NR2a, NR1, Shank1 and Shank3, are also altered in Sarm1 knockdown mice, suggesting a role for Sarm1 in the maintenance of synaptic homeostasis. The addition of a positive allosteric modulator of mGluR5, CDPPB, ameliorates the LTD defects in slice recording and the behavioral deficits in social interaction and associative memory. These results suggest an important role for mGluR5 signaling in the function of Sarm1. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a role for Sarm1 in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Through these mechanisms, Sarm1 knockdown results in the impairment of associative memory and social interactions in mice.

  17. Potent, nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) based on 8H-[1,4]oxazino[2,3-f]quinolin-8-ones.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Robert I; Thompson, Anthony W; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Caferro, Thomas R; Cummings, Marquis L; Deckhut, Charlotte P; Adams, Mark E; Tegley, Christopher M; Edwards, James P; López, Francisco J; Kallel, E Adam; Karanewsky, Donald S; Schrader, William T; Marschke, Keith B; Zhi, Lin

    2007-10-01

    A series of androgen receptor modulators based on 8H-[1,4]oxazino[2,3-f]quinolin-8-ones was synthesized and evaluated in an androgen receptor transcriptional activation assay. The most potent analogues from the series exhibited single-digit nanomolar potency in vitro. Compound 18h demonstrated full efficacy in the maintenance of muscle weight, at 10 mg/kg, with reduced activity in prostate weight in an in vivo model of androgen action.

  18. In-house validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMS) in bovine urine.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kathrin S; Mankertz, Joachim

    2018-06-01

    A sensitive and robust LC-MS/MS method allowing the rapid screening and confirmation of selective androgen receptor modulators in bovine urine was developed and successfully validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, chapter 3.1.3 'alternative validation', by applying a matrix-comprehensive in-house validation concept. The confirmation of the analytes in the validation samples was achieved both on the basis of the MRM ion ratios as laid down in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and by comparison of their enhanced product ion (EPI) spectra with a reference mass spectral library by making use of the QTRAP technology. Here, in addition to the MRM survey scan, EPI spectra were generated in a data-dependent way according to an information-dependent acquisition criterion. Moreover, stability studies of the analytes in solution and in matrix according to an isochronous approach proved the stability of the analytes in solution and in matrix for at least the duration of the validation study. To identify factors that have a significant influence on the test method in routine analysis, a factorial effect analysis was performed. To this end, factors considered to be relevant for the method in routine analysis (e.g. operator, storage duration of the extracts before measurement, different cartridge lots and different hydrolysis conditions) were systematically varied on two levels. The examination of the extent to which these factors influence the measurement results of the individual analytes showed that none of the validation factors exerts a significant influence on the measurement results.

  19. Selective androgen receptor modulators as function promoting therapies.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi

    2009-05-01

    The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented discovery effort to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that improve physical function and bone health without adversely affecting the prostate and cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the historical evolution, the rationale for SARM development, and the mechanisms of testosterone action and SARM selectivity. Although steroidal SARMs have been around since the 1940s, a number of nonsteroidal SARMs that do not serve as substrates for CYP19 aromatase or 5alpha-reductase, act as full agonists in muscle and bone and as partial agonists in prostate are in development. The differing interactions of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds with androgen receptor (AR) contribute to their unique pharmacologic actions. Ligand binding induces specific conformational changes in the ligand-binding domain, which could modulate surface topology and protein-protein interactions between AR and coregulators, resulting in tissue-specific gene regulation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of SARMs to increase muscle and bone mass in preclinical rodent models with varying degree of prostate sparing. Phase I trials of SARMs in humans have reported modest increments in fat-free mass. SARMs hold promise as a new class of function promoting anabolic therapies for a number of clinical indications, including functional limitations associated with aging and chronic disease, frailty, cancer cachexia, and osteoporosis.

  20. Selective androgen receptor modulators in preclinical and clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Mohler, Michael L.; Bohl, Casey E.; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2008-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the function of several organs including primary and accessory sexual organs, skeletal muscle, and bone, making it a desirable therapeutic target. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) bind to the AR and demonstrate osteo- and myo-anabolic activity; however, unlike testosterone and other anabolic steroids, these nonsteroidal agents produce less of a growth effect on prostate and other secondary sexual organs. SARMs provide therapeutic opportunities in a variety of diseases, including muscle wasting associated with burns, cancer, or end-stage renal disease, osteoporosis, frailty, and hypogonadism. This review summarizes the current standing of research and development of SARMs, crystallography of AR with SARMs, plausible mechanisms for their action and the potential therapeutic indications for this emerging class of drugs. PMID:19079612

  1. Selective androgen receptor modulators in preclinical and clinical development.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Mohler, Michael L; Bohl, Casey E; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2008-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the function of several organs including primary and accessory sexual organs, skeletal muscle, and bone, making it a desirable therapeutic target. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) bind to the AR and demonstrate osteo- and myo-anabolic activity; however, unlike testosterone and other anabolic steroids, these nonsteroidal agents produce less of a growth effect on prostate and other secondary sexual organs. SARMs provide therapeutic opportunities in a variety of diseases, including muscle wasting associated with burns, cancer, or end-stage renal disease, osteoporosis, frailty, and hypogonadism. This review summarizes the current standing of research and development of SARMs, crystallography of AR with SARMs, plausible mechanisms for their action and the potential therapeutic indications for this emerging class of drugs.

  2. Mass spectrometry of selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2008-07-01

    Nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are an emerging class of drugs for treatment of various diseases including osteoporosis and muscle wasting as well as the correction of age-related functional decline such as muscle strength and power. Several SARMs, which have advanced to preclinical and clinical trials, are composed of diverse chemical structures including arylpropionamide-, bicyclic hydantoin-, quinoline-, and tetrahydroquinoline-derived nuclei. Since January 2008, SARMs have been categorized as anabolic agents and prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Suitable detection methods for these low-molecular weight drugs were based on mass spectrometric approaches, which necessitated the elucidation of dissociation pathways in order to characterize and identify the target analytes in doping control samples as well as potential metabolic products and synthetic analogs. Fragmentation patterns of representatives of each category of SARMs after electrospray ionization (ESI) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) as well as electron ionization (EI) are summarized. The complexity and structural heterogeneity of these drugs is a daunting challenge for detection methods. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators enhance female sexual motivation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda; Hwang, Dong Jin; Duke, Charles B; He, Yali; Siddam, Anjaiah; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2010-08-01

    Women experience a decline in estrogen and androgen levels after natural or surgically induced menopause, effects that are associated with a loss of sexual desire and bone mineral density. Studies in our laboratories have shown the beneficial effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) in the treatment of osteoporosis and muscle wasting in animal models. A series of S-3-(phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide analogs was synthesized to evaluate the effects of B-ring substitutions on in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity, especially female sexual motivation. The androgen receptor (AR) relative binding affinities ranged from 0.1 to 26.5% (relative to dihydrotestosterone) and demonstrated a range of agonist activity at 100 nM. In vivo pharmacologic activity was first assessed by using male rats. Structural modifications to the B-ring significantly affected the selectivity of the SARMs, demonstrating that single-atom substitutions can dramatically and unexpectedly influence activity in androgenic (i.e., prostate) and anabolic (i.e., muscle) tissues. (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro,4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) displayed full agonist activity in androgenic and anabolic tissues; however, the remaining SARMs were more prostate-sparing, selectively maintaining the size of the levator ani muscle in castrated rats. The partner-preference paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of SARMs on female sexual motivation. With the exception of two four-halo substituted analogs, the SARMs increased sexual motivation in ovariectomized rats, with potency and efficacy comparable with testosterone propionate. These results indicate that the AR is important in regulating female libido given the nonaromatizable nature of SARMs and it could be a superior alternative to steroidal testosterone preparations in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

  4. Nonsteroidal Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators Enhance Female Sexual Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amanda; Hwang, Dong Jin; Duke, Charles B.; He, Yali; Siddam, Anjaiah; Miller, Duane D.

    2010-01-01

    Women experience a decline in estrogen and androgen levels after natural or surgically induced menopause, effects that are associated with a loss of sexual desire and bone mineral density. Studies in our laboratories have shown the beneficial effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) in the treatment of osteoporosis and muscle wasting in animal models. A series of S-3-(phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide analogs was synthesized to evaluate the effects of B-ring substitutions on in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity, especially female sexual motivation. The androgen receptor (AR) relative binding affinities ranged from 0.1 to 26.5% (relative to dihydrotestosterone) and demonstrated a range of agonist activity at 100 nM. In vivo pharmacologic activity was first assessed by using male rats. Structural modifications to the B-ring significantly affected the selectivity of the SARMs, demonstrating that single-atom substitutions can dramatically and unexpectedly influence activity in androgenic (i.e., prostate) and anabolic (i.e., muscle) tissues. (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro,4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) displayed full agonist activity in androgenic and anabolic tissues; however, the remaining SARMs were more prostate-sparing, selectively maintaining the size of the levator ani muscle in castrated rats. The partner-preference paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of SARMs on female sexual motivation. With the exception of two four-halo substituted analogs, the SARMs increased sexual motivation in ovariectomized rats, with potency and efficacy comparable with testosterone propionate. These results indicate that the AR is important in regulating female libido given the nonaromatizable nature of SARMs and it could be a superior alternative to steroidal testosterone preparations in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. PMID:20444881

  5. Pharmacodynamics of selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Yin, Donghua; Gao, Wenqing; Kearbey, Jeffrey D; Xu, Huiping; Chung, Kiwon; He, Yali; Marhefka, Craig A; Veverka, Karen A; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2003-03-01

    The present study aimed to identify selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) with in vivo pharmacological activity. We examined the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of four chiral, nonsteroidal SARMs synthesized in our laboratories. In the in vitro assays, these compounds demonstrated moderate to high androgen receptor (AR) binding affinity, with K(i) values ranging from 4 to 37 nM, and three of the compounds efficaciously stimulated AR-mediated reporter gene expression. The compounds were then administered subcutaneously to castrated rats to appraise their in vivo pharmacological activity. Androgenic activity was evaluated by the ability of these compounds to maintain the weights of prostate and seminal vesicle, whereas levator ani muscle weight was used as a measure of anabolic activity. The maximal response (E(max)) and dose for half-maximal effect (ED(50)) were determined for each compound and compared with that observed for testosterone propionate (TP). Compounds S-1 and S-4 demonstrated in vivo androgenic and anabolic activity, whereas compounds S-2 and S-3 did not. The activities of S-1 and S-4 were tissue-selective in that both compounds stimulated the anabolic organs more than the androgenic organs. These two compounds were less potent and efficacious than TP in androgenic activity, but their anabolic activity was similar to or greater than that of TP. Neither S-1 nor S-4 caused significant luteinizing hormone or follicle stimulating hormone suppression at doses near the ED(50) value. Thus, compounds S-1 and S-4 were identified as SARMs with potent and tissue-selective in vivo pharmacological activity, and represent the first members of a new class of SARMs with selective anabolic effects.

  6. Discovery and therapeutic promise of selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiyun; Kim, Juhyun; Dalton, James T

    2005-06-01

    Androgens are essential for male development and the maintenance of male secondary characteristics, such as bone mass, muscle mass, body composition, and spermatogenesis. The main disadvantages of steroidal androgens are their undesirable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The recent discovery of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) provides a promising alternative for testosterone replacement therapies with advantages including oral bioavailability, flexibility of structural modification, androgen receptor specificity, tissue selectivity, and the lack of steroid-related side effects.

  7. Discovery AND Therapeutic Promise OF Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiyun; Kim, Juhyun; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Androgens are essential for male development and the maintenance of male secondary characteristics, such as bone mass, muscle mass, body composition, and spermatogenesis. The main disadvantages of steroidal androgens are their undesirable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The recent discovery of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) provides a promising alternative for testosterone replacement therapies with advantages including oral bioavailability, flexibility of structural modification, androgen receptor specificity, tissue selectivity, and the lack of steroid-related side effects. PMID:15994457

  8. SARM1-specific motifs in the TIR domain enable NAD+ loss and regulate injury-induced SARM1 activation.

    PubMed

    Summers, Daniel W; Gibson, Daniel A; DiAntonio, Aaron; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2016-10-11

    Axon injury in response to trauma or disease stimulates a self-destruction program that promotes the localized clearance of damaged axon segments. Sterile alpha and Toll/interleukin receptor (TIR) motif-containing protein 1 (SARM1) is an evolutionarily conserved executioner of this degeneration cascade, also known as Wallerian degeneration; however, the mechanism of SARM1-dependent neuronal destruction is still obscure. SARM1 possesses a TIR domain that is necessary for SARM1 activity. In other proteins, dimerized TIR domains serve as scaffolds for innate immune signaling. In contrast, dimerization of the SARM1 TIR domain promotes consumption of the essential metabolite NAD + and induces neuronal destruction. This activity is unique to the SARM1 TIR domain, yet the structural elements that enable this activity are unknown. In this study, we identify fundamental properties of the SARM1 TIR domain that promote NAD + loss and axon degeneration. Dimerization of the TIR domain from the Caenorhabditis elegans SARM1 ortholog TIR-1 leads to NAD + loss and neuronal death, indicating these activities are an evolutionarily conserved feature of SARM1 function. Detailed analysis of sequence homology identifies canonical TIR motifs as well as a SARM1-specific (SS) loop that are required for NAD + loss and axon degeneration. Furthermore, we identify a residue in the SARM1 BB loop that is dispensable for TIR activity yet required for injury-induced activation of full-length SARM1, suggesting that SARM1 function requires multidomain interactions. Indeed, we identify a physical interaction between the autoinhibitory N terminus and the TIR domain of SARM1, revealing a previously unrecognized direct connection between these domains that we propose mediates autoinhibition and activation upon injury.

  9. A selective androgen receptor modulator for hormonal male contraception.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiyun; Hwang, Dong Jin; Bohl, Casey E; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2005-02-01

    The recent discovery of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) provides a promising alternative for testosterone replacement therapies, including hormonal male contraception. The identification of an orally bioavailable SARM with the ability to mimic the central and peripheral androgenic and anabolic effects of testosterone would represent an important step toward the "male pill". We characterized the in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity of (S)-3-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethylphenyl)propionamide (C-6), a novel SARM developed in our laboratories. C-6 was identified as an androgen receptor (AR) agonist with high AR binding affinity (K(i) = 4.9 nM). C-6 showed tissue-selective pharmacologic activity with higher anabolic activity than androgenic activity in male rats. The doses required to maintain the weight of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and levator ani muscle to half the size of the maximum effects (i.e., ED(50)) were 0.78 +/- 0.06, 0.88 +/- 0.1, and 0.17 +/- 0.04 mg/day, respectively. As opposed to other SARMs, gonadotropin levels in C-6-treated groups were significantly lower than control values. C-6 also significantly decreased serum testosterone concentration in intact rats after 2 weeks of treatment. Marked suppression of spermatogenesis was observed after 10 weeks of treatment with C-6 in intact male rats. Pharmacokinetic studies of C-6 in male rats revealed that C-6 was well absorbed after oral administration (bioavailability 76%), with a long (6.3 h) half-life at a dose of 10 mg/kg. These studies show that C-6 mimicked the in vivo pharmacologic and endocrine effects of testosterone while maintaining the oral bioavailability and tissue-selective actions of nonsteroidal SARMs.

  10. The SARM1 Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor Domain Possesses Intrinsic NAD+ Cleavage Activity that Promotes Pathological Axonal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Essuman, Kow; Summers, Daniel W; Sasaki, Yo; Mao, Xianrong; DiAntonio, Aaron; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2017-03-22

    Axonal degeneration is an early and prominent feature of many neurological disorders. SARM1 is the central executioner of the axonal degeneration pathway that culminates in depletion of axonal NAD + , yet the identity of the underlying NAD + -depleting enzyme(s) is unknown. Here, in a series of experiments using purified proteins from mammalian cells, bacteria, and a cell-free protein translation system, we show that the SARM1-TIR domain itself has intrinsic NADase activity-cleaving NAD + into ADP-ribose (ADPR), cyclic ADPR, and nicotinamide, with nicotinamide serving as a feedback inhibitor of the enzyme. Using traumatic and vincristine-induced injury models in neurons, we demonstrate that the NADase activity of full-length SARM1 is required in axons to promote axonal NAD + depletion and axonal degeneration after injury. Hence, the SARM1 enzyme represents a novel therapeutic target for axonopathies. Moreover, the widely utilized TIR domain is a protein motif that can possess enzymatic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective androgen receptor modulators for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Coss, Christopher C; Jones, Amanda; Hancock, Michael L; Steiner, Mitchell S; Dalton, James T

    2014-01-01

    Several testosterone preparations are used in the treatment of hypogonadism in the ageing male. These therapies differ in their convenience, flexibility, regional availability and expense but share their pharmacokinetic basis of approval and dearth of long-term safety data. The brevity and relatively reduced cost of pharmacokinetic based registration trials provides little commercial incentive to develop improved novel therapies for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been shown to provide anabolic benefit in the absence of androgenic effects on prostate, hair and skin. Current clinical development for SARMs is focused on acute muscle wasting conditions with defi ned clinical endpoints of physical function and lean body mass. Similar regulatory clarity concerning clinical deficits in men with hypogonadism is required before the beneficial pharmacology and desirable pharmacokinetics of SARMs can be employed in the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism.

  12. Selective androgen receptor modulators for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Coss, Christopher C; Jones, Amanda; Hancock, Michael L; Steiner, Mitchell S; Dalton, James T

    2014-01-01

    Several testosterone preparations are used in the treatment of hypogonadism in the ageing male. These therapies differ in their convenience, flexibility, regional availability and expense but share their pharmacokinetic basis of approval and dearth of long-term safety data. The brevity and relatively reduced cost of pharmacokinetic based registration trials provides little commercial incentive to develop improved novel therapies for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been shown to provide anabolic benefit in the absence of androgenic effects on prostate, hair and skin. Current clinical development for SARMs is focused on acute muscle wasting conditions with defined clinical endpoints of physical function and lean body mass. Similar regulatory clarity concerning clinical deficits in men with hypogonadism is required before the beneficial pharmacology and desirable pharmacokinetics of SARMs can be employed in the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism. PMID:24407183

  13. Local delivery of a selective androgen receptor modulator failed as an anabolic agent in a rat bone marrow ablation model

    PubMed Central

    Aro, Hannu T; Kulkova, Julia; Moritz, Niko; Kähkönen, Esa; Mattila, Riina H

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose — Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been developed to have systemic anabolic effects on bones and muscles without the adverse effects of steroidal androgens. One unexplored therapeutic option is the targeted application of SARMs for the enhancement of local new bone formation. We evaluated the osteogenic efficacy of a locally released SARM (ORM-11984). Methods — ORM-11984 was mixed with a copolymer of L-lactide and ɛ-caprolactone (PLCL). An in vitro dissolution test confirmed the sustainable release of ORM-11984 from the matrix. A bone marrow ablation model was used in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Implants containing 10%, 30%, or 50% ORM-11984 by weight or pure PLCL were inserted into the medullary canal of the ablated tibia. At 6 and 12 weeks, the volume of intramedullary new bone and the perimeter of bone-implant contact were measured by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Results — Contrary to our hypothesis, there was a negative correlation between the amount of new bone around the implant and the dose of ORM-11984. There was only a mild (and not statistically significant) enhancement of bone formation in ablated bones subjected to the lowest dose of the SARM (10%). Interpretation — This study suggests that intramedullary/endosteal osteogenesis had a negative, dose-dependent response to locally released SARM. This result highlights the complexity of androgenic effects on bones and also suggests that there are biological limits to the targeted local application of SARMs. PMID:26198725

  14. Pharmacological characterization of an imidazolopyrazole as novel selective androgen receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuqing; Allan, George F; Tannenbaum, Pamela; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Lundeen, Scott G; Sui, Zhihua

    2013-03-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are androgens with tissue-selective activity. SARMs that have anabolic activity on muscle while having minimal stimulatory activity on prostate are classified as SARM agonists. They can be used to prevent the loss of lean body mass that is associated with cancer, immunodeficiency, renal disease and aging. They may also have anabolic activity on bone; thus, unlike estrogens, they may reverse the loss of bone strength associated with aging or hypogonadism. Our in-house effort on SARM program discovers a nonsteroidal androgen receptor ligand with a unique imidazolopyrazole moiety in its structure. In vitro, this compound is a weak androgen receptor binder and a weak androgen agonist. Despite this, in orchidectomized mature rats it is an effective SARM agonist, with an ED(50) on levator ani muscle of 3.3mg/kg and an ED(50) on ventral prostate of >30mg/kg. It has its maximal effect on muscle at the dose of 10mg/kg. In addition, this compound has mixed agonistic and antagonistic activities on prostate, reducing the weight of that tissue in intact rats by 22% at 10mg/kg. The compound does not have significant effect on gonadotropin levels or testosterone levels in both orchidectomized and intact male rats. It does not have notable progestin, estrogen or glucocorticoid agonistic or antagonistic activity in rats. In a female sexual behavior model, it improves the sexual desire of ovariectomized female rats for sexually mature intact males over nonsexually ovariectomized females. Overall, the imidazolopyrazole is a potent prostate-sparing candidate for development as a SARM agonist with an appropriate pharmacological profile for clinical benefit in muscle-wasting conditions and female sexual function disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective androgen receptor modulators for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting associated with cancer.

    PubMed

    Dalton, James T; Taylor, Ryan P; Mohler, Michael L; Steiner, Mitchell S

    2013-12-01

    This review highlights selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) as emerging agents in late-stage clinical development for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting associated with cancer. Muscle wasting, including a loss of skeletal muscle, is a cancer-related symptom that begins early in the progression of cancer and affects a patient's quality of life, ability to tolerate chemotherapy, and survival. SARMs increase muscle mass and improve physical function in healthy and diseased individuals, and potentially may provide a new therapy for muscle wasting and cancer cachexia. SARMs modulate the same anabolic pathways targeted with classical steroidal androgens, but within the dose range in which expected effects on muscle mass and function are seen androgenic side-effects on prostate, skin, and hair have not been observed. Unlike testosterone, SARMs are orally active, nonaromatizable, nonvirilizing, and tissue-selective anabolic agents. Recent clinical efficacy data for LGD-4033, MK-0773, MK-3984, and enobosarm (GTx-024, ostarine, and S-22) are reviewed. Enobosarm, a nonsteroidal SARM, is the most well characterized clinically, and has consistently demonstrated increases in lean body mass and better physical function across several populations along with a lower hazard ratio for survival in cancer patients. Completed in May 2013, results for the Phase III clinical trials entitled Prevention and treatment Of muscle Wasting in patiEnts with Cancer1 (POWER1) and POWER2 evaluating enobosarm for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer will be available soon, and will potentially establish a SARM, enobosarm, as the first drug for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in cancer patients.

  16. Selective androgen receptor modulators: in pursuit of tissue-selective androgens.

    PubMed

    Omwancha, Josephat; Brown, Terry R

    2006-10-01

    The androgen receptor mediates the androgenic and anabolic activity of the endogenous steroids testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Current knowledge of the androgen receptor protein structure, and the molecular mechanisms surrounding the binding properties and activities of agonists and antagonists has led to the design and development of novel nonsteroidal ligands with selected tissue-specific androgen receptor agonist and antagonist activities. The activity of these compounds, termed selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), is directed toward the maintenance or enhancement of anabolic effects on bone and muscle with minimal androgenic effects on prostate growth. SARMs are of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of male hypogonadism, osteoporosis, frailty and muscle wasting, burn injury and would healing, anemia, mood and depression, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

  17. Effect of B-ring substitution pattern on binding mode of propionamide selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Casey E; Wu, Zengru; Chen, Jiyun; Mohler, Michael L; Yang, Jun; Hwang, Dong Jin; Mustafa, Suni; Miller, Duane D; Bell, Charles E; Dalton, James T

    2008-10-15

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are essentially prostate sparing androgens, which provide therapeutic potential in osteoporosis, male hormone replacement, and muscle wasting. Herein we report crystal structures of the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain (LBD) complexed to a series of potent synthetic nonsteroidal SARMs with a substituted pendant arene referred to as the B-ring. We found that hydrophilic B-ring para-substituted analogs exhibit an additional region of hydrogen bonding not seen with steroidal compounds and that multiple halogen substitutions affect the B-ring conformation and aromatic interactions with Trp741. This information elucidates interactions important for high AR binding affinity and provides new insight for structure-based drug design.

  18. In vitro metabolism study of a black market product containing SARM LGD-4033.

    PubMed

    Geldof, Lore; Pozo, Oscar J; Lootens, Leen; Morthier, Wouter; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2017-02-01

    Anabolic agents are often used by athletes to enhance their performance. However, use of steroids leads to considerable side effects. Non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a novel class of substances that have not been approved so far but seem to have a more favourable anabolic/androgenic ratio than steroids and produce fewer side effects. Therefore the use of SARMs has been prohibited since 2008 by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Several of these SARMs have been detected on the black market. Metabolism studies are essential to identify the best urinary markers to ensure effective control of emerging substances by doping control laboratories. As black market products often contain non-pharmaceutical-grade substances, alternatives for human excretion studies are needed to elucidate the metabolism. A black market product labelled to contain the SARM LGD-4033 was purchased over the Internet. Purity verification of the black market product led to the detection of LGD-4033, without other contaminants. Human liver microsomes and S9 liver fractions were used to perform phase I and phase II (glucuronidation) metabolism studies. The samples of the in vitro metabolism studies were analyzed by gas chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry (GC-MS(/MS)), liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-(HR)MS/MS). LC-HRMS product ion scans allowed to identify typical fragment ions for the parent compound and to further determine metabolite structures. In total five metabolites were detected, all modified in the pyrrolidine ring of LGD-4033. The metabolic modifications ranged from hydroxylation combined with keto-formation (M1) or cleavage of the pyrrolidine ring (M2), hydroxylation and methylation (M3/M4) and dihydroxylation (M5). The parent compound and M2 were also detected as glucuronide-conjugates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Glucocorticoid receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Onno C; Koorneef, Lisa L; Kroon, Jan

    2018-06-01

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol acts throughout the body to support circadian processes and adaptation to stress. The glucocorticoid receptor is the target of cortisol and of synthetic glucocorticoids, which are used widely in the clinic. Both agonism and antagonism of the glucocorticoid receptor may be beneficial in disease, but given the wide expression of the receptor and involvement in various processes, beneficial effects are often accompanied by unwanted side effects. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators are ligands that induce a receptor conformation that allows activation of only a subset of downstream signaling pathways. Such molecules thereby combine agonistic and antagonistic properties. Here we discuss the mechanisms underlying selective receptor modulation and their promise in treating diseases in several organ systems where cortisol signaling plays a role. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. SARM1 deletion restrains NAFLD induced by high fat diet (HFD) through reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhen-Guo; An, Xu-Sheng

    2018-04-06

    SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transduction. In the present study, the role of SARM1 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression was explored. We found that SARM1 was expressed highly in fatty liver. And SARM1-knockout (KO) reduced steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders induced by HFD. SARM1-deletion decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HFD-fed mice. Additionally, inflammatory response caused by HFD was alleviated by SARM1-deletion through inactivating TLR4/7/9 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Of note, SARM1-deletion also reduced the expressions of inflammation-associated molecules in hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, HFD administration led to oxidative stress in liver of mice, while being decreased in SARM1-KO mice. Moreover, SARM1-ablation improved lipid dyslipidemia by suppressing the mRNA levels of genes, linked to glycolysis, lipogenesis and transcriptional regulation. Insulin resistance was also attenuated by SARM1-deficiency through enhancing the activation of liver Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1)/FOXO1 pathways in HFD-fed mice. Also, SARM1-knockout improved neuropeptide Y (NPY), Pro-Opiomelanocortins (POMC), Agouti-related Protein (AGRP) and Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Responsive Transcript 1 (CART1) expressions in hypothalamus of mice after HFD administration. In vitro, we found that the reduction of inflammatory response, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia induced by SARM1-knockout in primary hepatocytes after fructose stimulation was largely attributed to its suppression to TLR4/7/9. Together, the findings demonstrated that SARM1 might be an effective target for developing effective therapeutic strategies against NAFLD. Copyright © 2018

  1. Steroidal androgens and nonsteroidal, tissue-selective androgen receptor modulator, S-22, regulate androgen receptor function through distinct genomic and nongenomic signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Coss, Christopher C; Yepuru, Muralimohan; Kearbey, Jeffrey D; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2008-11-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) ligands are important for the development and function of several tissues and organs. However, the poor oral bioavailability, pharmacokinetic properties, and receptor cross-reactivity of testosterone, coupled with side effects, place limits on its clinical use. Selective AR modulators (SARMs) elicit anabolic effects in muscle and bone, sparing reproductive organs like the prostate. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the tissue selectivity remain ambiguous. We performed a variety of in vitro studies to compare and define the molecular mechanisms of an aryl propionamide SARM, S-22, as compared with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Studies indicated that S-22 increased levator ani muscle weight but decreased the size of prostate in rats. Analysis of the upstream intracellular signaling events indicated that S-22 and DHT mediated their actions through distinct pathways. Modulation of these pathways altered the recruitment of AR and its cofactors to the PSA enhancer in a ligand-dependent fashion. In addition, S-22 induced Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation and rapid phosphorylation of several kinases, through pathways distinct from steroids. These studies reveal novel differences in the molecular mechanisms by which S-22, a nonsteroidal SARM, and DHT mediate their pharmacological effects.

  2. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    De Bosscher, Karolien

    2010-05-31

    The ancient two-faced Roman god Janus is often used as a metaphor to describe the characteristics of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1), which exhibits both a beneficial side, that serves to halt inflammation, and a detrimental side responsible for undesirable effects. However, recent developments suggest that the Glucocorticoid Receptor has many more faces with the potential to express a range of different functionalities, depending on factors that include the tissue type, ligand type, receptor variants, cofactor surroundings and target gene promoters. This behavior of the receptor has made the development of safer ligands, that trigger the expression program of only a desirable subset of genes, a real challenge. Thus more knowledge-based fundamental research is needed to ensure the design and development of selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators capable of reaching the clinic. Recent advances in the characterization of novel selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators, specifically in the context of anti-inflammatory strategies, will be described in this review. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity restores lean body mass in aged orchidectomized male rats.

    PubMed

    Allan, George; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Ng, Raymond; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Androgens are required for the maintenance of normal sexual activity in adulthood and for enhancing muscle growth and lean body mass in adolescents and adults. Androgen receptor (AR) ligands with tissue selectivity (selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs) have potential for treating muscle wasting, hypogonadism of aging, osteoporosis, female sexual dysfunction, and other indications. JNJ-37654032 is a nonsteroidal AR ligand with mixed agonist and antagonist activity in androgen-responsive cell-based assays. It is an orally active SARM with muscle selectivity in orchidectomized rat models. It stimulated growth of the levator ani muscle with ED(50) 0.8 mg/kg, stimulating maximal growth at a dose of 3mg/kg. In contrast, it stimulated ventral prostate growth to 21% of its full size at 3mg/kg. At the same time, JNJ-37654032 reduced prostate weight in intact rats by 47% at 3mg/kg, while having no inhibitory effect on muscle. Using magnetic resonance imaging to monitor body composition, JNJ-37654032 restored about 20% of the lean body mass lost following orchidectomy in aged rats. JNJ-37654032 reduced follicle-stimulating hormone levels in orchidectomized rats and reduced testis size in intact rats. JNJ-37654032 is a potent prostate-sparing SARM with the potential for clinical benefit in muscle-wasting diseases.

  4. Therapeutic androgen receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Allan, George F.; Sui, Zhihua

    2003-01-01

    In the past several years, the concept of tissue-selective nuclear receptor ligands has emerged. This concept has come to fruition with estrogens, with the successful marketing of drugs such as raloxifene. The discovery of raloxifene and other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) has raised the possibility of generating selective compounds for other pathways, including androgens (that is, selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs). PMID:16604181

  5. Synthetic anabolic agents: steroids and nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The central role of testosterone in the development of male characteristics, as well as its beneficial effects on physical performance and muscle growth, has led to the search for synthetic alternatives with improved pharmacological profiles. Hundreds of steroidal analogs have been prepared with a superior oral bioavailability, which should also possess reduced undesirable effects. However, only a few entered the pharmaceutical market due to severe toxicological incidences that were mainly attributed to the lack of tissue selectivity. Prominent representatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are for instance methyltestosterone, metandienone and stanozolol, which are discussed as model compounds with regard to general pharmacological aspects of synthetic AAS. Recently, nonsteroidal alternatives to AAS have been developed that selectively activate the androgen receptor in either muscle tissue or bones. These so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are currently undergoing late clinical trials (IIb) and will be prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency from January 2008. Their entirely synthetic structures are barely related to steroids, but particular functional groups allow for the tissue-selective activation or inhibition of androgen receptors and, thus, the stimulation of muscle growth without the risk of severe undesirable effects commonly observed in steroid replacement therapies. Hence, these compounds possess a high potential for misuse in sports and will be the subject of future doping control assays.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LGD-3303 [9-chloro-2-ethyl-1-methyl-3-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3H-pyrrolo-[3,2-f]quinolin-7(6H)-one], an orally available nonsteroidal-selective androgen receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Vajda, Eric G; López, Francisco J; Rix, Peter; Hill, Robert; Chen, Yanling; Lee, Kyoung-Jin; O'Brien, Z; Chang, William Y; Meglasson, Martin D; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2009-02-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a new class of molecules in development to treat a variety of diseases. SARMs maintain the beneficial effects of androgens, including increased muscle mass and bone density, while having reduced activity on unwanted side effects. The mechanisms responsible for the tissue-selective activity of SARMs are not fully understood, and the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationships are poorly described. Tissue-specific compound distribution potentially could be a mechanism responsible for apparent tissue selectivity. We examined the PK/PD relationship of a novel SARM, LGD-3303 [9-chloro-2-ethyl-1-methyl-3-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3H-pyrrolo[3,2-f]quinolin-7(6H)-one], in a castrated rat model of androgen deficiency. LGD-3303 has potent activity on levator ani muscle but is a partial agonist on the preputial gland and ventral prostate. LGD-3303 never stimulated ventral prostate above intact levels despite increasing plasma concentrations of compound. Tissue-selective activity was maintained when LGD-3303 was dosed orally or by continuous infusion, two routes of administration with markedly different time versus exposure profiles. Despite the greater muscle activity relative to prostate activity, local tissue concentrations of LGD-3303 were higher in the prostate than in the levator ani muscle. LGD-3303 has SARM properties that are independent of its pharmacokinetic profile, suggesting that the principle mechanism for tissue-selective activity is the result of altered molecular interactions at the level of the androgen receptor.

  7. Proteome-wide muscle protein fractional synthesis rates predict muscle mass gain in response to a selective androgen receptor modulator in rats.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Shearer, Todd W; Stimpson, Stephen A; Turner, Scott M; King, Chelsea; Wong, Po-Yin Anne; Shen, Ying; Turnbull, Philip S; Kramer, Fritz; Clifton, Lisa; Russell, Alan; Hellerstein, Marc K; Evans, William J

    2016-03-15

    Biomarkers of muscle protein synthesis rate could provide early data demonstrating anabolic efficacy for treating muscle-wasting conditions. Androgenic therapies have been shown to increase muscle mass primarily by increasing the rate of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that the synthesis rate of large numbers of individual muscle proteins could serve as early response biomarkers and potentially treatment-specific signaling for predicting the effect of anabolic treatments on muscle mass. Utilizing selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) treatment in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat, we applied an unbiased, dynamic proteomics approach to measure the fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of 167-201 individual skeletal muscle proteins in triceps, EDL, and soleus. OVX rats treated with a SARM molecule (GSK212A at 0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg) for 10 or 28 days showed significant, dose-related increases in body weight, lean body mass, and individual triceps but not EDL or soleus weights. Thirty-four out of the 94 proteins measured from the triceps of all rats exhibited a significant, dose-related increase in FSR after 10 days of SARM treatment. For several cytoplasmic proteins, including carbonic anhydrase 3, creatine kinase M-type (CK-M), pyruvate kinase, and aldolase-A, a change in 10-day FSR was strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.90-0.99) to the 28-day change in lean body mass and triceps weight gains, suggesting a noninvasive measurement of SARM effects. In summary, FSR of multiple muscle proteins measured by dynamics of moderate- to high-abundance proteins provides early biomarkers of the anabolic response of skeletal muscle to SARM. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Structure-Based Approach To Identify 5-[4-Hydroxyphenyl]pyrrole-2-carbonitrile Derivatives as Potent and Tissue Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators.

    PubMed

    Unwalla, Ray; Mousseau, James J; Fadeyi, Olugbeminiyi O; Choi, Chulho; Parris, Kevin; Hu, Baihua; Kenney, Thomas; Chippari, Susan; McNally, Christopher; Vishwanathan, Karthick; Kilbourne, Edward; Thompson, Catherine; Nagpal, Sunil; Wrobel, Jay; Yudt, Matthew; Morris, Carl A; Powell, Dennis; Gilbert, Adam M; Chekler, Eugene L Piatnitski

    2017-07-27

    In an effort to find new and safer treatments for osteoporosis and frailty, we describe a novel series of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Using a structure-based approach, we identified compound 7, a potent AR (ARE EC 50 = 0.34 nM) and selective (N/C interaction EC 50 = 1206 nM) modulator. In vivo data, an AR LBD X-ray structure of 7, and further insights from modeling studies of ligand receptor interactions are also presented.

  9. Allosteric Modulation of Chemoattractant Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Marcello; Cesta, Maria Candida; Locati, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Chemoattractants control selective leukocyte homing via interactions with a dedicated family of related G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Emerging evidence indicates that the signaling activity of these receptors, as for other GPCR, is influenced by allosteric modulators, which interact with the receptor in a binding site distinct from the binding site of the agonist and modulate the receptor signaling activity in response to the orthosteric ligand. Allosteric modulators have a number of potential advantages over orthosteric agonists/antagonists as therapeutic agents and offer unprecedented opportunities to identify extremely selective drug leads. Here, we resume evidence of allosterism in the context of chemoattractant receptors, discussing in particular its functional impact on functional selectivity and probe/concentration dependence of orthosteric ligands activities. PMID:27199992

  10. A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity enhances lean body mass in male rats and stimulates sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Allan, George F; Tannenbaum, Pamela; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Zhang, Xuqing; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott G

    2007-08-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) ligands with tissue selectivity (selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs) have potential for treating muscle wasting, hypogonadism of aging, osteoporosis, female sexual dysfunction, and other indications. JNJ-28330835 is a nonsteroidal AR ligand with mixed agonist and antagonist activity in androgen-responsive cell-based assays. It is an orally active SARM with muscle selectivity in orchidectomized rat models. It stimulated growth of the levator ani muscle, stimulating maximal growth at a dose of 10 mg/kg. At the same time, JNJ-28330835 reduced prostate weight in intact rats by a mean of 30% at 10 mg/kg, while having no inhibitory effect on muscle. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor body composition, it prevented half of the loss of lean body mass associated with orchidectomy, and restored about 30% of lost lean mass to aged orchidectomized rats. It had agonist effects on markers of both osteoclast and osteoblast activity, suggesting that it reduces bone turnover. In a model of sexual behavior, JNJ-28330835 enhanced the preference of ovariectomized female rats for sexually intact male rats over nonsexual orchidectomized males. JNJ-28330835 is a prostate-sparing SARM with the potential for clinically beneficial effects in muscle-wasting diseases and sexual function disorders.

  11. Comparison of the Pharmacological Effects of a Novel Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, the 5α-Reductase Inhibitor Finasteride, and the Antiandrogen Hydroxyflutamide in Intact Rats: New Approach for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenqing; Kearbey, Jeffrey D.; Nair, Vipin A.; Chung, Kiwon; Parlow, A. F.; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) demonstrate tissue selectivity in both castrated and intact male rats, behaving as partial agonists in androgenic tissues (i.e. prostate and seminal vesicle), but full agonists in anabolic tissues (i.e. levator ani muscle). The partial agonist activity of SARMs (compounds S-1 and S-4) in the prostate of intact rats suggested that SARM could be used for androgen suppression in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This study was designed to explore the mechanisms of action of SARM and to characterize the tissue selectivity of S-1 in intact male rats compared with that of hydroxyflutamide (antiandrogen) and finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor), two major drugs used for androgen suppression treatment of BPH. In intact male rats, S-1 (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg) selectively decreased the prostate weight with similar efficacy to finasteride (5 mg/kg), without affecting the levator ani muscle or increasing the plasma levels of testosterone, LH, and FSH. Hydroxyflutamide (0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 25 mg/kg), however, decreased both the prostate and levator ani muscle weights without any selectivity and increased plasma hormone levels in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, S-1 and S-4 showed very weak inhibitory effects toward transiently expressed type I and II human 5α-reductase (Ki, >20 µM) during in vitro assays. Therefore, although S-1 and finasteride showed very similar suppressive effects in the prostate of intact male rats, they decreased prostate size via different mechanisms of action. S-1 simply worked as androgen receptor partial agonist, whereas finasteride inhibited prostatic 5α-reductase. These studies indicate that SARMs may demonstrate clinical utility as single agent or combination therapy for BPH. PMID:15308613

  12. Attenuated traumatic axonal injury and improved functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in mice lacking Sarm1.

    PubMed

    Henninger, Nils; Bouley, James; Sikoglu, Elif M; An, Jiyan; Moore, Constance M; King, Jean A; Bowser, Robert; Freeman, Marc R; Brown, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event in many acute and chronic neurological disorders. It has been consistently observed after traumatic brain injury, but whether axon degeneration is a driver of traumatic brain injury remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of traumatic brain injury have not been defined, and there is no efficacious treatment for traumatic brain injury. Here we show that mice lacking the mouse Toll receptor adaptor Sarm1 (sterile α/Armadillo/Toll-Interleukin receptor homology domain protein) gene, a key mediator of Wallerian degeneration, demonstrate multiple improved traumatic brain injury-associated phenotypes after injury in a closed-head mild traumatic brain injury model. Sarm1(-/-) mice developed fewer β-amyloid precursor protein aggregates in axons of the corpus callosum after traumatic brain injury as compared to Sarm1(+/+) mice. Furthermore, mice lacking Sarm1 had reduced plasma concentrations of the phophorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H, indicating that axonal integrity is maintained after traumatic brain injury. Strikingly, whereas wild-type mice exibited a number of behavioural deficits after traumatic brain injury, we observed a strong, early preservation of neurological function in Sarm1(-/-) animals. Finally, using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy we found tissue signatures consistent with substantially preserved neuronal energy metabolism in Sarm1(-/-) mice compared to controls immediately following traumatic brain injury. Our results indicate that the SARM1-mediated prodegenerative pathway promotes pathogenesis in traumatic brain injury and suggest that anti-SARM1 therapeutics are a viable approach for preserving neurological function after traumatic brain injury. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Design, synthesis, and in vivo SAR of a novel series of pyrazolines as potent selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuqing; Li, Xiaojie; Allan, George F; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lundeen, Scott G; Sui, Zhihua

    2007-08-09

    A novel series of pyrazolines 2 have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated by in vivo screening as tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Structure-activity relationships (SAR) were investigated at the R1 to R6 positions as well as the core pyrazoline ring and the anilide linker. Overall, strong electron-withdrawing groups at the R1 and R2 positions and a small group at the R5 and R6 position are optimal for AR agonist activity. The (S)-isomer of 7c exhibits more potent AR agonist activity than the corresponding (R)-isomer. (S)-7c exhibited an overall partial androgenic effect but full anabolic effect via oral administration in castrated rats. It demonstrated a noticeable antiandrogenic effect on prostate in intact rats with endogenous testosterone. Thus, (S)-7c is a tissue-selective nonsteroidal androgen receptor modulator with agonist activity on muscle and mixed agonist and antagonist activity on prostate.

  14. Factors Modulating Estrogen Receptor Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    public release; distribution unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Activity Factors Modulating Estrogen Receptor 6. AUTHOR( S ) Michael J. Garabedian, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND...ADDRESS(ES) New York University Medical Center New York, New York 10016 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Commander U.S

  15. Novel series of potent, nonsteroidal, selective androgen receptor modulators based on 7H-[1,4]oxazino[3,2-g]quinolin-7-ones.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Robert I; Arienti, Kristen L; López, Francisco J; Mani, Neelakhanda S; Mais, Dale E; Caferro, Thomas R; Long, Yun Oliver; Jones, Todd K; Edwards, James P; Zhi, Lin; Schrader, William T; Negro-Vilar, Andrés; Marschke, Keith B

    2007-05-17

    Recent interest in orally available androgens has fueled the search for new androgens for use in hormone replacement therapy and as anabolic agents. In pursuit of this, we have discovered a series of novel androgen receptor modulators derived from 7H-[1,4]oxazino[3,2-g]quinolin-7-ones. These compounds were synthesized and evaluated in competitive binding assays and an androgen receptor transcriptional activation assay. A number of compounds from the series demonstrated single-digit nanomolar agonist activity in vitro. In addition, lead compound (R)-16e was orally active in established rodent models that measure androgenic and anabolic properties of these agents. In this assay, (R)-16e demonstrated full efficacy in muscle and only partially stimulated the prostate at 100 mg/kg. These data suggest that these compounds may be utilized as selective androgen receptor modulators or SARMs. This series represents a novel class of compounds for use in androgen replacement therapy.

  16. BA321, a novel carborane analog that binds to androgen and estrogen receptors, acts as a new selective androgen receptor modulator of bone in male mice

    SciT

    Watanabe, Kenta; Cooperative Major in Advanced Health Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588; Hirata, Michiko

    Carboranes are a class of carbon-containing polyhedral boron cluster compounds with globular geometry and hydrophobic surface that interact with hormone receptors such as estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR). We have synthesized BA321, a novel carborane compound, which binds to AR. We found here that it also binds to ERs, ERα and ERβ. In orchidectomized (ORX) mice, femoral bone mass was markedly reduced due to androgen deficiency and BA321 restored bone loss in the male, whilst the decreased weight of seminal vesicle in ORX mice was not recovered by administration of BA321. In female mice, BA321 acts as amore » pure estrogen agonist, and restored both the loss of bone mass and uterine atrophy due to estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In bone tissues, the trabecular bone loss occurred in both ORX and OVX mice, and BA321 completely restored the trabecular bone loss in both sexes. Cortical bone loss occurred in ORX mice but not in OVX mice, and BA321 clearly restored cortical bone loss due to androgen deficiency in ORX mice. Therefore, BA321 is a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) that may offer a new therapy option for osteoporosis in the male. - Highlights: • A novel carborane compound BA321 binds to both AR and ERs, ERα and ERβ. • BA321 restores bone loss in orchidectomized mice without effects on sex organ. • BA321 acts as an estrogen agonist in bone and uterus in ovariectomized mice. • BA321 may be a new SARM to prevent the loss of musculoskeletal mass in elder men.« less

  17. Reduced Expression of SARM in Mouse Spleen during Polymicrobial Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu; Zou, Lin; Cen, Dongzhi; Chao, Wei; Chen, Dunjin

    2016-12-01

    Objective Immune dysfunction, including prominent apoptosis of immune cells and decreased functioning of the remaining immune cells, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Sterile α and HEAT/armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) is implicated in the regulation of immune cell apoptosis. This study aimed to elucidate SARM contributes to sepsis-induced immune cell death and immunosuppression. Methods A mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis was generated by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). SARM gene and protein expression, caspase 3 cleavage and intracellular ATP production were measured in the mouse spleens. Results CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis specifically attenuated both the gene and protein expression of SARM in the spleens. Moreover, the attenuation of SARM expression synchronized with splenocyte apoptosis, as evidenced by increased caspase 3 cleavage and ATP depletion. Conclusions These findings suggest that SARM is a potential regulator of sepsis-induced splenocyte apoptosis.

  18. Inhibitory Ah Receptor-Androgen Receptor Crosstalk in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Balk,S.P. Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist. Cancer Res. 59:2511-2515, 1999. 5. Ris...expression, 24-hydroxylase activity, and inhibition of growth hydrocarbon receptor modulators ( SARMs ) for treatment of breast by lca,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3...Safe, A. McDougal, M.S. Gupta, K. Ramamoorthy, Selective Ah [20] D.M. Peehl, R.J. Skowronski, G.K. Leung, S.T. Wong, T.A. Stamey, receptor modulators

  19. Design, synthesis, and biological characterization of metabolically stable selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Craig A; Gao, Wenqing; Chung, Kiwon; Kim, Juhyun; He, Yali; Yin, Donghua; Bohl, Casey; Dalton, James T; Miller, Duane D

    2004-02-12

    A series of nonsteroidal ligands were synthesized as second-generation agonists for the androgen receptor (AR). These ligands were designed to eliminate metabolic sites identified in one of our first-generation AR agonists, which was inactive in vivo due to its rapid metabolism to inactive constituents. The binding affinity of these compounds was evaluated using AR isolated from rat ventral prostate. These second-generation compounds bound the AR in a high affinity and stereoselective manner, with K(i) values ranging from about 4 to 130 nM. The ability of these ligands to stimulate AR-mediated transcriptional activation was examined in cells transfected with the human AR and a hormone-dependent luciferase reporter gene. Although some compounds were unable to stimulate AR-mediated transcription, several demonstrated activity similar to that of dihydrotestosterone (DHT, an endogenous steroidal ligand for the AR). We also evaluated the in vivo pharmacologic activity of selected compounds in castrated male rats. Three compounds were identified as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), exhibiting significant anabolic activity while having only moderate to minimal androgenic activity in vivo.

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Characterization of Metabolically Stable Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Marhefka, Craig A.; Gao, Wenqing; Chung, Kiwon; Kim, Juhyun; He, Yali; Yin, Donghua; Bohl, Casey; Dalton, James T.; Miller, Duane D.

    2007-01-01

    A series of nonsteroidal ligands were synthesized as second-generation agonists for the androgen receptor (AR). These ligands were designed to eliminate metabolic sites identified in one of our first-generation AR agonists, which was inactive in vivo due to its rapid metabolism to inactive constituents. The binding affinity of these compounds was evaluated using AR isolated from rat ventral prostate. These second-generation compounds bound the AR in a high affinity and stereoselective manner, with Ki values ranging from about 4 to 130 nM. The ability of these ligands to stimulate AR-mediated transcriptional activation was examined in cells transfected with the human AR and a hormone-dependent luciferase reporter gene. Although some compounds were unable to stimulate AR-mediated transcription, several demonstrated activity similar to that of dihydrotestosterone (DHT, an endogenous steroidal ligand for the AR). We also evaluated the in vivo pharmacologic activity of selected compounds in castrated male rats. Three compounds were identified as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), exhibiting significant anabolic activity while having only moderate to minimal androgenic activity in vivo. PMID:14761201

  1. Identification of selected in vitro generated phase-I metabolites of the steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator MK-0773 for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Lagojda, Andreas; Kuehne, Dirk; Krug, Oliver; Thomas, Andreas; Wigger, Tina; Karst, Uwe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Research into developing anabolic agents for various therapeutic purposes has been pursued for decades. As the clinical utility of anabolic-androgenic steroids has been found to be limited because of their lack of tissue selectivity and associated off-target effects, alternative drug entities have been designed and are commonly referred to as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). While most of these SARMs are of nonsteroidal structure, the drug candidate MK-0773 comprises a 4-aza-steroidal nucleus. Besides the intended therapeutic use, SARMs have been found to be illicitly distributed and misused as doping agents in sport, necessitating frequently updated doping control analytical assays. As steroidal compounds reportedly undergo considerable metabolic transformations, the phase-I metabolism of MK-0773 was simulated using human liver microsomal (HLM) preparations and electrochemical conversion. Subsequently, major metabolic products were identified and characterized employing liquid chromatography-high-resolution/high- accuracy tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. MK-0773 produced numerous phase-I metabolites under the chosen in vitro incubation reactions, mostly resulting from mono- and bisoxygenation of the steroid. HLM yielded at least 10 monooxygenated species, while electrochemistry-based experiments resulted predominantly in three monohydroxylated metabolites. Elemental composition data and product ion mass spectra were generated for these analytes, ESI/APCI measurements corroborated the formation of at least two N-oxygenated metabolites, and NMR data obtained from electrochemistry-derived products supported structures suggested for three monohydroxylated compounds. Hereby, the hydroxylation of the A-ring located N- bound methyl group was found to be of particular intensity. In the absence of controlled elimination studies, the

  2. Allosteric Modulation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sheffler, Douglas J.; Gregory, Karen J.; Rook, Jerri M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The development of receptor subtype-selective ligands by targeting allosteric sites of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has proven highly successful in recent years. One GPCR family that has greatly benefited from this approach is the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus). These family C GPCRs participate in the neuromodulatory actions of glutamate throughout the CNS, where they play a number of key roles in regulating synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. A large number of mGlu subtype-selective allosteric modulators have been identified, the majority of which are thought to bind within the transmembrane regions of the receptor. These modulators can either enhance or inhibit mGlu functional responses and, together with mGlu knockout mice, have furthered the establishment of the physiologic roles of many mGlu subtypes. Numerous pharmacological and receptor mutagenesis studies have been aimed at providing a greater mechanistic understanding of the interaction of mGlu allosteric modulators with the receptor, which have revealed evidence for common allosteric binding sites across multiple mGlu subtypes and the presence for multiple allosteric sites within a single mGlu subtype. Recent data have also revealed that mGlu allosteric modulators can display functional selectivity toward particular signal transduction cascades downstream of an individual mGlu subtype. Studies continue to validate the therapeutic utility of mGlu allosteric modulators as a potential therapeutic approach for a number of disorders including anxiety, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and Fragile X syndrome. PMID:21907906

  3. Therapeutic potential of metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Hovelsø, N; Sotty, F; Montezinho, L P; Pinheiro, P S; Herrik, K F; Mørk, A

    2012-03-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major player in complex brain functions. Glutamatergic transmission is primarily mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors, which include NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors. However, glutamate exerts modulatory actions through a family of metabotropic G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Dysfunctions of glutamatergic neurotransmission have been implicated in the etiology of several diseases. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been widely investigated as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of several disorders associated with glutamatergic dysfunction. However, blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors might be accompanied by severe side effects due to their vital role in many important physiological functions. A different strategy aimed at pharmacologically interfering with mGluR function has recently gained interest. Many subtype selective agonists and antagonists have been identified and widely used in preclinical studies as an attempt to elucidate the role of specific mGluRs subtypes in glutamatergic transmission. These studies have allowed linkage between specific subtypes and various physiological functions and more importantly to pathological states. This article reviews the currently available knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of targeting mGluRs in the treatment of several CNS disorders, including schizophrenia, addiction, major depressive disorder and anxiety, Fragile X Syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and pain.

  4. Therapeutic Potential of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Hovelsø, N; Sotty, F; Montezinho, L.P; Pinheiro, P.S; Herrik, K.F; Mørk, A

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major player in complex brain functions. Glutamatergic transmission is primarily mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors, which include NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors. However, glutamate exerts modulatory actions through a family of metabotropic G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Dysfunctions of glutamatergic neurotransmission have been implicated in the etiology of several diseases. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been widely investigated as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of several disorders associated with glutamatergic dysfunction. However, blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors might be accompanied by severe side effects due to their vital role in many important physiological functions. A different strategy aimed at pharmacologically interfering with mGluR function has recently gained interest. Many subtype selective agonists and antagonists have been identified and widely used in preclinical studies as an attempt to elucidate the role of specific mGluRs subtypes in glutamatergic transmission. These studies have allowed linkage between specific subtypes and various physiological functions and more importantly to pathological states. This article reviews the currently available knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of targeting mGluRs in the treatment of several CNS disorders, including schizophrenia, addiction, major depressive disorder and anxiety, Fragile X Syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and pain. PMID:22942876

  5. Modulation of the NMDA receptor by polyamines

    SciT

    Williams, K.; Romano, C.; Dichter, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Results of recent biochemical and electrophysiological studies have suggested that a recognition site for polyamines exists as part of the NMDA receptor complex. The endogenous polyamines spermine and spermidine increase the binding of open-channel blockers and increase NMDA-elicited currents in cultured neutrons. These polyamines have been termed agonists at the polyamine recognition site. Studies of the effects of natural and synthetic polyamines on the binding of ({sup 3}H)MK-801 and on NMDA-elicited currents in cultured neurons have led to the identification of compounds classified as partial agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists at the polyamine recognition site. Polyamines have also been foundmore » to affect the binding of ligands to the recognition sites for glutamate and glycine. However, these effects may be mediated at a site distinct from that at which polyamines act to modulate the binding of open-channel blockers. Endogenous polyamines may modulate excitatory synaptic transmission by acting at the polyamine recognition site of the NMDA receptor. This site could represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemia-induced neurotoxicity, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases.« less

  6. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator RAD140 Is Neuroprotective in Cultured Neurons and Kainate-Lesioned Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Christensen, Amy; Moser, V. Alexandra; Vest, Rebekah S.; Miller, Chris P.; Hattersley, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The decline in testosterone levels in men during normal aging increases risks of dysfunction and disease in androgen-responsive tissues, including brain. The use of testosterone therapy has the potential to increase the risks for developing prostate cancer and or accelerating its progression. To overcome this limitation, novel compounds termed “selective androgen receptor modulators” (SARMs) have been developed that lack significant androgen action in prostate but exert agonist effects in select androgen-responsive tissues. The efficacy of SARMs in brain is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the SARM RAD140 in cultured rat neurons and male rat brain for its ability to provide neuroprotection, an important neural action of endogenous androgens that is relevant to neural health and resilience to neurodegenerative diseases. In cultured hippocampal neurons, RAD140 was as effective as testosterone in reducing cell death induced by apoptotic insults. Mechanistically, RAD140 neuroprotection was dependent upon MAPK signaling, as evidenced by elevation of ERK phosphorylation and inhibition of protection by the MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126. Importantly, RAD140 was also neuroprotective in vivo using the rat kainate lesion model. In experiments with gonadectomized, adult male rats, RAD140 was shown to exhibit peripheral tissue-specific androgen action that largely spared prostate, neural efficacy as demonstrated by activation of androgenic gene regulation effects, and neuroprotection of hippocampal neurons against cell death caused by systemic administration of the excitotoxin kainate. These novel findings demonstrate initial preclinical efficacy of a SARM in neuroprotective actions relevant to Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24428527

  7. GABAA receptor: Positive and negative allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Richard W

    2018-01-31

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission and the gene products involved were discovered during the mid-twentieth century. Historically, myriad existing nervous system drugs act as positive and negative allosteric modulators of these proteins, making GABA a major component of modern neuropharmacology, and suggesting that many potential drugs will be found that share these targets. Although some of these drugs act on proteins involved in synthesis, degradation, and membrane transport of GABA, the GABA receptors Type A (GABA A R) and Type B (GABA B R) are the targets of the great majority of GABAergic drugs. This discovery is due in no small part to Professor Norman Bowery. Whereas the topic of GABA B R is appropriately emphasized in this special issue, Norman Bowery also made many insights into GABA A R pharmacology, the topic of this article. GABA A R are members of the ligand-gated ion channel receptor superfamily, a chloride channel family of a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes containing 19 possible different subunits. These subtypes show different brain regional and subcellular localization, age-dependent expression, and potential for plastic changes with experience including drug exposure. Not only are GABA A R the targets of agonist depressants and antagonist convulsants, but most GABA A R drugs act at other (allosteric) binding sites on the GABA A R proteins. Some anxiolytic and sedative drugs, like benzodiazepine and related drugs, act on GABA A R subtype-dependent extracellular domain sites. General anesthetics including alcohols and neurosteroids act at GABA A R subunit-interface trans-membrane sites. Ethanol at high anesthetic doses acts on GABA A R subtype-dependent trans-membrane domain sites. Ethanol at low intoxicating doses acts at GABA A R subtype-dependent extracellular domain sites. Thus GABA A R subtypes possess pharmacologically specific receptor binding sites for a large group of different chemical classes of

  8. Unconventional ligands and modulators of nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edna F R; Hilmas, Corey; Santos, Mariton D; Alkondon, Manickavasagom; Maelicke, Alfred; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2002-12-01

    Evidence gathered from epidemiologic and behavioral studies have indicated that neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) are intimately involved in the pathogenesis of a number of neurologic disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. In the mammalian brain, neuronal nAChRs, in addition to mediating fast synaptic transmission, modulate fast synaptic transmission mediated by the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, respectively. Of major interest, however, is the fact that the activity of the different subtypes of neuronal nAChR is also subject to modulation by substances of endogenous origin such as choline, the tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid, neurosteroids, and beta-amyloid peptides and by exogenous substances, including the so-called nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligands, of which galantamine is the prototype, and psychotomimetic drugs such as phencyclidine and ketamine. The present article reviews and discusses the effects of unconventional ligands on nAChR activity and briefly describes the potential benefits of using some of these compounds in the treatment of neuropathologic conditions in which nAChR function/expression is known to be altered. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A selective androgen receptor modulator that reduces prostate tumor size and prevents orchidectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Allan, George; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Dodds, Robert; Fiordeliso, James; Lanter, James; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacological activity of JNJ-26146900 is described. JNJ-26146900 is a nonsteroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligand with tissue-selective activity in rats. The compound was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models of AR activity. It binds to the rat AR with a K(i) of 400nM and acts as a pure androgen antagonist in an in vitro cell-based assay. Its in vitro profile is similar to the androgen antagonist bicalutamide (Casodex). In intact rats, JNJ-26146900 reduces ventral prostate weight with an oral potency (ED(50)) of 20-30mg/kg, again comparable to that of bicalutamide. JNJ-26146900 prevented prostate tumor growth in the Dunning rat model, maximally inhibiting growth at a dose of 10mg/kg. It slowed tumor growth significantly in a CWR22-LD1 mouse xenograft model of human prostate cancer. It was tested in aged male rats for its ability to prevent bone loss and loss of lean body mass following orchidectomy. After 6 weeks of dosing, bone volume decreased by 33% in orchidectomized versus intact vehicle-treated rats with a probability (P) of less than 0.05, as measured by micro-computerized tomography analysis. At a dose of 30mg/kg, JNJ-26146900 significantly reduced castration-induced tibial bone loss as indicated by the following parameters: bone volume, trabecular connectivity, trabecular number and spacing between trabeculae. Bone mineral density decreased from 229+/-34mg/cm(3) of hydroxyapatite to 166+/-26mg/cm(3) following orchidectomy, and was maintained at 194+/-20mg/cm(3) with JNJ-26146900 treatment (P<0.05 relative to orchidectomy alone). Using magnetic resonance imaging, the compound was found to partially prevent orchidectomy-induced loss of lean body mass. Our data show that selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have the potential for anabolic effects on bone and muscle while maintaining therapeutic efficacy in prostate cancer.

  10. NMDA receptor modulators: an updated patent review (2013-2014).

    PubMed

    Strong, Katie L; Jing, Yao; Prosser, Anthony R; Traynelis, Stephen F; Liotta, Dennis C

    2014-12-01

    The NMDA receptor mediates a slow component of excitatory synaptic transmission, and NMDA receptor dysfunction has been implicated in numerous neurological disorders. Thus, interest in developing modulators that are capable of regulating the channel continues to be strong. Recent research has led to the discovery of a number of compounds that hold therapeutic and clinical value. Deeper insight into the NMDA intersubunit interactions and structural motifs gleaned from the recently solved crystal structures of the NMDA receptor should facilitate a deeper understanding of how these compounds modulate the receptor. This article discusses the known pharmacology of NMDA receptors. A discussion of the patent literature since 2012 is also included, with an emphasis on those that claimed new chemical entities as regulators of the NMDA receptor. The number of patents involving novel NMDA receptor modulators suggests a renewed interest in the NMDA receptor as a therapeutic target. Subunit-selective modulators continue to show promise, and the development of new subunit-selective NMDA receptor modulators appears poised for continued growth. Although a modest number of channel blocker patents were published, successful clinical outcomes involving ketamine have led to a resurgent interest in low-affinity channel blockers as therapeutics.

