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Sample records for receptor promotes longevity

  1. Nectarine promotes longevity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with increased oxidative damage and gradual decline of physiology function with age, and is modulated by numerous genetic and environmental factors. Functional fruits are thought to be ideal candidates for promoting longevity and healthspan due to their high contents of polypheno...

  2. Induction of autophagy by spermidine promotes longevity.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Knauer, Heide; Schauer, Alexandra; Büttner, Sabrina; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Ring, Julia; Schroeder, Sabrina; Magnes, Christoph; Antonacci, Lucia; Fussi, Heike; Deszcz, Luiza; Hartl, Regina; Schraml, Elisabeth; Criollo, Alfredo; Megalou, Evgenia; Weiskopf, Daniela; Laun, Peter; Heeren, Gino; Breitenbach, Michael; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Herker, Eva; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Fröhlich, Kai-Uwe; Sinner, Frank; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Minois, Nadege; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

    2009-11-01

    Ageing results from complex genetically and epigenetically programmed processes that are elicited in part by noxious or stressful events that cause programmed cell death. Here, we report that administration of spermidine, a natural polyamine whose intracellular concentration declines during human ageing, markedly extended the lifespan of yeast, flies and worms, and human immune cells. In addition, spermidine administration potently inhibited oxidative stress in ageing mice. In ageing yeast, spermidine treatment triggered epigenetic deacetylation of histone H3 through inhibition of histone acetyltransferases (HAT), suppressing oxidative stress and necrosis. Conversely, depletion of endogenous polyamines led to hyperacetylation, generation of reactive oxygen species, early necrotic death and decreased lifespan. The altered acetylation status of the chromatin led to significant upregulation of various autophagy-related transcripts, triggering autophagy in yeast, flies, worms and human cells. Finally, we found that enhanced autophagy is crucial for polyamine-induced suppression of necrosis and enhanced longevity.

  3. Hormetic efficacy of rutin to promote longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Chitnis, Atith; Talekar, Aishwarya; Mulay, Prajakta; Makkar, Manyata; James, Joel; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2017-04-07

    Hormetins are compounds that mediate hormesis by being beneficial at low doses but detrimental at high doses. Recent studies have highlighted that many compounds that extended lifespan in model organisms did so by mediating hormesis. Rutin is a glycosylate conjugate of quercetin and rutinose and is abundant in citrus fruits and buckwheat seeds. Rutin possess ROS scavenging, anti-cancer, cardio-protective, skin-regenerative and neuro-protective properties. Drosophila melanogaster is an attractive model organism for longevity studies owing to its homology of organ and cellular-pathways with mammals. In this study, we aimed to understand the effect of rutin on extending longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female flies were administered with a range of rutin doses (100-800 µM) to analyse whether rutin mediated lifespan-extension by hormesis. Effect of rutin on physiological parameters like food intake, fecundity, climbing activity, development and resistance to various stresses was also studied. Lifespan assays showed that rutin at 200 and 400 µM significantly extended median lifespan in both male and female flies beyond which flies exhibited drastically reduced longevity. Increase in survival at 400 µM was associated with reduced food intake and fecundity. Flies exhibited improved climbing capability with both 200 and 400 µM rutin. Flies fed with 100 and 200 µM rutin exhibited enhanced survival upon exposure to oxidative stress with 400 µM rutin exhibiting no improvement in median lifespan following oxidative stress. Analysis of endogenous peroxide upon treatment with rutin (100-400 µM) with or without 5% H2O2 showed elevated levels of endogenous peroxide with 400 µM rutin whereas no increase in hydrogen peroxide level was observed with rutin at 100 and 200 µM. Finally, gene expression studies in male flies revealed that rutin treatment at 200 and/or 400 µM elevated transcript levels of dFoxO, MnSod, Cat, dTsc1, dTsc2, Thor, dAtg1, dAtg5

  4. Identification of longevity, fertility and growth-promoting properties of pomegranate in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kılıçgün, Hasan; Arda, Nazlı; Uçar, Evren Önay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is commonly consumed as fresh fruit and fruit juice. It is also used in the production of jam, wine, food coloring agent, and flavor enhancer. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the possible longevity, fertility and growth promoting properties of different ethanolic extract concentrations of pomegranate in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is increasingly popular and has proven to be a very useful experimental model organism for aging studies as well as for testing antioxidants and other compounds for effects on longevity. Materials and Methods: In this study, five experimental groups (20, 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg pomegranate extract/mL and one control group) were used to determine the most effective dose of pomegranate in terms of longevity, fertility and growth parameters. Results: It was seen that, pomegranate extracts up to the concentration of 5 mg/mL, had the potential to promote for the longevity, formation of new generations, fertility of new generations and growth properties of C. elegans although higher concentrations significantly reduced these parameters. Conclusion: these findings indicated that pomegranate could be used as a supplement to enhance longevity, fertility and growth rate for the other living organisms and human beings, but the dose should be carefully adjusted to avoid adverse effects. PMID:25829775

  5. Promoting longevity by maintaining metabolic and proliferative homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lifen; Karpac, Jason; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a widespread loss of homeostasis in biological systems. An important part of this decline is caused by age-related deregulation of regulatory processes that coordinate cellular responses to changing environmental conditions, maintaining cell and tissue function. Studies in genetically accessible model organisms have made significant progress in elucidating the function of such regulatory processes and the consequences of their deregulation for tissue function and longevity. Here, we review such studies, focusing on the characterization of processes that maintain metabolic and proliferative homeostasis in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The primary regulatory axis addressed in these studies is the interaction between signaling pathways that govern the response to oxidative stress, and signaling pathways that regulate cellular metabolism and growth. The interaction between these pathways has important consequences for animal physiology, and its deregulation in the aging organism is a major cause for increased mortality. Importantly, protocols to tune such interactions genetically to improve homeostasis and extend lifespan have been established by work in flies. This includes modulation of signaling pathway activity in specific tissues, including adipose tissue and insulin-producing tissues, as well as in specific cell types, such as stem cells of the fly intestine. PMID:24353210

  6. Dietary Restriction Induced Longevity Is Mediated by Nuclear Receptor NHR-62 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Heestand, Bree N.; Shen, Yidong; Liu, Wei; Magner, Daniel B.; Storm, Nadia; Meharg, Caroline; Habermann, Bianca; Antebi, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in a wide variety of species, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans HNF4α-related nuclear hormone receptor NHR-62 is required for metabolic and physiologic responses associated with DR-induced longevity. nhr-62 mediates the longevity of eat-2 mutants, a genetic mimetic of dietary restriction, and blunts the longevity response of DR induced by bacterial food dilution at low nutrient levels. Metabolic changes associated with DR, including decreased Oil Red O staining, decreased triglyceride levels, and increased autophagy are partly reversed by mutation of nhr-62. Additionally, the DR fatty acid profile is altered in nhr-62 mutants. Expression profiles reveal that several hundred genes induced by DR depend on the activity of NHR-62, including a putative lipase required for the DR response. This study provides critical evidence of nuclear hormone receptor regulation of the DR longevity response, suggesting hormonal and metabolic control of life span. PMID:23935515

  7. Isoamyl alcohol odor promotes longevity and stress tolerance via DAF-16 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kurino, Chiho; Furuhashi, Tsubasa; Sudoh, Kaori; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2017-02-14

    The possibility that odor plays a role in lifespan regulation through effects on the nervous system is indicated by research on Caenorhabditis elegans. In fact, ablation of AWA and AWC, which are suggested as olfactory neurons, has been shown to extend lifespan via DAF-16, a homolog of FoxO. However, the effects of odor stimuli on the lifespan still remain unclear. Thus, we here aimed to clarify the effect of attractive and repulsive odors on longevity and stress tolerance in C. elegans and to analyze the pathways thereof. We used isoamyl alcohol as an attractive odor, and acetic acid as a repellent component, as identified by chemotaxis assay. We found that isoamyl alcohol stimulus promoted longevity in a DAF-16-dependent manner. On the other hand, acetic acid stimulus promoted thermotolerance through mechanisms independent of DAF-16. Above all, our results indicate that odor stimuli affect the lifespan and stress tolerance of C. elegans, with attractive and repulsive odors exerting their effects through different mechanisms, and that longevity is induced by both activation and inactivation of olfactory neurons.

  8. Inhibition of telomere recombination by inactivation of KEOPS subunit Cgi121 promotes cell longevity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; He, Ming-Hong; Duan, Yi-Ming; Liu, Yu-Ting; Zhou, Jin-Qiu

    2015-03-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) is one of the major damages that cause genome instability and cellular aging. The homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of DSBs plays an essential role in assurance of genome stability and cell longevity. Telomeres resemble DSBs and are competent for HR. Here we show that in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomere recombination elicits genome instability and accelerates cellular aging. Inactivation of KEOPS subunit Cgi121 specifically inhibits telomere recombination, and significantly extends cell longevity in both telomerase-positive and pre-senescing telomerase-negative cells. Deletion of CGI121 in the short-lived yku80(tel) mutant restores lifespan to cgi121Δ level, supporting the function of Cgi121 in telomeric single-stranded DNA generation and thus in promotion of telomere recombination. Strikingly, inhibition of telomere recombination is able to further slow down the aging process in long-lived fob1Δ cells, in which rDNA recombination is restrained. Our study indicates that HR activity at telomeres interferes with telomerase to pose a negative impact on cellular longevity.

  9. Disruption of Growth Hormone Receptor Prevents Calorie Restriction from Improving Insulin Action and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Bonkowski, Michael S.; Dominici, Fernando P.; Arum, Oge; Rocha, Juliana S.; Al Regaiey, Khalid A.; Westbrook, Reyhan; Spong, Adam; Panici, Jacob; Masternak, Michal M.; Kopchick, John J.; Bartke, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Most mutations that delay aging and prolong lifespan in the mouse are related to somatotropic and/or insulin signaling. Calorie restriction (CR) is the only intervention that reliably increases mouse longevity. There is considerable phenotypic overlap between long-lived mutant mice and normal mice on chronic CR. Therefore, we investigated the interactive effects of CR and targeted disruption or knock out of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO) in mice on longevity and the insulin signaling cascade. Every other day feeding corresponds to a mild (i.e. 15%) CR which increased median lifespan in normal mice but not in GHRKO mice corroborating our previous findings on the effects of moderate (30%) CR on the longevity of these animals. To determine why insulin sensitivity improves in normal but not GHRKO mice in response to 30% CR, we conducted insulin stimulation experiments after one year of CR. In normal mice, CR increased the insulin stimulated activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IR/IRS/PI3K/AKT) in liver and muscle. Livers of GHRKO mice responded to insulin by increased activation of the early steps of insulin signaling, which was dissipated by altered PI3K subunit abundance which putatively inhibited AKT activation. In the muscle of GHRKO mice, there was elevated downstream activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IRS/PI3K/AKT) in the absence of elevated IR activation. Further, we found a major reduction of inhibitory Ser phosphorylation of IRS-1 seen exclusively in GHRKO muscle which may underpin their elevated insulin sensitivity. Chronic CR failed to further modify the alterations in insulin signaling in GHRKO mice as compared to normal mice, likely explaining or contributing to the absence of CR effects on insulin sensitivity and longevity in these long-lived mice. PMID:19234595

  10. RNA helicase HEL-1 promotes longevity by specifically activating DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mihwa; Seo, Keunhee; Hwang, Wooseon; Koo, Hee Jung; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Yang, Jae-Seong; Han, Seong Kyu; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Sanguk; Jang, Sung Key; Lee, Yoontae; Nam, Hong Gil; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2015-08-04

    The homeostatic maintenance of the genomic DNA is crucial for regulating aging processes. However, the role of RNA homeostasis in aging processes remains unknown. RNA helicases are a large family of enzymes that regulate the biogenesis and homeostasis of RNA. However, the functional significance of RNA helicases in aging has not been explored. Here, we report that a large fraction of RNA helicases regulate the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, we show that a DEAD-box RNA helicase, helicase 1 (HEL-1), promotes longevity by specifically activating the DAF-16/forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor signaling pathway. We find that HEL-1 is required for the longevity conferred by reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) and is sufficient for extending lifespan. We further show that the expression of HEL-1 in the intestine and neurons contributes to longevity. HEL-1 enhances the induction of a large fraction of DAF-16 target genes. Thus, the RNA helicase HEL-1 appears to promote longevity in response to decreased IIS as a transcription coregulator of DAF-16. Because HEL-1 and IIS are evolutionarily well conserved, a similar mechanism for longevity regulation via an RNA helicase-dependent regulation of FOXO signaling may operate in mammals, including humans.

  11. Knockout of Vasohibin-1 Gene in Mice Results in Healthy Longevity with Reduced Expression of Insulin Receptor, Insulin Receptor Substrate 1, and Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 in Their White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Eichi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Tetsuya; Katagiri, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (Vash1), originally isolated as an endothelium-derived angiogenesis inhibitor, has a characteristic of promoting stress tolerance in endothelial cells (ECs). We therefore speculated that the lack of the vash1 gene would result in a short lifespan. However, to our surprise, vash1−/− mice lived significantly longer with a milder senescence phenotype than wild-type (WT) mice. We sought the cause of this healthy longevity and found that vash1−/− mice exhibited mild insulin resistance along with reduced expression of the insulin receptor (insr), insulin receptor substrate 1 (irs-1), and insulin receptor substrate 2 (irs-2) in their white adipose tissue (WAT) but not in their liver or skeletal muscle. The expression of vash1 dominated in the WAT among those 3 organs. Importantly, vash1−/− mice did not develop diabetes even when fed a high-fat diet. These results indicate that the expression of vash1 was required for the normal insulin sensitivity of the WAT and that the target molecules for this activity were insr, irs1, and irs2. The lack of vash1 caused mild insulin resistance without the outbreak of overt diabetes and might contribute to healthy longevity. PMID:28367331

  12. Beyond Calories: An Integrated Approach to Promote Health, Longevity, and Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Bertozzi, Beatrice; Tosti, Valeria; Fontana, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    In 1948, the World Health Organization defined health as 'a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity'. Detractors claim that this definition of health is utopian and unrealistic. However, accumulating evidence from experimental studies suggests that aging is not inevitably linked with the development of chronic diseases, and the age-associated accumulation of molecular damage can be prevented or greatly delayed by dietary and genetic manipulations that downregulate key cellular nutrient-sensing pathways. Nonetheless, to obtain a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, we as human beings need to go beyond nutrition or pharmacological treatments and implement a combination of interventions that enhance not only our metabolic health but also our psychological, emotional, intellectual and spiritual development, our social relationships and cultural well-being. This perspective highlights a range of scientific research-based interventions that can potentially be used to promote human health and longevity. We will also briefly address the importance of environmental health in achieving this goal.

  13. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    PubMed

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases.

  14. NADPH oxidase-mediated redox signaling promotes oxidative stress resistance and longevity through memo-1 in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Collin Yvès; Hourihan, John M; Bland, Monet S; Obieglo, Carolin; Katic, Iskra; Moronetti Mazzeo, Lorenza E; Alcedo, Joy; Blackwell, T Keith; Hynes, Nancy E

    2017-01-01

    Transient increases in mitochondrially-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate an adaptive stress response to promote longevity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases produce ROS locally in response to various stimuli, and thereby regulate many cellular processes, but their role in aging remains unexplored. Here, we identified the C. elegans orthologue of mammalian mediator of ErbB2-driven cell motility, MEMO-1, as a protein that inhibits BLI-3/NADPH oxidase. MEMO-1 is complexed with RHO-1/RhoA/GTPase and loss of memo-1 results in an enhanced interaction of RHO-1 with BLI-3/NADPH oxidase, thereby stimulating ROS production that signal via p38 MAP kinase to the transcription factor SKN-1/NRF1,2,3 to promote stress resistance and longevity. Either loss of memo-1 or increasing BLI-3/NADPH oxidase activity by overexpression is sufficient to increase lifespan. Together, these findings demonstrate that NADPH oxidase-induced redox signaling initiates a transcriptional response that protects the cell and organism, and can promote both stress resistance and longevity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19493.001 PMID:28085666

  15. NADPH oxidase-mediated redox signaling promotes oxidative stress resistance and longevity through memo-1 in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Collin Yvès; Hourihan, John M; Bland, Monet S; Obieglo, Carolin; Katic, Iskra; Moronetti Mazzeo, Lorenza E; Alcedo, Joy; Blackwell, T Keith; Hynes, Nancy E

    2017-01-13

    Transient increases in mitochondrially-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate an adaptive stress response to promote longevity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases produce ROS locally in response to various stimuli, and thereby regulate many cellular processes, but their role in aging remains unexplored. Here, we identified the C. elegans orthologue of mammalian mediator of ErbB2-driven cell motility, MEMO-1, as a protein that inhibits BLI-3/NADPH oxidase. MEMO-1 is complexed with RHO-1/RhoA/GTPase and loss of memo-1 results in an enhanced interaction of RHO-1 with BLI-3/NADPH oxidase, thereby stimulating ROS production that signal via p38 MAP kinase to the transcription factor SKN-1/NRF1,2,3 to promote stress resistance and longevity. Either loss of memo-1 or increasing BLI-3/NADPH oxidase activity by overexpression is sufficient to increase lifespan. Together, these findings demonstrate that NADPH oxidase-induced redox signaling initiates a transcriptional response that protects the cell and organism, and can promote both stress resistance and longevity.

  16. Mondo complexes regulate TFEB via TOR inhibition to promote longevity in response to gonadal signals.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shuhei; Karalay, Özlem; Jäger, Philipp S; Horikawa, Makoto; Klein, Corinna; Nakamura, Kayo; Latza, Christian; Templer, Sven E; Dieterich, Christoph; Antebi, Adam

    2016-03-22

    Germline removal provokes longevity in several species and shifts resources towards survival and repair. Several Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factors regulate longevity arising from germline removal; yet, how they work together is unknown. Here we identify a Myc-like HLH transcription factor network comprised of Mondo/Max-like complex (MML-1/MXL-2) to be required for longevity induced by germline removal, as well as by reduced TOR, insulin/IGF signalling and mitochondrial function. Germline removal increases MML-1 nuclear accumulation and activity. Surprisingly, MML-1 regulates nuclear localization and activity of HLH-30/TFEB, a convergent regulator of autophagy, lysosome biogenesis and longevity, by downregulating TOR signalling via LARS-1/leucyl-transfer RNA synthase. HLH-30 also upregulates MML-1 upon germline removal. Mammalian MondoA/B and TFEB show similar mutual regulation. MML-1/MXL-2 and HLH-30 transcriptomes show both shared and preferential outputs including MDL-1/MAD-like HLH factor required for longevity. These studies reveal how an extensive interdependent HLH transcription factor network distributes responsibility and mutually enforces states geared towards reproduction or survival.

  17. Mondo complexes regulate TFEB via TOR inhibition to promote longevity in response to gonadal signals

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Shuhei; Karalay, Özlem; Jäger, Philipp S.; Horikawa, Makoto; Klein, Corinna; Nakamura, Kayo; Latza, Christian; Templer, Sven E.; Dieterich, Christoph; Antebi, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Germline removal provokes longevity in several species and shifts resources towards survival and repair. Several Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factors regulate longevity arising from germline removal; yet, how they work together is unknown. Here we identify a Myc-like HLH transcription factor network comprised of Mondo/Max-like complex (MML-1/MXL-2) to be required for longevity induced by germline removal, as well as by reduced TOR, insulin/IGF signalling and mitochondrial function. Germline removal increases MML-1 nuclear accumulation and activity. Surprisingly, MML-1 regulates nuclear localization and activity of HLH-30/TFEB, a convergent regulator of autophagy, lysosome biogenesis and longevity, by downregulating TOR signalling via LARS-1/leucyl-transfer RNA synthase. HLH-30 also upregulates MML-1 upon germline removal. Mammalian MondoA/B and TFEB show similar mutual regulation. MML-1/MXL-2 and HLH-30 transcriptomes show both shared and preferential outputs including MDL-1/MAD-like HLH factor required for longevity. These studies reveal how an extensive interdependent HLH transcription factor network distributes responsibility and mutually enforces states geared towards reproduction or survival. PMID:27001890

  18. The ectoparasitic mite Tropilaelaps mercedesae reduces western honey bee, Apismellifera, longevity and emergence weight, and promotes Deformed wing virus infections.

    PubMed

    Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Williams, Geoffrey R

    2016-06-01

    Historically an ectoparasite of the native Giant honey bee Apis dorsata, the mite Tropilaelaps mercedesae has switched hosts to the introduced western honey bee Apis mellifera throughout much of Asia. Few data regarding lethal and sub-lethal effects of T. mercedesae on A. mellifera exist, despite its similarity to the devastating mite Varroa destructor. Here we artificially infested worker brood of A. mellifera with T. mercedesae to investigate lethal (longevity) and sub-lethal (emergence weight, Deformed wing virus (DWV) levels and clinical symptoms of DWV) effects of the mite on its new host. The data show that T. mercedesae infestation significantly reduced host longevity and emergence weight, and promoted both DWV levels and associated clinical symptoms. Our results suggest that T. mercedesae is a potentially important parasite to the economically important A. mellifera honey bee.

  19. Drosophila Longevity Assurance Conferred by Reduced Insulin Receptor Substrate Chico Partially Requires d4eBP

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Post, Stephanie; Kang, Ping; Tatar, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) pathway extend Drosophila lifespan. Based on genetic epistasis analyses, this longevity assurance is attributed to downstream effects of the FOXO transcription factor. However, as reported FOXO accounts for only a portion of the observed longevity benefit, suggesting there are additional outputs of IIS to mediate aging. One candidate is target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). Reduced TORC1 activity is reported to slow aging, whereas reduced IIS is reported to repress TORC1 activity. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein (4E-BP) is repressed by TORC1, and activated 4E-BP is reported to increase Drosophila lifespan. Here we use genetic epistasis analyses to test whether longevity assurance mutants of chico, the Drosophila insulin receptor substrate homolog, require Drosophila d4eBP to slow aging. In chico heterozygotes, which are robustly long-lived, d4eBP is required but not sufficient to slow aging. Remarkably, d4eBP is not required or sufficient for chico homozygotes to extend longevity. Likewise, chico heterozygote females partially require d4eBP to preserve age-dependent locomotion, and both chico genotypes require d4eBP to improve stress-resistance. Reproduction and most measures of growth affected by either chico genotype are always independent of d4eBP. In females, chico heterozygotes paradoxically produce more rather than less phosphorylated 4E-BP (p4E-BP). Altered IRS function within the IIS pathway of Drosophila appears to have partial, conditional capacity to regulate aging through an unconventional interaction with 4E-BP. PMID:26252766

  20. Drosophila Longevity Assurance Conferred by Reduced Insulin Receptor Substrate Chico Partially Requires d4eBP.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hua; Post, Stephanie; Kang, Ping; Tatar, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) pathway extend Drosophila lifespan. Based on genetic epistasis analyses, this longevity assurance is attributed to downstream effects of the FOXO transcription factor. However, as reported FOXO accounts for only a portion of the observed longevity benefit, suggesting there are additional outputs of IIS to mediate aging. One candidate is target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). Reduced TORC1 activity is reported to slow aging, whereas reduced IIS is reported to repress TORC1 activity. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein (4E-BP) is repressed by TORC1, and activated 4E-BP is reported to increase Drosophila lifespan. Here we use genetic epistasis analyses to test whether longevity assurance mutants of chico, the Drosophila insulin receptor substrate homolog, require Drosophila d4eBP to slow aging. In chico heterozygotes, which are robustly long-lived, d4eBP is required but not sufficient to slow aging. Remarkably, d4eBP is not required or sufficient for chico homozygotes to extend longevity. Likewise, chico heterozygote females partially require d4eBP to preserve age-dependent locomotion, and both chico genotypes require d4eBP to improve stress-resistance. Reproduction and most measures of growth affected by either chico genotype are always independent of d4eBP. In females, chico heterozygotes paradoxically produce more rather than less phosphorylated 4E-BP (p4E-BP). Altered IRS function within the IIS pathway of Drosophila appears to have partial, conditional capacity to regulate aging through an unconventional interaction with 4E-BP.

  1. Caloric restriction and resveratrol promote longevity through the Sirtuin-1-dependent induction of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Morselli, E; Maiuri, M C; Markaki, M; Megalou, E; Pasparaki, A; Palikaras, K; Criollo, A; Galluzzi, L; Malik, S A; Vitale, I; Michaud, M; Madeo, F; Tavernarakis, N; Kroemer, G

    2010-01-01

    Caloric restriction and autophagy-inducing pharmacological agents can prolong lifespan in model organisms including mice, flies, and nematodes. In this study, we show that transgenic expression of Sirtuin-1 induces autophagy in human cells in vitro and in Caenorhabditis elegans in vivo. The knockdown or knockout of Sirtuin-1 prevented the induction of autophagy by resveratrol and by nutrient deprivation in human cells as well as by dietary restriction in C. elegans. Conversely, Sirtuin-1 was not required for the induction of autophagy by rapamycin or p53 inhibition, neither in human cells nor in C. elegans. The knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of Sirtuin-1 enhanced the vulnerability of human cells to metabolic stress, unless they were stimulated to undergo autophagy by treatment with rapamycin or p53 inhibition. Along similar lines, resveratrol and dietary restriction only prolonged the lifespan of autophagy-proficient nematodes, whereas these beneficial effects on longevity were abolished by the knockdown of the essential autophagic modulator Beclin-1. We conclude that autophagy is universally required for the lifespan-prolonging effects of caloric restriction and pharmacological Sirtuin-1 activators.

  2. Caloric restriction and resveratrol promote longevity through the Sirtuin-1-dependent induction of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Morselli, E; Maiuri, M C; Markaki, M; Megalou, E; Pasparaki, A; Palikaras, K; Criollo, A; Galluzzi, L; Malik, S A; Vitale, I; Michaud, M; Madeo, F; Tavernarakis, N; Kroemer, G

    2010-01-01

    Caloric restriction and autophagy-inducing pharmacological agents can prolong lifespan in model organisms including mice, flies, and nematodes. In this study, we show that transgenic expression of Sirtuin-1 induces autophagy in human cells in vitro and in Caenorhabditis elegans in vivo. The knockdown or knockout of Sirtuin-1 prevented the induction of autophagy by resveratrol and by nutrient deprivation in human cells as well as by dietary restriction in C. elegans. Conversely, Sirtuin-1 was not required for the induction of autophagy by rapamycin or p53 inhibition, neither in human cells nor in C. elegans. The knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of Sirtuin-1 enhanced the vulnerability of human cells to metabolic stress, unless they were stimulated to undergo autophagy by treatment with rapamycin or p53 inhibition. Along similar lines, resveratrol and dietary restriction only prolonged the lifespan of autophagy-proficient nematodes, whereas these beneficial effects on longevity were abolished by the knockdown of the essential autophagic modulator Beclin-1. We conclude that autophagy is universally required for the lifespan-prolonging effects of caloric restriction and pharmacological Sirtuin-1 activators. PMID:21364612

  3. An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 μg/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective

  4. Acarbose, lente carbohydrate, and prebiotics promote metabolic health and longevity by stimulating intestinal production of GLP-1

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, which slows carbohydrate digestion and blunts postprandial rises in plasma glucose, has long been used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes or glucose intolerance. Like metformin, acarbose tends to aid weight control, postpone onset of diabetes and decrease risk for cardiovascular events. Acarbose treatment can favourably affect blood pressure, serum lipids, platelet aggregation, progression of carotid intima-media thickness and postprandial endothelial dysfunction. In mice, lifetime acarbose feeding can increase median and maximal lifespan—an effect associated with increased plasma levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and decreased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). There is growing reason to suspect that an upregulation of fasting and postprandial production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)—stemming from increased delivery of carbohydrate to L cells in the distal intestinal tract—is largely responsible for the versatile health protection conferred by acarbose. Indeed, GLP-1 exerts protective effects on vascular endothelium, the liver, the heart, pancreatic β cells, and the brain which can rationalise many of the benefits reported with acarbose. And GLP-1 may act on the liver to modulate its production of FGF21 and IGF-I, thereby promoting longevity. The benefits of acarbose are likely mimicked by diets featuring slowly-digested ‘lente’ carbohydrate, and by certain nutraceuticals which can slow carbohydrate absorption. Prebiotics that promote colonic generation of short-chain fatty acids represent an alternative strategy for boosting intestinal GLP-1 production. The health benefits of all these measures presumably would be potentiated by concurrent use of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, which slow the proteolysis of GLP-1 in the blood. PMID:25685364

  5. The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging and Aging-related Diseases to Improve Health and Longevity of the Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kunlin; Simpkins, James W.; Ji, Xunming; Leis, Miriam; Stambler, Ilia

    2015-01-01

    Due to the aging of the global population and the derivative increase in aging-related non-communicable diseases and their economic burden, there is an urgent need to promote research on aging and aging-related diseases as a way to improve healthy and productive longevity for the elderly population. To accomplish this goal, we advocate the following policies: 1) Increasing funding for research and development specifically directed to ameliorate degenerative aging processes and to extend healthy and productive lifespan for the population; 2) Providing a set of incentives for commercial, academic, public and governmental organizations to foster engagement in such research and development; and 3) Establishing and expanding coordination and consultation structures, programs and institutions involved in aging-related research, development and education in academia, industry, public policy agencies and at governmental and supra-governmental levels. PMID:25657847

  6. Genes of human longevity: an endless quest?

    PubMed

    Capri, Miriam; Santoro, Aurelia; Garagnani, Paolo; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Pirazzini, Chiara; Olivieri, Fabiola; Procopio, Antonio; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Human longevity is a complex trait in which genetics, epigenetics, environmental and stochasticity differently contribute. To disentangle the complexity, our studies on genetics of longevity were, at the beginning, mainly focused on the extreme phenotypes, i.e. centenarians who escaped the major age-related diseases compared with cross sectional cohorts. Recently, we implemented this model by studying centenarians' offspring and offspring of non-long lived parents. In association, during studies on many candidate genes SNPs, positively or negatively correlated with longevity have been identified. The results obtained on Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) polymorphisms showed a correlation between specific genetic variants combinations and the low plasma level of IGF1 in centenarians, suggesting an impact of the IGF-I/insulin pathway on human longevity. This pathway together with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) will be reviewed as being the most promising for longevity. Further, we will summarise the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) variants in human longevity since the results of the large European project GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Aging) indicate APOE among the chromosomal loci associated with longevity. On the other hand, the identification of longevity-related genes does not explain the mechanisms of healthy aging and longevity rather pose questions on epigenetic contribution, gene regulation and the interactions with essential genomes, i.e. mitochondrial DNA and microbiota. To fully disentangle what appears to be an endless quest, all the components of the complexity of human longevity genetics are taken into account.

  7. Homocysteine and Familial Longevity: The Leiden Longevity Study

    PubMed Central

    Wijsman, Carolien A.; van Heemst, Diana; Rozing, Maarten P.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Maier, Andrea B.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Blom, Henk J.; Mooijaart, Simon P.