  11. Nootropic α7 nicotinic receptor allosteric modulator derived from GABAA receptor modulators

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Herman J.; Whittemore, Edward R.; Tran, Minhtam B.; Hogenkamp, Derk J.; Broide, Ron S.; Johnstone, Timothy B.; Zheng, Lijun; Stevens, Karen E.; Gee, Kelvin W.

    2007-01-01

    Activation of brain α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) has broad therapeutic potential in CNS diseases related to cognitive dysfunction, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In contrast to direct agonist activation, positive allosteric modulation of α7 nAChRs would deliver the clinically validated benefits of allosterism to these indications. We have generated a selective α7 nAChR-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) from a library of GABAA receptor PAMs. Compound 6 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-α-[[(4-chloro-phenyl)amino]methylene]-3-methyl-5-isoxazoleacet-amide) evokes robust positive modulation of agonist-induced currents at α7 nAChRs, while preserving the rapid native characteristics of desensitization, and has little to no efficacy at other ligand-gated ion channels. In rodent models, it corrects sensory-gating deficits and improves working memory, effects consistent with cognitive enhancement. Compound 6 represents a chemotype for allosteric activation of α7 nAChRs, with therapeutic potential in CNS diseases with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:17470817

  12. Selective progesterone receptor modulators 2: use in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic compounds can bind to progesterone receptors and these progesterone receptor ligands exhibit a spectrum of activities ranging from pure antagonism to a mixture of agonism and antagonism. These substances have been classified as antiprogestins or as selective progesterone receptor modulators. There are several hundred selective progesterone receptor modulators available, although only a dozen or so have been evaluated to any significant extent. The best-known selective progesterone receptor modulators are mifepristone (RU 486), asoprisnil (J 867), onapristone (ZK 98299), ulipristal (CDB 2914), Proellex() (CDB 4124), ORG 33628 and ORG 31710. A careful evaluation of existing major review papers and of recently published articles was carried out for the indications under review, focusing not only on mifepristone, but also on those other selective progesterone receptor modulators for which data are available. Outside pregnancy, selective progesterone receptor modulators are used or have been tested clinically for a number of indications in reproductive medicine: as oral contraceptives, alone or in combination with a progestin, to improve cycle control in users of progestin-only contraceptives, as emergency contraceptives, for the medical treatment of uterine fibroids, in cases of endometriosis and premenstrual syndrome and to improve ovarian stimulation prior to in vitro fertilisation. In the authors' opinion, as of today, few applications outside pregnancy seem worthy of large-scale use: emergency contraception and long-term medical management of uterine fibroids and possibly of endometriosis.

  13. [Interest of selective progesterone receptor modulators in endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Merviel, P; Lourdel, E; Sanguin, S; Gagneur, O; Cabry, R; Nasreddine, A

    2013-09-01

    The SPRM (selective progesterone receptor modulators) are agonists and/or antagonists of progesterone receptor. They are responsible for anovulation, amenorrhea and a lower prostaglandin levels, which leads to an improvement in pain and regression of lesions in endometriosis. On the endometrium, a particular aspect, the progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes (PAEC), raises additional studies to verify its harmlessness. However, due to the lack of hypoestrogenism and metabolic effects with these drugs, it is very likely that the SPRM will in the near future an important place in the treatment of endometriosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Characterization of a non-approved selective androgen receptor modulator drug candidate sold via the Internet and identification of in vitro generated phase-I metabolites for human sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Lagojda, Andreas; Kuehne, Dirk; Thomas, Andreas; Dib, Josef; Hansson, Annelie; Hedeland, Mikael; Bondesson, Ulf; Wigger, Tina; Karst, Uwe; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-06-15

    Potentially performance-enhancing agents, particularly anabolic agents, are advertised and distributed by Internet-based suppliers to a substantial extent. Among these anabolic agents, a substance referred to as LGD-4033 has been made available, comprising the core structure of a class of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). In order to provide comprehensive analytical data for doping controls, the substance was obtained and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high resolution/high accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-HRMS). Following the identification of 4-(2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile, the substance was subjected to in vitro metabolism studies employing human liver microsomes and Cunninghamella elegans (C. elegans) preparations as well as electrochemical metabolism simulations. By means of LC/ESI-HRMS, five main phase-I metabolites were identified as products of liver microsomal preparations including three monohydroxylated and two bishydroxylated species. The two most abundant metabolites (one mono- and one bishydroxylated product) were structurally confirmed by LC/ESI-HRMS and NMR. Comparing the metabolic conversion of 4-(2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile observed in human liver microsomes with C. elegans and electrochemically derived metabolites, one monohydroxylated product was found to be predominantly formed in all three methodologies. The implementation of the intact SARM-like compound and its presumed urinary phase-I metabolites into routine doping controls is suggested to expand and complement existing sports drug testing methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Selective progesterone receptor modulators 1: use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela

    2008-10-01

    A large number of synthetic compounds known as selective progesterone receptor modulators can bind to progesterone receptors: the ligands exhibit a spectrum of activities ranging from pure antagonism to a mixture of agonism and antagonism. Only a dozen or so selective progesterone receptor modulators have been tested to any significant extent: among them are mifepristone (RU 486), asoprisnil (J867), onapristone (ZK 98 299), ulipristal (CDB 2914), Proellex() (CDB 4124), ORG 33628 and ORG 31710. Their clinical applications during pregnancy are discussed. A careful evaluation of existing major review papers and recently published articles was carried out focusing on mifepristone, the most widely studied selective progesterone receptor modulator, which was first used for the voluntary interruption of an early gestation. Other selective progesterone receptor modulators, especially those with partial agonist action, have shown little activity during pregnancy in animal models. Besides early and late voluntary interruption of gestation, selective progesterone receptor modulators have been tested in a variety of obstetrical situations: to obtain a ripening of the cervix, for the medical management of early embryonic loss and foetal death, for the induction of labour at term and for the medical treatment of extra-uterine pregnancies. The only applications that seem worthy of large-scale utilisation during pregnancy are voluntary interruption of early and late gestation, medical management of early delayed miscarriage and late foetal demise.

  16. Modulation of ionotropic glutamate receptor function by vertebrate galectins.

    PubMed

    Copits, Bryan A; Vernon, Claire G; Sakai, Ryuichi; Swanson, Geoffrey T

    2014-05-15

    AMPA and kainate receptors are glutamate-gated ion channels whose function is known to be altered by a variety of plant oligosaccharide-binding proteins, or lectins, but the physiological relevance of this activity has been uncertain because no lectins with analogous allosteric modulatory effects have been identified in animals. We report here that members of the prototype galectin family, which are β-galactoside-binding lectins, exhibit subunit-specific allosteric modulation of desensitization of recombinant homomeric and heteromeric AMPA and kainate receptors. Galectin modulation of GluK2 kainate receptors was dependent upon complex oligosaccharide processing of N-glycosylation sites in the amino-terminal domain and downstream linker region. The sensitivity of GluA4 AMPA receptors to human galectin-1 could be enhanced by supplementation of culture media with uridine and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), precursors for the hexosamine pathway that supplies UDP-GlcNAc for synthesis of complex oligosaccharides. Neuronal kainate receptors in dorsal root ganglia were sensitive to galectin modulation, whereas AMPA receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons were insensitive, which could be a reflection of differential N-glycan processing or receptor subunit selectivity. Because glycan content of integral proteins can be modified dynamically, we postulate that physiological or pathological conditions in the CNS could arise in which galectins alter excitatory neurotransmission or neuronal excitability through their actions on AMPA or kainate receptors. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  17. Modulation of ionotropic glutamate receptor function by vertebrate galectins

    PubMed Central

    Copits, Bryan A; Vernon, Claire G; Sakai, Ryuichi; Swanson, Geoffrey T

    2014-01-01

    AMPA and kainate receptors are glutamate-gated ion channels whose function is known to be altered by a variety of plant oligosaccharide-binding proteins, or lectins, but the physiological relevance of this activity has been uncertain because no lectins with analogous allosteric modulatory effects have been identified in animals. We report here that members of the prototype galectin family, which are β-galactoside-binding lectins, exhibit subunit-specific allosteric modulation of desensitization of recombinant homomeric and heteromeric AMPA and kainate receptors. Galectin modulation of GluK2 kainate receptors was dependent upon complex oligosaccharide processing of N-glycosylation sites in the amino-terminal domain and downstream linker region. The sensitivity of GluA4 AMPA receptors to human galectin-1 could be enhanced by supplementation of culture media with uridine and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), precursors for the hexosamine pathway that supplies UDP-GlcNAc for synthesis of complex oligosaccharides. Neuronal kainate receptors in dorsal root ganglia were sensitive to galectin modulation, whereas AMPA receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons were insensitive, which could be a reflection of differential N-glycan processing or receptor subunit selectivity. Because glycan content of integral proteins can be modified dynamically, we postulate that physiological or pathological conditions in the CNS could arise in which galectins alter excitatory neurotransmission or neuronal excitability through their actions on AMPA or kainate receptors. PMID:24614744

  18. Molecular Insights into Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Allosteric Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are a group of eight family C G protein–coupled receptors that are expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery. Within the CNS the different subtypes are found in neurons, both pre- and/or postsynaptically, where they mediate modulatory roles and in glial cells. The mGlu receptor family provides attractive targets for numerous psychiatric and neurologic disorders, with the majority of discovery programs focused on targeting allosteric sites, with allosteric ligands now available for all mGlu receptor subtypes. However, the development of allosteric ligands remains challenging. Biased modulation, probe dependence, and molecular switches all contribute to the complex molecular pharmacology exhibited by mGlu receptor allosteric ligands. In recent years we have made significant progress in our understanding of this molecular complexity coupled with an increased understanding of the structural basis of mGlu allosteric modulation. PMID:25808929

  19. Progesterone Modulates a Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valera, S.; Ballivet, M.; Bertrand, D.

    1992-10-01

    The major brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is assembled from two subunits termed α 4 and nα 1. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, these subunits reconstitute a functional acetylcholine receptor that is inhibited by progesterone levels similar to those found in serum. In this report, we show that the steroid interacts with a site located on the extracellular part of the protein, thus confirming that inhibition by progesterone is not due to a nonspecific perturbation of the membrane bilayer or to the activation of second messengers. Because inhibition by progesterone does not require the presence of agonist, is voltage-independent, and does not alter receptor desensitization, we conclude that the steroid is not an open channel blocker. In addition, we show that progesterone is not a competitive inhibitor but may interact with the acetylcholine binding site and that its effect is independent of the ionic permeability of the receptor.

  20. Melatonin modulates rat myotube-acetylcholine receptors by inhibiting calmodulin.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Paula, Lidiana Duarte; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Silva Ferreira, Zulma; Monteiro, Amanda Elisa G; Isoldi, Mauro Cesar; Godinho, Rosely O; Markus, Regina P

    2005-11-21

    Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, modulates alpha-bungarotoxin sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in sympathetic nerve terminals, cerebellum and chick retina imposing a diurnal variation in functional responses [Markus, R.P., Zago, W.M., Carneiro, R.C., 1996. Melatonin modulation of presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat vas deferens. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 279, 18-22; Markus, R.P., Santos, J.M., Zago, W., Reno, L.A., 2003. Melatonin nocturnal surge modulates nicotinic receptors and nicotine-induced [3HI] glutamate release in rat cerebellum slices. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 305, 525-530; Sampaio, L.F.S., Hamassaki-Britto, D.E., Markus, R.P., 2005. Influence of melatonin on the development of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured chick retinal cells. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 38, 603-613]. Here we show that in rat myotubes forskolin and melatonin reduced the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in plasma membrane. In addition, these cells expressed melatonin MT1 receptors, which are known to be coupled to G(i)-protein. However, the pharmacological profile of melatonin analogs regarding the reduction in cyclic AMP accumulation and number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors did not point to a mechanism mediated by activation of G(i)-protein coupled receptors. On the other hand, calmidazolium, a classical inhibitor of calmodulin, reduced in a similar manner both effects. Considering that one isoform of adenylyl cyclase present in rat myotubes is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin, we propose that melatonin modulates the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via reduction in cyclic AMP accumulation.

  1. Modulation of taurine release by glutamate receptors and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Oja, S S; Saransaari, P

    2000-11-01

    Taurine is held to function as a modulator and osmoregulator in the central nervous system, being of particular importance in the immature brain. In view of the possible involvement of excitatory pathways in the regulation of taurine function in the brain, the interference of glutamate receptors with taurine release from different tissue preparations in vitro and from the brain in vivo is of special interest. The release of taurine from the brain is enhanced by glutamate receptor agonists. This enhancement is inhibited by the respective receptor antagonists both in vitro and in vivo. The ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor agonists appear to be the most effective in enhancing taurine release, their effects being receptor-mediated. Kainate is less effective, particularly in adults. Of the glutamate receptors, the NMDA class seems to be the most susceptible to modulation by nitric oxide. Nitric oxide also modulates taurine release, enhancing the basal release in both immature and mature hippocampus, whereas the K(+)-stimulated release is generally inhibited. Metabotropic glutamate receptors also participate in the regulation of taurine release, group I metabotropic glutamate receptors potentiating the release in the developing hippocampus, while group III receptors may be involved in the adult. Under various cell-damaging conditions, including ischemia, hypoxia and hypoglycemia, taurine release is enhanced, together with an enhanced release of excitatory amino acids. The increase in extracellular taurine upon excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors and under cell-damaging conditions may serve as an important protective mechanism against excitotoxicity, being particularly effective in the immature brain.

  2. LY404187: a novel positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Jennifer C; Nisenbaum, Eric S

    2002-01-01

    LY404187 is a selective, potent and centrally active positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors. LY404187 preferentially acts at recombinant human homomeric GluR2 and GluR4 versus GluR1 and GluR3 AMPA receptors. In addition, LY404187 potentiates the flip splice variant of these AMPA receptors to a greater degree than the flop splice variant. In both recombinant and native AMPA receptors, potentiation by LY404187 displays a unique time-dependent growth that appears to involve a suppression of the desensitization process of these ion channels. LY404187 has been shown to enhance glutamatergic synaptic transmission both in vitro and in vivo. This augmentation of synaptic activity is due to the direct potentiation of AMPA receptor function, as well as an indirect recruitment of voltage-dependent NMDA receptor activity. Enhanced calcium influx through NMDA receptors is known to be a critical step in initiating long-term modifications in synaptic function (e.g., long-term potentiation, LTP). These modifications in synaptic function may be substrates for certain forms of memory encoding. Consistent with a recruitment of NMDA receptor activity, LY404187 has been shown to enhance performance in animal models of cognitive function requiring different mnemonic processes. These data suggest that AMPA receptor potentiators may be therapeutically beneficial for treating cognitive deficits in a variety of disorders, particularly those that are associated with reduced glutamatergic signaling such as schizophrenia. In addition, LY404187 has been demonstrated to be efficacious in animal models of behavioral despair that possess considerable predictive validity for antidepressant activity. Although the therapeutic efficacy of AMPA receptor potentiators in these and other diseases will ultimately be determined in the clinic, evidence suggests that the benefit of these compounds will be mediated by multiple mechanisms of action. These mechanisms include direct enhancement of AMPA

  3. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-07-02

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel's ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators.

  4. Nucleus Accumbens Acetylcholine Receptors Modulate Dopamine and Motivation.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne L; Aitken, Tara J; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Ostlund, Sean B; Wassum, Kate M

    2016-11-01

    Environmental reward-predictive cues can motivate reward-seeking behaviors. Although this influence is normally adaptive, it can become maladaptive in disordered states, such as addiction. Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) is known to mediate the motivational impact of reward-predictive cues, but little is known about how other neuromodulatory systems contribute to cue-motivated behavior. Here, we examined the role of the NAc cholinergic receptor system in cue-motivated behavior using a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task designed to assess the motivating influence of a reward-predictive cue over an independently-trained instrumental action. Disruption of NAc muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activity attenuated, whereas blockade of nicotinic receptors augmented cue-induced invigoration of reward seeking. We next examined a potential dopaminergic mechanism for this behavioral effect by combining fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with local pharmacological acetylcholine receptor manipulation. The data show evidence of opposing modulation of cue-evoked dopamine release, with muscarinic and nicotinic receptor antagonists causing suppression and augmentation, respectively, consistent with the behavioral effects of these manipulations. In addition to demonstrating cholinergic modulation of naturally-evoked and behaviorally-relevant dopamine signaling, these data suggest that NAc cholinergic receptors may gate the expression of cue-motivated behavior through modulation of phasic dopamine release.

  5. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel’s ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators. PMID:27384555

  6. Non-canonical modulators of nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Tice, Colin M; Zheng, Ya-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and protein kinases, nuclear receptors (NRs) are a rich source of pharmaceutical targets. Over 80 NR-targeting drugs have been approved for 18 NRs. The focus of drug discovery in NRs has hitherto been on identifying ligands that bind to the canonical ligand binding pockets of the C-terminal ligand binding domains (LBDs). Due to the development of drug resistance and selectivity concerns, there has been considerable interest in exploring other, non-canonical ligand binding sites. Unfortunately, the potencies of compounds binding at other sites have generally not been sufficient for clinical development. However, the situation has changed dramatically over the last 3years, as compounds with sufficient potency have been reported for several NR targets. Here we review recent developments in this area from a medicinal chemistry point of view in the hope of stimulating further interest in this area of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Tomek, Seven E; Lacrosse, Amber L; Nemirovsky, Natali E; Olive, M Foster

    2013-02-06

    Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modulators memantine and acamprosate, as well as the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine. Data collected to date suggest that direct NMDA receptor modulators have relatively limited efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction, and that partial agonism of NMDA receptors may have some efficacy with regards to extinction learning during cue exposure therapy. However, the lack of consistency in results to date clearly indicates that additional studies are needed, as are studies examining novel ligands with indirect mechanisms for altering NMDA receptor function.

  8. Deeper Insights into the Allosteric Modulation of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Regan, Michael C; Furukawa, Hiro

    2016-09-21

    Two articles in this issue of Neuron (Yelshanskaya et al., 2016; Yi et al., 2016) explore the structural basis of allosteric inhibition in ionotropic glutamate receptors, providing key insights into how iGluRs function in the brain as well as how they might be pharmacologically modulated in neurological disorders and disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARα in rodents increases in liver cancer incidence, whereas suppression of PPARα activity can lead to hepatocellular steatosis. Analytical approaches were developed to identify biosets (i.e., gene expression differences between two conditions) in a genomic database in which PPARα activity was altered. A gene expression signature of 131 PPARα-dependent genes was built using profiles from the livers of wild-type and PPARα-null mice after exposure to three structurally diverse PPARα activators (WY-14,643, fenofibrate and perfluorohexane sulfonate). A rank-based test (Running Fisher’s test (p-value ≤ 10-4)) was used to evaluate the similarity between the PPARα signature and a test set of 48 and 31 biosets positive or negative, respectively for PPARα activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 98%. The signature was used to identify factors that activate or suppress PPARα in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ~1850 biosets. In addition to the expected activation of PPARα by fibrate drugs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and perfluorinated compounds, PPARα was activated by benzofuran, galactosamine and TCDD and suppressed by hepatotoxins acetami

  10. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Modulators and Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Jin; Im, Dong-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Initial discovery on sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) as an intracellular second messenger was faced unexpectedly with roles of S1P as a first messenger, which subsequently resulted in cloning of its G protein-coupled receptors, S1P1–5. The molecular identification of S1P receptors opened up a new avenue for pathophysiological research on this lipid mediator. Cellular and molecular in vitro studies and in vivo studies on gene deficient mice have elucidated cellular signaling pathways and the pathophysiological meanings of S1P receptors. Another unexpected finding that fingolimod (FTY720) modulates S1P receptors accelerated drug discovery in this field. Fingolimod was approved as a first-in-class, orally active drug for relapsing multiple sclerosis in 2010, and its applications in other disease conditions are currently under clinical trials. In addition, more selective S1P receptor modulators with better pharmacokinetic profiles and fewer side effects are under development. Some of them are being clinically tested in the contexts of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, such as, psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, liver failure, renal failure, acute stroke, and transplant rejection. In this review, the authors discuss the state of the art regarding the status of drug discovery efforts targeting S1P receptors and place emphasis on potential clinical applications. PMID:28035084

  11. Modulation of neuronal and recombinant GABAA receptors by redox reagents

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Alessandra; Connolly, Christopher N; Moss, Stephen J; Smart, Trevor G

    1999-01-01

    The functional role played by the postulated disulphide bridge in γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors and its susceptibility to oxidation and reduction were studied using recombinant (murine receptor subunits expressed in human embryonic kidney cells) and rat neuronal GABAA receptors in conjunction with whole-cell and single channel patch-clamp techniques. The reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) reversibly potentiated GABA-activated responses (IGABA) of α1β1 or α1β2 receptors while the oxidizing reagent 5,5′-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) caused inhibition. Redox modulation of IGABA was independent of GABA concentration, membrane potential and the receptor agonist and did not affect the GABA EC50 or Hill coefficient. The endogenous antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) also potentiated IGABA in α1β2 receptors, while both the oxidized form of DTT and glutathione (GSSG) caused small inhibitory effects. Recombinant receptors composed of α1β1γ2S or α1β2γ2S were considerably less sensitive to DTT and DTNB. For neuronal GABAA receptors, IGABA was enhanced by flurazepam and relatively unaffected by redox reagents. However, in cultured sympathetic neurones, nicotinic acetylcholine-activated responses were inhibited by DTT whilst in cerebellar granule neurones, NMDA-activated currents were potentiated by DTT and inhibited by DTNB. Single GABA-activated ion channel currents exhibited a conductance of 16 pS for α1β1 constructs. DTT did not affect the conductance or individual open time constants determined from dwell time histograms, but increased the mean open time by affecting the channel open probability without increasing the number of cell surface receptors. A kinetic model of the effects of DTT and DTNB suggested that the receptor existed in equilibrium between oxidized and reduced forms. DTT increased the rate of entry into reduced receptor forms and also into desensitized states. DTNB reversed these kinetic effects. Our results

  12. Neurokinin receptor modulation of respiratory activity in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Bongianni, Fulvia; Mutolo, Donatella; Cinelli, Elenia; Pantaleo, Tito

    2008-06-01

    The respiratory role of neurokinin (NK) receptors was investigated in alpha-chloralose-urethane-anaesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed and artificially ventilated rabbits by using bilateral microinjections (30-50 nL) of NK receptor agonists and antagonists. Microinjections were performed in a region located just caudal to the rostral expiratory neurons. This region displayed features similar to those of the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) of adult cats and rats, and proved to produce excitatory respiratory effects in response to microinjections of D,L-homocysteic acid. We used as agonists (0.1, 0.5 and 5 mM) substance P (SP), the NK1 receptor agonists [Sar(9), Met(O2)(11)]-SP and GR 73632, the NK2 receptor agonist NKA, the NK3 receptor agonist senktide, and as antagonists (5 mM) the NK1 receptor antagonist CP-99,994 and the NK2 receptor antagonist MEN 10376. SP always increased respiratory frequency, but NK1 receptor agonists did not change respiratory variables. NKA and senktide at 5 mm increased respiratory frequency. CP-99,994 caused increases in respiratory frequency and did not antagonize the effects of SP. MEN 10376 prevented the respiratory responses induced by NKA and reduced those provoked by SP. SP or the NK1 receptor agonists (5 mM) injected (1 microL) into the IV ventricle caused marked excitatory effects on respiration. The results suggest that NK2 and NK3, but not NK1, receptors are involved in the excitatory modulation of inspiratory activity within the investigated region and are consistent with the notion that the pre-BötC neurons are important components of the inspiratory rhythm-generating mechanisms.

  13. Mechanism of Positive Allosteric Modulators Acting on AMPA Receptors

    SciT

    Jin,R.; Clark, S.; Weeks, A.

    2005-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels involved in the modulation of synaptic strength are the AMPA, kainate, and NMDA glutamate receptors. Small molecules that potentiate AMPA receptor currents relieve cognitive deficits caused by neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and show promise in the treatment of depression. Previously, there has been limited understanding of the molecular mechanism of action for AMPA receptor potentiators. Here we present cocrystal structures of the glutamate receptor GluR2 S1S2 ligand-binding domain in complex with aniracetam [1-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-2-pyrrolidinone] or CX614 (pyrrolidino-1, 3-oxazino benzo-1, 4-dioxan-10-one), two AMPA receptor potentiators that preferentially slow AMPA receptor deactivation. Both potentiators bind within the dimermore » interface of the nondesensitized receptor at a common site located on the twofold axis of molecular symmetry. Importantly, the potentiator binding site is adjacent to the 'hinge' in the ligand-binding core 'clamshell' that undergoes conformational rearrangement after glutamate binding. Using rapid solution exchange, patch-clamp electrophysiology experiments, we show that point mutations of residues that interact with potentiators in the cocrystal disrupt potentiator function. We suggest that the potentiators slow deactivation by stabilizing the clamshell in its closed-cleft, glutamate-bound conformation.« less

  14. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Subei, Adnan M; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2015-07-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators possess a unique mechanism of action as disease-modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS). Subtype 1 S1P receptors are expressed on the surfaces of lymphocytes and are important in regulating egression from lymph nodes. The S1P receptor modulators indirectly antagonize the receptor's function and sequester lymphocytes in lymph nodes. Fingolimod was the first S1P agent approved in the USA in 2010 for relapsing MS after two phase III trials (FREEDOMS and TRANSFORMS) demonstrated potent efficacy, and good safety and tolerability. Post-marketing experience, as well as a third phase III trial (FREEDOMS II), also showed favorable results. More selective S1P receptor agents-ponesimod (ACT128800), siponimod (BAF312), ozanimod (RPC1063), ceralifimod (ONO-4641), GSK2018682, and MT-1303-are still in relatively early stages of development, but phase I and II trials showed promising efficacy and safety. However, these observations have yet to be reproduced in phase III clinical trials.

  15. Modulation of sweet responses of taste receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Niki, Mayu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-03-01

    Taste receptor cells play a major role in detection of chemical compounds in the oral cavity. Information derived from taste receptor cells, such as sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami is important for evaluating the quality of food components. Among five basic taste qualities, sweet taste is very attractive for animals and influences food intake. Recent studies have demonstrated that sweet taste sensitivity in taste receptor cells would be affected by leptin and endocannabinoids. Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces food intake by acting on leptin receptor Ob-Rb in the hypothalamus. Endocannabinoids such as anandamide [N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA)] and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are known as orexigenic mediators that act via cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in the hypothalamus and limbic forebrain to induce appetite and stimulate food intake. At the peripheral gustatory organs, leptin selectively suppresses and endocannabinoids selectively enhance sweet taste sensitivity via Ob-Rb and CB1 expressed in sweet sensitive taste cells. Thus leptin and endocannabinoids not only regulate food intake via central nervous systems but also modulate palatability of foods by altering peripheral sweet taste responses. Such reciprocal modulation of leptin and endocannabinoids on peripheral sweet sensitivity may play an important role in regulating energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Male osteoporosis and androgenic therapy: from testosterone to SARMs

    PubMed Central

    Cilotti, Antonio; Falchetti, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    As in the women, male osteoporosis represents an important social problem, amplified by the increasing life expectance. Differently from women, 50% of male osteoporosis is secondary to treatments and/or diseases that make mandatory their search through an accurate clinical investigations in every newly diagnosed osteoporotic men. Male osteoporosis is frequently underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated, and too often it is revealed only after the occurrence of a fragility fracture. Androgens may prevent the loss of cancellous bone and stimulate periosteal cortical bone apposition. The anabolic effect of testosterone on both bone and muscle, is limited by the high incidence of androgenic side effects. Hypogonadism is the only situation where the benefits of the use of testosterone formulations exceed the side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators can dissociate androgenic and anabolic effect on different tissues with various strategies. Many compounds have been studied with positive results in vivo and in clinical trials. PMID:22461251

  17. Deletion of Sarm1 gene is neuroprotective in two models of peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Turkiew, Elliot; Falconer, Debbie; Reed, Nicole; Höke, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    Distal axon degeneration seen in many peripheral neuropathies is likely to share common molecular mechanisms with Wallerian degeneration. Although several studies in mouse models of peripheral neuropathy showed prevention of axon degeneration in the slow Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) mouse, the role of a recently identified player in Wallerian degeneration, Sarm1, has not been explored extensively. In this study, we show that mice lacking the Sarm1 gene are resistant to distal axonal degeneration in a model of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy caused by paclitaxel and a model of high fat diet induced putative metabolic neuropathy. This study extends the role of Sarm1 to axon degeneration seen in peripheral neuropathies and identifies it as a likely target for therapeutic development. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  18. Medicinal chemistry of P2X receptors: allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christa E

    2015-01-01

    P2X receptors are trimeric ligand-gated ion channels whose potential as novel drug targets for a number of diseases has been recognized. They are mainly involved in inflammatory processes, including neuroinflammation, and pain sensation. The orthosteric binding site is lined by basic amino acid residues that bind the negatively charged agonist ATP. Therefore it is not easy to develop orthosteric ligands that possess drug-like properties for such a highly polar binding site. However, ligand-gated ion channels offer multiple additional binding sites for allosteric ligands, positive or negative allosteric modulators enhancing or blocking receptor function. So far, the P2X3 (and P2X2/3), as well as the P2X7 receptor subtype have been the main focus of drug development efforts. A number of potent and selective allosteric antagonists have been developed to block these receptors. We start to see the development of novel allosteric ligands also for the other P2X receptor subtypes, P2X1, P2X2 and especially P2X4. The times when only poor, non-selective, non-drug-like tools for studying P2X receptor function were available have been overcome. The first clinical studies with allosteric P2X3 and P2X7 antagonists suggest that P2X therapeutics may soon become a reality.

  19. Cholesterol modulates open probability and desensitization of NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Korinek, Miloslav; Vyklicky, Vojtech; Borovska, Jirina; Lichnerova, Katarina; Kaniakova, Martina; Krausova, Barbora; Krusek, Jan; Balik, Ales; Smejkalova, Tereza; Horak, Martin; Vyklicky, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the CNS. Although these receptors are in direct contact with plasma membrane, lipid–NMDAR interactions are little understood. In the present study, we aimed at characterizing the effect of cholesterol on the ionotropic glutamate receptors. Whole-cell current responses induced by fast application of NMDA in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) were almost abolished (reduced to 3%) and the relative degree of receptor desensitization was increased (by seven-fold) after acute cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Both of these effects were fully reversible by cholesterol repletion. By contrast, the responses mediated by AMPA/kainate receptors were not affected by cholesterol depletion. Similar results were obtained in CGCs after chronic inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by simvastatin and acute enzymatic cholesterol degradation to 4-cholesten-3-one by cholesterol oxidase. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements showed that membrane fluidity increased after methyl-β-cyclodextrin pretreatment. However, no change in fluidity was observed after cholesterol enzymatic degradation, suggesting that the effect of cholesterol on NMDARs is not mediated by changes in membrane fluidity. Our data show that diminution of NMDAR responses by cholesterol depletion is the result of a reduction of the open probability, whereas the increase in receptor desensitization is the result of an increase in the rate constant of entry into the desensitized state. Surface NMDAR population, agonist affinity, single-channel conductance and open time were not altered in cholesterol-depleted CGCs. The results of our experiments show that cholesterol is a strong endogenous modulator of NMDARs. Key points NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are tetrameric cation channels permeable to calcium; they mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS and their excessive activation can lead to

  20. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Modulators in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Subei, Adnan M.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators possess a unique mechanism of action as disease modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS). Subtype 1 S1P receptors are expressed on the surfaces of lymphocytes and are important in regulating egression from lymph nodes. The S1P receptor modulators indirectly antagonize the receptor’s function and sequester lymphocytes in lymph nodes. Fingolimod was the first S1P agent approved in the United States in 2010 for relapsing MS after two phase 3 trials (FREEDOMS and TRANSFORMS) demonstrated potent efficacy, and good safety and tolerability. Post-marketing experience as well as a third phase 3 trial (FREEDOMS II) also showed favorable results. More selective S1P receptor agents: ponesimod (ACT128800), siponimod (BAF312), ozanimod (RPC1063), ceralifimod (ONO-4641), GSK2018682, and MT-1303 are still in relatively early stages of development, but phase 1 and 2 trials showed promising efficacy and safety. However, these observations have yet to be reproduced in phase 3 clinical trials. PMID:26239599

  1. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-Chul; Lee, Kyoung; Paik, Sang-Gi; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (α, γ, and σ) are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators. PMID:18566691

  2. Lipid raft integrity affects GABAA receptor, but not NMDA receptor modulation by psychopharmacological compounds.

    PubMed

    Nothdurfter, Caroline; Tanasic, Sascha; Di Benedetto, Barbara; Uhr, Manfred; Wagner, Eva-Maria; Gilling, Kate E; Parsons, Chris G; Rein, Theo; Holsboer, Florian; Rupprecht, Rainer; Rammes, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    Lipid rafts have been shown to play an important role for G-protein mediated signal transduction and the function of ligand-gated ion channels including their modulation by psychopharmacological compounds. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of the membrane distribution of NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits in relation to the accumulation of the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (DMI) and the benzodiazepine diazepam (Diaz). In the presence of Triton X-100, which allowed proper separation of the lipid raft marker proteins caveolin-1 and flotillin-1 from the transferrin receptor, all receptor subunits were shifted to the non-raft fractions. In contrast, under detergent-free conditions, NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits were detected both in raft and non-raft fractions. Diaz was enriched in non-raft fractions without Triton X-100 in contrast to DMI, which preferentially accumulated in lipid rafts. Impairment of lipid raft integrity by methyl-β-cyclodextrine (MβCD)-induced cholesterol depletion did not change the inhibitory effect of DMI at the NMDA receptor, whereas it enhanced the potentiating effect of Diaz at the GABAA receptor at non-saturating concentrations of GABA. These results support the hypothesis that the interaction of benzodiazepines with the GABAA receptor likely occurs outside of lipid rafts while the antidepressant DMI acts on ionotropic receptors both within and outside these membrane microdomains.

  3. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: CERCLA BDAT SARM PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF PHYSICAL SOILS WASHING EXPERIMENTS (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports on the results of work preparing 30,000 Ibs of SARM or synthetic analytical reference matrix, a surrogate Superfund soil containing a vide range of contaminants. It also reports the results ©f bench scale treatability experiments designed to simulate the EP...

  4. NPY2-receptor variation modulates iconic memory processes.

    PubMed

    Arning, Larissa; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Kloster, Eugen; Epplen, Jörg T; Beste, Christian

    2014-08-01

    Sensory memory systems are modality-specific buffers that comprise information about external stimuli, which represent the earliest stage of information processing. While these systems have been the subject of cognitive neuroscience research for decades, little is known about the neurobiological basis of sensory memory. However, accumulating evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system and systems influencing glutamatergic neural transmission are important. In the current study we examine if functional promoter variations in neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptor gene NPY2R affect iconic memory processes using a partial report paradigm. We found that iconic memory decayed much faster in individuals carrying the rare promoter NPY2R G allele which is associated with increased expression of the Y2 receptor. Possibly this effect is due to altered presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release, known to be modulated by Y2 receptors. Altogether, our results provide evidence that the functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the NPY2R promoter gene affect circumscribed processes of early sensory processing, i.e. only the stability of information in sensory memory buffers. This leads us to suggest that especially the stability of information in sensory memory buffers depends on glutamatergic neural transmission and factors modulating glutamatergic turnover. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. TAAR1 Modulates Cortical Glutamate NMDA Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Stefano; Lignani, Gabriele; Caffino, Lucia; Maggi, Silvia; Sukhanov, Ilya; Leo, Damiana; Mus, Liudmila; Emanuele, Marco; Ronzitti, Giuseppe; Harmeier, Anja; Medrihan, Lucian; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Chieregatti, Evelina; Hoener, Marius C; Benfenati, Fabio; Tucci, Valter; Fumagalli, Fabio; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the mammalian brain and known to influence subcortical monoaminergic transmission. Monoamines, such as dopamine, also play an important role within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuitry, which is critically involved in high-o5rder cognitive processes. TAAR1-selective ligands have shown potential antipsychotic, antidepressant, and pro-cognitive effects in experimental animal models; however, it remains unclear whether TAAR1 can affect PFC-related processes and functions. In this study, we document a distinct pattern of expression of TAAR1 in the PFC, as well as altered subunit composition and deficient functionality of the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the pyramidal neurons of layer V of PFC in mice lacking TAAR1. The dysregulated cortical glutamate transmission in TAAR1-KO mice was associated with aberrant behaviors in several tests, indicating a perseverative and impulsive phenotype of mutants. Conversely, pharmacological activation of TAAR1 with selective agonists reduced premature impulsive responses observed in the fixed-interval conditioning schedule in normal mice. Our study indicates that TAAR1 plays an important role in the modulation of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate transmission in the PFC and related functions. Furthermore, these data suggest that the development of TAAR1-based drugs could provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of disorders related to aberrant cortical functions. PMID:25749299

  6. Mu-opioid receptors modulate the stability of dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dezhi; Lin, Hang; Law, Ping Yee; Loh, Horace H.

    2005-01-01

    Opioids classically regulate the excitability of neurons by suppressing synaptic GABA release from inhibitory neurons. Here, we report a role for opioids in modulating excitatory synaptic transmission. By activating ubiquitously clustered μ-opioid receptor (MOR) in excitatory synapses, morphine caused collapse of preexisting dendritic spines and decreased synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Meanwhile, the opioid antagonist naloxone increased the density of spines. Chronic treatment with morphine decreased the density of dendritic spines even in the presence of Tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, indicating that the morphine's effect was not caused by altered activity in neural network through suppression of GABA release. The effect of morphine on dendritic spines was absent in transgenic mice lacking MORs and was blocked by CTOP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-ThrNH2), a μ-receptor antagonist. These data together with others suggest that endogenous opioids and/or constitutive activity of MORs participate in maintaining normal morphology and function of spines, challenging the classical model of opioids. Abnormal alteration of spines may occur in drug addiction when opioid receptors are overactivated by exogenous opiates. PMID:15659552

  7. Fast Modulation of μ-Opioid Receptor (MOR) Recycling Is Mediated by Receptor Agonists*

    PubMed Central

    Roman-Vendrell, Cristina; Yu, Y. Joy; Yudowski, Guillermo Ariel

    2012-01-01

    The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the main target of endogenous opioid neuropeptides and morphine. Upon activation by ligands, MORs are rapidly internalized via clathrin-coated pits in heterologous cells and dissociated striatal neurons. After initial endocytosis, resensitized receptors recycle back to the cell surface by vesicular delivery for subsequent cycles of activation. MOR trafficking has been linked to opioid tolerance after acute exposure to agonist, but it is also involved in the resensitization process. Several studies describe the regulation and mechanism of MOR endocytosis, but little is known about the recycling of resensitized receptors to the cell surface. To study this process, we induced internalization of MOR with [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and morphine and imaged in real time single vesicles recycling receptors to the cell surface. We determined single vesicle recycling kinetics and the number of receptors contained in them. Then we demonstrated that rapid vesicular delivery of recycling MORs to the cell surface was mediated by the actin-microtubule cytoskeleton. Recycling was also dependent on Rab4, Rab11, and the Ca2+-sensitive motor protein myosin Vb. Finally, we showed that recycling is acutely modulated by the presence of agonists and the levels of cAMP. Our work identifies a novel trafficking mechanism that increases the number of cell surface MORs during acute agonist exposure, effectively reducing the development of opioid tolerance. PMID:22378794

  8. Modulating Estrogen Receptor-related Receptor-α Activity Inhibits Cell Proliferation*

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Stéphanie; Lanvin, Olivia; Tribollet, Violaine; Macari, Claire; North, Sophie; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    High expression of the estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR)-α in human tumors is correlated to a poor prognosis, suggesting an involvement of the receptor in cell proliferation. In this study, we show that a synthetic compound (XCT790) that modulates the activity of ERRα reduces the proliferation of various cell lines and blocks the G1/S transition of the cell cycle in an ERRα-dependent manner. XCT790 induces, in a p53-independent manner, the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21waf/cip1 at the protein, mRNA, and promoter level, leading to an accumulation of hypophosphorylated Rb. Finally, XCT790 reduces cell tumorigenicity in Nude mice. PMID:19546226

  9. PHARMACOKINETICS AND METABOLISM OF A SELECTIVE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATOR IN RATS: IMPLICATION OF MOLECULAR PROPERTIES AND INTENSIVE METABOLIC PROFILE TO INVESTIGATE IDEAL PHARMACOKINETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROPANAMIDE IN PRECLINICAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Wu, Zengru; Yang, Jun; Nair, Vipin A.; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    S-1 [3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-propanamide] is one member of a series of potent selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that are being explored and developed for androgen-dependent diseases. Recent studies showed that S-1 holds great promise as a novel therapeutic agent for benign hyperplasia [W. Gao, J. D. Kearbey, V. A. Nair, K. Chung, A. F. Parlow, D. D. Miller, and J. T. Dalton (2004) Endocrinology 145:5420–5428]. We examined the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of S-1 in rats as a component of our preclinical development of this compound and continued interest in structure-activation relationships for SARM action. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to treatment groups and received either an i.v. or a p.o. dose of S-1 at a dose level of 0.1, 1, 10, or 30 mg/kg. S-1 demonstrated a low clearance (range, 3.6–5.2 ml/min/kg), a moderate volume of distribution (range, 1460–1560 ml/kg), and a terminal half-life ranging from 3.6 to 5.2 h after i.v. doses. The oral bioavailability of S-1 ranged from 55% to 60%. Forty phase I and phase II metabolites of S-1 were identified in the urine and feces of male Sprague-Dawley rats dosed at 50 mg/kg via the i.v. route. The two major urinary metabolites of S-1 were a carboxylic acid and a sulfate-conjugate of 4-nitro-3-trifluoromethylphenylamine. Phase I metabolites arising from A-ring nitro reduction to an aromatic amine and B-ring hydroxylation were also identified in the urinary and fecal samples of rats. Furthermore, a variety of phase II metabolites through sulfation, glucuronidation, and methylation were also found. These studies demonstrate that S-1 is rapidly absorbed, slowly cleared, moderately distributed, and extensively metabolized in rats. PMID:16381665

  10. Serotonin receptor 1A–modulated phosphorylation of glycine receptor α3 controls breathing in mice

    PubMed Central

    Manzke, Till; Niebert, Marcus; Koch, Uwe R.; Caley, Alex; Vogelgesang, Steffen; Hülsmann, Swen; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Müller, Ulrike; Smart, Trevor G.; Harvey, Robert J.; Richter, Diethelm W.

    2010-01-01

    Rhythmic breathing movements originate from a dispersed neuronal network in the medulla and pons. Here, we demonstrate that rhythmic activity of this respiratory network is affected by the phosphorylation status of the inhibitory glycine receptor α3 subtype (GlyRα3), which controls glutamatergic and glycinergic neuronal discharges, subject to serotonergic modulation. Serotonin receptor type 1A–specific (5-HTR1A–specific) modulation directly induced dephosphorylation of GlyRα3 receptors, which augmented inhibitory glycine-activated chloride currents in HEK293 cells coexpressing 5-HTR1A and GlyRα3. The 5-HTR1A–GlyRα3 signaling pathway was distinct from opioid receptor signaling and efficiently counteracted opioid-induced depression of breathing and consequential apnea in mice. Paradoxically, this rescue of breathing originated from enhanced glycinergic synaptic inhibition of glutamatergic and glycinergic neurons and caused disinhibition of their target neurons. Together, these effects changed respiratory phase alternations and ensured rhythmic breathing in vivo. GlyRα3-deficient mice had an irregular respiratory rhythm under baseline conditions, and systemic 5-HTR1A activation failed to remedy opioid-induced respiratory depression in these mice. Delineation of this 5-HTR1A–GlyRα3 signaling pathway offers a mechanistic basis for pharmacological treatment of opioid-induced apnea and other breathing disturbances caused by disorders of inhibitory synaptic transmission, such as hyperekplexia, hypoxia/ischemia, and brainstem infarction. PMID:20978350

  11. Sulfonyl-containing modulators of serotonin 5-HT6 receptors and their pharmacophore models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivachtchenko, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    Data published in recent years on the synthesis of serotonin 5-HT6 receptor modulators are summarized. Modulators with high affinity for 5-HT6 receptors exhibiting different degrees of selectivity — from highly selective to semiselective and multimodal — are described. Clinical trial results are reported for the most promising serotonin 5-HT6 receptor modulators attracting special attention of medicinal chemists. The bibliography includes 128 references.

  12. Modulation of Pain Transmission by G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hui-Lin; Wu, Zi-Zhen; Zhou, Hong-Yi; Chen, Shao-Rui; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Li, De-Pei

    2010-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest and most diverse family of cell surface receptors and proteins. GPCRs are widely distributed in the peripheral and central nervous systems and are one of the most important therapeutic targets in pain medicine. GPCRs are present on the plasma membrane of neurons and their terminals along the nociceptive pathways and are closely associated with the modulation of pain transmission. GPCRs that can produce analgesia upon activation include opioid, cannabinoid, α2-adrenergic, muscarinic acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB), group II and III metabotropic glutamate, and somatostatin receptors. Recent studies have led to a better understanding of the role of these GPCRs in the regulation of pain transmission. Here, we review the current knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the analgesic actions of GPCR agonists, with a focus on their effects on ion channels expressed on nociceptive sensory neurons and on synaptic transmission at the spinal cord level. PMID:17959251

  13. Liver X Receptor Genes Variants Modulate ALS Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mouzat, Kevin; Molinari, Nicolas; Kantar, Jovana; Polge, Anne; Corcia, Philippe; Couratier, Philippe; Clavelou, Pierre; Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Lobaccaro, Jean -Marc A; Raoul, Cedric; Lumbroso, Serge; Camu, William

    2018-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most severe motor neuron (MN) disorders in adults. Phenotype of ALS patients is highly variable and may be influenced by modulators of energy metabolism. Recent works have implicated the liver X receptors α and β (LXRs), either in the propagation process of ALS or in the maintenance of MN survival. LXRs are nuclear receptors activated by oxysterols, modulating cholesterol levels, a suspected modulator of ALS severity. In a cohort of 438 ALS patients and 330 healthy controls, the influence of LXR genes on ALS risk and phenotype was studied using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The two LXRα SNPs rs2279238 and rs7120118 were shown to be associated with age at onset in ALS patients. Consistently, homozygotes were twice more correlated than were heterozygotes to delayed onset. The onset was thus delayed by 3.9 years for rs2279238 C/T carriers and 7.8 years for T/T carriers. Similar results were obtained for rs7120118 (+2.1 years and +6.7 years for T/C and C/C genotypes, respectively). The LXRβ SNP rs2695121 was also shown to be associated with a 30% increase of ALS duration (p = 0.0055, FDR = 0.044). The tested genotypes were not associated with ALS risk. These findings add further evidence to the suspected implication of LXR genes in the disease process of ALS and might open new perspectives in ALS therapeutics.

  14. Adenosine receptors and muscarinic receptors cooperate in acetylcholine release modulation in the neuromuscular synapse.

    PubMed

    Santafe, M M; Priego, M; Obis, T; Garcia, N; Tomàs, M; Lanuza, M A; Tomàs, J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) are present in the motor terminals at the mouse neuromuscular junction. ARs and the presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) share the functional control of the neuromuscular junction. We analysed their mutual interaction in transmitter release modulation. In electrophysiological experiments with unaltered synaptic transmission (muscles paralysed by blocking the voltage-dependent sodium channel of the muscle cells with μ-conotoxin GIIIB), we found that: (i) a collaborative action between different AR subtypes reduced synaptic depression at a moderate activity level (40 Hz); (ii) at high activity levels (100 Hz), endogenous adenosine production in the synaptic cleft was sufficient to reduce depression through A1 -type receptors (A1 Rs) and A2 A-type receptors (A2 A Rs); (iii) when the non-metabolizable 2-chloroadenosine (CADO) agonist was used, both the quantal content and depression were reduced; (iv) the protective effect of CADO on depression was mediated by A1 Rs, whereas A2 A Rs seemed to modulate A1 Rs; (v) ARs and mAChRs absolutely depended upon each other for the modulation of evoked and spontaneous acetylcholine release in basal conditions and in experimental conditions with CADO stimulation; (vi) the purinergic and muscarinic mechanisms cooperated in the control of depression by sharing a common pathway although the purinergic control was more powerful than the muscarinic control; and (vii) the imbalance of the ARs created by using subtype-selective and non-selective inhibitory and stimulatory agents uncoupled protein kinase C from evoked transmitter release. In summary, ARs (A1 Rs, A2 A Rs) and mAChRs (M1 , M2 ) cooperated in the control of activity-dependent synaptic depression and may share a common protein kinase C pathway. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Differential Modulation of Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling by Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Nürnberg, Daniela; Grüters, Annette; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Krude, Heiko; Köhrle, Josef; Schöneberg, Torsten; Biebermann, Heike

    2011-01-01

    Trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) are rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). TAAR are involved in modulation of neuronal, cardiac and vascular functions and they are potentially linked with neurological disorders like schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Subtype TAAR1, the best characterized TAAR so far, is promiscuous for a wide set of ligands and is activated by trace amines tyramine (TYR), phenylethylamine (PEA), octopamine (OA), but also by thyronamines, dopamine, and psycho-active drugs. Unfortunately, effects of trace amines on signaling of the two homologous β-adrenergic receptors 1 (ADRB1) and 2 (ADRB2) have not been clarified yet in detail. We, therefore, tested TAAR1 agonists TYR, PEA and OA regarding their effects on ADRB1/2 signaling by co-stimulation studies. Surprisingly, trace amines TYR and PEA are partial allosteric antagonists at ADRB1/2, whereas OA is a partial orthosteric ADRB2-antagonist and ADRB1-agonist. To specify molecular reasons for TAAR1 ligand promiscuity and for observed differences in signaling effects on particular aminergic receptors we compared TAAR, tyramine (TAR) octopamine (OAR), ADRB1/2 and dopamine receptors at the structural level. We found especially for TAAR1 that the remarkable ligand promiscuity is likely based on high amino acid similarity in the ligand-binding region compared with further aminergic receptors. On the other hand few TAAR specific properties in the ligand-binding site might determine differences in ligand-induced effects compared to ADRB1/2. Taken together, this study points to molecular details of TAAR1-ligand promiscuity and identified specific trace amines as allosteric or orthosteric ligands of particular β-adrenergic receptor subtypes. PMID:22073124

  16. Adrenergic receptor-mediated modulation of striatal firing patterns.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Yu; Arake, Masashi; Tamura, Risa; Yukawa, Suguru; Sato, Yoshiaki; Morimoto, Yuji; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Yawo, Hiromu

    2016-11-01

    Although noradrenaline and adrenaline are some of the most important neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, the effects of noradrenergic/adrenergic modulation on the striatum have not been determined. In order to explore the effects of adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists on the striatal firing patterns, we used optogenetic methods which can induce continuous firings. We employed transgenic rats expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in neurons. The medium spiny neuron showed a slow rising depolarization during the 1-s long optogenetic striatal photostimulation and a residual potential with 8.6-s half-life decay after the photostimulation. As a result of the residual potential, five repetitive 1-sec long photostimulations with 20-s onset intervals cumulatively increased the number of spikes. This 'firing increment', possibly relating to the timing control function of the striatum, was used to evaluate the AR modulation. The β-AR agonist isoproterenol decreased the firing increment between the 1st and 5th stimulation cycles, while the α 1 -AR agonist phenylephrine enhanced the firing increment. Isoproterenol and adrenaline increased the early phase (0-0.5s of the photostimulation) firing response. This adrenergic modulation was inhibited by the β-antagonist propranolol. Conversely, phenylephrine and noradrenaline reduced the early phase response. β-ARs and α 1 -ARs work in opposition controlling the striatal firing initiation and the firing increment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Muscarinic Receptors Modulate Dendrodendritic Inhibitory Synapses to Sculpt Glomerular Output

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Wachowiak, Matt; Rothermel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic [acetylcholine (ACh)] axons from the basal forebrain innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the initial site of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Both nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are expressed in glomeruli. The activation of nAChRs directly excites both mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs), the two major excitatory neurons that transmit glomerular output. The functional roles of mAChRs in glomerular circuits are unknown. We show that the restricted glomerular application of ACh causes rapid, brief nAChR-mediated excitation of both MTCs and ETCs in the mouse olfactory bulb. This excitation is followed by mAChR-mediated inhibition, which is blocked by GABAA receptor antagonists, indicating the engagement of periglomerular cells (PGCs) and/or short axon cells (SACs), the two major glomerular inhibitory neurons. Indeed, selective activation of glomerular mAChRs, with ionotropic GluRs and nAChRs blocked, increased IPSCs in MTCs and ETCs, indicating that mAChRs recruit glomerular inhibitory circuits. Selective activation of glomerular mAChRs in the presence of tetrodotoxin increased IPSCs in all glomerular neurons, indicating action potential-independent enhancement of GABA release from PGC and/or SAC dendrodendritic synapses. mAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release also presynaptically suppressed the first synapse of the olfactory system via GABAB receptors on sensory terminals. Together, these results indicate that cholinergic modulation of glomerular circuits is biphasic, involving an initial excitation of MTC/ETCs mediated by nAChRs followed by inhibition mediated directly by mAChRs on PGCs/SACs. This may phasically enhance the sensitivity of glomerular outputs to odorants, an action that is consistent with recent in vivo findings. PMID:25855181

  18. Muscarinic receptors modulate dendrodendritic inhibitory synapses to sculpt glomerular output.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaolin; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Wachowiak, Matt; Rothermel, Markus; Shipley, Michael T

    2015-04-08

    Cholinergic [acetylcholine (ACh)] axons from the basal forebrain innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the initial site of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Both nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are expressed in glomeruli. The activation of nAChRs directly excites both mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs), the two major excitatory neurons that transmit glomerular output. The functional roles of mAChRs in glomerular circuits are unknown. We show that the restricted glomerular application of ACh causes rapid, brief nAChR-mediated excitation of both MTCs and ETCs in the mouse olfactory bulb. This excitation is followed by mAChR-mediated inhibition, which is blocked by GABAA receptor antagonists, indicating the engagement of periglomerular cells (PGCs) and/or short axon cells (SACs), the two major glomerular inhibitory neurons. Indeed, selective activation of glomerular mAChRs, with ionotropic GluRs and nAChRs blocked, increased IPSCs in MTCs and ETCs, indicating that mAChRs recruit glomerular inhibitory circuits. Selective activation of glomerular mAChRs in the presence of tetrodotoxin increased IPSCs in all glomerular neurons, indicating action potential-independent enhancement of GABA release from PGC and/or SAC dendrodendritic synapses. mAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release also presynaptically suppressed the first synapse of the olfactory system via GABAB receptors on sensory terminals. Together, these results indicate that cholinergic modulation of glomerular circuits is biphasic, involving an initial excitation of MTC/ETCs mediated by nAChRs followed by inhibition mediated directly by mAChRs on PGCs/SACs. This may phasically enhance the sensitivity of glomerular outputs to odorants, an action that is consistent with recent in vivo findings. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355680-13$15.00/0.

  19. Selective estrogen receptor modulators and risk for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Cano, A; Hermenegildo, C; Oviedo, P; Tarín, J J

    2007-04-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in women in most countries. Atherosclerosis is the main biological process determining CHD. Clinical data support the notion that CHD is sensitive to estrogens, but debate exists concerning the effects of the hormone on atherosclerosis and its complications. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are compounds capable of binding the estrogen receptor to induce a functional profile distinct from estrogens. The possibility that SERMs may shift the estrogenic balance on cardiovascular risk towards a more beneficial profile has generated interest in recent years. There is considerable information on the effects of SERMs on distinct areas that are crucial in atherogenesis. The complexity derived from the diversity of variables affecting their mechanism of action plus the differences between compounds make it difficult to delineate one uniform trend for SERMs. The present picture, nonetheless, is one where SERMs seem less powerful than estrogens in atherosclerosis protection, but more gentle with advanced forms of the disease. The recent publication of the Raloxifene Use for The Heart (RUTH) study has confirmed a neutral effect for raloxifene. Prothrombotic states may favor occlusive thrombi at sites occupied by atheromatous plaques. Platelet activation has received attention as an important determinant of arterial thrombogenesis. Although still sparse, available evidence globally suggests neutral or beneficial effects for SERMs.

  20. Serotonin modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis via two different serotonin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yi-xiang; Huang, Jia; Li, Meng-qi; Wu, Ya-su; Xia, Ren-ying; Ye, Gong-yin

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates both neural and immune responses in vertebrates, but its role in insect immunity remains uncertain. We report that hemocytes in the caterpillar, Pieris rapae are able to synthesize 5-HT following activation by lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of a serotonin-generating enzyme with either pharmacological blockade or RNAi knock-down impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Biochemical and functional experiments showed that naive hemocytes primarily express 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors. The blockade of 5-HT1B significantly reduced phagocytic ability; however, the blockade of 5-HT2B increased hemocyte phagocytosis. The 5-HT1B-null Drosophila melanogaster mutants showed higher mortality than controls when infected with bacteria, due to their decreased phagocytotic ability. Flies expressing 5-HT1B or 5-HT2B RNAi in hemocytes also showed similar sensitivity to infection. Combined, these data demonstrate that 5-HT mediates hemocyte phagocytosis through 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors and serotonergic signaling performs critical modulatory functions in immune systems of animals separated by 500 million years of evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12241.001 PMID:26974346

  1. The evolution of selective estrogen receptor modulators in osteoporosis therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which exhibit estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist activity based on the target tissue, have evolved through multiple generations for the prevention and/or treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. An ideal SERM would protect bone without stimulating the breast or endometrium. Raloxifene, lasofoxifene, and bazedoxifene have demonstrated unique preclinical profiles. Raloxifene, lasofoxifene, and bazedoxifene have shown significant reduction in the risk of vertebral fracture and improvement in bone mineral density versus placebo in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Raloxifene has been shown to reduce the risk of non-vertebral fractures in women with severe prevalent fractures at baseline. Lasofoxifene 0.5 mg, but not lasofoxifene 0.25 mg, has shown reduction in the incidence of non-vertebral fractures. Bazedoxifene 20 mg has been associated with a significant reduction in the risk of non-vertebral fracture versus placebo and raloxifene 60 mg in women at higher baseline fracture risk. Neither raloxifene, lasofoxifene, nor bazedoxifene has shown an increase in the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma. All SERMs have been associated with increased venous thromboembolic events and hot flushes. SERMs are effective alternatives for women who cannot tolerate or are unwilling to take bisphosphonates and may be appropriate for women at higher risk of fracture, particularly younger women who expect to remain on therapy for many years and are concerned about the long-term safety of bisphosphonates. PMID:22853318

  2. Estrogen receptor 1 modulates circadian rhythms in adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Blattner, Margaret S; Mahoney, Megan M

    2014-06-01

    Estradiol influences the level and distribution of daily activity, the duration of the free-running period, and the behavioral phase response to light pulses. However, the mechanisms by which estradiol regulates daily and circadian rhythms are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that estrogens modulate daily activity patterns via both classical and "non-classical" actions at the estrogen receptor subtype 1 (ESR1). We used female transgenic mice with mutations in their estrogen response pathways; ESR1 knock-out (ERKO) mice and "non-classical" estrogen receptor knock-in (NERKI) mice. NERKI mice have an ESR1 receptor with a mutation in the estrogen-response-element binding domain, allowing only actions via "non-classical" genomic and second messenger pathways. Ovariectomized female NERKI, ERKO, and wildtype (WT) mice were given a subcutaneous capsule with low- or high-dose estradiol and compared with counterparts with no hormone replacement. We measured wheel-running activity in a light:dark cycle and constant darkness, and the behavioral phase response to light pulses given at different points during the subjective day and night. Estradiol increased average daily wheel-running, consolidated activity to the dark phase, and shortened the endogenous period in WT, but not NERKI and ERKO mice. The timing of activity onset during entrainment was advanced in all estradiol-treated animals regardless of genotype suggesting an ESR1-independent mechanism. We propose that estradiol modifies period, activity level, and distribution of activity via classical actions of ESR1 whereas an ESR1 independent mechanism regulates the phase of rhythms.

  3. Structural basis for modulation of a G-protein-coupled receptor by allosteric drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, Ron O.; Green, Hillary F.; Valant, Celine; Borhani, David W.; Valcourt, James R.; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Canals, Meritxell; Lane, J. Robert; Rahmani, Raphaël; Baell, Jonathan B.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Shaw, David E.

    2013-11-01

    The design of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) allosteric modulators, an active area of modern pharmaceutical research, has proved challenging because neither the binding modes nor the molecular mechanisms of such drugs are known. Here we determine binding sites, bound conformations and specific drug-receptor interactions for several allosteric modulators of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor), a prototypical family A GPCR, using atomic-level simulations in which the modulators spontaneously associate with the receptor. Despite substantial structural diversity, all modulators form cation-π interactions with clusters of aromatic residues in the receptor extracellular vestibule, approximately 15Å from the classical, `orthosteric' ligand-binding site. We validate the observed modulator binding modes through radioligand binding experiments on receptor mutants designed, on the basis of our simulations, either to increase or to decrease modulator affinity. Simulations also revealed mechanisms that contribute to positive and negative allosteric modulation of classical ligand binding, including coupled conformational changes of the two binding sites and electrostatic interactions between ligands in these sites. These observations enabled the design of chemical modifications that substantially alter a modulator's allosteric effects. Our findings thus provide a structural basis for the rational design of allosteric modulators targeting muscarinic and possibly other GPCRs.

  4. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX regulates astrogenesis by modulating BMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Song; Niu, Wenze; Iqbal, Nida; Smith, Derek K.; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing multipotent progenitors that generate both neurons and glia. The precise control of NSC behavior is fundamental to the architecture and function of the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for postnatal NSC activation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic niche. Here, we show that TLX modulates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-SMAD signaling to control the timing of postnatal astrogenesis. Genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway, such as Bmp4, Hes1, and Id3, are upregulated in postnatal brains lacking Tlx. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that TLX can directly bind the enhancer region of Bmp4. In accordance with elevated BMP signaling, the downstream effectors SMAD1/5/8 are activated by phosphorylation in Tlx mutant mice. Consequently, Tlx mutant brains exhibit an early appearance and increased number of astrocytes with marker expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B. Taken together, these results suggest that TLX tightly controls postnatal astrogenesis through the modulation of BMP-SMAD signaling pathway activity. PMID:24782704

  5. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX regulates astrogenesis by modulating BMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Qin, Song; Niu, Wenze; Iqbal, Nida; Smith, Derek K; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing multipotent progenitors that generate both neurons and glia. The precise control of NSC behavior is fundamental to the architecture and function of the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for postnatal NSC activation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic niche. Here, we show that TLX modulates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-SMAD signaling to control the timing of postnatal astrogenesis. Genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway, such as Bmp4, Hes1, and Id3, are upregulated in postnatal brains lacking Tlx. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that TLX can directly bind the enhancer region of Bmp4. In accordance with elevated BMP signaling, the downstream effectors SMAD1/5/8 are activated by phosphorylation in Tlx mutant mice. Consequently, Tlx mutant brains exhibit an early appearance and increased number of astrocytes with marker expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B. Taken together, these results suggest that TLX tightly controls postnatal astrogenesis through the modulation of BMP-SMAD signaling pathway activity.

  6. Lipid modulation of thermal transient receptor potential channels.

    PubMed

    Hernández-García, Enrique; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    There is a subgroup of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels that are responsive to temperature (thermo-TRP channels). These are important to a variety of sensory and physiological phenomena such as pain and taste perception. All thermo-TRP channels known to date are subject to modulation by lipidic molecules of many kinds, from the ubiquitous cholesterol to more specialized molecules such as prostaglandins. Although the mechanisms and sites of binding of lipids on thermo-TRPs are largely unknown, the explosion on research of lipids and ion channels has revealed previously unsuspected roles for them. Diacyl glycerol is a lipid produced by phospholipase C (PLC) and it was discovered to modulate TRP channels in the eye of the fly, and many mammal TRP channels have been found to interact with lipids. While most of the lipids acting on thermo-TRP channels have been found to activate them, there are a few capable of inhibition. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate is even capable of both inhibition and activation on a couple of thermo-TRPs, depending on the cellular context. More data is required to assess the mechanism through which lipids affect thermo-TRP channel activity and the physiological importance of this interaction.

  7. The past, present, and future of selective progesterone receptor modulators in the management of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhbir S; Belland, Liane; Leyland, Nicholas; von Riedemann, Sarah; Murji, Ally

    2017-12-21

    Uterine fibroids are common in women of reproductive age and can have a significant impact on quality of life and fertility. Although a number of international obstetrics/gynecology societies have issued evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids, many of these guidelines do not yet reflect the most recent clinical evidence and approved indication for one of the key medical management options: the selective progesterone receptor modulator class. This article aims to share the clinical experience gained with selective progesterone receptor modulators in Europe and Canada by reviewing the historical development of selective progesterone receptor modulators, current best practices for selective progesterone receptor modulator use based on available data, and potential future uses for selective progesterone receptor modulators in uterine fibroids and other gynecologic conditions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Key structural features of nonsteroidal ligands for binding and activation of the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Yin, Donghua; He, Yali; Perera, Minoli A; Hong, Seoung Soo; Marhefka, Craig; Stourman, Nina; Kirkovsky, Leonid; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to examine the androgen receptor (AR) binding ability and in vitro functional activity of multiple series of nonsteroidal compounds derived from known antiandrogen pharmacophores and to investigate the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of these nonsteroidal compounds. The AR binding properties of sixty-five nonsteroidal compounds were assessed by a radioligand competitive binding assay with the use of cytosolic AR prepared from rat prostates. The AR agonist and antagonist activities of high-affinity ligands were determined by the ability of the ligand to regulate AR-mediated transcriptional activation in cultured CV-1 cells, using a cotransfection assay. Nonsteroidal compounds with diverse structural features demonstrated a wide range of binding affinity for the AR. Ten compounds, mainly from the bicalutamide-related series, showed a binding affinity superior to the structural pharmacophore from which they were derived. Several SARs regarding nonsteroidal AR binding were revealed from the binding data, including stereoisomeric conformation, steric effect, and electronic effect. The functional activity of high-affinity ligands ranged from antagonist to full agonist for the AR. Several structural features were found to be determinative of agonist and antagonist activities. The nonsteroidal AR agonists identified from the present studies provided a pool of candidates for further development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) for androgen therapy. Also, these studies uncovered or confirmed numerous important SARs governing AR binding and functional properties by nonsteroidal molecules, which would be valuable in the future structural optimization of SARMs.

  9. Ketamine and other glutamate receptor modulators for depression in adults.

    PubMed

    Caddy, Caroline; Amit, Ben H; McCloud, Tayla L; Rendell, Jennifer M; Furukawa, Toshi A; McShane, Rupert; Hawton, Keith; Cipriani, Andrea

    2015-09-23

    Considering the ample evidence of involvement of the glutamate system in the pathophysiology of depression, pre-clinical and clinical studies have been conducted to assess the antidepressant efficacy of glutamate inhibition, and glutamate receptor modulators in particular. This review focuses on the use of glutamate receptor modulators in unipolar depression. To assess the effects - and review the acceptability - of ketamine and other glutamate receptor modulators in comparison to placebo (or saline placebo), other pharmacologically active agents, or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in alleviating the acute symptoms of depression in people with unipolar major depressive disorder. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR, to 9 January 2015). This register includes relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from: the Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We did not apply any restrictions to date, language or publication status. Double- or single-blind RCTs comparing ketamine, memantine, or other glutamate receptor modulators with placebo (or saline placebo), other active psychotropic drugs, or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in adults with unipolar major depression. Three review authors independently identified studies, assessed trial quality and extracted data. The primary outcomes for this review were response rate and adverse events. We included 25 studies (1242 participants) on ketamine (9 trials), memantine (3), AZD6765 (3), D-cycloserine (2), Org26576 (2), atomoxetine (1), CP-101,606 (1), MK-0657 (1), N-acetylcysteine (1), riluzole (1) and sarcosine (1). Twenty-one studies were placebo-controlled and the majority were two-arm studies (23 out of 25). Twenty-two studies defined an inclusion criteria specifying the severity of depression; 11 specified at least moderate depression; eight, severe depression; and the remaining three

  10. The Drosophila Insulin Receptor Independently Modulates Lifespan and Locomotor Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Michael; Achall, Rajesh; Shirras, Alan; Broughton, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Insulin/IGF-like signalling (IIS) pathway plays an evolutionarily conserved role in ageing. In model organisms reduced IIS extends lifespan and ameliorates some forms of functional senescence. However, little is known about IIS in nervous system ageing and behavioural senescence. To investigate this role in Drosophila melanogaster, we measured the effect of reduced IIS on senescence of two locomotor behaviours, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. Two long-lived fly models with systemic IIS reductions (daGAL4/UAS-InRDN (ubiquitous expression of a dominant negative insulin receptor) and d2GAL/UAS-rpr (ablation of insulin-like peptide producing cells)) showed an amelioration of negative geotaxis senescence similar to that previously reported for the long-lived IIS mutant chico. In contrast, exploratory walking in daGAL4/UAS-InRDN and d2GAL/UAS-rpr flies declined with age similarly to controls. To determine the contribution of IIS in the nervous system to these altered senescence patterns and lifespan, the InRDN was targeted to neurons (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN), which resulted in extension of lifespan in females, normal negative geotaxis senescence in males and females, and detrimental effects on age-specific exploratory walking behaviour in males and females. These data indicate that the Drosophila insulin receptor independently modulates lifespan and age-specific function of different types of locomotor behaviour. The data suggest that ameliorated negative geotaxis senescence of long-lived flies with systemic IIS reductions is due to ageing related effects of reduced IIS outside the nervous system. The lifespan extension and coincident detrimental or neutral effects on locomotor function with a neuron specific reduction (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN) indicates that reduced IIS is not beneficial to the neural circuitry underlying the behaviours despite increasing lifespan. PMID:26020640

  11. The selective estrogen receptor modulators in breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangxuan; Dou, Jinli; Wei, Lijuan; Li, Shixia; Liu, Juntian

    2016-05-01

    Persistently increased blood levels of estrogens are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of compounds that act on the estrogen receptor (ER). Several clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of its prophylactic administration. Incidence of invasive ER-positive breast cancer was reduced by SERMs treatment, especially for those women with high risk of developing breast cancer. In this study, we reviewed the clinical application of SERMs in breast cancer prevention. To date, four prospective randomized clinical trials had been performed to test the efficacy of tamoxifen for this purpose. Concerning on the benefit and cost of tamoxifen, various studies from different countries demonstrated that chemoprevention with tamoxifen seemed to be cost-effective for women with a high risk of invasive breast cancer. Based above, tamoxifen was approved for breast cancer prevention by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1998. Raloxifene was also approved for postmenopausal women in 2007 for breast cancer prevention which reduces the risk of invasive breast cancer with a lower risk of unwanted stimulation of endometrium. Thus, raloxifene is considered to have a better clinical possesses as prophylactic agent. Several other agents, such as arzoxifene and lasofoxifene, are currently being investigated in clinic. The American Society of Clinical Oncology and National Comprehensive Cancer Network had published guidelines on breast cancer chemoprevention by SERMs. However, use of tamoxifen and raloxifene for primary breast cancer prevention was still low. A broader educational effort is needed to alert women and primary care physicians that SERMs are available to reduce breast cancer risk.

  12. Surgical management of cross-bites in orthognathic surgery: Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) versus two-piece maxilla.

    PubMed

    Seeberger, Robin; Gander, Evelyn; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Engel, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The surgical treatment of cross-bites includes surgically-assisted maxillary expansion (SARME) or maxillary-bipartition during bimaxillary surgery. This study evaluates and compares the changes in the teeth and lower nasal passage, as well as the stability of the expansion. The measurements were performed on the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 32 patients with transverse (width) deficiencies of the maxilla. To expand the maxilla, 12 patients underwent the two-piece maxilla method, while 20 patients received SARME. The mean distraction width for SARME was 6.8 mm (SD 3.7), while that for the two-piece maxilla was 4.1 mm (SD 1.6). The expansion with SARME was over the entire length of the maxilla, from anterior to posterior, whereas the expansion of the two-piece patient group was only in the posterior part of the maxilla. The segments of the maxilla opened nearly parallel in SARME, while they were reverse V-shaped in the two-piece maxilla, from anterior to posterior. A key point in the planning of combined orthodontic-orthognathic therapy with surgical correction of a cross-bite is the precise determination of the area where the width needs to be increased, and the amount of correction needed to treat the patient using minimal surgical procedures. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Channels by Alkaline Earth Cations

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L.; Porta, Maura; Copello, Julio A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) function is modulated by Ca2+ and Mg2+. To better characterize Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding sites involved in RyR2 regulation, the effects of cytosolic and luminal earth alkaline divalent cations (M2+: Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) were studied on RyR2 from pig ventricle reconstituted in bilayers. RyR2 were activated by M2+ binding to high affinity activating sites at the cytosolic channel surface, specific for Ca2+ or Sr2+. This activation was interfered by Mg2+ and Ba2+ acting at low affinity M2+-unspecific binding sites. When testing the effects of luminal M2+ as current carriers, all M2+ increased maximal RyR2 open probability (compared to Cs+), suggesting the existence of low affinity activating M2+-unspecific sites at the luminal surface. Responses to M2+ vary from channel to channel (heterogeneity). However, with luminal Ba2+or Mg2+, RyR2 were less sensitive to cytosolic Ca2+ and caffeine-mediated activation, openings were shorter and voltage-dependence was more marked (compared to RyR2 with luminal Ca2+or Sr2+). Kinetics of RyR2 with mixtures of luminal Ba2+/Ca2+ and additive action of luminal plus cytosolic Ba2+ or Mg2+ suggest luminal M2+ differentially act on luminal sites rather than accessing cytosolic sites through the pore. This suggests the presence of additional luminal activating Ca2+/Sr2+-specific sites, which stabilize high Po mode (less voltage-dependent) and increase RyR2 sensitivity to cytosolic Ca2+ activation. In summary, RyR2 luminal and cytosolic surfaces have at least two sets of M2+ binding sites (specific for Ca2+ and unspecific for Ca2+/Mg2+) that dynamically modulate channel activity and gating status, depending on SR voltage. PMID:22039534

  14. Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators for contraception

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) are under development to address limitations of current hormonal methods that affect use and effectiveness. This method would be appropriate for use in women with contraindications to, or preferences to avoid, estrogens. A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) also eliminates the need for daily dosing, and therefore might improve the effectiveness of contraception. The principle contraceptive effect of SPRMs is the suppression of ovulation. One limiting factor of chronic SPRM administration is the development of benign endometrial thickening characterized as PRM-associated endometrial changes. Ulipristal acetate is approved for use as an emergency contraceptive pill, but no SPRM is approved for regular contraception. The Population Council is developing an ulipristal acetate CVR for regular contraception. The CVR studied is of a matrix design composed of micronized UPA mixed in a silicone rubber matrix The target product is a ring designed for continuous use over 3 months delivering near steady-state drug levels that will suppress ovulation. Results from Phase 1–2 studies demonstrate that suppression of ovulation occurs with UPA levels above 6–7 ng/mL. PMID:23040126

  15. Selective estrogen receptor modulators in clinical practice: a safety overview.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Amanda J; Hendrick, Vicky M; Williams, Robert; Komm, Barry S

    2015-06-01

    Selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulators (SERMs) are a class of nonsteroidal compounds that interact with ERs, each with a distinct tissue-specific profile. Depending upon the degree of ER agonism/antagonism at the target tissue, SERMs show efficacy for various indications including osteoporosis, dyspareunia, and breast cancer, and are associated with safety risks. This review describes the safety profile of SERMs (tamoxifen, raloxifene, toremifene, bazedoxifene, lasofoxifene, and ospemifene) and fulvestrant (a pure ER antagonist) from Phase III trials, long-term extension studies, and active comparator studies. Tamoxifen, a first-generation SERM, is indicated for breast cancer prevention and treatment but is associated with serious safety concerns including endometrial cancer, venous thromboembolic events (VTE), and stroke. Toremifene, raloxifene, bazedoxifene, lasofoxifene, and ospemifene present generally improved, though distinctly different, safety profiles compared with tamoxifen, especially with endometrial cancer and stroke. However, the risk of VTE remains a concern for most SERMs. Each SERM presents a unique risk/benefit profile based on varying indications and tissue-specific ER agonist and antagonist effects, making careful patient selection and ongoing patient monitoring crucial aspects of treatment. Future research may focus on identifying new SERMs for endocrine-resistant and endocrine-responsive cancers and post-menopausal symptoms.

  16. AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators attenuate morphine tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Tian, Xuebi; Guo, Xiao; He, Ying; Chen, Haijun; Zhou, Jia; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2018-04-25

    Development of opioid tolerance and dependence hinders the use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. In searching for the mechanism and potential intervention for opioid tolerance and dependence, we studied the action of two positive allosteric modulators of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR PAMs). In mice treated with morphine (100 mg/kg, s.c.), acute morphine tolerance and dependence developed in 4-6 h. Treatment with aniracetam, a well-established AMPAR PAM, was able to completely prevent and reverse the development of acute antinociceptive tolerance to morphine. Partial, but significant, effects of aniracetam on acute morphine induced-physical dependence were also observed. Moreover, aniracetam significantly reversed the established morphine tolerance and dependence in a chronic model of morphine tolerance and dependence produced by intermittent morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c. for 5d). In addition, HJC0122, a new AMPAR PAM was found to have similar effects as aniracetam but with a higher potency. These previously undisclosed actions of AMPAR PAMs are intriguing and may shed lights on understanding the APMA signaling pathway in opioid addiction. Moreover, these data suggest that AMPAR PAMs may have utility in preventing and treating morphine tolerance and dependence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A new series of estrogen receptor modulators that display selectivity for estrogen receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Henke, Brad R; Consler, Thomas G; Go, Ning; Hale, Ron L; Hohman, Dana R; Jones, Stacey A; Lu, Amy T; Moore, Linda B; Moore, John T; Orband-Miller, Lisa A; Robinett, R Graham; Shearin, Jean; Spearing, Paul K; Stewart, Eugene L; Turnbull, Philip S; Weaver, Susan L; Williams, Shawn P; Wisely, G Bruce; Lambert, Millard H

    2002-12-05

    A series of 1,3,5-triazine-based estrogen receptor (ER) modulators that are modestly selective for the ERbeta subtype are reported. Compound 1, which displayed modest potency and selectivity for ERbeta vs ERalpha, was identified via high-throughput screening utilizing an ERbeta SPA-based binding assay. Subsequent analogue preparation resulted in the identification of compounds such as 21 and 43 that display 25- to 30-fold selectivity for ERbeta with potencies in the 10-30 nM range. These compounds profile as full antagonists at ERbeta and weak partial agonists at ERalpha in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In addition, the X-ray crystal structure of compound 15 complexed with the ligand binding domain of ERbeta has been solved and was utilized in the design of more conformationally restrained analogues such as 31 in an attempt to increase selectivity for the ERbeta subtype.

  18. Dopamine modulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor in dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Saikat; Rebecchi, Mario; Kaczocha, Martin; Puopolo, Michelino

    2016-03-15

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor plays a key role in the modulation of nociceptor excitability. To address whether dopamine can modulate the activity of TRPV1 channels in nociceptive neurons, the effects of dopamine and dopamine receptor agonists were tested on the capsaicin-activated current recorded from acutely dissociated small diameter (<27 μm) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Dopamine or SKF 81297 (an agonist at D1/D5 receptors), caused inhibition of both inward and outward currents by ∼60% and ∼48%, respectively. The effect of SKF 81297 was reversed by SCH 23390 (an antagonist at D1/D5 receptors), confirming that it was mediated by activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors. In contrast, quinpirole (an agonist at D2 receptors) had no significant effect on the capsaicin-activated current. Inhibition of the capsaicin-activated current by SKF 81297 was mediated by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and highly dependent on external calcium. The inhibitory effect of SKF 81297 on the capsaicin-activated current was not affected when the protein kinase A (PKA) activity was blocked with H89, or when the protein kinase C (PKC) activity was blocked with bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM). In contrast, when the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was blocked with KN-93, the inhibitory effect of SKF 81297 on the capsaicin-activated current was greatly reduced, suggesting that activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors may be preferentially linked to CaMKII activity. We suggest that modulation of TRPV1 channels by dopamine in nociceptive neurons may represent a way for dopamine to modulate incoming noxious stimuli. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  19. Progesterone receptor modulates estrogen receptor-α action in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Hisham; Russell, I. Alasdair; Stark, Rory; Rueda, Oscar M.; Hickey, Theresa E.; Tarulli, Gerard A.; Serandour, Aurelien A. A.; Birrell, Stephen N.; Bruna, Alejandra; Saadi, Amel; Menon, Suraj; Hadfield, James; Pugh, Michelle; Raj, Ganesh V.; Brown, Gordon D.; D’Santos, Clive; Robinson, Jessica L. L.; Silva, Grace; Launchbury, Rosalind; Perou, Charles M.; Stingl, John; Caldas, Carlos; Tilley, Wayne D.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Progesterone receptor (PR) expression is employed as a biomarker of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) function and breast cancer prognosis. We now show that PR is not merely an ERα-induced gene target, but is also an ERα-associated protein that modulates its behaviour. In the presence of agonist ligands, PR associates with ERα to direct ERα chromatin binding events within breast cancer cells, resulting in a unique gene expression programme that is associated with good clinical outcome. Progesterone inhibited estrogen-mediated growth of ERα+ cell line xenografts and primary ERα+ breast tumour explants and had increased anti-proliferative effects when coupled with an ERα antagonist. Copy number loss of PgR is a common feature in ERα+ breast cancers, explaining lower PR levels in a subset of cases. Our findings indicate that PR functions as a molecular rheostat to control ERα chromatin binding and transcriptional activity, which has important implications for prognosis and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26153859

  20. NMNAT1 inhibits axon degeneration via blockade of SARM1-mediated NAD+ depletion

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yo; Nakagawa, Takashi; Mao, Xianrong; DiAntonio, Aaron; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme NMNAT1 leads to preservation of injured axons. While increased NAD+ or decreased NMN levels are thought to be critical to this process, the mechanism(s) of this axon protection remain obscure. Using steady-state and flux analysis of NAD+ metabolites in healthy and injured mouse dorsal root ganglion axons, we find that rather than altering NAD+ synthesis, NMNAT1 instead blocks the injury-induced, SARM1-dependent NAD+ consumption that is central to axon degeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19749.001 PMID:27735788

  1. Glutaraldehyde pretreatment blocks phospholipase A2 modulation of adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R M; McLellan, C; Dauphin, M; Hirata, F

    1985-01-07

    Treatment of rat cerebral cortical membranes with phospholipase A2 affects, in a parallel fashion, beta-, alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptor binding, but not the affinity of these receptors for their respective ligands. Pretreatment of membranes with 0.1 percent glutaraldehyde blocks the effects of phospholipase A2 on adrenergic receptor binding. The results support the hypothesis that desensitization or "masking" of adrenergic receptors may involve changes in membrane lipid composition. Furthermore, glutaraldehyde may prove a useful tool in the investigation of the dynamic roles of lipids in receptor function and more specifically, their regulation and coupling to physiological events.

  2. Design of selective nuclear receptor modulators: RAR and RXR as a case study.

    PubMed

    de Lera, Angel R; Bourguet, William; Altucci, Lucia; Gronemeyer, Hinrich

    2007-10-01

    Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily whose effects on cell growth and survival can be modulated therapeutically by small-molecule ligands. Although compounds that target these receptors are powerful anticancer drugs, their use is limited by toxicity. An improved understanding of the structural biology of RXRs and RARs and recent advances in the chemical synthesis of modified retinoid and rexinoid ligands should enable the rational design of more selective agents that might overcome such problems. Here, we review structural data for RXRs and RARs, discuss strategies in the design of selective RXR and RAR modulators, and consider lessons that can be learned for the design of selective nuclear-receptor modulators in general.

  3. Screening for AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit specific modulators

    PubMed Central

    Azumaya, Caleigh M.; Days, Emily L.; Vinson, Paige N.; Stauffer, Shaun; Sulikowski, Gary; Weaver, C. David; Nakagawa, Terunaga

    2017-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPAR) are ligand gated ion channels critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. Their dysfunction is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurological diseases ranging from major depressive disorder to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Attempting to potentiate or depress AMPAR activity is an inherently difficult balancing act between effective treatments and debilitating side effects. A newly explored strategy to target subsets of AMPARs in the central nervous system is to identify compounds that affect specific AMPAR-auxiliary subunit complexes. This exploits diverse spatio-temporal expression patterns of known AMPAR auxiliary subunits, providing means for designing brain region-selective compounds. Here we report a high-throughput screening-based pipeline that can identify compounds that are selective for GluA2-CNIH3 and GluA2-stargazin complexes. These compounds will help us build upon the growing library of AMPAR-auxiliary subunit specific inhibitors, which have thus far all been targeted to TARP γ-8. We used a cell-based assay combined with a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) to identify changes in glutamate-gated cation flow across the membranes of HEK cells co-expressing GluA2 and an auxiliary subunit. We then used a calcium flux assay to further validate hits picked from the VSD assay. VU0612951 and VU0627849 are candidate compounds from the initial screen that were identified as negative and positive allosteric modulators (NAM and PAM), respectively. They both have lower IC50/EC50s on complexes containing stargazin and CNIH3 than GSG1L or the AMPAR alone. We have also identified a candidate compound, VU0539491, that has NAM activity in GluA2(R)-CNIH3 and GluA2(Q) complexes and PAM activity in GluA2(Q)-GSG1L complexes. PMID:28358902

  4. Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0144 TITLE: Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0144 5c...ABSTRACT Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a polygenic signaling disorder that may result, in part, from an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory

  5. Proposed Mode of Binding and Action of Positive Allosteric Modulators at Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Available crystal structures of opioid receptors provide a high-resolution picture of ligand binding at the primary (“orthosteric”) site, that is, the site targeted by endogenous ligands. Recently, positive allosteric modulators of opioid receptors have also been discovered, but their modes of binding and action remain unknown. Here, we use a metadynamics-based strategy to efficiently sample the binding process of a recently discovered positive allosteric modulator of the δ-opioid receptor, BMS-986187, in the presence of the orthosteric agonist SNC-80, and with the receptor embedded in an explicit lipid–water environment. The dynamics of BMS-986187 were enhanced by biasing the potential acting on the ligand–receptor distance and ligand–receptor interaction contacts. Representative lowest-energy structures from the reconstructed free-energy landscape revealed two alternative ligand binding poses at an allosteric site delineated by transmembrane (TM) helices TM1, TM2, and TM7, with some participation of TM6. Mutations of amino acid residues at these proposed allosteric sites were found to either affect the binding of BMS-986187 or its ability to modulate the affinity and/or efficacy of SNC-80. Taken together, these combined experimental and computational studies provide the first atomic-level insight into the modulation of opioid receptor binding and signaling by allosteric modulators. PMID:26841170

  6. Modulation of nociceptive dural input to the trigeminocervical complex through GluK1 kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Anna P; Holland, Philip R; Lasalandra, Michele P; Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Migraine is a common and disabling neurologic disorder, with important psychiatric comorbidities. Its pathophysiology involves activation of neurons in the trigeminocervical complex (TCC). Kainate receptors carrying the glutamate receptor subunit 5 (GluK1) are present in key brain areas involved in migraine pathophysiology. To study the influence of kainate receptors on trigeminovascular neurotransmission, we determined the presence of GluK1 receptors within the trigeminal ganglion and TCC with immunohistochemistry. We performed in vivo electrophysiologic recordings from TCC neurons and investigated whether local or systemic application of GluK1 receptor antagonists modulated trigeminovascular transmission. Microiontophoretic application of a selective GluK1 receptor antagonist, but not of a nonspecific ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, markedly attenuated cell firing in a subpopulation of neurons activated in response to dural stimulation, consistent with selective inhibition of postsynaptic GluK1 receptor-evoked firing seen in all recorded neurons. In contrast, trigeminovascular activation was significantly facilitated in a different neuronal population. The clinically active kainate receptor antagonist LY466195 attenuated trigeminovascular activation in all neurons. In addition, LY466195 demonstrated an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated effect. This study demonstrates a differential role of GluK1 receptors in the TCC, antagonism of which can inhibit trigeminovascular activation through postsynaptic mechanisms. Furthermore, the data suggest a novel, possibly presynaptic, modulatory role of trigeminocervical kainate receptors in vivo. Differential activation of kainate receptors suggests unique roles for this receptor in pro- and antinociceptive mechanisms in migraine pathophysiology.

  7. Tumour necrosis factors modulate the affinity state of the leukotriene B4 receptor on human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Brom, J; Knöller, J; Köller, M; König, W

    1988-01-01

    Pre-incubation of human polymorphonuclear granulocytes with recombinant human tumour necrosis factors (TNF) revealed a time- and dose-dependent reduction of the expression of leukotriene B4-receptor sites. Analysis of the binding data by Scatchard plots showed a shift from a heterologous receptor population (indicating high- and low-affinity subsets) to a homologous population. From the results it is considered that TNF can influence host defence through the modulation of leukotriene B4 receptor affinity. PMID:2851543

  8. Odorant Receptor Modulation: Ternary Paradigm for Mode of Action of Insect Repellents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Perception of chemicals in the environment by insects begins when compounds activate ionotropic receptors , gustatory recep- tors and odorant...Author’s personal copy Odorant receptor modulation: Ternary paradigm for mode of action of insect repellents Jonathan D. Bohbot, Joseph C. Dickens...Received in revised form 12 December 2011 Accepted 9 January 2012 Keywords: Odorant receptor Insect repellent Insurmountable antagonist Aedes aegypti

  9. The association of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 with the neuronal Ca2+-binding protein 2 modulates receptor function.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Albergaria, Catarina; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Luján, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2009-10-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors mediate in part the CNS effects of glutamate. These receptors interact with a large array of intracellular proteins in which the final role is to regulate receptor function. Here, using co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments we showed a close and specific interaction between mGlu(5) receptor and NECAB2 in both transfected human embryonic kidney cells and rat hippocampus. Interestingly, in pull-down experiments increasing concentrations of calcium drastically reduced the ability of these two proteins to interact, suggesting that NECAB2 binds to mGlu(5) receptor in a calcium-regulated manner. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and mGlu(5) receptor in the rat hippocampal formation indicated that both proteins are codistributed in the same subcellular compartment of pyramidal cells. In addition, the NECAB2/mGlu(5) receptor interaction regulated mGlu(5b)-mediated activation of both inositol phosphate accumulation and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Overall, these findings indicate that NECAB2 by its physical interaction with mGlu(5b) receptor modulates receptor function.

  10. Selective androgen receptor modulators: in vitro and in vivo metabolism and analysis.

    PubMed

    de Rijke, Eva; Essers, Martien L; Rijk, Jeroen C W; Thevis, Mario; Bovee, Toine F H; van Ginkel, Leendert A; Sterk, Saskia S

    2013-01-01

    For future targeted screening in National Residue Control Programmes, the metabolism of seven SARMs, from the arylpropionamide and the quinolinone classes, was studied in vitro using S9 bovine liver enzymes. Metabolites were detected and identified with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF-MS) and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS). Several metabolites were identified and results were compared with literature data on metabolism using a human cell line. Monohydroxylation, nitro-reduction, dephenylation and demethylation were the main S9 in vitro metabolic routes established. Next, an in vivo study was performed by oral administration of the arylpropionamide ostarine to a male calf and urine samples were analysed with UPLC-QToF-MS. Apart from two metabolites resulting from hydroxylation and dephenylation that were also observed in the in vitro study, the bovine in vivo metabolites of ostarine resulted in glucuronidation, sulfation and carboxylation, combined with either a hydroxylation or a dephenylation step. As the intact mother compounds of all SARMs tested are the main compounds present after in vitro incubations, and ostarine is still clearly present in the urine after the in vivo metabolism study in veal calves, the intact mother molecules were selected as the indicator to reveal treatment. The analytical UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS procedure was validated for three commercially available arylpropionamides according to European Union criteria (Commission Decision 2002/657/EC), and resulted in decision limits ranging from 0.025 to 0.05 µg l⁻¹ and a detection capability of 0.025 µg l⁻¹ in all cases. Adequate precision and intra-laboratory reproducibility (relative standard deviation below 20%) were obtained for all SARMs and the linearity was 0.999 for all compounds. This newly developed method is sensitive and robust, and therefore useful for confirmation and quantification of SARMs in bovine urine

  11. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5: molecular pharmacology, allosteric modulation and stimulus bias

    PubMed Central

    Sengmany, K

    2015-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) is a family C GPCR that has been implicated in various neuronal processes and, consequently, in several CNS disorders. Over the past few decades, GPCR‐based drug discovery, including that for mGlu5 receptors, has turned considerable attention to targeting allosteric binding sites. Modulation of endogenous agonists by allosteric ligands offers the advantages of spatial and temporal fine‐tuning of receptor activity, increased selectivity and reduced adverse effects with the potential to elicit improved clinical outcomes. Further, with greater appreciation of the multifaceted nature of the transduction of mGlu5 receptor signalling, it is increasingly apparent that drug discovery must take into consideration unique receptor conformations and the potential for stimulus‐bias. This novel paradigm proposes that different ligands may differentially modulate distinct signalling pathways arising from the same receptor. We review our current understanding of the complexities of mGlu5 receptor signalling and regulation, and how these relate to allosteric ligands. Ultimately, a deeper appreciation of these relationships will provide the foundation for targeted drug design of compounds with increased selectivity, not only for the desired receptor but also for the desired signalling outcome from the receptor. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein‐Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v173.20/issuetoc PMID:26276909

  12. Allosteric modulation of ATP-gated P2X receptor channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Seven mammalian purinergic receptor subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7, and several spliced forms of these subunits have been cloned. When heterologously expressed, these cDNAs encode ATP-gated non-selective cation channels organized as trimers. All activated receptors produce cell depolarization and promote Ca2+ influx through their pores and indirectly by activating voltage-gated calcium channels. However, the biophysical and pharmacological properties of these receptors differ considerably, and the majority of these subunits are also capable of forming heterotrimers with other members of the P2X receptor family, which confers further different properties. These channels have three ATP binding domains, presumably located between neighboring subunits, and occupancy of at least two binding sites is needed for their activation. In addition to the orthosteric binding sites for ATP, these receptors have additional allosteric sites that modulate the agonist action at receptors, including sites for trace metals, protons, neurosteroids, reactive oxygen species and phosphoinositides. The allosteric regulation of P2X receptors is frequently receptor-specific and could be a useful tool to identify P2X members in native tissues and their roles in signaling. The focus of this review is on common and receptor-specific allosteric modulation of P2X receptors and the molecular base accounting for allosteric binding sites. PMID:21639805

  13. Down-modulation of receptors for phorbol ester tumor promoter in primary epidermal cells

    SciT

    Solanki, V.; Slaga, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    The specific (20-/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ((/sup 3/H)PDBu) binding to intact epidermal cells displayed the phenomenon of down-modulation, i.e., the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)PDBu to its receptors on primary epidermal cells reached a maximum within 1 h and steadily declined thereafter. The apparent down-modulation of radiolabel resulted from a partial loss in the total number of receptors; the affinity of receptors for the ligand was essentially unchanged. A number of agents such as chloroquine, methylamine, or arginine which are known to prevent clustering, down-modulation, and/or internalization of several hormone receptors did not affect the down-modulation of phorbol ester receptors. Furthermore,more » cycloheximide had no effect either on down-modulation or on the binding capacity of cells. The surface binding capacity of down-modulated cells following a 90-min incubation with unlabeled ligand was almost returned to normal within 1 h. The effect of the antidepressant drug chlorpromazine, which is known to interact with calmodulin, on (/sup 3/H)PDBu binding was also investigated. Our data indicate that the effect of chlorpromazine on (/sup 3/H)PDBu binding is probably unrelated to its calmodulin-binding activity.« less

  14. Estrogen receptor coregulator binding modulators (ERXs) effectively target estrogen receptor positive human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Ganesh V; Sareddy, Gangadhara Reddy; Ma, Shihong; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Viswanadhapalli, Suryavathi; Li, Rui; Liu, Xihui; Murakami, Shino; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lee, Wan-Ru; Mann, Monica; Krishnan, Samaya Rajeshwari; Manandhar, Bikash; Gonugunta, Vijay K; Strand, Douglas; Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Vadlamudi, Ratna K

    2017-01-01

    The majority of human breast cancer is estrogen receptor alpha (ER) positive. While anti-estrogens/aromatase inhibitors are initially effective, resistance to these drugs commonly develops. Therapy-resistant tumors often retain ER signaling, via interaction with critical oncogenic coregulator proteins. To address these mechanisms of resistance, we have developed a novel ER coregulator binding modulator, ERX-11. ERX-11 interacts directly with ER and blocks the interaction between a subset of coregulators with both native and mutant forms of ER. ERX-11 effectively blocks ER-mediated oncogenic signaling and has potent anti-proliferative activity against therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant human breast cancer cells. ERX-11 is orally bioavailable, with no overt signs of toxicity and potent activity in both murine xenograft and patient-derived breast tumor explant models. This first-in-class agent, with its novel mechanism of action of disrupting critical protein-protein interactions, overcomes the limitations of current therapies and may be clinically translatable for patients with therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant breast cancers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26857.001 PMID:28786813

  15. Estrogen receptor alpha modulates toll-like receptor signaling in murine lupus

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Melissa A.; Naga, Osama S.; Eudaly, Jackie G.; Scott, Jennifer L.; Gilkeson, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease that disproportionately affects females. Despite significant research effort, the mechanisms underlying the female predominance in this disease are largely unknown. Previously, we showed that estrogen receptor alpha knockout (ERαKO) lupus prone female mice had significantly less pathologic renal disease and proteinuria, and significantly prolonged survival. Since autoantibody levels and number and percentage of B/T cells were not significantly impacted by ERα genotype, we hypothesized that the primary benefit of ERα deficiency in lupus nephritis was via modulation of the innate immune response. Using BMDCs and spleen cells/B cells from female wild-type or ERαKO mice, we found that ERαKO-derived cells have a significantly reduced inflammatory response after stimulation with TLR agonists. Our results indicate that the inflammatory response to TLR ligands is significantly impacted by the presence of ERα despite the absence of estradiol, and may partially explain the protective effect of ERα deficiency in lupus-prone animals. PMID:22659029

  16. Beta receptor-mediated modulation of the late positive potential in humans.

    PubMed

    de Rover, Mischa; Brown, Stephen B R E; Boot, Nathalie; Hajcak, Greg; van Noorden, Martijn S; van der Wee, Nic J A; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2012-02-01

    Electrophysiological studies have identified a scalp potential, the late positive potential (LPP), which is modulated by the emotional intensity of observed stimuli. Previous work has shown that the LPP reflects the modulation of activity in extrastriate visual cortical structures, but little is known about the source of that modulation. The present study investigated whether beta-adrenergic receptors are involved in the generation of the LPP. We used a genetic individual differences approach (experiment 1) and a pharmacological manipulation (experiment 2) to test the hypothesis that the LPP is modulated by the activation of β-adrenergic receptors. In experiment 1, we found that LPP amplitude depends on allelic variation in the β1-receptor gene polymorphism. In experiment 2, we found that LPP amplitude was modulated by the β-blocker propranolol in a direction dependent on subjects' level of trait anxiety: In participants with lower trait anxiety, propranolol led to a (nonsignificant) decrease in the LPP modulation; in participants with higher trait anxiety, propranolol increased the emotion-related LPP modulation. These results provide initial support for the hypothesis that the LPP reflects the downstream effects, in visual cortical areas, of β-receptor-mediated activation of the amygdala.

  17. Adenosine transiently modulates stimulated dopamine release in the caudate putamen via A1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Ashley E.; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine modulates dopamine in the brain via A1 and A2A receptors, but that modulation has only been characterized on a slow time scale. Recent studies have characterized a rapid signaling mode of adenosine that suggests a possible rapid modulatory role. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the extent to which transient adenosine changes modulate stimulated dopamine release (5 pulses at 60 Hz) in rat caudate putamen brain slices. Exogenous adenosine was applied and dopamine concentration monitored. Adenosine only modulated dopamine when it was applied 2 or 5 s before stimulation. Longer time intervals and bath application of 5 µM adenosine did not decrease dopamine release. Mechanical stimulation of endogenous adenosine 2s before dopamine stimulation also decreased stimulated dopamine release by 41 ± 7 %, similar to the 54 ± 6 % decrease in dopamine after exogenous adenosine application. Dopamine inhibition by transient adenosine was recovered within 10 minutes. The A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) blocked the dopamine modulation, whereas dopamine modulation was unaffected by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 442416. Thus, transient adenosine changes can transiently modulate phasic dopamine release via A1 receptors. These data demonstrate that adenosine has a rapid, but transient, modulatory role in the brain. PMID:25219576

  18. Modulation of neurosteroid potentiation by protein kinases at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Joanna M.; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors are important for inhibition in the CNS where neurosteroids and protein kinases are potent endogenous modulators. Acting individually, these can either enhance or depress receptor function, dependent upon the type of neurosteroid or kinase and the receptor subunit combination. However, in vivo, these modulators probably act in concert to fine-tune GABAA receptor activity and thus inhibition, although how this is achieved remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between these modulators at synaptic-type α1β3γ2L and extrasynaptic-type α4β3δ GABAA receptors using electrophysiology. For α1β3γ2L, potentiation of GABA responses by tetrahydro-deoxycorticosterone was reduced after inhibiting protein kinase C, and enhanced following its activation, suggesting this kinase regulates neurosteroid modulation. In comparison, neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at α1β3S408A,S409Aγ2L receptors, and unaltered by PKC inhibitors or activators, indicating that phosphorylation of β3 subunits is important for regulating neurosteroid activity. To determine whether extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors were similarly modulated, α4β3δ and α4β3S408A,S409Aδ receptors were investigated. Neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at both receptors by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. By contrast, neurosteroid-mediated potentiation at α4S443Aβ3S408A,S409Aδ receptors was unaffected by protein kinase inhibition, strongly suggesting that phosphorylation of α4 and β3 subunits is required for regulating neurosteroid activity at extrasynaptic receptors. Western blot analyses revealed that neurosteroids increased phosphorylation of β3S408,S409 implying that a reciprocal pathway exists for neurosteroids to modulate phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Overall, these findings provide important insight into the regulation of GABAA receptors in vivo, and into the mechanisms by which GABAergic inhibitory transmission may be simultaneously tuned by

  19. Functional selectivity induced by mGlu₄ receptor positive allosteric modulation and concomitant activation of Gq coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shen; Zamorano, Rocio; Conn, P Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M

    2013-03-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) are a group of Family C Seven Transmembrane Spanning Receptors (7TMRs) that play important roles in modulating signaling transduction, particularly within the central nervous system. mGlu(4) belongs to a subfamily of mGlus that is predominantly coupled to G(i/o) G proteins. We now report that the ubiquitous autacoid and neuromodulator, histamine, induces substantial glutamate-activated calcium mobilization in mGlu(4)-expressing cells, an effect which is observed in the absence of co-expressed chimeric G proteins. This strong induction of calcium signaling downstream of glutamate activation of mGlu(4) depends upon the presence of H(1) histamine receptors. Interestingly, the potentiating effect of histamine activation does not extend to other mGlu(4)-mediated signaling events downstream of G(i/o) G proteins, such as cAMP inhibition, suggesting that the presence of G(q) coupled receptors such as H(1) may bias normal mGlu(4)-mediated G(i/o) signaling events. When the activity induced by small molecule positive allosteric modulators of mGlu(4) is assessed, the potentiated signaling of mGlu(4) is further biased by histamine toward calcium-dependent pathways. These results suggest that G(i/o)-coupled mGlus may induce substantial, and potentially unexpected, calcium-mediated signaling events if stimulation occurs concomitantly with activation of G(q) receptors. Additionally, our results suggest that signaling induced by small molecule positive allosteric modulators may be substantially biased when G(q) receptors are co-activated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of GABAA receptors by valerian extracts is related to the content of valerenic acid.

    PubMed

    Trauner, Gabriele; Khom, Sophia; Baburin, Igor; Benedek, Birgit; Hering, Steffen; Kopp, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Valeriana Officinalis L . is a traditionally used sleep remedy, however, the mechanism of action and the substances responsible for its sedative and sleep-enhancing properties are not fully understood. As we previously identified valerenic acid as a subunit-specific allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, we now investigated the relation between modulation of GABAA receptors by Valerian extracts of different polarity and the content of sesquiterpenic acids (valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid). All extracts were analysed by HPLC concerning the content of sesquiterpenic acids. GABAA receptors composed of alpha 1, beta 2 and gamma 2S subunits were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the modulation of chloride currents through GABAA receptors (IGABA) by Valerian extracts was investigated using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. Apolar extracts induced a significant enhancement of IGABA, whereas polar extracts showed no effect. These results were confirmed by fractionating a highly active ethyl acetate extract: again fractions with high contents of valerenic acid exhibited strong receptor activation. In addition, removal of sesquiterpenic acids from the ethyl acetate extract led to a loss of I (GABA) enhancement. In conclusion, our data show that the extent of GABAA receptor modulation by Valerian extracts is related to the content of valerenic acid.

  1. The medicinal chemistry of liver X receptor (LXR) modulators.

    PubMed

    Tice, Colin M; Noto, Paul B; Fan, Kristi Yi; Zhuang, Linghang; Lala, Deepak S; Singh, Suresh B

    2014-09-11

    LXRs have been of interest as targets for the treatment of atherosclerosis for over a decade. In recent years, LXR modulators have also garnered interest for potential use in the treatment of inflammation, Alzheimer's disease (AD), dermatological conditions, hepatic steatosis, and oncology. To date, no LXR modulator has successfully progressed beyond phase I clinical trials. In this Perspective, we summarize published medicinal chemistry efforts in the context of the available crystallographic data, druglikeness, and isoform selectivity. In addition, we discuss the challenges that need to be overcome before an LXR modulator can reach clinical use.

  2. Scopolamine Administration Modulates Muscarinic, Nicotinic and NMDA Receptor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the effect of scopolamine on memory are abundant but so far only regulation of the muscarinic receptor (M1) has been reported. We hypothesized that levels of other cholinergic brain receptors as the nicotinic receptors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, known to be involved in memory formation, would be modified by scopolamine administration. C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments and divided into four groups. Two groups were given scopolamine 1 mg/kg i.p. (the first group was trained and the second group untrained) in the multiple T-maze (MTM), a paradigm for evaluation of spatial memory. Likewise, vehicle-treated mice were trained or untrained thus serving as controls. Hippocampal levels of M1, nicotinic receptor alpha 4 (Nic4) and 7 (Nic7) and subunit NR1containing complexes were determined by immunoblotting on blue native gel electrophoresis. Vehicle-treated trained mice learned the task and showed memory retrieval on day 8, while scopolamine-treatment led to significant impairment of performance in the MTM. At the day of retrieval, hippocampal levels for M1, Nic7 and NR1 were higher in the scopolamine treated groups than in vehicle-treated groups. The concerted action, i.e. the pattern of four brain receptor complexes regulated by the anticholinergic compound scopolamine, is shown. Insight into probable action mechanisms of scopolamine at the brain receptor complex level in the hippocampus is provided. Scopolamine treatment is a standard approach to test cognitive enhancers and other psychoactive compounds in pharmacological studies and therefore knowledge on mechanisms is of pivotal interest. PMID:22384146

  3. Spongionella Secondary Metabolites, Promising Modulators of Immune Response through CD147 Receptor Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jon Andoni; Alfonso, Amparo; Rodriguez, Ines; Alonso, Eva; Cifuentes, José Manuel; Bermudez, Roberto; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Jaspars, Marcel; Houssen, Wael E.; Ebel, Rainer; Tabudravu, Jioji; Botana, Luís M.

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the immune system can have multiple applications such as cancer treatment, and a wide type of processes involving inflammation where the potent chemotactic agent cyclophilin A (Cyp A) is implicated. The Porifera phylum, in which Spongionella is encompassed, is the main producer of marine bioactive compounds. Four secondary metabolites obtained from Spongionella (Gracilin H, A, L, and Tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1) were described to hit Cyp A and to block the release of inflammation mediators. Based on these results, some role of Spongionella compounds on other steps of the signaling pathway mediated by this chemotactic agent can be hypothesized. In the present paper, we studied the effect of these four compounds on the surface membrane CD147 receptor expression, on the extracellular levels of Cyp A and on the ability to migrate of concanavalin (Con A)-activated T lymphocytes. Similar to a well-known immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA), Gracilin H, A, L, and tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1 were able to reduce the CD147 membrane expression and to block the release of Cyp A to the medium. Besides, by using Cyp A as chemotactic agent, T cell migration was inhibited when cells were previously incubated with Gracilin A and Gracilin L. These positive results lead us to test the in vivo effect of Gracilin H and L in a mouse ear delayed hypersensitive reaction. Thus, both compounds efficiently reduce the ear swelling as well as the inflammatory cell infiltration. These results provide more evidences for their potential therapeutic application in immune-related diseases of Spongionella compounds. PMID:27822214

  4. Spongionella Secondary Metabolites, Promising Modulators of Immune Response through CD147 Receptor Modulation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jon Andoni; Alfonso, Amparo; Rodriguez, Ines; Alonso, Eva; Cifuentes, José Manuel; Bermudez, Roberto; Rateb, Mostafa E; Jaspars, Marcel; Houssen, Wael E; Ebel, Rainer; Tabudravu, Jioji; Botana, Luís M

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the immune system can have multiple applications such as cancer treatment, and a wide type of processes involving inflammation where the potent chemotactic agent cyclophilin A (Cyp A) is implicated. The Porifera phylum, in which Spongionella is encompassed, is the main producer of marine bioactive compounds. Four secondary metabolites obtained from Spongionella (Gracilin H, A, L, and Tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1) were described to hit Cyp A and to block the release of inflammation mediators. Based on these results, some role of Spongionella compounds on other steps of the signaling pathway mediated by this chemotactic agent can be hypothesized. In the present paper, we studied the effect of these four compounds on the surface membrane CD147 receptor expression, on the extracellular levels of Cyp A and on the ability to migrate of concanavalin (Con A)-activated T lymphocytes. Similar to a well-known immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA), Gracilin H, A, L, and tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1 were able to reduce the CD147 membrane expression and to block the release of Cyp A to the medium. Besides, by using Cyp A as chemotactic agent, T cell migration was inhibited when cells were previously incubated with Gracilin A and Gracilin L. These positive results lead us to test the in vivo effect of Gracilin H and L in a mouse ear delayed hypersensitive reaction. Thus, both compounds efficiently reduce the ear swelling as well as the inflammatory cell infiltration. These results provide more evidences for their potential therapeutic application in immune-related diseases of Spongionella compounds.

  5. Allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors elicits anti-seizure activities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Chen, Yanke; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Guanghui; Friedman, Eitan; Zhang, Ao; Zhen, Xuechu

    2015-08-01

    Application of orthosteric sigma-1 receptor agonists as anti-seizure drugs has been hindered by questionable efficacy and potential adverse effects. Here, we have investigated the anti-seizure effects of the novel and potent allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors, SKF83959 and its derivative SOMCL-668 (3-methyl-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[d]azepin-7-ol). The anti-seizure effects of SKF83959 were investigated in three mouse models, maximal electroshock seizures, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and kainic acid-induced 'status epilepticus'. Also, in rats, the cortical epileptiform activity induced by topical application of picrotoxin was recorded in electrocorticograms. In rat hippocampal brain slices, effects of the drugs on the high potassium-evoked epileptiform local field potentials were studied. Anti-seizure activities of SOMCL-668, a newly developed sigma-1 receptor selective allosteric modulator, were also investigated. SKF83959 (20, 40 mg·kg(-1) ) exhibited anti -seizure actitity in the three mouse models and reduced the cortical epileptiform activity without alteration of spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination. These effects were blocked by the sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1047, but not the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390. SKF83959 alone did not directly inhibit the epileptiform firing of CA3 neurons induced by high potassium in hippocampal slices, but did potentiate inhibition by the orthosteric sigma-1 receptor agonist SKF10047. Lastly, a selective sigma-1 receptor allosteric modulator SOMCL-668, which does not bind to dopamine receptors, exerted similar anti-seizure activities. SKF83959 and SOMCL-668 displayed anti-seizure activities, indicating that allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors may provide a novel approach for discovering new anti-seizure drugs. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. σ Receptor antagonist attenuation of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity is correlated to body temperature modulation.

    PubMed

    Robson, Matthew J; Seminerio, Michael J; McCurdy, Christopher R; Coop, Andrew; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) causes hyperthermia and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the rodent striatum. METH interacts with σ receptors and σ receptor antagonists normally mitigate METH-induced hyperthermia and dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The present study was undertaken because in two experiments, pretreatment with σ receptor antagonists failed to attenuate METH-induced hyperthermia in mice. This allowed us to determine whether the ability of σ receptor antagonists (AZ66 and AC927) to mitigate METH-induced neurotoxicity depends upon their ability to modulate METH-induced hyperthermia. Mice were treated using a repeated dosing paradigm and body temperatures recorded. Striatal dopamine was measured one week post-treatment. The data indicate that the ability of σ receptor antagonists to attenuate METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is linked to their ability to block METH-induced hyperthermia. The ability of σ receptor antagonists to mitigate METH-induced hyperthermia may contribute to its neuroprotective actions.

  7. Presynaptic ionotropic receptors controlling and modulating the rules for spike timing-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Verhoog, Matthijs B; Mansvelder, Huibert D

    2011-01-01

    Throughout life, activity-dependent changes in neuronal connection strength enable the brain to refine neural circuits and learn based on experience. In line with predictions made by Hebb, synapse strength can be modified depending on the millisecond timing of action potential firing (STDP). The sign of synaptic plasticity depends on the spike order of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors, such as NMDA receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, are intimately involved in setting the rules for synaptic strengthening and weakening. In addition, timing rules for STDP within synapses are not fixed. They can be altered by activation of ionotropic receptors located at, or close to, synapses. Here, we will highlight studies that uncovered how network actions control and modulate timing rules for STDP by activating presynaptic ionotropic receptors. Furthermore, we will discuss how interaction between different types of ionotropic receptors may create "timing" windows during which particular timing rules lead to synaptic changes.

  8. The NMDA receptor/ion channel complex: a drug target for modulating synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Albensi, Benedict C

    2007-01-01

    A recent search on PubMed for the phrase NMDA receptor results in 2,190 hits on this topic for review articles and 20,100 hits for experimental papers. This is a direct reflection of the intensiveness, significance, and complexity associated with the research on this key receptor protein over the last several decades. In this review, we briefly describe the NMDA receptor structure, discuss the role of NMDA receptors in modulating synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity, explore age-dependent changes in NMDA receptor functioning, and survey interesting NMDA receptor blockers. Given the huge existing literature on the subject, an exhaustive review has not been endeavored. Instead, an attempt was made to point out those studies that have been instrumental in the field or that are of special interest.

  9. Presynaptic Ionotropic Receptors Controlling and Modulating the Rules for Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Verhoog, Matthijs B.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout life, activity-dependent changes in neuronal connection strength enable the brain to refine neural circuits and learn based on experience. In line with predictions made by Hebb, synapse strength can be modified depending on the millisecond timing of action potential firing (STDP). The sign of synaptic plasticity depends on the spike order of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors, such as NMDA receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, are intimately involved in setting the rules for synaptic strengthening and weakening. In addition, timing rules for STDP within synapses are not fixed. They can be altered by activation of ionotropic receptors located at, or close to, synapses. Here, we will highlight studies that uncovered how network actions control and modulate timing rules for STDP by activating presynaptic ionotropic receptors. Furthermore, we will discuss how interaction between different types of ionotropic receptors may create “timing” windows during which particular timing rules lead to synaptic changes. PMID:21941664

  10. Heteromeric MT1/MT2 Melatonin Receptors Modulate Photoreceptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Kenkichi; Benleulmi-Chaachoua, Abla; Journé, Anne-Sophie; Kamal, Maud; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Dussaud, Sébastien; Gbahou, Florence; Yettou, Katia; Liu, Cuimei; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Jockers, Ralf; Tosini, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    The formation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteromers elicits signaling diversification and holds great promise for improved drug selectivity. Most studies have been conducted in heterologous expression systems; however, in vivo validation is missing from most cases thus questioning the physiological significance of GPCR heteromerization. Melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors have been shown to exist as homo- and heteromers in vitro. We show here that the effect of melatonin on rod photoreceptor light sensitivity is mediated by melatonin MT1/MT2 receptor heteromers. This effect involves activation of the heteromer-specific PLC/PKC pathway and is abolished in MT1−/− and MT2−/− mice as well as in mice overexpressing a non-functional MT2 receptor mutant that competes with the formation of functional MT1/MT2 heteromers in photoreceptor cells. This study establishes the essential role of melatonin receptor heteromers in retinal function and supports the physiological importance of GPCR heteromerization. Finally, our work may have important therapeutic implications, as the heteromer complex may provide a unique pharmacological target to improve photoreceptor functioning and to extend the viability of photoreceptors during aging. PMID:24106342

  11. Targeting Prostate Cancer with Bifunctional Modulators of the Androgen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    androgen receptor/coactivator disruptors. ACS Chem. Biol. 2009, 4, 435–440. (7) Guenther, M.; Barak , O.; Lazar, M. The SMRT and N-CoR corepressors are...17) Welsbie, D. S.; Xu, J.; Chen, Y.; Borsu, L.; Scher, H. I.; Rosen , N.; Sawyers, C. L. Histone deacetylases are required for androgen receptor...J.; Di Vizio, D.; Zhang, X.; Albanese, C.; Balk, S.; Chang, C.; Fan, S.; Rosen , E.; Palvimo, J. J.; Jänne, O. A.; Muratoglu, S.; Avantaggiati, M. L

  12. Cholesterol depletion modulates detergent resistant fraction of human serotonin(1A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Santosh Kumar; Saxena, Roopali; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2012-11-01

    Insolubility of membrane components in non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 at low temperature is a widely used biochemical criterion to identify, isolate and characterize membrane domains. In this work, we monitored the detergent insolubility of the serotonin(1A) receptor in CHO cell membranes and its modulation by membrane cholesterol. The serotonin(1A) receptor is an important member of the G-protein coupled receptor family. It is implicated in the generation and modulation of various cognitive, behavioral and developmental functions and serves as a drug target. Our results show that a significant fraction (∼28%) of the serotonin(1A) receptor resides in detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs). Interestingly, the fraction of the serotonin(1A) receptor in DRMs exhibits a reduction upon membrane cholesterol depletion. In addition, we show that contents of DRM markers such as flotillin-1, caveolin-1 and GM₁ are altered in DRMs upon cholesterol depletion. These results assume significance since the function of the serotonin(1A) receptor has previously been shown to be affected by membrane lipids, specifically cholesterol. Our results are relevant in the context of membrane organization of the serotonin(1A) receptor in particular, and G-protein coupled receptors in general.

  13. N-glycosylation of the β2 adrenergic receptor regulates receptor function by modulating dimerization.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaona; Zhou, Mang; Huang, Wei; Yang, Huaiyu

    2017-07-01

    N-glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). However, it remains unknown how N-glycosylation affects GPCR signaling. β 2 adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) has three N-glycosylation sites: Asn6, Asn15 at the N-terminus, and Asn187 at the second extracellular loop (ECL2). Here, we show that deletion of the N-glycan did not affect receptor expression and ligand binding. Deletion of the N-glycan at the N-terminus rather than Asn187 showed decreased effects on isoproterenol-promoted G-protein-dependent signaling, β-arrestin2 recruitment, and receptor internalization. Both N6Q and N15Q showed decreased receptor dimerization, while N187Q did not influence receptor dimerization. As decreased β 2 AR homodimer accompanied with reduced efficiency for receptor function, we proposed that the N-glycosylation of β 2 AR regulated receptor function by influencing receptor dimerization. To verify this hypothesis, we further paid attention to the residues at the dimerization interface. Studies of Lys60 and Glu338, two residues at the receptor dimerization interface, exhibited that the K60A/E338A showed decreased β 2 AR dimerization and its effects on receptor signaling were similar to N6Q and N15Q, which further supported the importance of receptor dimerization for receptor function. This work provides new insights into the relationship among glycosylation, dimerization, and function of GPCRs. Peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F, EC 3.2.2.11); endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase A (Endo-A, EC 3.2.1.96). © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. The challenges of modulating the 'rest and digest' system: acetylcholine receptors as drug targets.

    PubMed

    VanPatten, Sonya; Al-Abed, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Acetylcholine, a major neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, was discovered in the early 1900s. Over the years, researchers have revealed much about its regulation, properties of its receptors and features of the downstream signaling that influence its terminal effects. The acetylcholine system, traditionally associated with neuromuscular communication, is now known to play a crucial part in modulation of the immune system and other 'rest and digest' effects. Recent research seeks to elucidate the system's role in brain functions including cognition, sleep, arousal, motivation, reward and pain. We highlight clinically approved and experimental drugs that modulate the acetylcholine receptors. The complexities in targeting the acetylcholine receptors are vast and finding future indications for drug development associated with specific acetylcholine receptors remains a challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study Design and Rationale for the Phase 3 Clinical Development Program of Enobosarm, a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, for the Prevention and Treatment of Muscle Wasting in Cancer Patients (POWER Trials).

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jeffrey; Prado, Carla M M; Johnston, Mary Ann; Gralla, Richard J; Taylor, Ryan P; Hancock, Michael L; Dalton, James T

    2016-06-01

    Muscle wasting in cancer is a common and often occult condition that can occur prior to overt signs of weight loss and before a clinical diagnosis of cachexia can be made. Muscle wasting in cancer is an important and independent predictor of progressive functional impairment, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality. Although several therapeutic agents are currently in development for the treatment of muscle wasting or cachexia in cancer, the majority of these agents do not directly inhibit muscle loss. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have the potential to increase lean body mass (LBM) and hence muscle mass, without the untoward side effects seen with traditional anabolic agents. Enobosarm, a nonsteroidal SARM, is an agent in clinical development for prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in patients with cancer (POWER 1 and 2 trials). The POWER trials are two identically designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, and multinational phase 3 trials to assess the efficacy of enobosarm for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in subjects initiating first-line chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To assess enobosarm's effect on both prevention and treatment of muscle wasting, no minimum weight loss is required. These pivotal trials have pioneered the methodological and regulatory fields exploring a therapeutic agent for cancer-associated muscle wasting, a process hereby described. In each POWER trial, subjects will receive placebo (n = 150) or enobosarm 3 mg (n = 150) orally once daily for 147 days. Physical function, assessed as stair climb power (SCP), and LBM, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are the co-primary efficacy endpoints in both trials assessed at day 84. Based on extensive feedback from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the co-primary endpoints will be analyzed as a responder analysis. To be considered a physical function responder, a

  16. Metabolic products of linalool and modulation of GABAA receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanos, Sinem; Elsharif, Shaimaa A.; Janzen, Dieter; Buettner, Andrea; Villmann, Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Terpenoids are major subcomponents in aroma substances which harbor sedative physiological potential. We have demonstrated that various monoterpenoids such as the acyclic linalool enhance GABAergic currents in an allosteric manner in vitro upon overexpression of inhibitory a1b2 GABAA receptors in various expression systems. However, in plants or humans, i.e. following intake via inhalation or ingestion, linalool undergoes metabolic modifications including oxygenation and acetylation, which may affect the modulatory efficacy of the generated linalool derivatives. Here, we analyzed the modulatory potential of linalool derivatives at a1b2g2 GABAA receptors upon transient overexpression. Following receptor expression control, electrophysiological recordings in a whole cell configuration were used to determine the chloride influx upon co-application of GABA EC5-10 together with the modulatory substance. Our results show that only oxygenated linalool metabolites at carbon 8 positively affect GABAergic currents whereas derivatives hydroxylated or carboxylated at carbon 8 were rather ineffective. Acetylated linalool derivatives resulted in non-significant changes of GABAergic currents. We can conclude that metabolism of linalool reduces its positive allosteric potential at GABAA receptors compared to the significant potentiation effects of the parent molecule linalool itself.

  17. Modulation of memory fields by dopamine Dl receptors in prefrontal cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Graham V.; Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S.

    1995-08-01

    Dopamine has been implicated in the cognitive process of working memory but the cellular basis of its action has yet to be revealed. By combining iontophoretic analysis of dopamine receptors with single-cell recording during behaviour, we found that D1 antagonists can selectively potentiate the 'memory fields' of prefrontal neurons which subserve working memory. The precision shown for D1 receptor modulation of mnemonic processing indicates a direct gating of selective excitatory synaptic inputs to prefrontal neurons during cognition.