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine concentrations are a read-out of methionine metabolism and have been related to changes in lifespan in animal models. In humans, high homocysteine concentrations are an important predictor of age related disease. We aimed to explore the association of homocysteine with familial longevity by testing whether homocysteine is lower in individuals that are genetically enriched for longevity. We measured concentrations of total homocysteine in 1907 subjects from the Leiden Longevity Study consisting of 1309 offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who are enriched with familial factors promoting longevity, and 598 partners thereof as population controls. We found that homocysteine was related to age, creatinine, folate, vitamin B levels and medical history of hypertension and stroke in both groups (all p<0.001). However, levels of homocysteine did not differ between offspring enriched for longevity and their partners, and no differences in the age-related rise in homocysteine levels were found between groups (p for interaction 0.63). The results suggest that homocysteine metabolism is not likely to predict familial longevity. PMID:21408159

  8. GABAA receptor-expressing neurons promote consumption in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Samantha K.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding decisions are highly plastic and bidirectionally regulated by neurons that either promote or inhibit feeding. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified four GABAergic interneurons that act as critical brakes to prevent incessant feeding. These GABAergic neurons may inhibit target neurons that drive consumption. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining GABA receptors and neurons that promote consumption. We find that Resistance to dieldrin (RDL), a GABAA type receptor, is required for proper control of ingestion. Knockdown of Rdl in a subset of neurons causes overconsumption of tastants. Acute activation of these neurons is sufficient to drive consumption of appetitive substances and non-appetitive substances and acute silencing of these neurons decreases consumption. Taken together, these studies identify GABAA receptor-expressing neurons that promote Drosophila ingestive behavior and provide insight into feeding regulation. PMID:28362856

  9. Fatty Acid Desaturation Links Germ Cell Loss to Longevity Through NHR-80/HNF4 in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Goudeau, Jérôme; Bellemin, Stéphanie; Toselli-Mollereau, Esther; Shamalnasab, Mehrnaz; Chen, Yiqun; Aguilaniu, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Background Preventing germline stem cell proliferation extends lifespan in nematodes and flies. So far, studies on germline-longevity signaling have focused on daf-16/FOXO and daf-12/VDR. Here, we report on NHR-80/HNF4, a nuclear receptor that specifically mediates longevity induced by depletion of the germ line through a mechanism that implicates fatty acid monodesaturation. Methods and Findings nhr-80/HNF4 is induced in animals lacking a germ line and is specifically required for their extended longevity. Overexpressing nhr-80/HNF4 increases the lifespan of germline-less animals. This lifespan extension can occur in the absence of daf-16/FOXO but requires the presence of the nuclear receptor DAF-12/VDR. We show that the fatty acid desaturase, FAT-6/SCD1, is a key target of NHR-80/HNF4 and promotes germline-longevity by desaturating stearic acid to oleic acid (OA). We find that NHR-80/HNF4 and OA must work in concert to promote longevity. Conclusions Taken together, our data indicate that the NHR-80 pathway participates in the mechanism of longevity extension through depletion of the germ line. We identify fat-6 and OA as essential downstream elements although other targets must also be present. Thus, NHR-80 links fatty acid desaturation to lifespan extension through germline ablation in a daf-16/FOXO independent manner. PMID:21423649

  10. Vitellogenin, juvenile hormone, insulin signaling, and queen honey bee longevity

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Miguel; Velarde, Rodrigo A.; Remolina, Silvia; Moran-Lauter, Adrienne; Wang, Ying; Hughes, Kimberly A.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2007-01-01

    In most animals, longevity is achieved at the expense of fertility, but queen honey bees do not show this tradeoff. Queens are both long-lived and fertile, whereas workers, derived from the same genome, are both relatively short-lived and normally sterile. It has been suggested, on the basis of results from workers, that vitellogenin (Vg), best known as a yolk protein synthesized in the abdominal fat body, acts as an antioxidant to promote longevity in queen bees. We explored this hypothesis, as well as related roles of insulin–IGF-1 signaling and juvenile hormone. Vg was expressed in thorax and head fat body cells in an age-dependent manner, with old queens showing much higher expression than workers. In contrast, Vg expression in worker head was much lower. Queens also were more resistant to oxidative stress than workers. These results support the hypothesis that caste-specific differences in Vg expression are involved in queen longevity. Consistent with predictions from Drosophila, old queens had lower head expression of insulin-like peptide and its putative receptors than did old workers. Juvenile hormone affected the expression of Vg and insulin–IGF-1 signaling genes in opposite directions. These results suggest that conserved and species-specific mechanisms interact to regulate queen bee longevity without sacrificing fecundity. PMID:17438290

  11. Dynamic O-GlcNAc cycling at promoters of Caenorhabditis elegans genes regulating longevity, stress, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Love, Dona C; Ghosh, Salil; Mondoux, Michelle A; Fukushige, Tetsunari; Wang, Peng; Wilson, Mark A; Iser, Wendy B; Wolkow, Catherine A; Krause, Michael W; Hanover, John A

    2010-04-20

    Nutrient-driven O-GlcNAcylation of key components of the transcription machinery may epigenetically modulate gene expression in metazoans. The global effects of GlcNAcylation on transcription can be addressed directly in C. elegans because knockouts of the O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes are viable and fertile. Using anti-O-GlcNAc ChIP-on-chip whole-genome tiling arrays on wild-type and mutant strains, we detected over 800 promoters where O-GlcNAc cycling occurs, including microRNA loci and multigene operons. Intriguingly, O-GlcNAc-marked promoters are biased toward genes associated with PIP3 signaling, hexosamine biosynthesis, and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism. These marked genes are linked to insulin-like signaling, metabolism, aging, stress, and pathogen-response pathways in C. elegans. Whole-genome transcriptional profiling of the O-GlcNAc cycling mutants confirmed dramatic deregulation of genes in these key pathways. As predicted, the O-GlcNAc cycling mutants show altered lifespan and UV stress susceptibility phenotypes. We propose that O-GlcNAc cycling at promoters participates in a molecular program impacting nutrient-responsive pathways in C. elegans, including stress, pathogen response, and adult lifespan. The observed impact of O-GlcNAc cycling on both signaling and transcription in C. elegans has important implications for human diseases of aging, including diabetes and neurodegeneration.

  12. Tor-Sch9 deficiency activates catabolism of the ketone body-like acetic acid to promote trehalose accumulation and longevity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Wei, Min; Mirzaei, Hamed; Madia, Federica; Mirisola, Mario; Amparo, Camille; Chagoury, Shawna; Kennedy, Brian; Longo, Valter D

    2014-06-01

    In mammals, extended periods of fasting leads to the accumulation of blood ketone bodies including acetoacetate. Here we show that similar to the conversion of leucine to acetoacetate in fasting mammals, starvation conditions induced ketone body-like acetic acid generation from leucine in S. cerevisiae. Whereas wild-type and ras2Δ cells accumulated acetic acid, long-lived tor1Δ and sch9Δ mutants rapidly depleted it through a mitochondrial acetate CoA transferase-dependent mechanism, which was essential for lifespan extension. The sch9Δ-dependent utilization of acetic acid also required coenzyme Q biosynthetic genes and promoted the accumulation of intracellular trehalose. These results indicate that Tor-Sch9 deficiency extends longevity by switching cells to an alternative metabolic mode, in which acetic acid can be utilized for the storage of stress resistance carbon sources. These effects are reminiscent of those described for ketone bodies in fasting mammals and raise the possibility that the lifespan extension caused by Tor-S6K inhibition may also involve analogous metabolic changes in higher eukaryotes.

  13. 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside Promotes Expression of the Longevity Gene Klotho

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ju; Ni, Rongzhen

    2016-01-01

    The longevity gene klotho has numerous physiological functions, such as regulating calcium and phosphorus levels, delaying senescence, improving cognition, reducing oxidative stress, and protecting vascular endothelial cells. This study tested whether 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), a small molecule with antiaging effects, regulates the expression and physiological effects of klotho. Our results showed that THSG dose-dependently increased the luciferase reporter activity of the klotho gene, reversed the decrease in mRNA and protein expression of klotho which was induced by angiotensin II in NRK-52E renal tubular epithelial cells, and increased klotho mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, testis, and kidney medulla of spontaneously hypertensive rats. THSG also reduced the number of senescent cells induced by angiotensin II and improved the antioxidant capacity and enhanced the bone strength in vivo. Based on klotho's role in promoting cognition, regulating bone metabolism, and improving renal function, the effect of THSG on klotho expression will be beneficial to the functional improvement or enhancement of the expressed organs or tissues. PMID:27885332

  14. promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ismael, Amber; Tian, Wei; Waszczak, Nicholas; Wang, Xin; Cao, Youfang; Suchkov, Dmitry; Bar, Eli; Metodiev, Metodi V; Liang, Jie; Arkowitz, Robert A; Stone, David E

    2016-04-12

    Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are processes that are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptors on the plasma membrane polarize to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus. Although receptor polarization occurs before and independently of actin cable-dependent delivery of vesicles to the plasma membrane (directed secretion), it requires receptor internalization. Phosphorylation of pheromone receptors by yeast casein kinase 1 or 2 (Yck1/2) stimulates their internalization. We showed that the pheromone-responsive Gβγ dimer promotes the polarization of the pheromone receptor by interacting with Yck1/2 and locally inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. We also found that receptor phosphorylation is essential for chemotropism, independently of its role in inducing receptor internalization. A mathematical model supports the idea that the interaction between Gβγ and Yck1/2 results in differential phosphorylation and internalization of the pheromone receptor and accounts for its polarization before the initiation of directed secretion.

  15. promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ismael, Amber; Tian, Wei; Waszczak, Nicholas; Wang, Xin; Cao, Youfang; Suchkov, Dmitry; Bar, Eli; Metodiev, Metodi V.; Liang, Jie; Arkowitz, Robert; Stone, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are universal processes, which are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptor on the plasma membrane polarizes to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus. Although receptor polarization occurs before and independently of actin-cable dependent vesicle delivery (directed secretion), it requires receptor internalization. Phosphorylation of pheromone receptors by yeast casein kinase 1 or 2 (Yck1/2) stimulates their internalization. We showed that the pheromone-responsive Gβγ dimer promotes the polarization of the pheromone receptor by interacting with Yck1/2 and locally inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. We also found that receptor phosphorylation is essential for chemotropism, independent of its role in inducing receptor internalization. A mathematical model supports the idea that the interaction between Gβγ and Yck1/2 results in differential phosphorylation and internalization of the pheromone receptor and accounts for its polarization before the initiation of directed secretion. PMID:27072657

  16. Regulation of longevity by the reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Antebi, Adam

    2013-07-01

    Pioneering work in model organisms reveals that the reproductive system is involved not only in propagation of the species but also regulates organismal metabolism and longevity. In C. elegans, prevention of germline stem cell proliferation results in a 60% extension of lifespan, termed gonadal longevity. Gonadal longevity relies on the transcriptional activities of steroid nuclear receptor DAF-12, the FOXO transcription factor homolog DAF-16, the FOXA transcription factor homolog PHA-4, and the HNF-4-like nuclear receptor NHR-80. These transcription factors work in an integrated transcriptional network to regulate fatty acid lipolysis, autophagy, stress resistance and other processes, which altogether enhance homeostasis and extend life. Because the reproductive system also regulates longevity in other species, studies in C. elegans may shed light on ancient mechanisms governing reproduction and survival.

  17. Mechanism of GABAB receptor-induced BDNF secretion and promotion of GABAA receptor membrane expression.

    PubMed

    Kuczewski, Nicola; Fuchs, Celine; Ferrand, Nadine; Jovanovic, Jasmina N; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc; Porcher, Christophe

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that GABA(B) receptors play more than a classical inhibitory role and can function as an important synaptic maturation signal early in life. In a previous study, we reported that GABA(B) receptor activation triggers secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and promotes the functional maturation of GABAergic synapses in the developing rat hippocampus. To identify the signalling pathway linking GABA(B) receptor activation to BDNF secretion in these cells, we have now used the phosphorylated form of the cAMP response element-binding protein as a biological sensor for endogenous BDNF release. In the present study, we show that GABA(B) receptor-induced secretion of BDNF relies on the activation of phospholipase C, followed by the formation of diacylglycerol, activation of protein kinase C, and the opening of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. We further show that once released by GABA(B) receptor activation, BDNF increases the membrane expression of β(2/3) -containing GABA(A) receptors in neuronal cultures. These results reveal a novel function of GABA(B) receptors in regulating the expression of GABA(A) receptor through BDNF-tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor dependent signalling pathway.

  18. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  19. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G; Beazely, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

  20. Brain endogenous liver X receptor ligands selectively promote midbrain neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Wang, Yuqin; Kitambi, Satish Srinivas; Sacchetti, Paola; Sousa, Kyle M; Bodin, Karl; Kirk, Jayne; Saltó, Carmen; Gustafsson, Magnus; Toledo, Enrique M; Karu, Kersti; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Steffensen, Knut R; Ernfors, Patrik; Sjövall, Jan; Griffiths, William J; Arenas, Ernest

    2013-02-01

    Liver X receptors (Lxrα and Lxrβ) are ligand-dependent nuclear receptors critical for ventral midbrain neurogenesis in vivo. However, no endogenous midbrain Lxr ligand has so far been identified. Here we used LC/MS and functional assays to identify cholic acid as a new Lxr ligand. Moreover, 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol (24,25-EC) was found to be the most potent and abundant Lxr ligand in the developing mouse midbrain. Both Lxr ligands promoted neural development in an Lxr-dependent manner in zebrafish in vivo. Notably, each ligand selectively regulated the development of distinct midbrain neuronal populations. Whereas cholic acid increased survival and neurogenesis of Brn3a-positive red nucleus neurons, 24,25-EC promoted dopaminergic neurogenesis. These results identify an entirely new class of highly selective and cell type-specific regulators of neurogenesis and neuronal survival. Moreover, 24,25-EC promoted dopaminergic differentiation of embryonic stem cells, suggesting that Lxr ligands may thus contribute to the development of cell replacement and regenerative therapies for Parkinson's disease.

  1. CdiA promotes receptor-independent intercellular adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ruhe, Zachary C; Townsley, Loni; Wallace, Adam B; King, Andrew; Van der Woude, Marjan W; Low, David A; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Hayes, Christopher S

    2015-10-01

    CdiB/CdiA proteins mediate inter-bacterial competition in a process termed contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI). Filamentous CdiA exoproteins extend from CDI(+) cells and bind specific receptors to deliver toxins into susceptible target bacteria. CDI has also been implicated in auto-aggregation and biofilm formation in several species, but the contribution of CdiA-receptor interactions to these multi-cellular behaviors has not been examined. Using Escherichia coli isolate EC93 as a model, we show that cdiA and bamA receptor mutants are defective in biofilm formation, suggesting a prominent role for CdiA-BamA mediated cell-cell adhesion. However, CdiA also promotes auto-aggregation in a BamA-independent manner, indicating that the exoprotein possesses an additional adhesin activity. Cells must express CdiA in order to participate in BamA-independent aggregates, suggesting that adhesion could be mediated by homotypic CdiA-CdiA interactions. The BamA-dependent and BamA-independent interaction domains map to distinct regions within the CdiA filament. Thus, CdiA orchestrates a collective behavior that is independent of its growth-inhibition activity. This adhesion should enable 'greenbeard' discrimination, in which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate with one another based on a single shared trait. This kind-selective social behavior could provide immediate fitness benefits to bacteria that acquire the systems through horizontal gene transfer.

  2. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  3. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-02-16

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress.

  4. Lipidomics of familial longevity.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Covarrubias, Vanessa; Beekman, Marian; Uh, Hae-Won; Dane, Adrie; Troost, Jorne; Paliukhovich, Iryna; van der Kloet, Frans M; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Vreeken, Rob J; Hankemeier, Thomas; Slagboom, Eline P

    2013-06-01

    Middle-aged offspring of nonagenarians, as compared to their spouses (controls), show a favorable lipid metabolism marked by larger LDL particle size in men and lower total triglyceride levels in women. To investigate which specific lipids associate with familial longevity, we explore the plasma lipidome by measuring 128 lipid species using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in 1526 offspring of nonagenarians (59 years ± 6.6) and 675 (59 years ± 7.4) controls from the Leiden Longevity Study. In men, no significant differences were observed between offspring and controls. In women, however, 19 lipid species associated with familial longevity. Female offspring showed higher levels of ether phosphocholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) species (3.5-8.7%) and lower levels of phosphoethanolamine PE (38:6) and long-chain triglycerides (TG) (9.4-12.4%). The association with familial longevity of two ether PC and four SM species was independent of total triglyceride levels. In addition, the longevity-associated lipid profile was characterized by a higher ratio of monounsaturated (MUFA) over polyunsaturated (PUFA) lipid species, suggesting that female offspring have a plasma lipidome less prone to oxidative stress. Ether PC and SM species were identified as novel longevity markers in females, independent of total triglycerides levels. Several longevity-associated lipids correlated with a lower risk of hypertension and diabetes in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort. This sex-specific lipid signature marks familial longevity and may suggest a plasma lipidome with a better antioxidant capacity, lower lipid peroxidation and inflammatory precursors, and an efficient beta-oxidation function.

  5. Longevity health sciences and mental health as future medicine.

    PubMed

    Riga, Sorin; Riga, Dan; Mihailescu, Alexandra; Motoc, Daniela; Mos, Liana; Schneider, Francisc

    2010-06-01

    Longevity health sciences and mental health are fields of public health and of preventive and integrative medicine. The antagonism between health construction and human pathology is substantiated by two opposite fundamental pathways: the health-longevity tetrad versus the aging-disease cascade. It is necessary that the current paradigm of contemporary medicine be replaced by the advanced paradigm of future medicine. A societal cost-benefit rate is decisive for health-longevity promotion. This is why the WHO public health strategy keeps forwarding the societal medical target into the global health-longevity field.

  6. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor promotes aging phenotypes across species

    PubMed Central

    Eckers, Anna; Jakob, Sascha; Heiss, Christian; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Goy, Christine; Brinkmann, Vanessa; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Sansone, Roberto; Esser, Charlotte; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Altschmied, Joachim; Ventura, Natascia; Haendeler, Judith

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces drug metabolizing enzymes as well as regulators of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Certain AhR ligands promote atherosclerosis, an age-associated vascular disease. Therefore, we investigated the role of AhR in vascular functionality and aging. We report a lower pulse wave velocity in young and old AhR-deficient mice, indicative of enhanced vessel elasticity. Moreover, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) showed increased activity in the aortas of these animals, which was reflected in increased NO production. Ex vivo, AhR activation reduced the migratory capacity of primary human endothelial cells. AhR overexpression as well as treatment with a receptor ligand, impaired eNOS activation and reduced S-NO content. All three are signs of endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, AhR expression in blood cells of healthy human volunteers positively correlated with vessel stiffness. In the aging model Caenorhabditis elegans, AhR-deficiency resulted in increased mean life span, motility, pharynx pumping and heat shock resistance, suggesting healthier aging. Thus, AhR seems to have a negative impact on vascular and organismal aging. Finally, our data from human subjects suggest that AhR expression levels could serve as an additional, new predictor of vessel aging. PMID:26790370

  7. The glycocalyx promotes cooperative binding and clustering of adhesion receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Qian, Jin; Hu, Jinglei

    2016-05-18

    Cell adhesion plays a pivotal role in various biological processes, e.g., immune responses, cancer metastasis, and stem cell differentiation. The adhesion behaviors depend subtly on the binding kinetics of receptors and ligands restricted at the cell-substrate interfaces. Although much effort has been directed toward investigating the kinetics of adhesion molecules, the role of the glycocalyx, anchored on cell surfaces as an exterior layer, is still unclear. In this paper, we propose a theoretical approach to study the collective binding kinetics of a few and a large number of binders in the presence of the glycocalyx, representing the cases of initial and mature adhesions of cells, respectively. The analytical results are validated by finding good agreement with our Monte Carlo simulations. In the force loading case, the on-rate and affinity increase as more bonds form, whereas this cooperative effect is not observed in the displacement loading case. The increased thickness and stiffness of the glycocalyx tend to decrease the affinity for a few bonds, while they have less influence on the affinity for a large number of bonds. Moreover, for a flexible membrane with thermally-excited shape fluctuations, the glycocalyx is exhibited to promote the formation of bond clusters, mainly due to the cooperative binding of binders. This study helps to understand the cooperative kinetics of adhesion receptors under physiologically relevant loading conditions and sheds light on the novel role of the glycocalyx in cell adhesion.

  8. CdiA promotes receptor-independent intercellular adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Ruhe, Zachary C.; Townsley, Loni; Wallace, Adam B.; King, Andrew; der Woude, Marjan W. Van; Low, David A.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary CdiB/CdiA proteins mediate inter-bacterial competition in a process termed contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI). Filamentous CdiA exoproteins extend from CDI+ cells and bind specific receptors to deliver toxins into susceptible target bacteria. CDI has also been implicated in auto-aggregation and biofilm formation in several species, but the contribution of CdiA-receptor interactions to these multi-cellular behaviors has not been examined. Using Escherichia coli isolate EC93 as a model, we show that cdiA and bamA receptor mutants are defective in biofilm formation, suggesting a prominent role for CdiA-BamA mediated cell-cell adhesion. However, CdiA also promotes auto-aggregation in a BamA-independent manner, indicating that the exoprotein possesses an additional adhesin activity. Cells must express CdiA in order to participate in BamA-independent aggregates, suggesting that adhesion could be mediated by homotypic CdiA-CdiA interactions. The BamA-dependent and BamA-independent interaction domains map to distinct regions within the CdiA filament. Thus, CdiA orchestrates a collective behavior that is independent of its growth-inhibition activity. This adhesion should enable “greenbeard” discrimination, in which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate with one another based on a single shared trait. This kind-selective social behavior could provide immediate fitness benefits to bacteria that acquire the systems through horizontal gene transfer. PMID:26135212

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis.

  10. Truncating Prolactin Receptor Mutations Promote Tumor Growth in Murine Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Mammary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Obi L; Chan, Szeman Ruby; Griffith, Malachi; Krysiak, Kilannin; Skidmore, Zachary L; Hundal, Jasreet; Allen, Julie A; Arthur, Cora D; Runci, Daniele; Bugatti, Mattia; Miceli, Alexander P; Schmidt, Heather; Trani, Lee; Kanchi, Krishna-Latha; Miller, Christopher A; Larson, David E; Fulton, Robert S; Vermi, William; Wilson, Richard K; Schreiber, Robert D; Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-09-27

    Estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ERα+) luminal tumors are the most frequent subtype of breast cancer. Stat1(-/-) mice develop mammary tumors that closely recapitulate the biological characteristics of this cancer subtype. To identify transforming events that contribute to tumorigenesis, we performed whole genome sequencing of Stat1(-/-) primary mammary tumors and matched normal tissues. This investigation identified somatic truncating mutations affecting the prolactin receptor (PRLR) in all tumor and no normal samples. Targeted sequencing confirmed the presence of these mutations in precancerous lesions, indicating that this is an early event in tumorigenesis. Functional evaluation of these heterozygous mutations in Stat1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that co-expression of truncated and wild-type PRLR led to aberrant STAT3 and STAT5 activation downstream of the receptor, cellular transformation in vitro, and tumor formation in vivo. In conclusion, truncating mutations of PRLR promote tumor growth in a model of human ERα+ breast cancer and warrant further investigation.

  11. IL-36 receptor promotes resolution of intestinal damage

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Harusato, Akihito; Nishio, Hikaru; Flannigan, Kyle L.; Ngo, Vu; Leoni, Giovanna; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Geem, Duke; Lili, Loukia N.; Ramadas, Ravisankar A.; Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Kohlmeier, Jacob E.; Parkos, Charles A.; Towne, Jennifer E.; Nusrat, Asma; Denning, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-1 family members are central mediators of host defense. Here we show that the novel IL-1 family member, IL-36γ, was expressed during experimental colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In response to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced damage, germ-free (GF) mice failed to induce IL-36γ, suggesting that gut microbiota are involved in its induction. Surprisingly, IL-36R-deficient (Il1rl2−/−) mice exhibited defective recovery following DSS-induced damage and impaired closure of colonic mucosal biopsy wounds, which coincided with impaired neutrophil accumulation in the wound bed. Failure of Il1rl2−/− mice to recover from DSS-induced damage was associated with a profound reduction in IL-22 expression, particularly by colonic neutrophils. Defective recovery of Il1rl2−/− mice could be rescued an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, which was sufficient to restore IL-22 expression and promote full recovery from DSS-induced damage. These findings implicate the IL-36/IL-36R axis in the resolution of intestinal mucosal wounds. PMID:26590314

  12. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) as Function Promoting Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The last decade has witnessed unprecedented discovery effort to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that improve physical function and bone health without adversely affecting the prostate and cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the historical evolution, the rationale for SARM development, and the mechanisms of testosterone action and SARM selectivity. Recent Findings While steroidal SARMs have been around since the 1940s, a number of nonsteroidal SARMs that do not serve as substrates for CYP19 aromatase or 5α-reductase, act as full agonists in muscle and bone and as partial agonists in prostate are in development. The differing interactions of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds with AR contribute to their unique pharmacologic actions. Ligand binding induces specific conformational changes in the ligand binding domain, which could modulate surface topology and protein-protein interactions between AR and coregulators, resulting in tissue-specific gene regulation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of SARMs to increase muscle and bone mass in preclinical rodent models with varying degree of prostate sparing. Phase I trials of SARMs in humans have reported modest increments in fat-free mass. Summary SARMs hold promise as a new class of function promoting anabolic therapies for a number of clinical indications, including functional limitations associated with aging and chronic disease, frailty, cancer cachexia, and osteoporosis. PMID:19357508

  13. Neonatal Fc Receptor Promotes Immune Complex–Mediated Glomerular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Suleiman, Hani; St. John, Patricia L.; Ge, Linna; Mezo, Adam R.; Shaw, Andrey S.; Abrahamson, Dale R.; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a major regulator of IgG and albumin homeostasis systemically and in the kidneys. We investigated the role of FcRn in the development of immune complex–mediated glomerular disease in mice. C57Bl/6 mice immunized with the noncollagenous domain of the α3 chain of type IV collagen (α3NC1) developed albuminuria associated with granular capillary loop deposition of exogenous antigen, mouse IgG, C3 and C5b-9, and podocyte injury. High-resolution imaging showed abundant IgG deposition in the expanded glomerular basement membrane, especially in regions corresponding to subepithelial electron dense deposits. FcRn-null and -humanized mice immunized with α3NC1 developed no albuminuria and had lower levels of serum IgG anti-α3NC1 antibodies and reduced glomerular deposition of IgG, antigen, and complement. Our results show that FcRn promotes the formation of subepithelial immune complexes and subsequent glomerular pathology leading to proteinuria, potentially by maintaining higher serum levels of pathogenic IgG antibodies. Therefore, reducing pathogenic IgG levels by pharmacologic inhibition of FcRn may provide a novel approach for the treatment of immune complex–mediated glomerular diseases. As proof of concept, we showed that a peptide inhibiting the interaction between human FcRn and human IgG accelerated the degradation of human IgG anti-α3NC1 autoantibodies injected into FCRN-humanized mice as effectively as genetic ablation of FcRn, thus preventing the glomerular deposition of immune complexes containing human IgG. PMID:24357670

  14. RNA surveillance via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay is crucial for longevity in daf-2/insulin/IGF-1 mutant C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Son, Heehwa G.; Seo, Mihwa; Ham, Seokjin; Hwang, Wooseon; Lee, Dongyeop; An, Seon Woo A.; Artan, Murat; Seo, Keunhee; Kaletsky, Rachel; Arey, Rachel N.; Ryu, Youngjae; Ha, Chang Man; Kim, Yoon Ki; Murphy, Coleen T.; Roh, Tae-Young; Nam, Hong Gil; Lee, Seung-Jae V.

    2017-01-01

    Long-lived organisms often feature more stringent protein and DNA quality control. However, whether RNA quality control mechanisms, such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which degrades both abnormal as well as some normal transcripts, have a role in organismal aging remains unexplored. Here we show that NMD mediates longevity in C. elegans strains with mutations in daf-2/insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. We find that daf-2 mutants display enhanced NMD activity and reduced levels of potentially aberrant transcripts. NMD components, including smg-2/UPF1, are required to achieve the longevity of several long-lived mutants, including daf-2 mutant worms. NMD in the nervous system of the animals is particularly important for RNA quality control to promote longevity. Furthermore, we find that downregulation of yars-2/tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, an NMD target transcript, by daf-2 mutations contributes to longevity. We propose that NMD-mediated RNA surveillance is a crucial quality control process that contributes to longevity conferred by daf-2 mutations. PMID:28276441

  15. High-throughput mapping of the promoters of the mouse olfactory receptor genes reveals a new type of mammalian promoter and provides insight into olfactory receptor gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Clowney, E. Josephine; Magklara, Angeliki; Colquitt, Bradley M.; Pathak, Nidhi; Lane, Robert P.; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    The olfactory receptor (OR) genes are the largest mammalian gene family and are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion in olfactory neurons. Using a high-throughput approach, we mapped the transcription start sites of 1085 of the 1400 murine OR genes and performed computational analysis that revealed potential transcription factor binding sites shared by the majority of these promoters. Our analysis produced a hierarchical model for OR promoter recognition in which unusually high AT content, a unique epigenetic signature, and a stereotypically positioned O/E site distinguish OR promoters from the rest of the murine promoters. Our computations revealed an intriguing correlation between promoter AT content and evolutionary plasticity, as the most AT-rich promoters regulate rapidly evolving gene families. Within the AT-rich promoter category the position of the TATA-box does not correlate with the transcription start site. Instead, a spike in GC composition might define the exact location of the TSS, introducing the concept of “genomic contrast” in transcriptional regulation. Finally, our experiments show that genomic neighborhood rather than promoter sequence correlates with the probability of different OR genes to be expressed in the same olfactory cell. PMID:21705439

  16. Multiplexed Promoter-dependent Screen for Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    the compounds in the Spectrum library have been used in human therapy, another third are natural products and derivatives with undetermined...not sAREs are several flavonoids and anthracyclines, some of which are known to inhibit AR. Promising compounds will be re-screened, and dose...O’Mahony OA, Steinkamp MP, Albertelli MA, Brogley M, Rehman H, Robins DM. Profiling human androgen receptor mutations reveals treatment effects in a mouse

  17. Longevity Genes Revealed by Integrative Analysis of Isoform-Specific daf-16/FoxO Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Albert Tzong-Yang; Guo, Chunfang; Itani, Omar A; Budaitis, Breane G; Williams, Travis W; Hopkins, Christopher E; McEachin, Richard C; Pande, Manjusha; Grant, Ana R; Yoshina, Sawako; Mitani, Shohei; Hu, Patrick J

    2015-10-01

    FoxO transcription factors promote longevity across taxa. How they do so is poorly understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the A- and F-isoforms of the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16 extend life span in the context of reduced DAF-2 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR) signaling. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for DAF-16/FoxO-dependent life span extension, we performed an integrative analysis of isoform-specific daf-16/FoxO mutants. In contrast to previous studies suggesting that DAF-16F plays a more prominent role in life span control than DAF-16A, isoform-specific daf-16/FoxO mutant phenotypes and whole transcriptome profiling revealed a predominant role for DAF-16A over DAF-16F in life span control, stress resistance, and target gene regulation. Integration of these datasets enabled the prioritization of a subset of 92 DAF-16/FoxO target genes for functional interrogation. Among 29 genes tested, two DAF-16A-specific target genes significantly influenced longevity. A loss-of-function mutation in the conserved gene gst-20, which is induced by DAF-16A, reduced life span extension in the context of daf-2/IGFR RNAi without influencing longevity in animals subjected to control RNAi. Therefore, gst-20 promotes DAF-16/FoxO-dependent longevity. Conversely, a loss-of-function mutation in srr-4, a gene encoding a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor family member that is repressed by DAF-16A, extended life span in control animals, indicating that DAF-16/FoxO may extend life span at least in part by reducing srr-4 expression. Our discovery of new longevity genes underscores the efficacy of our integrative strategy while providing a general framework for identifying specific downstream gene regulatory events that contribute substantially to transcription factor functions. As FoxO transcription factors have conserved functions in promoting longevity and may be dysregulated in aging-related diseases, these findings promise to illuminate fundamental

  18. Aging, longevity and health

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2016-01-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5–7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health. PMID:21820462

  19. Aging, longevity and health.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-10-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health.

  20. Hypoxia Selectively Enhances Integrin Receptor Expression to Promote Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Julia A; Godet, Ines; Ye, I Chae; Byun, Jungmin; Jayatilaka, Hasini; Lee, Sun Joo; Xiang, Lisha; Samanta, Debangshu; Lee, Meng Horng; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Wirtz, Denis; Semenza, Gregg L; Gilkes, Daniele M

    2017-02-17

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer (BCa)mortality. Previous studies have implicated hypoxia-induced changes in the composition and stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the metastatic process. Therefore, the contribution of potential ECM binding receptors in this process was explored. Using a bioinformatics approach the expression of all integrin receptor subunits, in two independent BCa patient data sets, were analyzed to determine if integrin status correlates with a validated hypoxiainducible gene signature. Subsequently, a large panel of breast cancer cell lines were used to validate that hypoxia induces the expression of integrin's that bind to collagen (ITGA1, ITGA11, ITGB1) and fibronectin (ITGA5, ITGB1). Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1 and HIF-2) are directly required for ITGA5 induction under hypoxic conditions, which leads to enhanced migration and invasion of single cells within a multicellular 3D tumor spheroid but did not affect migration in a 2D microenvironment. ITGB1 expression requires HIF-1alpha, but not HIF-2alpha, for hypoxic induction in breast cancer cells. ITGA5 (alpha5 subunit) is required for metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs in breast cancer models and high ITGA5 expression in clinical biopsies is associated with an increased risk of mortality.

  1. Impaired wake-promoting mechanisms in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Matthew; Pellinen, Jacob; Kapás, Levente; Szentirmai, Éva

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin receptors are expressed by key components of the arousal system. Exogenous ghrelin induces behavioral activation, promotes wakefulness and stimulates eating. We hypothesized that ghrelin-sensitive mechanisms play a role in the arousal system. To test this, we investigated the responsiveness of ghrelin receptor knockout (KO) mice to two natural wake-promoting stimuli. Additionally, we assessed the integrity of their homeostatic sleep-promoting system using sleep deprivation. There was no significant difference in the spontaneous sleep-wake activity between ghrelin receptor KO and wild-type (WT) mice. WT mice mounted robust arousal responses to a novel environment and food deprivation. Wakefulness increased for 6 h after cage change accompanied by increases in body temperature and locomotor activity. Ghrelin receptor KO mice completely lacked the wake and body temperature responses to new environment. When subjected to 48 h food deprivation, WT mice showed marked increases in their waking time during the dark periods of both days. Ghrelin receptor KO mice failed to mount an arousal response on the first night and wake increases were attenuated on the second day. The responsiveness to sleep deprivation did not differ between the two genotypes. These results indicate that the ghrelin-receptive mechanisms play an essential role in the function of the arousal system but not in homeostatic sleep-promoting mechanisms.

  2. Activation of Dopamine Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Promotes Sucrose-Reinforced Cued Approach Behavior

    PubMed Central

    du Hoffmann, Johann; Nicola, Saleem M.

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards. Intriguingly, cued approach to food occurred in clusters, with several cued responses followed by successive non-responses. This pattern suggested that behavior was dictated by transitions between two states, responsive and non-responsive. Injection of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor agonists into the NAc dose-dependently increased cue responding by promoting transitions to the responsive state and by preventing transitions to the non-responsive state. In contrast, antagonists of either D1 or D2 receptors promoted long bouts of non-responding by inducing transitions to the non-responsive state and by preventing transitions to the responsive state. Moreover, locomotor behavior during the inter-trial interval was correlated with the responsive state, and was also increased by dopamine receptor agonists. These results suggest that activation of NAc dopamine receptors plays an important role in regulating the probability of approach to food under conditions of normative satiety. PMID:27471453

  3. Age-related changes in the proteostasis network in the brain of the naked mole-rat: Implications promoting healthy longevity.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Judy C; Tramutola, Antonella; Swomley, Aaron; Kirk, Jessime; Grimes, Kelly; Lewis, Kaitilyn; Orr, Miranda; Rodriguez, Karl; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Perluigi, Marzia; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-10-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent and possesses several exceptional traits: marked cancer resistance, negligible senescence, prolonged genomic integrity, pronounced proteostasis, and a sustained health span. The underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to these extraordinary attributes are currently under investigation to gain insights that may conceivably promote and extend human health span and lifespan. The ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems play a vital role in eliminating cellular detritus to maintain proteostasis and have been previously shown to be more robust in NMRs when compared with shorter-lived rodents. Using a 2-D PAGE proteomics approach, differential expression and phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in proteostasis networks were evaluated in the brains of NMRs in an age-dependent manner. We identified 9 proteins with significantly altered levels and/or phosphorylation states that have key roles involved in proteostasis networks. To further investigate the possible role that autophagy may play in maintaining cellular proteostasis, we examined aspects of the PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis as well as levels of Beclin-1, LC3-I, and LC3-II in the brain of the NMR as a function of age. Together, these results show that NMRs maintain high levels of autophagy throughout the majority of their lifespan and may contribute to the extraordinary health span of these rodents. The potential of augmenting human health span via activating the proteostasis network will require further studies.