  18. Modulation of thyroid hormone receptors by non-thyroidal stimuli

    SciT

    ErkenBrack, D.E.; Clemons, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of non-thyroidal stimuli to affect the binding affinity and capacity of solubilized nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones was studied in a normal homeostatic system (erythropoiesis) and a pathobiologic one (lung-ozone interaction). No significant effects on affinity were found, as Kd control values for receptors derived from rat bone marrow averaged 57 (+/- 28) pM while experimental (hypoxic) values averaged 89 (+/- 55) pM. Kd control values in rat lung were found to average 142 (+/- 22) pM while average values derived from experimental protocols with ozone and methimazole were 267 (+/- 44) pM and 161 (+/- 35) pMmore » respectively. Finally, Kd control values for receptors derived from cultured MEL cells averaged 19 (+/- 2.6) pM while experimental values during exposure to DMSO or IGF1 were 23 (+/- 3.6) pM and 26 (+/- 11) pM respectively. In contrast, binding capacity (expressed as fmoles of hormone bound per unit protein of solubilized receptor) was markedly perturbed in several tissues by various agents: ozone effects on lung were shown by an average control value of 3.3 (+/- 0.4) as opposed to an experimental average of 28 (+/- 1.9); and hypoxia effects on erythroid tissue were displayed by an average control value of 0.7 (+/- 0.07) as opposed to the experimental figure of 1.8 (+/- 0.03). In cultured MEL cells, binding capacity was seen to be increased from control values of 388 (+/- 15) sites/cell to 1243 (+/- 142) sites/cell after DMSO exposure and 2002 (+/- 10) sites/cell after IGF1 exposure. Parallel experiments done with receptors derived from rat liver yielded values similar to those reported by other investigators and were unaffected by the experimental agents.« less

  19. Acetylcholine modulates gamma frequency oscillations in the hippocampus by activation of muscarinic M1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Betterton, Ruth T; Broad, Lisa M; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Mellor, Jack R

    2017-06-01

    Modulation of gamma oscillations is important for the processing of information and the disruption of gamma oscillations is a prominent feature of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Gamma oscillations are generated by the interaction of excitatory and inhibitory neurons where their precise frequency and amplitude are controlled by the balance of excitation and inhibition. Acetylcholine enhances the intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons and suppresses both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, but the net modulatory effect on gamma oscillations is not known. Here, we find that the power, but not frequency, of optogenetically induced gamma oscillations in the CA3 region of mouse hippocampal slices is enhanced by low concentrations of the broad-spectrum cholinergic agonist carbachol but reduced at higher concentrations. This bidirectional modulation of gamma oscillations is replicated within a mathematical model by neuronal depolarisation, but not by reducing synaptic conductances, mimicking the effects of muscarinic M1 receptor activation. The predicted role for M1 receptors was supported experimentally; bidirectional modulation of gamma oscillations by acetylcholine was replicated by a selective M1 receptor agonist and prevented by genetic deletion of M1 receptors. These results reveal that acetylcholine release in CA3 of the hippocampus modulates gamma oscillation power but not frequency in a bidirectional and dose-dependent manner by acting primarily through muscarinic M1 receptors. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Multisite Phosphorylation Modulates the T Cell Receptor ζ-Chain Potency but not the Switchlike Response.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Himadri; de Wet, Ben; Clemens, Lara; Maini, Philip K; Allard, Jun; van der Merwe, P Anton; Dushek, Omer

    2016-04-26

    Multisite phosphorylation is ubiquitous in cellular signaling and is thought to provide signaling proteins with additional regulatory mechanisms. Indeed, mathematical models have revealed a large number of mechanisms by which multisite phosphorylation can produce switchlike responses. The T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is a multisubunit receptor on the surface of T cells that is a prototypical multisite substrate as it contains 20 sites that are distributed on 10 conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs). The TCR ζ-chain is a homodimer subunit that contains six ITAMs (12 sites) and exhibits a number of properties that are predicted to be sufficient for a switchlike response. We have used cellular reconstitution to systematically study multisite phosphorylation of the TCR ζ-chain. We find that multisite phosphorylation proceeds by a nonsequential random mechanism, and find no evidence that multiple ITAMs modulate a switchlike response but do find that they alter receptor potency and maximum phosphorylation. Modulation of receptor potency can be explained by a reduction in molecular entropy of the disordered ζ-chain upon phosphorylation. We further find that the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 increases receptor potency but does not modulate the switchlike response. In contrast to other multisite proteins, where phosphorylations act in strong concert to modulate protein function, we suggest that the multiple ITAMs on the TCR function mainly to amplify subsequent signaling. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeting CB2-GPR55 Receptor Heteromers Modulates Cancer Cell Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Estefanía; Andradas, Clara; Medrano, Mireia; Caffarel, María M.; Pérez-Gómez, Eduardo; Blasco-Benito, Sandra; Gómez-Cañas, María; Pazos, M. Ruth; Irving, Andrew J.; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I.; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Guzmán, Manuel; McCormick, Peter J.; Sánchez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptors CB2 (CB2R) and GPR55 are overexpressed in cancer cells and human tumors. Because a modulation of GPR55 activity by cannabinoids has been suggested, we analyzed whether this receptor participates in cannabinoid effects on cancer cells. Here we show that CB2R and GPR55 form heteromers in cancer cells, that these structures possess unique signaling properties, and that modulation of these heteromers can modify the antitumoral activity of cannabinoids in vivo. These findings unveil the existence of previously unknown signaling platforms that help explain the complex behavior of cannabinoids and may constitute new targets for therapeutic intervention in oncology. PMID:24942731

  2. Effects of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric modulators in animal behavior studies

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Anshul. A.; Yakel, Jerrel L.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation-conducting transmembrane channels from the cys-loop receptor superfamily. The neuronal subtypes of these receptors (e.g. the α7 and α4β2 subtypes) are involved in neurobehavioral processes such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and a number of cognitive functions like learning and memory. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders, and behavioral studies in animals are useful models to assess the effects of compounds that act on these receptors. Allosteric modulators are ligands that bind to the receptors at sites other than the orthosteric site where acetylcholine, the endogenous agonist for the nAChRs, binds. While conventional ligands for the neuronal nAChRs have been studied for their behavioral effects in animals, allosteric modulators for these receptors have only recently gained attention, and research on their behavioral effects is growing rapidly. Here we will discuss the behavioral effects of allosteric modulators of the neuronal nAChRs. PMID:23732296

  3. Ionotropic and Metabotropic Mechanisms of Allosteric Modulation of α7 Nicotinic Receptor Intracellular Calcium.

    PubMed

    King, Justin R; Ullah, Aman; Bak, Ellen; Jafri, M Saleet; Kabbani, Nadine

    2018-06-01

    The pharmacological targeting of the α 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ( α 7) is a promising strategy in the development of new drugs for neurologic diseases. Because α 7 receptors regulate cellular calcium, we investigated how the prototypical type II-positive allosteric modulator PNU120596 affects α 7-mediated calcium signaling. Live imaging experiments show that PNU120596 augments ryanodine receptor-driven calcium-induced calcium release (CICR), inositol-induced calcium release (IICR), and phospholipase C activation by the α 7 receptor. Both influx of calcium through the α 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) channel as well as the binding of intracellular G proteins were involved in the effect of PNU120596 on intracellular calcium. This is evidenced by the findings that chelation of extracellular calcium, expression of α 7 D44A or α 7 345-348A mutant subunits, or blockade of calcium store release compromised the ability of PNU120596 to increase intracellular calcium transients generated by α 7 ligand activation. Spatiotemporal stochastic modeling of calcium transient responses corroborates these results and indicates that α 7 receptor activation enables calcium microdomains locally and to lesser extent in the distant cytosol. From the model, allosteric modulation of the receptor activates CICR locally via ryanodine receptors and augments IICR through enhanced calcium influx due to prolonged α 7 nAChR opening. These findings provide a new mechanistic framework for understanding the effect of α 7 receptor allosteric modulation on both local and global calcium dynamics. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. The Cannabinoid Receptor CB1 Modulates the Signaling Properties of the Lysophosphatidylinositol Receptor GPR55*

    PubMed Central

    Kargl, Julia; Balenga, Nariman; Parzmair, Gerald P.; Brown, Andrew J.; Heinemann, Akos; Waldhoer, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 55 (GPR55) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) are co-expressed in many tissues, predominantly in the central nervous system. Seven transmembrane spanning (7TM) receptors/GPCRs can form homo- and heteromers and initiate distinct signaling pathways. Recently, several synthetic CB1 receptor inverse agonists/antagonists, such as SR141716A, AM251, and AM281, were reported to activate GPR55. Of these, SR141716A was marketed as a promising anti-obesity drug, but was withdrawn from the market because of severe side effects. Here, we tested whether GPR55 and CB1 receptors are capable of (i) forming heteromers and (ii) whether such heteromers could exhibit novel signaling patterns. We show that GPR55 and CB1 receptors alter each others signaling properties in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that the co-expression of FLAG-CB1 receptors in cells stably expressing HA-GPR55 specifically inhibits GPR55-mediated transcription factor activation, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells and serum response element, as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) activation. GPR55 and CB1 receptors can form heteromers, but the internalization of both receptors is not affected. In addition, we observe that the presence of GPR55 enhances CB1R-mediated ERK1/2 and nuclear factor of activated T-cell activation. Our data provide the first evidence that GPR55 can form heteromers with another 7TM/GPCR and that this interaction with the CB1 receptor has functional consequences in vitro. The GPR55-CB1R heteromer may play an important physiological and/or pathophysiological role in tissues endogenously co-expressing both receptors. PMID:23161546

  5. The cannabinoid receptor CB1 modulates the signaling properties of the lysophosphatidylinositol receptor GPR55.

    PubMed

    Kargl, Julia; Balenga, Nariman; Parzmair, Gerald P; Brown, Andrew J; Heinemann, Akos; Waldhoer, Maria

    2012-12-28

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 55 (GPR55) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) are co-expressed in many tissues, predominantly in the central nervous system. Seven transmembrane spanning (7TM) receptors/GPCRs can form homo- and heteromers and initiate distinct signaling pathways. Recently, several synthetic CB1 receptor inverse agonists/antagonists, such as SR141716A, AM251, and AM281, were reported to activate GPR55. Of these, SR141716A was marketed as a promising anti-obesity drug, but was withdrawn from the market because of severe side effects. Here, we tested whether GPR55 and CB1 receptors are capable of (i) forming heteromers and (ii) whether such heteromers could exhibit novel signaling patterns. We show that GPR55 and CB1 receptors alter each others signaling properties in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that the co-expression of FLAG-CB1 receptors in cells stably expressing HA-GPR55 specifically inhibits GPR55-mediated transcription factor activation, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells and serum response element, as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) activation. GPR55 and CB1 receptors can form heteromers, but the internalization of both receptors is not affected. In addition, we observe that the presence of GPR55 enhances CB1R-mediated ERK1/2 and nuclear factor of activated T-cell activation. Our data provide the first evidence that GPR55 can form heteromers with another 7TM/GPCR and that this interaction with the CB1 receptor has functional consequences in vitro. The GPR55-CB1R heteromer may play an important physiological and/or pathophysiological role in tissues endogenously co-expressing both receptors.

  6. The sigma-1 receptor modulates NMDA receptor synaptic transmission and plasticity via SK channels in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Marzia; Turcotte, Marie-Eve B; Halman, Samantha; Bergeron, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The sigma receptor (σR), once considered a subtype of the opioid receptor, is now described as a distinct pharmacological entity. Modulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) functions by σR-1 ligands is well documented; however, its mechanism is not fully understood. Using patch-clamp whole-cell recordings in CA1 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampus and (+)pentazocine, a high-affinity σR-1 agonist, we found that σR-1 activation potentiates NMDAR responses and long-term potentiation (LTP) by preventing a small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current (SK channels), known to shunt NMDAR responses, to open. Therefore, the block of SK channels and the resulting increased Ca2+ influx through the NMDAR enhances NMDAR responses and LTP. These results emphasize the importance of the σR-1 as postsynaptic regulator of synaptic transmission. PMID:17068104

  7. The sigma-1 receptor modulates NMDA receptor synaptic transmission and plasticity via SK channels in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Martina, Marzia; Turcotte, Marie-Eve B; Halman, Samantha; Bergeron, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The sigma receptor (sigmaR), once considered a subtype of the opioid receptor, is now described as a distinct pharmacological entity. Modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) functions by sigmaR-1 ligands is well documented; however, its mechanism is not fully understood. Using patch-clamp whole-cell recordings in CA1 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampus and (+)pentazocine, a high-affinity sigmaR-1 agonist, we found that sigmaR-1 activation potentiates NMDAR responses and long-term potentiation (LTP) by preventing a small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current (SK channels), known to shunt NMDAR responses, to open. Therefore, the block of SK channels and the resulting increased Ca2+ influx through the NMDAR enhances NMDAR responses and LTP. These results emphasize the importance of the sigmaR-1 as postsynaptic regulator of synaptic transmission.

  8. Translational PK-PD modelling of molecular target modulation for the AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator Org 26576.

    PubMed

    Bursi, Roberta; Erdemli, Gul; Campbell, Robert; Hutmacher, Matthew M; Kerbusch, Thomas; Spanswick, David; Jeggo, Ross; Nations, Kari R; Dogterom, Peter; Schipper, Jacques; Shahid, Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor potentiator Org 26576 represents an interesting pharmacological tool to evaluate the utility of glutamatergic enhancement towards the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In this study, a rat-human translational pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model of AMPA receptor modulation was used to predict human target engagement and inform dose selection in efficacy clinical trials. Modelling and simulation was applied to rat plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic measurements to identify a target concentration (EC(80)) for AMPA receptor modulation. Human plasma pharmacokinetics was determined from 33 healthy volunteers and eight major depressive disorder patients. From four out of these eight patients, CSF PK was also determined. Simulations of human CSF levels were performed for several doses of Org 26576. Org 26576 (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.v.) potentiated rat hippocampal AMPA receptor responses in an exposure-dependant manner. The rat plasma and CSF PK data were fitted by one-compartment model each. The rat CSF PK-PD model yielded an EC(80) value of 593 ng/ml (90% confidence interval 406.8, 1,264.1). The human plasma and CSF PK data were simultaneously well described by a two-compartment model. Simulations showed that in humans at 100 mg QD, CSF levels of Org 26576 would exceed the EC(80) target concentration for about 2 h and that 400 mg BID would engage AMPA receptors for 24 h. The modelling approach provided useful insight on the likely human dose-molecular target engagement relationship for Org 26576. Based on the current analysis, 100 and 400 mg BID would be suitable to provide 'phasic' and 'continuous' AMPA receptor engagement, respectively.

  9. Neonicotinoid insecticides differently modulate acetycholine-induced currents on mammalian α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Cartereau, Alison; Martin, Carine; Thany, Steeve H

    2018-06-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are described as poor agonists of mammalian nicotinic ACh receptors. In this paper, we show that their effects on mammalian nicotinic receptors differ between compounds. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to characterize the pharmacology of three neonicotinoid insecticides on nicotinic α7 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Single and combined application of clothianidin, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were tested. Two neonicotinoid insecticides, clothianidin and acetamiprid, were partial agonists of mammalian neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors, whereas another neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, which is converted to clothianidin in insect and plant tissues, had no effect. Pretreatment with clothianidin and acetamiprid (10 μM) ACh significantly enhanced the subsequent currents evoked by ACh (100 μM ) whereas pretreatment with thiamethoxam (10 μM) reduced ACh-induced current amplitudes.A combination of the three neonicotinoids decreased the ACh-evoked currents. The present findings suggest that neonicotinoid insecticides differ markedly in their direct effects on mammalian α7 nicotinic ACh receptors and can also modulate ACh-induced currents. Furthermore, our data indicate a previously unknown modulation of mammalian α7 nicotinic receptors by a combination of clothianidin, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam. This article is part of a themed section on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.11/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Muscarinic and nicotinic receptors synergistically modulate working memory and attention in humans.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Julia R; Ellis, Kathryn A; Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Harrison, Ben J; Wesnes, Keith A; Erskine, Fiona F; Vitetta, Luis; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2006-04-01

    Functional abnormalities in muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are associated with a number of disorders including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. While the contribution of muscarinic receptors in modulating cognition is well established in humans, the effects of nicotinic receptors and the interactions and possible synergistic effects between muscarinic and nicotinic receptors have not been well characterized in humans. The current study examined the effects of selective and simultaneous muscarinic and nicotinic receptor antagonism on a range of cognitive processes. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated measures design in which 12 healthy, young volunteers completed cognitive testing under four acute treatment conditions: placebo (P); mecamylamine (15 mg) (M); scopolamine (0.4 mg i.m.) (S); mecamylamine (15 mg)/scopolamine (0.4 mg i.m.) (MS). Muscarinic receptor antagonism with scopolamine resulted in deficits in working memory, declarative memory, sustained visual attention and psychomotor speed. Nicotinic antagonism with mecamylamine had no effect on any of the cognitive processes examined. Simultaneous antagonism of both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors with mecamylamine and scopolamine impaired all cognitive processes impaired by scopolamine and produced greater deficits than either muscarinic or nicotinic blockade alone, particularly on working memory, visual attention and psychomotor speed. These findings suggest that muscarinic and nicotinic receptors may interact functionally to have synergistic effects particularly on working memory and attention and suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting both receptor systems may be useful in improving selective cognitive processes in a number of disorders.

  11. Arctigenin induced gallbladder cancer senescence through modulating epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingdi; Cai, Shizhong; Zuo, Bin; Gong, Wei; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Di; Weng, Mingzhe; Qin, Yiyu; Wang, Shouhua; Liu, Jun; Ma, Fei; Quan, Zhiwei

    2017-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer has poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor were examined in 100 matched pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues. A positive correlation between high epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels and poor prognosis was observed in gallbladder cancer tissues. Pharmacological inhibition or inhibition via RNA interference of epidermal growth factor receptor induced cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer cells. The antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer cells was primarily achieved by inducing cellular senescence. In gallbladder cancer cells treated with arctigenin, the expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor significantly decreased. The analysis of the activity of the kinases downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed that the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the cellular senescence induced by arctigenin could be reverted by pcDNA-epidermal growth factor receptor. Arctigenin also potently inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts, which was accompanied by the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and induction of senescence. This study demonstrates arctigenin could induce cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer through the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. These data identify epidermal growth factor receptor as a key regulator in arctigenin-induced gallbladder cancer senescence.

  12. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a

    PubMed Central

    Seredynski, Aurore L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER–mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  13. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a.

    PubMed

    Seredynski, Aurore L; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A

    2015-09-23

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER-mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. Significance statement: The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  14. Dimerization with Cannabinoid Receptors Allosterically Modulates Delta Opioid Receptor Activity during Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Stockton, Steven D.; Miller, Lydia K.; Devi, Lakshmi A.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of receptor signaling is increased by receptor heteromerization leading to dynamic regulation of receptor function. While a number of studies have demonstrated that family A G-protein-coupled receptors are capable of forming heteromers in vitro, the role of these heteromers in normal physiology and disease has been poorly explored. In this study, direct interactions between CB1 cannabinoid and delta opioid receptors in the brain were examined. Additionally, regulation of heteromer levels and signaling in a rodent model of neuropathic pain was explored. First we examined changes in the expression, function and interaction of these receptors in the cerebral cortex of rats with a peripheral nerve lesion that resulted in neuropathic pain. We found that, following the peripheral nerve lesion, the expression of both cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR) are increased in select brain regions. Concomitantly, an increase in CB1R activity and decrease in DOR activity was observed. We hypothesize that this decrease in DOR activity could be due to heteromeric interactions between these two receptors. Using a CB1R-DOR heteromer-specific antibody, we found increased levels of CB1R-DOR heteromer protein in the cortex of neuropathic animals. We subsequently examined the functionality of these heteromers by testing whether low, non-signaling doses of CB1R ligands influenced DOR signaling in the cortex. We found that, in cortical membranes from animals that experienced neuropathic pain, non-signaling doses of CB1R ligands significantly enhanced DOR activity. Moreover, this activity is selectively blocked by a heteromer-specific antibody. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for CB1R-DOR heteromers in altered cortical function of DOR during neuropathic pain. Moreover, they suggest the possibility that a novel heteromer-directed therapeutic strategy for enhancing DOR activity, could potentially be employed to reduce

  15. DA1 receptors modulation in rat isolated trachea.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Gloria A; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that low dose of inhaled dopamine (0.5-2 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) induces broncodilatacion in patients with acute asthma attack, suggesting that this dopamine effect is mediated by dopaminergic rather than by adrenergic receptors. To understand better these dopamine effect, rat tracheal smooth muscle was used as a model to evaluate the responses of beta2-, alpha1-, alpha2-adrenergic and DA1 and DA2 dopaminergic antagonists. Tracheal rings from male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 90) were excised and placed in an organ bath containing modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer at 37 degrees C, and gassed with O2 (95%) and CO2 (5%). Contractile responses were recorded with an isometric transducer in a polygraph (Letica, Spain). Contraction was induced by accumulative doses of acetylcholine (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10 mM) or by electric field stimulation (10 Hz at 2 milliseconds), and accumulative doses of dopamine were added to the bath. Low concentration (0.1-0.3 mM) elicited a small initial contraction, followed by a marked relaxation. Cholinergic contraction was completely reversed at 6 mM of dopamine. This biphasic dopaminergic response was not blocked by incubation with beta2-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (0.1 microM), alpha1-antagonist, terazosin (0.1 mM), alpha2-antagonist, yohimbine (0.1 mM), or by DA2 antagonist metoclopramide (1-8 mM); DA1 antagonist SCH23390 (0.1 microM) produced a sustained increase of basal tone but did not block initial dopaminergic contraction and partially inhibited bronchodilator effect of dopamine. Dopaminergic relaxation in rat trachea is mediated by DA1 rather than by DA2 receptors; and adrenergic receptors are not involved in such dopamine-induced response. Finally, DA1 antagonist SCH23390 exerts intrinsic contractile activity on airway smooth muscle that deserves further research.

  16. Systematic review of modulators of benzodiazepine receptors in irritable bowel syndrome: Is there hope?

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Pooneh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Several drugs are used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but all have side effects and variable efficacy. Considering the role of the gut-brain axis, immune, neural, and endocrine pathways in the pathogenesis of IBS and possible beneficial effects of benzodiazepines (BZD) in this axis, the present systematic review focuses on the efficacy of BZD receptor modulators in human IBS. For the years 1966 to February 2011, all literature was searched for any articles on the use of BZD receptor modulators and IBS. After thorough evaluation and omission of duplicate data, 10 out of 69 articles were included. BZD receptor modulators can be helpful, especially in the diarrhea-dominant form of IBS, by affecting the inflammatory, neural, and psychologic pathways, however, controversies still exist. Recently, a new BZD receptor modulator, dextofisopam was synthesized and studied in human subjects, but the studies are limited to phase IIb clinical trials. None of the existing trials considered the neuroimmunomodulatory effect of BZDs in IBS, but bearing in mind the concentration-dependent effect of BZDs on cytokines and cell proliferation, future studies using pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic approaches are highly recommended. PMID:22090780

  17. Odorant receptor modulation: Ternary paradigm for mode of action of insect repellents

    The modulation of insect behavior for the purpose of controlling the spread of infectious diseases has been the task of a few insect repellents for which the mechanistic modes of action on odorant receptors (ORs) are unclear. Here, we study the effects of the repellents DEET and IR3535, and a novel ...

  18. Selective progesterone receptor modulators 3: use in oncology, endocrinology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela

    2008-10-01

    A number of synthetic steroids are capable of modulating progesterone receptors with a spectrum of activities ranging from pure antagonism to a mixture of agonism and antagonism. The best known of these are mifepristone (RU 486), asoprisnil (J 867), onapristone (ZK 98299), ulipristal (CDB 2914), Proellex() (CDB 4124), ORG 33628 and ORG 31710. Outside reproduction selective modulators of progesterone receptors have been under investigation for a large variety of indications, for example in oncology as adjuvants in breast, cervical, endometrial, ovarian and prostate cancer, as well as inoperable meningioma and leiomyosarcoma. In addition, they have been used as antiglucocorticoids. It is therefore useful to review the results obtained in these conditions. A careful evaluation of existing major review papers and of recently published articles was carried out for the indications under review, focusing not only on mifepristone but also on those other selective modulators of progesterone receptors for which data are available. In preliminary studies selective modulators of progesterone receptors had some activity on a number of neoplasias. Their antiglucocorticoid activity has been tested with some success in Cushing's syndrome, several psychiatric conditions (e.g., mood disorders and Alzheimer's disease) and acute renal failure. Finally they are being used in a gene regulator system.

  19. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR OF AMPA RECEPTORS DERIVED FROM A STRUCTURE-BASED DRUG DESIGN STRATEGY

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Jonathan E.; Benveniste, Morris; Maclean, John K. F.; Partin, Kathryn M.; Jamieson, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors facilitate synaptic plasticity and can improve various forms of learning and memory. These modulators show promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, ADHD, and mental depression. Three classes of positive modulator, the benzamides, the thiadiazides, and the biarylsulfonamides differentially occupy a solvent accessible binding pocket at the interface between the two subunits that form the AMPA receptor ligand-binding pocket. Here, we describe the electrophysiological properties of a new chemotype derived from a structure-based drug design strategy (SBDD), which makes similar receptor interactions compared to previously reported classes of modulator. This pyrazole amide derivative, JAMI1001A, with a promising developability profile, efficaciously modulates AMPA receptor deactivation and desensitization of both flip and flop receptor isoforms. PMID:22735771

  20. Estrogen Receptors Modulation of Anxiety-Like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Borrow, A.P.; Handa, R.J.

    2018-01-01

    Estrogens exert profound effects on the expression of anxiety in humans and rodents; however, the directionality of these effects varies considerably within both clinical and preclinical literature. It is believed that discrepancies regarding the nature of estrogens’ effects on anxiety are attributable to the differential effects of specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. In this chapter we will discuss the relative impact on anxiety and anxiety-like behavior of each of the three main ERs: ERα, which has a generally anxiogenic effect, ERβ, which has a generally anxiolytic effect, and the G-protein-coupled ER known as GPR30, which has been found to both increase and decrease anxiety-like behavior. In addition, we will describe the known mechanisms by which these receptor subtypes exert their influence on emotional responses, focusing on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the oxytocinergic and serotonergic systems. The impact of estrogens on the expression of anxiety is likely the result of their combined effects on all of these neurobiological systems. PMID:28061972

  1. Estrogen Receptors Modulation of Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    PubMed

    Borrow, A P; Handa, R J

    2017-01-01

    Estrogens exert profound effects on the expression of anxiety in humans and rodents; however, the directionality of these effects varies considerably within both clinical and preclinical literature. It is believed that discrepancies regarding the nature of estrogens' effects on anxiety are attributable to the differential effects of specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. In this chapter we will discuss the relative impact on anxiety and anxiety-like behavior of each of the three main ERs: ERα, which has a generally anxiogenic effect, ERβ, which has a generally anxiolytic effect, and the G-protein-coupled ER known as GPR30, which has been found to both increase and decrease anxiety-like behavior. In addition, we will describe the known mechanisms by which these receptor subtypes exert their influence on emotional responses, focusing on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the oxytocinergic and serotonergic systems. The impact of estrogens on the expression of anxiety is likely the result of their combined effects on all of these neurobiological systems. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbachol dimers as homobivalent modulators of muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Matucci, Rosanna; Nesi, Marta; Martino, Maria Vittoria; Bellucci, Cristina; Manetti, Dina; Ciuti, Elisa; Mazzolari, Angelica; Dei, Silvia; Guandalini, Luca; Teodori, Elisabetta; Vistoli, Giulio; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2016-05-15

    A series of homodimers of the well-known cholinergic agonist carbachol have been synthesized, showing the two agonist units symmetrically connected through a methylene chain of variable length. The new compounds have been tested on the five cloned muscarinic receptors (hM1-5) expressed in CHO cells by means of equilibrium binding studies, showing an increase in affinity by rising the number of methylene units up to 7 and 9. Functional experiments on guinea-pig ileum and assessment of ERK1/2 phosphorylation on hM1, hM2 and hM3 on CHO cells have shown that the new compounds are endowed with muscarinic antagonistic properties. Kinetic binding studies have revealed that some of the tested compounds are able to slow the rate of dissociation of NMS, suggesting a bitopic behavior. Docking simulations, performed on the hM1 and hM2 receptors, give a sound rationalization of the experimental data revealing how these compounds are able to interact with both orthosteric and allosteric binding sites depending on the length of their connecting chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct Modulation of Heterotrimeric G Protein-coupled Signaling by a Receptor Kinase Complex.

    PubMed

    Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Urano, Daisuke; Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Clouse, Steven D; Jones, Alan M

    2016-07-01

    Plants and some protists have heterotrimeric G protein complexes that activate spontaneously without canonical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In Arabidopsis, the sole 7-transmembrane regulator of G protein signaling 1 (AtRGS1) modulates the G protein complex by keeping it in the resting state (GDP-bound). However, it remains unknown how a myriad of biological responses is achieved with a single G protein modulator. We propose that in complete contrast to G protein activation in animals, plant leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR RLKs), not GPCRs, provide this discrimination through phosphorylation of AtRGS1 in a ligand-dependent manner. G protein signaling is directly activated by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern flagellin peptide 22 through its LRR RLK, FLS2, and co-receptor BAK1. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Effects of estrogen receptor modulators on cytoskeletal proteins in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Segura-Uribe, Julia J; Pinto-Almazán, Rodolfo; Coyoy-Salgado, Angélica; Fuentes-Venado, Claudia E; Guerra-Araiza, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Estrogen receptor modulators are compounds of interest because of their estrogenic agonistic/antagonistic effects and tissue specificity. These compounds have many clinical applications, particularly for breast cancer treatment and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, as well as for the treatment of climacteric symptoms. Similar to estrogens, neuroprotective effects of estrogen receptor modulators have been described in different models. However, the mechanisms of action of these compounds in the central nervous system have not been fully described. We conducted a systematic search to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor modulators in the central nervous system, focusing on the modulation of cytoskeletal proteins. We found that raloxifene, tamoxifen, and tibolone modulate some cytoskeletal proteins such as tau, microtuble-associated protein 1 (MAP1), MAP2, neurofilament 38 (NF38) by different mechanisms of action and at different levels: neuronal microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubule-associated proteins. Finally, we emphasize the importance of the study of these compounds in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases since they present the benefits of estrogens without their side effects.

  5. Effects of estrogen receptor modulators on cytoskeletal proteins in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Uribe, Julia J.; Pinto-Almazán, Rodolfo; Coyoy-Salgado, Angélica; Fuentes-Venado, Claudia E.; Guerra-Araiza, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen receptor modulators are compounds of interest because of their estrogenic agonistic/antagonistic effects and tissue specificity. These compounds have many clinical applications, particularly for breast cancer treatment and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, as well as for the treatment of climacteric symptoms. Similar to estrogens, neuroprotective effects of estrogen receptor modulators have been described in different models. However, the mechanisms of action of these compounds in the central nervous system have not been fully described. We conducted a systematic search to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor modulators in the central nervous system, focusing on the modulation of cytoskeletal proteins. We found that raloxifene, tamoxifen, and tibolone modulate some cytoskeletal proteins such as tau, microtuble-associated protein 1 (MAP1), MAP2, neurofilament 38 (NF38) by different mechanisms of action and at different levels: neuronal microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubule-associated proteins. Finally, we emphasize the importance of the study of these compounds in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases since they present the benefits of estrogens without their side effects. PMID:28966632

  6. Metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the modulation of acetylcholine release at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Tsentsevitsky, Andrei; Nurullin, Leniz; Nikolsky, Evgeny; Malomouzh, Artem

    2017-07-01

    There is some evidence that glutamate (Glu) acts as a signaling molecule at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions where acetylcholine (ACh) serves as a neurotransmitter. In this study, performed on the cutaneous pectoris muscle of the frog Rana ridibunda, Glu receptor mechanisms that modulate ACh release processes were analyzed. Electrophysiological experiments showed that Glu reduces both spontaneous and evoked quantal secretion of ACh and synchronizes its release in response to electrical stimulation. Quisqualate, an agonist of ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptors and metabotropic Group I mGlu receptors, also exerted Glu-like inhibitory effects on the secretion of ACh but had no effect on the kinetics of quantal release. Quisqualate's inhibitory effect did not occur when a blocker of Group I mGlu receptors (LY 367385) or an inhibitor of phospholipase C (U73122) was present. An increase in the degree of synchrony of ACh quantal release, such as that produced by Glu, was obtained after application of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). The presence of Group I mGlu and NMDA receptors in the neuromuscular synapse was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Thus, the data suggest that both metabotropic Group I mGlu receptors and ionotropic NMDA receptors are present at the neuromuscular synapse of amphibians, and that the activation of these receptors initiates different mechanisms for the regulation of ACh release from motor nerve terminals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The anticonvulsant stiripentol acts directly on the GABAA receptor as a positive allosteric modulator

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Janet L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Stiripentol(STP) has been used as co-therapy for treatment of epilepsy for many years. Its mechanism of action has long been considered to be indirect, as it inhibits the enzymes responsible for metabolism of other anticonvulsant agents. However, a recent report suggested that STP might also act at the neuronal level, increasing inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. We examined the effect of STP on the functional properties of recombinant GABAA receptors (GABARs) and found that it was a positive allosteric modulator of these ion channels. Its activity showed some dependence on subunit composition, with greater potentiation of α3-containing receptors and reduced potentiation when the β1 or ε subunits were present. STP caused a leftward shift in the GABA concentration-response relationship, but did not increase the peak response of the receptors to a maximal GABA concentration. Although STP shares some functional characteristics with the neurosteroids, its activity was not inhibited by a neurosteroid site antagonist and was unaffected by a mutation in the α3 subunit that reduced positive modulation by neurosteroids. The differential effect of STP on β1- and β2/β3-containing receptors was not altered by mutations within the second transmembrane domain that affect modulation by loreclezole. These findings suggest that STP acts as a direct allosteric modulator of the GABAR at a site distinct from many commonly used anti-convulsant, sedative and anxiolytic drugs. Its higher activity at α3-containing receptors as well as its activity at δ-containing receptors may provide a unique opportunity to target selected populations of GABARs. PMID:18585399

  8. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA's but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression.

  9. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA’s but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression. PMID:24946016

  10. In vivo modulation of androgen receptor by androgens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V L; Majumder, P K; Kumar, V

    2002-09-01

    To study the effect of androgen and antiandrogen on the level of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA. The total RNA was extracted from the prostate and analyzed by slot blot analysis. The blots were hybridized with AR cDNA probe and 1A probe (internal control) and autoradiography was performed. The intensity of signal was measured with a densitometer and the ratio of AR RNA and 1A RNA was calculated. Androgenic deprivation produced by castration decreased the weight of the prostate and increased the levels of AR mRNA. Treatment of the castrated rats with testostrone increased the weight of prostate and decreased the levels of AR mRNA. Treatment of normal rats with flutamide decreased the weight of the gland and increased the levels of AR mRNA. Androgens produce proliferative effect on the prostate and negatively regulate the AR transcription.

  11. Sigma Receptor 1 Modulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Retinal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yonju; Dun, Ying; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Duplantier, Jennifer; Dong, Zheng; Liu, Kebin; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the mechanism of σ receptor 1 (σR1) neuroprotection in retinal neurons. Methods. Oxidative stress, which is implicated in diabetic retinopathy, was induced in mouse primary ganglion cells (GCs) and RGC-5 cells, and the effect of the σR1 ligand (+)-pentazocine on pro- and anti-apoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress gene expression was examined. Binding of σR1 to BiP, an ER chaperone protein, and σR1 phosphorylation status were examined by immunoprecipitation. Retinas were harvested from Ins2Akita/+ diabetic mice treated with (+)-pentazocine, and the expression of ER stress genes and of the retinal transcriptome was evaluated. Results. Oxidative stress induced the death of primary GCs and RGC-5 cells. The effect was decreased by the application of (+)-pentazocine. Stress increased σR1 binding to BiP and enhanced σR1 phosphorylation in RGC-5 cells. BiP binding was prevented, and σR1 phosphorylation decreased in the presence of (+)-pentazocine. The ER stress proteins PERK, ATF4, ATF6, IRE1α, and CHOP were upregulated in RGC-5 cells during oxidative stress, but decreased in the presence of (+)-pentazocine. A similar phenomenon was observed in retinas of Ins2Akita/+ diabetic mice. Retinal transcriptome analysis of Ins2Akita/+ mice compared with wild-type revealed differential expression of the genes critically involved in oxidative stress, differentiation, and cell death. The expression profile of those genes was reversed when the Ins2Akita/+ mice were treated with (+)-pentazocine. Conclusions. In retinal neurons, the molecular chaperone σR1 binds BiP under stressful conditions; (+)-pentazocine may exert its effects by dissociating σR1 from BiP. As stress in retinal cells increases, phosphorylation of σR1 is increased, which is attenuated when agonists bind to the receptor. PMID:20811050

  12. Sigma receptor 1 modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress in retinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yonju; Dun, Ying; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Duplantier, Jennifer; Dong, Zheng; Liu, Kebin; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of σ receptor 1 (σR1) neuroprotection in retinal neurons. Oxidative stress, which is implicated in diabetic retinopathy, was induced in mouse primary ganglion cells (GCs) and RGC-5 cells, and the effect of the σR1 ligand (+)-pentazocine on pro- and anti-apoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress gene expression was examined. Binding of σR1 to BiP, an ER chaperone protein, and σR1 phosphorylation status were examined by immunoprecipitation. Retinas were harvested from Ins2Akita/+ diabetic mice treated with (+)-pentazocine, and the expression of ER stress genes and of the retinal transcriptome was evaluated. Oxidative stress induced the death of primary GCs and RGC-5 cells. The effect was decreased by the application of (+)-pentazocine. Stress increased σR1 binding to BiP and enhanced σR1 phosphorylation in RGC-5 cells. BiP binding was prevented, and σR1 phosphorylation decreased in the presence of (+)-pentazocine. The ER stress proteins PERK, ATF4, ATF6, IRE1α, and CHOP were upregulated in RGC-5 cells during oxidative stress, but decreased in the presence of (+)-pentazocine. A similar phenomenon was observed in retinas of Ins2Akita/+ diabetic mice. Retinal transcriptome analysis of Ins2Akita/+ mice compared with wild-type revealed differential expression of the genes critically involved in oxidative stress, differentiation, and cell death. The expression profile of those genes was reversed when the Ins2Akita/+ mice were treated with (+)-pentazocine. In retinal neurons, the molecular chaperone σR1 binds BiP under stressful conditions; (+)-pentazocine may exert its effects by dissociating σR1 from BiP. As stress in retinal cells increases, phosphorylation of σR1 is increased, which is attenuated when agonists bind to the receptor.

  13. Coexpression of human somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) and SSTR3 modulates antiproliferative signaling and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Somatostatin (SST) via five Gi coupled receptors namely SSTR1-5 is known to inhibit cell proliferation by cytostatic and cytotoxic mechanisms. Heterodimerization plays a crucial role in modulating the signal transduction pathways of SSTR subtypes. In the present study, we investigated human SSTR2/SSTR3 heterodimerization, internalization, MAPK signaling, cell proliferation and apoptosis in HEK-293 cells in response to SST and specific agonists for SSTR2 and SSTR3. Results Although in basal conditions, SSTR2 and SSTR3 colocalize at the plasma membrane and exhibit heterodimerization, the cell surface distribution of both receptors decreased upon agonist activation and was accompanied by a parallel increase in intracellular colocalization. Receptors activation by SST and specific agonists significantly decreased cAMP levels in cotransfected cells in comparison to control. Agonist-mediated modulation of pERK1/2 was time and concentration-dependent, and pronounced in serum-deprived conditions. pERK1/2 was inhibited in response to SST; conversely receptor-specific agonist treatment caused inhibition at lower concentration and activation at higher concentration. Strikingly, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was sustained upon prolonged treatment with SST but not with receptor-specific agonists. On the other hand, SST and receptor-specific agonists modulated p38 phosphorylation time-dependently. The receptor activation in cotransfected cells exhibits Gi-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation attributed to increased PARP-1 expression and TUNEL staining, whereas induction of p21 and p27Kip1 suggests a cytostatic effect. Conclusion Our study provides new insights in SSTR2/SSTR3 mediated signaling which might help in better understanding of the molecular interactions involving SSTRs in tumor biology. PMID:22651821

  14. Antagonist action of progesterone at σ-receptors in the modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Molly; Fontanilla, Dominique; Mavlyutov, Timur; Ruoho, Arnold E; Jackson, Meyer B

    2011-02-01

    σ-Receptors are integral membrane proteins that have been implicated in a number of biological functions, many of which involve the modulation of ion channels. A wide range of synthetic ligands activate σ-receptors, but endogenous σ-receptor ligands have proven elusive. One endogenous ligand, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), has been shown to act as a σ-receptor agonist. Progesterone and other steroids bind σ-receptors, but the functional consequences of these interactions are unclear. Here we investigated progesterone binding to σ(1)- and σ(2)-receptors and evaluated its effect on σ-receptor-mediated modulation of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Progesterone binds both σ-receptor subtypes in liver membranes with comparable affinities and blocks photolabeling of both subtypes in human embryonic kidney 293 cells that stably express the human cardiac Na(+) channel Na(v)1.5. Patch-clamp recording in this cell line tested Na(+) current modulation by the σ-receptor ligands ditolylguanidine, PB28, (+)SKF10047, and DMT. Progesterone inhibited the action of these ligands to varying degrees, and some of these actions were reduced by σ(1)-receptor knockdown with small interfering RNA. Progesterone inhibition of channel modulation by drugs was consistent with stronger antagonism of σ(2)-receptors. By contrast, progesterone inhibition of channel modulation by DMT was consistent with stronger antagonism of σ(1)-receptors. Progesterone binding to σ-receptors blocks σ-receptor-mediated modulation of a voltage-gated ion channel, and this novel membrane action of progesterone may be relevant to changes in brain and cardiovascular function during endocrine transitions.

  15. Antagonist action of progesterone at σ-receptors in the modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Johannessen, Molly; Fontanilla, Dominique; Mavlyutov, Timur; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2011-01-01

    σ-Receptors are integral membrane proteins that have been implicated in a number of biological functions, many of which involve the modulation of ion channels. A wide range of synthetic ligands activate σ-receptors, but endogenous σ-receptor ligands have proven elusive. One endogenous ligand, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), has been shown to act as a σ-receptor agonist. Progesterone and other steroids bind σ-receptors, but the functional consequences of these interactions are unclear. Here we investigated progesterone binding to σ1- and σ2-receptors and evaluated its effect on σ-receptor-mediated modulation of voltage-gated Na+ channels. Progesterone binds both σ-receptor subtypes in liver membranes with comparable affinities and blocks photolabeling of both subtypes in human embryonic kidney 293 cells that stably express the human cardiac Na+ channel Nav1.5. Patch-clamp recording in this cell line tested Na+ current modulation by the σ-receptor ligands ditolylguanidine, PB28, (+)SKF10047, and DMT. Progesterone inhibited the action of these ligands to varying degrees, and some of these actions were reduced by σ1-receptor knockdown with small interfering RNA. Progesterone inhibition of channel modulation by drugs was consistent with stronger antagonism of σ2-receptors. By contrast, progesterone inhibition of channel modulation by DMT was consistent with stronger antagonism of σ1-receptors. Progesterone binding to σ-receptors blocks σ-receptor-mediated modulation of a voltage-gated ion channel, and this novel membrane action of progesterone may be relevant to changes in brain and cardiovascular function during endocrine transitions. PMID:21084640

  16. The Wnt receptor Frizzled-4 modulates ADAM13 metalloprotease activity.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Kaufmann, Lilian T; Cousin, Hélène; Kleino, Iivari; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Alfandari, Dominique

    2015-03-15

    Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells are a transient population of stem cells that originate at the border of the neural plate and the epidermis, and migrate ventrally to contribute to most of the facial structures including bones, cartilage, muscles and ganglia. ADAM13 is a cell surface metalloprotease that is essential for CNC cell migration. Here, we show in Xenopus laevis embryos that the Wnt receptor Fz4 binds to the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM13 and negatively regulates its proteolytic activity in vivo. Gain of Fz4 function inhibits CNC cell migration and can be rescued by gain of ADAM13 function. Loss of Fz4 function also inhibits CNC cell migration and induces a reduction of mature ADAM13, together with an increase in the ADAM13 cytoplasmic fragment that is known to translocate into the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We propose that Fz4 associates with ADAM13 during its transport to the plasma membrane to regulate its proteolytic activity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. The Wnt receptor Frizzled-4 modulates ADAM13 metalloprotease activity

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Kaufmann, Lilian T.; Cousin, Hélène; Kleino, Iivari; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Alfandari, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells are a transient population of stem cells that originate at the border of the neural plate and the epidermis, and migrate ventrally to contribute to most of the facial structures including bones, cartilage, muscles and ganglia. ADAM13 is a cell surface metalloprotease that is essential for CNC cell migration. Here, we show in Xenopus laevis embryos that the Wnt receptor Fz4 binds to the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM13 and negatively regulates its proteolytic activity in vivo. Gain of Fz4 function inhibits CNC cell migration and can be rescued by gain of ADAM13 function. Loss of Fz4 function also inhibits CNC cell migration and induces a reduction of mature ADAM13, together with an increase in the ADAM13 cytoplasmic fragment that is known to translocate into the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We propose that Fz4 associates with ADAM13 during its transport to the plasma membrane to regulate its proteolytic activity. PMID:25616895

  18. Central cannabinoid receptors modulate acquisition of eyeblink conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Adam B.; Freeman, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Delay eyeblink conditioning is established by paired presentations of a conditioned stimulus (CS) such as a tone or light, and an unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits the blink reflex. Conditioned stimulus information is projected from the basilar pontine nuclei to the cerebellar interpositus nucleus and cortex. The cerebellar cortex, particularly the molecular layer, contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors (CB1R). The CB1Rs are located on the axon terminals of parallel fibers, stellate cells, and basket cells where they inhibit neurotransmitter release. The present study examined the effects of a CB1R agonist WIN55,212-2 and antagonist SR141716A on the acquisition of delay eyeblink conditioning in rats. Rats were given subcutaneous administration of 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg of WIN55,212-2 or 1, 3, or 5 mg/kg of SR141716A before each day of acquisition training (10 sessions). Dose-dependent impairments in acquisition were found for WIN55,212-2 and SR141716A, with no effects on spontaneous or nonassociative blinking. However, the magnitude of impairment was greater for WIN55,212-2 than SR141716A. Dose-dependent impairments in conditioned blink response (CR) amplitude and timing were found with WIN55,212-2 but not with SR141716A. The findings support the hypothesis that CB1Rs in the cerebellar cortex play an important role in plasticity mechanisms underlying eyeblink conditioning. PMID:21030483

  19. Neurocognitive Endophenotypes in Schizophrenia: Modulation by Nicotinic Receptor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mackowick, Kristen M.; Barr, Mera S.; Wing, Victoria C.; Rabin, Rachel A.; Ouellet-Plamondon, Clairelaine; George, Tony P.

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the Western world, with a considerably higher prevalence observed in schizophrenia compared to the general population. Despite the negative health consequences of smoking heavily, it has been proposed that individuals with schizophrenia may maintain smoking behaviours to remediate symptoms associated with the disorder. Neurocognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia and are present in approximately 80% of patients. Further, these deficits constitute an endophenotype of schizophrenia, as they are stable across disease phases, and heritable. The neurocognitive deficits that are present in schizophrenia are especially debilitating, since they are associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes and community integration. Interestingly, these deficits may also constitute a vulnerability factor towards the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use. Contributing to the potential shared vulnerability between schizophrenia and tobacco dependence is a dysregulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system. Pre-clinical evidence has shown that nicotine affects several neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine (DA), glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and certain neuropsychological deficits associated with these neurotransmitters (reaction time, spatial working memory, sustained attention, and sensory gating) are improved after nicotine administration in patients with schizophrenia. These positive effects on neurocognition appear to be more pronounced in smokers with schizophrenia, and may be an important mechanism that explains the co-morbidity of schizophrenia and tobacco dependence. PMID:23871750

  20. Discovery of Dual-Action Membrane-Anchored Modulators of Incretin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Jean-Philippe; Chinnapen, Daniel; Beinborn, Martin; Lencer, Wayne; Kopin, Alan S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors are considered complementary therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes. Using recombinant membrane-tethered ligand (MTL) technology, the present study focused on defining optimized modulators of these receptors, as well as exploring how local anchoring influences soluble peptide function. Methodology/Principal Findings Serial substitution of residue 7 in membrane-tethered GIP (tGIP) led to a wide range of activities at the GIP receptor, with [G7]tGIP showing enhanced efficacy compared to the wild type construct. In contrast, introduction of G7 into the related ligands, tGLP-1 and tethered exendin-4 (tEXE4), did not affect signaling at the cognate GLP-1 receptor. Both soluble and tethered GIP and GLP-1 were selective activators of their respective receptors. Although soluble EXE4 is highly selective for the GLP-1 receptor, unexpectedly, tethered EXE4 was found to be a potent activator of both the GLP-1 and GIP receptors. Diverging from the pharmacological properties of soluble and tethered GIP, the newly identified GIP-R agonists, (i.e. [G7]tGIP and tEXE4) failed to trigger cognate receptor endocytosis. In an attempt to recapitulate the dual agonism observed with tEXE4, we conjugated soluble EXE4 to a lipid moiety. Not only did this soluble peptide activate both the GLP-1 and GIP receptors but, when added to receptor expressing cells, the activity persists despite serial washes. Conclusions These findings suggest that conversion of a recombinant MTL to a soluble membrane anchored equivalent offers a means to prolong ligand function, as well as to design agonists that can simultaneously act on more than one therapeutic target. PMID:21935440

  1. Prostanoids and their receptors that modulate dendritic cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Gualde, Norbert; Harizi, Hedi

    2004-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are essential for the initiation of immune responses by capturing, processing and presenting antigens to T cells. In addition to their important role as professional APC, they are able to produce immunosuppressive and pro-inflammatory prostanoids from arachidonic acid (AA) by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. In an autocrine and paracrine fashion, the secreted lipid mediators subsequently modulate the maturation, cytokine production, Th-cell polarizing ability, chemokine receptor expression, migration, and apoptosis of these extremely versatile APC. The biological actions of prostanoids, including their effects on APC-mediated immunity and acute inflammatory responses, are exerted by G protein-coupled receptors on plasma membrane. Some COX metabolites act as anti-inflammatory lipid mediators by binding to nuclear receptors and modulating DC functions. Although the role of cytokines in DC function has been studied extensively, the effects of prostanoids on DC biology have only recently become the focus of investigation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of prostanoids and their receptors in modulating DC function and the subsequent immune responses.

  2. Neurosteroid Modulators of GABAA Receptors Differentially Modulate Ethanol Intake Patterns in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Matthew M.; Nickel, Jeffrey D.; Phillips, Tamara J.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    Background Allopregnanolone (ALLO) and structurally related endogenous neurosteroids are potent modulators of GABAA receptor function at physiologically relevant concentrations. Accumulating evidence implicates a modulatory role for ALLO in behavioral processes underlying ethanol self-administration, discrimination and reinstatement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of exogenous neurosteroid challenges with the agonist ALLO and the partial agonist/antagonist epipregnanolone (EPI) on the microarchitecture of ethanol drinking patterns. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were initiated to consume an unsweetened 10% v/v ethanol solution (10E) by a saccharin fading procedure during daily 2-hour limited access sessions beginning 1 hour after dark phase onset. Cumulative lick responses were recorded for 10E and water using lickometer circuits. After establishing 10E intake baselines, mice were habituated to vehicle injection (VEH; 20% w/v β-cyclodextrin; i.p.), and then were treated with either VEH or neurosteroid immediately prior to the drinking session. Each mouse received a series of ALLO doses (3.2, 10, 17 and 24 mg/kg) alone and EPI doses (0.15, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) alone in a counterbalanced within-group design. Results The GABAA receptor positive modulator, ALLO, dose-dependently modulated overall ethanol intake throughout the 2-hr session with the 3.2 mg/kg dose eliciting a significant increase whereas the 24 mg/kg dose produced a significant suppression of ethanol intake versus vehicle pretreatment. ALLO-evoked alterations in intake corresponded with a significant, dose-dependent alterations in bout frequency and inter-bout interval. ALLO also elicited robust, dose-dependent elevations in 10E licks during the initial 5-minutes of access, but subsequently resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of 10E licks during session minutes 20–80. In contrast, the partial agonist/antagonist neurosteroid, EPI, exhibited no influence on any consumption parameter

  3. On the G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Heteromers and Their Allosteric Receptor-Receptor Interactions in the Central Nervous System: Focus on Their Role in Pain Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Rivera, Alicia; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Tarakanov, Alexander O.; Agnati, Luigi F.; Fuxe, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The modulatory role of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in the pain pathways of the Central Nervous System and the peripheral nociceptors has become of increasing interest. As integrators of nociceptive and antinociceptive wiring and volume transmission signals, with a major role for the opioid receptor heteromers, they likely have an important role in the pain circuits and may be involved in acupuncture. The delta opioid receptor (DOR) exerts an antagonistic allosteric influence on the mu opioid receptor (MOR) function in a MOR-DOR heteromer. This heteromer contributes to morphine-induced tolerance and dependence, since it becomes abundant and develops a reduced G-protein-coupling with reduced signaling mainly operating via β-arrestin2 upon chronic morphine treatment. A DOR antagonist causes a return of the Gi/o binding and coupling to the heteromer and the biological actions of morphine. The gender- and ovarian steroid-dependent recruitment of spinal cord MOR/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) heterodimers enhances antinociceptive functions and if impaired could contribute to chronic pain states in women. MOR1D heterodimerizes with gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in the spinal cord, mediating morphine induced itch. Other mechanism for the antinociceptive actions of acupuncture along meridians may be that it enhances the cross-desensitization of the TRPA1 (chemical nociceptor)-TRPV1 (capsaicin receptor) heteromeric channel complexes within the nociceptor terminals located along these meridians. Selective ionotropic cannabinoids may also produce cross-desensitization of the TRPA1-TRPV1 heteromeric nociceptor channels by being negative allosteric modulators of these channels leading to antinociception and antihyperalgesia. PMID:23956775

  4. Differential Potency of 2,6-Dimethylcyclohexanol Isomers for Positive Modulation of GABAA Receptor Currents.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Luvana; Croft, Celine J; Goel, Shikha; Zaman, Naina; Tai, Angela C-S; Walch, Erin M; Smith, Kelly; Page, Alexandra; Shea, Kevin M; Hall, C Dennis; Jishkariani, D; Pillai, Girinath G; Hall, Adam C

    2016-06-01

    GABAA receptors meet all of the pharmacological requirements necessary to be considered important targets for the action of general anesthetic agents in the mammalian brain. In the following patch-clamp study, the relative modulatory effects of 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol diastereomers were investigated on human GABAA (α1β3γ2s) receptor currents stably expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Cis,cis-, trans,trans-, and cis,trans-isomers were isolated from commercially available 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol and were tested for positive modulation of submaximal GABA responses. For example, the addition of 30 μM cis,cis-isomer resulted in an approximately 2- to 3-fold enhancement of the EC20 GABA current. Coapplications of 30 μM 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol isomers produced a range of positive enhancements of control GABA responses with a rank order for positive modulation: cis,cis > trans,trans ≥ mixture of isomers > > cis,trans-isomer. In molecular modeling studies, the three cyclohexanol isomers bound with the highest binding energies to a pocket within transmembrane helices M1 and M2 of the β3 subunit through hydrogen-bonding interactions with a glutamine at the 224 position and a tyrosine at the 220 position. The energies for binding to and hydrogen-bond lengths within this pocket corresponded with the relative potencies of the agents for positive modulation of GABAA receptor currents (cis,cis > trans,trans > cis,trans-2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol). In conclusion, the stereochemical configuration within the dimethylcyclohexanols is an important molecular feature in conferring positive modulation of GABAA receptor activity and for binding to the receptor, a consideration that needs to be taken into account when designing novel anesthetics with enhanced therapeutic indices. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. GABAB Receptor Positive Modulation Decreases Selective Molecular and Behavioral Effects of Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Lhuillier, Loic; Mombereau, Cedric; Cryan, John F.; Kaupmann, Klemens

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to cocaine induces selective behavioral and molecular adaptations. In rodents, acute cocaine induces increased locomotor activity whereas prolonged drug exposure results in behavioral locomotor sensitization, which is thought to be a consequence of drug–induced neuroadaptive changes. Recent attention has been given to compounds activating GABAB receptors as potential anti-addictive therapies. In particular the principle of allosteric positive GABAB receptor modulators is very promising in this respect, as positive modulators lack the sedative and muscle relaxant properties of full GABAB receptor agonists such as baclofen. Here we investigated the effects of systemic application of the GABAB receptor positive modulator GS39783 in animals treated with acute and chronic cocaine administration. Both GS39783 and baclofen dose-dependently attenuated acute cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, both compounds also efficiently blocked cocaine-induced Fos induction in the striatal complex. In chronic studies GS39783 induced a modest attenuation of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Chronic cocaine induces the accumulation of the transcription factor ΔFosB and up regulates cAMP-response-element-binding-protein (CREB) and dopamine-and-cAMP-regulated-phosphoprotein of 32 kd (DARPP-32). GS39783 blocked the induction/activation of DARPP-32 and CREB in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum and partially inhibited ΔFosB accumulation in the dorsal striatum. In summary our data provide evidence that GS39783 attenuates the acute behavioral effects of cocaine exposure in rodents and in addition prevents the induction of selective long-term adaptive changes in dopaminergic signaling pathways. Further investigation of GABAB receptor positive modulation as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine dependence and possibly other drugs of abuse is therefore warranted. PMID:16710312

  6. Modulation of Progesterone Receptor Isoform Expression in Pregnant Human Myometrium

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. Regulation of myometrial progesterone receptor (PR) expression is an unresolved issue central to understanding the mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal and initiation of labor in women. Objectives. To determine whether pregnant human myometrium undergoes culture-induced changes in PR isoform expression ex situ and, further, to determine if conditions approaching the in vivo environment stabilise PR isoform expression in culture. Methods. Term nonlaboring human myometrial tissues were cultured under specific conditions: serum supplementation, steroids, stretch, cAMP, PMA, PGF2α, NF-κB inhibitors, or TSA. Following 48 h culture, PR-T, PR-A, and PR-B mRNA levels were determined using qRT-PCR. PR-A/PR-B ratios were calculated. Results. PR-T and PR-A expression and the PR-A/PR-B ratio significantly increased in culture. Steroids prevented the culture-induced increase in PR-T and PR-A expression. Stretch blocked the effects of steroids on PR-T and PR-A expression. PMA further increased the PR-A/PR-B ratio, while TSA blocked culture-induced increases of PR-A expression and the PR-A/PR-B ratio. Conclusion. Human myometrial tissue in culture undergoes changes in PR gene expression consistent with transition toward a laboring phenotype. TSA maintained the nonlaboring PR isoform expression pattern. This suggests that preserving histone and/or nonhistone protein acetylation is critical for maintaining the progesterone dependent quiescent phenotype of human myometrium in culture. PMID:28540297

  7. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Charles T; Radford, Robert J; Zastrow, Melissa L; Zhang, Daniel Y; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-05-19

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling.

  8. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Charles T.; Radford, Robert J.; Zastrow, Melissa L.; Zhang, Daniel Y.; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling. PMID:25947151

  9. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  10. Modified SARME (Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion) in Conjunction with Orthodontic Treatment-A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Sagar; Chitra, Prasad; Rao, Sadam Srinivas; Bindra, Sukhvinder

    2015-10-01

    Transverse maxillary hypoplasia or maxillary constriction in conjunction with unilateral or bilateral posterior cross bites is a common finding in cleft palate patients. These situations are also commonly encountered in adults who have not had recourse to orthodontic treatment in childhood. In adults, after ossification of the mid palatal suture is complete, the accepted means of correcting transverse skeletal discrepancies is by Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion (SARME). The disadvantage of this technique in the Indian scenario is reduced patient acceptance and increased treatment costs. Le Fort-I down fracture and mid palatal suture sectioning requires hospitalization and increases morbidity. A case of a 21-year-old non-cleft male who presented with Class I malocclusion with transverse skeletal discrepancy and bilateral posterior cross bites is presented. A modified SAARME technique was performed without pterygomaxillary disjunction, as an outpatient procedure. The results obtained were satisfactory and the desired amount of transverse skeletal correction was achieved. The patient was discharged the same day. The technique can be used to successfully treat a large number of patients in India with maxillary skeletal transverse problems with increased predictability, reduced costs and morbidity and higher rates of acceptance.

  11. Modulation of Central Synapses by Astrocyte-Released ATP and Postsynaptic P2X Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pankratov, Yuriy

    2017-01-01

    Communication between neuronal and glial cells is important for neural plasticity. P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels widely expressed in the brain where they mediate action of extracellular ATP released by neurons and/or glia. Recent data show that postsynaptic P2X receptors underlie slow neuromodulatory actions rather than fast synaptic transmission at brain synapses. Here, we review these findings with a particular focus on the release of ATP by astrocytes and the diversity of postsynaptic P2X-mediated modulation of synaptic strength and plasticity in the CNS. PMID:28845311

  12. MMP-12-mediated by SARM-TRIF signaling pathway contributes to IFN-γ-independent airway inflammation and AHR post RSV infection in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiaoru; Li, Simin; Xie, Jun; Li, Wei; Zang, Na; Ren, Luo; Deng, Yu; Xie, Xiaohong; Wang, Lijia; Fu, Zhou; Liu, Enmei

    2015-02-05

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequently observed pathogens during infancy and childhood. However, the corresponding pathogenesis has not been determined to date. We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ plays an important role in RSV pathogenesis, and SARM-TRIF-signaling pathway could regulate the production of IFN-γ. This study is to investigate whether T cells or innate immune cells are the predominant producers of IFN-γ, and further to explore other culprits in addition to IFN-γ in the condition of RSV infection. Normal BALB/c mice and nude mice deficient in T cells were infected intranasally with RSV. Leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were counted, lung histopathology was examined, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured by whole-body plethysmography. IFN-γ and MMP-12 were detected by ELISA. MMP408, a selective MMP-12 inhibitor, was given intragastrically. Resveratrol, IFN-γ neutralizing antibody and recombinant murine IFN-γ were administered intraperitoneally. SARM and TRIF protein were semi-quantified by Western blot. siRNA was used to knock-down SARM expression. RSV induced significant airway inflammation and AHR in both mice; IFN-γ was significantly increased in BALB/c mice but not in nude mice. MMP-12 was dramatically increased in both mice but earlier in nude mice. When MMP-12 was inhibited by MMP408, RSV-induced respiratory symptoms were alleviated. SARM was significantly suppressed while TRIF was significantly enhanced in both mice strains. Following resveratrol administration in nude mice, 1) SARM inhibition was prevented, 2) TRIF and MMP-12 were correspondingly down-regulated and 3) airway disorders were subsequently alleviated. Moreover, when SARM was efficiently knocked down using siRNA, TRIF and MMP-12 were markedly enhanced, and the anti-RSV effects of resveratrol were remarkably abrogated. MMP-12 was significantly increased in the IFN-γ neutralizing antibody-treated BALB/c mice but reduced in the

  13. Sniffer patch laser uncaging response (SPLURgE): an assay of regional differences in allosteric receptor modulation and neurotransmitter clearance.

    PubMed

    Christian, Catherine A; Huguenard, John R

    2013-10-01

    Allosteric modulators exert actions on neurotransmitter receptors by positively or negatively altering the effective response of these receptors to their respective neurotransmitter. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A ionotropic receptors (GABAARs) are major targets for allosteric modulators such as benzodiazepines, neurosteroids, and barbiturates. Analysis of substances that produce similar effects has been hampered by the lack of techniques to assess the localization and function of such agents in brain slices. Here we describe measurement of the sniffer patch laser uncaging response (SPLURgE), which combines the sniffer patch recording configuration with laser photolysis of caged GABA. This methodology enables the detection of allosteric GABAAR modulators endogenously present in discrete areas of the brain slice and allows for the application of exogenous GABA with spatiotemporal control without altering the release and localization of endogenous modulators within the slice. Here we demonstrate the development and use of this technique for the measurement of allosteric modulation in different areas of the thalamus. Application of this technique will be useful in determining whether a lack of modulatory effect on a particular category of neurons or receptors is due to insensitivity to allosteric modulation or a lack of local release of endogenous ligand. We also demonstrate that this technique can be used to investigate GABA diffusion and uptake. This method thus provides a biosensor assay for rapid detection of endogenous GABAAR modulators and has the potential to aid studies of allosteric modulators that exert effects on other classes of neurotransmitter receptors, such as glutamate, acetylcholine, or glycine receptors.

  14. Antiandrogens act as selective androgen receptor modulators at the proteome level in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Greg N; Gamble, Simon C; Hough, Michael A; Begum, Shajna; Dart, D Alwyn; Odontiadis, Michael; Powell, Sue M; Fioretti, Flavia M; Bryan, Rosie A; Waxman, Jonathan; Wait, Robin; Bevan, Charlotte L

    2015-05-01

    Current therapies for prostate cancer include antiandrogens, inhibitory ligands of the androgen receptor, which repress androgen-stimulated growth. These include the selective androgen receptor modulators cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide and the complete antagonist bicalutamide. Their activity is partly dictated by the presence of androgen receptor mutations, which are commonly detected in patients who relapse while receiving antiandrogens, i.e. in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. To characterize the early proteomic response to these antiandrogens we used the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line, which harbors the androgen receptor mutation most commonly detected in castrate-resistant tumors (T877A), analyzing alterations in the proteome, and comparing these to the effect of these therapeutics upon androgen receptor activity and cell proliferation. The majority are regulated post-transcriptionally, possibly via nongenomic androgen receptor signaling. Differences detected between the exposure groups demonstrate subtle changes in the biological response to each specific ligand, suggesting a spectrum of agonistic and antagonistic effects dependent on the ligand used. Analysis of the crystal structures of the AR in the presence of cyproterone acetate, hydroxyflutamide, and DHT identified important differences in the orientation of key residues located in the AF-2 and BF-3 protein interaction surfaces. This further implies that although there is commonality in the growth responses between androgens and those antiandrogens that stimulate growth in the presence of a mutation, there may also be influential differences in the growth pathways stimulated by the different ligands. This therefore has implications for prostate cancer treatment because tumors may respond differently dependent upon which mutation is present and which ligand is activating growth, also for the design of selective androgen receptor modulators, which aim to elicit differential proteomic

  15. Opposite modulation of brain stimulation reward by NMDA and AMPA receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Charles; Fortier, Emmanuel; Bouchard, Claude; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that blockade of ventral tegmental area (VTA) glutamate N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors induces reward, stimulates forward locomotion and enhances brain stimulation reward. Glutamate induces two types of excitatory response on VTA neurons, a fast and short lasting depolarization mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors and a longer lasting depolarization mediated by NMDA receptors. A role for the two glutamate receptors in modulation of VTA neuronal activity is evidenced by the functional change in AMPA and NMDA synaptic responses that result from repeated exposure to reward. Since both receptors contribute to the action of glutamate on VTA neuronal activity, we studied the effects of VTA AMPA and NMDA receptor blockade on reward induced by electrical brain stimulation. Experiments were performed on rats trained to self-administer electrical pulses in the medial posterior mesencephalon. Reward thresholds were measured with the curve-shift paradigm before and for 2 h after bilateral VTA microinjections of the AMPA antagonist, NBQX (2,3,-Dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo(f)quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide, 0, 80, and 800 pmol/0.5 μl/side) and of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5 μl/side) of the NMDA antagonist, PPPA (2R,4S)-4-(3-Phosphonopropyl)-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid). NBQX produced a dose-dependent increase in reward threshold with no significant change in maximum rate of responding. Whereas PPPA injected at the same VTA sites produced a significant time dependent decrease in reward threshold and increase in maximum rate of responding. We found a negative correlation between the magnitude of the attenuation effect of NBQX and the enhancement effect of PPPA; moreover, NBQX and PPPA were most effective when injected, respectively, into the anterior and posterior VTA. These results suggest that glutamate acts on different receptor sub-types, most likely located on different VTA neurons, to

  16. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor expression in cardiac fibroblasts is modulated by in vitro culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Landeen, Lee K; Aroonsakool, Nakon; Haga, Jason H; Hu, Betty S; Giles, Wayne R

    2007-06-01

    The bioactive molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) binds with high affinity to five recognized receptors (S1P(1-5)) to affect various tissues, including cellular responses of cardiac fibroblasts (CFbs) and myocytes. CFbs are essential components of myocardium, and detailed study of their cell signaling and physiology is required for a number of emerging disciplines. Meaningful studies on CFbs, however, necessitate methods for selective, reproducible cell isolations. Macrophages reside within normal cardiac tissues and often are isolated with CFbs. A protocol was therefore developed that significantly reduces macrophage levels and utilizes more CFb-specific markers (discoidin domain receptor-2) instead of, or in addition to, more commonly used cytoskeletal markers. Our results demonstrate that primary isolated, purified CFbs express predominantly S1P(1-3); however, the relative levels of these receptor subtypes are modulated with time and by culture conditions. In coculture experiments, macrophages altered CFb S1P receptor levels relative to controls. Further investigations using known macrophage-secreted factors showed that S1P and H(2)O(2) had minimal effects on CFb S1P(1-3) expression, whereas transforming growth factor-beta1, TNF-alpha, and PDGF-BB significantly altered all S1P receptor subtypes. Lowering FBS concentrations from 10% to 0.1% increased S1P(2), whereas supplementation with either PDGF-BB or Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor Y-27632 significantly elevated S1P(3) levels. S1P(2) and S1P(3) receptor levels are known to regulate cell migration. Using cells isolated from either normal or S1P(3)-null mice, we demonstrate that S1P(3) is important and necessary for CFb migration. These results highlight the importance of demonstrating CFb culture purity in functional studies of S1P and also identify conditions that modulate S1P receptor expression in CFbs.

  17. Antiandrogens Act as Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators at the Proteome Level in Prostate Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Greg N.; Gamble, Simon C.; Hough, Michael A.; Begum, Shajna; Dart, D. Alwyn; Odontiadis, Michael; Powell, Sue M.; Fioretti, Flavia M.; Bryan, Rosie A.; Waxman, Jonathan; Wait, Robin; Bevan, Charlotte L.

    2015-01-01

    Current therapies for prostate cancer include antiandrogens, inhibitory ligands of the androgen receptor, which repress androgen-stimulated growth. These include the selective androgen receptor modulators cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide and the complete antagonist bicalutamide. Their activity is partly dictated by the presence of androgen receptor mutations, which are commonly detected in patients who relapse while receiving antiandrogens, i.e. in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. To characterize the early proteomic response to these antiandrogens we used the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line, which harbors the androgen receptor mutation most commonly detected in castrate-resistant tumors (T877A), analyzing alterations in the proteome, and comparing these to the effect of these therapeutics upon androgen receptor activity and cell proliferation. The majority are regulated post-transcriptionally, possibly via nongenomic androgen receptor signaling. Differences detected between the exposure groups demonstrate subtle changes in the biological response to each specific ligand, suggesting a spectrum of agonistic and antagonistic effects dependent on the ligand used. Analysis of the crystal structures of the AR in the presence of cyproterone acetate, hydroxyflutamide, and DHT identified important differences in the orientation of key residues located in the AF-2 and BF-3 protein interaction surfaces. This further implies that although there is commonality in the growth responses between androgens and those antiandrogens that stimulate growth in the presence of a mutation, there may also be influential differences in the growth pathways stimulated by the different ligands. This therefore has implications for prostate cancer treatment because tumors may respond differently dependent upon which mutation is present and which ligand is activating growth, also for the design of selective androgen receptor modulators, which aim to elicit differential proteomic

  18. The Role of Estrogen Related Receptor in Modulating Estrogen Receptor Mediated Transcription in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    tumors correlates with an unfavorable prognosis (Ariazi 2002; Lu 2001; Suzuki 2004; Vanacker 1999). The transcriptional activity of ERRa is not inhibited...SA. 101:6570-5. Needham, M ., S. Raines, J. McPheat, C. Stacey, J. Ellston, S. Hoare, and M . Parker. 2000. Differential interaction of steroid hormone...R. Graves, M . Wright, and B.M. Spiegelman. 1998. A cold- inducible coactivator of nuclear receptors linked to adaptive thermogenesis. Cell. 92:829- 39

  19. Trace metals in the brain: allosteric modulators of ligand-gated receptor channels, the case of ATP-gated P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo; Lorca, Ramón A; Coddou, Claudio

    2008-03-01

    Zinc and copper are indispensable trace metals for life with a recognized role as catalysts in enzyme actions. We now review evidence supporting the role of trace metals as novel allosteric modulators of ionotropic receptors: a new and fundamental physiological role for zinc and copper in neuronal and brain excitability. The review is focussed on ionotropic receptor channels including nucleotide receptors, in particular the P2X receptor family. Since zinc and copper are stored within synaptic vesicles in selected brain regions, and released to the synaptic cleft upon electrical nerve ending depolarization, it is plausible that zinc and copper reach concentrations in the synapse that profoundly affect ligand-gated ionic channels, including the ATP-gated currents of P2X receptors. The identification of key P2X receptor amino acids that act as ligands for trace metal coordination, carves the structural determinants underlying the allosteric nature of the trace metal modulation. The recognition that the identified key residues such as histidines, aspartic and glutamic acids or cysteines in the extracellular domain are different for each P2X receptor subtype and may be different for each metal, highlights the notion that each P2X receptor subtype evolved independent strategies for metal coordination, which form upon the proper three-dimensional folding of the receptor channels. The understanding of the molecular mechanism of allosteric modulation of ligand-operated ionic channels by trace metals is a new contribution to metallo-neurobiology.

  20. Hispolon inhibits the growth of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells through modulation of estrogen receptor alpha

    SciT

    Jang, Eun Hyang; Jang, Soon Young; Cho, In-Hye

    Human estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a nuclear transcription factor that is a major therapeutic target in breast cancer. The transcriptional activity of ERα is regulated by certain estrogen-receptor modulators. Hispolon, isolated from Phellinus linteus, a traditional medicinal mushroom called Sanghwang in Korea, has been used to treat various pathologies, such as inflammation, gastroenteric disorders, lymphatic diseases, and cancers. In this latter context, Hispolon has been reported to exhibit therapeutic efficacy against various cancer cells, including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocarcinoma, bladder cancer, and gastric cancer cells. However, ERα regulation by Hispolon has not been reported. In this study, we investigated themore » effects of Hispolon on the growth of breast cancer cells. We found that Hispolon decreased expression of ERα at both mRNA and the protein levels in MCF7 and T47D human breast cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Hispolon decreased the transcriptional activity of ERα. Hispolon treatment also inhibited expression of the ERα target gene pS2. We propose that Hispolon, an anticancer drug extracted from natural sources, inhibits cell growth through modulation of ERα in estrogen-positive breast cancer cells and is a candidate for use in human breast cancer chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Hispolon decreased ERα expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Hispolon decreased ERα transcriptional activity. • Hispolon treatment inhibited expression of ERα target gene pS2. • Shikonin is a candidate chemotherapeutic target in the treatment of human breast cancer.« less

  1. Recent advance in the design of small molecular modulators of estrogen-related receptors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoyun; Peng, Lijie; Lv, Man; ding, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), comprising ERRα, ERRβ and ERRγ, are the members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which have been functionally implicated in estrogen signal pathway in various patterns. However, no natural ligand of ERRs has been identified to data, so identification of the synthetic modulators (inverse agonist and agonist) of ERRs would be highly effective in the treatment of estrogen-related pathologies, such as diabetes, breast cancer and osteoporosis. This review summarizes the structures and biological functions of ERR subtypes, and the progress in designing the small molecular modulators of ERRs as well as the detailed description of available co-crystal structures of the LBD of ERRs in three distinct states: unligand, inverse agonist bound, and agonist bound.

  2. Molecular Basis for Modulation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Their Drug Actions by Extracellular Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Juan; Jiang, Jason Y.; Yang, Jenny J.

    2017-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) associated with the slow phase of the glutamatergic signaling pathway in neurons of the central nervous system have gained importance as drug targets for chronic neurodegenerative diseases. While extracellular Ca2+ was reported to exhibit direct activation and modulation via an allosteric site, the identification of those binding sites was challenged by weak binding. Herein, we review the discovery of extracellular Ca2+ in regulation of mGluRs, summarize the recent developments in probing Ca2+ binding and its co-regulation of the receptor based on structural and biochemical analysis, and discuss the molecular basis for Ca2+ to regulate various classes of drug action as well as its importance as an allosteric modulator in mGluRs. PMID:28335551

  3. Progesterone modulates the LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone-receptor independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Schander, Julieta Aylen; Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2015-12-15

    Genital tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria induce miscarriage and are one of the most common complications of human pregnancy. LPS administration to 7-day pregnant mice induces embryo resorption after 24h, with nitric oxide playing a fundamental role in this process. We have previously shown that progesterone exerts protective effects on the embryo by modulating the inflammatory reaction triggered by LPS. Here we sought to investigate whether the in vivo administration of progesterone modulated the LPS-induced nitric oxide production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant and non-pregnant mice. We found that progesterone downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone receptor-independent mechanism. Moreover, our results suggest a possible participation of glucocorticoid receptors in at least some of the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Presynaptic serotonin 2A receptors modulate thalamocortical plasticity and associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Barre, Alexander; Berthoux, Coralie; De Bundel, Dimitri; Valjent, Emmanuel; Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe; Bécamel, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level cognitive processes strongly depend on a complex interplay between mediodorsal thalamus nuclei and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Alteration of thalamofrontal connectivity has been involved in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Prefrontal serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors play an essential role in cortical network activity, but the mechanism underlying their modulation of glutamatergic transmission and plasticity at thalamocortical synapses remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that 5-HT2A receptor activation enhances NMDA transmission and gates the induction of temporal-dependent plasticity mediated by NMDA receptors at thalamocortical synapses in acute PFC slices. Expressing 5-HT2A receptors in the mediodorsal thalamus (presynaptic site) of 5-HT2A receptor-deficient mice, but not in the PFC (postsynaptic site), using a viral gene-delivery approach, rescued the otherwise absent potentiation of NMDA transmission, induction of temporal plasticity, and deficit in associative memory. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first physiological evidence of a role of presynaptic 5-HT2A receptors located at thalamocortical synapses in the control of thalamofrontal connectivity and the associated cognitive functions. PMID:26903620

  5. Honey Bee Allatostatins Target Galanin/Somatostatin-Like Receptors and Modulate Learning: A Conserved Function?

    PubMed Central

    Urlacher, Elodie; Soustelle, Laurent; Parmentier, Marie-Laure; Verlinden, Heleen; Gherardi, Marie-Julie; Fourmy, Daniel; Mercer, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing of the honeybee genome revealed many neuropeptides and putative neuropeptide receptors, yet functional characterization of these peptidic systems is scarce. In this study, we focus on allatostatins, which were first identified as inhibitors of juvenile hormone synthesis, but whose role in the adult honey bee (Apis mellifera) brain remains to be determined. We characterize the bee allatostatin system, represented by two families: allatostatin A (Apime-ASTA) and its receptor (Apime-ASTA-R); and C-type allatostatins (Apime-ASTC and Apime-ASTCC) and their common receptor (Apime-ASTC-R). Apime-ASTA-R and Apime-ASTC-R are the receptors in bees most closely related to vertebrate galanin and somatostatin receptors, respectively. We examine the functional properties of the two honeybee receptors and show that they are transcriptionally expressed in the adult brain, including in brain centers known to be important for learning and memory processes. Thus we investigated the effects of exogenously applied allatostatins on appetitive olfactory learning in the bee. Our results show that allatostatins modulate learning in this insect, and provide important insights into the evolution of somatostatin/allatostatin signaling. PMID:26741132

  6. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES✩

    PubMed Central

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2013-01-01

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5–10 mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2− interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:22732654

  7. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES.

    PubMed

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2014-06-05

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5-10mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2- interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficient modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors by piperine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Schöffmann, Angela; Wimmer, Laurin; Goldmann, Daria; Khom, Sophia; Hintersteiner, Juliane; Baburin, Igor; Schwarz, Thomas; Hintersteininger, Michael; Pakfeifer, Peter; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias; Erker, Thomas; Ecker, Gerhard F; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Hering, Steffen

    2014-07-10

    Piperine activates TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor) receptors and modulates γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR). We have synthesized a library of 76 piperine analogues and analyzed their effects on GABAAR by means of a two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. GABAAR were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) were established to identify structural elements essential for efficiency and potency. Efficiency of piperine derivatives was significantly increased by exchanging the piperidine moiety with either N,N-dipropyl, N,N-diisopropyl, N,N-dibutyl, p-methylpiperidine, or N,N-bis(trifluoroethyl) groups. Potency was enhanced by replacing the piperidine moiety by N,N-dibutyl, N,N-diisobutyl, or N,N-bistrifluoroethyl groups. Linker modifications did not substantially enhance the effect on GABAAR. Compound 23 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dipropyl-2,4-pentadienamide] induced the strongest modulation of GABAA (maximal GABA-induced chloride current modulation (IGABA-max = 1673% ± 146%, EC50 = 51.7 ± 9.5 μM), while 25 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dibutyl-2,4-pentadienamide] displayed the highest potency (EC50 = 13.8 ± 1.8 μM, IGABA-max = 760% ± 47%). Compound 23 induced significantly stronger anxiolysis in mice than piperine and thus may serve as a starting point for developing novel GABAAR modulators.

  9. Efficient Modulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors by Piperine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Piperine activates TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor) receptors and modulates γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR). We have synthesized a library of 76 piperine analogues and analyzed their effects on GABAAR by means of a two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. GABAAR were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Structure–activity relationships (SARs) were established to identify structural elements essential for efficiency and potency. Efficiency of piperine derivatives was significantly increased by exchanging the piperidine moiety with either N,N-dipropyl, N,N-diisopropyl, N,N-dibutyl, p-methylpiperidine, or N,N-bis(trifluoroethyl) groups. Potency was enhanced by replacing the piperidine moiety by N,N-dibutyl, N,N-diisobutyl, or N,N-bistrifluoroethyl groups. Linker modifications did not substantially enhance the effect on GABAAR. Compound 23 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dipropyl-2,4-pentadienamide] induced the strongest modulation of GABAA (maximal GABA-induced chloride current modulation (IGABA-max = 1673% ± 146%, EC50 = 51.7 ± 9.5 μM), while 25 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dibutyl-2,4-pentadienamide] displayed the highest potency (EC50 = 13.8 ± 1.8 μM, IGABA-max = 760% ± 47%). Compound 23 induced significantly stronger anxiolysis in mice than piperine and thus may serve as a starting point for developing novel GABAAR modulators. PMID:24905252

  10. Endometrial changes from short-term therapy with CDB-4124, a selective progesterone receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Ioffe, Olga B; Zaino, Richard J; Mutter, George L

    2009-03-01

    Selective progesterone receptor modulators are a class of drugs with progesterone antagonist activity that may confer therapeutic benefit for reproductive disorders in premenopausal women. Endometrial structure, which is dynamically controlled by circulating sex hormones, is likely to be perturbed by progesterone receptor modulators through their progesterone antagonist properties. We examined endometrial histology in 58 premenopausal women treated with the progesterone receptor modulator CDB-4124 (also known as Proellex) for endometriosis or uterine leiomyomata in two clinical trials. Endometrial biopsies obtained after 3 or 6 months with doses of 12.5, 25, or 50 mg daily oral CDB-4124 were reviewed independently by three pathologists. Consensus diagnoses using the World Health Organization hyperplasia scoring system, comments on specific histologic features, and clinical annotation were collected and analyzed. The majority of the endometrial biopsies (103 of 174 biopsies) contained histologic changes that are not seen during normal menstrual cycles. The histology of CDB-4124-treated patients was generally inactive or atrophic, and less frequently, proliferative or secretory, superimposed upon which were novel changes including formation of cystically dilated glands, and secretory changes coexisting with mitoses and apoptotic bodies. With increasing treatment dose and duration, the cysts became predominant and their lining inactive or atrophic. Cystic glands in the CDB-4124-treated subjects correlated with increased endometrial thickness by ultrasound. None of the CDB-4124-treated patients developed endometrial carcinoma or hyperplasia while on therapy. CDB-4124 therapy for 3-6 months produces histologic changes that are sufficiently novel that they might easily be misinterpreted by pathologists, particularly as disordered proliferative or hyperplastic endometrium. Knowledge of the constellation of endometrial changes associated with this agent and other

  11. Muscarinic receptor M4 positive allosteric modulators attenuate central effects of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Dall, Camilla; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna C; Wörtwein, Gitta; Conn, P Jeffrey; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease affecting neurotransmission. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic signaling in the reward system, and muscarinic receptor stimulation can block direct reinforcing effects of cocaine. Here, we tested the hypothesis that specific muscarinic M 4 receptor stimulation can attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects and conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine, measures believed to predict the ability of cocaine and cocaine-associated cues to elicit relapse to drug taking. We tested the M 4 -selective positive allosteric modulators VU0152100 and VU0467154 in a drug discrimination assay and a conditioned place preference assay, including extinction and reinstatement of place preference. Specificity of the cocaine discrimination effect was verified using knockout mice lacking either M 1 or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 4 -/- ). We also replicated previous findings in cocaine-induced locomotor hyperactivity and striatal dopamine microdialysis assays. VU0152100 attenuated the discriminative stimulus effect of cocaine in wild-type mice and M 1 -/- mice, but not in M 4 -/- mice, without affecting rates of responding. As previously shown with VU0152100, VU0467154 almost eliminated cocaine-induced hyperactivity and striatal dopamine efflux. VU0467154 failed to attenuate acquisition of cocaine-conditioned place preference, but facilitated extinction and prevented reinstatement of the conditioned place preference. These findings further support the notion that M 4 receptors are promising targets for the treatment of cocaine addiction, by showing that results can be replicated using distinct ligands, and that in addition to blocking reinforcing effects of cocaine relevant to ongoing drug taking, M 4 positive allosteric modulators can also attenuate subjective and conditioned effects relevant to relapse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bo; Luo, Dong; Yang, Jie; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Bing-Lin; Wang, Xue-Feng; Yan, Zhen; Chen, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Layer I neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibit extensive synaptic connections with deep layer neurons, implying their important role in the neural circuit. Study demonstrates that activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) increases excitatory neurotransmission in this layer. Here we found that nicotine selectively increased the amplitude of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated current and AMPA/NMDA ratio, while without effect on NMDA receptor-mediated current. The augmentation of AMPAR current by nicotine was inhibited by a selective α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) and intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA. In addition, nicotinic effect on mEPSC or paired-pulse ratio was also prevented by MLA. Moreover, an enhanced inward rectification of AMPAR current by nicotine suggested a functional role of calcium permeable and GluA1 containing AMPAR. Consistently, nicotine enhancement of AMPAR current was inhibited by a selective calcium-permeable AMPAR inhibitor IEM-1460. Finally, the intracellular inclusion of synthetic peptide designed to block GluA1 subunit of AMPAR at CAMKII, PKC or PKA phosphorylation site, as well as corresponding kinase inhibitor, blocked nicotinic augmentation of AMPA/NMDA ratio. These results have revealed that nicotine increases AMPAR current by modulating the phosphorylation state of GluA1 which is dependent on α7-nAChR and intracellular calcium. PMID:26370265

  13. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  14. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Krysta, Krzysztof; Drzyzga, Karolina; Barańska, Justyna; Kucia, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Gender differences in schizophrenia have been recognized for a long time and it has been widely accepted that sex steroid hormones, especially estradiol, are strongly attributed to this fact. Two hypotheses regarding estradiol action in psychoses gained special research attention - the estrogen protection hypothesis and hypoestrogenism hypothesis. A growing number of studies have shown benefits in augmenting antipsychotic treatment with estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM). This review is focused on the role of selective estrogen receptor modulators in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. In order to achieve this result PubMed was searched using the following terms: schizophrenia, raloxifene, humans. We reviewed only randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator was identified as useful to improve negative, positive, and general psychopathological symptoms, and also cognitive functions. All reviewed studies indicated improvement in at least one studied domain. Augmentation with raloxifene was found to be a beneficial treatment strategy for chronic schizophrenia both in female and male patients, however potential side effects (a small increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism and endometrial cancer) should be carefully considered. SERMs could be an effective augmentation strategy in the treatment of both men women with schizophrenia, although further research efforts are needed to study potential long-term side effects.

  15. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation Increases Hippocampal Activity during Probabilistic Association Learning in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kindler, Jochen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Skilleter, Ashley J; Catts, Stanley V; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    People with schizophrenia show probabilistic association learning impairment in conjunction with abnormal neural activity. The selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) raloxifene preserves neural activity during memory in healthy older men and improves memory in schizophrenia. Here, we tested the extent to which raloxifene modifies neural activity during learning in schizophrenia. Nineteen people with schizophrenia participated in a twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over adjunctive treatment trial of the SERM raloxifene administered orally at 120 mg daily to assess brain activity during probabilistic association learning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Raloxifene improved probabilistic association learning and significantly increased fMRI BOLD activity in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus relative to placebo. A separate region of interest confirmatory analysis in 21 patients vs 36 healthy controls showed a positive association between parahippocampal neural activity and learning in patients, but no such relationship in the parahippocampal gyrus of healthy controls. Thus, selective estrogen receptor modulation by raloxifene concurrently increases activity in the parahippocampal gyrus and improves probabilistic association learning in schizophrenia. These results support a role for estrogen receptor modulation of mesial temporal lobe neural activity in the remediation of learning disabilities in both men and women with schizophrenia. PMID:25829142

  16. Temporal modulation transfer functions in auditory receptor fibres of the locust ( Locusta migratoria L.).

    PubMed

    Prinz, P; Ronacher, B

    2002-08-01

    The temporal resolution of auditory receptors of locusts was investigated by applying noise stimuli with sinusoidal amplitude modulations and by computing temporal modulation transfer functions. These transfer functions showed mostly bandpass characteristics, which are rarely found in other species at the level of receptors. From the upper cut-off frequencies of the modulation transfer functions the minimum integration times were calculated. Minimum integration times showed no significant correlation to the receptor spike rates but depended strongly on the body temperature. At 20 degrees C the average minimum integration time was 1.7 ms, dropping to 0.95 ms at 30 degrees C. The values found in this study correspond well to the range of minimum integration times found in birds and mammals. Gap detection is another standard paradigm to investigate temporal resolution. In locusts and other grasshoppers application of this paradigm yielded values of the minimum detectable gap widths that are approximately twice as large than the minimum integration times reported here.

  17. Design and Synthesis of Cannabinoid 1 Receptor (CB1R) Allosteric Modulators: Drug Discovery Applications.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Abhijit R; Garai, Sumanta; Janero, David R; Thakur, Ganesh A

    2017-01-01

    Also expressed in various peripheral tissues, the type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) is the predominant G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in brain, where it is responsible for retrograde control of neurotransmitter release. Cellular signaling mediated by CB1R is involved in numerous physiological processes, and pharmacological CB1R modulation is considered a tenable therapeutic approach for diseases ranging from substance-use disorders and glaucoma to metabolic syndrome. Despite the design and synthesis of a variety of bioactive small molecules targeted to the CB1R orthosteric ligand-binding site, the potential of CB1R as a therapeutic GPCR has been largely unrealized due to adverse events associated with typical orthosteric CB1R agonists and antagonists/inverse agonists. Modulation of CB1R-mediated signal transmission by targeting alternative allosteric ligand-binding site(s) on the receptor has garnered interest as a potentially safer and more effective therapeutic modality. This chapter highlights the design and synthesis of novel, pharmacologically active CB1R allosteric modulators and emphasizes how their molecular properties and the positive and negative allosteric control they exert can lead to improved CB1R-targeted pharmacotherapeutics, as well as designer covalent probes that can be used to map CB1R allosteric binding domains and inform structure-based drug design. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Muscarinic receptors modulate the intrinsic excitability of infralimbic neurons and consolidation of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Santini, Edwin; Sepulveda-Orengo, Marian; Porter, James T

    2012-08-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying pharmacological compounds that could be used to facilitate fear extinction. Recently, we showed that the modulation of M-type K(+) channels regulates the intrinsic excitability of infralimbic (IL) neurons and fear expression. As muscarinic acetylcholine receptors inhibit M-type K(+) channels, cholinergic inputs to IL may have an important role in controlling IL excitability and, thereby, fear expression and extinction. To test this model, we combined whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology and auditory fear conditioning. In prefrontal brain slices, muscarine enhanced the intrinsic excitability of IL neurons by reducing the M-current and the slow afterhyperpolarization, resulting in an increased number of spikes with shorter inter-spike intervals. Next, we examined the role of endogenous activation of muscarinic receptors in fear extinction. Systemic injected scopolamine (Scop) (muscarinic receptor antagonist) before or immediately after extinction training impaired recall of extinction 24-h later, suggesting that muscarinic receptors are critically involved in consolidation of extinction memory. Similarly, infusion of Scop into IL before extinction training also impaired recall of extinction 24-h later. Finally, we demonstrated that systemic injections of the muscarinic agonist, cevimeline (Cev), given before or immediately after extinction training facilitated recall of extinction the following day. Taken together, these findings suggest that cholinergic inputs to IL have a critical role in modulating consolidation of fear extinction and that muscarinic agonists such as Cev might be useful for facilitating extinction memory in patients suffering from anxiety disorders.

  19. Muscarinic Receptors Modulate the Intrinsic Excitability of Infralimbic Neurons and Consolidation of Fear Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Edwin; Sepulveda-Orengo, Marian; Porter, James T

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying pharmacological compounds that could be used to facilitate fear extinction. Recently, we showed that the modulation of M-type K+ channels regulates the intrinsic excitability of infralimbic (IL) neurons and fear expression. As muscarinic acetylcholine receptors inhibit M-type K+ channels, cholinergic inputs to IL may have an important role in controlling IL excitability and, thereby, fear expression and extinction. To test this model, we combined whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology and auditory fear conditioning. In prefrontal brain slices, muscarine enhanced the intrinsic excitability of IL neurons by reducing the M-current and the slow afterhyperpolarization, resulting in an increased number of spikes with shorter inter-spike intervals. Next, we examined the role of endogenous activation of muscarinic receptors in fear extinction. Systemic injected scopolamine (Scop) (muscarinic receptor antagonist) before or immediately after extinction training impaired recall of extinction 24-h later, suggesting that muscarinic receptors are critically involved in consolidation of extinction memory. Similarly, infusion of Scop into IL before extinction training also impaired recall of extinction 24-h later. Finally, we demonstrated that systemic injections of the muscarinic agonist, cevimeline (Cev), given before or immediately after extinction training facilitated recall of extinction the following day. Taken together, these findings suggest that cholinergic inputs to IL have a critical role in modulating consolidation of fear extinction and that muscarinic agonists such as Cev might be useful for facilitating extinction memory in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. PMID:22510723

  20. Dopamine Modulation of Avoidance Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans Requires the NMDA Receptor NMR-1

    PubMed Central

    Baidya, Melvin; Genovez, Marx; Torres, Marissa; Chao, Michael Y.

    2014-01-01

    The nematode C. elegans utilizes a relatively simple neural circuit to mediate avoidance responses to noxious stimuli such as the volatile odorant octanol. This avoidance behavior is modulated by dopamine. cat-2 mutant animals that are deficient in dopamine biosynthesis have an increased response latency to octanol compared to wild type animals, and this defect can be fully restored with the application of exogenous dopamine. Because this avoidance behavior is mediated by glutamatergic signaling between sensory neurons and premotor interneurons, we investigated the genetic interactions between dopaminergic signaling and ionotropic glutamate receptors. cat-2 mutant animals lacking either the GLR-1 or GLR-2 AMPA/kainate receptors displayed an increased response latency to octanol, which could be restored via exogenous dopamine. However, whereas cat-2 mutant animals lacking the NMR-1 NMDA receptor had increased response latency to octanol they were insensitive to exogenous dopamine. Mutants that lacked both AMPA/kainate and NMDA receptors were also insensitive to exogenous dopamine. Our results indicate that dopamine modulation of octanol avoidance requires NMR-1, consistent with NMR-1 as a potential downstream signaling target for dopamine. PMID:25089710

  1. Cannabinoids Modulate Neuronal Activity and Cancer by CB1 and CB2 Receptor-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Soderstrom, Ken; Soliman, Eman; Van Dross, Rukiyah

    2017-01-01

    Cannabinoids include the active constituents of Cannabis or are molecules that mimic the structure and/or function of these Cannabis-derived molecules. Cannabinoids produce many of their cellular and organ system effects by interacting with the well-characterized CB1 and CB2 receptors. However, it has become clear that not all effects of cannabinoid drugs are attributable to their interaction with CB1 and CB2 receptors. Evidence now demonstrates that cannabinoid agents produce effects by modulating activity of the entire array of cellular macromolecules targeted by other drug classes, including: other receptor types; ion channels; transporters; enzymes, and protein- and non-protein cellular structures. This review summarizes evidence for these interactions in the CNS and in cancer, and is organized according to the cellular targets involved. The CNS represents a well-studied area and cancer is emerging in terms of understanding mechanisms by which cannabinoids modulate their activity. Considering the CNS and cancer together allow identification of non-cannabinoid receptor targets that are shared and divergent in both systems. This comparative approach allows the identified targets to be compared and contrasted, suggesting potential new areas of investigation. It also provides insight into the diverse sources of efficacy employed by this interesting class of drugs. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the diverse mechanisms of cannabinoid action may lead to the design and development of therapeutic agents with greater efficacy and specificity for their cellular targets. PMID:29066974

  2. Nociceptive transmission and modulation via P2X receptors in central pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yung-Hui; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2016-05-26

    Painful sensations are some of the most frequent complaints of patients who are admitted to local medical clinics. Persistent pain varies according to its causes, often resulting from local tissue damage or inflammation. Central somatosensory pathway lesions that are not adequately relieved can consequently cause central pain syndrome or central neuropathic pain. Research on the molecular mechanisms that underlie this pathogenesis is important for treating such pain. To date, evidence suggests the involvement of ion channels, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channel P2X receptors, in central nervous system pain transmission and persistent modulation upon and following the occurrence of neuropathic pain. Several P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, have been shown to play diverse roles in the pathogenesis of central pain including the mediation of fast transmission in the peripheral nervous system and modulation of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. This review article highlights the role of the P2X family of ATP receptors in the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain and pain transmission. We discuss basic research that may be translated to clinical application, suggesting that P2X receptors may be treatment targets for central pain syndrome.

  3. Metabotropic Glutamate2 Receptors Play a Key Role in Modulating Head Twitches Induced by a Serotonergic Hallucinogen in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Benvenga, Mark J.; Chaney, Stephen F.; Baez, Melvyn; Britton, Thomas C.; Hornback, William J.; Monn, James A.; Marek, Gerard J.

    2018-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that glutamate can modulate the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptor activation through stimulation of metabotropic glutamate2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Here we show that constitutive deletion of the mGlu2 gene profoundly attenuates an effect of 5-HT2A receptor activation using the mouse head twitch response (HTR). MGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor knockout (KO) as well as age-matched ICR (CD-1) wild type (WT) mice were administered (±)1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and observed for head twitch activity. DOI failed to produce significant head twitches in mGlu2 receptor KO mice at a dose 10-fold higher than the peak effective dose in WT or mGlu3 receptor KO mice. In addition, the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268, and the mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) CBiPES, potently blocked the HTR to DOI in WT and mGlu3 receptor KO mice. Conversely, the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 (10 mg/kg) increased the HTR produced by DOI (3 mg/kg) in mGlu3 receptor KO mice. Finally, the mGlu2 receptor potentiator CBiPES was able to attenuate the increase in the HTR produced by LY341495 in mGlu3 receptor KO mice. Taken together, all of these results are consistent with the hypothesis that that DOI-induced head twitches are modulated by mGlu2 receptor activation. These results also are in keeping with a critical autoreceptor function for mGlu2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex with differential effects of acute vs. chronic perturbation (e.g., constitutive mGlu2 receptor KO mice). The robust attenuation of DOI-induced head twitches in the mGlu2 receptor KO mice appears to reflect the critical role of glutamate in ongoing regulation of 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Future experiments with inducible knockouts for the mGlu2 receptor and/or selective mGlu3 receptor agonists/PAMs/antagonists could provide an important tools in understanding glutamatergic modulation of prefrontal

  4. Positive allosteric modulators of the μ-opioid receptor: a novel approach for future pain medications

    PubMed Central

    Burford, N T; Traynor, J R; Alt, A

    2015-01-01

    Morphine and other agonists of the μ-opioid receptor are used clinically for acute and chronic pain relief and are considered to be the gold standard for pain medication. However, these opioids also have significant side effects, which are also mediated via activation of the μ-opioid receptor. Since the latter half of the twentieth century, researchers have sought to tease apart the mechanisms underlying analgesia, tolerance and dependence, with the hope of designing drugs with fewer side effects. These efforts have revolved around the design of orthosteric agonists with differing pharmacokinetic properties and/or selectivity profiles for the different opioid receptor types. Recently, μ-opioid receptor-positive allosteric modulators (μ-PAMs) were identified, which bind to a (allosteric) site on the μ-opioid receptor separate from the orthosteric site that binds an endogenous agonist. These allosteric modulators have little or no detectable functional activity when bound to the receptor in the absence of orthosteric agonist, but can potentiate the activity of bound orthosteric agonist, seen as an increase in apparent potency and/or efficacy of the orthosteric agonist. In this review, we describe the potential advantages that a μ-PAM approach might bring to the design of novel therapeutics for pain that may lack the side effects currently associated with opioid therapy. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24460691

  5. The Mas receptor mediates modulation of insulin signaling by angiotensin-(1-7).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Marina C; Giani, Jorge F; Burghi, Valeria; Mayer, Marcos A; Carranza, Andrea; Taira, Carlos A; Dominici, Fernando P

    2012-08-20

    Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) stimulates proteins belonging to the insulin signaling pathway and ameliorates the Ang II negative effects at this level. However, up to date, receptors involved and mechanisms behind these observations remain unknown. Accordingly, in the present study, we explored the in vivo effects of antagonism of the Ang-(1-7) specific Mas receptor on insulin signal transduction in rat insulin-target tissues. We evaluated the acute modulation of insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β (Glycogen synthase kinase-3β) and AS160 (Akt substrate of 160kDa) by Ang-(1-7) and/or Ang II in the presence and absence of the selective Mas receptor antagonist A-779 in insulin-target tissues of normal rats. Also using A-779, we determined whether the Mas receptor mediates the improvement of insulin sensitivity exerted by chronic Ang-(1-7) treatment in fructose-fed rats (FFR), a model of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and mild hypertension. The two major findings of the present work are as follows; 1) Ang-(1-7) attenuates acute Ang II-mediated inhibition of insulin signaling components in normal rats via a Mas receptor-dependent mechanism; and 2). The Mas receptor appears to be involved in beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7) on the phosphorylation of crucial insulin signaling mediators (Akt, GSK-3β and AS160), in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of FFR. These results shed light into the mechanism by which Ang-(1-7) exerts its positive physiological modulation of insulin actions in classical metabolic tissues and reinforces the central role of Akt in these effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Panning for SNuRMs: using cofactor profiling for the rational discovery of selective nuclear receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Kremoser, Claus; Albers, Michael; Burris, Thomas P; Deuschle, Ulrich; Koegl, Manfred

    2007-10-01

    Drugs that target nuclear receptors are clinically, as well as commercially, successful. Their widespread use, however, is limited by an inherent propensity of nuclear receptors to trigger beneficial, as well as adverse, pharmacological effects upon drug activation. Hence, selective drugs that display reduced adverse effects, such as the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) Raloxifene, have been developed by guidance through classical cell culture assays and animal trials. Full agonist and selective modulator nuclear receptor drugs, in general, differ by their ability to recruit certain cofactors to the receptor protein. Hence, systematic cofactor profiling is advancing into an approach for the rationally guided identification of selective NR modulators (SNuRMs) with improved therapeutic ratio.

  7. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Modulators for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Burhan Z; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Conway, Devon S

    2017-10-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulators possess a unique mechanism of action in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Subtype 1 of the S1PR is expressed on the surface of lymphocytes and is important in regulating egression from lymph nodes. The S1PR modulators indirectly antagonize the receptor's function leading to sequestration of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes. Fingolimod was the first S1PR modulator to receive regulatory approval for relapsing-remitting MS after 2 phase III trials demonstrated potent efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Fingolimod can cause undesirable effects as a result of its interaction with other S1PR subtypes, which are expressed in diverse tissues, including cardiac myocytes. As such, agents that more selectively target subtype 1 of the S1PR are of interest and are at various stages of development. These include ponesimod (ACT128800), siponimod (BAF312), ozanimod (RPC1063), ceralifimod (ONO-4641), GSK2018682, and MT-1303. Data from phase II trials and early results from phase III studies have been promising and will be presented in this review. Of special interest are results from the EXPAND study of siponimod, which suggest a potential role for S1PR modulators in secondary progressive MS.

  8. Differential network analysis reveals the genome-wide landscape of estrogen receptor modulation in hormonal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Chiu, Yu-Chiao; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Lu, Tzu-Pin; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Huang, Tim H.-M.; Chuang, Eric Y.; Chen, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Several mutual information (MI)-based algorithms have been developed to identify dynamic gene-gene and function-function interactions governed by key modulators (genes, proteins, etc.). Due to intensive computation, however, these methods rely heavily on prior knowledge and are limited in genome-wide analysis. We present the modulated gene/gene set interaction (MAGIC) analysis to systematically identify genome-wide modulation of interaction networks. Based on a novel statistical test employing conjugate Fisher transformations of correlation coefficients, MAGIC features fast computation and adaption to variations of clinical cohorts. In simulated datasets MAGIC achieved greatly improved computation efficiency and overall superior performance than the MI-based method. We applied MAGIC to construct the estrogen receptor (ER) modulated gene and gene set (representing biological function) interaction networks in breast cancer. Several novel interaction hubs and functional interactions were discovered. ER+ dependent interaction between TGFβ and NFκB was further shown to be associated with patient survival. The findings were verified in independent datasets. Using MAGIC, we also assessed the essential roles of ER modulation in another hormonal cancer, ovarian cancer. Overall, MAGIC is a systematic framework for comprehensively identifying and constructing the modulated interaction networks in a whole-genome landscape. MATLAB implementation of MAGIC is available for academic uses at https://github.com/chiuyc/MAGIC. PMID:26972162

  9. Distinctive Modulation of Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Mediated by Dopamine and Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hoon; Adrover, Martin F; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2017-11-15

    Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA-dependent behaviors such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A disynaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this disynaptic mechanism of DA transmission are not well understood in the NAc shell. In this study, in vitro fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the modulation of DA transmission evoked by CINs firing in the shell of mice and compared with other striatal regions. We found that DA signals in the shell displayed significant degree of summation in response to train stimulation of CINs, contrary to core and dorsal striatum. The summation was amplified by a D2-like receptor antagonist and experiments with mice with targeted deletion of D2 receptors to DANs or CINs revealed that D2 receptors in CINs mediate a fast inhibition observed within 100 ms of the first pulse, whereas D2 autoreceptors in DAN terminals are engaged in a slower inhibition that peaks at ∼500 ms. ACh also contributes to the use-dependent inhibition of DA release through muscarinic receptors only in the shell, where higher activity of acetylcholinesterase minimizes nAChR desensitization and promotes summation. These findings show that DA signals are modulated differentially by endogenous DA and ACh in the shell, which may underlie the unique features of shell DA signals in vivo SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The present study reports that dopamine (DA) release evoked by activation of cholinergic interneurons displays a high degree of summation in the shell and shows unique modulation by endogenous DA and acetylcholine. Desensitization of nicotinic receptors, which is a prevailing mechanism for use-dependent inhibition in the nucleus accumbens core and dorsal striatum, is

  10. Modulation of hypoglossal motoneuron excitability by NK1 receptor activation in neonatal mice in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Kouichi; Robinson, Dean M; Selvaratnam, Subramaniam R; Walsh, Carmen W; McMorland, Angus J C; Funk, Gregory D

    2001-01-01

    The effects of substance P (SP), acting at NK1 receptors, on the excitability and inspiratory activity of hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons (MNs) were investigated using rhythmically active medullary-slice preparations from neonatal mice (postnatal day 0–3). Local application of the NK1 agonist [SAR9,Met (O2)11]-SP (SPNK1) produced a dose-dependent, spantide- (a non-specific NK receptor antagonist) and GR82334-(an NK1 antagonist) sensitive increase in inspiratory burst amplitude recorded from XII nerves. Under current clamp, SPNK1 significantly depolarized XII MNs, potentiated repetitive firing responses to injected currents and produced a leftward shift in the firing frequency-current relationships without affecting slope. Under voltage clamp, SPNK1 evoked an inward current and increased input resistance, but had no effect on inspiratory synaptic currents. SPNK1 currents persisted in the presence of TTX, were GR82334 sensitive, were reduced with hyperpolarization and reversed near the expected EK. Effects of the α1-noradrenergic receptor agonist phenylephrine (PE) on repetitive firing behaviour were virtually identical to those of SPNK1. Moreover, SPNK1 currents were completely occluded by PE, suggesting that common intracellular pathways mediate the actions of NK1 and α1-noradrenergic receptors. In spite of the similar actions of SPNK1 and PE on XII MN responses to somally injected current, α1-noradrenergic receptor activation potentiated inspiratory synaptic currents and was more than twice as effective in potentiating XII nerve inspiratory burst amplitude. GR82334 reduced XII nerve inspiratory burst amplitude and generated a small outward current in XII MNs. These observations, together with the first immunohistochemical evidence in the newborn for SP immunopositive terminals in the vicinity of SPNK1-sensitive inspiratory XII MNs, support the endogenous modulation of XII MN excitability by SP. In contrast to phrenic MNs (Ptak et al. 2000), blocking NMDA

  11. Celastrol attenuates incision-induced inflammation and pain associated with inhibition of the NF-κB signalling pathway via SARM.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuhui; Zhang, Bo; Li, Jiayan; Feng, Miaomiao; Zhang, Yue; Yao, Wenlong; Zhang, Chuanhan; Wan, Li

    2018-05-08

    This study aimed to investigate whether celastrol (CEL) could alleviate incision-induced pain and decipher its possible mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: naïve, vehicle, CEL (5 μg/paw, 10 μg/paw and 20 μg/paw). CEL or vehicle was administered intraplantarly before plantar surgical incision. Histological examinations of skin tissues were performed after HE staining. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and western blot were performed to analyse macrophages, proinflammatory cytokines, SARM and NF-κB expression, respectively. Moreover, the previous mentioned factors were re-evaluated after suppressing SARM expression by shRNA. The plantar incision rats displayed pain-related behaviours and inflammatory infiltration in the skin. The mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα were significantly upregulated in the skin of surgical rats. The expression of sterile α- and armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM) was downregulated and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) was activated. Interestingly, CEL could partially restore the pain-related behavioural changes. Furthermore, molecular mechanism of CEL was explored, that included significantly reduction of proinflammatory cytokines mRNA expressions, a significant decrease of p-p65 and p65 levels and a markedly increase of SARM and IkBα expressions in skin tissues. However, supression SARM by shRNA partially eliminated those protective effect of CEL. Our data suggest that intraplantarly administration of CEL attenuates inflammatory and acute pain. This finding could be attributed to regulation of the NF-κB signalling pathway via SARM. These results provide pre-clinical evidence supporting the use of CEL in the treatment of surgical pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. DIRECT MODULATION OF THE PROTEIN KINASE A CATALYTIC SUBUNIT α BY GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, George B.; Howe, Alan K.; Nickl, Christian K.; Dostmann, Wolfgang R.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Deming, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    The cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulates processes such as cell proliferation and migration following activation of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), yet the signaling mechanisms that link PKA with growth factor receptors remain largely undefined. Here we report that RTKs can directly modulate the function of the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKA-C) through post-translational modification. In vitro kinase assays revealed that both the epidermal growth factor and platelet derived growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR, respectively) tyrosine phosphorylate PKA-C. Mass spectrometry identified tyrosine 330 (Y330) as a receptor-mediated phosphorylation site and mutation of Y330 to phenylalanine (Y330F) all but abolished the RTK-mediated phosphorylation of PKA-C in vitro. Y330 resides within a conserved region at the C-terminal tail of PKA-C that allosterically regulates enzymatic activity. Therefore, the effect of phosphorylation at Y330 on the activity of PKA-C was investigated. The Km for a peptide substrate was markedly decreased when PKA-C subunits were tyrosine phosphorylated by the receptors as compared to un-phosphorylated controls. Importantly, tyrosine-phosphorylated PKA-C subunits were detected in cells stimulated with EGF, PDGF and FGF2 and in fibroblasts undergoing PDGF-mediated chemotaxis. These results demonstrate a direct, functional interaction between RTKs and PKA-C and identify tyrosine phosphorylation as a novel mechansim for regulating PKA activity. PMID:21866565

  13. Dopamine modulates male sexual behavior in Japanese quail in part via actions on noradrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Cornil, Charlotte A; Dejace, Christel; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2005-08-30

    In rats, dopamine (DA) facilitates male sexual behavior through its combined action on D1- and D2-like receptors, in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) as well as other brain areas. In Japanese quail, systemic injections of dopaminergic drugs suggested a similar pharmacology but central injections have never been performed. Recent electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that DA effects in the MPOA of quail are mediated mainly through the activation of alpha2-noradrenergic receptors. Previous studies of DA action on behavior used specific dopaminergic agonists/antagonists and therefore unintentionally avoided the potential cross-reaction with alpha2-receptors. The present study was thus designed to investigate directly the effects of DA on male sexual behavior and to test whether the interaction of DA with heterologous receptors affects this behavior. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of DA or NE inhibited copulation in a dose-dependent manner. Systemic injections of yohimbine, an alpha2-noradrenergic antagonist, modulated copulation in a bimodal manner depending on the dose injected. Interestingly, a behaviorally ineffective dose of yohimbine markedly reduced the inhibitory effects of DA when injected 15min before. Together, these results show for the first time that i.c.v. injections of DA itself inhibit male sexual behavior in quail and suggest that the interaction of DA with alpha2-receptors has behavioral significance.

  14. Molecular modeling on structure-function analysis of human progesterone receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Pal, Ria; Islam, Md Ataul; Hossain, Tabassum; Saha, Achintya

    2011-01-01

    Considering the significance of progesterone receptor (PR) modulators, the present study is explored to envisage the biophoric signals for binding to selective PR subtype-A using ligand-based quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and pharmacophore space modeling studies on nonsteroidal substituted quinoline and cyclocymopol monomethyl ether derivatives. Consensus QSAR models (Training set (Tr): n(Tr)=100, R(2) (pred)=0.702; test set (Ts): n(Ts)=30, R(2) (pred)=0.705, R(2) (m)=0.635; validation set (Vs): n(Vs)=40, R(2) (pred)=0.715, R(2) (m)=0.680) suggest that molecular topology, atomic polarizability and electronegativity, atomic mass and van der Waals volume of the ligands have influence on the presence of functional atoms (F, Cl, N and O) and consequently contribute significant relations on ligand binding affinity. Receptor independent space modeling study (Tr: n(Tr)=26, Q(2)=0.927; Ts: n(Ts)=60, R(2) (pred)=0.613, R(2) (m)=0.545; Vs: n(Vs)=84, R(2) (pred)=0.611, R(2) (m)=0.507) indicates the importance of aromatic ring, hydrogen bond donor, molecular hydrophobicity and steric influence for receptor binding. The structure-function characterization is adjudged with the receptor-based docking study, explaining the significance of the mapped molecular attributes for ligand-receptor interaction in the catalytic cleft of PR-A.

  15. Pharmacological activation of CB1 receptor modulates long term potentiation by interfering with protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Korte, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most important side effects associated with cannabis drug abuse, as well as the serious issue concerning the therapeutic use of cannabinoids. Cognitive impairments and neuropsychiatric symptoms are caused by early synaptic dysfunctions, such as loss of synaptic connections in different brain structures including the hippocampus, a region that is believed to play an important role in certain forms of learning and memory. We report here that metaplastic priming of synapses with a cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 receptor) agonist, WIN55,212-2 (WIN55), significantly impaired long-term potentiation in the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the CB1 receptor exerts its effect by altering the balance of protein synthesis machinery towards higher protein production. Therefore the activation of CB1 receptor, prior to strong tetanization, increased the propensity to produce new proteins. In addition, WIN55 priming resulted in the expression of late-LTP in a synaptic input that would have normally expressed early-LTP, thus confirming that WIN55 priming of LTP induces new synthesis of plasticity-related proteins. Furthermore, in addition to the effects on protein translation, WIN55 also induced synaptic deficits due to the ability of CB1 receptors to inhibit the release of acetylcholine, mediated by both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Taken together this supports the notion that the modulation of cholinergic activity by CB1 receptor activation is one mechanism that regulates the synthesis of plasticity-related proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Presynaptic Muscarinic M2 Receptors Modulate Glutamatergic Transmission in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ji-Dong; Hazra, Rimi; Dabrowska, Joanna; Muly, E. Chris; Wess, Jürgen; Rainnie, Donald G.

    2012-01-01

    The anterolateral cell group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTALG) serves as an important relay station in stress circuitry. Limbic inputs to the BNSTALG are primarily glutamatergic and activity-dependent changes in this input have been implicated in abnormal behaviors associated with chronic stress and addiction. Significantly, local infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) receptor agonists into the BNST trigger stress-like cardiovascular responses, however, little is known about the effects of these agents on glutamatergic transmission in the BNSTALG. Here, we show that glutamate- and ACh-containing fibers are found in close association in the BNSTALG. Moreover, in the presence of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, eserine, endogenous ACh release evoked a long-lasting reduction of the amplitude of stimulus-evoked EPSCs. This effect was mimicked by exogenous application of the ACh analogue, carbachol, which caused a reversible, dose-dependent, reduction of the evoked EPSC amplitude, and an increase in both the paired pulse ratio and coefficient of variation, suggesting a presynaptic site of action. Uncoupling of postsynaptic G-proteins with intracellular GDP-β-S, or application of the nicotinic receptor antagonist, tubocurarine, failed to block the carbachol effect. In contrast, the carbachol effect was blocked by prior application of atropine or M2 receptor-preferring antagonists, and was absent in M2/M4 receptor knockout mice, suggesting that presynaptic M2 receptors mediate the effect of ACh. Immuno-electron microscopy studies further revealed the presence of M2 receptors on axon terminals that formed asymmetric synapses with BNST neurons. Our findings suggest that presynaptic M2 receptors might be an important modulator of the stress circuit and hence a novel target for drug development. PMID:22166222

  17. Calcitonin and Amylin Receptor Peptide Interaction Mechanisms: INSIGHTS INTO PEPTIDE-BINDING MODES AND ALLOSTERIC MODULATION OF THE CALCITONIN RECEPTOR BY RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEINS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Min; Hay, Debbie L; Pioszak, Augen A

    2016-04-15

    Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP1-3) determine the selectivity of the class B G protein-coupled calcitonin receptor (CTR) and the CTR-like receptor (CLR) for calcitonin (CT), amylin (Amy), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and adrenomedullin (AM) peptides. RAMP1/2 alter CLR selectivity for CGRP/AM in part by RAMP1 Trp-84 or RAMP2 Glu-101 contacting the distinct CGRP/AM C-terminal residues. It is unclear whether RAMPs use a similar mechanism to modulate CTR affinity for CT and Amy, analogs of which are therapeutics for bone disorders and diabetes, respectively. Here, we reproduced the peptide selectivity of intact CTR, AMY1 (CTR·RAMP1), and AMY2 (CTR·RAMP2) receptors using purified CTR extracellular domain (ECD) and tethered RAMP1- and RAMP2-CTR ECD fusion proteins and antagonist peptides. All three proteins bound salmon calcitonin (sCT). Tethering RAMPs to CTR enhanced binding of rAmy, CGRP, and the AMY antagonist AC413. Peptide alanine-scanning mutagenesis and modeling of receptor-bound sCT and AC413 supported a shared non-helical CGRP-like conformation for their TN(T/V)G motif prior to the C terminus. After this motif, the peptides diverged; the sCT C-terminal Pro was crucial for receptor binding, whereas the AC413/rAmy C-terminal Tyr had little or no influence on binding. Accordingly, mutant RAMP1 W84A- and RAMP2 E101A-CTR ECD retained AC413/rAmy binding. ECD binding and cell-based signaling assays with antagonist sCT/AC413/rAmy variants with C-terminal residue swaps indicated that the C-terminal sCT/rAmy residue identity affects affinity more than selectivity. rAmy(8-37) Y37P exhibited enhanced antagonism of AMY1 while retaining selectivity. These results reveal unexpected differences in how RAMPs determine CTR and CLR peptide selectivity and support the hypothesis that RAMPs allosterically modulate CTR peptide affinity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Negative modulation of the GABAA ρ1 receptor function by l-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Beltrán González, Andrea N; Vicentini, Florencia; Calvo, Daniel J

    2018-01-01

    l-Cysteine is an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid with multiple and varied roles in the central nervous system, including neuroprotection and the maintenance of the redox balance. However, it was also suggested as an excitotoxic agent implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. l-Cysteine can modulate the activity of ionic channels, including voltage-gated calcium channels and glutamatergic NMDA receptors, whereas its effects on GABAergic neurotransmission had not been studied before. In the present work, we analyzed the effects of l-cysteine on responses mediated by homomeric GABA A ρ1 receptors, which are known for mediating tonic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) responses in retinal neurons. GABA A ρ1 receptors were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and GABA-evoked chloride currents recorded by two-electrode voltage-clamp in the presence or absence of l-cysteine. l-Cysteine antagonized GABA A ρ1 receptor-mediated responses; inhibition was dose-dependent, reversible, voltage independent, and susceptible to GABA concentration. Concentration-response curves for GABA were shifted to the right in the presence of l-cysteine without a substantial change in the maximal response. l-Cysteine inhibition was insensitive to chemical protection of the sulfhydryl groups of the ρ1 subunits by the irreversible alkylating agent N-ethyl maleimide. Our results suggest that redox modulation is not involved during l-cysteine actions and that l-cysteine might be acting as a competitive antagonist of the GABA A ρ1 receptors. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. High Throughput Techniques for Discovering New Glycine Receptor Modulators and their Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Daniel F.; Islam, Robiul; Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W.; Webb, Timothy I.

    2009-01-01

    The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) is a member of the Cys-loop receptor family that mediates inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. These receptors are emerging as potential drug targets for inflammatory pain, immunomodulation, spasticity and epilepsy. Antagonists that specifically inhibit particular GlyR isoforms are also required as pharmacological probes for elucidating the roles of particular GlyR isoforms in health and disease. Although a substantial number of both positive and negative GlyR modulators have been identified, very few of these are specific for the GlyR over other receptor types. Thus, the potential of known compounds as either therapeutic leads or pharmacological probes is limited. It is therefore surprising that there have been few published studies describing attempts to discover novel GlyR isoform-specific modulators. The first aim of this review is to consider various methods for efficiently screening compounds against these receptors. We conclude that an anion sensitive yellow fluorescent protein is optimal for primary screening and that automated electrophysiology of cells stably expressing GlyRs is useful for confirming hits and quantitating the actions of identified compounds. The second aim of this review is to demonstrate how these techniques are used in our laboratory for the purpose of both discovering novel GlyR-active compounds and characterizing their binding sites. We also describe a reliable, cost effective method for transfecting HEK293 cells in single wells of a 384-well plate using nanogram quantities of plasmid DNA. PMID:19949449

  20. GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators modify the abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Berro, Laís F; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Howell, Leonard L

    2017-09-01

    GABA A receptor positive allosteric modulators (GABA A receptor modulators) are commonly used for the treatment of insomnia. Nevertheless, the effects of these compounds on psychostimulant-induced sleep impairment are poorly understood. Because GABA A receptor modulators have been shown to decrease the abuse-related effects of psychostimulants, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of temazepam (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) and eszopiclone (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg), two GABA A receptor modulators, on the behavioral neuropharmacology of methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques (n = 5). Sleep-like measures and general daytime activity were evaluated with Actiwatch monitors. Methamphetamine self-administration (0.03 mg/kg/inf) was evaluated during morning sessions. Methamphetamine-induced dopamine overflow was assessed through in vivo microdialysis targeting the nucleus accumbens. Nighttime treatment with either temazepam or eszopiclone was ineffective in improving sleep-like measures disrupted by methamphetamine self-administration. Acute pretreatment with a low dose of temazepam before self-administration sessions increased methamphetamine self-administration without affecting normal daytime home-cage activity. At a high dose, acute temazepam pretreatment decreased methamphetamine self-administration and attenuated methamphetamine-induced increases in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, without decreasing general daytime activity. Acute eszopiclone treatment exerted no effects on methamphetamine intake or drug-induced increases in dopamine. Our study suggests that treatments based on GABA A receptor modulators are not effective for the treatment of sleep disruption in the context of psychostimulant use. In addition, distinct GABA A receptor modulators differentially modulated the abuse-related effects of methamphetamine, with acute treatment with the high efficacy GABA A receptor modulator temazepam decreasing the behavioral and neurochemical effects

  1. Oxytocin receptors modulate a social salience neural network in male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Zachary V; Walum, Hasse; Xiao, Yao; Riefkohl, Paula C; Young, Larry J

    2017-01-01

    Social behavior is regulated by conserved neural networks across vertebrates. Variation in the organization of neuropeptide systems across these networks is thought to contribute to individual and species diversity in network function during social contexts. For example, oxytocin (OT) is an ancient neuropeptide that binds to OT receptors (OTRs) in the brain and modulates social and reproductive behavior across vertebrate species, including humans. Central OTRs exhibit extraordinarily diverse expression patterns that are associated with individual and species differences in social behavior. In voles, OTR density in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)-a region important for social and reward learning-is associated with individual and species variation in social attachment behavior. Here we test whether OTRs in the NAc modulate a social salience network (SSN)-a network of interconnected brain nuclei thought to encode valence and incentive salience of sociosensory cues-during a social context in the socially monogamous male prairie vole. Using a selective OTR antagonist, we test whether activation of OTRs in the NAc during sociosexual interaction and mating modulates expression of the immediate early gene product Fos across nuclei of the SSN. We show that blockade of endogenous OTR signaling in the NAc during sociosexual interaction and mating does not strongly modulate levels of Fos expression in individual nodes of the network, but strongly modulates patterns of correlated Fos expression between the NAc and other SSN nuclei. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Post-translational regulation of P2X receptor channels: modulation by phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Louis-Philippe; Ase, Ariel R.; Séguéla, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    P2X receptor channels mediate fast excitatory signaling by ATP and play major roles in sensory transduction, neuro-immune communication and inflammatory response. P2X receptors constitute a gene family of calcium-permeable ATP-gated cation channels therefore the regulation of P2X signaling is critical for both membrane potential and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Phosphoinositides (PIPn) are anionic signaling phospholipids that act as functional regulators of many types of ion channels. Direct PIPn binding was demonstrated for several ligand- or voltage-gated ion channels, however no generic motif emerged to accurately predict lipid-protein binding sites. This review presents what is currently known about the modulation of the different P2X subtypes by phospholipids and about critical determinants underlying their sensitivity to PIPn levels in the plasma membrane. All functional mammalian P2X subtypes tested, with the notable exception of P2X5, have been shown to be positively modulated by PIPn, i.e., homomeric P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, as well as heteromeric P2X1/5 and P2X2/3 receptors. Based on various results reported on the aforementioned subtypes including mutagenesis of the prototypical PIPn-sensitive P2X4 and PIPn-insensitive P2X5 receptor subtypes, an increasing amount of functional, biochemical and structural evidence converges on the modulatory role of a short polybasic domain located in the proximal C-terminus of P2X subunits. This linear motif, semi-conserved in the P2X family, seems necessary and sufficient for encoding direct modulation of ATP-gated channels by PIPn. Furthermore, the physiological impact of the regulation of ionotropic purinergic responses by phospholipids on pain pathways was recently revealed in the context of native crosstalks between phospholipase C (PLC)-linked metabotropic receptors and P2X receptor channels in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and microglia. PMID:24324400

  3. The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    A diet low in carbohydrates helps to reduce the amount of ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. With this in mind, food and beverage companies have reformulated a large number of their products, replacing sugar or high fructose corn syrup with several different types of zero-calorie sweeteners to decrease or even totally eliminate their caloric content. A challenge remains, however, with the level of acceptance of some of these products in the market-place. Many consumers believe that zero-calorie sweeteners simply do not taste like sugar. A recent breakthrough reveals that positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor, small molecules that enhance the receptor activity and sweetness perception, could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products without compromising on the true taste of sugar. A unique mechanism of action at the receptor level could explain the robust synergy achieved with these new modulators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent Advances in the Realm of Allosteric Modulators for Opioid Receptors for Future Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Remesic, Michael; Hruby, Victor J; Porreca, Frank; Lee, Yeon Sun

    2017-06-21

    Opioids, and more specifically μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists such as morphine, have long been clinically used as therapeutics for severe pain states but often come with serious side effects such as addiction and tolerance. Many studies have focused on bringing about analgesia from the MOR with attenuated side effects, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Recently, focus has been geared toward the design and elucidation of the orthosteric site with ligands of various biological profiles and mixed subtype opioid activities and selectivities, but targeting the allosteric site is an area of increasing interest. It has been shown that allosteric modulators play key roles in influencing receptor function such as its tolerance to a ligand and affect downstream pathways. There has been a high variance of chemical structures that provide allosteric modulation at a given receptor, but recent studies and reviews tend to focus on the altered cellular mechanisms instead of providing a more rigorous description of the allosteric ligand's structure-function relationship. In this review, we aim to explore recent developments in the structural motifs that potentiate orthosteric binding and their influences on cellular pathways in an effort to present novel approaches to opioid therapeutic design.