  4. Age-related Changes in the Proteostasis Network in the Brain of the Naked Mole-Rat: Implications Promoting Healthy Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Judy C.; Tramutola, Antonella; Swomley, Aaron; Kirk, Jessime; Grimes, Kelly; Lewis, Kaitilyn; Orr, Miranda; Rodriguez, Karl; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B.; Perluigi, Marzia; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2016-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent and possesses several exceptional traits: marked cancer resistance, negligible senescence, prolonged genomic integrity, pronounced proteostasis, and a sustained healthspan. The underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to these extraordinary attributes are currently under investigation to gain insights that may conceivably promote and extended human healthspan and lifespan. The ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems play a vital role in eliminating cellular detritus to maintain proteostasis and have been previously shown to be more robust in NMRs when compared to shorter-lived rodents. Using a 2-D PAGE proteomics approach, differential expression and phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in proteostasis networks were evaluated in the brains of NMRs in an age-dependent manner. We identified 9 proteins with significantly altered levels and/or phosphorylation states that have key roles involved in proteostasis networks. To further investigate the possible role that autophagy may play in maintaining cellular proteostasis, we examined aspects of the PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis as well as levels of Beclin-1, LC3-I, and LC3-II in the brain of the NMR as a function of age. Together, these results show that NMRs maintain high levels of autophagy throughout the majority of their lifespan. PMID:26248058

  5. Familial Risk for Exceptional Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Sebastiani, Paola; Andersen, Stacy L.; McIntosh, Avery I.; Nussbaum, Lisa; Stevenson, Meredith D.; Pierce, Leslie; Xia, Samantha; Salance, Kelly; Perls, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most glaring deficiencies in the current assessment of mortality risk is the lack of information concerning the impact of familial longevity. In this work, we update estimates of sibling relative risk of living to extreme ages using data from more than 1,700 sibships, and we begin to examine the trend for heritability for different birth-year cohorts. We also build a network model that can be used to compute the increased chance for exceptional longevity of a subject, conditional on his family history of longevity. The network includes familial longevity from three generations and can be used to understand the effects of paternal and maternal longevity on an individual's chance to live to an extreme age. PMID:27041978

  6. Familial Risk for Exceptional Longevity.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, Paola; Andersen, Stacy L; McIntosh, Avery I; Nussbaum, Lisa; Stevenson, Meredith D; Pierce, Leslie; Xia, Samantha; Salance, Kelly; Perls, Thomas T

    2016-01-01

    One of the most glaring deficiencies in the current assessment of mortality risk is the lack of information concerning the impact of familial longevity. In this work, we update estimates of sibling relative risk of living to extreme ages using data from more than 1,700 sibships, and we begin to examine the trend for heritability for different birth-year cohorts. We also build a network model that can be used to compute the increased chance for exceptional longevity of a subject, conditional on his family history of longevity. The network includes familial longevity from three generations and can be used to understand the effects of paternal and maternal longevity on an individual's chance to live to an extreme age.

  7. Altered Death Receptor Signaling Promotes Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Acquired Chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Antoon, James W.; Lai, Rongye; Struckhoff, Amanda P.; Nitschke, Ashley M.; Elliott, Steven; Martin, Elizabeth C.; Rhodes, Lyndsay V.; Yoon, Nam Seung; Salvo, Virgilio A.; Shan, Bin; Beckman, Barbara S.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Burow, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    Altered death receptor signaling and resistance to subsequent apoptosis is an important clinical resistance mechanism. Here, we investigated the role of death receptor resistance in breast cancer progression. Resistance of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER)-positive, chemosensitive MCF7 breast cancer cell line to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was associated with loss of ER expression and a multi-drug resistant phenotype. Changes in three major pathways were involved in this transition to a multidrug resistance phenotype: ER, Death Receptor and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Resistant cells exhibited altered ER signaling, resulting in decreased ER target gene expression. The death receptor pathway was significantly altered, blocking extrinsic apoptosis and increasing NF-kappaB survival signaling. TNF resistance promoted EMT changes, resulting in a more aggressive phenotype. This first report identifying specific mechanisms underlying acquired resistance to TNF could lead to a better understanding of the progression of breast cancer in response to chemotherapy treatment. PMID:22844580

  8. Gain-of-Function Mutants of the Cytokinin Receptors AHK2 and AHK3 Regulate Plant Organ Size, Flowering Time and Plant Longevity.

    PubMed

    Bartrina, Isabel; Jensen, Helen; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Werner, Tomáš; Schmülling, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The phytohormone cytokinin is a regulator of numerous processes in plants. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the cytokinin signal is perceived by three membrane-located receptors named ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE2 (AHK2), AHK3, and AHK4/CRE1. How the signal is transmitted across the membrane is an entirely unknown process. The three receptors have been shown to operate mostly in a redundant fashion, and very few specific roles have been attributed to single receptors. Using a forward genetic approach, we isolated constitutively active gain-of-function variants of the AHK2 and AHK3 genes, named repressor of cytokinin deficiency2 (rock2) and rock3, respectively. It is hypothesized that the structural changes caused by these mutations in the sensory and adjacent transmembrane domains emulate the structural changes caused by cytokinin binding, resulting in domain motion propagating the signal across the membrane. Detailed analysis of lines carrying rock2 and rock3 alleles revealed how plants respond to locally enhanced cytokinin signaling. Early flowering time, a prolonged reproductive growth phase, and, thereby, increased seed yield suggest that cytokinin regulates various aspects of reproductive growth. In particular, it counteracts the global proliferative arrest, a correlative inhibition of maternal growth by seeds, an as yet unknown activity of the hormone.

  9. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Promotes Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jingru; Ma, Xue; Wang, Ning; Jia, Min; Bi, Long; Wang, Yunying; Li, Mingkai; Zhang, Huinan; Xue, Xiaoyan; Hou, Zheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Zhibin; He, Gonghao; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Summary Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) promoted bone formation and increased bone mass and quality in a rat unloading-induced bone loss model. These functions were accompanied by an increase in osteoblast number and serum bone formation markers, while the adipocyte number was decreased. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor was detected in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), but not in osteoblast. Activation of GLP-1 receptor by Ex-4 promoted the osteogenic differentiation and inhibited BMSC adipogenic differentiation through regulating PKA/β-catenin and PKA/PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling. These findings reveal that GLP-1 receptor regulates BMSC osteogenic differentiation and provide a molecular basis for therapeutic potential of GLP-1 against osteoporosis. PMID:26947974

  10. Tumor-promoting effects of cannabinoid receptor type 1 in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Sara; Fogli, Stefano; Polini, Beatrice; Montagnani, Valentina; Podestà, Adriano; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Romanini, Antonella; Stecca, Barbara; Nieri, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The role of endocannabinoid system in melanoma development and progression is actually not fully understood. This study was aimed at clarifying whether cannabinoid-type 1 (CB1) receptor may function as tumor-promoting or -suppressing signal in human cutaneous melanoma. CB1 receptor expression was measured in human melanoma cell lines by real-time PCR. A genetic deletion of CB1 receptors in selected melanoma cells was carried out by using three different short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Performance of target gene silencing was verified by real-time PCR and Western blot. The effects of CB1 receptor silencing on cell growth, clonogenicity, migration capability, cell cycle progression, and activation of mitogenic signals was tested. Lentiviral shRNAs vectors targeting different regions of the human CB1 gene led to a significant reduction in CB1 receptor mRNA and a near complete loss of CB1 receptor protein, compared to control vector (LV-c). The number of viable cells, the colony-forming ability and cell migration were significantly reduced in cells transduced with CB1 lentiviral shRNAs compared to LV-c. Cell cycle analyses showed arrest at G1/S phase. p-Akt and p-ERK expression were decreased in transduced versus control cells. Findings of this study suggest that CB1 receptor might function as tumor-promoting signal in human cutaneous melanoma.

  11. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Promotes Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through β-Catenin.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingru; Ma, Xue; Wang, Ning; Jia, Min; Bi, Long; Wang, Yunying; Li, Mingkai; Zhang, Huinan; Xue, Xiaoyan; Hou, Zheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Zhibin; He, Gonghao; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2016-04-12

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) promoted bone formation and increased bone mass and quality in a rat unloading-induced bone loss model. These functions were accompanied by an increase in osteoblast number and serum bone formation markers, while the adipocyte number was decreased. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor was detected in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), but not in osteoblast. Activation of GLP-1 receptor by Ex-4 promoted the osteogenic differentiation and inhibited BMSC adipogenic differentiation through regulating PKA/β-catenin and PKA/PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling. These findings reveal that GLP-1 receptor regulates BMSC osteogenic differentiation and provide a molecular basis for therapeutic potential of GLP-1 against osteoporosis.

  12. Identification of constitutive androstane receptor and glucocorticoid receptor binding sites in the CYP2C19 promoter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuping; Ferguson, Stephen S; Negishi, Masahiko; Goldstein, Joyce A

    2003-08-01

    CYP2C19 is an important human drug-metabolizing enzyme that metabolizes a number of clinically used drugs including the antiulcer drug omeprazole, the anxiolytic drug diazepam, the beta-blocker propranolol, the antimalarial drug proguanil, certain antidepressants and barbiturates, and the prototype substrate S-mephenytoin. Previous studies show that compounds such as rifampicin and dexamethasone induce CYP2C19 both in vivo in humans and in vitro in human hepatocytes. This study examines the transcriptional regulation of CYP2C19. Analysis of the CYP2C19 promoter revealed a single constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) binding site (CAR-RE; -1891/-1876 bp) and a glucocorticoid-responsive element (GRE; -1750/-1736 bp). Gel-shift assays showed that CAR-RE binds CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR). Cotransfection with hCAR, mCAR, or hPXR in HepG2 cells up-regulated transcription of CYP2C19 promoter constructs, whereas mutation of the -1891-bp CAR-RE abolished up-regulation. Expression with hCAR also up-regulated endogenous CYP2C19 mRNA content in HepG2 cells. Androstenol repressed the mCAR-mediated constitutive activation of the CYP2C19 promoter in HepG2 cells, whereas the potent mCAR ligand 1,4-bis[2-3,5-dichloropyridyloxyl)] benzene derepressed this response. Rifampicin produced a modest increase in promoter activity in cells cotransfected with hPXR. Dexamethasone activated the -2.7-kb CYP2C19 promoter constructs in HepG2 cells only in the presence of cotransfected glucocorticoid receptor (GR), whereas the GR antagonist mifepristone inhibits this response. Mutation of the GRE abolishes dexamethasone activation. This is the first study to identify nuclear receptor binding sites (CAR/PXR and GR) in the CYP2C19 promoter and to suggest that these receptors may up-regulate CYP2C19 constitutively and possibly its response to drugs.

  13. Functional receptor coupling to Gi is a mechanism of agonist-promoted desensitization of the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Tepe, N M; Liggett, S B

    2000-01-01

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) couples to Gs activating adenylyl cyclase (AC) and increasing cAMP. Such signaling undergoes desensitization with continued agonist exposure. Beta2AR also couple to Gi after receptor phosphorylation by the cAMP dependent protein kinase A, but the efficiency of such coupling is not known. Given the PKA dependence of beta2AR-Gi coupling, we explored whether this may be a mechanism of agonist-promoted desensitization. HEK293 cells were transfected to express beta2AR or beta2AR and Gialpha2, and then treated with vehicle or the agonist isoproterenol to evoke agonist-promoted beta2AR desensitization. Membrane AC activities showed that Gialpha2 overexpression decreased basal levels, but the fold-stimulation of the AC over basal by agonist was not altered. However, with treatment of the cells with isoproterenol prior to membrane preparation, a marked decrease in agonist-stimulated AC was observed with the cells overexpressing Gialpha2. In the absence of such overexpression, beta2AR desensitization was 23+/-7%, while with 5-fold Gialpha2 overexpression desensitization was 58+/-5% (p<0.01, n=4). The effect of Gi on desensitization was receptor-specific, in that forskolin responses were not altered by G(i)alpha2 overexpression. Thus, acquired beta2AR coupling to Gi is an important mechanism of agonist-promoted desensitization, and pathologic conditions that increase Gi levels contribute to beta2AR dysfunction.

  14. Hypocretin receptor 1 blockade preferentially reduces high effort responding for cocaine without promoting sleep

    PubMed Central

    Brodnik, Zachary D.; Bernstein, David L.; Prince, Courtney D.; España, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that blockade of the hypocretin receptor 1 may act as a useful pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse. Here we investigated the extent to which various doses of a hypocretin receptor 1 antagonist, SB-334867, affect cocaine self-administration at varying doses of cocaine and across a range of effort requirements, and tested if these SB-334867 doses produce sedative effects. First, we trained animals to self-administer one of three doses of cocaine on a progressive ratio schedule, and then tested the effects of three doses of SB-334867. Responding for cocaine was then analyzed to segregate features of relatively high and low effort requirements across the progressive ratio session. In another set of experiments we tested the sleep-promoting effects of the same doses of SB-334867. Our data indicate that blockade of hypocretin receptor 1 preferentially reduces high effort responding for cocaine at levels that do not promote sedation. PMID:26049058

  15. A comparative cellular and molecular biology of longevity database.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jeffrey A; Liang, Ping; Luo, Xuemei; Page, Melissa M; Gallagher, Emily J; Christoff, Casey A; Robb, Ellen L

    2013-10-01

    Discovering key cellular and molecular traits that promote longevity is a major goal of aging and longevity research. One experimental strategy is to determine which traits have been selected during the evolution of longevity in naturally long-lived animal species. This comparative approach has been applied to lifespan research for nearly four decades, yielding hundreds of datasets describing aspects of cell and molecular biology hypothesized to relate to animal longevity. Here, we introduce a Comparative Cellular and Molecular Biology of Longevity Database, available at ( http://genomics.brocku.ca/ccmbl/ ), as a compendium of comparative cell and molecular data presented in the context of longevity. This open access database will facilitate the meta-analysis of amalgamated datasets using standardized maximum lifespan (MLSP) data (from AnAge). The first edition contains over 800 data records describing experimental measurements of cellular stress resistance, reactive oxygen species metabolism, membrane composition, protein homeostasis, and genome homeostasis as they relate to vertebrate species MLSP. The purpose of this review is to introduce the database and briefly demonstrate its use in the meta-analysis of combined datasets.

  16. The Proximal J Kappa Germline-Transcript Promoter Facilitates Receptor Editing through Control of Ordered Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Vettermann, Christian; Timblin, Greg A.; Lim, Vivian; Lai, Ernest C.; Schlissel, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    V(D)J recombination creates antibody light chain diversity by joining a Vκ gene segment with one of four Jκ segments. Two Jκ germline-transcript (GT) promoters control Vκ-Jκ joining, but the mechanisms that govern Jκ choice are unclear. Here, we show in gene-targeted mice that the proximal GT promoter helps targeting rearrangements to Jκ1 by preventing premature DNA breaks at Jκ2. Consequently, cells lacking the proximal GT promoter show a biased utilization of downstream Jκ segments, resulting in a diminished potential for receptor editing. Surprisingly, the proximal—in contrast to the distal—GT promoter is transcriptionally inactive prior to Igκ recombination, indicating that its role in Jκ choice is independent of classical promoter function. Removal of the proximal GT promoter increases H3K4me3 levels at Jκ segments, suggesting that this promoter could act as a suppressor of recombination by limiting chromatin accessibility to RAG. Our findings identify the first cis-element critical for Jκ choice and demonstrate that ordered Igκ recombination facilitates receptor editing. PMID:25559567

  17. Hormone replacement therapy and longevity.

    PubMed

    Comhaire, F

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether hormone replacement therapy influences longevity, an analysis was made of published life tables allowing for the calculation of the relative benefit of hormone replacement therapy on longevity in men with late onset hypogonadism and in post-menopausal women. It was found that testosterone replacement therapy of men suffering from late onset hypogonadism increased survival rate by 9-10% in 5 years, similar to that of eugonadal, non-LOH men with normal endogenous testosterone secretion. Oestrogen replacement therapy resulted in increased survival by 2.6% in 5 years. It is concluded that hormone replacement therapy increases longevity.

  18. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Forman, Mark S.; Harrell, Charles M.; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J.; Fox, Steven V.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Garson, Susan L.; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J.; Herring, W. Joseph; Renger, John J.; Winrow, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  19. RAGE is a nucleic acid receptor that promotes inflammatory responses to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sirois, Cherilyn M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Miller, Allison L.; Bertheloot, Damien; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Horvath, Gabor L.; Mian, Abubakar; Jiang, Jiansheng; Schrum, Jacob; Bossaller, Lukas; Pelka, Karin; Garbi, Natalio; Brewah, Yambasu; Tian, Jane; Chang, ChewShun; Chowdhury, Partha S.; Sims, Gary P.; Kolbeck, Roland; Coyle, Anthony J.; Humbles, Alison A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of DNA and RNA molecules derived from pathogens or self-antigen is one way the mammalian immune system senses infection and tissue damage. Activation of immune signaling receptors by nucleic acids is controlled by limiting the access of DNA and RNA to intracellular receptors, but the mechanisms by which endosome-resident receptors encounter nucleic acids from the extracellular space are largely undefined. In this study, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) promoted DNA uptake into endosomes and lowered the immune recognition threshold for the activation of Toll-like receptor 9, the principal DNA-recognizing transmembrane signaling receptor. Structural analysis of RAGE–DNA complexes indicated that DNA interacted with dimers of the outermost RAGE extracellular domains, and could induce formation of higher-order receptor complexes. Furthermore, mice deficient in RAGE were unable to mount a typical inflammatory response to DNA in the lung, indicating that RAGE is important for the detection of nucleic acids in vivo. PMID:24081950

  20. Chemokines and chemokine receptors as promoters of prostate cancer growth and progression.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Nicole; Castellan, Miguel; Shirodkar, Samir S; Lokeshwar, Bal L

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is estimated to be first in incidence among cancers, with more than 240,000 new cases in 2012 in the United States. Chemokines and their receptors provide survival, proliferation, and invasion characteristics to CaP cells in both primary sites of cancer and metastatic locations. The emerging data demonstrate that many chemokines and their receptors are involved in the multistep process of CaP, leading to metastasis, and, further, that these factors act cooperatively to enhance other mechanisms of tumor cell survival, growth, and metastasis. Changes of chemokine receptor cohorts may be necessary to activate tumor-promoting signals. Chemokine receptors can activate downstream effectors, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, by complex mechanisms of ligand-dependent activation of cryptic growth factors; guanosine triphosphate-binding, protein-coupled activation of survival kinases; or transactivation of other receptors such as ErbB family members. We describe vanguard research in which more than the classic view of chemokine receptor biology was clarified. Control of chemokines and inhibition of their receptor activation may add critical tools to reduce tumor growth, especially in chemo-hormonal refractory CaP that is both currently incurable and the most aggressive form of the disease, accounting for most of the more than 28,000 annual deaths.

  1. Particulate Matter Promotes In Vitro Receptor-Recognizable Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Dysfunction of Lipid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Sevilla-Tapia, Laura; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Serrano, Jesús; O’Neill, Marie S.; García-Cuellar, Claudia M.; Quintana, Raúl; Vázquez-López, Inés

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter may promote cardiovascular disease, possibly as a consequence of its oxidative potential. Studies using susceptible animals indicate that particulate matter aggravates atherosclerosis by increasing lipid/macrophage content in plaques. Macrophage lipid uptake requires oxidized low-density lipoprotein and scavenger receptors; same receptors are involved in particulate matter uptake. We studied in vitro particulate matter potential to oxidize low-density lipoproteins and subsequent cell uptake through scavenger receptors. Particulate matter-induced low-density lipoproteins oxidation was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid assay. Binding/internalization was tested in wild type and scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, and in RAW264.7 cells using fluorescently labeled low-density lipoproteins. Dose-dependent binding/internalization only occurred in scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells and RAW264.7 cells. Competition binding/internalization using particles showed that particulate matter induced decreased binding (~50%) and internalization (~70%) of particle-oxidized low-density lipoproteins and native low-density lipoproteins. Results indicate that particulate matter was capable of oxidizing low-density lipoproteins, favoring macrophage internalization, and also altered scavenger and low-density lipoproteins receptor function. PMID:23297186

  2. Bradykinin promotes Toll like receptor-4 expression in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Arreguín-Cano, Juan Antonio; Hernández-Bermúdez, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Bacterial infections are a potent mechanism for enzymatic generation of kinins such as bradykinin (BK), a universal mediator for inducing inflammatory reaction by associating with the B2 receptor and stimulating liberation of arachidonic acid and synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In this study we evaluate the role of bradykinin in regulating the expression of TLR4 receptor in human gingival fibroblasts. We examine the ability of bradykinin to modulate inflammatory response of human gingival fibroblasts to Gram-negative components and evaluated the role of Toll-like receptors (TLR)-4 in the co-operation between bradykinin and bacterial pathogens. We show that treatment with bradykinin promotes TLR4 receptor expression in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and amplifies inflammatory responses to the bacterial components of Gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4 expression induced by bradykinin was blocked with Hoe 140, a B2R antagonist. When HGF cells were incubated with BK resulted of an increased in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Bradykinin and lipopolysaccharide, a specific TLR4 ligand stimulated COX-2 expression. In other series of experiments we found that ERK, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, protein kinase C and NFkB are involved in BK promoted-increased in TLR4 expression. The results demonstrate that bradykinin up-regulates the expression of TLR4 and promotes an additive increase in inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharides.

  3. Thermosensation and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Liu, Jianfeng; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Temperature has profound effects on behavior and aging in both poikilotherms and homeotherms. To thrive under the ever fluctuating environmental temperatures, animals have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense and adapt to temperature changes. Animals sense temperature through various molecular thermosensors, such as thermosensitive TRP channels expressed in neurons, keratinocytes, and intestine. These evolutionarily conserved thermosensitive TRP channels feature distinct activation thresholds, thereby covering a wide spectrum of ambient temperature. Temperature changes trigger complex thermosensory behaviors. Due to the simplicity of the nervous system in model organisms such as C. elegans and Drosophila, the mechanisms of thermosensory behaviors in these species have been extensively studied at the circuit and molecular levels. While much is known about temperature regulation of behavior, it remains largely unclear how temperature affects aging. Recent studies in C. elegans demonstrate that temperature modulation of longevity is not simply a passive thermodynamic phenomenon as suggested by the rate-of-living theory, but rather a process that is actively regulated by genes, including those encoding thermosensitive TRP channels. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of thermosensation and its role in aging. PMID:26101089

  4. Longevity of aeolian megaripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhaq, H.; Katra, I.

    2015-07-01

    Megaripples are distinguished from regular ripples by their larger dimensions and bimodal grain-size distributions. The interplay between wind, grain size and ripple morphology (height and wavelength) controls their development. Two main mechanisms limit megaripple height. The first, megaripple flattening due to winds that are above the fluid threshold of the coarse grains, destroys the armoring layer of the megaripple. The second is megaripple erosion by the impacts of fast-moving, fine saltating grains that propel the coarse grains constituting the armoring layer. For any given wind regime and grain size distribution, the potential megaripple dimensions are limited by these two mechanisms. Here we study the first mechanism and estimate the duration of strong winds (sustained above the fluid threshold) needed to flatten megaripples. Strong gusts of wind, in contrast, cannot destroy the megaripples but can cause ripple migration. Based on data from previous works on megaripples, we find a scaling law between the ripple morphology and the coarse mode of grains at the crest. Using this scaling relation allows us to calculate the wind velocity and duration needed for megaripple flattening. In general, the coarser the particles at the megaripple crest, the stronger the wind needed to flatten the megaripples. Moreover, the greater the strength of the wind required to flatten the megaripples, the lower the recurrence probability. Taken together, these findings increase the longevity of megaripples. We apply the results for a megaripple field in the southern Arava valley (Israel).

  5. The NMDA receptor functions independently and as an LRP1 co-receptor to promote Schwann cell survival and migration

    PubMed Central

    Mantuano, Elisabetta; Lam, Michael S.; Shibayama, Masataka; Campana, W. Marie; Gonias, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors, which associate with LDL-receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) to trigger cell signaling in response to protein ligands in neurons. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the NMDA-R is expressed by rat Schwann cells and functions independently and with LRP1 to regulate Schwann cell physiology. The NR1 (encoded by GRIN1) and NR2b (encoded by GRIN2B) NMDA-R subunits were expressed by cultured Schwann cells and upregulated in sciatic nerves following crush injury. The ability of LRP1 ligands to activate ERK1/2 (also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, respectively) and promote Schwann cell migration required the NMDA-R. NR1 gene silencing compromised Schwann cell survival. Injection of the LRP1 ligands tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, also known as PLAT) or MMP9-PEX into crush-injured sciatic nerves activated ERK1/2 in Schwann cells in vivo, and the response was blocked by systemic treatment with the NMDA-R inhibitor MK801. tPA was unique among the LRP1 ligands examined because tPA activated cell signaling and promoted Schwann cell migration by interacting with the NMDA-R independently of LRP1, albeit with delayed kinetics. These results define the NMDA-R as a Schwann cell signaling receptor for protein ligands and a major regulator of Schwann cell physiology, which may be particularly important in peripheral nervous system (PNS) injury. PMID:26272917

  6. EPO-independent functional EPO receptor in breast cancer enhances estrogen receptor activity and promotes cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbothe, Susann; Larsson, Anna-Maria; Vaapil, Marica; Wigerup, Caroline; Sun, Jianmin; Jögi, Annika; Neumann, Drorit; Rönnstrand, Lars; Påhlman, Sven

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • New anti-human EPOR antibody confirms full-length EPOR expression in breast cancer cells. • Proliferation of breast cancer cells is not affected by rhEPO treatment in vitro. • EPOR knockdown impairs proliferation of ERa positive breast cancer cells. • EPOR knockdown reduces AKT phosphorylation and ERa activity. - Abstract: The main function of Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) is the stimulation of erythropoiesis. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is therefore used to treat anemia in cancer patients. However, clinical trials have indicated that rhEPO treatment might promote tumor progression and has a negative effect on patient survival. In addition, EPOR expression has been detected in several cancer forms. Using a newly produced anti-EPOR antibody that reliably detects the full-length isoform of the EPOR we show that breast cancer tissue and cells express the EPOR protein. rhEPO stimulation of cultured EPOR expressing breast cancer cells did not result in increased proliferation, overt activation of EPOR (receptor phosphorylation) or a consistent activation of canonical EPOR signaling pathway mediators such as JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or AKT. However, EPOR knockdown experiments suggested functional EPO receptors in estrogen receptor positive (ERα{sup +}) breast cancer cells, as reduced EPOR expression resulted in decreased proliferation. This effect on proliferation was not seen in ERα negative cells. EPOR knockdown decreased ERα activity further supports a mechanism by which EPOR affects proliferation via ERα-mediated mechanisms. We show that EPOR protein is expressed in breast cancer cells, where it appears to promote proliferation by an EPO-independent mechanism in ERα expressing breast cancer cells.

  7. Characterization of the angiotensin (AT1b) receptor promoter and its regulation by glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Bogdarina, Irina G; King, Peter J; Clark, Adrian J L

    2009-01-01

    Angiotensin II acts through two pharmacologically distinct receptors known as AT1 and AT2. Duplication of the AT1 receptor in rodents into At1a and b subtypes allows tissue-specific expression of the AT1b in adrenal and pituitary tissue. Adrenal expression of this receptor is increased in the offspring of rat mothers exposed to a low-protein diet and this is associated with the undermethylation of its promoter. This phenomenon is blocked by the inhibition of maternal glucocorticoid synthesis by metyrapone. We have mapped the transcriptional start site of the promoter and demonstrated that a 1·2 kbp fragment upsteam of this site is effective in driving luciferase expression in mouse Y1 cells. A combination of bioinformatic analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift analysis (EMSA), and mutagenesis studies demonstrates: i) the presence of a putative TATA box and CAAT box; ii) the presence of three Sp1 response elements, capable of binding SP1; mutation of any pair of these sites effectively disables this promoter; iii) the presence of four potential glucocorticoid response elements which each bind glucocorticoid receptor in EMSA, although only two confer dexamethasone inhibition on the promoter; iv) the presence of two AP1 sites. Mutagenesis of the distal AP1 site greatly diminishes promoter function but this is also associated with the loss of dexamethasone inhibition. These studies will facilitate an understanding of the mechanisms by which fetal programming leads to long term alterations in gene expression and the development of adult disease. PMID:19411305

  8. Role of TATA-element in transcription from glucocorticoid receptor-responsive model promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, S; Schatt, M D; Rusconi, S

    1990-01-01

    Transcription activation properties of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on minimal, TATA-box containing or depleted promoters have been tested. We show that a cluster of Glucocorticoid Responsive Elements (GRE), upon activation by the GR, is sufficient to mediate abundant RNA-polymerase II transcription. We find that in absence of a bona fide TATA-element transcription initiates at a distance of 45-55bp from the activated GRE cluster with a marked preference for sequences homologous to the initiator element (Inr). Analyzing defined, bi-directional transcription units we demonstrate that the apparent reduction of specific transcription in strong, TATA-depleted promoters, is mainly due to loss of short-range promoter polarization. The implications for long-range promoter/enhancer communication mechanisms are also discussed. Images PMID:2402438

  9. Glycine Transporter-1 Inhibition Promotes Striatal Axon Sprouting via NMDA Receptors in Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Castagna, Candace; Mrejeru, Ana; Lizardi-Ortiz, José E.; Klein, Zoe; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptor activity is involved in shaping synaptic connections throughout development and adulthood. We recently reported that brief activation of NMDA receptors on cultured ventral midbrain dopamine neurons enhanced their axon growth rate and induced axonal branching. To test whether this mechanism was relevant to axon regrowth in adult animals, we examined the reinnervation of dorsal striatum following nigral dopamine neuron loss induced by unilateral intrastriatal injections of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine. We used a pharmacological approach to enhance NMDA receptor-dependent signaling by treatment with an inhibitor of glycine transporter-1 that elevates levels of extracellular glycine, a coagonist required for NMDA receptor activation. All mice displayed sprouting of dopaminergic axons from spared fibers in the ventral striatum to the denervated dorsal striatum at 7 weeks post-lesion, but the reinnervation in mice treated for 4 weeks with glycine uptake inhibitor was approximately twice as dense as in untreated mice. The treated mice also displayed higher levels of striatal dopamine and a complete recovery from lateralization in a test of sensorimotor behavior. We confirmed that the actions of glycine uptake inhibition on reinnervation and behavioral recovery required NMDA receptors in dopamine neurons using targeted deletion of the NR1 NMDA receptor subunit in dopamine neurons. Glycine transport inhibitors promote functionally relevant sprouting of surviving dopamine axons and could provide clinical treatment for disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:24133278

  10. A receptor model for tumor promoters: rational superposition of teleocidins and phorbol esters.

    PubMed Central

    Itai, A; Kato, Y; Tomioka, N; Iitaka, Y; Endo, Y; Hasegawa, M; Shudo, K; Fujiki, H; Sakai, S

    1988-01-01

    Four 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-O-acetylphorbol-type tumor promoters--teleocidin, phorbol ester, aplysiatoxin, and ingenol ester--are superposed in an attempt to understand their common biological activity on the assumption that they may bind to the same receptor site. A method using three-dimensional computer graphics was applied for superposing molecules and receptor mapping. The main feature of the method is that molecules are superposed in terms of spatial arrangement of physical and chemical properties but not in terms of the atomic positions as in conventional methods. This led to successful extraction of common structural features required for potent tumor-promoting activity: two hydrogen donors, a hydrogen acceptor, and a large lipophilic group. Their mutual spatial arrangements are most important for biological activity. Images PMID:3131760

  11. Perceptions of Longevity and Successful Aging in Very Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Marks, Loren D.; Benedetto, Tim; Sullivan, Marisa C.; Barker, Alyse

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceptions of longevity and successful aging in young-old (60 to 74 years), old-old (75 to 89 years), and oldest-old (90 + years) adults drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Participants’ responses to three open-ended questions that assessed their attributions for longevity, what they look forward to, and advice for younger persons today were compared. Content analyses yielded three emergent themes: maintaining physical, mental, and relational well-being; living a healthy life; and living a faithful life. Implications of these findings for current views on successful aging and insights for promoting a long and healthy life are considered. PMID:24353480

  12. Class A scavenger receptor promotes osteoclast differentiation via the enhanced expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK)

    SciTech Connect

    Takemura, Kenichi; Sakashita, Naomi; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Lei, XiaoFeng; Ohnishi, Koji; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro

    2010-01-22

    Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, and their differentiation depends on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) ligand. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is one of the principal functional molecules of macrophages, and its level of expression declines during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of SR-A in osteoclastogenesis, we examined pathological changes in femoral bone and the expression levels of osteoclastogenesis-related molecules in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. The femoral osseous density of SR-A{sup -/-} mice was higher than that of SR-A{sup +/+} mice, and the number of multinucleated osteoclasts was significantly decreased. An in vitro differentiation assay revealed that the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts from bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is impaired in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. Elimination of SR-A did not alter the expression level of the M-CSF receptor, c-fms; however, the expression levels of RANK and RANK-related osteoclast-differentiation molecules such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) significantly decreased. Furthermore, acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), an SR-A ligand, significantly increased the expression level of RANK and MITF during osteoclast differentiation. These data indicate that SR-A promotes osteoclastogenesis via augmentation of the expression level of RANK and its related molecules.