  5. Behind the curtain: cellular mechanisms for allosteric modulation of calcium-sensing receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Alice; Huang, Ying; Breitwieser, Gerda E

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) are integral to regulation of systemic Ca2+ homeostasis. Altered expression levels or mutations in CaSR cause Ca2+ handling diseases. CaSR is regulated by both endogenous allosteric modulators and allosteric drugs, including the first Food and Drug Administration-approved allosteric agonist, Cinacalcet HCl (Sensipar®). Recent studies suggest that allosteric modulators not only alter function of plasma membrane-localized CaSR, but regulate CaSR stability at the endoplasmic reticulum. This brief review summarizes our current understanding of the role of membrane-permeant allosteric agonists in cotranslational stabilization of CaSR, and highlights additional, indirect, signalling-dependent role(s) for membrane-impermeant allosteric drugs. Overall, these studies suggest that allosteric drugs act at multiple cellular organelles to control receptor abundance and hence function, and that drug hydrophobicity can bias the relative contributions of plasma membrane and intracellular organelles to CaSR abundance and signalling. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on the Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-6. To view the 2010 themed section on the same topic visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.2010.159.issue-5/issuetoc PMID:21470201

  6. Relaxant Effects of the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Bazedoxifene, and Estrogen Receptor Agonists in Isolated Rabbit Basilar Artery.

    PubMed

    Castelló-Ruiz, María; Salom, Juan B; Fernández-Musoles, Ricardo; Burguete, María C; López-Morales, Mikahela A; Arduini, Alessandro; Jover-Mengual, Teresa; Hervás, David; Torregrosa, Germán; Alborch, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We have previously shown that the selective estrogen receptor modulator, bazedoxifene, improves the consequences of ischemic stroke. Now we aimed to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of bazedoxifene in cerebral arteries. Male rabbit isolated basilar arteries were used for isometric tension recording and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bazedoxifene relaxed cerebral arteries, as 17-β-estradiol, 4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol [estrogen receptor (ER) α agonist], and G1 [G protein-coupled ER (GPER) agonist] did it (4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol > bazedoxifene = G1 > 17-β-estradiol). 2,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (ERβ agonist) had no effect. Expression profile of genes encoding for ERα (ESR1), ERβ (ESR2), and GPER was GPER > ESR1 > ESR2. As to the endothelial mechanisms, endothelium removal, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and indomethacin, did not modify the relaxant responses to bazedoxifene. As to the K channels, both a high-K medium and the Kv blocker, 4-aminopyridine, inhibited the bazedoxifene-induced relaxations, whereas tetraethylammonium (nonselective K channel blocker), glibenclamide (selective KATP blocker) or iberiotoxin (selective KCa blocker) were without effect. Bazedoxifene also inhibited both Ca- and Bay K8644-elicited contractions. Therefore, bazedoxifene induces endothelium-independent relaxations of cerebral arteries through (1) activation of GPER and ERα receptors; (2) increase of K conductance through Kv channels; and (3) inhibition of Ca entry through L-type Ca channels. Such a profile is compatible with the beneficial effects of estrogenic compounds (eg, SERMs) on vascular function and, specifically, that concerning the brain. Therefore, bazedoxifene could be useful in the treatment of cerebral disorders in which the cerebrovascular function is compromised (eg, stroke).

  7. Three-Step Test System for the Identification of Novel GABAA Receptor Modulating Food Plants.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Sümeyye; Eulenburg, Volker; Kreis, Wolfgang; Villmann, Carmen; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Potentiation of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-induced GABA A receptor (GABA A R) activation is a common pathway to achieve sedative, sleep-enhancing, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Presently, a three-component test system was established for the identification of novel GABA A R modulating food plants. In the first step, potentiation of GABA-induced response of the GABA A R was analysed by two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) for activity on human α1β2-GABA A R expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Positively tested food plants were then subjected to quantification of GABA content by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) to exclude test foods, which evoke a TEVC-response by endogenous GABA. In the third step, specificity of GABA A -modulating activity was assessed by TEVC analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the homologous glycine receptor (GlyR). The three-component test was then applied to screen 10 aqueous extracts of food plants for their GABA A R activity. Thus, hop cones (Humulus lupulus) and Sideritis sipylea were identified as the most potent specific GABA A R modulators eliciting significant potentiation of the current by 182 ± 27 and 172 ± 19 %, respectively, at the lowest concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. The extracts can now be further evaluated by in vivo studies and by structural evaluation of the active components.

  8. Insights into structure–activity relationship of GABAA receptor modulating coumarins and furanocoumarins

    PubMed Central

    Singhuber, Judith; Baburin, Igor; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Kopp, Brigitte; Hering, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    The coumarins imperatorin and osthole are known to exert anticonvulsant activity. We have therefore analyzed the modulation of GABA-induced chloride currents (IGABA) by a selection of 18 coumarin derivatives on recombinant α1β2γ2S GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by means of the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. Osthole (EC50=14±1 μM) and oxypeucedanin (EC50=25±8 μM) displayed the highest efficiency with IGABA potentiation of 116±4% and 547±56%, respectively. IGABA enhancement by osthole and oxypeucedanin was not inhibited by flumazenil (1 μM) indicating an interaction with a binding site distinct from the benzodiazepine binding site. In general, prenyl residues are essential for the positive modulatory activity, while longer side chains or bulkier residues (e.g. geranyl residues) diminish IGABA modulation. Generation of a binary classification tree revealed the importance of polarisability, which is sufficient to distinguish actives from inactives. A 4-point pharmacophore model based on oxypeucedanin – comprising three hydrophobic and one aromatic feature – identified 6 out of 7 actives as hits. In summary, (oxy-)prenylated coumarin derivatives from natural origin represent new GABAA receptor modulators. PMID:21749864

  9. Modulation of acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices by the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex

    SciT

    Supavilai, P.; Karobath, M.

    1985-02-04

    GABA, THIP and muscimol enhance spontaneous and inhibit electrically induced release of tritium labelled compounds from rat striatal slices which have been pre-labelled with /sup 3/H-choline. Baclofen is inactive in this model. Muscimol can inhibit electrically induced release of tritiated material by approximately 75% with half maximal effects at 2 ..mu..M. The response to muscimol can be blocked by the GABA antagonists bicuculline methobromide, picrotoxin, anisatin, R 5135 and CPTBO (cyclopentylbicyclophosphate). Drugs which act on the benzodiazepine receptor (BR) require the presence of muscimol to be effective and they modulate the effects of muscimol in a bidirectional manner. Thus BRmore » agonists enhance and inverse BR agonists attenuate the inhibitory effects of muscimol on electrically induced release. Ro15-1788, a BR antagonist, does not modulate the inhibitory effects of muscimol but antagonizes the actions of clonazepam, a BR agonist, and of DMCM, an inverse BR agonist. These results demonstrate that a GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex can modulate acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices in vitro. 24 references, 3 figures, 5 table.« less

  10. Opposite modulation of brain stimulation reward by NMDA and AMPA receptors in the ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    Ducrot, Charles; Fortier, Emmanuel; Bouchard, Claude; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that blockade of ventral tegmental area (VTA) glutamate N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors induces reward, stimulates forward locomotion and enhances brain stimulation reward. Glutamate induces two types of excitatory response on VTA neurons, a fast and short lasting depolarization mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors and a longer lasting depolarization mediated by NMDA receptors. A role for the two glutamate receptors in modulation of VTA neuronal activity is evidenced by the functional change in AMPA and NMDA synaptic responses that result from repeated exposure to reward. Since both receptors contribute to the action of glutamate on VTA neuronal activity, we studied the effects of VTA AMPA and NMDA receptor blockade on reward induced by electrical brain stimulation. Experiments were performed on rats trained to self-administer electrical pulses in the medial posterior mesencephalon. Reward thresholds were measured with the curve-shift paradigm before and for 2 h after bilateral VTA microinjections of the AMPA antagonist, NBQX (2,3,-Dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo(f)quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide, 0, 80, and 800 pmol/0.5 μl/side) and of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5 μl/side) of the NMDA antagonist, PPPA (2R,4S)-4-(3-Phosphonopropyl)-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid). NBQX produced a dose-dependent increase in reward threshold with no significant change in maximum rate of responding. Whereas PPPA injected at the same VTA sites produced a significant time dependent decrease in reward threshold and increase in maximum rate of responding. We found a negative correlation between the magnitude of the attenuation effect of NBQX and the enhancement effect of PPPA; moreover, NBQX and PPPA were most effective when injected, respectively, into the anterior and posterior VTA. These results suggest that glutamate acts on different receptor sub-types, most likely located on different VTA neurons, to

  11. Modulation of JB6 Mouse Epidermal Cell Transformation Response by the Prostaglandin F2 Alpha Receptor

    SciT

    Weber, Thomas J.; Markillie, Lye MENG.; Chrisler, William B.

    2002-12-01

    Prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) has been associated with the modulation of clonal selection processes in the mouse skin model of carcinogenesis. We have investigated whether JB6 mouse epidermal cells express a functional PGF2a receptor (FP) coupled to the regulation of anchorage-dependent and -independent growth. Treatment of JB6 cells with a FP receptor ligand (fluprostenol) potently (pM-nM) increased anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, as determined by a battery of in vitro assays. Treatment of JB6 cells with PGF2a and fluprostenol increased inositol phospholipid accumulation and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activity, consistent with FP receptor-related signaling. FP receptor mRNA was detected by reversemore » transcription-polymerase chain reaction and a radiolabel binding assay determined the average specific [3H]PGF2a binding to be 8.25 + 0.95 fmol/mg protein. Treatment of cells with fluprostenol as a single exposure resulted in a significant increase in anchorage-dependent and -independent growth in media containing low (0.1-0.5%), but not high (5%) concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS). In contrast, treatment of cells with fluprostenol at two day intervals resulted in a more robust growth response under anchorage-dependent conditions only in media containing low FBS concentrations; and under anchorage-independent conditions only in media containing high FBS concentrations. ERK activation and colony size were increased by cotreatment of JB6 cells with EGF and fluprostenol to a greater extent than either treatment alone, while the cotreatment effect on colony number appeared to be simply additive. In summary, FBS concentration and signal oscillation exert pronounced effects on the biological response to a FP receptor agonist. The data raise the possibility that the FP receptor may independently contribute to clonal selection processes, but may play a more important role as a response modifier.« less

  12. Do serotonin(1-7) receptors modulate short and long-term memory?

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    2007-05-01

    Evidence from invertebrates to human studies indicates that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system modulates short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). This work is primarily focused on analyzing the contribution of 5-HT, cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors as well as protein synthesis to STM and LTM of an autoshaping learning task. It was observed that the inhibition of hippocampal protein synthesis or new mRNA did not produce a significant effect on autoshaping STM performance but it did impair LTM. Both non-contingent protein inhibition and 5-HT depletion showed no effects. It was basically the non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist cyproheptadine, which facilitated STM. However, the blockade of glutamatergic and cholinergic transmission impaired STM. In contrast, the selective 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist SB-224289 facilitated both STM and LTM. Selective receptor antagonists for the 5-HT(1A) (WAY100635), 5-HT(1D) (GR127935), 5-HT(2A) (MDL100907), 5-HT(2C/2B) (SB-200646), 5-HT(3) (ondansetron) or 5-HT(4) (GR125487), 5-HT(6) (Ro 04-6790, SB-399885 and SB-35713) or 5-HT(7) (SB-269970) did not impact STM. Nevertheless, WAY100635, MDL100907, SB-200646, GR125487, Ro 04-6790, SB-399885 or SB-357134 facilitated LTM. Notably, some of these changes shown to be independent of food-intake. Concomitantly, these data indicate that '5-HT tone via 5-HT(1B) receptors' might function in a serial manner from STM to LTM, whereas working in parallel using 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B/2C), 5-HT(4), or 5-HT(6) receptors.

  13. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II phosphorylation of the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit modulates benzodiazepine binding.

    PubMed

    Churn, Severn B; Rana, Aniruddha; Lee, Kangmin; Parsons, J Travis; De Blas, Angel; Delorenzo, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary neurotransmitter that is responsible for the fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. A major post-translational mechanism that can rapidly regulate GABAAR function is receptor phosphorylation. This study was designed to test the effect of endogenous calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaM kinase II) activation on both allosteric modulator binding and GABAA receptor subunit phosphorylation. Endogenous CaM kinase II activity was stimulated, and GABAA receptors were subsequently analyzed for bothallosteric modulator binding properties and immunoprecipitated and analyzed for subunit phosphorylation levels. A significant increase in allosteric-modulator binding of the GABAAR was observed under conditions maximal for CaM kinase II activation. In addition, CaM kinase II activation resulted in a direct increase in phosphorylation of the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit. The data suggest that the CaM kinase II-dependent phosphorylation of the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit modulated allosteric modulator binding to the GABAA receptor.

  14. Context-dependent modulation of alphabetagamma and alphabetadelta GABA A receptors by penicillin: implications for phasic and tonic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J; Macdonald, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Penicillin, an open-channel blocker of GABA(A) receptors, was recently reported to inhibit phasic, but not tonic, currents in hippocampal neurons. To distinguish between isoform-specific and context-dependent modulation as possible explanations for this selectivity, the effects of penicillin were evaluated on recombinant GABA(A) receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. When co-applied with saturating GABA, penicillin decreased peak amplitude, induced rebound, and prolonged deactivation of currents evoked from both synaptic and extrasynaptic receptor isoforms. However, penicillin had isoform-specific effects on the extent of desensitization, reflecting its ability to differentially modulate peak (non-equilibrium) and residual (near-equilibrium) currents. This suggested that the context of activation could determine the apparent sensitivity of a given receptor isoform to penicillin. To test this hypothesis, we explored the ability of penicillin to modulate synaptic and extrasynaptic isoform currents that were activated under more physiologically relevant conditions. Interestingly, while currents evoked from synaptic isoforms under phasic conditions (transient activation by a saturating concentration of GABA) were substantially inhibited by penicillin, currents evoked from extrasynaptic isoforms under tonic conditions (prolonged application by a sub-saturating concentration of GABA) were minimally affected. We therefore concluded that the reported inability of penicillin to modulate tonic currents could not simply be attributed to insensitivity of extrasynaptic receptors, but rather, reflected an inability to modulate these receptors in their native context of activation.

  15. Recurrence of Cervical Cancer in Mice after Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Megan E.; Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Lambert, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen and its nuclear receptor, estrogen receptor α, are necessary cofactors in the initiation and multistage progression of carcinogenesis in the K14E6/E7 transgenic mouse model of human papillomavirus–associated cervical cancer. Recently, our laboratory reported that raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, promoted regression of high-grade dysplasia and cancer that arose in the cervix of K14E6/E7 transgenic mice treated long-term with estrogen. Herein, we evaluated the recurrence of cervical cancer after raloxifene therapy in our preclinical model of human papillomavirus–associated cervical carcinogenesis. We observed recurrence of cervical cancer in mice re-exposed to estrogen after raloxifene treatment, despite evidence suggesting the antagonistic effects of raloxifene persisted in the reproductive tract after treatment had ceased. We also observed recurrence of neoplastic disease in mice that were not retreated with exogenous estrogen, although the severity of disease was less. Recurrent neoplastic disease and cancers retained functional estrogen receptor α and responded to retreatment with raloxifene. Moreover, continuous treatment of mice with raloxifene prevented the emergence of recurrent disease seen in mice in which raloxifene was discontinued. These data suggest that cervical cancer cells are not completely eradicated by raloxifene and rapidly expand if raloxifene treatment is ceased. These findings indicate that a prolonged treatment period with raloxifene might be required to prevent recurrence of neoplastic disease and lower reproductive tract cancers. PMID:24418098

  16. Gelidium amansii promotes dendritic spine morphology and synaptogenesis, and modulates NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Md Abdul; Mohibbullah, Md; Hong, Yong-Ki; Nam, Joo Hyun; Moon, Il Soo

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are essential for the differentiation and maturation of developing neurons as well as providing survival support to the mature neurons. Moreover, therapeutically neurotrophic factors are promising to reconstruct partially damaged neuronal networks in neurodegenerative diseases. In the previous study, we reported that the ethanol extract of an edible marine alga, Gelidium amansii (GAE) had shown promising effects in the development and maturation of both axon and dendrites of hippocampal neurons. Here, we demonstrate that in primary culture of hippocampal neurons (1) GAE promotes a significant increase in the number of filopodia and dendritic spines; (2) promotes synaptogenesis; (3) enhances N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor recruitment; and (4) modulates NMDA-receptor-mediated postsynaptic current. Taken together these findings that GAE might be involved in both morphological and functional maturation of neurons suggest the possibility that GAE may constitute a promising candidate for novel compounds for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Sigma-1 Receptor as a Pluripotent Modulator in the Living System

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tsung-Ping; Su, Tzu-Chieh; Nakamura, Yoki; Tsai, Shang-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein resides specifically at the interface between ER and mitochondria, called the MAM, where the Sig-1R is recently reported to be involved in certain CNS diseases. In addition to being able to translocate to the plasma membrane to interact with ion channels and other receptors, the Sig-1R is found to exist at the nuclear envelope where it recruits chromatin-remodeling factors to affect the transcription of genes. As well, thorough experimental and bioinformatic means, Sig-1Rs are reported to interact with other membranous or soluble proteins at other loci, including the cytosol. We propose that the Sig-1R is a pluripotent modulator with resultant multiple functional manifestations in the living system. PMID:26869505

  18. The Sigma-1 Receptor as a Pluripotent Modulator in Living Systems.

    PubMed

    Su, Tsung-Ping; Su, Tzu-Chieh; Nakamura, Yoki; Tsai, Shang-Yi

    2016-04-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that resides specifically in the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (MAM), an interface between ER and mitochondria. In addition to being able to translocate to the plasma membrane (PM) to interact with ion channels and other receptors, Sig-1R also occurs at the nuclear envelope, where it recruits chromatin-remodeling factors to affect the transcription of genes. Sig-1Rs have also been reported to interact with other membranous or soluble proteins at other loci, including the cytosol, and to be involved in several central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Here, we propose that Sig-1R is a pluripotent modulator with resultant multiple functional manifestations in living systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Carboxypeptidase M Is a Positive Allosteric Modulator of the Kinin B1 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Tan, Fulong; Skidgel, Randal A.

    2013-01-01

    Ligand binding to extracellular domains of G protein-coupled receptors can result in novel and nuanced allosteric effects on receptor signaling. We previously showed that the protein-protein interaction of carboxypeptidase M (CPM) and kinin B1 receptor (B1R) enhances B1R signaling in two ways; 1) kinin binding to CPM causes a conformational activation of the B1R, and 2) CPM-generated des-Arg-kinin agonist is efficiently delivered to the B1R. Here, we show CPM is also a positive allosteric modulator of B1R signaling to its agonist, des-Arg10-kallidin (DAKD). In HEK cells stably transfected with B1R, co-expression of CPM enhanced DAKD-stimulated increases in intracellular Ca2+ or phosphoinositide turnover by a leftward shift of the dose-response curve without changing the maximum. CPM increased B1R affinity for DAKD by ∼5-fold but had no effect on basal B1R-dependent phosphoinositide turnover. Soluble, recombinant CPM bound to HEK cells expressing B1Rs without stimulating receptor signaling. CPM positive allosteric action was independent of enzyme activity but depended on interaction of its C-terminal domain with the B1R extracellular loop 2. Disruption of the CPM/B1R interaction or knockdown of CPM in cytokine-treated primary human endothelial cells inhibited the allosteric enhancement of CPM on B1R DAKD binding or ERK1/2 activation. CPM also enhanced the DAKD-induced B1R conformational change as detected by increased intramolecular fluorescence or bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. Thus, CPM binding to extracellular loop 2 of the B1R results in positive allosteric modulation of B1R signaling, and disruption of this interaction could provide a novel therapeutic approach to reduce pathological B1R signaling. PMID:24108126

  20. Sexually Dimorphic Role of G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER) in Modulating Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kathryn E.; Carstens, Elizabeth J.; Irani, Boman G.; Gent, Lana M.; Hahner, Lisa M.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    The classical estrogen receptors, estrogen receptor-α and estrogen receptor-β are well established in the regulation of body weight and energy homeostasis in both male and female mice, whereas, the role for G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) as a modulator of energy homeostasis remains controversial. This study sought to determine whether gene deletion of GPER (GPER KO) alters body weight, body adiposity, food intake, and energy homeostasis in both males and females. Male mice lacking GPER developed moderate obesity and larger adipocyte size beginning at 8 weeks of age, with significant reductions in energy expenditure, but not food intake or adipocyte number. Female GPER KO mice developed increased body weight relative to WT females a full 6 weeks later than the male GPER KO mice. Female GPER KO mice also had reductions in energy expenditure, but not significant increases in body fat content. Consistent with their decrease in energy expenditure, GPER KO males and females showed significant reductions in two brown fat thermogenic proteins. GPER KO females, prior to their divergence in body weight, were less sensitive than WT females to the feeding-inhibitory effects of leptin and CCK. Additionally, body weight was not as modulated by ovariectomy or estradiol replacement in GPER KO mice. Estradiol treatment activated phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) in WT but not GPER KO females. For the first time, GPER expression was found in the adipocyte but not the stromal fraction of adipose tissue. Together, these results provide new information elucidating a sexual dimorphism in GPER function in the development of postpubertal energy balance. PMID:24560890

  1. Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors modulates evoked action potentials in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Xia; Li, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Han; Li, Fang; Wang, Zhong-Feng

    2013-08-25

    Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) regulates a variety of physiological functions in the vertebrate retina through modulating various types of ion channels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of this receptor on cell excitability of rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in retinal slices using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. The results showed that under current-clamped condition perfusing WIN55212-2 (WIN, 5 μmol/L), a CB1R agonist, did not significantly change the spontaneous firing frequency and resting membrane potential of RGCs. In the presence of cocktail synaptic blockers, including excitatory postsynaptic receptor blockers CNQX and D-APV, and inhibitory receptor blockers bicuculline and strychnine, perfusion of WIN (5 μmol/L) hardly changed the frequencies of evoked action potentials by a series of positive current injection (from +10 to +100 pA). Phase-plane plot analysis showed that both average threshold voltage for triggering action potential and delay time to reach threshold voltage were not affected by WIN. However, WIN significantly decreased +dV/dtmax and -dV/dtmax of action potentials, suggestive of reduced rising and descending velocities of action potentials. The effects of WIN were reversed by co-application of SR141716, a CB1R selective antagonist. Moreover, WIN did not influence resting membrane potential of RGCs with synaptic inputs being blocked. These results suggest that activation of CB1Rs may regulate intrinsic excitability of rat RGCs through modulating evoked action potentials.

  2. B-973, a novel piperazine positive allosteric modulator of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Post-Munson, Debra J; Pieschl, Rick L; Molski, Thaddeus F; Graef, John D; Hendricson, Adam W; Knox, Ronald J; McDonald, Ivar M; Olson, Richard E; Macor, John E; Weed, Michael R; Bristow, Linda J; Kiss, Laszlo; Ahlijanian, Michael K; Herrington, James

    2017-03-15

    The alpha7 (α7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a therapeutic target for cognitive disorders. Here we describe 3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-N-(1-(6-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyrazin-2-yl)ethyl)propanamide (B-973), a novel piperazine-containing molecule that acts as a positive allosteric modulator of the α7 receptor. We characterize the action of B-973 on the α7 receptor using electrophysiology and radioligand binding. At 0.1mM acetylcholine, 1μM B-973 potentiated peak acetylcholine-induced currents 6-fold relative to maximal acetylcholine (3mM) and slowed channel desensitization, resulting in a 6900-fold increase in charge transfer. The EC 50 of B-973 was approximately 0.3μM at acetylcholine concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 3mM. At a concentration of 1μM, B-973 shifted the acetylcholine EC 50 of peak currents from 0.30mM in control to 0.007mM. B-973 slowed channel deactivation upon acetylcholine removal (τ=50s) and increased the affinity of the α7 agonist [ 3 H]A-585539. In the absence of exogenously added acetylcholine, application of B-973 at concentrations >1μM induced large methyllycaconitine-sensitive currents, suggesting B-973 can function as an Ago-PAM at high concentrations. B-973 will be a useful probe for investigating the biological consequences of increasing α7 receptor activity through allosteric modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexually dimorphic role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in modulating energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathryn E; Carstens, Elizabeth J; Irani, Boman G; Gent, Lana M; Hahner, Lisa M; Clegg, Deborah J

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". The classical estrogen receptors, estrogen receptor-α and estrogen receptor-β are well established in the regulation of body weight and energy homeostasis in both male and female mice, whereas, the role for G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) as a modulator of energy homeostasis remains controversial. This study sought to determine whether gene deletion of GPER (GPER KO) alters body weight, body adiposity, food intake, and energy homeostasis in both males and females. Male mice lacking GPER developed moderate obesity and larger adipocyte size beginning at 8 weeks of age, with significant reductions in energy expenditure, but not food intake or adipocyte number. Female GPER KO mice developed increased body weight relative to WT females a full 6 weeks later than the male GPER KO mice. Female GPER KO mice also had reductions in energy expenditure, but no significant increases in body fat content. Consistent with their decrease in energy expenditure, GPER KO males and females showed significant reductions in two brown fat thermogenic proteins. GPER KO females, prior to their divergence in body weight, were less sensitive than WT females to the feeding-inhibitory effects of leptin and CCK. Additionally, body weight was not as modulated by ovariectomy or estradiol replacement in GPER KO mice. Estradiol treatment activated phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) in WT but not GPER KO females. For the first time, GPER expression was found in the adipocyte but not the stromal fraction of adipose tissue. Together, these results provide new information elucidating a sexual dimorphism in GPER function in the development of postpubertal energy balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical Composition and Labeling of Substances Marketed as Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators and Sold via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Eichner, Amy; Bhasin, Shalender; Deuster, Patricia A; Eichner, Daniel

    2017-11-28

    Recent reports have described the increasing use of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators, which have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), to enhance appearance and performance. The composition and purity of such products is not known. To determine the chemical identity and the amounts of ingredients in dietary supplements and products marketed and sold through the internet as selective androgen receptor modulators and compare the analyzed contents with product labels. Web-based searches were performed from February 18, 2016, to March 25, 2016, using the Google search engine on the Chrome and Internet Explorer web browsers to identify suppliers selling selective androgen receptor modulators. The products were purchased and the identities of the compounds and their amounts were determined from April to August 2016 using chain-of-custody and World Anti-Doping Association-approved analytical procedures. Analytical findings were compared against the label information. Products marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators. Chemical identities and the amount of ingredients in each product marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators. Among 44 products marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators, only 23 (52%) contained 1 or more selective androgen receptor modulators (Ostarine, LGD-4033, or Andarine). An additional 17 products (39%) contained another unapproved drug, including the growth hormone secretagogue ibutamoren, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ agonist GW501516, and the Rev-ErbA agonist SR9009. Of the 44 tested products, no active compound was detected in 4 (9%) and substances not listed on the label were contained in 11 (25%). In only 18 of the 44 products (41%), the amount of active compound in the product matched that listed on the label. The amount of the compounds listed on the label differed substantially from that found by analysis in 26 of 44 products

  5. Virtual Screening Approaches towards the Discovery of Toll-Like Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Regidor, Lucía; Zarioh, Malik; Ortega, Laura; Martín-Santamaría, Sonsoles

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the latest efforts performed in the search for novel chemical entities such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) modulators by means of virtual screening techniques. This is an emergent research field with only very recent (and successful) contributions. Identification of drug-like molecules with potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of a variety of TLR-regulated diseases has attracted considerable interest due to the clinical potential. Additionally, the virtual screening databases and computational tools employed have been overviewed in a descriptive way, widening the scope for researchers interested in the field. PMID:27618029

  6. A selective estrogen receptor modulator for the treatment of hot flushes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Owen B; Lauwers, Kenneth S; Dodge, Jeffrey A; May, Scott A; Calvin, Joel R; Hinklin, Ronald; Bryant, Henry U; Shetler, Pamela K; Adrian, Mary D; Geiser, Andrew G; Sato, Masahiko; Burris, Thomas P

    2006-02-09

    A selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) for the potential treatment of hot flushes is described. (R)-(+)-7,9-difluoro-5-[4-(2-piperidin-1-ylethoxy)phenyl]-5H-6-oxachrysen-2-ol, LSN2120310, potently binds ERalpha and ERbeta and is an antagonist in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma and Ishikawa uterine cancer cell lines. The compound is a potent estrogen antagonist in the rat uterus. In ovariectomized rats, the compound lowers cholesterol, maintains bone mineral density, and is efficacious in a morphine dependent rat model of hot flush efficacy.

  7. Synthesis of (nor)tropeine (di)esters and allosteric modulation of glycine receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Maksay, Gábor; Nemes, Péter; Vincze, Zoltán; Bíró, Timea

    2008-02-15

    (Hetero)aromatic mono- and diesters of tropine and nortropine were prepared. Modulation of [3H]strychnine binding to glycine receptors of rat spinal cord was examined with a ternary allosteric model. The esters displaced [3H]strychnine binding with nano- or micromolar potencies and strong negative cooperativity. Coplanarity and distance of the ester moieties of diesters affected the binding affinity being nanomolar for isophthaloyl-bistropane and nortropeines. Nortropisetron had the highest affinity (K(A) approximately 10 nM). Two esters displayed negative cooperativity with glycine in displacement, while three esters of low-affinity and nortropisetron exerted positive cooperativity with glycine.

  8. AMPA receptor flip/flop mutants affecting deactivation, desensitization, and modulation by cyclothiazide, aniracetam, and thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Partin, K M; Fleck, M W; Mayer, M L

    1996-11-01

    AMPA receptor GluRA subunits with mutations at position 750, a residue shown previously to control allosteric regulation by cyclothiazide, were analyzed for modulation of deactivation and desensitization by cyclothiazide, aniracetam, and thiocyanate. Point mutations from Ser to Asn, Ala, Asp, Gly, Gln, Met, Cys, Thr, Leu, Val, and Tyr were constructed in GluRAflip. The last four of these mutants were not functional; S750D was active only in the presence of cyclothiazide, and the remaining mutants exhibited altered rates of deactivation and desensitization for control responses to glutamate, and showed differential modulation by cyclothiazide and aniracetam. Results from kinetic analysis are consistent with aniracetam and cyclothiazide acting via distinct mechanisms. Our experiments demonstrate for the first time the functional importance of residue 750 in regulating intrinsic channel-gating kinetics and emphasize the biological significance of alternative splicing in the M3-M4 extracellular loop.

  9. Resveratrol modulates the inflammatory response via an estrogen receptor-signal integration network

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Jerome C; Srinivasan, Sathish; Bruno, Nelson E; Parent, Alexander A; Hughes, Travis S; Pollock, Julie A; Gjyshi, Olsi; Cavett, Valerie; Nowak, Jason; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben D; Houtman, René; Griffin, Patrick R; Kojetin, Douglas J; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Conkright, Michael D; Nettles, Kendall W

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol has beneficial effects on aging, inflammation and metabolism, which are thought to result from activation of the lysine deacetylase, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the cAMP pathway, or AMP-activated protein kinase. In this study, we report that resveratrol acts as a pathway-selective estrogen receptor-α (ERα) ligand to modulate the inflammatory response but not cell proliferation. A crystal structure of the ERα ligand-binding domain (LBD) as a complex with resveratrol revealed a unique perturbation of the coactivator-binding surface, consistent with an altered coregulator recruitment profile. Gene expression analyses revealed significant overlap of TNFα genes modulated by resveratrol and estradiol. Furthermore, the ability of resveratrol to suppress interleukin-6 transcription was shown to require ERα and several ERα coregulators, suggesting that ERα functions as a primary conduit for resveratrol activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02057.001 PMID:24771768

  10. Hypothalamic κ-Opioid Receptor Modulates the Orexigenic Effect of Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Picó, Amparo; Vázquez, Maria J; González-Touceda, David; Folgueira, Cintia; Skibicka, Karolina P; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Van Gestel, Margriet A; Velásquez, Douglas A; Schwarzer, Christoph; Herzog, Herbert; López, Miguel; Adan, Roger A; Dickson, Suzanne L; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2013-01-01

    The opioid system is well recognized as an important regulator of appetite and energy balance. We now hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might modulate the orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Using pharmacological and gene silencing approaches, we demonstrate that ghrelin utilizes a hypothalamic κ-opioid receptor (KOR) pathway to increase food intake in rats. Pharmacological blockade of KOR decreases the acute orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Inhibition of KOR expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is sufficient to blunt ghrelin-induced food intake. By contrast, the specific inhibition of KOR expression in the ventral tegmental area does not affect central ghrelin-induced feeding. This new pathway is independent of ghrelin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation, but modulates the levels of the transcription factors and orexigenic neuropeptides triggered by ghrelin to finally stimulate feeding. Our novel data implicate hypothalamic KOR signaling in the orexigenic action of ghrelin. PMID:23348063

  11. Sniffer patch laser uncaging response (SPLURgE): an assay of regional differences in allosteric receptor modulation and neurotransmitter clearance

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Allosteric modulators exert actions on neurotransmitter receptors by positively or negatively altering the effective response of these receptors to their respective neurotransmitter. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A ionotropic receptors (GABAARs) are major targets for allosteric modulators such as benzodiazepines, neurosteroids, and barbiturates. Analysis of substances that produce similar effects has been hampered by the lack of techniques to assess the localization and function of such agents in brain slices. Here we describe measurement of the sniffer patch laser uncaging response (SPLURgE), which combines the sniffer patch recording configuration with laser photolysis of caged GABA. This methodology enables the detection of allosteric GABAAR modulators endogenously present in discrete areas of the brain slice and allows for the application of exogenous GABA with spatiotemporal control without altering the release and localization of endogenous modulators within the slice. Here we demonstrate the development and use of this technique for the measurement of allosteric modulation in different areas of the thalamus. Application of this technique will be useful in determining whether a lack of modulatory effect on a particular category of neurons or receptors is due to insensitivity to allosteric modulation or a lack of local release of endogenous ligand. We also demonstrate that this technique can be used to investigate GABA diffusion and uptake. This method thus provides a biosensor assay for rapid detection of endogenous GABAAR modulators and has the potential to aid studies of allosteric modulators that exert effects on other classes of neurotransmitter receptors, such as glutamate, acetylcholine, or glycine receptors. PMID:23843428

  12. Identification of the kainate receptor subunits underlying modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CA3 region of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Contractor, A; Swanson, G T; Sailer, A; O'Gorman, S; Heinemann, S F

    2000-11-15

    To understand the physiological role of kainate receptors and their participation in seizure induction in animal models of epilepsy, it will be necessary to develop a comprehensive description of their action in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Activation of presynaptic kainate receptors depresses excitatory synaptic transmission at mossy fiber and associational-commissural inputs to CA3 pyramidal neurons (Vignes et al., 1998; Bortolotto et al., 1999; Kamiya and Ozawa, 2000). In this study, we use gene-targeted mice lacking glutamate receptor 5 (GluR5) or GluR6 kainate receptor subunits to identify the receptor subunits that comprise the kainate receptors responsible for presynaptic modulation of CA3 transmission. We found that bath application of kainate (3 microm) profoundly reduced EPSCs at mossy fiber and collateral synapses in neurons from wild-type and GluR5(-/-) mice but had no effect on EPSCs in neurons from GluR6(-/-) mice. These results therefore contrast with previous studies that supported a role for GluR5-containing receptors at mossy fiber and associational-commissural synapses (Vignes et al., 1998; Bortolotto et al., 1999). Surprisingly, at perforant path synapses kainate receptor activation enhanced transmission; this potentiation was abolished in both GluR5 and GluR6 knock-out mice. Kainate receptors thus play multiple and complex roles to modulate excitatory synaptic transmission in the CA3 region of the hippocampus.

  13. GAP-43 is essential for the neurotrophic effects of BDNF and positive AMPA receptor modulator S18986.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Mishra, R; Kusum, S; Spedding, M; Meiri, K F; Gressens, P; Mani, S

    2009-04-01

    Positive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor modulators include benzamide compounds that allosterically modulate AMPA glutamate receptors. These small molecules that cross the blood-brain barrier have been shown to act as a neuroprotectant by increasing the levels of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Positive AMPA receptor modulators have also been shown to increase the levels of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43). GAP-43 plays a major role in many aspects of neuronal function in vertebrates. The goal of this study was to determine whether GAP-43 was important in mediating the actions of positive AMPA receptor modulator (S18986) and BDNF. Using cortical cultures from GAP-43 knockout and control mice, we show that (1) GAP-43 is upregulated in response to S18986 and BDNF in control cultures; (2) this upregulation of GAP-43 is essential for mediating the neuroprotective effects of S18986 and BDNF; (3) administration of S18986 and BDNF leads to an increase in the expression of the glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST that are key to limiting excitotoxic cell death and this increase in GLT-1 and GLAST expression is completely blocked in the absence of GAP-43. Taken together this study concludes that GAP-43 is an important mediator of the neurotrophic effects of S18986 and BDNF on neuronal survival and plasticity, and is essential for the success of positive AMPA receptor modulator-BDNF-based neurotrophin therapy.

  14. Increased excitability of spinal pain reflexes and altered frequency-dependent modulation in the dopamine D3-receptor knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Benjamin E; Baran, Christine A; Brewer, Kori L; Clemens, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Frequency-dependent modulation and dopamine (DA) receptors strongly modulate neural circuits in the spinal cord. Of the five known DA receptor subtypes, the D3 receptor has the highest affinity to DA, and D3-mediated actions are mainly inhibitory. Using an animal model of spinal sensorimotor dysfunction, the D3 receptor knockout mouse (D3KO), we investigated the physiological consequences of D3 receptor dysfunction on pain-associated signaling pathways in the spinal cord, the initial integration site for the processing of pain signaling. In the D3KO spinal cord, inhibitory actions of DA on the proprioceptive monosynaptic stretch reflex are converted from depression to facilitation, but its effects on longer-latency and pain-associated reflex responses and the effects of FM have not been studied. Using behavioral approaches in vivo, we found that D3KO animals exhibit reduced paw withdrawal latencies to thermal pain stimulation (Hargreaves' test) over wild type (WT) controls. Electrophysiological and pharmacological approaches in the isolated spinal cord in vitro showed that constant current stimulation of dorsal roots at a pain-associated frequency was associated with a significant reduction in the frequency-dependent modulation of longer-latency reflex (LLRs) responses but not monosynaptic stretch reflexes (MSRs) in D3KO. Application of the D1 and D2 receptor agonists and the voltage-gated calcium-channel ligand, pregabalin, but not DA, was able to restore the frequency-dependent modulation of the LLR in D3KO to WT levels. Thus we demonstrate that nociception-associated LLRs and proprioceptive MSRs are differentially modulated by frequency, dopaminergics and the Ca(2+) channel ligand, pregabalin. Our data suggest a role for the DA D3 receptor in pain modulation and identify the D3KO as a possible model for increased nociception. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intracellular calcium levels determine differential modulation of allosteric interactions within G protein-coupled receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Gemma; Aguinaga, David; Moreno, Estefania; Hradsky, Johannes; Reddy, Pasham P; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Mikhaylova, Marina; Kreutz, Michael R; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-11-20

    The pharmacological significance of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer is well established and it is being considered as an important target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the physiological factors that control its distinctive biochemical properties are still unknown. We demonstrate that different intracellular Ca2+ levels exert a differential modulation of A2AR-D2R heteromer-mediated adenylyl-cyclase and MAPK signaling in striatal cells. This depends on the ability of low and high Ca2+ levels to promote a selective interaction of the heteromer with the neuronal Ca2+-binding proteins NCS-1 and calneuron-1, respectively. These Ca2+-binding proteins differentially modulate allosteric interactions within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, which constitutes a unique cellular device that integrates extracellular (adenosine and dopamine) and intracellular (Ca+2) signals to produce a specific functional response.

  16. The sigma-1 receptor chaperone as an inter-organelle signaling modulator

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tsung-Ping; Hayashi, Teruo; Maurice, Tangui; Buch, Shilpa; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2010-01-01

    Inter-organelle signaling plays important roles in many physiological functions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrion signaling affects intra-mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and cellular bioenergetics. ER-nucleus signaling attenuates ER stress. ER-plasma membrane signaling regulates cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis, and ER-mitochondrion-plasma membrane signaling regulates hippocampal dendritic spine formation. Here we propose that the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), an ER chaperone protein, acts as an inter-organelle signaling modulator. Sig-1Rs normally reside at the ER-mitochondrion contact called the MAM (mitochondrion-associated ER membrane), where Sig-1Rs regulate ER-mitochondrion signaling and the ER-nucleus cross-talk. When cells are stimulated by ligands or undergo prolonged stress, Sig-1Rs translocate from the MAM to the ER reticular network and plasmalemma/plasma membrane to regulate a variety of functional proteins, including ion channels, receptors, and kinases. Thus, the Sig-1R serves as an inter-organelle signaling modulator locally at the MAM and remotely at the plasmalemma/plasma membrane. Many pharmacological/physiological effects of Sig-1Rs may relate to this unique action of Sig-1Rs. PMID:20869780

  17. Prostaglandin E2 modulates dendritic cell function via EP2 and EP4 receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Harizi, Hedi; Grosset, Christophe; Gualde, Norbert

    2003-06-01

    We have reported previously that PGE(2) inhibits dendritic cells (DC) functions. Because E prostanoid receptor (EPR) subtypes involved in this action are unknown, expression and functions of these receptors were examined in DC. Western blot and flow cytometry analyses showed that all EPRs were coexpressed in DC. In a dose-dependent manner, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhanced EP(2)R/EP(4)R but not EP(1)R/EP(3)R expressions. NS-398, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-selective inhibitor, suppressed LPS-enhanced EP(2)R/EP(4)R expression, suggesting that COX-2-issued prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) modulates DC function through stimulation of specific EPR subtypes. Using selective agonists, we found that butaprost, an EP(2)R agonist, and PGE(1) alcohol, an EP(2)R and EP(2)R/EP(4)R agonist, inhibited major histocompatibility complex class II expression and enhanced interleukin-10 production from DC. However, no effect was observed with sulprostone and 17-phenyl-omega-trinor-PGE(2), selective agonists for EP(1)R and EP(1)R/EP(3)R, respectively. Treatment of DC with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), an analog of cAMP, mimics PGE(2)-induced, inhibitory effects. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EP(2)R/EP(4)R are efficient for mediating PGE(2)-induced modulation of DC functions.

  18. Short-term hyperthyroidism modulates adenosine receptors and catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase in adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rapiejko, P J; Malbon, C C

    1987-01-01

    The effects of short-term hyperthyroidism in vivo on the status of the components of the fat-cell hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase were investigated. The number of beta-adrenergic receptors was elevated by about 25% in membranes of fat-cells isolated from hyperthyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats, but their affinity for radioligand was unchanged. Membranes of hyperthyroid-rat fat-cells displayed less than 65% of the normal complement of receptors for [3H]cyclohexyladenosine. The affinity of the receptors for this ligand was normal. In contrast with the marked increase in the amounts of the alpha-subunits of the guanine nucleotide-binding proteins Gi (Mr 41,000) and Go (Mr 39,000) observed in the hypothyroid state [Malbon, Rapiejko & Mangano (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 2558-2564], the amounts of alpha-Gi, alpha-Go as well as alpha-Gs subunits [Mr 42,000 (major) and 46,000/48,000 (minor)] were not changed by hyperthyroidism. Adenylate cyclase activity in response to forskolin, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate or isoprenaline, in contrast, was decreased by 30-50% in fat-cell membranes from hyperthyroid rats. Fat-cells isolated from hyperthyroid rats accumulated cyclic AMP to less than 50% of the extent in their euthyroid counterparts in the presence of adenosine deaminase and either adrenaline or forskolin, suggesting a decrease in the amount or activity of the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase. In the absence of exogenous adenosine deaminase, cyclic AMP accumulation in response to adrenaline was elevated rather than decreased in fat-cells from hyperthyroid rats. The inhibitory influence of adenosine is apparently limited in the hyperthyroid state by the decreased complement of inhibitory R-site purinergic receptors in these fat-cells. Short-term hyperthyroidism modulates the fat-cell adenylate cyclase system at the receptor level (beta-receptor number increased, R-site purinergic-receptor number decreased) and the catalytic subunit of adenylate

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligands and modulators from dietary compounds: Types, screening methods and functions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haixia; Xiao, Lei; Wang, Nanping

    2017-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis and a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases. Natural dietary compounds, including nutrients and phytochemicals, are PPARα ligands or modulators. High-throughput screening assays have been developed to screen for PPARα ligands and modulators in our diet. In the present review, we discuss recent advances in our knowledge of PPARα, including its structure, function, and ligand and modulator screening assays, and summarize the different types of dietary PPARα ligands and modulators. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Modulation of short-term plasticity in the corticothalamic circuit by group III metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Kyuyoung, Christine L; Huguenard, John R

    2014-01-08

    Recurrent connections in the corticothalamic circuit underlie oscillatory behavior in this network and range from normal sleep rhythms to the abnormal spike-wave discharges seen in absence epilepsy. The propensity of thalamic neurons to fire postinhibitory rebound bursts mediated by low-threshold calcium spikes renders the circuit vulnerable to both increased excitation and increased inhibition, such as excessive excitatory cortical drive to thalamic reticular (RT) neurons or heightened inhibition of thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons by RT. In this context, a protective role may be played by group III metabotropic receptors (mGluRs), which are uniquely located in the presynaptic active zone and typically act as autoreceptors or heteroceptors to depress synaptic release. Here, we report that these receptors regulate short-term plasticity at two loci in the corticothalamic circuit in rats: glutamatergic cortical synapses onto RT neurons and GABAergic synapses onto TC neurons in somatosensory ventrobasal thalamus. The net effect of group III mGluR activation at these synapses is to suppress thalamic oscillations as assayed in vitro. These findings suggest a functional role of these receptors to modulate corticothalamic transmission and protect against prolonged activity in the network.

  1. FDA-Approved Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Inhibit Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Lisa M.; Brannan, Jennifer M.; Delos, Sue E.; Shoemaker, Charles J.; Stossel, Andrea; Lear, Calli; Hoffstrom, Benjamin G.; DeWald, Lisa Evans; Schornberg, Kathryn L.; Scully, Corinne; Lehár, Joseph; Hensley, Lisa E.; White, Judith M.; Olinger, Gene G.

    2014-01-01

    Ebola viruses remain a substantial threat to both civilian and military populations as bioweapons, during sporadic outbreaks, and from the possibility of accidental importation from endemic regions by infected individuals. Currently, no approved therapeutics exist to treat or prevent infection by Ebola viruses. Therefore, we performed an in vitro screen of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)– and ex–US-approved drugs and selected molecular probes to identify drugs with antiviral activity against the type species Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV). From this screen, we identified a set of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), including clomiphene and toremifene, which act as potent inhibitors of EBOV infection. Anti-EBOV activity was confirmed for both of these SERMs in an in vivo mouse infection model. This anti-EBOV activity occurred even in the absence of detectable estrogen receptor expression, and both SERMs inhibited virus entry after internalization, suggesting that clomiphene and toremifene are not working through classical pathways associated with the estrogen receptor. Instead, the response appeared to be an off-target effect where the compounds interfere with a step late in viral entry and likely affect the triggering of fusion. These data support the screening of readily available approved drugs to identify therapeutics for the Ebola viruses and other infectious diseases. The SERM compounds described in this report are an immediately actionable class of approved drugs that can be repurposed for treatment of filovirus infections. PMID:23785035

  2. Differential activation of natriuretic peptide receptors modulates cardiomyocyte proliferation during development

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jason R.; Chatterjee, Sneha; Robinson, Tamara Y.; Bennett, Jeffrey S.; Panáková, Daniela; Galindo, Cristi L.; Zhong, Lin; Shin, Jordan T.; Coy, Shannon M.; Kelly, Amy E.; Roden, Dan M.; Lim, Chee Chew; MacRae, Calum A.

    2014-01-01

    Organ development is a highly regulated process involving the coordinated proliferation and differentiation of diverse cellular populations. The pathways regulating cell proliferation and their effects on organ growth are complex and for many organs incompletely understood. In all vertebrate species, the cardiac natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) are produced by cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. However, their role during cardiogenesis is not defined. Using the embryonic zebrafish and neonatal mammalian cardiomyocytes we explored the natriuretic peptide signaling network during myocardial development. We observed that the cardiac natriuretic peptides ANP and BNP and the guanylate cyclase-linked natriuretic peptide receptors Npr1 and Npr2 are functionally redundant during early cardiovascular development. In addition, we demonstrate that low levels of the natriuretic peptides preferentially activate Npr3, a receptor with Gi activator sequences, and increase cardiomyocyte proliferation through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Conversely, high concentrations of natriuretic peptides reduce cardiomyocyte proliferation through activation of the particulate guanylate cyclase-linked natriuretic peptide receptors Npr1 and Npr2, and activation of protein kinase G. These data link the cardiac natriuretic peptides in a complex hierarchy modulating cardiomyocyte numbers during development through opposing effects on cardiomyocyte proliferation mediated through distinct cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways. PMID:24353062

  3. Allosteric Modulators of the CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor: A Structural Update Review.

    PubMed

    Morales, Paula; Goya, Pilar; Jagerovic, Nadine; Hernandez-Folgado, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, the first evidence of an allosteric binding site at the CB 1 R was provided by the identification of three indoles of the company Organon that were allosteric enhancers of agonist binding affinity and, functionally, allosteric inhibitors of agonist activity. Since then, structure-activity relationships of indoles as CB 1 R modulators have been reported. Targeting the allosteric site on CB 1 R, new families structurally based on urea and on 3-phenyltropane analogs of cocaine have been discovered as CB 1 R-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs), respectively, by Prosidion and by the Research Triangle Park. Endogenous allosteric ligands of different nature have been identified more recently. Thus, the therapeutic neuroprotection application of lipoxin A4, an arachidonic acid derivative, as an allosteric enhancer of CB 1 R activity has been confirmed in vivo . It was also the case of the steroid hormone, pregnenolone, whose negative allosteric effects on Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol ( Δ 9 -THC) were reproduced in vivo in a behavioral tetrad model and in food intake and memory impairment assays. Curiously, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist fenofibrate or polypeptides such as pepcan-12 have been shown to act on the endocannabinoid system through CB 1 R allosteric modulation. The mechanistic bases of the effects of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) are still not fully explained. However, there is evidence that CBD behaves as an NAM of Δ 9 -THC- and 2-AG. Allosteric modulation at CB 1 R offers new opportunities for therapeutic applications. Therefore, further understanding of the chemical features required for allosteric modulation as well as their orthosteric probe dependence may broaden novel approaches for fine-tuning the signaling pathways of the CB 1 R.

  4. Allosteric Modulators of the CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor: A Structural Update Review

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Paula; Goya, Pilar; Jagerovic, Nadine; Hernandez-Folgado, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2005, the first evidence of an allosteric binding site at the CB1R was provided by the identification of three indoles of the company Organon that were allosteric enhancers of agonist binding affinity and, functionally, allosteric inhibitors of agonist activity. Since then, structure–activity relationships of indoles as CB1R modulators have been reported. Targeting the allosteric site on CB1R, new families structurally based on urea and on 3-phenyltropane analogs of cocaine have been discovered as CB1R-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs), respectively, by Prosidion and by the Research Triangle Park. Endogenous allosteric ligands of different nature have been identified more recently. Thus, the therapeutic neuroprotection application of lipoxin A4, an arachidonic acid derivative, as an allosteric enhancer of CB1R activity has been confirmed in vivo. It was also the case of the steroid hormone, pregnenolone, whose negative allosteric effects on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) were reproduced in vivo in a behavioral tetrad model and in food intake and memory impairment assays. Curiously, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist fenofibrate or polypeptides such as pepcan-12 have been shown to act on the endocannabinoid system through CB1R allosteric modulation. The mechanistic bases of the effects of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) are still not fully explained. However, there is evidence that CBD behaves as an NAM of Δ9-THC- and 2-AG. Allosteric modulation at CB1R offers new opportunities for therapeutic applications. Therefore, further understanding of the chemical features required for allosteric modulation as well as their orthosteric probe dependence may broaden novel approaches for fine-tuning the signaling pathways of the CB1R. PMID:28861476

  5. Sexual behavior modulates contextual fear memory through dopamine D1/D5 receptors.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hua-Yi; Cao, Jun; Liu, Na; Xu, Lin; Luo, Jian-Hong

    2009-03-01

    Traumatic events always lead to aversive emotional memory, i.e., fear memory. In contrast, positive events in daily life such as sex experiences seem to reduce aversive memory after aversive events. Thus, we hypothesized that post-traumatic pleasurable experiences, especially instinctive behaviors such as sex, might modulate traumatic memory through a memory competition mechanism. Here, we first report that male rats persistently expressed much lower fear responses when exposed to females, but not when exposed to males, for 24 h immediately after contextual fear conditioning. Remarkably, this effect of sexual behavior was blocked by either systemic or intrahippocampal injection of the dopamine D1/D5 receptor antagonist R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SCH23390) and was mimicked by systemic but not intrahippocampal injection of the D1/D5 receptor agonist R(+)-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol hydrochloride (SKF39393). Furthermore, as a candidate mechanism underlying contextual fear memory, the impaired induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) elicited by conditioned fear was rescued in male rats immediately exposed to female but not male rats for 24 h. Systemic injection of the dopamine D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 or agonist SKF38393 prevented or mimicked the effect of sexual behavior on the impaired induction of hippocampal LTP. Thus, our finding suggests that dopaminergic functions may, at least partially, govern competition between contextual fear and enjoyable memories through the modulation of hippocampal LTP.

  6. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation

    SciT

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERR{alpha} in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERR{alpha} and ERR{alpha}-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and PGC-1{beta}, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERR{alpha}-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acidmore » binding protein 4, PPAR{gamma}, and PGC-1{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERR{alpha} and PGC-1{beta} mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERR{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERR{alpha} may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.« less

  7. Modification of caffeine effects on the affect-modulated startle by neuropeptide S receptor gene variation.

    PubMed

    Domschke, Katharina; Klauke, Benedikt; Winter, Bernward; Gajewska, Agnes; Herrmann, Martin J; Warrings, Bodo; Mühlberger, Andreas; Wosnitza, Katherina; Dlugos, Andrea; Naunin, Swantje; Nienhaus, Kathrin; Fobker, Manfred; Jacob, Christian; Arolt, Volker; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Zwanzger, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Both the neuropeptide S (NPS) system and antagonism at the adenosine A2A receptor (e.g., by caffeine) were found to play a crucial role in the mediation of arousal and anxiety/panic in animal and human studies. Furthermore, a complex interaction of the neuropeptide S and the adenosinergic system has been suggested with administration of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist caffeine downregulating NPS levels (Lage et al., 2006) and attenuating the stimulatory effects of NPS in rodents (Boeck et al., 2010). Thus, in the present study, the impact of the functional neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR) A/T (Asn(107)Ile; rs324981) variant on affect-modulated (neutral, unpleasant, and pleasant IAPS pictures) startle response depending on the administration of 300 mg caffeine citrate was investigated in a sample of 124 (m = 58, f = 66) healthy probands using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between NPSR genotype, challenge condition, and picture valence. Comparing startle magnitudes upon stimulation with neutral or emotional pictures between the placebo and caffeine condition, in AA/AT non-risk genotype carriers no significant difference was discerned, while TT risk genotype carriers showed a significantly increased startle magnitude in response to neutral stimuli (p = .02) and a significantly decreased startle magnitude in response to unpleasant stimuli (p = .02) in the caffeine condition as compared to the placebo condition. In summary, the present findings - extending previous evidence from rodent studies - for the first time provide support for a complex, non-linear interaction of the neuropeptide S and adenosinergic systems affecting the affect-modulated startle response as an intermediate phenotype of anxiety in humans.

  8. Distinct Modulations of Human Capsaicin Receptor by Protons and Magnesium through Different Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Poon, Kinning; Oswald, Robert E.; Chuang, Huai-hu

    2010-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel that integrates multiple painful stimuli, including capsaicin, protons, and heat. Protons facilitate the capsaicin- and heat-induced currents by decreasing thermal threshold or increasing agonist potency for TRPV1 activation (Tominaga, M., Caterina, M. J., Malmberg, A. B., Rosen, T. A., Gilbert, H., Skinner, K., Raumann, B. E., Basbaum, A. I., and Julius, D. (1998) Neuron 21, 531–543). In the presence of saturating capsaicin, rat TRPV1 (rTRPV1) reaches full activation, with no further stimulation by protons. Human TRPV1 (hTRPV1), a species ortholog with high homology to rTRPV1, is potentiated by extracellular protons and magnesium, even at saturating capsaicin. We investigated the structural basis for protons and magnesium modulation of fully capsaicin-bound human receptors. By analysis of chimeric channels between hTRPV1 and rTRPV1, we found that transmembrane domain 1–4 (TM1–4) of TRPV1 determines whether protons can further open the fully capsaicin-bound receptors. Mutational analysis identified a titratable glutamate residue (Glu-536) in the linker between TM3 and TM4 critical for further stimulation of fully liganded hTRPV1. In contrast, hTRPV1 TM5–6 is required for magnesium augmentation of capsaicin efficacy. Our results demonstrate that capsaicin efficacy of hTRPV1 correlates with the extracellular ion milieu and unravel the relevant structural basis of modulation by protons and magnesium. PMID:20145248

  9. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Protects Lungs from Cockroach Allergen-Induced Inflammation by Modulating Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Zhou, Yufeng; Qiu, Lipeng; Do, Danh C; Zhao, Yilin; Cui, Zhuang; Wang, Heng; Liu, Xiaopeng; Saradna, Arjun; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei; Gao, Peisong

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to cockroach allergen leads to allergic sensitization and increased risk of developing asthma. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a receptor for many common environmental contaminants, can sense not only environmental pollutants but also microbial insults. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with the capacity to modulate immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether AhR can sense cockroach allergens and modulate allergen-induced lung inflammation through MSCs. We found that cockroach allergen-treated AhR-deficient (AhR(-/-)) mice showed exacerbation of lung inflammation when compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an AhR agonist, significantly suppressed allergen-induced mouse lung inflammation. MSCs were significantly reduced in cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice as compared with WT mice, but increased in cockroach allergen-challenged WT mice when treated with TCDD. Moreover, MSCs express AhR, and AhR signaling can be activated by cockroach allergen with increased expression of its downstream genes cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Furthermore, we tracked the migration of i.v.-injected GFP(+) MSCs and found that cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice displayed less migration of MSCs to the lungs compared with WT. The AhR-mediated MSC migration was further verified by an in vitro Transwell migration assay. Epithelial conditioned medium prepared from cockroach extract-challenged epithelial cells significantly induced MSC migration, which was further enhanced by TCDD. The administration of MSCs significantly attenuated cockroach allergen-induced inflammation, which was abolished by TGF-β1-neutralizing Ab. These results suggest that AhR plays an important role in protecting lungs from allergen-induced inflammation by modulating MSC recruitment and their immune-suppressive activity. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Investigational hormone receptor agonists as ongoing female contraception: a focus on selective progesterone receptor modulators in early clinical development.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anita L

    2015-01-01

    As efforts are made to continue to increase the safety of contraceptive methods, those without estrogen have attracted new attention. Progestin-only options are available in many delivery systems, but most cause disturbed bleeding patterns. For gynecologic patients, selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have been approved for medical abortion, for ovulation suppression in emergency contraception, and for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding due to leiomyoma. This article discusses the role of SPRMs in controlling fertility on an ongoing basis with particular emphasis on mifepristone and ulipristal acetate (UPA), since none of the other compounds has progressed out of early Phase I - II testing. It also discusses important information about the mechanisms of action and safety of these two SPRMs. Of all the investigational hormone agonist/antagonists, SPRMs have demonstrated the greatest potential as ongoing female contraceptives. They have the ability to suppress ovulation after initiation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge without affecting ovarian production of estrogen or inducing any significant metabolic changes. SPRMs may well be able to provide longer term contraception as oral agents, vaginal rings, and perhaps even intrauterine devices. UPA has the greatest promise. Current research needs to be expanded.