  13. Sigma-1 Receptor Agonism Promotes Mechanical Allodynia After Priming the Nociceptive System with Capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Entrena, J M; Sánchez-Fernández, C; Nieto, F R; González-Cano, R; Yeste, S; Cobos, E J; Baeyens, J M

    2016-11-25

    Sigma-1 receptor antagonists promote antinociception in several models of pain, but the effects of sigma-1 agonists on nociception (particularly when the nociceptive system is primed) are not so well characterized; therefore we evaluated the effects of sigma-1 agonists on pain under different experimental conditions. The systemic administration of the selective sigma-1 agonists (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084, as well as the nonselective sigma-1 agonist carbetapentane (used clinically as an antitussive drug), did not alter sensitivity to mechanical stimulation under baseline conditions. However, they greatly promoted secondary mechanical allodynia after priming the nociceptive system with capsaicin. These effects of sigma-1 agonists were consistent in terms potency with the affinities of these drugs for sigma-1 receptors, were reversed by sigma-1 antagonists, and were not observed in sigma-1 knockout mice, indicating that they are sigma-1-mediated. Repeated systemic treatment with PRE-084 induced proallodynic effects even 24 h after treatment completion, but only after the nociceptive system was primed. However, neither the presence of this drug in the organism nor changes in sigma-1 receptor expression in areas involved in pain processing explains its long-term effects, suggesting that sustained sigma-1 agonism induces plastic changes in the nociceptive system that promote nociception.

  14. Soluble forms of VEGF receptor-1 and -2 promote vascular maturation via mural cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lorquet, Sophie; Berndt, Sarah; Blacher, Silvia; Gengoux, Emily; Peulen, Olivier; Maquoi, Erik; Noël, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Munaut, Carine; Péqueux, Christel

    2010-10-01

    Two soluble forms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2, are physiologically released and overproduced in some pathologies. They are known to act as anti-VEGF agents. Here we report that these soluble receptors contribute to vessel maturation by mediating a dialogue between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells that leads to blood vessel stabilization. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we provide evidence that these soluble VEGF receptors promote mural cell migration through a paracrine mechanism involving interplay in ECs between VEGF/VEGFR-2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate type-1 (S1P)/S1P1 pathways that leads to endothelial nitric oxyde synthase (eNOS) activation. This new paradigm is supported by the finding that sVEGFR-1 and -2 perform the following actions: 1) induce an eNOS-dependent outgrowth of a mural cell network in an ex vivo model of angiogenesis, 2) increase the mural cell coverage of neovessels in vitro and in vivo, 3) promote mural cell migration toward ECs, and 4) stimulate endothelial S1P1 overproduction and eNOS activation that promote the migration and the recruitment of neighboring mural cells. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms regulating physiological and pathological angiogenesis and vessel stabilization.

  15. Sigma-1 Receptor Agonism Promotes Mechanical Allodynia After Priming the Nociceptive System with Capsaicin

    PubMed Central

    Entrena, J. M.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Nieto, F. R.; González-Cano, R.; Yeste, S.; Cobos, E. J.; Baeyens, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor antagonists promote antinociception in several models of pain, but the effects of sigma-1 agonists on nociception (particularly when the nociceptive system is primed) are not so well characterized; therefore we evaluated the effects of sigma-1 agonists on pain under different experimental conditions. The systemic administration of the selective sigma-1 agonists (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084, as well as the nonselective sigma-1 agonist carbetapentane (used clinically as an antitussive drug), did not alter sensitivity to mechanical stimulation under baseline conditions. However, they greatly promoted secondary mechanical allodynia after priming the nociceptive system with capsaicin. These effects of sigma-1 agonists were consistent in terms potency with the affinities of these drugs for sigma-1 receptors, were reversed by sigma-1 antagonists, and were not observed in sigma-1 knockout mice, indicating that they are sigma-1-mediated. Repeated systemic treatment with PRE-084 induced proallodynic effects even 24 h after treatment completion, but only after the nociceptive system was primed. However, neither the presence of this drug in the organism nor changes in sigma-1 receptor expression in areas involved in pain processing explains its long-term effects, suggesting that sustained sigma-1 agonism induces plastic changes in the nociceptive system that promote nociception. PMID:27886264

  16. Galanin and its receptor system promote the repair of injured sciatic nerves in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Dan-dan; Liao, Jin-chi; Xiao, Li; Wang, Qing; Qiu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Various studies have reported that galanin can promote axonal regeneration of dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro and inhibit neuropathic pain. However, little is known about its effects on diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and in vivo experimental data are lacking. We hypothesized that repeated applications of exogenous galanin over an extended time frame may also repair nerve damage in diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and relieve pain in vivo. We found that neuropathic pain occurred in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and was more severe after sciatic nerve pinch injury at 14 and 28 days than in diabetic sham-operated rats. Treatment with exogenous galanin alleviated the neuropathic pain and promoted sciatic nerve regeneration more effectively in diabetic rats than in non-diabetic rats after sciatic nerve pinch injury. This was accompanied by changes in the levels of endogenous galanin, and its receptors galanin receptor 1 and galanin receptor 2 in the dorsal root ganglia and the spinal dorsal horn when compared with nerve pinch normal rats. Our results show that application of exogenous galanin daily for 28 days can promote the regeneration of injured sciatic nerves, and alleviate neuropathic pain in diabetic rats. PMID:27857760

  17. Human pregnane X receptor compromises the function of p53 and promotes malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, D; Cherian, M; Wu, J; Chen, T

    2016-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is well established as a nuclear receptor that has a central role in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition. However, emerging evidence suggests that PXR is also a regulator of apoptosis, promoting a malignant phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. The tumor suppressor p53 can be activated in the presence of DNA damage and induce cell cycle arrest to allow for DNA repair or, ultimately, apoptosis to suppress tumor formation. We previously identified p53 as a novel PXR-associated protein by using a mass spectrometric approach. In the current study, we identified a novel inhibitory effect of PXR on p53, revealing an anti-apoptotic function of PXR in colon carcinogenesis. PXR expression reduced p53 transactivation and the expression of its downstream target genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by decreasing p53 recruitment to the promoter regions of these genes. Consistent with the inhibitory effect of PXR on p53, elevated PXR levels decreased doxorubicin- or nutlin-3a-mediated toxicity and promoted malignant transformation in colon cancer cells. Our findings show for the first time that PXR expression modulates p53 target gene promoter binding and contributes to the downregulation of p53 function in human colon cancer cells. These results define the functional significance of PXR expression in modulating p53-mediated mechanisms of tumor suppression. PMID:27547448

  18. Transactivation of the proximal promoter of human oxytocin gene by TR4 orphan receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-P.; Lee, Y.-F.; Chang, C.; Lee, H.-J. . E-mail: hjlee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2006-12-08

    The human testicular receptor 4 (TR4) shares structural homology with members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Some other members of this superfamily were able to regulate the transcriptional activity of the human oxytocin (OXT) promoter by binding to the first DR0 regulatory site. However, little investigation was conducted systematically in the study of the second dDR4 site of OXT proximal promoter, and the relationship between the first and the second sites of OXT promoter. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that TR4 could increase the proximal promoter activity of the human OXT gene via DR0, dDR4, and OXT (both DR0 and dDR4) elements, respectively. TR4 might induce OXT gene expression through the OXT element in a dose-dependent manner. However, there is no synergistic effect between DR0 and dDR4 elements during TR4 transactivation. Taken together, these results suggested that TR4 should be one of important regulators of OXT gene expression.

  19. Endotoxin promotes neutrophil hierarchical chemotaxis via the p38-membrane receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Zhang, Yisen; Zhang, Huafeng; Sun, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in peripheral blood and play critical a role in bacterial infection, tumor immunity and wound repair. Clarifying the process of neutrophil chemotaxis to target sites of immune activity has been a focus of increased interest within the past decade. In bacterial infectious foci, neutrophils migrate toward the bacterial-derived chemoattractant N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and ignore other intermediary chemoattractants to arrive at the area of infection. Using an under agarose chemotaxis assay, we observed that the bacterial fMLP-induced neutrophil chemotaxis signal overrode interleukin 8 (IL-8)- and leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-induced chemotaxis signals. Moreover, in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the fMLP-induced hierarchical chemotaxis signal was enhanced. Further studies revealed that LPS increased the membrane expression of the fMLP receptor, formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). However, expression levels of the membrane receptors for IL-8 and LTB4 were decreased by LPS administration. A human Phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteome array showed that the p38 pathway was significantly activated by LPS stimulation. Moreover, p38 was responsible for the altered expression of neutrophil membrane chemoattractant receptors. Inhibition of neutrophil p38 restored LPS-improved hierarchical chemotaxis. Taken together, these data indicate that endotoxin promotes neutrophil hierarchical chemotaxis via the p38-membrane receptor pathway. PMID:27655676

  20. Sustained neurotensin exposure promotes cell surface recruitment of NTS2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Perron, Amelie; Sharif, Nadder; Gendron, Louis; Lavallee, Mariette; Stroh, Thomas; Mazella, Jean; Beaudet, Alain . E-mail: abeaudet@frsq.gouv.qc.ca

    2006-05-12

    In this study, we investigated whether persistent agonist stimulation of NTS2 receptors gives rise to down-regulation, in light of reports that their activation induced long-lasting effects. To address this issue, we incubated COS-7 cells expressing the rat NTS2 with neurotensin (NT) for up to 24 h and measured resultant cell surface [{sup 125}I]-NT binding. We found that NTS2-expressing cells retained the same surface receptor density despite efficient internalization mechanisms. This preservation was neither due to NTS2 neosynthesis nor recycling since it was not blocked by cycloheximide or monensin. However, it appeared to involve translocation of spare receptors from internal stores, as NT induced NTS2 migration from trans-Golgi network to endosome-like structures. This stimulation-induced regulation of cell surface NTS2 receptors was even more striking in rat spinal cord neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that sustained NTS2 activation promotes recruitment of intracellular receptors to the cell surface, thereby preventing functional desensitization.

  1. C-type lectin-like receptor LOX-1 promotes dendritic cell-mediated class-switched B cell responses.

    PubMed

    Joo, HyeMee; Li, Dapeng; Dullaers, Melissa; Kim, Tae-Whan; Duluc, Dorothee; Upchurch, Katherine; Xue, Yaming; Zurawski, Sandy; Le Grand, Roger; Liu, Yong-Jun; Kuroda, Marcelo; Zurawski, Gerard; Oh, SangKon

    2014-10-16

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a pattern-recognition receptor for a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands. However, LOX-1 function in the host immune response is not fully understood. Here, we report that LOX-1 expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells promotes humoral responses. On B cells LOX-1 signaling upregulated CCR7, promoting cellular migration toward lymphoid tissues. LOX-1 signaling on DCs licensed the cells to promote B cell differentiation into class-switched plasmablasts and led to downregulation of chemokine receptor CXCR5 and upregulation of chemokine receptor CCR10 on plasmablasts, enabling their exit from germinal centers and migration toward local mucosa and skin. Finally, we found that targeting influenza hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) subunit to LOX-1 elicited HA1-specific protective antibody responses in rhesus macaques. Thus, LOX-1 expressed on B cells and DC cells has complementary functions to promote humoral immune responses.

  2. AMPA-Kainate Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neurologic Recovery in Premature Rabbits with Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dohare, Preeti; Zia, Muhammad T.; Ahmed, Ehsan; Ahmed, Asad; Yadala, Vivek; Schober, Alexandra L.; Ortega, Juan Alberto; Kayton, Robert; Ungvari, Zoltan; Mongin, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    of survivors with IVH develop cerebral palsy and cognitive deficits. The development of IVH leads to inflammation of the periventricular white matter, apoptosis and arrested maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and hypomyelination. Here, we show that AMPA-kainate receptor inhibition by NBQX suppresses inflammation, attenuates apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and promotes myelination as well as clinical recovery in preterm rabbits with IVH. Importantly, AMPA-specific inhibition by the FDA-approved perampanel, which unlike NBQX has a low side-effect profile, also enhances myelination and neurological recovery in rabbits with IVH. Hence, the present study highlights the role of AMPA-kainate receptor in IVH-induced white matter injury and identifies a novel strategy of neuroprotection, which might improve the neurological outcome for premature infants with IVH. PMID:26985043

  3. AT2 receptor non-peptide agonist C21 promotes natriuresis in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Quaisar; Hussain, Tahir

    2012-06-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptors have a role in natriuresis in obese Zucker rats (OZR). In the present study, we investigated the role of a novel, non-peptide agonist, C21, in natriuresis via AT(2) receptor activation in OZR. Infusion of C21 (1 and 5 μg kg(-1) min(-1)) into rats under anesthesia caused a dose-dependent increase in urine flow (UF) and urinary Na volume (U(Na)V). These effects of C21 were blocked by pre-infusion of the AT(2) receptor antagonist, PD123319, (50 μg kg(-1) min(-1)), suggesting involvement of the AT(2) receptor. Infusion of C21 (5 μg kg(-1) min(-1)) significantly increased the fractional excretion of sodium without changing the glomerular filtration rate or blood pressure, suggesting a tubular effect. Similarly, C21 infusion increased the fractional excretion of lithium, suggesting a proximal tubular effect. Furthermore, we tested the effect of C21 on natriuresis after blocking two main, distal-nephron Na transporters, the epithelial Na channels (ENaC), with amiloride (AM, 3 mg kg(-1) body wt), and the NaCl cotransporters (NCC), with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ, 7 mg kg(-1) body wt). Infusion of AM + BFTZ caused significant increases in both diuresis and natriuresis, which were further increased by infusion of C21 (5 μg kg(-1) min(-1)). Natriuresis in response to C21 was associated with increases in urinary NO and cGMP levels. The data indicate that the AT(2) receptor agonist, C21, promotes natriuresis via AT(2) receptor activation and that this effect is potentially based in the proximal tubules and linked to the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. The natriuretic response to C21 may have therapeutic significance by improving kidney function in obesity.

  4. Glycone-rich Soy Isoflavone Extracts Promote Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kailee A; Vemuri, Sravan; Alsahafi, Sameerh; Castillo, Rudy; Cheriyath, Venugopalan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the association of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with breast cancer risk, estrogenically active soy isoflavones are considered as an HRT alternative to alleviate menopausal symptoms. However, several recent reports challenged the health benefits of soy isoflavones and associated them with breast cancer promotion. While glyconic isoflavones are the major constituents of soybean seeds, due to their low cell permeability, they are considered to be biologically inactive. The glyconic isoflavones may exert their effects on membrane-bound estrogen receptors or could be converted to aglycones by extracellular β-glucosidases. Therefore, we hypothesized that despite their low cell permeability, soybean cultivars with high glyconic isoflavones may promote breast cancer cell growth. To test this, composition and estrogenic activity of isoflavones from 54 commercial soybean cultivars were determined. Soybean seeds produced in identical climate and growth conditions were used to minimize the effects of extraneous factors on isoflavone profile and concentrations. The glyconic daidzin concentration negatively correlated with genistin and with other aglycones. Relative to control, isoflavone extracts from 51 cultivars were estrogenic and promoted the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cell line MCF-7 from 1.14 to 4.59 folds and other three cultivars slightly reduced the growth. Among these, extracts from three cultivars were highly estrogenic and promoted MCF-7 cell growth by 2.59-4.64 folds (P<0.005). Among six isoflavones, daidzin was positively associated with MCF-7 cell growth (P<0.005, r = 0.13966), whereas the negative correlation between genistin and MCF-7 cell growth was nearly significant (P≤0.0562, r = -0.026141). Furthermore, in drug interaction studies daidzin-rich isoflavone extracts antagonized tamoxifen, an ER inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that the glyconic daidzin-rich soy isoflavone extracts may exert estrogenic

  5. Phosphorylation of histone H3 is functionally linked to retinoic acid receptor β promoter activation

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Bruno; Ozato, Keiko; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) is a multistep process culminating in the formation of a multimeric co-activator complex on regulated promoters. Several co-activator complexes harbor an acetyl transferase activity, which is required for retinoid-induced transcription of reporter genes. Using murine P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, we examined the relationship between histone post-translational modifications and activation of the endogenous RARβ2 promoter, which is under the control of a canonical retinoic acid response element and rapidly induced upon retinoid treatment. While histones H3 and H4 were constitutively acetylated at this promoter, retinoid agonists induced a rapid phosphorylation at Ser10 of histone H3. A retinoid antagonist, whose activity was independent of co-repressor binding to RAR, could oppose this agonist-induced H3 phosphorylation. Since such post-translational modifications were not observed at several other promoters, we conclude that histone H3 phosphorylation may be a molecular signature of the activated, retinoid-controlled mRARβ2 gene promoter. PMID:11897660

  6. Goat activin receptor type IIB knockdown by muscle specific promoter driven artificial microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amrutlal K; Shah, Ravi K; Patel, Utsav A; Tripathi, Ajai K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-10-10

    Activin receptor type IIB (ACVR2B) is a transmembrane receptor which mediates signaling of TGF beta superfamily ligands known to function in regulation of muscle mass, embryonic development and reproduction. ACVR2B antagonism has shown to enhance the muscle growth in several disease and transgenic models. Here, we show ACVR2B knockdown by RNA interference using muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter driven artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs). Among the various promoter elements tested, the ∼1.26 kb MCK promoter region showed maximum transcriptional activity in goat myoblasts cells. We observed up to 20% silencing in non-myogenic 293T cells and up to 32% silencing in myogenic goat myoblasts by MCK directed amiRNAs by transient transfection. Goat myoblasts stably integrated with MCK directed amiRNAs showed merely 8% silencing in proliferating myoblasts which was increased to 34% upon induction of differentiation at transcript level whereas up to 57% silencing at protein level. Knockdown of ACVR2B by 5'-UTR derived amiRNAs resulted in decreased SMAD2/3 signaling, increased expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and enhanced proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Unexpectedly, knockdown of ACVR2B by 3'-UTR derived amiRNAs resulted in increased SMAD2/3 signaling, reduced expression of MRFs and suppression of myogenesis. Our study offers muscle specific knockdown of ACVR2B as a potential strategy to enhance muscle mass in the farm animal species.

  7. Characterization of the promoter of human CRTh2, a prostaglandin D{sub 2} receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Quapp, Russell; Madsen, Norman; Cameron, Lisa

    2007-11-30

    Chemoattractant-receptor homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTh2) is a receptor for prostaglandin (PG)D{sub 2}, a lipid mediator involved in allergic inflammation. CRTh2 is expressed by Th2 cells, eosinophils and basophils and PDG{sub 2}-CRTh2 signaling induces calcium mobilization, cell migration and expression of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Despite the role of CRTh2 in allergic inflammation, transcriptional regulation of this gene has not been studied. Here, we demonstrated that a reporter construct of the CRTh2 promoter was induced following T cell stimulation. This activity could be further enhanced by over-expression of GATA-3, but not NFAT2 or STAT6. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated GATA-3 binding to a probe from the CRTh2 promoter. This study provides the first detailed analysis of transcriptional regulation of the human CRTh2 promoter. These findings may help identify strategies to attenuate expression of this gene and influence the maintenance and proliferation of Th2 cells in allergic inflammation.

  8. Longevity and diet. Myth or pragmatism?

    PubMed

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-12-01

    Longevity is a very complex phenomenon, because many environmental, behavioral, socio-demographic and dietary factors influence the physiological pathways of aging and life-expectancy. Nutrition has been recognized to have an important impact on overall mortality and morbidity; and its role in extending life expectancy has been the object of extensive scientific research. This paper reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms that potentially link aging with diet and the scientific evidence supporting the anti-aging effect of the traditional Mediterranean diet, as well as of some specific foods. The diet and several of its components have additionally been shown to have beneficial effects on the co-morbidities typical of elderly populations. Furthermore, the epigenetic effects of diet on the aging process - through calorie restriction and the consumption of foods like red wine, orange juice, probiotics and prebiotics - have attracted scientific interest. Some, such as dark chocolate, red wine, nuts, beans, avocados are being promoted as anti-aging foods, due to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Finally, an important moderator in the relationship between diet, longevity and human health remains the socio-economic status of individual, as a healthy diet, due to its higher cost, is closely related to higher financial and educational status.

  9. A Novel 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase That Regulates Reproductive Development and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Wollam, Joshua; Magner, Daniel B.; Magomedova, Lilia; Rass, Elisabeth; Shen, Yidong; Rottiers, Veerle; Habermann, Bianca; Cummins, Carolyn L.; Antebi, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous small molecule metabolites that regulate animal longevity are emerging as a novel means to influence health and life span. In C. elegans, bile acid-like steroids called the dafachronic acids (DAs) regulate developmental timing and longevity through the conserved nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, a homolog of mammalian sterol-regulated receptors LXR and FXR. Using metabolic genetics, mass spectrometry, and biochemical approaches, we identify new activities in DA biosynthesis and characterize an evolutionarily conserved short chain dehydrogenase, DHS-16, as a novel 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Through regulation of DA production, DHS-16 controls DAF-12 activity governing longevity in response to signals from the gonad. Our elucidation of C. elegans bile acid biosynthetic pathways reveals the possibility of novel ligands as well as striking biochemical conservation to other animals, which could illuminate new targets for manipulating longevity in metazoans. PMID:22505847

  10. A novel fibroblast growth factor receptor family member promotes neuronal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity in aplysia.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Daniela D; Minh, Bui Quang; Cicvaric, Ana; Monje, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptors (FGFRs) regulate essential biological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cellular growth and memory-related long-term synaptic plasticity. Whereas canonical FGFRs depend exclusively on extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains for ligand binding, other receptor types, including members of the tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) family, use either Ig-like or Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) motifs, or both. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events leading to the differential incorporation of LRR domains into Ig-containing tyrosine kinase receptors. Moreover, although FGFRs have been identified in many vertebrate species, few reports describe their existence in invertebrates. Information about the biological relevance of invertebrate FGFRs and evolutionary divergences between them and their vertebrate counterparts is therefore limited. Here, we characterized ApLRRTK, a neuronal cell-surface protein recently identified in Aplysia. We unveiled ApLRRTK as the first member of the FGFRs family deprived of Ig-like domains that instead contains extracellular LRR domains. We describe that ApLRRTK exhibits properties typical of canonical vertebrate FGFRs, including promotion of FGF activity, enhancement of neuritic outgrowth and signaling via MAPK and the transcription factor CREB. ApLRRTK also enhanced the synaptic efficiency of neurons known to mediate in vivo memory-related defensive behaviors. These data reveal a novel molecular regulator of neuronal function in invertebrates, provide the first evolutionary linkage between LRR proteins and FGFRs and unveil an unprecedented mechanism of FGFR gene diversification in primeval central nervous systems.

  11. Functional diversity of Robo receptor immunoglobulin domains promotes distinct axon guidance decisions.

    PubMed

    Evans, Timothy A; Bashaw, Greg J

    2010-03-23

    Recognition molecules of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily control axon guidance in the developing nervous system. Ig-like domains are among the most widely represented protein domains in the human genome, and the number of Ig superfamily proteins is strongly correlated with cellular complexity. In Drosophila, three Roundabout (Robo) Ig superfamily receptors respond to their common Slit ligand to regulate axon guidance at the midline: Robo and Robo2 mediate midline repulsion, Robo2 and Robo3 control longitudinal pathway selection, and Robo2 can promote midline crossing. How these closely related receptors mediate distinct guidance functions is not understood. We report that the differential functions of Robo2 and Robo3 are specified by their ectodomains and do not reflect differences in cytoplasmic signaling. Functional modularity of Robo2's ectodomain facilitates multiple guidance decisions: Ig1 and Ig3 of Robo2 confer lateral positioning activity, whereas Ig2 confers promidline crossing activity. Robo2's distinct functions are not dependent on greater Slit affinity but are instead due in part to differences in multimerization and receptor-ligand stoichiometry conferred by Robo2's Ig domains. Together, our findings suggest that diverse responses to the Slit guidance cue are imparted by intrinsic structural differences encoded in the extracellular Ig domains of the Robo receptors.

  12. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  13. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  14. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  15. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  16. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  17. Longevity Of Dry Film Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Stockwell, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes evaluation of dry film lubricants candidate for use in rotary joints of proposed Space Station. Study included experiments and theoretical analyses focused on longevity of sputtered molybdenum disulfide films and ion-plated lead films under conditions partially simulating rolling contact.

  18. Loco signaling pathway in longevity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuh-Ru; Parikh, Hardik; Park, Yongkyu

    2011-05-01

    Despite the various roles of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein in the G protein signaling pathway that have been defined, the function of RGS has not been characterized in longevity signaling pathways. We found that reduced expression of Loco, a Drosophila RGS protein, resulted in a longer lifespan of flies with stronger resistance to stress, higher MnSOD activity and increased fat content. In contrast, overexpression of the loco gene shortened the fly lifespan significantly, lowered stress resistance and reduced fat content, also indicating that the RGS domain containing GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity is related to the regulation of longevity. Interestingly, expressional changes of yeast RGS2 and rat RGS14, homologs to the fly Loco, also affected oxidative stress resistance and longevity in the respective species. It is known that Loco inactivates inhibitory Gαi•GTP protein to reduce activity of adenylate cyclase (AC) and RGS14 interacts with activated H-Ras and Raf-1 kinases, which subsequently inhibits ERK phosphorylation. We propose that Loco/RGS14 protein may regulate stress resistance and longevity as an activator in AC-cAMP-PKA pathway and/or as a molecular scaffold that sequesters active Ras and Raf from Ras•GTP-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Consistently, our data showed that downregulation of Loco significantly diminishes cAMP amounts and increases p-ERK levels with higher resistance to the oxidative stress.

  19. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert D.; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism. PMID:21461047

  20. Typologies of extreme longevity myths.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert D; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  1. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  2. Longevity of Native Wildflower Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildflowers and forbs used for production, plantings and restoration generally exhibit ‘orthodox’ storage behavior, meaning that longevity can be adjusted by balancing storage relative humidity and temperature. An RH of about 20 to 30% at the storage temperature provides optimum moisture condition...

  3. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor promoter 1(7) in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Witzmann, Simone R; Turner, Jonathan D; Mériaux, Sophie B; Meijer, Onno C; Muller, Claude P

    2012-11-01

    Regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels is an important stress adaptation mechanism. Transcription factor Nfgi-a and environmentally induced Gr promoter 1 7 methylation have been implicated in fine-tuning the expression of Gr 1 7 transcripts. Here, we investigated Gr promoter 1 7 methylation and Gr 1 7 expression in adult rats exposed to either acute or chronic stress paradigms. A strong negative correlation was observed between the sum of promoter-wide methylation levels and Gr 1 7 transcript levels, independent of the stressor. Methylation of individual sites did not, however, correlate with transcript levels. This suggested that promoter 1 7 was directly regulated by promoter-wide DNA methylation. Although acute stress increased Ngfi-a expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), Gr 1 7 transcript levels remained unaffected despite low methylation levels. Acute stress had little effect on these low methylation levels, except at four hippocampal CpGs. Chronic stress altered the corticosterone response to an acute stressor. In the adrenal and pituitary glands, but not in the brain, this was accompanied by an increase in methylation levels in orchestrated clusters rather than individual CpGs. PVN methylation levels, unaffected by acute or chronic stress, were significantly more variable within- than between-groups, suggesting that they were instated probably during the perinatal period and represent a pre-established trait. Thus, in addition to the known perinatal programming, the Gr 1 7 promoter is epigenetically regulated by chronic stress in adulthood, and retains promoter-wide tissue-specific plasticity. Differences in methylation susceptibility between the PVN in the perinatal period and the peripheral HPA axis tissues in adulthood may represent an important "trait" vs. "state" regulation of the Gr gene.

  4. Fat chance for longevity

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of specific fatty acids and physiological roles of fat metabolism are important subjects that are still poorly understood. In this issue of Genes & Development, O'Rourke and colleagues (pp. 429–440) uncovered a role for lipase-generated ω-6 fatty acids in promoting autophagy and, consequently, life span extension under both fed and fasting conditions. The impact of this finding is discussed with regard to the nutritional value of ω-6 fatty acids and regulatory functions of fat metabolism beyond its well-known role in energy storage. PMID:23431052

  5. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Relays Metabolic Signals to Promote Cellular Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    While sensing the cell environment, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) interacts with different pathways involved in cellular homeostasis. This review summarizes evidence suggesting that cellular regeneration in the context of aging and diseases can be modulated by AHR signaling on stem cells. New insights connect orphaned observations into AHR interactions with critical signaling pathways such as WNT to propose a role of this ligand-activated transcription factor in the modulation of cellular regeneration by altering pathways that nurture cellular expansion such as changes in the metabolic efficiency rather than by directly altering cell cycling, proliferation, or cell death. Targeting the AHR to promote regeneration might prove to be a useful strategy to avoid unbalanced disruptions of homeostasis that may promote disease and also provide biological rationale for potential regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:27563312

  6. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-04-04

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches.

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor protects against bacterial infection by promoting macrophage survival and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akihiro; Abe, Hiromi; Tsuruta, Sanae; Chiba, Sayuri; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Sekiya, Takashi; Morita, Rimpei; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2014-04-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is crucial for various immune responses. The relationship between AhR and infection with the intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is poorly understood. Here, we show that in response to LM infection, AhR is required for bacterial clearance by promoting macrophage survival and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. AhR-deficient mice were more susceptible to listeriosis, and AhR deficiency enhances bacterial growth in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased in AhR-deficient macrophages infected with LM despite enhanced susceptibility to LM infection in AhR-deficient mice. Subsequent studies demonstrate that AhR protects against macrophage cell death induced by LM infection through the induction of the antiapoptotic factor, the apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages, which promotes macrophage survival in the setting of LM infection. Furthermore, AhR promotes ROS production for bacterial clearance. Our results demonstrate that AhR is essential to the resistance against LM infection as it promotes macrophage survival and ROS production. This suggests that the activation of AhR by its ligands may be an effective strategy against listeriosis.

  8. Methylation Status of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Promoter in Benign and Malignant Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, Catia; Rebellato, Andrea; Urbanet, Riccardo; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Cappellesso, Rocco; Sasano, Hironobu; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed a decreased expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA/protein in a small group of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) tissues, suggesting the loss of a protective role of VDR against malignant cell growth in this cancer type. Downregulation of VDR gene expression may result from epigenetics events, that is, methylation of cytosine nucleotide of CpG islands in VDR gene promoter. We analyzed methylation of CpG sites in the VDR gene promoter in normal adrenals and adrenocortical tumor samples. Methylation of CpG-rich 5′ regions was assessed by bisulfite sequencing PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from archival microdissected paraffin-embedded adrenocortical tissues. Three normal adrenals and 23 various adrenocortical tumor samples (15 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) were studied. Methylation in the promoter region of VDR gene was found in 3/8 ACCs, while no VDR gene methylation was observed in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas. VDR mRNA and protein levels were lower in ACCs than in benign tumors, and VDR immunostaining was weak or negative in ACCs, including all 3 methylated tissue samples. The association between VDR gene promoter methylation and reduced VDR gene expression is not a rare event in ACC, suggesting that VDR epigenetic inactivation may have a role in adrenocortical carcinogenesis. PMID:26843863

  9. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darrion L.; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  10. Exceptional longevity in female Rottweiler dogs is not encumbered by investment in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kengeri, S S; Maras, A H; Suckow, C L; Chiang, E C; Waters, D J

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the potential trade-off between female reproductive investment and longevity in an emerging model of human healthspan, we studied pet dogs to determine whether intensity of reproduction (total number of offspring) encumbered the likelihood of exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, including complete reproductive histories, for a cohort of canine "centenarians"--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than the breed's average life expectancy. Reproductive intensity (number of litters, total number of pups) and tempo of reproductive effort (age at first reproduction, mean interbirth interval, age at last reproduction) in 78 exceptionally long-lived female Rottweilers (>13 years old) were compared to a cohort of 97 female Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death 8.0-10.75 years). We found no evidence that a mother's physiological investment in offspring was associated with disadvantaged longevity. Instead, similar to some studies in women, our data showed an inverted U-shaped trend, suggesting that moderate investment in reproduction may promote longevity. Late reproductive success, a much-studied surrogate of maternal fitness in women, was not a strong predictor of longevity in this canine cohort. Instead, independent of reproductive investment, the duration of lifetime ovary exposure was significantly associated with highly successful aging. Our results from exceptionally long-lived pet dogs provide rationale for further investigative efforts to understand the ovary-sensitive biological factors that promote healthy longevity in women and pet dogs.

  11. Abluminal stimulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors 1 and 3 promotes and stabilizes endothelial sprout formation.

    PubMed

    Das, Anusuya; Lenz, Steven M; Awojoodu, Anthony O; Botchwey, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    Local delivery of lipid mediators has become a promising new approach for therapeutic angiogenesis and regenerative medicine. In this study, we investigated how gradient stimulation (either abluminal/distal or luminal/proximal) of engineered microvessels with sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-subtype-targeted molecules affects endothelial sprout growth using a microfluidic device. Our studies show that distal stimulation of microvessels with FTY720, an S1P1/3 selective agonist, promotes both arterial and venular sprout growth, whereas proximal stimulation does not. Using novel pharmacological antagonists of S1P receptor subtypes, we further show that S1P3 functionality is necessary for VEGF-induced sprouting, and confirmed these findings ex vivo using a murine aortic ring assay from S1P3-deficient mice. S1P3 agonist stimulation enhanced vascular stability in both cell types via upregulation of the interendothelial junction protein VE-cadherin. Lastly, S1P3 activation under flow promoted endothelial sprouting and branching while decreasing migratory cell fate in the microfluidic device. We used an in vivo murine dorsal skinfold window chamber model to confirm S1P3's role in neovascular branching. Together, these data suggest that a distal transendothelial gradient of S1P1/3-targeted drugs is an effective technique for both enhancing and stabilizing capillary morphogenesis in angiogenic applications.

  12. Structure of the gene for human. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor: expression and promoter characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Emorine, L.J.; Marullo, S.; Delavier-Klutchko, C.; Kaveri, S.V.; Durieu-Trautmann, O.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-10-01

    The genomic gene coding for the human ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor (..beta../sub 2/AR) from A431 epidermoid cells has been isolated. Transfection of the gene into eukaryotic cells restores a fully active receptor/GTP-binding protein/adenylate cyclase complex with ..beta../sub 2/AR properties. Southern blot analyses with ..beta../sub 2/AR-specific probes show that a single ..beta../sub 2/AR gene is common to various human tissues and that its flanking sequences are highly conserved among humans and between man and rabbit, mouse, and hamster. Functional significance of these regions is supported by the presence of a promoter region (including mRNA cap sites, two TATA boxes, a CAAT box, and three G + C-rich regions that resemble binding sites for transcription factor Sp1) 200-300 base pairs 5' to the translation initiation codon. In the 3' flanking region, sequences homologous to glucocorticoid-response elements might be responsible for the increased expression of the ..beta../sub 2/AR gene observed after treatment of the transfected cells with hydrocortisone. In addition, 5' to the promoter region, an open reading frame encodes a 251-residue polypeptide that displays striking homologies with protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins.

  13. Leptin promotes proliferation and metastasis of human gallbladder cancer through OB-Rb leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hao; Liu, Yunxia; Wei, Dong; Wang, Tao; Wang, Kun; Huang, Songquan; Liu, Lixin; Li, Yuehua; Ge, Jiayun; Li, Xiao; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lianmin; Zhao, Songling; Zhang, Xiaowen; Wang, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that leptin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine that is closely associated with obesity, play a significant role in carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis. However, its impact on gallbladder cancer (GBC) remains unclear. In this study, we firstly found that leptin and its functional receptor OB-Rb were significantly co-expressed in human GBC tissues and cell lines, the content of which were higher than those in normal human gallbladder tissues. Treatment with leptin promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of GBC cells, which were attenuated by OB-Rb shRNA. Blocking in the G2/M period of cell cycle, increasing of MMP3 and MMP9, increasing of VEGF-C/D, activation of SOCS3/JAK2/p-STAT3 pathway was demonstrated after treatment with leptin. All of these positive responses were attenuated by OB-Rb receptor shRNA. Taken together, our findings suggest that leptin promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of GBC cells by increasing OB-Rb expression through the SOCS3/JAK2/p-STAT3 signal pathway. Targeting the leptin/OB-Rb axis could be an attractive therapeutic strategy for treatment of GBC.

  14. Impaired SUMOylation of nuclear receptor LRH-1 promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Stein, Sokrates; Lemos, Vera; Xu, Pan; Demagny, Hadrien; Wang, Xu; Ryu, Dongryeol; Jimenez, Veronica; Bosch, Fatima; Lüscher, Thomas F; Oosterveer, Maaike H; Schoonjans, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis is caused by metabolic imbalances that could be explained in part by an increase in de novo lipogenesis that results from increased sterol element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) activity. The nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) is an important regulator of intermediary metabolism in the liver, but its role in regulating lipogenesis is not well understood. Here, we have assessed the contribution of LRH-1 SUMOylation to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice expressing a SUMOylation-defective mutant of LRH-1 (LRH-1 K289R mice) developed NAFLD and early signs of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) when challenged with a lipogenic, high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Moreover, we observed that the LRH-1 K289R mutation induced the expression of oxysterol binding protein-like 3 (OSBPL3), enhanced SREBP-1 processing, and promoted de novo lipogenesis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of OSBPL3 facilitates SREBP-1 processing in WT mice, while silencing hepatic Osbpl3 reverses the lipogenic phenotype of LRH-1 K289R mice. These findings suggest that compromised SUMOylation of LRH-1 promotes the development of NAFLD under lipogenic conditions through regulation of OSBPL3.

  15. Abluminal Stimulation of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptors 1 and 3 Promotes and Stabilizes Endothelial Sprout Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Steven M.; Awojoodu, Anthony O.

    2015-01-01

    Local delivery of lipid mediators has become a promising new approach for therapeutic angiogenesis and regenerative medicine. In this study, we investigated how gradient stimulation (either abluminal/distal or luminal/proximal) of engineered microvessels with sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-subtype-targeted molecules affects endothelial sprout growth using a microfluidic device. Our studies show that distal stimulation of microvessels with FTY720, an S1P1/3 selective agonist, promotes both arterial and venular sprout growth, whereas proximal stimulation does not. Using novel pharmacological antagonists of S1P receptor subtypes, we further show that S1P3 functionality is necessary for VEGF-induced sprouting, and confirmed these findings ex vivo using a murine aortic ring assay from S1P3-deficient mice. S1P3 agonist stimulation enhanced vascular stability in both cell types via upregulation of the interendothelial junction protein VE-cadherin. Lastly, S1P3 activation under flow promoted endothelial sprouting and branching while decreasing migratory cell fate in the microfluidic device. We used an in vivo murine dorsal skinfold window chamber model to confirm S1P3's role in neovascular branching. Together, these data suggest that a distal transendothelial gradient of S1P1/3-targeted drugs is an effective technique for both enhancing and stabilizing capillary morphogenesis in angiogenic applications. PMID:25315888

  16. Macropinocytosis of the PDGF β-receptor promotes fibroblast transformation by H-RasG12V

    PubMed Central

    Schmees, C.; Villaseñor, R.; Zheng, W.; Ma, H.; Zerial, M.; Heldin, C.-H.; Hellberg, C.

    2012-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling is frequently increased in tumor cells, sometimes as a result of decreased receptor down-regulation. The extent to which the endocytic trafficking routes can contribute to such RTK hyperactivation is unclear. Here, we show for the first time that fibroblast transformation by H-RasG12V induces the internalization of platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor (PDGFRβ) by macropinocytosis, enhancing its signaling activity and increasing anchorage-independent proliferation. H-RasG12V transformation and PDGFRβ activation were synergistic in stimulating phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity, leading to receptor macropinocytosis. PDGFRβ macropinocytosis was both necessary and sufficient for enhanced receptor activation. Blocking macropinocytosis by inhibition of PI 3-kinase prevented the increase in receptor activity in transformed cells. Conversely, increasing macropinocytosis by Rabankyrin-5 overexpression was sufficient to enhance PDGFRβ activation in nontransformed cells. Simultaneous stimulation with PDGF-BB and epidermal growth factor promoted macropinocytosis of both receptors and increased their activation in nontransformed cells. We propose that H-Ras transformation promotes tumor progression by enhancing growth factor receptor signaling as a result of increased receptor macropinocytosis. PMID:22573884

  17. G-protein coupled receptor BAI3 promotes myoblast fusion in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hamoud, Noumeira; Tran, Viviane; Croteau, Louis-Philippe; Kania, Artur; Côté, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Muscle fibers form as a result of myoblast fusion, yet the cell surface receptors regulating this process are unknown in vertebrates. In Drosophila, myoblast fusion involves the activation of the Rac pathway by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Myoblast City and its scaffolding protein ELMO, downstream of cell-surface cell-adhesion receptors. We previously showed that the mammalian ortholog of Myoblast City, DOCK1, functions in an evolutionarily conserved manner to promote myoblast fusion in mice. In search for regulators of myoblast fusion, we identified the G-protein coupled receptor brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI3) as a cell surface protein that interacts with ELMO. In cultured cells, BAI3 or ELMO1/2 loss of function severely impaired myoblast fusion without affecting differentiation and cannot be rescued by reexpression of BAI3 mutants deficient in ELMO binding. The related BAI protein family member, BAI1, is functionally distinct from BAI3, because it cannot rescue the myoblast fusion defects caused by the loss of BAI3 function. Finally, embryonic muscle precursor expression of a BAI3 mutant unable to bind ELMO was sufficient to block myoblast fusion in vivo. Collectively, our findings provide a role for BAI3 in the relay of extracellular fusion signals to their intracellular effectors, identifying it as an essential transmembrane protein for embryonic vertebrate myoblast fusion. PMID:24567399

  18. Paeoniflorin Promotes Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Adenosine A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Rui; Sun, Yu; Luo, Yan-Jia; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2016-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF, C23H28O11), one of the principal active ingredients of Paeonia Radix, exerts depressant effects on the central nervous system. We determined whether PF could modulate sleep behaviors and the mechanisms involved. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings in mice showed that intraperitoneal PF administered at a dose of 25 or 50 mg/kg significantly shortened the sleep latency and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM). Immunohistochemical study revealed that PF decreased c-fos expression in the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). The sleep-promoting effects and changes in c-fos induced by PF were reversed by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, and PF-induced sleep was not observed in adenosine A1 receptor knockout mice. Whole-cell patch clamping in mouse brain slices showed that PF significantly decreased the firing frequency of histaminergic neurons in TMN, which could be completely blocked by CPT. These results indicate that PF increased NREM sleep by inhibiting the histaminergic system via A1 receptors.

  19. Longevity and ageing: appraising the evolutionary consequences of growing old

    PubMed Central

    Bonsall, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    Senescence or ageing is an increase in mortality and/or decline in fertility with increasing age. Evolutionary theories predict that ageing or longevity evolves in response to patterns of extrinsic mortality or intrinsic damage. If ageing is viewed as the outcome of the processes of behaviour, growth and reproduction then it should be possible to predict mortality rate. Recent developments have shown that it is now possible to integrate these ecological and physiological processes and predict the shape of mortality trajectories. By drawing on the key exciting developments in the cellular, physiological and ecological process of longevity the evolutionary consequences of ageing are reviewed. In presenting these ideas an evolutionary demographic framework is used to argue how trade-offs in life-history strategies are important in the maintenance of variation in longevity within and between species. Evolutionary processes associated with longevity have an important role in explaining levels of biological diversity and speciation. In particular, the effects of life-history trait trade-offs in maintaining and promoting species diversity are explored. Such trade-offs can alleviate the effects of intense competition between species and promote species coexistence and diversification. These results have important implications for understanding a number of core ecological processes such as how species are divided among niches, how closely related species co-occur and the rules by which species assemble into food-webs. Theoretical work reveals that the proximate physiological processes are as important as the ecological factors in explaining the variation in the evolution of longevity. Possible future research challenges integrating work on the evolution and mechanisms of growing old are briefly discussed. PMID:16553312

  20. Indy Mutations and Drosophila Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Rogina, Blanka; Helfand, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased expression of the fly and worm Indy genes extends longevity. The fly Indy gene and its mammalian homolog are transporters of Krebs cycle intermediates, with the highest rate of uptake for citrate. Cytosolic citrate has a role in energy regulation by affecting fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis. Fly, worm, and mice Indy gene homologs are predominantly expressed in places important for intermediary metabolism. Consequently, decreased expression of Indy in fly and worm, and the removal of mIndy in mice exhibit changes associated with calorie restriction, such as decreased levels of lipids, changes in carbohydrate metabolism and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we report that several Indy alleles in a diverse array of genetic backgrounds confer increased longevity. PMID:23580130

  1. Cancer cell-selective promoter recognition accompanies antitumor effect by glucocorticoid receptor-targeted gold nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau, Samaresh; Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Bag, Indira; Sreedhar, Bojja; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied on the delivery of `exogenous' genes invoking gene knockdown or replacement. Practically, there are no instances for the nanoparticle-mediated promoter regulation of `endogenous' genes, more so, as a cancer selective phenomenon. In this regard, we report the development of a simple, easily modifiable GNP-formulation, which promoted/up-regulated the expression of a specific category of `endogenous' genes, the glucocorticoid responsive genes. This genetic up-regulation was induced in only cancer cells by modified GNP-mediated transcriptional activation of its cytoplasmic receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normal cells and their GR remained primarily unperturbed by this GNP-formulation. The most potent gene up-regulating GNP-formulation down-regulated a cancer-specific proliferative signal, phospho-Akt in cancer cells, which accompanied retardation of tumor growth in the murine melanoma model. We show that GR-targeted GNPs may find potential use in the targeting and modulation of genetic information in cancer towards developing novel anticancer therapeutics.Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied

  2. Statistical laws for career longevity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Alexander; Jung, Woo-Sung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2009-03-01

    Career length distinguishes successful long tenures from unsuccessful short stints, and partially reflects the contributions of an employee to the goals of the employer. In some professions, there are well-defined metrics that quantify career longevity, prowess, and productivity, which together contribute to the overall success rating for an individual employee. In this talk, I motivate a stochastic model for career development that relies on two key ingredients, random progress within the career and random stopping times terminating the career. This model is exactly solvable, predicting the probability density function (pdf) of career longevity, characterized by two parameters, α and xc. The parameter α quantifies the power-law scaling of the pdf, which is terminated by an exponential cutoff after a crossover value xc, representing the mean career lifetime. We test the model with the large quantity of empirical data available for several professional sports leagues, American baseball, Korean baseball, American basketball, and English soccer, finding excellent agreement with the model's predictions. In all, the generality of the model suggests that there may be common stochastic forces that underly progress, success, and longevity in various professions.

  3. Selective 5HT2A and 5HT6 Receptor Antagonists Promote Sleep in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morairty, Stephen R.; Hedley, Linda; Flores, Judith; Martin, Renee; Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Serotonin (5-HT) has long been implicated in the control of sleep and wakefulness. This study evaluated the hypnotic efficacy of the 5-HT6 antagonist RO4368554 (RO) and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 (MDL) relative to zolpidem. Design: A randomized, repeated-measures design was utilized in which Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of RO (1.0, 3.0, and 10 mg/kg), MDL (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), zolpidem (10 mg/kg), or vehicle in the middle of the dark (active) period. Electroencephalogram, electromyogram, body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity were analyzed for 6 hours after injection. Measurements and Results: RO, MDL, and zolpidem all produced significant increases in sleep and decreases in waking, compared with vehicle control. All 3 doses of MDL produced more consolidated sleep, increased non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) sleep, and increased electroencephalographic delta power during NREM sleep. The highest dose of RO (10.0 mg/kg) produced significant increases in sleep and decreases in waking during hour 2 following dosing. These increases in sleep duration were associated with greater delta power during NREM sleep. ZO Zolpidem induced sleep with the shortest latency and significantly increased NREM sleep and delta power but also suppressed rapid eye movement sleep sleep; in contrast, neither RO nor MDL affected rapid eye movement sleep. Whereas RO did not affect Tb, both zolpidem and MDL reduced Tb relative to vehicle-injected controls. Conclusions: These results support a role for 5-HT2A receptor modulation in NREM sleep and suggest a previously unrecognized role for 5-HT6 receptors in sleep-wake regulation. Citation: Morairty SR; Hedley L; Flores J; Martin R; Kilduff TS. Selective 5HT2A and 5HT6 receptor antagonists promote sleep in rats. SLEEP 2008;31(1):34-44. PMID:18220076

  4. Rarity of DNA sequence alterations in the promoter region of the human androgen receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Cabral, D F; Santos, A; Ribeiro, M L; Mesquita, J C; Carvalho-Salles, A B; Hackel, C

    2004-12-01

    The human androgen receptor (AR) gene promoter lies in a GC-rich region containing two principal sites of transcription initiation and a putative Sp1 protein-binding site, without typical "TATA" and "CAAT" boxes. It has been suggested that mutations within the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) may contribute to the development of prostate cancer by changing the rates of gene transcription and/or translation. In order to investigate this question, the aim of the present study was to search for the presence of mutations or polymorphisms at the AR-5'UTR in 92 prostate cancer patients, where histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was established in specimens obtained from transurethral resection or after prostatectomy. The AR-5'UTR was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA samples of the patients and of 100 healthy male blood donors, included as controls. Conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis was used for DNA sequence alteration screening. Only one band shift was detected in one individual from the blood donor group. Sequencing revealed a new single nucleotide deletion (T) in the most conserved portion of the promoter region at position +36 downstream from the transcription initiation site I. Although the effect of this specific mutation remains unknown, its rarity reveals the high degree of sequence conservation of the human androgen promoter region. Moreover, the absence of detectable variation within the critical 5'UTR in prostate cancer patients indicates a low probability of its involvement in prostate cancer etiology.

  5. Thrombomodulin promotes diabetic wound healing by regulating toll-like receptor 4 expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Lai, Chao-Han; Chen, Po-Ku; Cho, Chia-Fong; Hsu, Yun-Yan; Wang, Kuan-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ling; Chang, Bi-Ing; Liu, Shi-Kai; Wu, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Keratinocyte-expressed thrombomodulin (TM) and the released soluble TM (sTM) have been demonstrated to promote wound healing. However, the effects of high glucose on TM expression in keratinocytes and the role of TM in diabetic ulcer remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that expressions of TM and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were both downregulated in high-glucose cultured human keratinocytes and in skin keratinocytes of diabetic patients. In addition, the wound-triggered upregulation of TM and sTM production was abolished in both high-glucose cultured human keratinocytes and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse skin. Furthermore, supplementation of recombinant sTM could increase TLR4 expression and promote cutaneous wound healing in both high-glucose cultured human keratinocytes and diabetic mice. However, in Tlr4-deleted mice, which exhibited delayed wound healing, the therapeutic benefit of recombinant sTM was abrogated. Moreover, our results showed that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in keratinocytes was dose-dependently upregulated by glucose, and TNF-α treatment downregulated the expression of TM and TLR4. Taken together, high-glucose environment reduces the expression of TM and TLR4 in keratinocytes possibly through the action of TNF-α, and recombinant sTM can increase the TLR4 expression and promote wound healing under diabetic condition.

  6. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Binds to a Site in the Rat Growth Hormone Promoter Required for Induction by Thyroid Hormone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Ronald J.; Brent, Gregory A.; Warne, Robert L.; Reed Larsen, P.; Moore, David D.

    1987-08-01

    Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. We have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. We show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor.

  7. Renal function in familial longevity: the Leiden Longevity Study.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Halbesma, Nynke; Dekker, Friedo W; Wijsman, Carolien A; van Heemst, Diana; Maier, Andrea B; Mooijaart, Simon P; Slagboom, P Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Craen, Anton J M

    2014-03-01

    Studying renal function in subjects with a familial propensity for longevity may provide insight in (un)known mechanisms that determine the age-related decline in renal function of normal subjects. In the Leiden Longevity Study, middle-aged offspring of non-agenarian siblings and their partners as environmentally matched controls were included. Information was collected on lifestyle, medical history, medication use, and a non-fasting blood sample was drawn. Renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) was assessed with the Chronic Kidney Disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula. Linear mixed models were used to account for familial dependencies within the offspring and all analyses were stratified by sex. eGFR was similar between female offspring and female controls (0.44ml/min/1.73m(2) (SE 0.72) difference, p=0.54, age-adjusted). Male offspring had a higher eGFR compared to male controls (1.78ml/min/1.73m(2) (SE 0.78) difference, p=0.022, age-adjusted), and further adjustments for various characteristics did not materially change this difference. Among men with a history of hypertension, or myocardial infarction and/or stroke, offspring had a higher eGFR compared to controls (4.74ml/min/1.73m(2) (SE 1.53) difference, p=0.002, age-adjusted, and 6.21ml/min/1.73m(2) (SE 2.85) difference, p=0.033, age-adjusted, respectively). Middle-aged men, but not women, with a propensity for longevity have better renal function compared to environmentally matched controls, especially among those with a history of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Promoter hypermethylation of progesterone receptor isoform B (PR-B) in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Strawn, Estil; Basir, Zainab; Halverson, Gloria; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2006-01-01

    The physiological effects of progesterone (P) are mediated by two isoforms of progesterone receptors (PRs): PR-A and PR-B. Progestins have long been used in the treatment of endometriosis but unfortunately the relief of pain is relatively short-term. In addition, about nine percent of women with endometriosis simply do not respond to progestin therapy due to unknown reasons. In fact, a general tendency for relative progesterone resistance within eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and also the downregulation of PR-B, but not PR-A, in endometriosis have been noted. Since promoter hypermethylation is well-documented to be associated with transcriptional silencing, we sought to determine the methylation status of the PR-A and PR-B promoter regions in the epithelial component of endometriotic implants using a combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM), methylation specific PCR, and bisulfite sequencing. We found that the promoter region of PR-B, but not PR-A, is hypermethylated in endometriosis as compared with controls. In addition, the PR-B expression was significantly reduced in the ectopic endometrium. Our finding suggests that progesterone resistance in endometriosis in general and the down regulation of PR-B, but not PR-A, in particular, are a result of promoter hypermethylation of PR-B, but not PR-A. This, in conjunction with our reported aberrant methylation of HOXA10 in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis, strongly suggests that endometriosis is an epigenetic disease. This perspective should potentially open up new avenues for the delineation of pathogenesis of endometriosis, and might also lead to novel ways to treat the disease through reversing aberrant methylation via pharmacological means.

  9. Neural regulation of muscle acetylcholine receptor epsilon- and alpha- subunit gene promoters in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The effects of denervation were investigated in mice with transgenes containing promoter elements from the muscle acetylcholine receptor epsilon- and alpha-subunit genes. The promoter sequences were coupled to a nuclear localization signal-beta-galactosidase fusion gene (nlacZ) as a reporter. While many postsynaptic specializations form in the embryo, expression of the epsilon subunit is induced during the first two postnatal weeks. When muscles were denervated at birth, before the onset of epsilon expression, epsilon nlacZ still appeared at the former synaptic sites on schedule. This result suggests that the nerve leaves a localized "trace" in the muscle that can continue to regulate transcription. An additional finding was that epsilon nlacZ expression was much stronger in denervated than in intact muscles. This suggests that the epsilon promoter is similar to the other subunits in containing elements that are activated on cessation of neural activity. However, even after denervation, epsilon nlacZ expression was always confined to the synaptic region whereas alpha nlacZ expression increased in nuclei along the entire length of the fiber. This suggests that while the epsilon gene is similar in its activity dependence to other subunit genes, it is unique in that local nerve-derived signals are essential for its expression. Consequently, inactivity enhances epsilon expression only in synaptic nuclei where such signals are present, but enhances expression throughout the muscle fiber. Truncations and an internal deletion of the epsilon promoter indicate that cis-elements essential for the response to synaptic signals are contained within 280 bp of the transcription start site. In contrast to these results in young animals, denervation in older animals leads to an unexpected reduction in nlacZ activity. However, mRNA measurements indicated that transgene expression was increased in these animals. This discordance between nlacZ mRNA and enzyme activity, demonstrates a

  10. Histone Deacetylase 7 Promotes Toll-like Receptor 4-dependent Proinflammatory Gene Expression in Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Shakespear, Melanie R.; Hohenhaus, Daniel M.; Kelly, Greg M.; Kamal, Nabilah A.; Gupta, Praveer; Labzin, Larisa I.; Schroder, Kate; Garceau, Valerie; Barbero, Sheila; Iyer, Abishek; Hume, David A.; Reid, Robert C.; Irvine, Katharine M.; Fairlie, David P.; Sweet, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Broad-spectrum inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) constrain Toll-like receptor (TLR)-inducible production of key proinflammatory mediators. Here we investigated HDAC-dependent inflammatory responses in mouse macrophages. Of the classical Hdacs, Hdac7 was expressed at elevated levels in inflammatory macrophages (thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages) as compared with bone marrow-derived macrophages and the RAW264 cell line. Overexpression of a specific, alternatively spliced isoform of Hdac7 lacking the N-terminal 22 amino acids (Hdac7-u), but not the Refseq Hdac7 (Hdac7-s), promoted LPS-inducible expression of Hdac-dependent genes (Edn1, Il-12p40, and Il-6) in RAW264 cells. A novel class IIa-selective HDAC inhibitor reduced recombinant human HDAC7 enzyme activity as well as TLR-induced production of inflammatory mediators in thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages. Both LPS and Hdac7-u up-regulated the activity of the Edn1 promoter in an HDAC-dependent fashion in RAW264 cells. A hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 binding site in this promoter was required for HDAC-dependent TLR-inducible promoter activity and for Hdac7- and HIF-1α-mediated trans-activation. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that both Hdac7-u and Hdac7-s interacted with HIF-1α, whereas only Hdac7-s interacted with the transcriptional repressor CtBP1. Thus, Hdac7-u positively regulates HIF-1α-dependent TLR signaling in macrophages, whereas an interaction with CtBP1 likely prevents Hdac7-s from exerting this effect. Hdac7 may represent a potential inflammatory disease target. PMID:23853092

  11. Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0582 TITLE: Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 25 Sep 2013 - 24 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a risk factor for subsequent development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Abnormal tau

  12. Ageing, longevity, exceptional longevity and related genetic and non genetics markers: panel statement.

    PubMed

    Avery, Peter; Barzilai, Nir; Benetos, Athanase; Bilianou, Helen; Capri, Miriam; Caruso, Calogero; Franceschi, Claudio; Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Panotopoulos, George; Sikora, Ewa; Tzanetakou, Irene P; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2014-01-01

    In May 2012, a group of scientists and clinicians met in Athens (Greece) to consider the relevance of ageing, longevity, exceptional longevity and related genetic and non genetic markers. During this meeting, we firstly reviewed recent epidemiological and clinical studies on ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity, briefly analyzed the ageing theories and discussed successful and unsuccessful ageing also taking into account the evolutionary perspective. Secondly, we considered the three phenotypes based on the definition of ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity and the associated biomarkers. Third, we discussed proposed treatments suitable to counteract or slow down ageing. Finally, this panel produced a consensus statement to highlight the importance of ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity, since this is a rapidly increasing phenotype worldwide. We acknowledge that not all experts in this field may completely agree with this statement.

  13. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Downregulates MYCN Expression and Promotes Cell Differentiation of Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Yi; Liao, Yung-Feng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Wang, Bo-Jeng; Lu, Yen-Lin; Yu, I-Shing; Shih, Yu-Yin; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Lee, Hsinyu

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common malignant disease of infancy. MYCN amplification is a prognostic factor for NB and is a sign of highly malignant disease and poor patient prognosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate novel MYCN-related genes and assess how they affect NB cell behavior. The different gene expression found in 10 MYCN amplification NB tumors and 10 tumors with normal MYCN copy number were analyzed using tissue oligonucleotide microarrays. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was subsequently performed to identify the potential genes involved in MYCN regulation pathways. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a receptor for dioxin-like compounds, was found to be inversely correlated with MYCN expression in NB tissues. This correlation was confirmed in a further 14 human NB samples. Moreover, AHR expression in NB tumors was found to correlate highly with histological grade of differentiation. In vitro studies revealed that AHR overexpression in NB cells induced spontaneous cell differentiation. In addition, it was found that ectopic expression of AHR suppressed MYCN promoter activity resulting in downregulation of MYCN expression. The suppression effect of AHR on the transcription of MYCN was compensated for by E2F1 overexpression, indicating that E2F1 is involved in the AHR-regulating MYCN pathway. Furthermore, AHR shRNA promotes the expression of E2F1 and MYCN in NB cells. These findings suggest that AHR is one of the upstream regulators of MYCN. Through the modulation of E2F1, AHR regulates MYCN gene expression, which may in turn affect NB differentiation. PMID:24586395

  14. Ischemic insults promote epigenetic reprogramming of μ opioid receptor expression in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Formisano, Luigi; Noh, Kyung-Min; Miyawaki, Takahiro; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Bennett, Michael V. L.; Zukin, R. Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Transient global ischemia is a neuronal insult that induces delayed, selective death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. A mechanism underlying ischemia-induced cell death is activation of the gene silencing transcription factor REST (repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor)/NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencing factor) and REST-dependent suppression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 in CA1 neurons destined to die. Here we show that REST regulates an additional gene target, OPRM1 (μ opioid receptor 1 or MOR-1). MORs are abundantly expressed by basket cells and other inhibitory interneurons of CA1. Global ischemia induces a marked decrease in MOR-1 mRNA and protein expression that is specific to the selectively vulnerable area CA1, as assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ChIP. We further show that OPRM1 gene silencing is REST-dependent and occurs via epigenetic modifications. Ischemia promotes deacetylation of core histone proteins H3 and H4 and dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine-9 (H3-K9) over the MOR-1 promoter, an signature of epigenetic gene silencing. Acute knockdown of MOR-1 gene expression by administration of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to hippocampal slices in vitro or injection of the MOR antagonist naloxone to rats in vivo affords protection against ischemia-induced death of CA1 pyramidal neurons. These findings implicate MORs in ischemia-induced death of CA1 pyramidal neurons and document epigenetic remodeling of expression of OPRM1 in CA1 inhibitory interneurons. PMID:17360495

  15. The NMDA Receptor Promotes Sleep in the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Jun; Ueno, Taro; Mitsuyoshi, Madoka; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that sleep is essential for learning and memory. Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a novel model for studying sleep. We previously found a short sleeper mutant, fumin (fmn), and identified its mutation in the dopamine transporter gene. We reported similarities in the molecular basis of sleep and arousal regulation between mammals and Drosophila. In aversive olfactory learning tasks, fmn mutants demonstrate defective memory retention, which suggests an association between sleep and memory. In an attempt to discover additional sleep related genes in Drosophila, we carried out a microarray analysis comparing mRNA expression in heads of fmn and control flies and found that 563 genes are differentially expressed. Next, using the pan-neuronal Gal4 driver elav-Gal4 and UAS-RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown individual genes, we performed a functional screen. We found that knockdown of the NMDA type glutamate receptor channel gene (Nmdar1) (also known as dNR1) reduced sleep. The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays an important role in learning and memory both in Drosophila and mammals. The application of the NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, reduced sleep in control flies, but not in fmn. These results suggest that NMDAR promotes sleep regulation in Drosophila. PMID:26023770

  16. GABA A receptor π subunit promotes apoptosis of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblastic cells: Implications in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junjie; Zhang, Qian; Tan, Dongmei; Luo, Wenping; Zhao, Hai; Ma, Jing; Liang, Hao; Tan, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions primarily as an inhibitory neurotransmitter through its receptors in the mature central nervous system. The GABA type A receptor π subunit (GABRP) has been identified in the tissues of the reproductive system, particularly in the uterus. In addition, we have previously detected GABRP expression in both human and mouse placentas. To examine the role of GABRP in trophoblastic cell invasion, we constructed a pIRES2-GABRP-EGFP plasmid which was used for the transfection of a human placental cell line derived from first trimester extravillous trophoblasts (HTR-8/SVneo). The number of invaded cells was decreased by GABRP overexpression. Notably, the decrease in the invasive cell number may be due to the increased apoptosis of the HTR-8/SVneo cells following GABRP transfection, which was further confirmed by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. Based on the increased apoptosis of trophoblastic cells in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) and the fact that GABRP promotes the apoptosis of trophoblastic cells, we hypothesized that GABRP expression is increased in the placental tissues from patients with PE compared with that in the normal groups and this hypothesis was confirmed by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Taken together, these findings imply that GABRP plays an important role in placentation and this pathway may be a promising molecular target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for PE.

  17. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor degradation-promoting factor (ADPF) and the control of the xenobiotic response.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiang

    2007-06-01

    The study of xenobiotic metabolism has long been a core activity in pharmacology. The diverse chemical transformations of xenobiotics in vivo are elegant in themselves, depending as they do on a battery of enzymes that include the cytochomes P450 (CYPs), and their reaction mechanisms have been elucidated by a great many pioneering pharmacologists who helped to launch the discipline. Today, researchers are finding surprising and subtle intricacies in the molecular control that underpins the xenobiotic response. For example, the inducible expression of CYP-encoding genes above normal basal output is controlled by specialized xenobiotic activated receptors (XARs), which include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). But because CYP activities can be double-edged, supporting a multiplicity of chemical transformations, their expression levels must be tightly regulated over time and biological space. Indeed, the kinetics of xenobiotic-induced CYP expression suggest multiple checks and balances at both transcriptional and post-translational levels. Recent research points to the regulated degradation of AhR as one aspect of control. A key participant in directing AhR degradation has been identified-the AhR degradation promoting factor (ADPF)-which appears to serve as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The biological machinery that controls the xenobiotic response thus encompasses an elegance deep beneath the traditional recognition of CYPs as catalysts of xenobiotic degradation.

  18. Histamine-HisCl1 Receptor Axis Regulates Wake-Promoting Signals in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yangkyun; Jang, Donghoon; Sonn, Jun Young; Choe, Joonho

    2013-01-01

    Histamine and its two receptors, histamine-gated chloride channel subunit 1 (HisCl1) and ora transientless (Ort), are known to control photoreception and temperature sensing in Drosophila. However, histamine signaling in the context of neural circuitry for sleep-wake behaviors has not yet been examined in detail. Here, we obtained mutant flies with compromised or enhanced histamine signaling and tested their baseline sleep. Hypomorphic mutations in histidine decarboxylase (HDC), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion from histidine to histamine, caused an increase in sleep duration. Interestingly, hisCl1 mutants but not ort mutants showed long-sleep phenotypes similar to those in hdc mutants. Increased sleep duration in hisCl1 mutants was rescued by overexpressing hisCl1 in circadian pacemaker neurons expressing a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF). Consistently, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hisCl1 in PDF neurons was sufficient to mimic hisCl1 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that PDF neurons are crucial for sleep regulation by the histamine-HisCl1 signaling. Finally, either hisCl1 mutation or genetic ablation of PDF neurons dampened wake-promoting effects of elevated histamine signaling via direct histamine administration. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis can activate and maintain the wake state in Drosophila and that wake-activating signals may travel via the PDF neurons. PMID:23844178

  19. Chemokine Receptor Ccr6 Deficiency Alters Hepatic Inflammatory Cell Recruitment and Promotes Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Blaya, Delia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Coll, Mar; Millán, Cristina; Altamirano, José; Arroyo, Vicente; Caballería, Joan; Bataller, Ramón; Ginès, Pere; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases are characterized by a sustained inflammatory response in which chemokines and chemokine-receptors orchestrate inflammatory cell recruitment. In this study we investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CCR6 in acute and chronic liver injury. In the absence of liver injury Ccr6-/- mice presented a higher number of hepatic macrophages and increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and M1 markers Tnf-α, Il6 and Mcp1. Inflammation and cell recruitment were increased after carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in Ccr6-/- mice. Moreover, chronic liver injury by carbon tetrachloride in Ccr6-/- mice was associated with enhanced inflammation and fibrosis, altered macrophage recruitment, enhanced CD4+ cells and a reduction in Th17 (CD4+IL17+) and mature dendritic (MHCII+CD11c+) cells recruitment. Clodronate depletion of macrophages in Ccr6-/- mice resulted in a reduction of hepatic pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic markers in the absence and after liver injury. Finally, increased CCR6 hepatic expression in patients with alcoholic hepatitis was found to correlate with liver expression of CCL20 and severity of liver disease. In conclusion, CCR6 deficiency affects hepatic inflammatory cell recruitment resulting in the promotion of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:26691857

  20. Chemokine Receptor Ccr6 Deficiency Alters Hepatic Inflammatory Cell Recruitment and Promotes Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Affò, Silvia; Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Blaya, Delia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Coll, Mar; Millán, Cristina; Altamirano, José; Arroyo, Vicente; Caballería, Joan; Bataller, Ramón; Ginès, Pere; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases are characterized by a sustained inflammatory response in which chemokines and chemokine-receptors orchestrate inflammatory cell recruitment. In this study we investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CCR6 in acute and chronic liver injury. In the absence of liver injury Ccr6-/- mice presented a higher number of hepatic macrophages and increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and M1 markers Tnf-α, Il6 and Mcp1. Inflammation and cell recruitment were increased after carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in Ccr6-/- mice. Moreover, chronic liver injury by carbon tetrachloride in Ccr6-/- mice was associated with enhanced inflammation and fibrosis, altered macrophage recruitment, enhanced CD4+ cells and a reduction in Th17 (CD4+IL17+) and mature dendritic (MHCII+CD11c+) cells recruitment. Clodronate depletion of macrophages in Ccr6-/- mice resulted in a reduction of hepatic pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic markers in the absence and after liver injury. Finally, increased CCR6 hepatic expression in patients with alcoholic hepatitis was found to correlate with liver expression of CCL20 and severity of liver disease. In conclusion, CCR6 deficiency affects hepatic inflammatory cell recruitment resulting in the promotion of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis.

  1. The chemokine receptor CCR7 promotes mammary tumorigenesis through amplification of stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Boyle, S T; Ingman, W V; Poltavets, V; Faulkner, J W; Whitfield, R J; McColl, S R; Kochetkova, M

    2016-01-07

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 is widely implicated in breast cancer pathobiology. Although recent reports correlated high CCR7 levels with more advanced tumor grade and poor prognosis, limited in vivo data are available regarding its specific function in mammary gland neoplasia and the underlying mechanisms involved. To address these questions we generated a bigenic mouse model of breast cancer combined with CCR7 deletion, which revealed that CCR7 ablation results in a considerable delay in tumor onset as well as significantly reduced tumor burden. Importantly, CCR7 was found to exert its function by regulating mammary cancer stem-like cells in both murine and human tumors. In vivo experiments showed that loss of CCR7 activity either through deletion or pharmacological antagonism significantly decreased functional pools of stem-like cells in mouse primary mammary tumors, providing a mechanistic explanation for the tumor-promoting role of this chemokine receptor. These data characterize the oncogenic properties of CCR7 in mammary epithelial neoplasia and point to a new route for therapeutic intervention to target evasive cancer stem cells.

  2. Influence of a critical single nucleotide polymorphism on nuclear receptor PXR-promoter function.

    PubMed

    Rana, Manjul; Coshic, Poonam; Goswami, Ravinder; Tyagi, Rakesh K

    2017-02-15

    The Pregnane and Xenobiotic Receptor (PXR; NR1I2) is a ligand-modulated transcription factor that belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily. It is expressed at higher levels primarily in liver and intestine as compared to the levels in several other organs. It is activated by a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and endobiotics. The primary function of PXR is to regulate the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters and prevent the accumulation of toxic chemicals in the body, thereby maintaining body's homeostasis. In this study, we identified a C/T single nucleotide polymorphism at position -831 from the transcriptional start site of the PXR gene promoter and examined the functional significance of this variant using both the luciferase reporter gene assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Transient transfection experiments showed that the T-allele was associated with significantly greater transcriptional activity than the C-allele of SNP rs3814055. These results indicate that the -831C/T polymorphism has a direct effect on transcriptional regulation of PXR gene. This allelic variation may be a potential genetic marker that can help identify individuals at higher risk for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

  3. 3-methylcholanthrene induces differential recruitment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor to human promoters.

    PubMed

    Pansoy, Andrea; Ahmed, Shaimaa; Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin; Matthews, Jason

    2010-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated protein that mediates the toxic actions of polycyclic aromatic and halogenated compounds. Identifying genes directly regulated by AHR is important in understanding the pathways regulated by this receptor. Here we used the techniques of chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA microarrays (ChIP-chip) to detect AHR-bound genomic regions after 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) treatment of T-47D human breast cancer cells. We identified 241 AHR-3MC-bound regions, and transcription factor-binding site analysis revealed a strong overrepresentation of the AHR-responsive element. Conventional ChIP confirmed recruitment of AHR to 26 regions with target gene responses to 3MC varying from activation to inhibition to having no effect. A comparison of identified AHR-3MC-bound regions with AHR-2,3,7,8-tetrchlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-bound regions from our previous study (Ahmed, S., Valen, E., Sandelin, A., and Matthews, J. (2009). Toxicol. Sci. 111, 254-266) revealed that 127 regions were common between the data sets. Time course ChIPs for six of the regions showed that 3MC induced gene-specific changes in histone H3 acetylation and methylation and induced differential oscillatory binding of AHR, with a periodicity between 1.5 and 2 h. Re-treatment of cells with 3MC failed to alter the oscillatory binding profiles of AHR or aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator. Cells became responsive to 3MC but not TCDD after 24 h of exposure to 3MC, highlighting important differences in AHR responsiveness between the two ligands. Our results reveal a number of novel AHR-bound promoter regions and target genes that exhibit differential kinetic binding profiles and regulation by AHR.

  4. CD97 amplifies LPA receptor signaling and promotes thyroid cancer progression in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ward, Y; Lake, R; Martin, P L; Killian, K; Salerno, P; Wang, T; Meltzer, P; Merino, M; Cheng, S-y; Santoro, M; Garcia-Rostan, G; Kelly, K

    2013-05-30

    CD97, a member of the adhesion family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), complexes with and potentiates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor signaling to the downstream effector RHOA. We show here that CD97 was expressed in a majority of thyroid cancers but not normal thyroid epithelium and that the level of CD97 expression was further elevated with progression to poorly differentiated and undifferentiated carcinoma. Intratumoral progression also showed that CD97 expression correlates with invasiveness and dedifferentiation. To determine the functional role of CD97, we produced a transgenic model of thyroglobulin promoter-driven CD97 expression. Transgenic CD97 in combination with Thrb(PV), an established mouse model of thyroid follicular cell carcinogenesis, significantly increased the occurrence of vascular invasion and lung metastasis. Expression of transgenic CD97 in thyroid epithelium led to elevated ERK phosphorylation and increased numbers of Ki67+ cells in developing tumors. In addition, tumor cell cultures derived from CD97 transgenic as compared with non-transgenic mice demonstrated enhanced, constitutive and LPA-stimulated ERK activation. In human thyroid cancer cell lines, CD97 depletion reduced RHO-GTP and decreased LPA-stimulated invasion but not EGF-stimulated invasion, further suggesting that CD97 influences an LPA-associated mechanism of progression. Consistent with the above, CD97 expression in human thyroid cancers correlated with LPA receptor and markers of aggressiveness including Ki67 and pAKT. This study shows an autonomous effect of CD97 on thyroid cancer progression and supports the investigation of this GPCR as a therapeutic target for these cancers.

  5. Estrogen Promotes Luteolysis by Redistributing Prostaglandin F2α Receptors Within Primate Luteal Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soon Ok; Markosyan, Nune; Pepe, Gerald J.; Duffy, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) has been proposed as a functional luteolysin in primates. However, administration of PGF2α or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors in vivo both initiate luteolysis. These contradictory findings may reflect changes in PGF2α receptors (PTGFR) or responsiveness to PGF2α at a critical point during the life span of the corpus luteum. The current study addressed this question using ovarian cells and tissues from female cynomolgus monkeys and luteinizing granulosa cells from healthy women undergoing follicle aspiration. PTGFRs were present in the cytoplasm of monkey granulosa cells, while PTGFRs were localized to the perinuclear region of large, granulosa-derived monkey luteal cells by mid-late luteal phase. A PTGFR agonist decreased progesterone production by luteal cells obtained at mid-late and late luteal phases but did not decrease progesterone production by granulosa or luteal cells from younger corpora lutea. These findings are consistent with a role for perinuclear PTGFRs in functional luteolysis. This concept was explored using human luteinizing granulosa cells maintained in vitro as a model for luteal cell differentiation. In these cells, PTGFRs relocated from the cytoplasm to the perinuclear area in an estrogen- and estrogen receptor-dependent manner. Similar to our findings with monkey luteal cells, human luteinizing granulosa cells with perinuclear PTGFRs responded to a PTGFR agonist with decreased progesterone production. These data support the concept that PTGFR stimulation promotes functional luteolysis only when PTGFRs are located in the perinuclear region. Estrogen receptor-mediated relocation of PTGFRs within luteal cells may be a necessary step in the initiation of luteolysis in primates. PMID:25687410

  6. Nitrosylcobalamin Promotes Cell Death via S Nitrosylation of Apo2L/TRAIL Receptor DR4

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhuo; Bauer, Joseph A.; Morrison, Bei; Lindner, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), an analogue of vitamin B12 that delivers nitric oxide (NO), had potent antiproliferative activity against several human cancer cell lines. NO-Cbl induced apoptosis via a death receptor/caspase-8 pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that a functional Apo2L/TRAIL receptor was necessary for the induction of cell death by NO-Cbl. Furthermore, the Apo2L/TRAIL death receptor DR4 (TRAIL R1) was S nitrosylated following NO-Cbl treatment. Human melanoma (A375), renal carcinoma (ACHN), and ovarian carcinoma (NIH-OVCAR-3) cells were treated with NO-Cbl and subjected to the biotin switch assay; S-nitrosylated DR4 was detected in all three cell lines. NO-Cbl treatment did not cause S nitrosylation of DR5. The seven cysteine residues located in the cytoplasmic domain of DR4 were individually point mutated to alanines. NIH-OVCAR-3 cells expressing the DR4 C336A mutation lacked S nitrosylation following NO-Cbl treatment. Overexpression of wild-type DR4 sensitized cells to growth inhibition by NO-Cbl. Cells expressing the DR4 C336A mutant were more resistant to NO-Cbl and Apo2L/TRAIL than were the other six C-A mutations or wild-type cells. The C336A mutant also displayed blunted caspase-8 enzymatic activity following NO-Cbl treatment compared to the other mutants. Thus, DR4 residue C336 becomes S nitrosylated and promotes apoptosis following NO-Cbl treatment. PMID:16847314

  7. Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: Molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Jin; Wang, Ying; Su, Ke; Liu, Min; Hu, Peng-Chao; Ma, Tian; Li, Jia-Xi; Wei, Lei; Zheng, Zhongliang; Yang, Fang

    2014-10-01

    Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17β-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist for E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ERα between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ERα. We also found that RTV directly bound to ERα and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ERα, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ERα-LBD like E2, which explained how ERα lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17β-estradiol in regulating α subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis. - Graphical abstract: RTV directly binds to ERα and Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain is essential for the interaction. - Highlights: • RTV increases the thickness of rat coronary artery wall and foam cell formation. • RTV downregulates the expression of ERα and ERβ. • RTV inhibits ERα promoter activity. • RTV directly binds to ERα and the key amino acid is Leu536. • RTV inhibits the nuclear translocation of ERα and GPER.

  8. The small-molecule iron transport inhibitor ferristatin/NSC306711 promotes degradation of the transferrin receptor.

    PubMed

    Horonchik, Lior; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2008-07-21

    Iron delivery by transferrin (Tf) is accomplished through clathrin-mediated endocytosis of Tf receptors. The small molecule NSC306711 inhibits iron uptake from the Tf-TfR pathway. Here we show that the drug's mechanism of action is to induce internalization and degradation of unoccupied Tf receptors through an unexpected endocytic pathway. Unlike classical clathrin-mediated Tf receptor endocytosis, internalization promoted by NSC306711 is independent of clathrin and dynamin, and is sensitive to the cholesterol-depleting agents filipin and nystatin. The finding of this cholesterol-dependent Tf receptor internalization pathway through use of the small-molecule inhibitor sheds light on the pleiotropic nature of membrane trafficking dynamics and adds a complex dimension to our understanding of receptor regulation. Because of its unusual properties to inhibit iron uptake, we refer to NSC306711 as "ferristatin."

  9. Tumor-promoting phorbol diesters cause the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors in normal human fibroblasts at threonine-654.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R J; Czech, M P

    1985-01-01

    The effect of tumor-promoting phorbol diesters to potentiate the action of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on cell proliferation is associated with phosphorylation of EGF receptors, acute depression of EGF binding, and inhibition of EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity. In the present studies, normal human fibroblasts and A431 carcinoma cells were labeled with [32P]phosphate and treated with and without 10 nM 4 beta-phorbol 12 beta-myristate 13 alpha-acetate (PMA). The EGF receptors then were isolated by immunoprecipitation and digested with trypsin. Analysis of the labeled receptor phosphopeptides by reversed-phase HPLC revealed that PMA induces the phosphorylation of a unique phosphopeptide containing [32P]phosphothreonine. Comparison of several chemical and physical properties of the 32P-labeled phosphopeptide with the primary structure of the EGF receptor suggested the identify Lys-Arg-Thr(P)-Leu-Arg. This was confirmed by direct demonstration that a synthetic peptide of this structure comigrates during HPLC and electrophoresis with the 32P-labeled phosphopeptide isolated from the EGF receptors of normal human fibroblasts. The phosphorylated site on the peptide corresponds to threonine-654 of the EGF receptor, which is located on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane nine residues distant from the transmembrane domain. These data indicate that phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in human fibroblasts and A431 cells at threonine-654 may regulate the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity and the binding of EGF. Images PMID:2984676

  10. Gut Microbiota and Extreme Longevity.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Elena; Franceschi, Claudio; Rampelli, Simone; Severgnini, Marco; Ostan, Rita; Turroni, Silvia; Consolandi, Clarissa; Quercia, Sara; Scurti, Maria; Monti, Daniela; Capri, Miriam; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-06-06

    The study of the extreme limits of human lifespan may allow a better understanding of how human beings can escape, delay, or survive the most frequent age-related causes of morbidity, a peculiarity shown by long-living individuals. Longevity is a complex trait in which genetics, environment, and stochasticity concur to determine the chance to reach 100 or more years of age [1]. Because of its impact on human metabolism and immunology, the gut microbiome has been proposed as a possible determinant of healthy aging [2, 3]. Indeed, the preservation of host-microbes homeostasis can counteract inflammaging [4], intestinal permeability [5], and decline in bone and cognitive health [6, 7]. Aiming at deepening our knowledge on the relationship between the gut microbiota and a long-living host, we provide for the first time the phylogenetic microbiota analysis of semi-supercentenarians, i.e., 105-109 years old, in comparison to adults, elderly, and centenarians, thus reconstructing the longest available human microbiota trajectory along aging. We highlighted the presence of a core microbiota of highly occurring, symbiotic bacterial taxa (mostly belonging to the dominant Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Bacteroidaceae families), with a cumulative abundance decreasing along with age. Aging is characterized by an increasing abundance of subdominant species, as well as a rearrangement in their co-occurrence network. These features are maintained in longevity and extreme longevity, but peculiarities emerged, especially in semi-supercentenarians, describing changes that, even accommodating opportunistic and allochthonous bacteria, might possibly support health maintenance during aging, such as an enrichment and/or higher prevalence of health-associated groups (e.g., Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and Christensenellaceae).

  11. Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giulio Maria Pasinetti MD., PhD...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a risk factor for subsequent development of Alzheimer’s

  12. NR2D-containing NMDA receptors mediate tissue plasminogen activator-promoted neuronal excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Baron, A; Montagne, A; Cassé, F; Launay, S; Maubert, E; Ali, C; Vivien, D

    2010-05-01

    Although the molecular bases of its actions remain debated, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a paradoxical brain protease, as it favours some learning/memory processes, but increases excitotoxic neuronal death. Here, we show that, in cultured cortical neurons, tPA selectively promotes NR2D-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent activation. We show that tPA-mediated signalling and neurotoxicity through the NMDAR are blocked by co-application of an NR2D antagonist (phenanthrene derivative (2S(*), 3R(*))-1-(phenanthrene-2-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, PPDA) or knockdown of neuronal NR2D expression. In sharp contrast with cortical neurons, hippocampal neurons do not exhibit NR2D both in vitro and in vivo and are consequently resistant to tPA-promoted NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity. Moreover, we have shown that activation of synaptic NMDAR prevents further tPA-dependent NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity and sensitivity to PPDA. This study shows that the earlier described pro-neurotoxic effect of tPA is mediated by NR2D-containing NMDAR-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, a deleterious effect prevented by synaptic pre-activation.

  13. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  14. Variants in the Dopamine-4-Receptor Gene Promoter Are Not Associated with Sensation Seeking in Skiers

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia J.; Rajala, Amelia K.; Carlson, Scott R.; Rupert, Jim L.

    2014-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (−1106T/C, −906T/C, −809G/A, −291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population. PMID:24691022

  15. Proteolytic activation of receptor-bound anthrax protective antigen on macrophages promotes its internalization.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, K E; Collier, R J; Swanson, J A

    2000-06-01

    Immunofluorescence and other methods have been used to probe the self-assembly and internalization of the binary toxin, anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx), in primary murine macrophages. Proteolytic activation of protective antigen (PA; 83 kDa, the B moiety of the toxin) by furin was the rate-limiting step in internalization of LeTx and promoted clearance of PA from the cell surface. A furin-resistant form of PA remained at the cell surface for at least 90 min. Oligomerization of receptor-bound PA63, the 63 kDa active fragment of PA, was manifested by its conversion to a pronase-resistant state, characteristic of the heptameric prepore form in solution. That oligomerization of PA63 triggers toxin internalization is supported by the observation that PA20, the complementary 20 kDa fragment of PA, inhibited clearance of nicked PA. The PA63 prepore, with or without lethal factor (LF), cleared slowly from the cell surface. These studies show that proteolytic cleavage of PA, in addition to permitting oligomerization and LF binding, also promotes internalization of the protein. The relatively long period of activation and internalization of PA at the cell surface may reflect adaptation of this binary toxin that maximizes self-assembly.

  16. 3-methylcholanthrene induces differential recruitment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor to human promoters.

    PubMed

    Safe, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    The paper by Pansoy and coworkers investigates the effects of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligand 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) on recruitment of the AHR complex to human promoters in T47D breast cancer cells. The results are particularly important because they can be compared with a prior study using the potent AHR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the same cell line. The chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter-focused microarrays (ChIP-chip) demonstrated that after treatment of T47D cells with 1microM 3MC, there were 241 AHR-3MC bound regions and many of these contained AHR-responsive elements. However, they also observed interactions with regions that do not contain these responsive elements, and subsequent analysis of selected target genes show that 3MC-dependent AHR binding did not necessarily predict Ah-responsiveness because induction, repression, and no effects were observed. A prior study with TCDD demonstrated that both 3MC and TCDD induced AHR binding to 127 common regions; however, there were significant differences in ligand (3MC vs. TCDD)-dependent AHR bound regions. The results illustrate the complexity of AHR signaling and also demonstrate that compared with TCDD as a reference ligand, 3MC is a selective AHR modulator.

  17. Variants in the dopamine-4-receptor gene promoter are not associated with sensation seeking in skiers.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Cynthia J; Rajala, Amelia K; Carlson, Scott R; Rupert, Jim L

    2014-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (-1106T/C, -906T/C, -809G/A, -291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population.

  18. Hepatic scavenger receptor BI protects against polymicrobial-induced sepsis through promoting LPS clearance in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Zheng, Zhong; Ai, Junting; Huang, Bin; Li, Xiang-An

    2014-05-23

    Recent studies revealed that scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI or Scarb1) plays a critical protective role in sepsis. However, the mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. In this study, using Scarb1(I179N) mice, a mouse model specifically deficient in hepatic SR-BI, we report that hepatic SR-BI protects against cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis as shown by 75% fatality in Scarb1(I179N) mice, but only 21% fatality in C57BL/6J control mice. The increase in fatality in Scarb1(I179N) mice was associated with an exacerbated inflammatory cytokine production. Further study demonstrated that hepatic SR-BI exerts its protection against sepsis through its role in promoting LPS clearance without affecting the inflammatory response in macrophages, the glucocorticoid production in adrenal glands, the leukocyte recruitment to peritoneum or the bacterial clearance in liver. Our findings reveal hepatic SR-BI as a critical protective factor in sepsis and point out that promoting hepatic SR-BI-mediated LPS clearance may provide a therapeutic approach for sepsis.

  19. Formononetin promotes angiogenesis through the estrogen receptor alpha-enhanced ROCK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shang; Dang, Yuanye; Zhou, Xuelin; Huang, Bin; Huang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zherui; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2015-01-01

    Formononetin is an isoflavone that has been shown to display estrogenic properties and induce angiogenesis activities. However, the interrelationship between the estrogenic properties and angiogenesis activities of formononetin are not well defined. In the present study, docking and enzymatic assay demonstrated that formononetin displayed direct binding to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) with an agonistic property. Results from Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) by using real-time migration xCELLigence system, immunofluorescence and western blotting provided strong evidences of formononetin induced endothelial cell migration and dramatic actin cytoskeleton spatial modification through ERα-enhanced-ROCK-II/MMP2/9 signaling pathways. In addition, results from co-immunoprecipitation suggested formononetin induced cell migration via recruiting of ERα/ROCK-II activated complex formation. More interestingly, in zebrafish embryo we observed that formononetin significantly promoted angiogenic sproutings in the subintestinal vessels (SIVs) that could be completely abolished by ROCK inhibitor. In this study, we elucidated the underlying mechanisms that formononetin produced proangiogenesis effects through an ERα-enhanced ROCK-II signaling pathways. Results from the present study also expand our knowledge about the enigmatic underlying mechanisms of phytoestrogenic compounds in the promotion of angiogenesis in relation to ERα and ROCK interaction in endothelial cells and their relationship with actin assembly and cell migration. PMID:26568398

  20. Ligand structural motifs can decouple glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activation from target promoter occupancy.

    PubMed

    Blind, Raymond D; Pineda-Torra, Inés; Xu, Yong; Xu, H Eric; Garabedian, Michael J

    2012-04-20

    Glucocorticoid (GC) induction of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a classic model used to investigate steroid-regulated gene expression. Classic studies analyzing GC-induction of the TAT gene demonstrated that despite having very high affinity for GR, some steroids cannot induce maximal TAT enzyme activity, but the molecular basis for this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we used RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation to determine TAT mRNA accumulation and GR recruitment to the TAT promoter (TAT-GRE) in rat hepatoma cells induced by seven GR ligands: dexamethasone (DEX), cortisol (CRT), corticosterone (CCS), 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), aldosterone (ALD), progesterone (PRG) and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17P). As expected, DEX, CRT, CCS and ALD all induced both TAT mRNA and GR recruitment to the TAT-GRE, while PRG and 17P did not. However, while DOC could not induce significant TAT mRNA, it did induce robust GR occupancy of the TAT-GRE. DOC also induced recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase p300 to the TAT-GRE as efficiently as DEX. These DOC-induced effects recapitulated at another GR target gene (sulfonyltransferase 1A1), and DOC also failed to promote the multiple changes in gene expression required for glucocorticoid-dependent 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Structural simulations and protease sensitivity assays suggest that DOC and DEX induce different conformations in GR. Thus, although steroids that bind GR with high affinity can induce GR and p300 occupancy of target promoters, they may not induce a conformation of GR capable of activating transcription.

  1. Increased longevity evolves from grandmothering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter S; Coxworth, James E; Hawkes, Kristen

    2012-12-22

    Postmenopausal longevity may have evolved in our lineage when ancestral grandmothers subsidized their daughters' fertility by provisioning grandchildren, but the verbal hypothesis has lacked mathematical support until now. Here, we present a formal simulation in which life spans similar to those of modern chimpanzees lengthen into the modern human range as a consequence of grandmother effects. Greater longevity raises the chance of living through the fertile years but is opposed by costs that differ for the sexes. Our grandmother assumptions are restrictive. Only females who are no longer fertile themselves are eligible, and female fertility extends to age 45 years. Initially, there are very few eligible grandmothers and effects are small. Grandmothers can support only one dependent at a time and do not care selectively for their daughters' offspring. They must take the oldest juveniles still relying on mothers; and infants under the age of 2 years are never eligible for subsidy. Our model includes no assumptions about brains, learning or pair bonds. Grandmother effects alone are sufficient to propel the doubling of life spans in less than sixty thousand years.

  2. Increased longevity evolves from grandmothering

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter S.; Coxworth, James E.; Hawkes, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal longevity may have evolved in our lineage when ancestral grandmothers subsidized their daughters' fertility by provisioning grandchildren, but the verbal hypothesis has lacked mathematical support until now. Here, we present a formal simulation in which life spans similar to those of modern chimpanzees lengthen into the modern human range as a consequence of grandmother effects. Greater longevity raises the chance of living through the fertile years but is opposed by costs that differ for the sexes. Our grandmother assumptions are restrictive. Only females who are no longer fertile themselves are eligible, and female fertility extends to age 45 years. Initially, there are very few eligible grandmothers and effects are small. Grandmothers can support only one dependent at a time and do not care selectively for their daughters' offspring. They must take the oldest juveniles still relying on mothers; and infants under the age of 2 years are never eligible for subsidy. Our model includes no assumptions about brains, learning or pair bonds. Grandmother effects alone are sufficient to propel the doubling of life spans in less than sixty thousand years. PMID:23097518

  3. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  4. Modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor proto-oncogene transcription by a promoter site sensitive to S1 nuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A C; Jinno, Y; Merlino, G T

    1988-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is the functional target of the mitogen EGF and the cellular homolog of the avian erythroblastosis virus erbB oncogene product. Regulation of expression of the proto-oncogene encoding the EGF receptor can be elucidated by studying the structure and function of the gene promoter outside the confines of the cell. Previously, we reported the isolation of the human EGF receptor gene promoter. The promoter is highly GC rich, contains no TATA or CAAT box, and has multiple transcription start sites. An S1 nuclease-sensitive site has now been found 80 to 110 base pairs (bp) upstream from the major in vivo transcription initiation site. Two sets of direct repeat sequences were found in this area; both conform to the motif TCCTCCTCC. When deletion mutations were made in this region of the promoter by using either Bal 31 exonuclease or S1 nuclease, we found that in vivo activity dropped three- to fivefold, on the basis of transient-transfection analysis. Examination of nuclear protein binding to normal and mutated promoter DNAs by gel retardation analysis and DNase I footprinting revealed that two specific factors bind to the direct repeat region but cannot bind to the S1 nuclease-mutated promoter. One of the specific factors is the transcription factor Sp1. The results suggest that these nuclear trans-acting factors interact with the S1 nuclease-sensitive region of the EGF receptor gene promoter and either directly or indirectly stimulate transcription. Images PMID:2847030

  5. The nuclear orphan receptors COUP-TFII and Ear-2 act as silencers of the human oxytocin gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Chu, K; Zingg, H H

    1997-10-01

    We have previously shown that COUP-TFII and Ear-2, two members of the nuclear orphan receptor family, are able to repress oestrogen-stimulated transcriptional activity of the human oxytocin (OT) gene promoter by binding to a site that overlaps with the oestrogen response element (ERE) present in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Although most nuclear receptor-mediated transcriptional repression conforms with the paradigm of passive repression and involves competitive binding to an activator site, active repression, i.e. silencing of basal promoter activity, has been observed in a limited number of cases. Here we show by co-transfection experiments using COUP-TFII and Ear-2 expression vectors and reporter constructs containing OT gene promoter fragments linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene that both COUP-TFII and Ear-2 are capable of silencing basal OT gene promoter activity by 54 and 75% respectively. 5' Deletion and footprint analyses revealed two areas of functionally important interaction sites: (1) a direct TGACC(T/C) repeat overlapping the ERE and (2) a more promoter-proximal area centred at - 90 containing three imperfect direct repeats (R1-R3) spaced by four nucleotides each. Mutagenesis of reporter constructs as well as electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that each of the three proximal repeats R1-R3 contributed to orphan receptor binding and the silencing effect. Inasmuch as the orphan receptor-binding sites are not involved in mediating basal transcriptional activity of the OT gene promoter, the observed effects are best interpreted as active repression or promoter silencing. Moreover, since COUP-TFII and Ear-2 are both co-expressed in OT-expressing uterine epithelial cells, the novel transcriptional effects described here are likely to be of functional importance in the fine-tuning of uterine OT gene expression in vivo.

  6. Angiotensin II receptor blockade promotes repair of skeletal muscle through down-regulation of aging-promoting C1q expression

    PubMed Central

    Yabumoto, Chizuru; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Rie; Yano, Masamichi; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Sumida, Tomokazu; Kamo, Takehiro; Yagi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yu; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Sakata, Yasushi; Uejima, Etsuko; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor prolonged life span in mice. Since aging-related decline in skeletal muscle function was retarded in Atgr1a−/− mice, we examined the role of AT1 receptor in muscle regeneration after injury. Administration of AT1 receptor blocker irbesartan increased the size of regenerating myofibers, decreased fibrosis, and enhanced functional muscle recovery after cryoinjury. We recently reported that complement C1q, secreted by macrophages, activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promoted aging-related decline in regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. Notably, irbesartan induced M2 polarization of macrophages, but reduced C1q expression in cryoinjured muscles and in cultured macrophage cells. Irbesartan inhibited up-regulation of Axin2, a downstream gene of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in cryoinjured muscles. In addition, topical administration of C1q reversed beneficial effects of irbesartan on skeletal muscle regeneration after injury. These results suggest that AT1 receptor blockade improves muscle repair and regeneration through down-regulation of the aging-promoting C1q-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26571361

  7. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to the promoter of the mouse histone H10 gene and modulate its transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer-Hofmann, R; Alonso, A

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that the mouse histone H10 promoter contains a DNA element, composed of a direct repeat of the sequence GGTGACC separated by 7 nt, which is able to bind retinoic acid receptors and to modulate transcription of reporter genes following treatment with retinoic acid. We have now investigated whether this DNA motif is also responsive to thyroid hormone. We co-transfected CV-1 monkey kidney cells with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression plasmids containing either 740 bp of the H10 wild-type promoter or five copies of the repeat element cloned in front of the thymidine kinase promoter and expression vectors for human thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) alpha or beta and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha). Treatment of transfected cells with triiodothyronine led to a dose-dependent increase in CAT activity. Transfection experiments with increasing amounts of expression vectors for either TR alpha or RXR alpha resulted in up to 6-fold enhancement of CAT transcription. Furthermore, point mutations within the half-sites of the response element of the H10 promoter, as well as deletions within the interspace region, lowered CAT activity to 60-80% of that of the wild-type control. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the repeat element was able to form retarded complexes with TR alpha homodimers, as well as with TR alpha-RXR alpha heterodimers. Our results suggest that thyroid hormone receptors are involved in the regulation of mouse histone H10 expression. Images PMID:8559662

  8. The human neuroendocrine thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor promoter is activated by the haematopoietic transcription factor c-Myb.

    PubMed Central

    Matre, Vilborg; Høvring, Per I; Fjeldheim, Ase-Karine; Helgeland, Lars; Orvain, Christophe; Andersson, Kristin B; Gautvik, Kaare M; Gabrielsen, Odd S

    2003-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor (TRHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor playing a crucial role in the anterior pituitary where it controls the synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Its widespread presence not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues, including thymus, indicates other important, but unknown, functions. One hypothesis is that the neuropeptide TRH could play a role in the immune system. We report here that the human TRHR promoter contains 11 putative response elements for the haematopoietic transcription factor c-Myb and is highly Myb-responsive in transfection assays. Analysis of Myb binding to putative response elements revealed one preferred binding site in intron 1 of the receptor gene. Transfection studies of promoter deletions confirmed that this high-affinity element is necessary for efficient Myb-dependent transactivation of reporter plasmids in CV-1 cells. The Myb-dependent activation of the TRHR promoter was strongly suppressed by expression of a dominant negative Myb-Engrailed fusion. In line with these observations, reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of rat tissues showed that the TRHR gene is expressed both in thymocytes and bone marrow. Furthermore, specific, high-affinity TRH agonist binding to cell-surface receptors was demonstrated in thymocytes and a haematopoietic cell line. Our findings imply a novel functional link between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems at the level of promoter regulation. PMID:12628004

  9. Stage dependent nutritional regulation of transgenerational longevity

    PubMed Central

    Roussou, Ilianna G.; Savakis, Charalambos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Metaxakis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Statistical analyses in human populations have associated limited food availability during development with increased longevity of next generations. In support, recent findings in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed nutritional effects on transgenerational longevity. OBJECTIVES: In this study we tested the effect of nutrition on longevity of future generations in Drosophila and whether this is sex-specific. METHODS: We reared male larvae and adults of Drosophila under different food conditions and performed lifespan analyses in F2 generation. RESULTS: Grandsons of males which experienced starvation through larval stages were long-lived and grandsons of well fed larvae were short lived, in two Drosophila strains. In one strain, the nutritional effect on transgenerational longevity was transmitted through male line. Interestingly, we find that dietary restriction in adult males is the main nutritional condition affecting lifespan of grandsons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that nutritional regulation of transgenerational longevity is evolutionarily conserved and developmental stage – dependent in Drosophila. PMID:28035341

  10. Upregulation of orexin receptor in paraventricular nucleus promotes sympathetic outflow in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Li, De-Pei

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic vasomotor tone is elevated in obesity-related hypertension. Orexin importantly regulates energy metabolism and autonomic function. We hypothesized that alteration of orexin receptor in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone in obesity. We used in vivo measurement of sympathetic vasomotor tone and microinjection into brain nucleus, whole-cell patch clamp recording in brain slices, and immunocytochemical staining in obese Zucker rats (OZRs) and lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Microinjection of orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB334867 into the PVN reduced basal arterial blood pressure (ABP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in anesthetized OZRs but not in LZRs. Microinjection of orexin A into the PVN produced greater increases in ABP and RSNA in OZRs than in LZRs. Western blot analysis revealed that OX1R expression levels in the PVN were significantly increased in OZRs compared with LZRs. OX1R immunoreactivity was positive in retrogradely labeled PVN-spinal neurons. The basal firing rate of labeled PVN-spinal neurons was higher in OZRs than in LZRs. SB334867 decreased the basal firing activity of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs but had no effect in LZRs. Orexin A induced a greater increase in the firing rate of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. In addition, orexin A induced larger currents in PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. These data suggest that upregulation of OX1R in the PVN promotes hyperactivity of PVN presympathetic neurons and elevated sympathetic outflow in obesity.

  11. GLUTAMATERGIC SYNAPSE FORMATION IS PROMOTED BY α7-CONTAINING NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Adrian F.; Wang, Xulong; Gounko, Natalia V.; Massey, Kerri A.; Duan, Jingjing; Liu, Zhaoping; Berg, Darwin K.

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is the primary excitatory transmitter in adult brain, acting through synapses on dendritic spines and shafts. Early in development, however, when glutamatergic synapses are only beginning to form, nicotinic cholinergic excitation is already widespread; it is mediated by acetylcholine activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that generate waves of activity across brain regions. A major class of nAChRs contributing at this time is a species containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs). These receptors are highly permeable to calcium, influence a variety of calcium-dependent events, and are diversely distributed throughout the developing CNS. Here we show that α7-nAChRs unexpectedly promote formation of glutamatergic synapses during development. The dependence on α7-nAChRs becomes clear when comparing wild-type mice with mice constitutively lacking the α7-nAChR gene. Ultrastructural analysis, immunostaining, and patch-clamp recording all reveal synaptic deficits when α7-nAChR input is absent. Similarly, nicotinic activation of α7-nAChRs in wild-type organotypic culture, as well as cell culture, increases the number of glutamatergic synapses. RNA interference demonstrates that the α7-nAChRs must be expressed in the neuron being innervated for normal innervation to occur. Moreover the deficits persist throughout the developmental period of major de novo synapse formation and are still fully apparent in the adult. GABAergic synapses, in contrast, are undiminished in number under such conditions. As a result, mice lacking α7-nAChRs have an altered balance in the excitatory/inhibitory input they receive. This ratio represents a fundamental feature of neural networks and shows for the first time that endogenous nicotinic cholinergic signaling plays a key role in network construction. PMID:22649244

  12. Autophagy-mediated longevity is modulated by lipoprotein biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Seah, Nicole E; de Magalhaes Filho, C Daniel; Petrashen, Anna P; Henderson, Hope R; Laguer, Jade; Gonzalez, Julissa; Dillin, Andrew; Hansen, Malene; Lapierre, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy-dependent longevity models in C. elegans display altered lipid storage profiles, but the contribution of lipid distribution to life-span extension is not fully understood. Here we report that lipoprotein production, autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis are linked to modulate life span in a conserved fashion. We find that overexpression of the yolk lipoprotein VIT/vitellogenin reduces the life span of long-lived animals by impairing the induction of autophagy-related and lysosomal genes necessary for longevity. Accordingly, reducing vitellogenesis increases life span via induction of autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis. Life-span extension due to reduced vitellogenesis or enhanced lysosomal lipolysis requires nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) NHR-49 and NHR-80, highlighting novel roles for these NHRs in lysosomal lipid signaling. In dietary-restricted worms and mice, expression of VIT and hepatic APOB (apolipoprotein B), respectively, are significantly reduced, suggesting a conserved longevity mechanism. Altogether, our study demonstrates that lipoprotein biogenesis is an important mechanism that modulates aging by impairing autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis.

  13. DRD4 genotype predicts longevity in mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Grady, Deborah L; Thanos, Panayotis K; Corrada, Maria M; Barnett, Jeffrey C; Ciobanu, Valentina; Shustarovich, Diana; Napoli, Anthony; Moyzis, Alexandra G; Grandy, David; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kawas, Claudia H; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Wang, Eric; Volkow, Nora D; Moyzis, Robert K

    2013-01-02

    Longevity is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The brain's dopamine system may be particularly relevant, since it modulates traits (e.g., sensitivity to reward, incentive motivation, sustained effort) that impact behavioral responses to the environment. In particular, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) has been shown to moderate the impact of environments on behavior and health. We tested the hypothesis that the DRD4 gene influences longevity and that its impact is mediated through environmental effects. Surviving participants of a 30-year-old population-based health survey (N = 310; age range, 90-109 years; the 90+ Study) were genotyped/resequenced at the DRD4 gene and compared with a European ancestry-matched younger population (N = 2902; age range, 7-45 years). We found that the oldest-old population had a 66% increase in individuals carrying the DRD4 7R allele relative to the younger sample (p = 3.5 × 10(-9)), and that this genotype was strongly correlated with increased levels of physical activity. Consistent with these results, DRD4 knock-out mice, when compared with wild-type and heterozygous mice, displayed a 7-9.7% decrease in lifespan, reduced spontaneous locomotor activity, and no lifespan increase when reared in an enriched environment. These results support the hypothesis that DRD4 gene variants contribute to longevity in humans and in mice, and suggest that this effect is mediated by shaping behavioral responses to the environment.

  14. Autophagy-mediated longevity is modulated by lipoprotein biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Nicole E.; de Magalhaes Filho, C. Daniel; Petrashen, Anna P.; Henderson, Hope R.; Laguer, Jade; Gonzalez, Julissa; Dillin, Andrew; Hansen, Malene; Lapierre, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy-dependent longevity models in C. elegans display altered lipid storage profiles, but the contribution of lipid distribution to life-span extension is not fully understood. Here we report that lipoprotein production, autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis are linked to modulate life span in a conserved fashion. We find that overexpression of the yolk lipoprotein VIT/vitellogenin reduces the life span of long-lived animals by impairing the induction of autophagy-related and lysosomal genes necessary for longevity. Accordingly, reducing vitellogenesis increases life span via induction of autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis. Life-span extension due to reduced vitellogenesis or enhanced lysosomal lipolysis requires nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) NHR-49 and NHR-80, highlighting novel roles for these NHRs in lysosomal lipid signaling. In dietary-restricted worms and mice, expression of VIT and hepatic APOB (apolipoprotein B), respectively, are significantly reduced, suggesting a conserved longevity mechanism. Altogether, our study demonstrates that lipoprotein biogenesis is an important mechanism that modulates aging by impairing autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis. PMID:26671266

  15. Sperm Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Mediates α7 Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Activation to Promote Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Jaldety, Yael; Glick, Yair; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ickowicz, Debby; Gerber, Doron; Breitbart, Haim

    2012-01-01

    To attain fertilization the spermatozoon binds to the egg zona pellucida (ZP) via sperm receptor(s) and undergoes an acrosome reaction (AR). Several sperm receptors have been described in the literature; however, the identity of this receptor is not yet certain. In this study, we suggest that the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) might be a sperm receptor activated by ZP to induce epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated AR. We found that isolated ZP or α7 agonists induced the AR in sperm from WT but not α7-null spermatozoa, and the induced AR was inhibited by α7 or EGFR antagonists. Moreover, α7-null sperm showed very little binding to the egg, and microfluidic affinity in vitro assay clearly showed that α7nAChR, as well as EGFR, interacted with ZP3. Induction of EGFR activation and the AR by an α7 agonist was inhibited by a Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor. In conclusion we suggest that activation of α7 by ZP leads to SFK-dependent EGFR activation, Ca2+ influx, and the acrosome reaction. PMID:22577141

  16. Mutant p53 amplifies Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor family signaling to promote mammary tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yallowitz, Alisha; Li, Dun; Lobko, Antony; Nemajerova, Alice; Marchenko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB2/Her2 and EGFR/ErbB1/Her1) often modulates the transcriptional program involved in promoting mammary tumorigenesis. In humans, more than 70% of ErbB2-positive sporadic breast cancers harbor p53 mutations, which correlate with poor prognosis. Also, the extremely high incidence of ErbB2-positive breast cancer in women with p53 germ-line mutations (Li-Fraumeni Syndrome) suggests the key role of mutant p53 specifically in ErbB2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis. To examine the role of mutant p53 during ErbB2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis we introduced a mutant p53 R172H allele into a (MMTV)-ErbB2/Neu mouse model. We show in heterozygous p53 mice that mutp53 R172H is a more potent activator of ErbB2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis than simple loss of p53. The more aggressive disease in mutant p53 animals was reflected by earlier tumor onset, increased mammary tumor multiplicity, and shorter survival. We provide molecular evidence that mutant p53 amplifies ErbB2 and EGFR signaling to promote the expansion of mammary stem cells and induce cancer cell proliferation. This study therefore identifies mutant p53 as an essential player in ErbB2 and EGFR-mediated breast cancer and indicates the potential translational importance of targeting mutant p53 in this subset of breast cancer patients. PMID:25573952

  17. Sox2 Is an Androgen Receptor-Repressed Gene That Promotes Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kregel, Steven; Kiriluk, Kyle J.; Rosen, Alex M.; Cai, Yi; Reyes, Edwin E.; Otto, Kristen B.; Tom, Westin; Paner, Gladell P.; Szmulewitz, Russell Z.; Vander Griend, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in detection and therapy, castration-resistant prostate cancer continues to be a major clinical problem. The aberrant activity of stem cell pathways, and their regulation by the Androgen Receptor (AR), has the potential to provide insight into novel mechanisms and pathways to prevent and treat advanced, castrate-resistant prostate cancers. To this end, we investigated the role of the embryonic stem cell regulator Sox2 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2] in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. In the normal prostate, Sox2 is expressed in a portion of basal epithelial cells. Prostate tumors were either Sox2-positive or Sox2-negative, with the percentage of Sox2-positive tumors increasing with Gleason Score and metastases. In the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line CWR-R1, endogenous expression of Sox2 was repressed by AR signaling, and AR chromatin-IP shows that AR binds the enhancer element within the Sox2 promoter. Likewise, in normal prostate epithelial cells and human embryonic stem cells, increased AR signaling also decreases Sox2 expression. Resistance to the anti-androgen MDV3100 results in a marked increase in Sox2 expression within three prostate cancer cell lines, and in the castration-sensitive LAPC-4 prostate cancer cell line ectopic expression of Sox2 was sufficient to promote castration-resistant tumor formation. Loss of Sox2 expression in the castration-resistant CWR-R1 prostate cancer cell line inhibited cell growth. Up-regulation of Sox2 was not associated with increased CD133 expression but was associated with increased FGF5 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 5) expression. These data propose a model of elevated Sox2 expression due to loss of AR-mediated repression during castration, and consequent castration-resistance via mechanisms not involving induction of canonical embryonic stem cell pathways. PMID:23326489

  18. Pregnane X receptor activation and silencing promote steatosis of human hepatic cells by distinct lipogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Andreas; Rümmele, Petra; Klein, Kathrin; Kandel, Benjamin A; Rieger, Jessica K; Nüssler, Andreas K; Zanger, Ulrich M; Trauner, Michael; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    In addition to its well-characterized role in the regulation of drug metabolism and transport by xenobiotics, pregnane X receptor (PXR) critically impacts on lipid homeostasis. In mice, both ligand-dependent activation and knockout of PXR were previously shown to promote hepatic steatosis. To elucidate the respective pathways in human liver, we generated clones of human hepatoma HepG2 cells exhibiting different PXR protein levels, and analyzed effects of PXR activation and knockdown on steatosis and expression of lipogenic genes. Ligand-dependent activation as well as knockdown of PXR resulted in increased steatosis in HepG2 cells. Activation of PXR induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1-dependent lipogenic pathway via PXR-dependent induction of SREBP1a, which was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. Inhibiting SREBP1 activity by blocking the cleavage-dependent maturation of SREBP1 protein impaired the induction of lipogenic SREBP1 target genes and triglyceride accumulation by PXR activation. On the other hand, PXR knockdown resulted in up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, which enhanced the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-catalyzed reaction step of de novo lipogenesis. In a cohort of human liver samples histologically classified for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, AKR1B10, SREBP1a and SREBP1 lipogenic target genes proved to be up-regulated in steatohepatitis, while PXR protein was reduced. In summary, our data suggest that activation and knockdown of PXR in human hepatic cells promote de novo lipogenesis and steatosis by induction of the SREBP1 pathway and AKR1B10-mediated increase of ACC activity, respectively, thus providing mechanistic explanations for a putative dual role of PXR in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis.

  19. Trait-associated sequence variation in the bovine growth hormone receptor 1A promoter does not affect promoter activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Jiang, H

    2005-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a central role in growth and metabolism in cattle by binding to growth hormone receptor (GHR) and stimulating production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Two sequence variations in the promoter transcribing a major GHR mRNA variant, GHR 1A mRNA, have been reported to be associated with quantitative differences in growth rate or blood concentration of IGF1 in cattle. One such variation is in the length of a TG-repeat, being 11 or 16-20; the other variation is in the nucleotide 155 bp upstream from the transcription start site, being G or A. In this study, we determined whether these sequence variations would affect the activity of GHR 1A promoter. We cloned GHR 1A promoters bearing different sequence variations and linked each of them to a reporter gene. Transient transfection analyses revealed that these promoter-reporter constructs did not differ in reporter gene expression. Cotransfection analyses demonstrated that they also did not differ in activation by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4gamma and nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 2, known transcription factors for bovine GHR 1A promoter. These in vitro results, together with a previous observation that neither the nucleotide 155 bp upstream from the transcription start site nor the TG-repeat was part of the GHR 1A promoter region interacting with nuclear proteins from bovine liver, do not support a cause-effect relationship between the reported sequence variations and the associated changes in growth rate or blood IGF1 concentration in cattle.

  20. Supersensitive Kappa Opioid Receptors Promotes Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Behaviors and Reduce Dopamine Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jamie H.; Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Chen, Rong; Gioia, Dominic; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Becker, Howard C.; McCool, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic ethanol exposure reduces dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, which may contribute to the negative affective symptoms associated with ethanol withdrawal. Kappa opioid receptors have been implicated in withdrawal-induced excessive drinking and anxiety-like behaviors and are known to inhibit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The effects of chronic ethanol exposure on kappa opioid receptor-mediated changes in dopamine transmission at the level of the dopamine terminal and withdrawal-related behaviors were examined. Methods: Five weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in male C57BL/6 mice were used to examine the role of kappa opioid receptors in chronic ethanol-induced increases in ethanol intake and marble burying, a measure of anxiety/compulsive-like behavior. Drinking and marble burying were evaluated before and after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure, with and without kappa opioid receptor blockade by nor-binaltorphimine (10mg/kg i.p.). Functional alterations in kappa opioid receptors were assessed using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens. Results: Chronic intermittent ethanol-exposed mice showed increased ethanol drinking and marble burying compared with controls, which was attenuated with kappa opioid receptor blockade. Chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increases in behavior were replicated with kappa opioid receptor activation in naïve mice. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed that chronic intermittent ethanol reduced accumbal dopamine release and increased uptake rates, promoting a hypodopaminergic state of this region. Kappa opioid receptor activation with U50,488H concentration-dependently decreased dopamine release in both groups; however, this effect was greater in chronic intermittent ethanol-treated mice, indicating kappa opioid receptor supersensitivity in this group. Conclusions: These data suggest that the chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increase

  1. Activation of the prolactin receptor gene by promoter insertion in a Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced rat thymoma.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, C S; Bear, S E; Keler, T; Copeland, N G; Gilbert, D J; Jenkins, N A; Yeung, R S; Tsichlis, P N

    1992-01-01

    The prolactin receptor (Prlr) and growth hormone receptor (Ghr) genes and the Moloney murine leukemia virus integration-2 (Mlvi-2) locus were mapped to mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 5 bands p12-p14. To examine the potential relationship between Mlvi-2 and the genes encoding the growth hormone receptor and the prolactin receptor, we determined the chromosomal location of all three loci in the rat, using a panel of rat-mouse somatic cell hybrids, and in the mouse, using a panel of (C57BL/6J x Mus spretus)F1 x C57BL/6J interspecific backcross mice. These analyses revealed that Ghr, Prlr, and Mlvi-2 map to chromosome 2 in the rat and to chromosome 15 in the mouse, in close proximity with each other. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of rat genomic DNA showed no overlaps between the gene encoding the prolactin receptor and the remaining loci. Moreover, expression of the prolactin receptor was not affected by provirus insertion in Mlvi-2. During these studies, however, we detected one T-cell lymphoma line (2779) in which the prolactin receptor gene was activated by provirus integration. Sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-derived cDNA clones showed that the prolactin receptor RNA message initiates at the 5' long terminal repeat and utilizes the splice donor site 5' of the gag gene to splice the viral sequences onto exon 1 of the prolactin receptor. This message is predicted to encode the intact prolactin receptor protein product. Exposure of the T-cell lymphoma line 2779 to prolactin promoted cellular proliferation. Images PMID:1404614

  2. The emergence of longevous populations

    PubMed Central

    Colchero, Fernando; Rau, Roland; Barthold, Julia A.; Conde, Dalia A.; Lenart, Adam; Nemeth, Laszlo; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Schoeley, Jonas; Torres, Catalina; Zarulli, Virginia; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Bronikowski, Anne M.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne E.; Stoinski, Tara S.; Strier, Karen B.; Baudisch, Annette; Alberts, Susan C.; Vaupel, James W.

    2016-01-01

    The human lifespan has traversed a long evolutionary and historical path, from short-lived primate ancestors to contemporary Japan, Sweden, and other longevity frontrunners. Analyzing this trajectory is crucial for understanding biological and sociocultural processes that determine the span of life. Here we reveal a fundamental regularity. Two straight lines describe the joint rise of life expectancy and lifespan equality: one for primates and the second one over the full range of human experience from average lifespans as low as 2 y during mortality crises to more than 87 y for Japanese women today. Across the primate order and across human populations, the lives of females tend to be longer and less variable than the lives of males, suggesting deep evolutionary roots to the male disadvantage. Our findings cast fresh light on primate evolution and human history, opening directions for research on inequality, sociality, and aging. PMID:27872299

  3. Energetics and longevity in birds

    PubMed Central

    Furness, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    The links between energy expenditure and ageing are different at different levels of enquiry. When studies have examined the relationships between different species within a given class the association is generally negative—animals with greater metabolism per gram of tissue live shorter lives. Within species, or between classes (e.g. between birds and mammals) the association is the opposite—animals with higher metabolic rates live longer. We have previously shown in mammals that the negative association between lifespan and metabolic rate is in fact an artefact of using resting rather than daily energy expenditure, and of failing to adequately take into account the confounding effects of body size and the lack of phylogenetic independence of species data. When these factors are accounted for, across species of mammals, the ones with higher metabolism also have the largest lifetime expenditures of energy—consistent with the inter-class and intra-specific data. A previous analysis in birds did not yield the same pattern, but this may have been due to a lack of sufficient power in the analysis. Here we present an analysis of a much enlarged data set (>300 species) for metabolic and longevity traits in birds. These data show very similar patterns to those in mammals. Larger individuals have longer lives and lower per-gram resting and daily energy expenditures, hence there is a strong negative relationship between longevity and mass-specific metabolism. This relationship disappears when the confounding effects of body mass and phylogeny are accounted for. Across species of birds, lifetime expenditure of energy per gram of tissue based on both daily and resting energy expenditure is positively related to metabolic intensity, mirroring these statistical relationships in mammals and synergising with the positive associations of metabolism with lifespan within species and between vertebrate classes. PMID:19424858

  4. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Promotes Flaviviridae Entry and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Le Sommer, Caroline; Barrows, Nicholas J.; Bradrick, Shelton S.; Pearson, James L.; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.

    2012-01-01

    Flaviviruses cause a wide range of severe diseases ranging from encephalitis to hemorrhagic fever. Discovery of host factors that regulate the fate of flaviviruses in infected cells could provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of infection and therefore facilitate the development of anti-flaviviral drugs. We performed genome-scale siRNA screens to discover human host factors required for yellow fever virus (YFV) propagation. Using a 2×2 siRNA pool screening format and a duplicate of the screen, we identified a high confidence list of YFV host factors. To find commonalities between flaviviruses, these candidates were compared to host factors previously identified for West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV). This comparison highlighted a potential requirement for the G protein-coupled receptor kinase family, GRKs, for flaviviral infection. The YFV host candidate GRK2 (also known as ADRBK1) was validated both in siRNA-mediated knockdown HuH-7 cells and in GRK−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Additionally, we showed that GRK2 was required for efficient propagation of DENV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) indicating that GRK2 requirement is conserved throughout the Flaviviridae. Finally, we found that GRK2 participates in multiple distinct steps of the flavivirus life cycle by promoting both entry and RNA synthesis. Together, our findings identified GRK2 as a novel regulator of flavivirus infection and suggest that inhibition of GRK2 function may constitute a new approach for treatment of flavivirus associated diseases. PMID:23029581

  5. Urokinase Receptor Promotes Skin Tumor Formation by Preventing Epithelial Cell Activation of Notch1.

    PubMed

    Mazzieri, Roberta; Pietrogrande, Giovanni; Gerasi, Laura; Gandelli, Alessandro; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Moi, Davide; Brombin, Chiara; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Danese, Silvio; Mignatti, Paolo; Blasi, Francesco; D'Alessio, Silvia

    2015-11-15

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has a well-established role in cancer progression, but it has been little studied at earlier stages of cancer initiation. Here, we show that uPAR deficiency in the mouse dramatically reduces susceptibility to the classical two-stage protocol of inflammatory skin carcinogenesis. uPAR genetic deficiency decreased papilloma formation and accelerated keratinocyte differentiation, effects mediated by Notch1 hyperactivation. Notably, Notch1 inhibition in uPAR-deficient mice rescued their susceptibility to skin carcinogenesis. Clinically, we found that human differentiated keratoacanthomas expressed low levels of uPAR and high levels of activated Notch1, with opposite effects in proliferating tumors, confirming the relevance of the observations in mice. Furthermore, we found that TACE-dependent activation of Notch1 in basal kerantinocytes was modulated by uPAR. Mechanistically, uPAR sequestered TACE within lipid rafts to prevent Notch1 activation, thereby promoting cell proliferation and tumor formation. Given that uPAR signaling is nonessential for normal epidermal homeostasis, our results argue that uPAR may present a promising disease-specific target for preventing skin cancer development.

  6. Alu retrotransposons promote differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Hernández, Antonio; González-Rico, Francisco J.; Román, Angel C.; Rico-Leo, Eva; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Sánchez, Laura; Macia, Ángela; Heras, Sara R.; García-Pérez, José L.; Merino, Jaime M.; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell differentiation is a central process in development and in cancer growth and dissemination. OCT4 (POU5F1) and NANOG are essential for cell stemness and pluripotency; yet, the mechanisms that regulate their expression remain largely unknown. Repetitive elements account for almost half of the Human Genome; still, their role in gene regulation is poorly understood. Here, we show that the dioxin receptor (AHR) leads to differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the transcriptional upregulation of Alu retrotransposons, whose RNA transcripts can repress pluripotency genes. Despite the genome-wide presence of Alu elements, we provide evidences that those located at the NANOG and OCT4 promoters bind AHR, are transcribed by RNA polymerase-III and repress NANOG and OCT4 in differentiated cells. OCT4 and NANOG repression likely involves processing of Alu-derived transcripts through the miRNA machinery involving the Microprocessor and RISC. Consistently, stable AHR knockdown led to basal undifferentiation, impaired Alus transcription and blockade of OCT4 and NANOG repression. We suggest that transcripts produced from AHR-regulated Alu retrotransposons may control the expression of stemness genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation of carcinoma cells. The control of discrete Alu elements by specific transcription factors may have a dynamic role in genome regulation under physiological and diseased conditions. PMID:26883630

  7. Alu retrotransposons promote differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Morales-Hernández, Antonio; González-Rico, Francisco J; Román, Angel C; Rico-Leo, Eva; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Sánchez, Laura; Macia, Ángela; Heras, Sara R; García-Pérez, José L; Merino, Jaime M; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M

    2016-06-02

    Cell differentiation is a central process in development and in cancer growth and dissemination. OCT4 (POU5F1) and NANOG are essential for cell stemness and pluripotency; yet, the mechanisms that regulate their expression remain largely unknown. Repetitive elements account for almost half of the Human Genome; still, their role in gene regulation is poorly understood. Here, we show that the dioxin receptor (AHR) leads to differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the transcriptional upregulation of Alu retrotransposons, whose RNA transcripts can repress pluripotency genes. Despite the genome-wide presence of Alu elements, we provide evidences that those located at the NANOG and OCT4 promoters bind AHR, are transcribed by RNA polymerase-III and repress NANOG and OCT4 in differentiated cells. OCT4 and NANOG repression likely involves processing of Alu-derived transcripts through the miRNA machinery involving the Microprocessor and RISC. Consistently, stable AHR knockdown led to basal undifferentiation, impaired Alus transcription and blockade of OCT4 and NANOG repression. We suggest that transcripts produced from AHR-regulated Alu retrotransposons may control the expression of stemness genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation of carcinoma cells. The control of discrete Alu elements by specific transcription factors may have a dynamic role in genome regulation under physiological and diseased conditions.

  8. Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor (Ryr2)-mediated Calcium Signals Specifically Promote Glucose Oxidation via Pyruvate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Bround, Michael J; Wambolt, Rich; Cen, Haoning; Asghari, Parisa; Albu, Razvan F; Han, Jun; McAfee, Donald; Pourrier, Marc; Scott, Nichollas E; Bohunek, Lubos; Kulpa, Jerzy E; Chen, S R Wayne; Fedida, David; Brownsey, Roger W; Borchers, Christoph H; Foster, Leonard J; Mayor, Thibault; Moore, Edwin D W; Allard, Michael F; Johnson, James D

    2016-11-04

    Cardiac ryanodine receptor (Ryr2) Ca(2+) release channels and cellular metabolism are both disrupted in heart disease. Recently, we demonstrated that total loss of Ryr2 leads to cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction, arrhythmia, and reduced heart rate. Acute total Ryr2 ablation also impaired metabolism, but it was not clear whether this was a cause or consequence of heart failure. Previous in vitro studies revealed that Ca(2+) flux into the mitochondria helps pace oxidative metabolism, but there is limited in vivo evidence supporting this concept. Here, we studied heart-specific, inducible Ryr2 haploinsufficient (cRyr2Δ50) mice with a stable 50% reduction in Ryr2 protein. This manipulation decreased the amplitude and frequency of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) signals in isolated cardiomyocytes, without changes in cardiomyocyte contraction. Remarkably, in the context of well preserved contractile function in perfused hearts, we observed decreased glucose oxidation, but not fat oxidation, with increased glycolysis. cRyr2Δ50 hearts exhibited hyperphosphorylation and inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the key Ca(2+)-sensitive gatekeeper to glucose oxidation. Metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic analyses revealed additional functional networks associated with altered metabolism in this model. These results demonstrate that Ryr2 controls mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics and plays a specific, critical role in promoting glucose oxidation in cardiomyocytes. Our findings indicate that partial RYR2 loss is sufficient to cause metabolic abnormalities seen in heart disease.

  9. IL-7 receptor blockade following T cell depletion promotes long-term allograft survival

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Hoa-Le; Boeffard, Françoise; Longis, Julie; Danger, Richard; Martinet, Bernard; Haspot, Fabienne; Vanhove, Bernard; Brouard, Sophie; Soulillou, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    T cell depletion is commonly used in organ transplantation for immunosuppression; however, a restoration of T cell homeostasis following depletion leads to increased memory T cells, which may promote transplant rejection. The cytokine IL-7 is important for controlling lymphopoiesis under both normal and lymphopenic conditions. Here, we investigated whether blocking IL-7 signaling with a mAb that targets IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) alone or following T cell depletion confers an advantage for allograft survival in murine transplant models. We found that IL-7R blockade alone induced indefinite pancreatic islet allograft survival if anti–IL-7R treatment was started 3 weeks before graft. IL-7R blockade following anti-CD4– and anti-CD8–mediated T cell depletion markedly prolonged skin allograft survival. Furthermore, IL-7 inhibition in combination with T cell depletion synergized with either CTLA-4Ig administration or suboptimal doses of tacrolimus to induce long-term skin graft acceptance in this stringent transplant model. Together, these therapies inhibited T cell reconstitution, decreased memory T cell numbers, increased the relative frequency of Tregs, and abrogated both cellular and humoral alloimmune responses. Our data suggest that IL-7R blockade following T cell depletion has potential as a robust, immunosuppressive therapy in transplantation. PMID:24569454

  10. IQGAP1 promotes CXCR4 chemokine receptor function and trafficking via EEA-1+ endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bamidele, Adebowale O.; Kremer, Kimberly N.; Hirsova, Petra; Clift, Ian C.; Gores, Gregory J.; Billadeau, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    IQ motif–containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) is a cytoskeleton-interacting scaffold protein. CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor that binds stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1; also known as CXCL12). Both IQGAP1 and CXCR4 are overexpressed in cancer cell types, yet it was unclear whether these molecules functionally interact. Here, we show that depleting IQGAP1 in Jurkat T leukemic cells reduced CXCR4 expression, disrupted trafficking of endocytosed CXCR4 via EEA-1+ endosomes, and decreased efficiency of CXCR4 recycling. SDF-1–induced cell migration and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK) MAPK were strongly inhibited, even when forced overexpression restored CXCR4 levels. Similar results were seen in KMBC and HEK293 cells. Exploring the mechanism, we found that SDF-1 treatment induced IQGAP1 binding to α-tubulin and localization to CXCR4-containing endosomes and that CXCR4-containing EEA-1+ endosomes were abnormally located distal from the microtubule (MT)-organizing center (MTOC) in IQGAP1-deficient cells. Thus, IQGAP1 critically mediates CXCR4 cell surface expression and signaling, evidently by regulating EEA-1+ endosome interactions with MTs during CXCR4 trafficking and recycling. IQGAP1 may similarly promote CXCR4 functions in other cancer cell types. PMID:26195666

  11. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 promotes platelet activation and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiwen; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Rong; Tian, Jingluan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Mengxing; Cui, Qingya; Zhao, Lili; Hu, Renping; Jiang, Miao; Li, Zhenyu; Ruan, Changgeng; He, Sudan; Dai, Kesheng

    2017-03-14

    Previous studies have shown that receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) is involved in many important biological processes, including necroptosis, apoptosis, and inflammation. Here we show that RIP3 plays a critical role in regulating platelet functions and in vivo thrombosis and hemostasis. Tail bleeding times were significantly longer in RIP3-knockout (RIP3(-/-)) mice compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. In an in vivo model of arteriole thrombosis, mice lacking RIP3 exhibited prolonged occlusion times. WT mice repopulated with RIP3(-/-) bone marrow-derived cells had longer occlusion times than RIP3(-/-) mice repopulated with WT bone marrow-derived cells, suggesting a role for RIP3-deficient platelets in arterial thrombosis. Consistent with these findings, we observed that RIP3 was expressed in both human and mice platelets. Deletion of RIP3 in mouse platelets caused a marked defect in aggregation and attenuated dense granule secretion in response to low doses of thrombin or a thromboxane A2 analog, U46619. Phosphorylation of Akt induced by U46619 or thrombin was diminished in RIP3(-/-) platelets. Moreover, RIP3 interacted with Gα13 Platelet spreading on fibrinogen and clot retraction were impaired in the absence of RIP3. RIP3 inhibitor dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation in vitro and prevented arterial thrombus formation in vivo. These data demonstrate a role for RIP3 in promoting in vivo thrombosis and hemostasis by amplifying platelet activation. RIP3 may represent a novel promising therapeutic target for thrombotic diseases.

  12. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor controls cyclin O to promote epithelial multiciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Matteo; Crotta, Stefania; Dingwell, Kevin S.; Hirst, Elizabeth M. A.; Gialitakis, Manolis; Ahlfors, Helena; Smith, James C.; Stockinger, Brigitta; Wack, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia function as barriers against environmental insults and express the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, AhR function in these tissues is unknown. Here we show that AhR regulates multiciliogenesis in both murine airway epithelia and in Xenopus laevis epidermis. In air-exposed airway epithelia, induction of factors required for multiciliogenesis, including cyclin O (Ccno) and Multicilin (Mcidas), is AhR dependent, and air exposure induces AhR binding to the Ccno promoter. Submersion and hypoxic conditions impede AhR-dependent Ccno induction. This is mediated by the persistence of Notch signalling, as Notch blockade renders multiciliogenesis and Ccno induction by AhR independent from air exposure. In contrast to Ccno induction, air exposure does not induce the canonical AhR target cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1). Inversely, exposure to AhR ligands induces Cyp1a1 but not Ccno and impeded ciliogenesis. These data indicate that AhR involvement in detoxification of environmental pollutants may impede its physiological role, resulting in respiratory pathology. PMID:27554288

  13. Constitutively active transforming growth factor β receptor 1 in the mouse ovary promotes tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Vincent, David F.; Davis, Anna Jane; Sansom, Owen J.; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2016-01-01

    Despite the well-established tumor suppressive role of TGFβ proteins, depletion of key TGFβ signaling components in the mouse ovary does not induce a growth advantage. To define the role of TGFβ signaling in ovarian tumorigenesis, we created a mouse model expressing a constitutively active TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFBR1) in ovarian somatic cells using conditional gain-of-function approach. Remarkably, these mice developed ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors with complete penetrance, leading to reproductive failure and mortality. The tumors expressed multiple granulosa cell markers and caused elevated serum inhibin and estradiol levels, reminiscent of granulosa cell tumors. Consistent with the tumorigenic effect, overactivation of TGFBR1 altered tumor microenvironment by promoting angiogenesis and enhanced ovarian cell proliferation, accompanied by impaired cell differentiation and dysregulated expression of critical genes in ovarian function. By further exploiting complementary genetic models, we substantiated our finding that constitutively active TGFBR1 is a potent oncogenic switch in mouse granulosa cells. In summary, overactivation of TGFBR1 drives gonadal tumor development. The TGFBR1 constitutively active mouse model phenocopies a number of morphological, hormonal, and molecular features of human granulosa cell tumors and are potentially valuable for preclinical testing of targeted therapies to treat granulosa cell tumors, a class of poorly defined ovarian malignancies. PMID:27344183

  14. Promotion of adipogenesis by an EP2 receptor agonist via stimulation of angiogenesis in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2014-08-01

    Body weight loss is a common manifestation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly those with severe emphysema. Adipose angiogenesis is a key mediator of adipogenesis and use of pro-angiogenic agents may serve as a therapeutic option for lean COPD patients. Since angiogenesis is stimulated by PGE2, we examined whether ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, might promote adipose angiogenesis and adipogenesis in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice). Mice were intratracheally instilled with elastase or saline, followed after 4 weeks by intraperitoneal administration of ONO-AE1-259 for 4 weeks. The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) weight decreased in the EIE mice, whereas in the EIE mice treated with ONO-AE1-259, the SAT weight was largely restored, which was associated with significant increases in SAT adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and VEGF protein production. In contrast, ONO-AE1-259 administration induced no alteration in the weight of the visceral adipose tissue. These results suggest that in EIE mice, ONO-AE1-259 stimulated adipose angiogenesis possibly via VEGF production, and thence, adipogenesis. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for weight loss in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the adipose tissue vascular component.

  15. Toll-like receptor agonists promote prolonged triglyceride storage in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-ling; Morales-Rosado, Joel; Ray, Jessica; Myers, Timothy G; Kho, Terry; Lu, Mingfang; Munford, Robert S

    2014-01-31

    Macrophages in infected tissues may sense microbial molecules that significantly alter their metabolism. In a seeming paradox, these critical host defense cells often respond by increasing glucose catabolism while simultaneously storing fatty acids (FA) as triglycerides (TAG) in lipid droplets. We used a load-chase strategy to study the mechanisms that promote long term retention of TAG in murine and human macrophages. Toll-like receptor (TLR)1/2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists all induced the cells to retain TAG for ≥3 days. Prolonged TAG retention was accompanied by the following: (a) enhanced FA uptake and FA incorporation into TAG, with long lasting increases in acyl-CoA synthetase long 1 (ACSL1) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2), and (b) decreases in lipolysis and FA β-oxidation that paralleled a prolonged drop in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). TLR agonist-induced TAG storage is a multifaceted process that persists long after most early pro-inflammatory responses have subsided and may contribute to the formation of "lipid-laden" macrophages in infected tissues.

  16. Structural Basis of Natural Promoter Recognition by a Unique Nuclear Receptor, HNF4[alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Peng; Rha, Geun Bae; Melikishvili, Manana; Wu, Guangteng; Adkins, Brandon C.; Fried, Michael G.; Chi, Young-In

    2010-11-09

    HNF4{alpha} (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha}) plays an essential role in the development and function of vertebrate organs, including hepatocytes and pancreatic {beta}-cells by regulating expression of multiple genes involved in organ development, nutrient transport, and diverse metabolic pathways. As such, HNF4{alpha} is a culprit gene product for a monogenic and dominantly inherited form of diabetes, known as maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). As a unique member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, HNF4{alpha} recognizes target genes containing two hexanucleotide direct repeat DNA-response elements separated by one base pair (DR1) by exclusively forming a cooperative homodimer. We describe here the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of human HNF4{alpha} DNA binding domain in complex with a high affinity promoter element of another MODY gene, HNF1{alpha}, which reveals the molecular basis of unique target gene selection/recognition, DNA binding cooperativity, and dysfunction caused by diabetes-causing mutations. The predicted effects of MODY mutations have been tested by a set of biochemical and functional studies, which show that, in contrast to other MODY gene products, the subtle disruption of HNF4{alpha} molecular function can cause significant effects in afflicted MODY patients.

  17. Dmp1 Promoter-Driven Diphtheria Toxin Receptor Transgene Expression Directs Unforeseen Effects in Multiple Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jazzar, Ahmed; Javaheri, Behzad; Prideaux, Matt; Boyde, Alan; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Cherifi, Chahrazad; Hay, Eric; Hopkinson, Mark; Boyd, Michael; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Farquharson, Colin; Pitsillides, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Mice harbouring a dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) promoter-driven human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (HDTR) transgene (Tg) have recently been used to attain targeted ablation of osteocytes by diphtheria toxin (DT) treatment in order to define osteocyte function. Use of these Tg mice has asserted mechano- and novel paracrine regulatory osteocyte functions. To explore osteocyte roles fully, we sought to confirm the selectivity of DT effects in these transgenic mice. However, our findings revealed incomplete DT-induced osteocyte ablation, prevalent HDTR misexpression, as well as more prominent histopathological DT-induced changes in multiple organs in Tg than in wild-type (WT) littermate mice. Mechanistic evidence for DT action, via prominent regulation of phosphorylation status of elongation factor-2 (EF-2), was also found in many non-skeletal tissues in Tg mice; indicative of direct “off-target” DT action. Finally, very rapid deterioration in health and welfare status in response to DT treatment was observed in these Tg when compared to WT control mice. Together, these data lead us to conclude that alternative models for osteocyte ablation should be sought and caution be exercised when drawing conclusions from experiments using these Tg mice alone. PMID:28035954

  18. Sleep-promoting action of IIK7, a selective MT2 melatonin receptor agonist in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Simon P.; Sugden, David

    2009-01-01

    Several novel melatonin receptor agonists, in addition to various formulations of melatonin itself, are either available or in development for the treatment of insomnia. Melatonin is thought to exert its effects principally through two high affinity, G-protein coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2, though it is not known which subtype is responsible for the sleep-promoting action. The present study used radiotelemetry to record EEG and EMG in un-restrained freely moving rats to monitor the sleep-wake behaviour and examined the acute sleep-promoting activity of an MT2 receptor subtype selective melatonin analog, IIK7. IIK7 is a full agonist at the MT2 receptor subtype but a partial agonist at the MT1 receptor and has ∼90-fold higher affinity for MT2 than MT1. Like melatonin, IIK7 (10 mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced NREM sleep onset latency and transiently increased the time spent in NREM sleep, but did not alter REM sleep latency or the amount of REM sleep. An analysis of the EEG power spectrum showed no change in delta (1–4 Hz) or theta activity (5–8 Hz) following IIK7 administration. Core body temperature was slightly decreased (∼0.3 °C) by IIK7 compared to vehicle-treated rats. The acute and transient changes in the sleep-wake cycle mimic the changes seen with melatonin and suggest that its sleep-promoting activity is mediated by activation of the MT2 receptor subtype. PMID:19429170

  19. Gene expression patterns associated with queen honey bee longevity.

    PubMed

    Corona, Miguel; Hughes, Kimberly A; Weaver, Daniel B; Robinson, Gene E

    2005-11-01

    The oxidative stress theory of aging proposes that accumulation of oxidative damage is the main proximate cause of aging and that lifespan is determined by the rate at which this damage occurs. Two predictions from this theory are that long-lived organisms produce fewer ROS or have increased antioxidant production. Based in these predictions, molecular mechanisms to promote longevity could include either changes in the regulation of mitochondrial genes that affect ROS production or elevated expression of antioxidant genes. We explored these possibilities in the honey bee, a good model for the study of aging because it has a caste system in which the same genome produces both a long-lived queen and a short-lived worker. We measured mRNA levels for genes encoding eight of the most prominent antioxidant enzymes and five mitochondrial proteins involved in respiration. The expression of antioxidant genes generally decreased with age in queens, but not in workers. Expression of most mitochondrial genes, in particular CytC, was higher in young queens, but these genes showed a faster age-related decline relative to workers. One exception to this trend was COX-I in thorax. This resulted in higher COX-I/CytC ratios in old queens compared to old workers, which suggests caste-specific differences in mitochondrial function that might be related to the caste-specific differences in longevity. Queen honey bee longevity appears to have evolved via mechanisms other than increased antioxidant gene expression.

  20. Reproduction-longevity trade-offs reflect diet, not adaptation.

    PubMed

    Attisano, A; Moore, A J; Moore, P J

    2012-05-01

    A tenet of life history evolution is that allocation of limited resources results in trade-offs, such as that between reproduction and lifespan. Reproduction and lifespan are also influenced proximately by differences in the availability of specific nutrients. What is unknown is how the evolution of the ability to use a nutritionally novel diet is reflected in this fundamental trade-off. Does the evolution of the ability to use a nutritionally novel food maintain the trade-off in reproduction and longevity, or do the proximate effects of nutrition alter the adapted trade-off? We tested this by measuring trade-offs in male milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus, fed either an adapted diet of sunflower or the ancestral diet of milkweed. Sunflower-fed males lived longer but invested less in reproduction, both in mating and fertility. Milkweed-fed males invested in both mating and fertility at the expense of survival. The evolution of an expanded diet was not constrained by the existing trade-off, but instead was accompanied by a different trade-off between reproduction and longevity. We suggest that this occurs because diets differ in promoting germ line development or longevity.

  1. Human longevity: Genetics or Lifestyle? It takes two to tango.

    PubMed

    Passarino, Giuseppe; De Rango, Francesco; Montesanto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging and longevity in humans are modulated by a lucky combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Family studies demonstrated that about 25 % of the variation in human longevity is due to genetic factors. The search for genetic and molecular basis of aging has led to the identification of genes correlated with the maintenance of the cell and of its basic metabolism as the main genetic factors affecting the individual variation of the aging phenotype. In addition, studies on calorie restriction and on the variability of genes associated with nutrient-sensing signaling, have shown that ipocaloric diet and/or a genetically efficient metabolism of nutrients, can modulate lifespan by promoting an efficient maintenance of the cell and of the organism. Recently, epigenetic studies have shown that epigenetic modifications, modulated by both genetic background and lifestyle, are very sensitive to the aging process and can either be a biomarker of the quality of aging or influence the rate and the quality of aging. On the whole, current studies are showing that interventions modulating the interaction between genetic background and environment is essential to determine the individual chance to attain longevity.

  2. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  3. Hormone induces binding of receptors and transcription factors to a rearranged nucleosome on the MMTV promoter in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Truss, M; Bartsch, J; Schelbert, A; Haché, R J; Beato, M

    1995-01-01

    Hormonal induction of the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) promoter is mediated by interactions between hormone receptors and other transcription factors bound to a complex array of sites. Previous results suggested that access to these sites is modulated by their precise organization into a positioned regulatory nucleosome. Using genomic footprinting, we show that MMTV promoter DNA is rotationally phased in intact cells containing either episomal or chromosomally integrated proviral fragments. Prior to induction there is no evidence for factors bound to the promoter. Following progesterone induction of cells with high levels of receptor, genomic footprinting detects simultaneous protection over the binding sites for hormone receptors, NF-I and the octamer binding proteins. Glucocorticoid or progestin induction leads to a characteristic chromatin remodelling that is independent of ongoing transcription. The centre of the regulatory nucleosome becomes more accessible to DNase I and restriction enzymes, but the limits of the nucleosome are unchanged and the 145 bp core region remains protected against micrococcal nuclease digestion. Thus, the nucleosome covering the MMTV promoter is neither removed nor shifted upon hormone induction, and all relevant transcription factors bind to the surface of the rearranged nucleosome. Since these factors cannot bind simultaneously to free DNA, maintainance of the nucleosome may be required for binding of factors to contiguous sites. Images PMID:7737125

  4. Lipidomics in longevity and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Covarrubias, Vanessa

    2013-12-01

    The role of classical lipids in aging diseases and human longevity has been widely acknowledged. Triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations are clinically assessed to infer the risk of cardiovascular disease while larger lipoprotein particle size and low triglyceride levels have been identified as markers of human longevity. The rise of lipidomics as a branch of metabolomics has provided an additional layer of accuracy to pinpoint specific lipids and its association with aging diseases and longevity. The molecular composition and concentration of lipid species determine their cellular localization, metabolism, and consequently, their impact in disease and health. For example, low density lipoproteins are the main carriers of sphingomyelins and ceramides, while high density lipoproteins are mostly loaded with ether phosphocholines, partly explaining their opposing roles in atherogenesis. Moreover, the identification of specific lipid species in aging diseases and longevity would aid to clarify how these lipids alter health and influence longevity. For instance, ether phosphocholines PC (O-34:1) and PC (O-34:3) have been positively associated with longevity and negatively with diabetes, and hypertension, but other species of phosphocholines show no effect or an opposite association with these traits confirming the relevance of the identification of molecular lipid species to tackle our understanding of healthy aging and disease. Up-to-date, a minor fraction of the human plasma lipidome has been associated to healthy aging and longevity, further research would pinpoint toward specific lipidomic profiles as potential markers of healthy aging and metabolic diseases.

  5. MIF interacts with CXCR7 to promote receptor internalization, ERK1/2 and ZAP-70 signaling, and lymphocyte chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Alampour-Rajabi, Setareh; El Bounkari, Omar; Rot, Antal; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Bachelerie, Françoise; Gawaz, Meinrad; Weber, Christian; Schober, Andreas; Bernhagen, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    Macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with chemokine-like functions and is a mediator in numerous inflammatory conditions. Depending on the context, MIF signals through 1 or more of its receptors cluster of differentiation (CD)74, CXC-motif chemokine receptor (CXCR)2, and CXCR4. In addition, heteromeric receptor complexes have been identified. We characterized the atypical chemokine receptor CXCR7 as a novel receptor for MIF. MIF promoted human CXCR7 internalization up to 40%, peaking at 50-400 nM and 30 min, but CXCR7 internalization by MIF was not dependent on CXCR4. Yet, by coimmunoprecipitation, fluorescence microscopy, and a proximity ligation assay, CXCR7 was found to engage in MIF receptor complexes with CXCR4 and CD74, both after ectopic overexpression and in endogenous conditions in a human B-cell line. Receptor competition binding and coimmunoprecipitation studies combined with sulfo-SBED-biotin-transfer provided evidence for a direct interaction between MIF and CXCR7. Finally, we demonstrated MIF/CXCR7-mediated functional responses. Blockade of CXCR7 suppressed MIF-mediated ERK- and zeta-chain-associated protein kinase (ZAP)-70 activation (from 2.1- to 1.2-fold and from 2.5- to 1.6-fold, respectively) and fully abrogated primary murine B-cell chemotaxis triggered by MIF, but not by CXCL12. B cells from Cxcr7(-/-) mice exhibited an ablated transmigration response to MIF, indicating that CXCR7 is essential for MIF-promoted B-cell migration. Our findings provide biochemical and functional evidence that MIF is an alternative ligand of CXCR7 and suggest a functional role of the MIF-CXCR7 axis in B-lymphocyte migration.

  6. Deletion of G-protein-coupled receptor 55 promotes obesity by reducing physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the best-characterized cannabinoid receptor, and CB1 antagonists are used in clinical trials to treat obesity. Because of the wide range of CB1 functions, the side effects of CB1 antagonists pose serious concerns. G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is an atypical c...

  7. SynDIG1 promotes excitatory synaptogenesis independent of AMPA receptor trafficking and biophysical regulation.

    PubMed

    Lovero, Kathryn L; Blankenship, Sabine M; Shi, Yun; Nicoll, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    AMPA receptors-mediators of fast, excitatory transmission and synaptic plasticity in the brain-achieve great functional diversity through interaction with different auxiliary subunits, which alter both the trafficking and biophysical properties of these receptors. In the past several years an abundance of new AMPA receptor auxiliary subunits have been identified, adding astounding variety to the proteins known to directly bind and modulate AMPA receptors. SynDIG1 was recently identified as a novel AMPA receptor interacting protein that directly binds to the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 in heterologous cells. Functionally, SynDIG1 was found to regulate the strength and density of AMPA receptor containing synapses in hippocampal neurons, though the way in which SynDIG1 exerts these effects remains unknown. Here, we aimed to determine if SynDIG1 acts as a traditional auxiliary subunit, directly regulating the function and localization of AMPA receptors in the rat hippocampus. We find that, unlike any of the previously characterized AMPA receptor auxiliary subunits, SynDIG1 expression does not impact AMPA receptor gating, pharmacology, or surface trafficking. Rather, we show that SynDIG1 regulates the number of functional excitatory synapses, altering both AMPA and NMDA receptor mediated transmission. Our findings suggest that SynDIG1 is not a typical auxiliary subunit to AMPA receptors, but instead is a protein critical to excitatory synaptogenesis.

  8. Histone H4 Lys 20 methyltransferase SET8 promotes androgen receptor-mediated transcription activation in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Lushuai; Li, Yanyan; Du, Fengxia; Han, Xiao; Li, Xiaohua; Niu, Yuanjie; Ren, Shancheng; Sun, Yingli

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Dihydrotestosterone stimulates H4K20me1 enrichment at the PSA promoter. • SET8 promotes AR-mediated transcription activation. • SET8 interacts with AR and promotes cell proliferation. - Abstract: Histone methylation status in different lysine residues has an important role in transcription regulation. The effect of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene transcription remains unclear. Here we show that AR agonist stimulates the enrichment of H4K20me1 and SET8 at the promoter of AR target gene PSA in an AR dependent manner. Furthermore, SET8 is crucial for the transcription activation of PSA. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that SET8 interacts with AR. Therefore, we conclude that SET8 is involved in AR-mediated transcription activation, possibly through its interaction with AR and H4K20me1 modification.

  9. A novel signaling pathway of tissue kallikrein in promoting keratinocyte migration: Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2010-02-01

    Biological functions of tissue kallikrein (TK, KLK1) are mainly mediated by kinin generation and subsequent kinin B2 receptor activation. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TK and its signaling pathways in cultured human keratinocyte migration and in a rat skin wound healing model. Herein, we show that TK promoted cell migration and proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Inactive TK or kinin had no significant effect on cell migration. Interestingly, cell migration induced by active TK was not blocked by icatibant or L-NAME, indicating an event independent of kinin B2 receptor and nitric oxide formation. TK's stimulatory effect on cell migration was inhibited by small interfering RNA for proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR{sub 1}), and by PAR{sub 1} inhibitor. TK-induced migration was associated with increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), Src, EGFR and ERK. TK-induced cell migration and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked by metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, heparin, and antibodies against EGFR external domain, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AR). Local application of TK promoted skin wound healing in rats, whereas icatibant and EGFR inhibitor blocked TK's effect. Skin wound healing was further delayed by aprotinin and neutralizing TK antibody. This study demonstrates a novel role of TK in skin wound healing and uncovers new signaling pathways mediated by TK in promoting keratinocyte migration through activation of the PAR{sub 1}-PKC-Src-MMP pathway and HB-EGF/AR shedding-dependent EGFR transactivation.

  10. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 deficiency attenuates growth while promoting chemosensitivity of human endometrial xenograft tumors

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Anne M.; Zhang, Ling; Pru, Cindy A.; Clark, Nicole C.; McCallum, Melissa L.; Blok, Leen J.; Shioda, Toshi; Peluso, John J.; Rueda, Bo R.; Pru, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the leading gynecologic cancer in women in the United States with 52,630 women predicted to be diagnosed with the disease in 2014. The objective of this study was to determine if progesterone (P4) receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) influenced endometrial cancer cell viability in response to chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. A Jentiviral-based shRNA knockdown approach was used to generate stable PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines that also lacked expression of the classical progesterone receptor (PGR). Progesterone treatment inhibited mitosis of PGRMC1-intact, but not PGRMC1-deplete cells, suggesting that PGRMC1 mediates the anti-mitotic actions of P4.To test the hypothesis that PGRMC1 attenuates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete cells were treated in vitro with vehicle, P4 (1 μM), doxorubicin (Dox. 2 μg/ml). or P4 + Dox for 48 h. Doxorubicin treatment of PGRMC1-intact cells resulted in a significant increase in cell death; however, co-treatment with P4 significantly attenuated Dex-induced cell death. This response to P4 was lost in PGRMC1-deplete cells. To extend these observations in vivo, a xenograft model was employed where PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete endometrial tumors were generated following subcutaneous and intraperitonea l inoculation of immunocompromised NOD/SCIO and nude mice, respectively. Tumors derived from PGRMC1-deplete cells grew slower than tumors from PGRMC1-intact cells. Mice harboring endometrial tumors were then given three treatments of vehicle (1:1 cremophor EL: ethanol + 0.9% saline) or chemotherapy [Paclitaxel (15 mg/kg, i.p.) followed after an interval of 30 minutes by CARBOplatin (SO mg/kg)] at five day intervals. In response to chemotherapy, tumor volume decreased approximately four-fold more in PGRMC1-deplete tumors when compared with PGRMC1 intact control tumors, suggesting that PGRMC1 promotes tumor cell viability during

  11. PPAR-α and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R; Peters, Luanne L; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-06-25

    Many acute and chronic anaemias, including haemolysis, sepsis and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production. Treatment of these anaemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of an early erythroid progenitor, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Here we show that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) by the PPAR-α agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate synergizes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures of both mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and mobilized human adult CD34(+) peripheral blood progenitors, with a new and effective culture system being used for the human cells that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. Although Ppara(-/-) mice show no haematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPAR-α agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type but not Ppara(-/-) mice from PHZ-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. We also show that PPAR-α alleviates anaemia in a mouse model of chronic anaemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells, PPAR-α co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPAR-α agonists, additional PPAR-α is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPAR-α agonists in stimulating self-renewal of early erythroid

  12. PPARα and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M. Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R.; Peters, Luanne L.; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many acute and chronic anemias, including hemolysis, sepsis, and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA), are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production 1,2,3–5,6,7,8,9. Treatment of these anemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of the early erythroid progenitor, the burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells 10,11. Here we demonstrate that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) by PPARα agonists, GW7647 and fenofibrate, synergizes with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures both of mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and of mobilized human adult CD34+ peripheral blood progenitors, the latter employing a new and effective culture system that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. While PPARα−/− mice show no hematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPARα agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type mice, but not PPARα−/− mice, from PHZ-induced acute hemolytic anemia. We also showed that PPARα alleviates anemia in a mouse model of chronic anemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells PPARα co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPARα agonists, additional PPARα is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPARα agonists in stimulating self

  13. Promoter-dependent activity on androgen receptor N-terminal domain mutations in androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Rieko; Davies, John; Mongan, Nigel P; Bunch, Trevor; Brown, Rosalind S; Audi, Laura; Watt, Kate; McEwan, Iain J; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mutations are associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Missense mutations identified in the AR-N-terminal domain (AR-NTD) are rare, and clinical phenotypes are typically mild. We investigated 7 missense mutations and 2 insertion/deletions located in the AR-NTD. This study aimed to elucidate the pathogenic role of AR-NTD mutants in AIS and to use this knowledge to further define AR-NTD function. AR-NTD mutations (Q120E, A159T, G216R, N235K, G248V, L272F, and P380R) were introduced into AR-expression plasmids. Stably expressing cell lines were established for del57L and ins58L. Transactivation was measured using luciferase reporter constructs under the control of GRE and Pem promoters. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and partial proteolysis studies were performed for mutations which showed reduced activities by using a purified AR-AF1 protein. Pem-luciferase reporter activation was reduced for A159T, N235K, and G248V but not the GRE-luciferase reporter. Protein structure analysis detected no significant change in the AR-AF1 region for these mutations. Reduced cellular expression and transactivation activity were observed for ins58L. The mutations Q120E, G216R, L272F, P380R, and del57L showed small or no detectable changes in function. Thus, clinical and experimental analyses have identified novel AR-signalling defects associated with mutations in the structurally disordered AR-NTD domain in patients with AIS.

  14. Insulin Receptor Substrate-4 Binds to Slingshot-1 Phosphatase and Promotes Cofilin Dephosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Yuta; Kanno, Shin-ichiro; Sasaki, Kazutaka; Nishita, Michiru; Yasui, Akira; Asano, Tomoichiro; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2014-01-01

    Cofilin plays an essential role in cell migration and morphogenesis by enhancing actin filament dynamics via its actin filament-severing activity. Slingshot-1 (SSH1) is a protein phosphatase that plays a crucial role in regulating actin dynamics by dephosphorylating and reactivating cofilin. In this study, we identified insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-4 as a novel SSH1-binding protein. Co-precipitation assays revealed the direct endogenous binding of IRS4 to SSH1. IRS4, but not IRS1 or IRS2, was bound to SSH1. IRS4 was bound to SSH1 mainly through the unique region (amino acids 335–400) adjacent to the C terminus of the phosphotyrosine-binding domain of IRS4. The N-terminal A, B, and phosphatase domains of SSH1 were bound to IRS4 independently. Whereas in vitro phosphatase assays revealed that IRS4 does not directly affect the cofilin phosphatase activity of SSH1, knockdown of IRS4 increased cofilin phosphorylation in cultured cells. Knockdown of IRS4 decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, and treatment with an inhibitor of PI3K increased cofilin phosphorylation. Akt preferentially phosphorylated SSH1 at Thr-826, but expression of a non-phosphorylatable T826A mutant of SSH1 did not affect insulin-induced cofilin dephosphorylation, and an inhibitor of Akt did not increase cofilin phosphorylation. These results suggest that IRS4 promotes cofilin dephosphorylation through sequential activation of PI3K and SSH1 but not through Akt. In addition, IRS4 co-localized with SSH1 in F-actin-rich membrane protrusions in insulin-stimulated cells, which suggests that the association of IRS4 with SSH1 contributes to localized activation of cofilin in membrane protrusions. PMID:25100728

  15. Chemokine receptor CXCR6-dependent hepatic NK T Cell accumulation promotes inflammation and liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Alexander; Baeck, Christer; Heymann, Felix; Niemietz, Patricia Maria; Hammerich, Linda; Martin, Christian; Zimmermann, Henning W; Pack, Oliver; Gassler, Nikolaus; Hittatiya, Kanishka; Ludwig, Andreas; Luedde, Tom; Trautwein, Christian; Tacke, Frank

    2013-05-15

    Chronic liver injury characteristically results in hepatic inflammation, which represents a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Although NKT cells are abundantly present in liver and involved in hepatic inflammation, molecular mechanisms of their recruitment in liver fibrosis remained elusive. We hypothesized that chemokine receptor CXCR6 and its ligand CXCL16 control NKT cell migration and functionality in liver fibrosis. In patients with chronic liver diseases (n = 58), CXCR6 and CXCL16 expression was intrahepatically upregulated compared with controls. In murine liver, Cxcl16 was strongly expressed by endothelium and macrophages, whereas lymphocyte populations (NKT, NK, CD4 T, CD8 T cells) expressed CXCR6. Intravital two-photon microscopy imaging of Cxcr6(+/gfp) and Cxcr6(gfp/gfp) mice and chemotaxis studies in vitro revealed that CXCR6 specifically controls hepatic NKT cell accumulation during the early response upon experimental liver damage. Hepatic invariant NKT cells expressed distinct proinflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ and IL-4 upon injury. CXCR6-deficient mice were protected from liver fibrosis progression in two independent experimental models. Macrophage infiltration and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-4 were also reduced in fibrotic livers of Cxcr6(-/-) mice, corroborating that hepatic NKT cells provide essential cytokine signals perpetuating hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis. Adoptive transfer of NKT cells, but not CD4 T cells, isolated from wild type livers restored hepatic fibrosis in Cxcr6(-/-) mice upon experimental steatohepatitis. Our results demonstrate that hepatic NKT cells accumulate CXCR6-dependent early upon injury, thereby accentuating the inflammatory response in the liver and promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. Interfering with CXCR6/CXCL16 might therefore bear therapeutic potential in liver fibrosis.

  16. Neural protein gamma-synuclein interacting with androgen receptor promotes human prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gamma-synuclein (SNCG) has previously been demonstrated to be significantly correlated with metastatic malignancies; however, in-depth investigation of SNCG in prostate cancer is still lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the role of SNCG in prostate cancer progression and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods First, alteration of SNCG expression in LNCaP cell line to test the ability of SNCG on cellular properties in vitro and vivo whenever exposing with androgen or not. Subsequently, the Dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to evaluate whether the role of SNCG in LNCaP is through AR signaling. Last, the association between SNCG and prostate cancer progression was assessed immunohistochemically using a series of human prostate tissues. Results Silencing SNCG by siRNA in LNCaP cells contributes to the inhibition of cellular proliferation, the induction of cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase, the suppression of cellular migration and invasion in vitro, as well as the decrease of tumor growth in vivo with the notable exception of castrated mice. Subsequently, mechanistic studies indicated that SNCG is a novel androgen receptor (AR) coactivator. It interacts with AR and promotes prostate cancer cellular growth and proliferation by activating AR transcription in an androgen-dependent manner. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SNCG was almost undetectable in benign or androgen-independent tissues prostate lesions. The high expression of SNCG is correlated with peripheral and lymph node invasion. Conclusions Our data suggest that SNCG may serve as a biomarker for predicting human prostate cancer progression and metastasis. It also may become as a novel target for biomedical therapy in advanced prostate cancer. PMID:23231703

  17. Enkephalin release promotes homeostatic increases in constitutively active mu opioid receptors during morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Shoblock, J R; Maidment, N T

    2007-11-09

    We previously demonstrated that naloxone administration produces a robust conditioned place aversion (CPA) in opiate-naive rodents by blocking the action of enkephalins at mu opioid receptors (MORs). The aversive response to naloxone is potentiated by prior exposure to morphine. Morphine-induced MOR constitutive activity is hypothesized to underlie this enhanced effect of naloxone, an inverse agonist at the MOR. We sought additional evidence for the role of constitutively active MORs in this morphine-induced enhancement using the pro-enkephalin knockout (pENK(-)/(-)) mouse, which is devoid of naloxone CPA in the morphine-naive state. Naloxone, but not the neutral antagonist, 6-beta-naloxol, produced CPA and physical withdrawal signs in pENK(-)/(-) mice when administered 2 h, but not 20 h, after morphine administration. Naloxone-precipitated physical withdrawal signs were attenuated in the pENK(-)/(-) mice relative to wild-type (WT) animals. In both WT and pENK(-)/(-) mice, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping was greatest when naloxone was administered 2 h after morphine treatment and diminished at 3 h, in agreement with previous estimates of the time course for morphine-induced MOR constitutive activity in vitro. However, naloxone regained an ability to precipitate physical withdrawal in the WT, but not the pENK(-)/(-) mice when administered 4.5 h after morphine administration. Taken together, the data suggest that a compensatory increase in enkephalin release during spontaneous morphine withdrawal promotes a second period of MOR constitutive activity in WT mice that is responsible for the enhanced naloxone aversion observed in such animals even when naloxone is administered 20 h after morphine. The endogenous enkephalin system and MOR constitutive activity may therefore play vital roles in hedonic homeostatic dysregulation following chronic opiate administration.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 promotes the development of the lymphatic vasculature.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Michael T; Meadows, Stryder M; Wynne, Katherine; Cleaver, Ondine; Brekken, Rolf A

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is highly expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells and has been shown to stimulate lymphangiogenesis in adult mice. However, the role VEGFR2 serves in the development of the lymphatic vascular system has not been defined. Here we use the Cre-lox system to show that the proper development of the lymphatic vasculature requires VEGFR2 expression by lymphatic endothelium. We show that Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice possess significantly fewer dermal lymphatic vessels than Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice. Although Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice exhibit lymphatic hypoplasia, the lymphatic network is functional and contains all of the key features of a normal lymphatic network (initial lymphatic vessels and valved collecting vessels surrounded by smooth muscle cells (SMCs)). We also show that Lyve-1(Cre) mice display robust Cre activity in macrophages and in blood vessels in the yolk sac, liver and lung. This activity dramatically impairs the development of blood vessels in these tissues in Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) embryos, most of which die after embryonic day14.5. Lastly, we show that inactivation of Vegfr2 in the myeloid lineage does not affect the development of the lymphatic vasculature. Therefore, the abnormal lymphatic phenotype of Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice is due to the deletion of Vegfr2 in the lymphatic vasculature not macrophages. Together, this work demonstrates that VEGFR2 directly promotes the expansion of the lymphatic network and further defines the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of the lymphatic vascular system.

  19. UBPY-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) de-ubiquitination promotes EGFR degradation.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Husam A J; van Leeuwen, Jeroen E M

    2007-01-19

    Whereas poly-ubiquitination targets protein substrates for proteasomal degradation, mono-ubiquitination is known to regulate protein trafficking in the endosomal system and to target cargo proteins for lysosomal degradation. The role of the de-ubiquitinating enzymes AMSH and UBPY in endosomal trafficking of cargo proteins such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has only very recently been the subject of study and is already a matter of debate. Although one report (Mizuno, E., Iura, T., Mukai, A., Yoshimori, T., Kitamura, N., and Komada, M. (2005) Mol. Biol. Cell 16, 5