  11. Selective modulation of the androgen receptor AF2 domain rescues degeneration in spinal bulbar muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Badders, Nisha M; Korff, Ane; Miranda, Helen C; Vuppala, Pradeep K; Smith, Rebecca B; Winborn, Brett J; Quemin, Emmanuelle R; Sopher, Bryce L; Dearman, Jennifer; Messing, James; Kim, Nam Chul; Moore, Jennifer; Freibaum, Brian D; Kanagaraj, Anderson P; Fan, Baochang; Tillman, Heather; Chen, Ping-Chung; Wang, Yingzhe; Freeman, Burgess B; Li, Yimei; Kim, Hong Joo; La Spada, Albert R; Taylor, J Paul

    2018-05-01

    Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by toxic gain of function of the androgen receptor (AR). Previously, we found that co-regulator binding through the activation function-2 (AF2) domain of AR is essential for pathogenesis, suggesting that AF2 may be a potential drug target for selective modulation of toxic AR activity. We screened previously identified AF2 modulators for their ability to rescue toxicity in a Drosophila model of SBMA. We identified two compounds, tolfenamic acid (TA) and 1-[2-(4-methylphenoxy)ethyl]-2-[(2-phenoxyethyl)sulfanyl]-1H-benzimidazole (MEPB), as top candidates for rescuing lethality, locomotor function and neuromuscular junction defects in SBMA flies. Pharmacokinetic analyses in mice revealed a more favorable bioavailability and tissue retention of MEPB compared with TA in muscle, brain and spinal cord. In a preclinical trial in a new mouse model of SBMA, MEPB treatment yielded a dose-dependent rescue from loss of body weight, rotarod activity and grip strength. In addition, MEPB ameliorated neuronal loss, neurogenic atrophy and testicular atrophy, validating AF2 modulation as a potent androgen-sparing strategy for SBMA therapy.

  12. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism modulates the effects of social support on heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Kanthak, Magdalena K.; Chen, Frances S.; Kumsta, Robert; Hill, LaBarron K.; Thayer, Julian F.; Heinrichs, Markus

    2017-01-01

    A large body of empirical research has demonstrated stress-buffering effects of social support. However, recent studies suggest that genetic variation of the oxytocin system (specifically, a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, of the oxytocin receptor gene) modulates the efficacy of social support. The timing and neurobiological basis of this genetic modulation were investigated using a standardized, laboratory-based psychological stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G). To index potential stress buffering effects of social support mediated by the oxytocin system, heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained before and during the TSST-G from 40 healthy participants. Results indicate that social support is associated with higher HRV only in G allele carriers. Specifically, social support increased heart rate variability during direct social interaction and only in individuals with at least one copy of the G allele of rs53576. These findings support the idea that the stress-attenuating effects of social support are modulated by genetic variation of the oxytocin system. PMID:26903384

  13. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulates acute and late mast cell responses.

    PubMed

    Sibilano, Riccardo; Frossi, Barbara; Calvaruso, Marco; Danelli, Luca; Betto, Elena; Dall'Agnese, Alessandra; Tripodo, Claudio; Colombo, Mario P; Pucillo, Carlo E; Gri, Giorgia

    2012-07-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor whose activity is modulated by xenobiotics as well as physiological ligands. These compounds may modulate inflammatory responses and contribute to the rising prevalence of allergic diseases observed in industrialized countries. Mast cells (MCs), located within tissues at the boundary of the external environment, represent a potential target of AhR ligands. In this study, we report that murine and human MCs constitutively express AhR, and its activation by the high-affinity ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) determines a boost in degranulation. On the contrary, repeated exposure to FICZ inhibits MC degranulation. Accordingly, histamine release, in an in vivo passive systemic anaphylactic model, is exacerbated by a single dose and is attenuated by repetitive stimulation of AhR. FICZ-exposed MCs produce reactive oxygen species and IL-6 in response to cAMP-dependent signals. Moreover, AhR-activated MCs produce IL-17, a critical player in chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, suggesting a novel pathway for MC activation in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Indeed, histological analysis of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease revealed an enrichment in AhR/IL-6 and AhR/IL-17 double-positive MCs within bronchial lamina propria. Thus, tissue-resident MCs could translate external chemical challenges through AhR by modulating allergic responses and contributing to the generation of inflammation-related diseases.

  14. Quantitative High-Throughput Identification of Drugs as Modulators of Human Constitutive Androstane Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Caitlin; Zhao, Jinghua; Huang, Ruili; Xiao, Jingwei; Li, Linhao; Heyward, Scott; Xia, Menghang; Wang, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) plays a key role in governing the transcription of numerous hepatic genes that involve xenobiotic metabolism/clearance, energy homeostasis, and cell proliferation. Thus, identification of novel human CAR (hCAR) modulators may not only enhance early prediction of drug-drug interactions but also offer potentially novel therapeutics for diseases such as metabolic disorders and cancer. In this study, we have generated a double stable cell line expressing both hCAR and a CYP2B6-driven luciferase reporter for quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of hCAR modulators. Approximately 2800 compounds from the NIH Chemical Genomics Center Pharmaceutical Collection were screened employing both the activation and deactivation modes of the qHTS. Activators (115) and deactivators (152) of hCAR were identified from the primary qHTS, among which 10 agonists and 10 antagonists were further validated in the physiologically relevant human primary hepatocytes for compound-mediated hCAR nuclear translocation and target gene expression. Collectively, our results reveal that hCAR modulators can be efficiently identified through this newly established qHTS assay. Profiling drug collections for hCAR activity would facilitate the prediction of metabolism-based drug-drug interactions, and may lead to the identification of potential novel therapeutics. PMID:25993555

  15. Enhancing and impairing extinction of habit memory through modulation of NMDA receptors in the dorsolateral striatum.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jarid; Ressler, Reed L; Packard, Mark G

    2017-06-03

    The present experiments investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in consolidation of extinction in a habit memory task. Adult male Long-Evans rats were initially trained in a food-reinforced response learning version of a plus-maze task and were subsequently given extinction training in which the food was removed from the maze. In experiment 1, immediately after the first day of extinction training, rats received bilateral intra-DLS injections of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; 2µg/side) or physiological saline. In experiment 2, immediately following the first day of extinction training, animals were given intra-DLS injections of NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS; 10 or 20µg/side) or saline. In both experiments, the number of perseverative trials (a trial in which a rat made the same previously reinforced body-turn response) and latency to reach the previously correct food well were used as measures of extinction behavior. Results indicated that post-training intra-DLS injections of AP5 impaired extinction. In contrast, post-training intra-DLS infusions of DCS (20µg) enhanced extinction. Intra-DLS administration of AP5 or DCS given two hours after extinction training did not influence extinction of response learning, indicating that immediate post-training administration of AP5 and DCS specifically influenced consolidation of the extinction memory. The present results indicate a critical role for DLS NMDA receptors in modulating extinction of habit memory and may be relevant to developing therapeutic approaches to combat the maladaptive habits observed in human psychopathologies in which DLS-dependent memory has been implicated (e.g. drug addiction and relapse and obsessive compulsive disorder). Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Presynaptic membrane receptors in acetylcholine release modulation in the neuromuscular synapse.

    PubMed

    Tomàs, Josep; Santafé, Manel M; Garcia, Neus; Lanuza, Maria A; Tomàs, Marta; Besalduch, Núria; Obis, Teresa; Priego, Mercedes; Hurtado, Erica

    2014-05-01

    Over the past few years, we have studied, in the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the local involvement in transmitter release of the presynaptic muscarinic ACh autoreceptors (mAChRs), purinergic adenosine autoreceptors (P1Rs), and trophic factor receptors (TFRs; for neurotrophins and trophic cytokines) during development and in the adult. At any given moment, the way in which a synapse works is largely the logical outcome of the confluence of these (and other) metabotropic signalling pathways on intracellular kinases, which phosphorylate protein targets and materialize adaptive changes. We propose an integrated interpretation of the complementary function of these receptors in the adult NMJ. The activity of a given receptor group can modulate a given combination of spontaneous, evoked, and activity-dependent release characteristics. For instance, P1Rs can conserve resources by limiting spontaneous quantal leak of ACh (an A1 R action) and protect synapse function, because stimulation with adenosine reduces the magnitude of depression during repetitive activity. The overall outcome of the mAChRs seems to contribute to upkeep of spontaneous quantal output of ACh, save synapse function by decreasing the extent of evoked release (mainly an M2 action), and reduce depression. We have also identified several links among P1Rs, mAChRs, and TFRs. We found a close dependence between mAChR and some TFRs and observed that the muscarinic group has to operate correctly if the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (trkB) is also to operate correctly, and vice versa. Likewise, the functional integrity of mAChRs depends on P1Rs operating normally. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. alpha-Adrenoceptor and opioid receptor modulation of clonidine-induced antinociception.

    PubMed Central

    Sierralta, F.; Naquira, D.; Pinardi, G.; Miranda, H. F.

    1996-01-01

    1. The antinociceptive action of clonidine (Clon) and the interactions with alpha 1, alpha 2 adrenoceptor and opioid receptor antagonists was evaluated in mice by use of chemical algesiometric test (acetic acid writhing test). 2. Clon produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive action and the ED50 for intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) was lower than for intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration (1 ng kg-1 vs 300 ng kg-1). The parallelism of the dose-response curves indicates activation of a common receptor subtype. 3. Systemic administration of prazosin and terazosin displayed antinociceptive activity. Pretreatment with prazosin produced a dual action: i.c.v. Clon effect did not change, and i.p. Clon effect was enhanced. Yohimbine i.c.v. or i.p. did not induce antinonciception, but antagonized Clon-induced activity. These results suggest that alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors, either located at the pre- and/or post-synaptic level, are involved in the control of spinal antinociception. 4. Naloxone (NX) and naltrexone (NTX) induced antinociceptive effects at low doses (microgram kg-1 range) and a lower antinociceptive effect at higher doses (mg kg-1 range). Low doses of NX or NTX antagonized Clon antinociception, possibly in relation to a preferential mu opioid receptor antagonism. In contrast, high doses of NX or NTX increased the antinociceptive activity of Clon, which could be due to an enhanced inhibition of the release of substance P. 5. The results obtained in the present work suggest the involvement of alpha 1-, alpha 2-adrenoceptor and opioid receptors in the modulation of the antinociceptive activity of clonidine, which seems to be exerted either at spinal and/or supraspinal level. PMID:8894177

  18. alpha-Adrenoceptor and opioid receptor modulation of clonidine-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, F; Naquira, D; Pinardi, G; Miranda, H F

    1996-10-01

    1. The antinociceptive action of clonidine (Clon) and the interactions with alpha 1, alpha 2 adrenoceptor and opioid receptor antagonists was evaluated in mice by use of chemical algesiometric test (acetic acid writhing test). 2. Clon produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive action and the ED50 for intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) was lower than for intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration (1 ng kg-1 vs 300 ng kg-1). The parallelism of the dose-response curves indicates activation of a common receptor subtype. 3. Systemic administration of prazosin and terazosin displayed antinociceptive activity. Pretreatment with prazosin produced a dual action: i.c.v. Clon effect did not change, and i.p. Clon effect was enhanced. Yohimbine i.c.v. or i.p. did not induce antinonciception, but antagonized Clon-induced activity. These results suggest that alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors, either located at the pre- and/or post-synaptic level, are involved in the control of spinal antinociception. 4. Naloxone (NX) and naltrexone (NTX) induced antinociceptive effects at low doses (microgram kg-1 range) and a lower antinociceptive effect at higher doses (mg kg-1 range). Low doses of NX or NTX antagonized Clon antinociception, possibly in relation to a preferential mu opioid receptor antagonism. In contrast, high doses of NX or NTX increased the antinociceptive activity of Clon, which could be due to an enhanced inhibition of the release of substance P. 5. The results obtained in the present work suggest the involvement of alpha 1-, alpha 2-adrenoceptor and opioid receptors in the modulation of the antinociceptive activity of clonidine, which seems to be exerted either at spinal and/or supraspinal level.

  19. Deciphering the Regulatory Logic of an Ancient, Ultraconserved Nuclear Receptor Enhancer Module

    PubMed Central

    Bagamasbad, Pia D.; Bonett, Ronald M.; Sachs, Laurent; Buisine, Nicolas; Raj, Samhitha; Knoedler, Joseph R.; Kyono, Yasuhiro; Ruan, Yijun; Ruan, Xiaoan

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative, synergistic gene regulation by nuclear hormone receptors can increase sensitivity and amplify cellular responses to hormones. We investigated thyroid hormone (TH) and glucocorticoid (GC) synergy on the Krüppel-like factor 9 (Klf9) gene, which codes for a zinc finger transcription factor involved in development and homeostasis of diverse tissues. We identified regions of the Xenopus and mouse Klf9 genes 5–6 kb upstream of the transcription start sites that supported synergistic transactivation by TH plus GC. Within these regions, we found an orthologous sequence of approximately 180 bp that is highly conserved among tetrapods, but absent in other chordates, and possesses chromatin marks characteristic of an enhancer element. The Xenopus and mouse approximately 180-bp DNA element conferred synergistic transactivation by hormones in transient transfection assays, so we designate this the Klf9 synergy module (KSM). We identified binding sites within the mouse KSM for TH receptor, GC receptor, and nuclear factor κB. TH strongly increased recruitment of liganded GC receptor and serine 5 phosphorylated (initiating) RNA polymerase II to chromatin at the KSM, suggesting a mechanism for transcriptional synergy. The KSM is transcribed to generate long noncoding RNAs, which are also synergistically induced by combined hormone treatment, and the KSM interacts with the Klf9 promoter and a far upstream region through chromosomal looping. Our findings support that the KSM plays a central role in hormone regulation of vertebrate Klf9 genes, it evolved in the tetrapod lineage, and has been maintained by strong stabilizing selection. PMID:25866873

  20. The Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulator Cort 113176 Reduces Neurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation in Wobbler Mice Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Maria; Lara, Agustina; Hunt, Hazel; Belanoff, Joseph; de Kloet, E Ronald; Gonzalez Deniselle, Maria Claudia; De Nicola, Alejandro F

    2018-06-08

    Wobbler mice are experimental models for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. As such they show motoneuron degeneration, motor deficits, and astrogliosis and microgliosis of the spinal cord. Additionally, Wobbler mice show increased plasma, spinal cord and brain corticosterone levels and focal adrenocortical hyperplasia, suggesting a pathogenic role for glucocorticoids in this disorder. Considering this endocrine background, we examined whether the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulator CORT 113176 prevents spinal cord neuropathology of Wobblers. CORT 113176 shows high affinity for the GR, with low or null affinity for other steroid receptors. We employed five-month-old genotyped Wobbler mice that received s.c. vehicle or 30 mg/kg/day for 4 days of CORT 113176 dissolved in sesame oil. The mice were used on the 4th day, 2 h after the last dose of CORT 113176. Vehicle-treated Wobbler mice presented vacuolated motoneurons, increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)+ astrocytes and decreased glutamine synthase (GS)+ cells. There was strong neuroinflammation, shown by increased staining for IBA1+ microglia and CD11b mRNA, enhanced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, its cognate receptor TNFR1, toll-like receptor 4, the inducible nitric oxide synthase, NFkB and the high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). Treatment of Wobbler mice with CORT 113176 reversed the abnormalities of motoneurons and down-regulated proinflammatory mediators and glial reactivity. Expression of glutamate transporters GLT1 and GLAST mRNAs and GLT1 protein was significantly enhanced over untreated Wobblers. In summary, antagonism of GR with CORT 113176 prevented neuropathology and showed anti-inflammatory and anti-glutamatergic effects in the spinal cord of Wobbler mice. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of opioid receptors that modulate nociceptive neurotransmission in the trigeminocervical complex

    PubMed Central

    Storer, R J; Akerman, S; Goadsby, P J

    2003-01-01

    Opioid agonists have been used for many years to treat all forms of headache, including migraine. We sought to characterize opioid receptors involved in craniovascular nociceptive pathways by in vivo microiontophoresis of μ-receptor agonists and antagonists onto neurons in the trigeminocervical complex of the cat. Cats were anaesthetized with α-chloralose 60 mg kg−1, i.p. and 20 mg kg−1, i.v. supplements after induction and surgical preparation using halothane. Units were identified in the trigeminocervical complex responding to supramaximal electrical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus, and extracellular recordings of activity made. Seven- or nine-barrelled glass micropipettes incorporating tungsten recording electrodes in their centre barrels were used for microiontophoresis of test substances onto cell bodies. Superior sagittal sinus (SSS)-linked cells whose firing was evoked by microiontophoretic application of L-glutamate (n=8 cells) were reversibly inhibited by microiontophoresis of H2N-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-N-Me-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) (n=12), a selective μ-receptor agonist, in a dose dependent manner, but not by control ejection of sodium or chloride ions from a barrel containing saline. The inhibition by DAMGO of SSS-linked neurons activated with L-glutamate could be antagonized by microiontophoresis of selective μ-receptor antagonists D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP) or D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP), or both, in all cells tested (n=4 and 6, respectively). Local iontophoresis of DAMGO during stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus resulted in a reduction in SSS-evoked activity. This effect was substantially reversed 10 min after cessation of iontophoresis. The effect of DAMGO was markedly inhibited by co-iontophoresis of CTAP. Thus, we found that μ-receptors modulate nociceptive input to the trigeminocervical complex. Characterizing the sub-types of opioid receptors that influence trigeminovascular nociceptive

  2. Dopamine D1 and D3 Receptors Modulate Heroin-Induced Cognitive Impairment through Opponent Actions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongsheng; Wang, Yunpeng; Wei, Shuguang; Zhang, Hongbo; Yan, Peng; Li, Yunxiao; Qiao, Xiaomeng; Yin, Fangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chronic abuse of heroin leads to long-lasting and complicated cognitive impairment. Dopamine receptors are critically involved in the impulsive drug-driven behavior and the altered attention, processing speed, and mental flexibility that are associated with higher relapse rates. However, the effects of the different dopamine receptors and their possible involvement in heroin-induced cognitive impairment remain unclear. Methods: The 5-choice serial reaction time task was used to investigate the profiles of heroin-induced cognitive impairment in mice. The expression levels of dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and caudate-putamen were determined. The effects of dopamine receptors on heroin-induced impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task were examined by agonist/antagonist treatment on D1 or D3 receptor mutant mice. Results: Systemic heroin administration influences several variables in the 5-choice serial reaction time task, most notably premature responses, a measure of motor impulsivity. These behavioral impairments are associated with increased D1 receptor and decreased D3 receptor mRNA and protein levels in 3 observed brain areas. The heroin-evoked increase in premature responses is mimicked by a D1 agonist and prevented by a D1 antagonist or genetic ablation of the D1 receptor gene. In contrast, a D3 agonist decreases both basal and heroin-evoked premature responses, while genetic ablation of the D3 receptor gene results in increased basal and heroin-evoked premature responses. Conclusions: Heroin-induced impulsive behavior in the 5-choice serial reaction time task is oppositely modulated by D1 and D3 receptor activation. The D1 receptors in the cortical-mesolimbic region play an indispensable role in modulating such behaviors. PMID:27815417

  3. Dopamine D1 and D3 Receptors Modulate Heroin-Induced Cognitive Impairment through Opponent Actions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongsheng; Wang, Yunpeng; Lai, Jianghua; Wei, Shuguang; Zhang, Hongbo; Yan, Peng; Li, Yunxiao; Qiao, Xiaomeng; Yin, Fangyuan

    2017-03-01

    Chronic abuse of heroin leads to long-lasting and complicated cognitive impairment. Dopamine receptors are critically involved in the impulsive drug-driven behavior and the altered attention, processing speed, and mental flexibility that are associated with higher relapse rates. However, the effects of the different dopamine receptors and their possible involvement in heroin-induced cognitive impairment remain unclear. The 5-choice serial reaction time task was used to investigate the profiles of heroin-induced cognitive impairment in mice. The expression levels of dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and caudate-putamen were determined. The effects of dopamine receptors on heroin-induced impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task were examined by agonist/antagonist treatment on D1 or D3 receptor mutant mice. Systemic heroin administration influences several variables in the 5-choice serial reaction time task, most notably premature responses, a measure of motor impulsivity. These behavioral impairments are associated with increased D1 receptor and decreased D3 receptor mRNA and protein levels in 3 observed brain areas. The heroin-evoked increase in premature responses is mimicked by a D1 agonist and prevented by a D1 antagonist or genetic ablation of the D1 receptor gene. In contrast, a D3 agonist decreases both basal and heroin-evoked premature responses, while genetic ablation of the D3 receptor gene results in increased basal and heroin-evoked premature responses. Heroin-induced impulsive behavior in the 5-choice serial reaction time task is oppositely modulated by D1 and D3 receptor activation. The D1 receptors in the cortical-mesolimbic region play an indispensable role in modulating such behaviors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  4. Recent Progress in the Design and Discovery of RXR Modulators Targeting Alternate Binding Sites of the Receptor.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying; Zeng, Zhiping; Chen, Ziwen; Xu, Dan; Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Xiao-Kun

    2017-01-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) occupy a central position within the nuclear receptor superfamily. They not only function as important transcriptional factors but also exhibit diverse nongenomic biological activities. The pleiotropic actions of RXRs under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions confer RXRs important drug targets for the treatment of cancer, and metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. RXR modulators have been studied for the purpose of developing both drug molecules and chemical tools for biological investigation of RXR. Development of RXR modulators has focused on small molecules targeting the canonical ligand-binding pocket. However, accumulating results have demonstrated that there are other binding mechanisms by which small molecules interact with RXR to act as RXR modulators. This review discusses the recent development in the design and discovery of RXR modulators with a focus on those targeting novel binding sites on RXR.

  5. The natural products magnolol and honokiol are positive allosteric modulators of both synaptic and extra-synaptic GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Alexeev, Mikhail; Grosenbaugh, Denise K.; Mott, David D.; Fisher, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) estimates that nearly 40% of adults in the United States use alternative medicines, often in the form of an herbal supplement. Extracts from the tree bark of magnolia species have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines to treat a variety of neurological diseases, including anxiety, depression, and seizures. The active ingredients in the extracts have been identified as the bi-phenolic isomers magnolol and honokiol. These compounds were shown to enhance the activity of GABAA receptors, consistent with their biological effects. The GABAA receptors exhibit substantial subunit heterogeneity, which influences both their functional and pharmacological properties. We examined the activity of magnolol and honokiol at different populations of both neuronal and recombinant GABAA receptors to characterize their mechanism of action and to determine whether sensitivity to modulation was dependent upon the receptor’s subunit composition. We found that magnolol and honokiol enhanced both phasic and tonic GABAergic neurotransmission in hippocampal dentate granule neurons. In addition, all recombinant receptors examined were sensitive to modulation, regardless of the identity of the α, β, or γ subunit subtype, although the compounds showed particularly high efficacy at δ-containing receptors. This direct positive modulation of both synaptic and extra-synaptic populations of GABAA receptors suggests that supplements containing magnolol and/or honokiol would be effective anxiolytics, sedatives, and anti-convulsants. However, significant side-effects and risk of drug interactions would also be expected. PMID:22445602

  6. GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence alters adult ethanol intake and preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Hulin, Mary W; Amato, Russell J; Winsauer, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    To address the hypothesis that GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence may alter the abuse liability of ethanol during adulthood, the effects of adolescent administration of both a positive and negative GABA(A) receptor modulator on adult alcohol intake and preference were assessed. Three groups of adolescent male rats received 12 injections of lorazepam (3.2 mg/kg), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 56 mg/kg), or vehicle on alternate days starting on postnatal day (PD) 35. After this time, the doses were increased to 5.6 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 more injections on alternate days. Subjects had access to 25 to 30 g of food daily, during the period of the first 6 injections, and 18 to 20 g thereafter. Food intake of each group was measured 60 minutes after food presentation, which occurred immediately after drug administration on injection days or at the same time of day on noninjection days. When subjects reached adulthood (PD 88), ethanol preference was determined on 2 separate occasions, an initial 3-day period and a 12-day period, in which increasing concentrations of ethanol were presented. During each preference test, intake of water, saccharin, and an ethanol/saccharin solution was measured after each 23-hour access period. During adolescence, lorazepam increased 60-minute food intake, and this effect was enhanced under the more restrictive feeding schedule. DHEA had the opposite effect on injection days, decreasing food intake compared with noninjection days. In adulthood, the lorazepam-treated group preferred the 2 lowest concentrations of ethanol/saccharin more than saccharin alone compared with vehicle-treated subjects, which showed no preference for any concentration of ethanol/saccharin over saccharin. DHEA-treated subjects showed no preference among the 3 solutions. These data demonstrate that GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence can alter intake and preference for ethanol in adulthood and highlights the importance of drug history

  7. Cannabinoid Receptors Modulate Neuronal Morphology and AnkyrinG Density at the Axon Initial Segment

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Mónica; Dominguez, Ana; Zhang, Wei; del Puerto, Ana; Ciorraga, María; Benitez, María José; Guaza, Carmen; Garrido, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal polarization underlies the ability of neurons to integrate and transmit information. This process begins early in development with axon outgrowth, followed by dendritic growth and subsequent maturation. In between these two steps, the axon initial segment (AIS), a subcellular domain crucial for generating action potentials (APs) and maintaining the morphological and functional polarization, starts to develop. However, the cellular/molecular mechanisms and receptors involved in AIS initial development and maturation are mostly unknown. In this study, we have focused on the role of the type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R), a highly abundant G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) in the nervous system largely involved in different phases of neuronal development and differentiation. Although CB1R activity modulation has been related to changes in axons or dendrites, its possible role as a modulator of AIS development has not been yet explored. Here we analyzed the potential role of CB1R on neuronal morphology and AIS development using pharmacological and RNA interference approaches in cultured hippocampal neurons. CB1R inhibition, at a very early developmental stage, has no effect on axonal growth, yet CB1R activation can promote it. By contrast, subsequent dendritic growth is impaired by CB1R inhibition, which also reduces ankyrinG density at the AIS. Moreover, our data show a significant correlation between early dendritic growth and ankyrinG density. However, CB1R inhibition in later developmental stages after dendrites are formed only reduces ankyrinG accumulation at the AIS. In conclusion, our data suggest that neuronal CB1R basal activity plays a role in initial development of dendrites and indirectly in AIS proteins accumulation. Based on the lack of CB1R expression at the AIS, we hypothesize that CB1R mediated modulation of dendritic arbor size during early development indirectly determines the accumulation of ankyrinG and AIS development. Further studies

  8. Glycine receptor modulating antibody predicting treatable stiff-person spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Shannon R; Lopez-Chiriboga, A Sebastian; Bower, James H; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Hassan, Anhar; Basal, Eati; Lennon, Vanda A; Pittock, Sean J; McKeon, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Glycine receptor alpha-1 subunit (GlyRα1)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) is diagnostic of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) spectrum but has been reported detectable in other neurologic diseases for which significance is less certain. To assess GlyRα1-IgGs as biomarkers of SPS spectrum among patients and controls, specimens were tested using cell-based assays (binding [4°C] and modulating [antigen endocytosing, 37°C]). Medical records of seropositive patients were reviewed. GlyRα1-IgG (binding antibody) was detected in 21 of 247 patients with suspected SPS spectrum (8.5%) and in 8 of 190 healthy subject sera (4%) but not CSF. Among 21 seropositive patients, 20 had confirmed SPS spectrum clinically, but 1 was later determined to have a functional neurologic disorder. Sera from 9 patients with SPS spectrum , but not 7 controls, nor the functional patient, caused GlyRα1 modulation (100% specificity). SPS spectrum phenotypes included progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) (8), classic SPS (5), stiff limb (5), stiff trunk (1), and isolated exaggerated startle (hyperekplexia, 1). Neuropsychiatric symptoms present in 12 patients (60%) were anxiety (11), depression (6), and delirium (3). Anxiety was particularly severe in 3 patients with PERM. Objective improvements in SPS neurologic symptoms were recorded in 16 of 18 patients who received first-line immunotherapy (89%, 9/10 treated with corticosteroids, 8/10 treated with IVIg, 3/4 treated with plasma exchange, and 1 treated with rituximab). Treatment-sparing maintenance strategies were successful in 4 of 7 patients (rituximab [2/3], azathioprine [1/1], and mycophenolate [1/3]). GlyRα1-modulating antibody improves diagnostic specificity for immunologically treatable SPS spectrum disorders. This study provides Class IV evidence that GlyRα1-modulating antibody accurately identifies patients with treatable SPS spectrum disorders.

  9. Ivy and neurogliaform interneurons are a major target of μ opioid receptor modulation

    PubMed Central

    Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Luu, Lillian; Lee, Sang-Hun; Varga, Csaba; Soltesz, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Mu opioid receptors (μORs) are selectively expressed on interneurons in area CA1 of the hippocampus. Fast-spiking, parvalbumin expressing, basket cells express μORs, but circumstantial evidence suggests that another major, unidentified, GABAergic cell class must also be modulated by μORs. Here we report that the abundant, dendritically targeting, neurogliaform family of cells (Ivy and neurogliaform cells) is a previously unrecognized target of direct modulation by μORs. Ivy and neurogliaform cells are not only numerous, but also have unique properties, including promiscuous gap junctions formed with various interneuronal subtypes, volume transmission, and the ability to produce a postsynaptic GABAB response after a single presynaptic spike. Using a mouse line expressing green fluorescent protein under the neuropeptide Y promoter, we find that across all layers of CA1, activation of μORs hyperpolarizes Ivy and neurogliaform cells. Further, paired recordings between synaptically coupled Ivy and pyramidal cells show that Ivy cell terminals are dramatically inhibited by μOR-activation. Effects in Ivy and neurogliaform cells are seen at similar concentrations of agonist as those producing inhibition in fast-spiking PV basket cells. We also report that Ivy cells display the recently described phenomenon of persistent firing, a state of continued firing in the absence of continued input, and that induction of persistent firing is inhibited by μOR-activation. Together these findings identify a major, previously unrecognized, target of μOR-modulation. Given the prominence of this cell type in and beyond CA1, as well as its unique role in microcircuitry, opioid modulation of neurogliaform cells has wide implications. PMID:22016519

  10. Ivy and neurogliaform interneurons are a major target of μ-opioid receptor modulation.

    PubMed

    Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Luu, Lillian; Lee, Sang-Hun; Varga, Csaba; Soltesz, Ivan

    2011-10-19

    μ-Opioid receptors (μORs) are selectively expressed on interneurons in area CA1 of the hippocampus. Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing, basket cells express μORs, but circumstantial evidence suggests that another major, unidentified, GABAergic cell class must also be modulated by μORs. Here we report that the abundant, dendritically targeting, neurogliaform family of cells (Ivy and neurogliaform cells) is a previously unrecognized target of direct modulation by μORs. Ivy and neurogliaform cells are not only numerous but also have unique properties, including promiscuous gap junctions formed with various interneuronal subtypes, volume transmission, and the ability to produce a postsynaptic GABA(B) response after a single presynaptic spike. Using a mouse line expressing green fluorescent protein under the neuropeptide Y promoter, we find that, across all layers of CA1, activation of μORs hyperpolarizes Ivy and neurogliaform cells. Furthermore, paired recordings between synaptically coupled Ivy and pyramidal cells show that Ivy cell terminals are dramatically inhibited by μOR activation. Effects in Ivy and neurogliaform cells are seen at similar concentrations of agonist as those producing inhibition in fast-spiking parvalbumin basket cells. We also report that Ivy cells display the recently described phenomenon of persistent firing, a state of continued firing in the absence of continued input, and that induction of persistent firing is inhibited by μOR activation. Together, these findings identify a major, previously unrecognized, target of μOR modulation. Given the prominence of this cell type in and beyond CA1, as well as its unique role in microcircuitry, opioid modulation of neurogliaform cells has wide implications.

  11. Characterization of kinin receptors modulating neurogenic contractions of the mouse isolated vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Maas, J; Rae, G A; Huidobro-Toro, J P; Calixto, J B

    1995-04-01

    M) did not modify the contractions induced by either agonist.6. It is concluded that the mouse vas deferens expresses both B1 and B2 receptors, which modulate sympathetic neurotransmission in opposing ways. Neurogenic contractions are inhibited by stimulation of possibly prejunctional B, receptors, whereas activation of B2 receptors increases twitch contractions,in part by amplifying the responsiveness of the smooth muscle cells to the sympathetic co-transmitter ATP.

  12. Medial prefrontal cortex TRPV1 and CB1 receptors modulate cardiac baroreflex activity by regulating the NMDA receptor/nitric oxide pathway.

    PubMed

    Lagatta, Davi C; Kuntze, Luciana B; Ferreira-Junior, Nilson C; Resstel, Leonardo B M

    2018-05-29

    The ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) facilitates the cardiac baroreflex response through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation and nitric oxide (NO) formation by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) triggering. Glutamatergic transmission is modulated by the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB 1 ) and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV 1 ) receptors, which may inhibit or stimulate glutamate release in the brain, respectively. Interestingly, vMPFC CB 1 receptors decrease cardiac baroreflex responses, while TRPV 1 channels facilitate them. Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study is that the vMPFC NMDA/NO pathway is regulated by both CB 1 and TRPV 1 receptors in the modulation of cardiac baroreflex activity. In order to test this assumption, we used male Wistar rats that had stainless steel guide cannulae bilaterally implanted in the vMPFC. Subsequently, a catheter was inserted into the femoral artery, for cardiovascular recordings, and into the femoral vein for assessing baroreflex activation. The increase in tachycardic and bradycardic responses observed after the microinjection of a CB 1 receptors antagonist into the vMPFC was prevented by an NMDA antagonist as well as by the nNOS and sGC inhibition. NO extracellular scavenging also abolished these responses. These same pharmacological manipulations inhibited cardiac reflex enhancement induced by TRPV 1 agonist injection into the area. Based on these results, we conclude that vMPFC CB 1 and TRPV 1 receptors inhibit or facilitate the cardiac baroreflex activity by stimulating or blocking the NMDA activation and NO synthesis.

  13. Modulation of NMDA and AMPA-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by CB1 Receptors in Frontal Cortical Pyramidal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Yan, Haidun; Wilson, Wilkie A.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Although the endogenous cannabinoid system modulates a variety of physiological and pharmacological processes, the specific role of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission and neural plasticity is not well understood. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques, evoked or spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs or sEPSCs) were recorded from visualized, layer II/III pyramidal cells in frontal cortical slices from rat brain. Bath application of the CB1 receptor agonist, WIN 55212-2 (WIN), reduced the amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner. When co-applied with the specific CB1 antagonists, AM251 or AM281, WIN did not suppress NMDA receptor mediated EPSCs. WIN also reduced the amplitude of evoked AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs, an effect that was also reversed by AM251. Both the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs were significantly reduced by WIN. In contrast, WIN reduced the frequency, but not the amplitude of miniature EPSCs, suggesting that the suppression of glutmatergic activity by CB1 receptors in the frontal neocortex is mediated by a pre-synaptic mechanism. Taken together, these data indicate a critical role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in frontal neocortex, and suggest a possible neuronal mechanism whereby THC regulates cortical function. PMID:20420813

  14. Modulation of Toll-like receptor signaling in innate immunity by natural products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luxi; Yu, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    For centuries, natural products and their derivatives have provided a rich source of compounds for the development of new immunotherapies in the treatment of human disease. Many of these compounds are currently undergoing clinical trials, particularly as anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer agents. However, the function and mechanism of natural products in how they interact with our immune system has yet to be extensively explored. Natural immune modulators may provide the key to control and ultimately defeat disorders affecting the immune system. They can either up- or down-regulate the immune response with few undesired adverse effects. In this review, we summarize the recent advancements made in utilizing natural products for immunomodulation and their important molecular targets, members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, in the innate immune system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Marine and Semi-Synthetic Hydroxysteroids as New Scaffolds for Pregnane X Receptor Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Sepe, Valentina; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; D’Amore, Claudio; Festa, Carmen; De Marino, Simona; Renga, Barbara; D’Auria, Maria Valeria; Novellino, Ettore; Limongelli, Vittorio; D’Souza, Lisette; Majik, Mahesh; Zampella, Angela; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years many sterols with unusual structures and promising biological profiles have been identified from marine sources. Here we report the isolation of a series of 24-alkylated-hydroxysteroids from the soft coral Sinularia kavarattiensis, acting as pregnane X receptor (PXR) modulators. Starting from this scaffold a number of derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their ability to activate the PXR by assessing transactivation and quantifying gene expression. Our study reveals that ergost-5-en-3β-ol (4) induces PXR transactivation in HepG2 cells and stimulates the expression of the PXR target gene CYP3A4. To shed light on the molecular basis of the interaction between these ligands and PXR, we investigated, through docking simulations, the binding mechanism of the most potent compound of the series, 4, to the PXR. Our findings provide useful functional and structural information to guide further investigations and drug design. PMID:24871460

  16. Marine and semi-synthetic hydroxysteroids as new scaffolds for pregnane X receptor modulation.

    PubMed

    Sepe, Valentina; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; D'Amore, Claudio; Festa, Carmen; De Marino, Simona; Renga, Barbara; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Novellino, Ettore; Limongelli, Vittorio; D'Souza, Lisette; Majik, Mahesh; Zampella, Angela; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2014-05-27

    In recent years many sterols with unusual structures and promising biological profiles have been identified from marine sources. Here we report the isolation of a series of 24-alkylated-hydroxysteroids from the soft coral Sinularia kavarattiensis, acting as pregnane X receptor (PXR) modulators. Starting from this scaffold a number of derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their ability to activate the PXR by assessing transactivation and quantifying gene expression. Our study reveals that ergost-5-en-3β-ol (4) induces PXR transactivation in HepG2 cells and stimulates the expression of the PXR target gene CYP3A4. To shed light on the molecular basis of the interaction between these ligands and PXR, we investigated, through docking simulations, the binding mechanism of the most potent compound of the series, 4, to the PXR. Our findings provide useful functional and structural information to guide further investigations and drug design.

  17. Optimizing cholinergic tone through lynx modulators of nicotinic receptors: implications for plasticity and nicotine addiction.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Julie M; Lester, Henry A; Walz, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The cholinergic system underlies both adaptive (learning and memory) and nonadaptive (addiction and dependency) behavioral changes through its ability to shape and regulate plasticity. Protein modulators such as lynx family members can fine tune the activity of the cholinergic system and contribute to the graded response of the cholinergic system, stabilizing neural circuitry through direct interaction with nicotinic receptors. Release of this molecular brake can unmask cholinergic-dependent mechanisms in the brain. Lynx proteins have the potential to provide top-down control over plasticity mechanisms, including addictive propensity. If this is indeed the case, then, what regulates the regulator? Transcriptional changes of lynx genes in response to pharmacological, physiological, and pathological alterations are explored in this review.

  18. A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interaction modulates gliotransmitter release from striatal astrocyte processes.

    PubMed

    Cervetto, Chiara; Venturini, Arianna; Passalacqua, Mario; Guidolin, Diego; Genedani, Susanna; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Esquela, Dasiel O; Cortelli, Pietro; Woods, Amina; Maura, Guido; Marcoli, Manuela; Agnati, Luigi F

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for striatal A2A-D2 heterodimers has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Despite the increasing recognition of astrocytes' participation in neuropsychiatric disease vulnerability, involvement of striatal astrocytes in A2A and D2 receptor signal transmission has never been explored. Here, we investigated the presence of D2 and A2A receptors in isolated astrocyte processes prepared from adult rat striatum by confocal imaging; the effects of receptor activation were measured on the 4-aminopyridine-evoked release of glutamate from the processes. Confocal analysis showed that A2A and D2 receptors were co-expressed on the same astrocyte processes. Evidence for A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions was obtained by measuring the release of the gliotransmitter glutamate: D2 receptors inhibited the glutamate release, while activation of A2A receptors, per se ineffective, abolished the effect of D2 receptor activation. The synthetic D2 peptide VLRRRRKRVN corresponding to the receptor region involved in electrostatic interaction underlying A2A-D2 heteromerization abolished the ability of the A2A receptor to antagonize the D2 receptor-mediated effect. Together, the findings are consistent with heteromerization of native striatal astrocytic A2A-D2 receptors that via allosteric receptor-receptor interactions could play a role in the control of striatal glutamatergic transmission. These new findings suggest possible new pathogenic mechanisms and/or therapeutic approaches to neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Activation and modulation of human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Ann, Jason; Akk, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Neonicotinoids are synthetic, nicotine-derived insecticides used for agricultural and household pest control. While highly effective at activating insect nicotinic receptors, many neonicotinoids are also capable of directly activating and/or modulating the activation of vertebrate nicotinic receptors. In this study, we have investigated the actions of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (CTD) and imidacloprid (IMI) on human neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The data demonstrate that the compounds are weak agonists of the human receptors with relative peak currents of 1–4 % of the response to 1 mM acetylcholine (ACh). Coapplication of IMI strongly inhibited currents elicited by ACh. From Schild plot analysis, we estimate that the affinity of IMI to the human α4β2 receptor is 18 µM. The application of low concentrations of CTD potentiated responses to low concentrations of ACh, suggesting that receptors occupied by one ACh and one CTD molecule have a higher gating efficacy than receptors with one ACh bound. Interestingly, subunit stoichiometry affected inhibition by CTD, with (α4)2(β2)3 receptors significantly more strongly inhibited than the (α4)3(β2)2 receptors. PMID:21538459

  20. The A2 Adenosine Receptor: Guanine Nucleotide Modulation of Agonist Binding Is Enhanced by Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    NANOFF, CHRISTIAN; JACOBSON, KENNETH A.; STILES, GARY L.

    2012-01-01

    only 28% in the Mr 47,000 receptor protein. Our data, therefore, suggest that, unless proteolysis occurs, the A2AR in all tissues studied is tightly associated with the Gs protein and displays minimal guanine nucleotide modulation of agonist binding, which makes the A2AR an atypical stimulatory receptor. PMID:1899902

  1. Pharmacological benefits of selective modulation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) in experimental Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jayant, Shalini; Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bansal, Rani; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that pervasively affects the population across the world. Currently, there is no effective treatment available for this and existing drugs merely slow the progression of cognitive function decline. Thus, massive effort is required to find an intended therapeutic target to overcome this condition. The present study has been framed to investigate the ameliorative role of selective modulator of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), 1-phenylisatin in experimental AD condition. We have induced experimental AD in mice by using two induction models viz., intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3)+d-galactose. Morris water maze (MWM) and attentional set shifting test (ASST) were used to assess learning and memory. Hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red staining were used to examine the structural variation in brain. Brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and glutathione), nitric oxide levels (nitrites/nitrates), acetyl cholinesterase activity, myeloperoxidase and calcium levels were also estimated. i.c.v. STZ as well as AlCl3+d-galactose have impaired spatial and reversal learning with executive functioning, increased brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, cholinergic activity, inflammation and calcium levels. Furthermore, these agents have also enhanced the burden of Aβ plaque in the brain. Treatment with 1-phenylisatin and donepezil attenuated i.c.v. STZ as well as AlCl3+d-galactose induced impairment of learning-memory, brain biochemistry and brain damage. Hence, this study concludes that CB2 receptor modulation can be a potential therapeutic target for the management of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tadalafil modulates aromatase activity and androgen receptor expression in a human osteoblastic cell in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Aversa, A; Fittipaldi, S; Bimonte, V M; Wannenes, F; Papa, V; Francomano, D; Greco, E A; Lenzi, A; Migliaccio, S

    2016-02-01

    Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor (PDE5i) tadalafil administration in men with erectile dysfunction is associated with increased testosterone/estradiol ratio, leading to hypothesize a potential increased effect of androgen action on target tissues. We aimed to characterize, in a cellular model system in vitro, the potential modulation of aromatase and sex steroid hormone receptors upon exposure to tadalafil (TAD). Human osteoblast-like cells SAOS-2 were chosen as an in vitro model system since osteoblasts are target of steroid hormones. Cells were tested for viability upon TAD exposure, which increased cell proliferation. Then, cells were treated with/without TAD for several times to evaluate potential modulation in PDE5, aromatase (ARO), androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) receptor expression. Osteoblasts express significant levels of both PDE5 mRNA and protein. Exposure of cells to increasing concentrations of TAD (10(-8)-10(-7) M) decreased PDE5 mRNA and protein expression. Also, TAD inhibited ARO mRNA and protein expression leading to an increase in testosterone levels in the supernatants. Interestingly, TAD increased total AR mRNA and protein expression and decreased ERα, with an increased ratio of AR/ER, suggesting preferential androgenic vs estrogenic pathway activation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that TAD decreases ARO expression and increases AR protein expression in human SAOS-2, strongly suggesting a new control of steroid hormones pathway by PDE5i. These findings might represent the first evidence of translational actions of PDE5i on AR, which leads to hypothesize a growing relevance of this molecule in men with prostate cancer long-term treated with TAD for sexual rehabilitation.

  3. Trans-Modulation of the Somatostatin Type 2A Receptor Trafficking by Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase Decreases Limbic Seizures.

    PubMed

    De Bundel, Dimitri; Fafouri, Assia; Csaba, Zsolt; Loyens, Ellen; Lebon, Sophie; El Ghouzzi, Vincent; Peineau, Stéphane; Vodjdani, Guilan; Kiagiadaki, Foteini; Aourz, Najat; Coppens, Jessica; Walrave, Laura; Portelli, Jeanelle; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Chai, Siew Yeen; Thermos, Kyriaki; Bernard, Véronique; Collingridge, Graham; Auvin, Stéphane; Gressens, Pierre; Smolders, Ilse; Dournaud, Pascal

    2015-08-26

    Within the hippocampus, the major somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype, the sst2A receptor, is localized at postsynaptic sites of the principal neurons where it modulates neuronal activity. Following agonist exposure, this receptor rapidly internalizes and recycles slowly through the trans-Golgi network. In epilepsy, a high and chronic release of somatostatin occurs, which provokes, in both rat and human tissue, a decrease in the density of this inhibitory receptor at the cell surface. The insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is involved in vesicular trafficking and shares common regional distribution with the sst2A receptor. In addition, IRAP ligands display anticonvulsive properties. We therefore sought to assess by in vitro and in vivo experiments in hippocampal rat tissue whether IRAP ligands could regulate the trafficking of the sst2A receptor and, consequently, modulate limbic seizures. Using pharmacological and cell biological approaches, we demonstrate that IRAP ligands accelerate the recycling of the sst2A receptor that has internalized in neurons in vitro or in vivo. Most importantly, because IRAP ligands increase the density of this inhibitory receptor at the plasma membrane, they also potentiate the neuropeptide SRIF inhibitory effects on seizure activity. Our results further demonstrate that IRAP is a therapeutic target for the treatment of limbic seizures and possibly for other neurological conditions in which downregulation of G-protein-coupled receptors occurs. The somatostatin type 2A receptor (sst2A) is localized on principal hippocampal neurons and displays anticonvulsant properties. Following agonist exposure, however, this receptor rapidly internalizes and recycles slowly. The insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is involved in vesicular trafficking and shares common regional distribution with the sst2A receptor. We therefore assessed by in vitro and in vivo experiments whether IRAP could regulate the trafficking of this receptor. We

  4. Selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) ulipristal acetate (UPA) and its effects on the human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L H R; Murray, A A; Matthews, R; Shaw, G; Williams, A R W; Saunders, P T K; Critchley, H O D

    2017-03-01

    What is the impact of administration of the selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM), ulipristal acetate (UPA) on the endometrium of women with fibroids? UPA administration altered expression of sex-steroid receptors and progesterone-regulated genes and was associated with low levels of glandular and stromal cell proliferation. Administration of all SPRM class members results in PAEC (progesterone receptor modulator associated endometrial changes). Data on the impact of the SPRM UPA administration on endometrial sex-steroid receptor expression, progesterone (P)-regulated genes and cell proliferation are currently lacking. Observational study with histological and molecular analyses to delineate impact of treatment with UPA on endometrium. Endometrial samples (n = 9) were collected at hysterectomy from women aged 39 to 49 with uterine fibroids treated with UPA (oral 5 mg daily) for 9-12 weeks. Control proliferative (n = 9) and secretory (n = 9) endometrium from women aged 38-52 with fibroids were derived from institutional tissue archives. Study setting was a University Research Institute. Endometrial biopsies were collected with institutional ethical approval and written informed consent. Concentrations of mRNAs encoded by steroid receptors, P-regulated genes and factors in decidualised endometrium were quantified with qRT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was employed for localization of progesterone (PR, PRB), androgen (AR), estrogen (ERα) receptors and expression of FOXO1, HAND2, HOXA10, PTEN homologue. Endometrial glandular and stromal cell proliferation was objectively quantified using Ki67. UPA induced morphological changes in endometrial tissue consistent with PAEC. A striking change in expression patterns of PR and AR was detected compared with either proliferative or secretory phase samples. There were significant changes in pattern of expression of mRNAs encoded by IGFBP-1, FOXO1, IL-15, HAND2, IHH and HOXA10 compared with secretory phase samples

  5. Selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) ulipristal acetate (UPA) and its effects on the human endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, L.H.R.; Murray, A.A.; Matthews, R.; Shaw, G.; Williams, A.R.W.; Saunders, P.T.K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract STUDY QUESTION What is the impact of administration of the selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM), ulipristal acetate (UPA) on the endometrium of women with fibroids? SUMMARY ANSWER UPA administration altered expression of sex-steroid receptors and progesterone-regulated genes and was associated with low levels of glandular and stromal cell proliferation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Administration of all SPRM class members results in PAEC (progesterone receptor modulator associated endometrial changes). Data on the impact of the SPRM UPA administration on endometrial sex-steroid receptor expression, progesterone (P)-regulated genes and cell proliferation are currently lacking. STUDY DESIGN SIZE, DURATION Observational study with histological and molecular analyses to delineate impact of treatment with UPA on endometrium. Endometrial samples (n = 9) were collected at hysterectomy from women aged 39 to 49 with uterine fibroids treated with UPA (oral 5 mg daily) for 9–12 weeks. Control proliferative (n = 9) and secretory (n = 9) endometrium from women aged 38–52 with fibroids were derived from institutional tissue archives. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Study setting was a University Research Institute. Endometrial biopsies were collected with institutional ethical approval and written informed consent. Concentrations of mRNAs encoded by steroid receptors, P-regulated genes and factors in decidualised endometrium were quantified with qRT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was employed for localization of progesterone (PR, PRB), androgen (AR), estrogen (ERα) receptors and expression of FOXO1, HAND2, HOXA10, PTEN homologue. Endometrial glandular and stromal cell proliferation was objectively quantified using Ki67. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE UPA induced morphological changes in endometrial tissue consistent with PAEC. A striking change in expression patterns of PR and AR was detected compared with either proliferative or secretory phase

  6. Presynaptic Membrane Receptors Modulate ACh Release, Axonal Competition and Synapse Elimination during Neuromuscular Junction Development.

    PubMed

    Tomàs, Josep; Garcia, Neus; Lanuza, Maria A; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Nadal, Laura; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Cilleros, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    During the histogenesis of the nervous system a lush production of neurons, which establish an excessive number of synapses, is followed by a drop in both neurons and synaptic contacts as maturation proceeds. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities leads to the loss of roughly half of the neurons initially produced so connectivity is refined and specificity gained. The skeletal muscle fibers in the newborn neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are polyinnervated but by the end of the competition, 2 weeks later, the NMJ are innervated by only one axon. This peripheral synapse has long been used as a convenient model for synapse development. In the last few years, we have studied transmitter release and the local involvement of the presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (mAChR), adenosine autoreceptors (AR) and trophic factor receptors (TFR, for neurotrophins and trophic cytokines) during the development of NMJ and in the adult. This review article brings together previously published data and proposes a molecular background for developmental axonal competition and loss. At the end of the first week postnatal, these receptors modulate transmitter release in the various nerve terminals on polyinnervated NMJ and contribute to axonal competition and synapse elimination.

  7. Human Milk Components Modulate Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammation.

    PubMed

    He, YingYing; Lawlor, Nathan T; Newburg, David S

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is central to innate immunity. Aberrant expression of TLRs is found in neonatal inflammatory diseases. Several bioactive components of human milk modulate TLR expression and signaling pathways, including soluble toll-like receptors (sTLRs), soluble cluster of differentiation (sCD) 14, glycoproteins, small peptides, and oligosaccharides. Some milk components, such as sialyl (α2,3) lactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose III, are reported to increase TLR signaling; under some circumstances this might contribute toward immunologic balance. Human milk on the whole is strongly anti-inflammatory, and contains abundant components that depress TLR signaling pathways: sTLR2 and sCD14 inhibit TLR2 signaling; sCD14, lactadherin, lactoferrin, and 2'-fucosyllactose attenuate TLR4 signaling; 3'-galactosyllactose inhibits TLR3 signaling, and β-defensin 2 inhibits TLR7 signaling. Feeding human milk to neonates decreases their risk of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, the TLR regulatory components found in human milk hold promise as benign oral prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for the many gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders mediated by abnormal TLR signaling. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Efavirenz directly modulates the oestrogen receptor and induces breast cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Sikora, M J; Rae, J M; Johnson, M D; Desta, Z

    2010-10-01

    Efavirenz-based HIV therapy is associated with breast hypertrophy and gynaecomastia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that efavirenz induces gynaecomastia through direct binding and modulation of the oestrogen receptor (ER). To determine the effect of efavirenz on growth, the oestrogen-dependent, ER-positive breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D and ZR-75-1 were treated with efavirenz under oestrogen-free conditions in the presence or absence of the anti-oestrogen ICI 182,780. Cells treated with 17β-oestradiol in the absence or presence of ICI 182,780 served as positive and negative controls, respectively. Cellular growth was assayed using the crystal violet staining method and an in vitro receptor binding assay was used to measure the ER binding affinity of efavirenz. Efavirenz induced growth in MCF-7 cells with an estimated effective concentration for half-maximal growth (EC(50)) of 15.7 μM. This growth was reversed by ICI 182,780. Further, efavirenz binds directly to the ER [inhibitory concentration for half maximal binding (IC(50)) of ∼52 μM] at a roughly 1000-fold higher concentration than observed with 17β-oestradiol. Our data suggest that efavirenz-induced gynaecomastia may be caused, at least in part, by drug-induced ER activation in breast tissues.

  9. Efavirenz directly modulates estrogen receptor and induces breast cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Matthew J.; Rae, James M.; Johnson, Michael D.; Desta, Zeruesenay

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Efavirenz-based HIV therapy is associated with breast hypertrophy and gynecomastia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that efavirenz induces gynecomastia through direct binding and modulation of estrogen receptor (ER). Methods To determine the effect of efavirenz on growth, the estrogen-dependent, ER-positive breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D and ZR-75-1 were treated with efavirenz under estrogen-free conditions in the presence or absence of the anti-estrogen ICI 182,780. Cells treated with 17β-estradiol in the absence or presence of ICI 182,780 served as positive and negative controls, respectively. Cellular growth was assayed using the crystal violet staining method and an in vitro receptor binding assay was used to measure efavirenz’s ER binding affinity. Results Efavirenz induced growth in MCF-7 cells with an estimated EC50 of 15.7µM. This growth was reversed by ICI 182,780. Further, efavirenz binds directly to ER (IC50 of ~52µM) at roughly 1000-fold higher concentration than observed with E2. Conclusions Our data suggest that efavirenz-induced gynecomastia may be due, at least in part, to drug-induced ER activation in breast tissues. PMID:20408889

  10. Selective progesterone receptor modulators in reproductive medicine: pharmacology, clinical efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Philippe; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2011-11-01

    To discuss the mechanism of action of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) and summarize the preclinical and clinical efficacy and safety data supporting the potential use of these compounds for gynecologic indications. Relevant publications from 2005 onward were identified using a PubMed search. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations within these publications. None. None. None. None. Mifepristone was first developed as a progesterone receptor antagonist and licensed for pregnancy termination because of the unique property of this compound to terminate pregnancy when associated with prostaglandins. Then SPRMs were developed, and among those ulipristal acetate, an efficient emergency contraceptive. Because SPRMs effectively inhibit endometrial proliferation and reduce endometriotic lesions in animal models, this suggests a possible role in the treatment of endometriosis in humans. Finally, a number of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of asoprisnil, mifepristone, telapristone acetate, and ulipristal acetate in reducing leiomyoma and uterine volume, and suppressing bleeding in women with uterine fibroids. Mifepristone in combination with prostaglandins has been licensed for pregnancy termination because of its unique ability is this area. Ulipristal acetate is available for emergency contraception. Several SPRMs hold further promise as an effective medical therapy for patients suffering from endometriosis and leiomyoma. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The A-Current Modulates Learning via NMDA Receptors Containing the NR2B Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Suárez-Pereira, Irene; González-Forero, David; Carrión, Ángel Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity involves short- and long-term events, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are not fully understood. The transient A-type K+ current (IA) controls the excitability of the dendrites from CA1 pyramidal neurons by regulating the back-propagation of action potentials and shaping synaptic input. Here, we have studied how decreases in IA affect cognitive processes and synaptic plasticity. Using wild-type mice treated with 4-AP, an IA inhibitor, and mice lacking the DREAM protein, a transcriptional repressor and modulator of the IA, we demonstrate that impairment of IA decreases the stimulation threshold for learning and the induction of early-LTP. Hippocampal electrical recordings in both models revealed alterations in basal electrical oscillatory properties toward low-theta frequencies. In addition, we demonstrated that the facilitated learning induced by decreased IA requires the activation of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit. Together, these findings point to a balance between the IA and the activity of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the regulation of learning. PMID:21966384

  12. [The molecular mechanisms and morphological manifestations of leiomyoma reduction induced by selective progesterone receptor modulators].

    PubMed

    Demura, T A; Revazova, Z V; Kogan, E A; Adamyan, L V

    to investigate the molecular mechanisms and morphological substrate of reduced uterine leiomyoma in patients receiving the selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) ulipristal acetate for 3 months, by estimating the immunohistochemical expression of the markers steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1), nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR-1), ER, PgR, Ki-67, p16, TGF-β, and VEGF in tumor tissue. The investigation enrolled 75 women with uterine leiomyoma, menorrhagias, and anemia. Group 1 included 40 patients who were treated with ulipristal for 3 months, followed by laparoscopic myomectomy. Group 2 consisted of 35 patients who underwent surgery without previous preparation. The intra- and postoperative parameters and molecular and morphological changes in the myomatous nodules were comparatively analyzed in both groups. After 3 months of therapy initiation, menorrhagia completely ceased, myomatous nodules decreased in size (p<0.05), hemoglobin levels were elevated (p<0.01), and total intraoperative blood loss and operative time decreased in all the patients in Group 1. The morphological substrate of partial leiomyoma reduction was leiomyocyte apoptosis and dystrophy, tumor stroma sclerosis and hyalinosis with diminished Ki-67 expression and elevated p16 in the smooth muscle cells, trophic nodular tissue disorders exhibited by vascular wall sclerosis and lower VEGF and TGF-β expression, and leiomyocyte hormonal reception dysregulation that made itself evident through the reduced expression of SRC-1 with the unchanged expression of PR and ER and the maintained level of NCoR-1. The molecular mechanisms of tumor reduction involved the reduced Ki-67 expression and elevated p16, lower VEGF and TGF-β, diminished SRC-1 expression with the maintained level of PR, ER, and NCoR-1. Overall, this is suggestive of enhanced apoptosis and reduced leiomyoma proliferation and angiogenesis induced by SPRM and indicative of the expediency of using ulipristal acetate as a

  13. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B.; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M.; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups, where orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying DA action on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using whole cell patch clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration dependent, bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high concentrations (100 μM) of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors, whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours. PMID:26036709

  14. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2015-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups: orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the action of DA on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration-dependent bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high (100 μM) concentrations of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G-protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Oxygen Modulates Human Decidual Natural Killer Cell Surface Receptor Expression and Interactions with Trophoblasts1

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Alison E.; Goulwara, Sonu S.; Whitley, Guy S.; Cartwright, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    Decidual natural killer (dNK) cells have been shown to both promote and inhibit trophoblast behavior important for decidual remodeling in pregnancy and have a distinct phenotype compared to peripheral blood NK cells. We investigated whether different levels of oxygen tension, mimicking the physiological conditions of the decidua in early pregnancy, altered cell surface receptor expression and activity of dNK cells and their interactions with trophoblast. dNK cells were isolated from terminated first-trimester pregnancies and cultured in oxygen tensions of 3%, 10%, and 21% for 24 h. Cell surface receptor expression was examined by flow cytometry, and the effects of secreted factors in conditioned medium (CM) on the trophoblast cell line SGHPL-4 were assessed in vitro. SGHPL-4 cells treated with dNK cell CM incubated in oxygen tensions of 10% were significantly more invasive (P < 0.05) and formed endothelial-like networks to a greater extent (P < 0.05) than SGHPL-4 cells treated with dNK cell CM incubated in oxygen tensions of 3% or 21%. After 24 h, a lower percentage of dNK cells expressed CD56 at 21% oxygen (P < 0.05), and an increased percentage of dNK cells expressed NKG2D at 10% oxygen (P < 0.05) compared to other oxygen tensions, with large patient variation. This study demonstrates dNK cell phenotype and secreted factors are modulated by oxygen tension, which induces changes in trophoblast invasion and endovascular-like differentiation. Alterations in dNK cell surface receptor expression and secreted factors at different oxygen tensions may represent regulation of function within the decidua during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:25232021

  16. Allosteric modulation model of the mu opioid receptor by herkinorin, a potent not alkaloidal agonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmolejo-Valencia, A. F.; Martínez-Mayorga, K.

    2017-05-01

    Modulation of opioid receptors is the primary choice for pain management and structural information studies have gained new horizons with the recently available X-ray crystal structures. Herkinorin is one of the most remarkable salvinorin A derivative with high affinity for the mu opioid receptor, moderate selectivity and lack of nitrogen atoms on its structure. Surprisingly, binding models for herkinorin are lacking. In this work, we explore binding models of herkinorin using automated docking, molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations and available experimental information. Our herkinorin D-ICM-1 binding model predicted a binding free energy of -11.52 ± 1.14 kcal mol-1 by alchemical free energy estimations, which is close to the experimental values -10.91 ± 0.2 and -10.80 ± 0.05 kcal mol-1 and is in agreement with experimental structural information. Specifically, D-ICM-1 molecular dynamics simulations showed a water-mediated interaction between D-ICM-1 and the amino acid H2976.52, this interaction coincides with the co-crystallized ligands. Another relevant interaction, with N1272.63, allowed to rationalize herkinorin's selectivity to mu over delta opioid receptors. Our suggested binding model for herkinorin is in agreement with this and additional experimental data. The most remarkable observation derived from our D-ICM-1 model is that herkinorin reaches an allosteric sodium ion binding site near N1503.35. Key interactions in that region appear relevant for the lack of β-arrestin recruitment by herkinorin. This interaction is key for downstream signaling pathways involved in the development of side effects, such as tolerance. Future SAR studies and medicinal chemistry efforts will benefit from the structural information presented in this work.

  17. Positive allosteric modulators as an approach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor- targeted therapeutics: advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dustin K.; Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), recognized targets for drug development in cognitive and neuro-degenerative disorders, are allosteric proteins with dynamic interconversions between multiple functional states. Activation of the nAChR ion channel is primarily controlled by the binding of ligands (agonists, partial agonists, competitive antagonists) at conventional agonist binding sites, but is also regulated in either negative or positive ways by the binding of ligands to other modulatory sites. In this review, we discuss models for the activation and desensitization of nAChR, and the discovery of multiple types of ligands that influence those processes in both heteromeric nAChR, such as the high affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, and homomeric α7-type receptors. In recent years, α7 nAChRs have been identified as a potential target for therapeutic indications leading to the development of α7-selective agonists and partial agonists. However, unique properties of α7 nAChR, including low probability of channel opening and rapid desensitization, may limit the therapeutic usefulness of ligands binding exclusively to conventional agonist binding sites. New enthusiasm for the therapeutic targeting of α7 has come from the identification of α7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that work effectively on the intrinsic factors that limit α7 ion channel activation. While these new drugs appear promising for therapeutic development, we also consider potential caveats and possible limitations for their use, including PAM-insensitive forms of desensitization and cytotoxicity issues. PMID:21575610

  18. Agonist-induced modulation of inverse agonist efficacy at the beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Chidiac, P; Nouet, S; Bouvier, M

    1996-09-01

    Sustained stimulation of several G protein-coupled receptors is known to lead to a reduction in the signaling efficacy. This phenomenon, named agonist-induced desensitization, has been best studied for the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (AR) and is characterized by a decreased efficacy of beta-adrenergic agonists to stimulate the adenylyl cyclase activity. Recently, several beta-adrenergic ligands were found to inhibit the spontaneous agonist-independent activity of the beta 2AR. These compounds, termed inverse agonists, have different inhibitory efficacies, ranging from almost neutral antagonists to full inverse agonists. The current study was undertaken to determine whether, as is the case for agonists, desensitization can affect the efficacies of inverse agonists. Agonist-promoted desensitization of the human beta 2AR expressed in Sf9 cells potentiated the inhibitory actions of the inverse agonists, with the extent of the potentiation being inversely proportional to their intrinsic activity. For example, desensitization increased the inhibitory action of the weak inverse agonist labetalol by 29%, whereas inhibition of the spontaneous activity by the strong inverse agonist timolol was not enhanced by the desensitizing stimuli. Interestingly, dichloroisoproterenol acted stochastically as either a weak partial agonist or a weak inverse agonist in control conditions but always behaved as an inverse agonist after desensitization. These data demonstrate that like for agonists, the efficacies of inverse agonists can be modulated by a desensitizing treatment. Also, the data show that the initial state of the receptor can determine whether a ligand behaves as a partial agonist or an inverse agonist.

  19. Cannabinoid Receptor 2 as Antiobesity Target: Inflammation, Fat Storage, and Browning Modulation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Francesca; Bellini, Giulia; Luongo, Livio; Manzo, Iolanda; Tolone, Salvatore; Tortora, Chiara; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Grandone, Anna; Conforti, Antonella; Docimo, Ludovico; Nobili, Bruno; Perrone, Laura; Locatelli, Franco; Maione, Sabatino; Del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with a low-grade inflammatory state and adipocyte (ADP) hyperplasia/hypertrophy. Obesity inhibits the "browning" of white adipose tissue. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists reduce food intake and induce antiobesity effect in mice. A common missense CB2 variant, Q63R, causes CB2-reduced function. To evaluate the influence of CB2 receptor on the modulation of childhood obesity and of ADP activity and morphology. CB2-Q63R variant was analyzed in obese Italian children. The effects of an inflammatory stimulus and those of drugs selectively acting on CB2 were investigated on in vitro ADPs obtained from mesenchymal stem cells of adult healthy donors or from sc adipose biopsies of adult nonobese and obese subjects. Department of Women, Child and General and Specialist Surgery of the Second University of Naples. A total of 501 obese Italian children (age 11 ± 2.75). Twelve healthy bone marrow donors (age 36.5 ± 15); and 17 subjects, 7 lean (age 42 ± 10) and 10 obese (age 37.8 ± 12) underwent sc adipose tissue biopsies. Effects of CB2 stimulation on adipokine, perilipin, and uncoupling protein-1 expression. The less-functional CB2-R63 variant was significantly associated with a high z-score body mass index. CB2 blockade with AM630 reverse agonist increased inflammatory adipokine release and fat storage and reduced browning. CB2 stimulation with JWH-133 agonist reversed all of the obesity-related effects. CB2 receptor is a novel pharmacological target that should be considered for obesity.

  20. Positive allosteric modulators as an approach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-targeted therapeutics: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dustin K; Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L

    2011-10-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), recognized targets for drug development in cognitive and neuro-degenerative disorders, are allosteric proteins with dynamic interconversions between multiple functional states. Activation of the nAChR ion channel is primarily controlled by the binding of ligands (agonists, partial agonists, competitive antagonists) at conventional agonist binding sites, but is also regulated in either negative or positive ways by the binding of ligands to other modulatory sites. In this review, we discuss models for the activation and desensitization of nAChR, and the discovery of multiple types of ligands that influence those processes in both heteromeric nAChR, such as the high-affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, and homomeric α7-type receptors. In recent years, α7 nAChRs have been identified as a potential target for therapeutic indications leading to the development of α7-selective agonists and partial agonists. However, unique properties of α7 nAChR, including low probability of channel opening and rapid desensitization, may limit the therapeutic usefulness of ligands binding exclusively to conventional agonist binding sites. New enthusiasm for the therapeutic targeting of α7 has come from the identification of α7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that work effectively on the intrinsic factors that limit α7 ion channel activation. While these new drugs appear promising for therapeutic development, we also consider potential caveats and possible limitations for their use, including PAM-insensitive forms of desensitization and cytotoxicity issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Real-time characterization of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 ) allosteric modulators reveals novel mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Cawston, Erin E; Redmond, William J; Breen, Courtney M; Grimsey, Natasha L; Connor, Mark; Glass, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 ) has an allosteric binding site. The drugs ORG27569 {5-chloro-3-ethyl-N-[2-[4-(1-piperidinyl)phenyl]ethyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide} and PSNCBAM-1 {1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[3-(6-pyrrolidin-1-ylpyridin-2-yl)phenyl]urea} have been extensively characterized with regard to their effects on signalling of the orthosteric ligand CP55,940 {(-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol}, and studies have suggested that these allosteric modulators increase binding affinity but act as non-competitive antagonists in functional assays. To gain a deeper understanding of allosteric modulation of CB1 , we examined real-time signalling and trafficking responses of the receptor in the presence of allosteric modulators. Studies of CB1 signalling were carried out in HEK 293 and AtT20 cells expressing haemagglutinin-tagged human and rat CB1 . We measured real-time accumulation of cAMP, activation and desensitization of potassium channel-mediated cellular hyperpolarization and CB1 internalization. ORG27569 and PSNCBAM-1 produce a complex, concentration and time-dependent modulation of agonist-mediated regulation of cAMP levels, as well as an increased rate of desensitization of CB1 -mediated cellular hyperpolarization and a decrease in agonist-induced receptor internalization. Contrary to previous studies characterizing allosteric modulators at CB1, this study suggests that the mechanism of action is not non-competitive antagonism of signalling, but rather that enhanced binding results in an increased rate of receptor desensitization and reduced internalization, which results in time-dependent modulation of cAMP signalling. The observed effect of the allosteric modulators is therefore dependent on the time frame over which the signalling response occurs. This finding may have important consequences for the potential therapeutic application of these compounds. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Modulation of GABA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by 13-L-hydroxylinoleic acid and food additives.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, H; Tenpaku, Y

    1997-12-01

    To study the effects of 13-L-hydroxylinoleic acid (LOH) and food additives on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, ionotropic GABA receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injecting mRNAs prepared from rat whole brain. LOH, which was prepared by reduction of 13-L-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (LOOH), inhibited the response of GABA receptors in the presence of high concentrations of GABA. LOH also inhibited nicotinic acetylcholine, glycine, and kainate receptors, while it had little effect on NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. However, LOH potentiated the response of GABA receptors as well as LOOH in the presence of low concentrations of GABA, possibly increasing the affinity of GABA for the receptors, while linoleic acid did not. Since some modification of the compounds seemed to change their effects on GABA receptors, the responses of GABA receptors elicited by 10 microM GABA were measured in the presence of compounds with various kinds of functional groups or the structural isomers of pentanol. Potentiation of GABA receptors depended strongly on the species of functional groups and also depended on the structure of the isomers. Then effects of various kinds of food additives on GABA receptors were also examined; perfumes such as alcohols or esters potentiated the responses strongly, while hexylamine, nicotinamide, or caffeine inhibited the responses, mainly in a competitive manner, and vanillin inhibited the responses noncompetitively. These results suggest the possibility that production of LOOH and LOH, or intake of much of some food additives, modulates the neural transmission in the brain, especially through ionotropic GABA receptors and changes the frame of the human mind, as alcohol or tobacco does.

  3. Endogenous Positive Allosteric Modulation of GABAA Receptors by Diazepam binding inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Catherine A.; Herbert, Anne G.; Holt, Rebecca L.; Peng, Kathy; Sherwood, Kyla D.; Pangratz-Fuehrer, Susanne; Rudolph, Uwe; Huguenard, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Benzodiazepines (BZs) allosterically modulate γ-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABAARs) to increase inhibitory synaptic strength. Diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) protein is a BZ site ligand expressed endogenously in the brain, but functional evidence for BZ-mimicking positive modulatory actions has been elusive. We demonstrate an endogenous potentiation of GABAergic synaptic transmission and responses to GABA uncaging in the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) that is absent in both nm1054 mice, in which the Dbi gene is deleted, and mice in which BZ binding to α3 subunit-containing GABAARs is disrupted. Viral transduction of DBI into nRT is sufficient to rescue the endogenous potentiation of GABAergic transmission in nm1054 mice. Both mutations enhance thalamocortical spike-and-wave discharges characteristic of absence epilepsy. Together these results indicate that DBI mediates endogenous nucleus-specific BZ-mimicking (“endozepine”) roles to modulate nRT function and suppress thalamocortical oscillations. Enhanced DBI signaling might serve as a novel therapy for epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:23727119

  4. Cysteine-3635 is responsible for skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor modulation by NO

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Junhui; Xin, Chunlin; Eu, Jerry P.; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Meissner, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    We have shown previously that at physiologically relevant oxygen tension (pO2 ≈ 10 mmHg), NO S-nitrosylates 1 of ≈50 free cysteines per ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) subunit and transduces a calcium-sensitizing effect on the channel by means of calmodulin (CaM). It has been suggested that cysteine-3635 is part of a CaM-binding domain, and its reactivity is attenuated by CaM [Porter Moore, C., Zhang, J. Z., Hamilton, S. L. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 36831–36834]. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of NO was mediated by C3635. The full-length RyR1 single-site C3635A mutant was generated and expressed in HEK293 cells. The mutation resulted in the loss of CaM-dependent NO modulation of channel activity and reduced S-nitrosylation by NO to background levels but did not affect NO-independent channel modulation by CaM or the redox sensitivity of the channel to O2 and glutathione. Our results reveal that different cysteines within the channel have been adapted to serve in nitrosative and oxidative responses, and that S-nitrosylation of the cysteine-containing CaM-binding domain underlies the mechanism of CaM-dependent regulation of RyR1 by NO. PMID:11562475

  5. Characterization of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in the intact frog retina: modulation by protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Salceda, Rocío; Aguirre-Ramirez, Marisela

    2005-03-01

    We studied 3H-glycine and 3H-strychnine specific binding to glycine receptor (GlyR) in intact isolated frog retinas. To avoid glycine binding to glycine uptake sites, experiments were performed at low ligand concentrations in a sodium-free medium. The binding of both radiolabeled ligands was saturated. Scatchard analysis of bound glycine and strychnine revealed a KD of 2.5 and 2.0 microM, respectively. Specific binding of glycine was displaced by beta-alanine, sarcosine, and strychnine. Strychnine binding was displaced 50% by glycine, and sarcosine. Properties of the strychnine-binding site in the GlyR were modified by sarcosine. Binding of both radioligands was considerably reduced by compounds that inhibit or activate adenylate cyclase and increased cAMP levels. A phorbol ester activator of PKC remarkably decreased glycine and strychnine binding. These results suggest modulation of GlyR in response to endogenous activation of protein kinases A and C, as well as protein phosphorylation modulating GlyR function in retina.

  6. NMDA receptor modulation by dextromethorphan and acute stress selectively alters electroencephalographic indicators of partial report processing.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, Lisa J; Enge, Sören; Riedel, Philipp; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Proceeding from a biophysical network model, the present study hypothesized that glutamatergic neurotransmission across the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays a key role in visual perception and its modulation by acute stress. To investigate these hypotheses, behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) indicators of partial report task processing were assessed in twenty-four healthy young men who randomly received a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist (0.8 mg/kg dextromethorphan, DXM) or a placebo, and concurrently accomplished a stress-induction (MAST) or control protocol in three consecutive sessions. Saliva samples served to quantify cortisol responses to the MAST, whereas a passive auditory oddball paradigm was implemented to verify the impact of DXM on the EEG-derived mismatch negativity component (MMN). DXM administration significantly increased MMN amplitudes but not salivary cortisol concentrations. By contrast, concurrent MAST exposure significantly reduced MMN latencies but also increased cortisol concentrations. With regard to EEG indicators, DXM administration reduced visually "evoked" (30Hz to 50Hz) and "induced" occipital gamma-band activity (70Hz to 100Hz), which was partly compensated by additional MAST exposure. However, neither the interventions nor EEG activity were significantly associated with behavioral partial report sensitivities. In summary, the present data suggest that glutamatergic neurotransmission across the NMDAR is only one among many determinants of intact visual perception. Accordingly, therapeutic doses of DXM and their inhibitory modulation by stress probably yield more pronounced electroencephalographic as compared with behavioural effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Claudin-4 is required for modulation of paracellular permeability by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jing; Mei, Mei; Ding, Chong; Xiang, Ruo-Lan; Zhang, Li-Wei; Wang, Yun; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2015-06-15

    The epithelial cholinergic system plays an important role in water, ion and solute transport. Previous studies have shown that activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) regulates paracellular transport of epithelial cells; however, the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we found that mAChR activation by carbachol and cevimeline reduced the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and increased the permeability of paracellular tracers in rat salivary epithelial SMG-C6 cells. Carbachol induced downregulation and redistribution of claudin-4, but not occludin or ZO-1 (also known as TJP1). Small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated claudin-4 knockdown suppressed, whereas claudin-4 overexpression retained, the TER response to carbachol. Mechanistically, the mAChR-modulated claudin-4 properties and paracellular permeability were triggered by claudin-4 phosphorylation through ERK1/2 (also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, respectively). Mutagenesis assay demonstrated that S195, but not S199, S203 or S207, of claudin-4, was the target for carbachol. Subsequently, the phosphorylated claudin-4 interacted with β-arrestin2 and triggered claudin-4 internalization through the clathrin-dependent pathway. The internalized claudin-4 was further degraded by ubiquitylation. Taken together, these findings suggested that claudin-4 is required for mAChR-modulated paracellular permeability of epithelial cells through an ERK1/2, β-arrestin2, clathrin and ubiquitin-dependent signaling pathway. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Full-length soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor down-modulates nephrin expression in podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Massimo; Cinque, Paola; Giusti, Guido; Proietti, Silvia; Nebuloni, Manuela; Danese, Silvio; D’Alessio, Silvia; Genua, Marco; Portale, Federica; Lo Porto, Manuela; Singhal, Pravin C.; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Saleem, Moin A.; Mavilio, Domenico; Mikulak, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Increased plasma level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was associated recently with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In addition, different clinical studies observed increased concentration of suPAR in various glomerular diseases and in other human pathologies with nephrotic syndromes such as HIV and Hantavirus infection, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we show that suPAR induces nephrin down-modulation in human podocytes. This phenomenon is mediated only by full-length suPAR, is time-and dose-dependent and is associated with the suppression of Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT-1) transcription factor expression. Moreover, an antagonist of αvβ3 integrin RGDfv blocked suPAR-induced suppression of nephrin. These in vitro data were confirmed in an in vivo uPAR knock out Plaur−/− mice model by demonstrating that the infusion of suPAR inhibits expression of nephrin and WT-1 in podocytes and induces proteinuria. This study unveiled that interaction of full-length suPAR with αvβ3 integrin expressed on podocytes results in down-modulation of nephrin that may affect kidney functionality in different human pathologies characterized by increased concentration of suPAR. PMID:26380915

  9. High-Throughput Screens to Discover Small-Molecule Modulators of Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channels

    PubMed Central

    Rebbeck, Robyn T.; Essawy, Maram M.; Nitu, Florentin R.; Grant, Benjamin D.; Gillispie, Gregory D.; Thomas, David D.; Bers, Donald M.; Cornea, Razvan L.

    2017-01-01

    Using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we have developed and validated the first high-throughput screening (HTS) method to discover compounds that modulate an intracellular Ca2+ channel, the ryanodine receptor (RyR), for therapeutic applications. Intracellular Ca2+ regulation is critical for striated muscle function, and RyR is a central player. At resting [Ca2+], increased propensity of channel opening due to RyR dysregulation is associated with severe cardiac and skeletal myopathies, diabetes and neurological disorders. This leaky state of the RyR is an attractive target for pharmacological agents to treat such pathologies. Our FRET-based HTS detects RyR binding of accessory proteins calmodulin or FKBP12.6. Under conditions that mimic a pathological state, we carried out a screen of the 727-compound NIH Clinical Collection, which yielded six compounds that reproducibly changed FRET by >3SD. Dose-response of FRET and [3H]ryanodine binding readouts reveal that five hits reproducibly alter RyR1 structure and activity. One compound increased FRET and inhibited RyR1, which was only significant at nM [Ca2+], and accentuated without CaM present. These properties characterize a compound that could mitigate RyR1 leak. An excellent z′-factor and the tight correlation between structural and functional readouts validate this first HTS method to identify RyR modulators. PMID:27760856

  10. Mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of NMDA receptor modulators in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Mehdi; Phillips, Cristy; Fahimi, Atoossa; McNerney, Margaret Windy; Salehi, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Although the biogenic amine models have provided meaningful links between clinical phenomena and pharmacological management of mood disorders (MDs), the onset of action of current treatments is slow and a proportion of individuals fail to adequately respond. A growing number of investigations have focused on the glutamatergic system as a viable target. Herein we review the putative role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) signaling in the pathophysiology of MDs. Prompting this focus are several lines of evidence: 1) altered glutamate and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) expression and functioning; 2) antidepressant effects of NMDAR signaling blockers; 3) interaction between conventional therapeutic regimens and NMDAR signaling modulators; 4) biochemical evidence of interaction between monoaminergic system and NMDAR signaling; 5) interaction between neurotrophic factors and NMDAR signaling in mood regulation; 6) cross-talk between NMDAR signaling and inflammatory processes; and 7) antidepressant effects of a number of NMDA modulators in recent clinical trials. Altogether, these studies establish a warrant for the refinement of novel compounds that target glutamatergic mechanisms for the treatment of MDs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Future clinical challenges in multiple sclerosis: Relevance to sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator therapy.

    PubMed

    Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Barkhof, Frederik; Polman, Chris

    2011-02-22

    The limitations of established therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) are well-known and include the need for injections, treatment adherence and convenience issues, partial efficacy, and, in some cases, a risk of potentially life-threatening adverse events, such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Recently, attention has focused on developing more effective therapies that are administered orally and target neurodegeneration as well as inflammation. In this review, we provide an outlook on the future clinical challenges for MS treatment and management, and focus specifically on the emerging sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulators. We highlight the importance of improving our understanding of the neurobiological basis of MS to develop well-tolerated targeted therapies and the need to include advanced MRI assessments that quantify neurodegeneration in interventional studies in MS. As more treatments become available, often with complex pharmacodynamic actions, objective assessment of benefit-to-risk profiles becomes increasingly important to ensure that patients receive appropriate care. Pharmacovigilance and immune monitoring will become important aspects of patient treatment and management in the future. With respect to S1PR modulation, we review the experimental agents that are in clinical development for MS and summarize the steps taken in postmarketing surveillance to ensure that fingolimod (FTY720) has a well-characterized safety profile.

  12. A Nonsecosteroidal Vitamin D Receptor Modulator Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis without Causing Hypercalcemia

    PubMed Central

    Na, Songqing; Ma, Yanfei; Zhao, Jingyong; Schmidt, Clint; Zeng, Qing Q.; Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan; Chin, William W.; Nagpal, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists are currently the agents of choice for the treatment of psoriasis, a skin inflammatory indication that is believed to involve an autoimmune component. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3], the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, has shown efficacy in animal autoimmune disease models of multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and type I diabetes. However, the side effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and its synthetic secosteroidal analogs is hypercalcemia, which is a major impediment in their clinical development for autoimmune diseases. Hypercalcemia develops as a result of the action of VDR agonists on the intestine. Here, we describe the identification of a VDR modulator (VDRM) compound A that was transcriptionally less active in intestinal cells and as a result exhibited less calcemic activity in vivo than 1,25-(OH)2D3. Cytokine analysis indicated that the VDRM not only modulated the T-helper cell balance from Th1 to Th2 effector function but also inhibited Th17 differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that the oral administration of compound A inhibited the induction and progress of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice without causing hypercalcemia. PMID:21318047

  13. Menthol Suppresses Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Functioning in Sensory Neurons via Allosteric Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, M.; Swandulla, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated how the function of native and recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is modulated by the monoterpenoid alcohol from peppermint (−) menthol. In trigeminal neurons (TG), we found that nicotine (75 μM)-activated whole-cell currents through nAChRs were reversibly reduced by menthol in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 111 μM. To analyze the mechanism underlying menthol's action in more detail, we used single channel and whole-cell recordings from recombinant human α4β2 nAChR expressed in HEK tsA201 cells. Here, we found a shortening of channel open time and a prolongation of channel closed time, and an increase in single channel amplitude leading in summary to a reduction in single channel current. Furthermore, menthol did not affect nicotine's EC50 value for currents through recombinant human α4β2 nAChRs but caused a significant reduction in nicotine's efficacy. Taken together, these findings indicate that menthol is a negative allosteric modulator of nAChRs. PMID:22281529

  14. Oxytocin receptors (OXTR) and early parental care: An interaction that modulates psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Ilaria; Azhari, Atiqah; Lepri, Bruno; Esposito, Gianluca

    2017-10-21

    Oxytocin plays an important role in the modulation of social behavior in both typical and atypical contexts. Also, the quality of early parental care sets the foundation for long-term psychosocial development. Here, we review studies that investigated how oxytocin receptor (OXTR) interacts with early parental care experiences to influence the development of psychiatric disorders. Using Pubmed, Scopus and PsycInfo databases, we utilized the keyword "OXTR" before subsequently searching for specific OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), generating a list of 598 studies in total. The papers were catalogued in a database and filtered for gene-environment interaction, psychiatric disorders and involvement of parental care. In particular, rs53576 and rs2254298 were found to be significantly involved in gene-environment interactions that modulated risk for psychopathology and the following psychiatric disorders: disruptive behavior, depression, anxiety, eating disorder and borderline personality disorder. These results illustrate the importance of OXTR in mediating the impact of parental care on the emergence of psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Positive Modulators of the N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor: Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Steroidal 3-Hemiesters.

    PubMed

    Krausova, Barbora; Slavikova, Barbora; Nekardova, Michaela; Hubalkova, Pavla; Vyklicky, Vojtech; Chodounska, Hana; Vyklicky, Ladislav; Kudova, Eva

    2018-05-24

    Here, we report the synthesis of pregn-5-ene and androst-5-ene dicarboxylic acid esters and explore the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for their modulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). All compounds were positive modulators of recombinant GluN1/GluN2B receptors (EC 50 varying from 1.8 to 151.4 μM and E max varying from 48% to 452%). Moreover, 10 compounds were found to be more potent GluN1/GluN2B receptor modulators than endogenous pregnenolone sulfate (EC 50 = 21.7 μM). The SAR study revealed a relationship between the length of the residues at carbon C-3 of the steroid molecule and the positive modulatory effect at GluN1/GluN2B receptors for various D-ring modifications. A selected compound, 20-oxo-pregnenolone hemiadipate, potentiated native NMDARs to a similar extent as GluN1/GluN2A-D receptors and inhibited AMPARs and GABA A R responses. These results provide a unique opportunity for the development of new steroid based drugs with potential use in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders involving hypofunction of NMDARs.

  16. Identification of a selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator that prevents both diet-induced obesity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, José K; Boon, Mariëtte R; van Hengel, Ingmar; Peschier-van der Put, Emma; van Beek, Lianne; van Harmelen, Vanessa; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Pereira, Alberto M; Hunt, Hazel; Belanoff, Joseph K; Rensen, Patrick C N; Meijer, Onno C

    2016-06-01

    High-fat diet consumption results in obesity and chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. Whereas glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonism reduces diet-induced obesity, GR agonism reduces inflammation, the combination of which would be desired in a strategy to combat the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to assess the beneficial effects of the selective GR modulator C108297 on both diet-induced weight gain and inflammation in mice and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Ten-week-old C57Bl/6 J mice were fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks while being treated with the selective GR modulator C108297, a full GR antagonist (RU486/mifepristone) or vehicle. C108297 and, to a lesser extent, mifepristone reduced body weight gain and fat mass. C108297 decreased food and fructose intake and increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and free fatty acid levels in plasma, resulting in decreased fat cell size and increased fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, C108297 reduced macrophage infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in WAT, as well as in vitro LPS-stimulated TNF-α secretion in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. However, mifepristone also increased energy expenditure, as measured by fully automatic metabolic cages, and enhanced expression of thermogenic markers in energy-combusting brown adipose tissue (BAT) but did not affect inflammation. C108297 attenuates obesity by reducing caloric intake and increasing lipolysis and fat oxidation, and in addition attenuates inflammation. These data suggest that selective GR modulation may be a viable strategy for the reduction of diet-induced obesity and inflammation. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Toxicological characterisation of two novel selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulators in Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciT

    Mahiout, Selma, E-mail: selma.mahiout@helsinki.fi

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxicity of dioxins, but also plays important physiological roles. Selective AHR modulators, which elicit some effects imparted by this receptor without causing the marked toxicity of dioxins, are presently under intense scrutiny. Two novel such compounds are IMA-08401 (N-acetyl-N-phenyl-4-acetoxy-5-chloro-1, 2-dihydro-1-methyl-2-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxamide) and IMA-07101 (N-acetyl-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-4-acetoxy-1, 2-dihydro-5-methoxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxamide). They represent, as diacetyl prodrugs, AHR-active metabolites of the drug compounds laquinimod and tasquinimod, respectively, which are intended for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Here, we toxicologically assessed the novel compounds in Sprague-Dawley rats, after a single dose (8.75–92.5 mg/kg) and 5-day repeated dosing at the highestmore » doses achievable (IMA-08401: 100 mg/kg/day; and IMA-07101: 75 mg/kg/day). There were no overt clinical signs of toxicity, but body weight gain was marginally retarded, and the treatments induced minimal hepatic extramedullary haematopoiesis. Further, both the absolute and relative weights of the thymus were significantly decreased. Cyp1a1 gene expression was substantially increased in all tissues examined. The hepatic induction profile of other AHR battery genes was distinct from that caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The only marked alterations in serum clinical chemistry variables were a reduction in triglycerides and an increase in 3-hydroxybutyrate. Liver and kidney retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations were affected largely in the same manner as reported for TCDD. In vitro, the novel compounds activated CYP1A1 effectively in H4IIE cells. Altogether, these novel compounds appear to act as potent activators of the AHR, but lack some major characteristic toxicities of dioxins. They therefore represent promising new selective AHR modulators. - Highlights

  18. MmTX1 and MmTX2 from coral snake venom potently modulate GABAA receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Jean-Pierre; Schwarz, Jürgen R; Diaz-Bustamante, Marcelo; Céard, Brigitte; Gutiérrez, José M; Kneussel, Matthias; Pongs, Olaf; Bosmans, Frank; Bougis, Pierre E

    2015-02-24

    GABAA receptors shape synaptic transmission by modulating Cl(-) conductance across the cell membrane. Remarkably, animal toxins that specifically target GABAA receptors have not been identified. Here, we report the discovery of micrurotoxin1 (MmTX1) and MmTX2, two toxins present in Costa Rican coral snake venom that tightly bind to GABAA receptors at subnanomolar concentrations. Studies with recombinant and synthetic toxin variants on hippocampal neurons and cells expressing common receptor compositions suggest that MmTX1 and MmTX2 allosterically increase GABAA receptor susceptibility to agonist, thereby potentiating receptor opening as well as desensitization, possibly by interacting with the α(+)/β(-) interface. Moreover, hippocampal neuron excitability measurements reveal toxin-induced transitory network inhibition, followed by an increase in spontaneous activity. In concert, toxin injections into mouse brain result in reduced basal activity between intense seizures. Altogether, we characterized two animal toxins that enhance GABAA receptor sensitivity to agonist, thereby establishing a previously unidentified class of tools to study this receptor family.

  19. Ligand-Receptor Interaction Modulates the Energy Landscape of Enzyme-Instructed Self-Assembly of Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Haburcak, Richard; Shi, Junfeng; Du, Xuewen; Yuan, Dan; Xu, Bing

    2016-11-30

    The concurrence of enzymatic reaction and ligand-receptor interactions is common for proteins, but rare for small molecules and has yet to be explored. Here we show that ligand-receptor interaction modulates the morphology of molecular assemblies formed by enzyme-instructed assembly of small molecules. While the absence of ligand-receptor interaction allows enzymatic dephosphorylation of a precursor to generate the hydrogelator that self-assembles to form long nanofibers, the presence of the ligand-receptor interaction biases the pathway to form precipitous aggregates containing short nanofibers. While the hydrogelators self-assemble to form nanofibers or nanoribbons that are unable to bind with the ligand (i.e., vancomycin), the addition of surfactant breaks up the assemblies to restore the ligand-receptor interaction. In addition, an excess amount of the ligands can disrupt the nanofibers and result in the precipitates. As the first example of the use of ligand-receptor interaction to modulate the kinetics of enzymatic self-assembly, this work not only provides a solution to evaluate the interaction between aggregates and target molecules but also offers new insight for understanding the emergent behavior of sophisticated molecular systems having multiple and parallel processes.

  20. Modulation of GABAergic receptor binding by activation of calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinase II membrane phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Churn, S B; DeLorenzo, R J

    1998-10-26

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Because of the important role that GABA plays in the CNS, alteration of GABAA receptor function would significantly affect neuronal excitability. Protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism for regulating receptor function in the brain and has been implicated in modulating GABAA receptor function. Therefore, this study was initiated to determine the role of calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaM kinase II) membrane phosphorylation on GABAA receptor binding. Synaptosomal membrane fractions were tested for CaM kinase II activity towards endogenous substrates. In addition, muscimol binding was evaluated under equilibrium conditions in synaptosomal membrane fractions subjected to either basal (Mg2+ alone) or maximal CaM kinase II-dependent phosphorylation. Activation of endogenous CaM kinase II-dependent phosphorylation resulted in a significant enhancement of the apparent Bmax for muscimol binding without significantly altering the apparent binding affinity. The enhanced muscimol binding could be increased further by the addition of exogenous CaM kinase II to synaptosomal membrane fractions. Co-incubation with inhibitors of kinase activity during the phosphorylation reactions blocked the CaM kinase II-dependent increase in muscimol binding. The data support the hypothesis that activation of CaM kinase II-dependent phosphorylation caused an increased GABAA receptor binding and may play an important role in modulating the function of this inhibitory receptor/chloride ion channel complex. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  2. Modulation by Cocaine of Dopamine Receptors through miRNA-133b in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Valer, Katherine; López-Bellido, Roger; Macho Sánchez-Simón, Fátima; Rodríguez, Raquel E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of cocaine during pregnancy can affect the mother and indirectly might alter the development of the embryo/foetus. Accordingly, in the present work our aim was to study in vivo (in zebrafish embryos) the effects of cocaine on the expression of dopamine receptors and on miR-133b. These embryos were exposed to cocaine hydrochloride (HCl) at 5 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and were then collected at 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 hpf to study the expression of dopamine receptors, drd1, drd2a, drd2b and drd3, by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH, only at 24 hpf). Our results indicate that cocaine alters the expression of the genes studied, depending on the stage of the developing embryo and the type of dopamine receptor. We found that cocaine reduced the expression of miR-133b at 24 and 48 hpf in the central nervous system (CNS) and at the periphery by qPCR and also that the spatial distribution of miR-133b was mainly seen in somites, a finding that suggests the involvement of miR-133b in the development of the skeletal muscle. In contrast, at the level of the CNS miR-133b had a weak and moderate expression at 24 and 48 hpf. We also analysed the interaction of miR-133b with the Pitx3 and Pitx3 target genes drd2a and drd2b, tyrosine hydroxylase (th) and dopamine transporter (dat) by microinjection of the Pitx3-3'UTR sequence. Microinjection of Pitx3-3'UTR affected the expression of pitx3, drd2a, drd2b, th and dat. In conclusion, in the present work we describe a possible mechanism to account for cocaine activity by controlling miR-133b transcription in zebrafish. Via miR-133b cocaine would modulate the expression of pitx3 and subsequently of dopamine receptors, dat and th. These results indicate that miRNAs can play an important role during embryogenesis and in drug addiction. PMID:23285158

  3. P2Y2 Nucleotide Receptor Prompts Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Activation by Modulating Hippo Signaling.

    PubMed

    Khalafalla, Farid G; Greene, Steven; Khan, Hashim; Ilves, Kelli; Monsanto, Megan M; Alvarez, Roberto; Chavarria, Monica; Nguyen, Jonathan; Norman, Benjamin; Dembitsky, Walter P; Sussman, Mark A

    2017-11-10

    Autologous stem cell therapy using human c-Kit + cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for treatment of heart failure (HF). However, hCPCs derived from aged patients with HF with genetic predispositions and comorbidities of chronic diseases exhibit poor proliferative and migratory capabilities, which impair overall reparative potential for injured myocardium. Therefore, empowering functionally compromised hCPCs with proregenerative molecules ex vivo is crucial for improving the therapeutic outcome in patients with HF. To improve hCPC proliferation and migration responses that are critical for regeneration by targeting proregenerative P2Y 2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y 2 R) activated by extracellular ATP and UTP molecules released following injury/stress. c-Kit + hCPCs were isolated from cardiac tissue of patients with HF undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation surgery. Correlations between P2 nucleotide receptor expression and hCPC growth kinetics revealed downregulation of select P2 receptors, including P2Y 2 R, in slow-growing hCPCs compared with fast growers. hCPC proliferation and migration significantly improved by overexpressing or stimulating P2Y 2 R. Mechanistically, P2Y 2 R-induced proliferation and migration were dependent on activation of YAP (yes-associated protein)-the downstream effector of Hippo signaling pathway. Proliferation and migration of functionally impaired hCPCs are enhanced by P2Y 2 R-mediated YAP activation, revealing a novel link between extracellular nucleotides released during injury/stress and Hippo signaling-a central regulator of cardiac regeneration. Functional correlations exist between hCPC phenotypic properties and P2 purinergic receptor expression. Lack of P2Y 2 R and other crucial purinergic stress detectors could compromise hCPC responsiveness to presence of extracellular stress signals. These findings set the stage for subsequent studies to assess purinergic signaling modulation as a

  4. Roles of dopamine receptors in mediating acute modulation of immunological responses in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Ke, Zhi-Han; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) was found to influence the immunological responses and resistance to pathogen infection in invertebrates. To clarify the possible modulation of DA through dopamine receptors (DAR) against acute environmental stress, the levels of DA, glucose and lactate in the haemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under hypo- and hyperthermal stresses were measured. The changes in immune parameters such as total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and phagocytic activity (PA) were evaluated in prawns which received DAR antagonists (SCH23390, SCH, D1 antagonist; domperidone, DOM, D2 antagonist; chlorpromazine, CH, D1+2 antagonist) followed by hypo- (15 °C) and hyperthermal (34 °C) stresses. In addition, pharmacological analysis of the effect DA modulation was studied in haemocytes incubated with DA and DAR antagonists. The results revealed a significant increase in haemolymph DA accompanied with upregulated levels of glucose and lactate in prawns exposed to both hypo- and hyperthermal stresses in 2 h. In addition, a significant decrease in RBs per haemocyte was noted in prawns which received DAR antagonists when they exposed to hyperthermal stress for 30 min. In in vitro test, antagonism on RBs, SOD and GPx activity of haemocytes were further evidenced through D1, D1, D1+D2 DARs, respectively, in the meantime, no significant difference in PO activity and PA was observed among the treatment groups. These results suggest that the upregulation of DA, glucose and lactate in haemolymph might be the response to acute thermal stress for the demand of energy, and the DAR occupied by its antagonistic action impart no effect on immunological responses except RBs in vivo even though the modulation mediated through D1 DAR was further evidenced in RBs, SOD and GPx activities in vitro. It is therefore concluded that thermal

  5. Characterization of the novel positive allosteric modulator, LY2119620, at the muscarinic M(2) and M(4) receptors.

    PubMed

    Croy, Carrie H; Schober, Douglas A; Xiao, Hongling; Quets, Anne; Christopoulos, Arthur; Felder, Christian C

    2014-07-01

    The M(4) receptor is a compelling therapeutic target, as this receptor modulates neural circuits dysregulated in schizophrenia, and there is clinical evidence that muscarinic agonists possess both antipsychotic and procognitive efficacy. Recent efforts have shifted toward allosteric ligands to maximize receptor selectivity and manipulate endogenous cholinergic and dopaminergic signaling. In this study, we present the pharmacological characterization of LY2119620 (3-amino-5-chloro-N-cyclopropyl-4-methyl-6-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethoxy] thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide), a M(2)/M(4) receptor-selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM), chemically evolved from hits identified through a M4 allosteric functional screen. Although unsuitable as a therapeutic due to M(2) receptor cross-reactivity and, thus, potential cardiovascular liability, LY2119620 surpassed previous congeners in potency and PAM activity and broadens research capabilities through its development into a radiotracer. Characterization of LY2119620 revealed evidence of probe dependence in both binding and functional assays. Guanosine 5'-[γ-(35)S]-triphosphate assays displayed differential potentiation depending on the orthosteric-allosteric pairing, with the largest cooperativity observed for oxotremorine M (Oxo-M) LY2119620. Further [(3)H]Oxo-M saturation binding, including studies with guanosine-5'-[(β,γ)-imido]triphosphate, suggests that both the orthosteric and allosteric ligands can alter the population of receptors in the active G protein-coupled state. Additionally, this work expands the characterization of the orthosteric agonist, iperoxo, at the M(4) receptor, and demonstrates that an allosteric ligand can positively modulate the binding and functional efficacy of this high efficacy ligand. Ultimately, it was the M(2) receptor pharmacology and PAM activity with iperoxo that made LY2119620 the most suitable allosteric partner for the M(2) active-state structure recently solved

  6. Modulation of desensitization at glutamate receptors in isolated crucian carp horizontal cells by concanavalin A, cyclothiazide, aniracetam and PEPA.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Lu, T; Yang, X L

    1999-03-01

    In horizontal cells freshly dissociated from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) retina, we examined the effects of modulators of glutamate receptor desensitization, concanavalin A, cyclothiazide, aniracetam and 4-[2-(phenylsulfonylamino)ethylthio]-2,6-difluoro-phenoxyacetam ide (PEPA), on responses to rapid application of glutamate and kainate, using whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. Incubation of concanavalin A suppressed the peak response but weakly potentiated the equilibrium response of horizontal cells to glutamate. Cyclothiazide blocked glutamate-induced desensitization in a dose-dependent manner, which resulted in a steady increase of the equilibrium current. The concentration of cyclothiazide causing a half-maximal potentiation for the equilibrium response was 85 microM. Furthermore, cyclothiazide shifted the dose-response relationship of the equilibrium current to the right, but slightly suppressed the kainate-induced sustained current. These effects of concanavalin A and cyclothiazide are consistent with the supposition that glutamate receptors of carp horizontal cells may be an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)-preferring subtype. In order to further characterize the AMPA receptors of horizontal cells, modulation by aniracetam and PEPA of glutamate- and kainate-induced currents was studied. Aniracetam, a preferential modulator of flop variants of AMPA receptors, considerably blocked desensitization of glutamate-induced currents, but only slightly potentiated kainate-induced currents. It was further found that PEPA, a flop-preferring allosteric modulator of AMPA receptor desensitization, slightly suppressed the peak current, while it dramatically potentiated the equilibrium current induced by glutamate in a dose-dependent manner. PEPA was much potent than aniracetam at these receptors and showed the effect on glutamate-induced desensitization even at a concentration as low as 3 microM. PEPA also potentiated non

  7. Palmitoylethanolamide Modulates GPR55 Receptor Signaling in the Ventral Hippocampus to Regulate Mesolimbic Dopamine Activity, Social Interaction, and Memory Processing.

    PubMed

    Kramar, Cecilia; Loureiro, Michael; Renard, Justine; Laviolette, Steven R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The GPR55 receptor has been identified as an atypical cannabinoid receptor and is implicated in various physiological processes. However, its functional role in the central nervous system is not currently understood. The presence of GPR55 receptor in neural regions such as the ventral hippocampus (vHipp), which is critical for cognition, recognition memory, and affective processing, led us to hypothesize that intra-vHipp GPR55 transmission may modulate mesolimbic activity states and related behavioral phenomena. The vHipp is involved in contextual memory and affective regulation through functional interactions with the mesolimbic dopamine system. Materials and Methods: Using a combination of in vivo electrophysiology and behavioral pharmacological assays in rats, we tested whether intra-vHipp activation of GPR55 receptor transmission with the fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a lipid neuromodulator with agonist actions at the GPR55 receptor, may modulate mesolimbic dopaminergic activity states. We further examined the potential effects of intra-vHipp PEA in affective, cognitive and contextual memory tasks. Discussion: We report that intra-vHipp PEA produces a hyper-dopaminergic state in the mesolimbic system characterized by increased firing and bursting activity of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neuron populations. Furthermore, while PEA-induced activation of GPR55 transmission had no effects on opiate-related reward-related memory formation, we observed strong disruptions in social interaction and recognition memory, spatial location memory, and context-independent associative fear memory formation. Finally, the effects of intra-vHipp PEA were blocked by a selective GPR55 receptor antagonist, CID160 and were dependent upon NMDA receptor transmission, directly in the vHipp. Conclusions: The present results add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating important functional roles for GPR55 signaling in cannabinoid-related neuronal

  8. Cocaine Modulates the Expression of Opioid Receptors and miR-let-7d in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    López-Bellido, Roger; Barreto-Valer, Katherine; Sánchez-Simón, Fátima Macho; Rodríguez, Raquel E.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to cocaine, in mammals, has been shown to interfere with the expression of opioid receptors, which can have repercussions in its activity. Likewise, microRNAs, such as let-7, have been shown to regulate the expression of opioid receptors and hence their functions in mammals and in vitro experiments. In light of this, using the zebrafish embryos as a model our aim here was to evaluate the actions of cocaine in the expression of opioid receptors and let-7d miRNA during embryogenesis. In order to determine the effects produced by cocaine on the opioid receptors (zfmor, zfdor1 and zfdor2) and let-7d miRNA (dre-let-7d) and its precursors (dre-let-7d-1 and dre-let-7d-2), embryos were exposed to 1.5 µM cocaine hydrochloride (HCl). Our results revealed that cocaine upregulated dre-let-7d and its precursors, and also increased the expression of zfmor, zfdor1 and zfdor2 during early developmental stages and decreased them in late embryonic stages. The changes observed in the expression of opioid receptors might occur through dre-let-7d, since DNA sequences and the morpholinos of opioid receptors microinjections altered the expression of dre-let-7d and its precursors. Likewise, opioid receptors and dre-let-7d showed similar distributions in the central nervous system (CNS) and at the periphery, pointing to a possible interrelationship between them. In conclusion, the silencing and overexpression of opioid receptors altered the expression of dre-let-7d, which points to the notion that cocaine via dre-let-7 can modulate the expression of opioid receptors. Our study provides new insights into the actions of cocaine during zebrafish embryogenesis, indicating a role of miRNAs, let-7d, in development and its relationship with gene expression of opioid receptors, related to pain and addiction process. PMID:23226419

  9. The role of endogenous molecules in modulating pain through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Simon, Sidney A; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Pain is a physiological response to a noxious stimulus that decreases the quality of life of those sufferring from it. Research aimed at finding new therapeutic targets for the treatment of several maladies, including pain, has led to the discovery of numerous molecular regulators of ion channels in primary afferent nociceptive neurons. Among these receptors is TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), a member of the TRP family of ion channels. TRPV1 is a calcium-permeable channel, which is activated or modulated by diverse exogenous noxious stimuli such as high temperatures, changes in pH, and irritant and pungent compounds, and by selected molecules released during tissue damage and inflammatory processes. During the last decade the number of endogenous regulators of TRPV1's activity has increased to include lipids that can negatively regulate TRPV1, as is the case for cholesterol and PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate) while, in contrast, other lipids produced in response to tissue injury and ischaemic processes are known to positively regulate TRPV1. Among the latter, lysophosphatidic acid activates TRPV1 while amines such as N-acyl-ethanolamines and N-acyl-dopamines can sensitize or directly activate TRPV1. It has also been found that nucleotides such as ATP act as mediators of chemically induced nociception and pain and gases, such as hydrogen sulphide and nitric oxide, lead to TRPV1 activation. Finally, the products of lipoxygenases and omega-3 fatty acids among other molecules, such as divalent cations, have also been shown to endogenously regulate TRPV1 activity. Here we provide a comprehensive review of endogenous small molecules that regulate the function of TRPV1. Acting through mechanisms that lead to sensitization and desensitization of TRPV1, these molecules regulate pathways involved in pain and nociception. Understanding how these compounds modify TRPV1 activity will allow us to comprehend how some pathologies are associated with

  10. Selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially alter the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles.

    PubMed

    Rodenas, M C; Cabas, I; García-Alcázar, A; Meseguer, J; Mulero, V; García-Ayala, A

    2016-05-01

    17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen (Tmx), a selective estrogen-receptor modulator used in hormone replacement therapy, and G1, a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) selective agonist, differentially increased the hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) gene expression and altered the immune response in adult gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) males. However, no information exists on the effects of these compounds on the immune response of juveniles. This study aims, for the first time, to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of EE2, Tmx or G1 on the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles and the capacity of the immune system of the specimens to recover its functionality after ceasing exposures (recovery period). The specimens were immunized with hemocyanin in the presence of aluminium adjuvant 1 (group A) or 120 (group B) days after the treatments ceased (dpt). The results indicate that EE2 and Tmx, but not G1, differentially promoted a transient alteration in hepatic vtg gene expression. Although all three compounds did not affect the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, they inhibited the induction of interleukin-1β (il1b) gene expression after priming. Interestingly, although Tmx increased the percentage of IgM-positive cells in both head kidney and spleen during the recovery period, the antibody response of vaccinated fish varied depending on the compound used and when the immunization was administered. Taken together, our results suggest that these compounds differentially alter the capacity of fish to respond to infection during ontogeny and, more interestingly, that the adaptive immune response remained altered to an extent that depends on the compound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste

    PubMed Central

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E.; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 μM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 μM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 μM) and SE-3 (200 μM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 μM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 μM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste. PMID:20173092

  12. CDB-4124, a progesterone receptor modulator, inhibits mammary carcinogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wiehle, Ronald; Lantvit, Daniel; Yamada, Tohru; Christov, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    CDB-4124 (Proellex or telapristone acetate) is a modulator of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling, which is currently employed in preclinical studies for prevention and treatment of breast cancer and has been used in clinical studies for treatment of uterine fibroids and endometriosis. Here we provide evidence for its action on steroid hormone-signaling, cell cycle-regulated genes and in vivo on mammary carcinogenesis. When CDB-4124 is given to rats at 200 mg/kg for 24 months, it prevents the development of spontaneous mammary hyperplastic and premalignant lesions. Also, CDB-4124 given as subcutaneous pellets at two different doses suppressed, dose dependently, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary carcinogenesis. The high dose (30 mg, over 84 days) increased tumor latency from 66 ± 24 days to 87 ± 20 days (P < 0.02), decreased incidence from 85% to 35% (P < 0.001), and reduced multiplicity from 3.0 to 1.1 tumors/animal (P < 0.001). Tumor burden decreased from 2.6 g/animal to 0.26 g/animal (P < 0.01). CDB-4124 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MNU-induced mammary tumors, which correlated with a decreased proportion of PR(+) tumor cells and with decreased serum progesterone. CDB-4124 did not affect serum estradiol. In a mechanistic study employing T47D cells we found that CDB-4124 suppressed G(1)/G(0)-S transition by inhibiting CDK2 and CDK4 expressions, which correlated with inhibition of estrogen receptor (ER) expression. Taken together, these data indicate that CDB-4124 can suppress the development of precancerous lesions and carcinogen-induced ER(+) mammary tumors in rats, and may have implications for prevention and treatment of human breast cancer.

  13. Modulation by cyclic GMP of the odour sensitivity of vertebrate olfactory receptor cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leinders-Zufall, T.; Shepherd, G. M.; Zufall, F.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated a significant role for the cGMP second messenger system in vertebrate olfactory transduction but no clear functions have been identified for cGMP so far. Here, we have examined the effects of 8-Br-cGMP and carbon monoxide (CO) on odour responses of salamander olfactory receptor neurons using perforated patch recordings. We report that 8-Br-cGMP strongly down-regulates the odour sensitivity of the cells, with a K1/2 of 460 nM. This adaptation-like effect can be mimicked by CO, an activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, with a K1/2 of 1 microM. Sensitivity modulation is achieved through a regulatory chain of events in which cGMP stimulates a persistent background current due to the activation of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. This in turn leads to sustained Ca2+ entry providing a negative feedback signal. One consequence of the Ca2+ entry is a shift to the right of the stimulus-response curve and a reduction in saturating odour currents. Together, these two effects can reduce the sensory generator current by up to twenty-fold. Thus, cGMP functions to control the gain of the G-protein coupled cAMP pathway. Another consequence of the action of cGMP is a marked prolongation of the odour response kinetics. The effects of CO/cGMP are long-lasting and can continue for minutes. Hence, we propose that cGMP helps to prevent saturation of the cell's response by adjusting the operational range of the cAMP cascade and contributes to olfactory adaptation by decreasing the sensitivity of olfactory receptor cells to repeated odour stimuli.

  14. The role of endogenous molecules in modulating pain through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1).

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Simon, Sidney A; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    Pain is a physiological response to a noxious stimulus that decreases the quality of life of those sufferring from it. Research aimed at finding new therapeutic targets for the treatment of several maladies, including pain, has led to the discovery of numerous molecular regulators of ion channels in primary afferent nociceptive neurons. Among these receptors is TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), a member of the TRP family of ion channels. TRPV1 is a calcium-permeable channel, which is activated or modulated by diverse exogenous noxious stimuli such as high temperatures, changes in pH, and irritant and pungent compounds, and by selected molecules released during tissue damage and inflammatory processes. During the last decade the number of endogenous regulators of TRPV1's activity has increased to include lipids that can negatively regulate TRPV1, as is the case for cholesterol and PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate) while, in contrast, other lipids produced in response to tissue injury and ischaemic processes are known to positively regulate TRPV1. Among the latter, lysophosphatidic acid activates TRPV1 while amines such as N-acyl-ethanolamines and N-acyl-dopamines can sensitize or directly activate TRPV1. It has also been found that nucleotides such as ATP act as mediators of chemically induced nociception and pain and gases, such as hydrogen sulphide and nitric oxide, lead to TRPV1 activation. Finally, the products of lipoxygenases and omega-3 fatty acids among other molecules, such as divalent cations, have also been shown to endogenously regulate TRPV1 activity. Here we provide a comprehensive review of endogenous small molecules that regulate the function of TRPV1. Acting through mechanisms that lead to sensitization and desensitization of TRPV1, these molecules regulate pathways involved in pain and nociception. Understanding how these compounds modify TRPV1 activity will allow us to comprehend how some pathologies are associated with

  15. The human mu opioid receptor: modulation of functional desensitization by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Mestek, A; Hurley, J H; Bye, L S; Campbell, A D; Chen, Y; Tian, M; Liu, J; Schulman, H; Yu, L

    1995-03-01

    Opioids are some of the most efficacious analgesics used in humans. Prolonged administration of opioids, however, often causes the development of drug tolerance, thus limiting their effectiveness. To explore the molecular basis of those mechanisms that may contribute to opioid tolerance, we have isolated a cDNA for the human mu opioid receptor, the target of such opioid narcotics as morphine, codeine, methadone, and fentanyl. The receptor encoded by this cDNA is 400 amino acids long with 94% sequence similarity to the rat mu opioid receptor. Transient expression of this cDNA in COS-7 cells produced high-affinity binding sites to mu-selective agonists and antagonists. This receptor displays functional coupling to a recently cloned G-protein-activated K+ channel. When both proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, functional desensitization developed upon repeated stimulation of the mu opioid receptor, as observed by a reduction in K+ current induced by the second mu receptor activation relative to that induced by the first. The extent of desensitization was potentiated by both the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. These results demonstrate that kinase modulation is a molecular mechanism by which the desensitization of mu receptor signaling may be regulated at the cellular level, suggesting that this cellular mechanism may contribute to opioid tolerance in humans.

  16. Cocaine Disrupts Histamine H3 Receptor Modulation of Dopamine D1 Receptor Signaling: σ1-D1-H3 Receptor Complexes as Key Targets for Reducing Cocaine's Effects

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Estefanía; Moreno-Delgado, David; Navarro, Gemma; Hoffmann, Hanne M.; Fuentes, Silvia; Rosell-Vilar, Santi; Gasperini, Paola; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Mar; Medrano, Mireia; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Ferré, Sergi; Ortiz, Jordi; Canela, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The general effects of cocaine are not well understood at the molecular level. What is known is that the dopamine D1 receptor plays an important role. Here we show that a key mechanism may be cocaine's blockade of the histamine H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of D1 receptor function. This blockade requires the σ1 receptor and occurs upon cocaine binding to σ1-D1-H3 receptor complexes. The cocaine-mediated disruption leaves an uninhibited D1 receptor that activates Gs, freely recruits β-arrestin, increases p-ERK 1/2 levels, and induces cell death when over activated. Using in vitro assays with transfected cells and in ex vivo experiments using both rats acutely treated or self-administered with cocaine along with mice depleted of σ1 receptor, we show that blockade of σ1 receptor by an antagonist restores the protective H3 receptor-mediated brake on D1 receptor signaling and prevents the cell death from elevated D1 receptor signaling. These findings suggest that a combination therapy of σ1R antagonists with H3 receptor agonists could serve to reduce some effects of cocaine. PMID:24599455

  17. Estrous cycle variations in GABAA receptor phosphorylation enable rapid modulation by anabolic androgenic steroids in the medial preoptic area

    PubMed Central

    Oberlander, JG; Porter, DM; Onakomaiya, MM; Penatti, CAA; Vithlani, M; Moss, SJ; Clark, AS; Henderson, LP

    2012-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic testosterone derivatives that are used for ergogenic purposes, alter neurotransmission and behaviors mediated by GABAA receptors. Some of these effects may reflect direct and rapid action of these synthetic steroids at the receptor. The ability of other natural allosteric steroid modulators to alter GABAA receptor-mediated currents is dependent upon the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex. Here we show that phosphorylation of the GABAA receptor complex immunoprecipitated by β2/β3 subunit-specific antibodies from the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the mouse varies across the estrous cycle; with levels being significantly lower in estrus. Acute exposure to the AAS, 17α-testosterone (17α-MeT), had no effect on the amplitude or kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the mPOA of estrous mice when phosphorylation was low, but increased the amplitude of these currents from mice in diestrus, when it was high. Inclusion of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin, in the recording pipette eliminated the ability of 17α-MeT to enhance currents from diestrous animals, suggesting that PKC-receptor phosphorylation is critical for the allosteric modulation elicited by AAS during this phase. In addition, a single injection of 17α-MeT was found to impair an mPOA-mediated behavior (nest-building) in diestrus, but not in estrus. PKC is known to target specific serine residues in the β3 subunit of the GABAA receptor. Although phosphorylation of these β3 serine residues showed a similar profile across the cycle, as did phosphoserine in mPOA lysates immunoprecipitated with β2/β3 antibody (lower in estrus than in diestrus or proestrus), the differences were not significant. These data suggest that the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex regulates both the ability of AAS to modulate receptor function in the mPOA and the expression of a simple mPOA-dependent behavior through PKC-dependent mechanism

  18. Modulation of inhibitory activity markers by intermittent theta-burst stimulation in rat cortex is NMDA-receptor dependent.

    PubMed

    Labedi, Adnan; Benali, Alia; Mix, Annika; Neubacher, Ute; Funke, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied via transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown to increase cortical excitability in humans. In the rat brain it strongly reduced the number of neurons expressing the 67-kD isoform of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and those expressing the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB), specific markers of fast-spiking (FS) and non-FS inhibitory interneurons, respectively, an indication of modified cortical inhibition. Since iTBS effects in humans have been shown to be NMDA receptor sensitive, we wondered whether the iTBS-induced changes in the molecular phenotype of interneurons may be also sensitive to glutamatergic synaptic transmission mediated by NMDA receptors. In a sham-controlled fashion, five iTBS-blocks of 600 stimuli were applied to rats either lightly anesthetized by only urethane or by an additional low (subnarcotic) or high dose of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine before immunohistochemical analysis. iTBS reduced the number of neurons expressing GAD67, PV and CB. Except for CB, a low dose of ketamine partially prevented these effects while a higher dose almost completely abolished the iTBS effects. Our findings indicate that iTBS modulates the molecular, and likely also the electric, activity of cortical inhibitory interneurons and that the modulation of FS-type but less that of non-FS-type neurons is mediated by NMDA receptors. A combination of iTBS with pharmacological interventions affecting distinct receptor subtypes may thus offer options to enhance its selectivity in modulating the activity of distinct cell types and preventing others from being modulated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Negative allosteric modulators that target human alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandon J; Pavlovicz, Ryan E; Allen, Jerad D; González-Cestari, Tatiana F; Orac, Crina M; Bonnell, Andrew B; Zhu, Michael X; Boyd, R Thomas; Li, Chenglong; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McKay, Dennis B

    2010-09-01

    Allosteric modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for therapeutics. We have previously reported on the pharmacological activity of several compounds that act as negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of nAChRs. In the following studies, the effects of 30 NAMs from our small chemical library on both human alpha4beta2 (Halpha4beta2) and human alpha3beta4 (Halpha3beta4) nAChRs expressed in human embryonic kidney ts201 cells were investigated. During calcium accumulation assays, these NAMs inhibited nAChR activation with IC(50) values ranging from 2.4 microM to more than 100 microM. Several NAMs showed relative selectivity for Halpha4beta2 nAChRs with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. A lead molecule, KAB-18, was identified that shows relative selectivity for Halpha4beta2 nAChRs. This molecule contains three phenyl rings, one piperidine ring, and one ester bond linkage. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses of our data revealed three regions of KAB-18 that contribute to its relative selectivity. Predictive three-dimensional quantitative SAR (comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) models were generated from these data, and a pharmacophore model was constructed to determine the chemical features that are important for biological activity. Using docking approaches and molecular dynamics on a Halpha4beta2 nAChR homology model, a binding mode for KAB-18 at the alpha/beta subunit interface that corresponds to the predicted pharmacophore is described. This binding mode was supported by mutagenesis studies. In summary, these studies highlight the importance of SAR, computational, and molecular biology approaches for the design and synthesis of potent and selective antagonists targeting specific nAChR subtypes.

  20. Negative Allosteric Modulators That Target Human α4β2 Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brandon J.; Pavlovicz, Ryan E.; Allen, Jerad D.; González-Cestari, Tatiana F.; Orac, Crina M.; Bonnell, Andrew B.; Zhu, Michael X.; Boyd, R. Thomas; Li, Chenglong; Bergmeier, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Allosteric modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for therapeutics. We have previously reported on the pharmacological activity of several compounds that act as negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of nAChRs. In the following studies, the effects of 30 NAMs from our small chemical library on both human α4β2 (Hα4β2) and human α3β4 (Hα3β4) nAChRs expressed in human embryonic kidney ts201 cells were investigated. During calcium accumulation assays, these NAMs inhibited nAChR activation with IC50 values ranging from 2.4 μM to more than 100 μM. Several NAMs showed relative selectivity for Hα4β2 nAChRs with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. A lead molecule, KAB-18, was identified that shows relative selectivity for Hα4β2 nAChRs. This molecule contains three phenyl rings, one piperidine ring, and one ester bond linkage. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) analyses of our data revealed three regions of KAB-18 that contribute to its relative selectivity. Predictive three-dimensional quantitative SAR (comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) models were generated from these data, and a pharmacophore model was constructed to determine the chemical features that are important for biological activity. Using docking approaches and molecular dynamics on a Hα4β2 nAChR homology model, a binding mode for KAB-18 at the α/β subunit interface that corresponds to the predicted pharmacophore is described. This binding mode was supported by mutagenesis studies. In summary, these studies highlight the importance of SAR, computational, and molecular biology approaches for the design and synthesis of potent and selective antagonists targeting specific nAChR subtypes. PMID:20551292

  1. Compound A, a Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulator, Enhances Heat Shock Protein Hsp70 Gene Promoter Activation

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Ilse M.; Drebert, Zuzanna J.; Hoya-Arias, Ruben; Bahar, Ali A.; Devos, Michael; Clarisse, Dorien; Desmet, Sofie; Bougarne, Nadia; Ruttens, Bart; Gossye, Valerie; Denecker, Geertrui; Lievens, Sam; Bracke, Marc; Tavernier, Jan; Declercq, Wim; Gevaert, Kris; Berghe, Wim Vanden; Haegeman, Guy; De Bosscher, Karolien

    2013-01-01

    Compound A possesses glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent anti-inflammatory properties. Just like classical GR ligands, Compound A can repress NF-κB-mediated gene expression. However, the monomeric Compound A-activated GR is unable to trigger glucocorticoid response element-regulated gene expression. The heat shock response potently activates heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), upregulates Hsp70, a known GR chaperone, and also modulates various aspects of inflammation. We found that the selective GR modulator Compound A and heat shock trigger similar cellular effects in A549 lung epithelial cells. With regard to their anti-inflammatory mechanism, heat shock and Compound A are both able to reduce TNF-stimulated IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. We established an interaction between Compound A-activated GR and Hsp70, but remarkably, although the presence of the Hsp70 chaperone as such appears pivotal for the Compound A-mediated inflammatory gene repression, subsequent novel Hsp70 protein synthesis is uncoupled from an observed CpdA-induced Hsp70 mRNA upregulation and hence obsolete in mediating CpdA’s anti-inflammatory effect. The lack of a Compound A-induced increase in Hsp70 protein levels in A549 cells is not mediated by a rapid proteasomal degradation of Hsp70 or by a Compound A-induced general block on translation. Similar to heat shock, Compound A can upregulate transcription of Hsp70 genes in various cell lines and BALB/c mice. Interestingly, whereas Compound A-dependent Hsp70 promoter activation is GR-dependent but HSF1-independent, heat shock-induced Hsp70 expression alternatively occurs in a GR-independent and HSF1-dependent manner in A549 lung epithelial cells. PMID:23935933

  2. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Stafford, James L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W; Blazer, Vicki S

    2014-09-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. NMDA and D2-like receptors modulate cognitive flexibility in a color discrimination reversal task in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Herold, Christina

    2010-06-01

    Reversal and extinction learning represent forms of cognitive flexibility that refer to the ability of an animal to alter behavior in response to unanticipated changes on environmental demands. A role for dopamine and glutamate in modulating this behavior has been implicated. Here, we determined the effects of intracerebroventricular injections in pigeons' forebrain of the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole, the D2-like receptor antagonist sulpiride and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist AP-5 on initial acquisition and reversal of a color discrimination task. On day one, pigeons had to learn to discriminate two color keys. On day two, pigeons first performed a retention test, which was followed by a reversal of the reward contingencies of the two color keys. None of the drugs altered performance in the initial acquisition of color discrimination or affected the retention of the learned color key. In contrast, all drugs impaired reversal learning by increasing trials and incorrect responses in the reversal session. Our data support the hypothesis that D2-like receptor mechanisms, like N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor modulations, are involved in cognitive flexibility and relearning processes, but not in initial learning of stimulus-reward association.

  4. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell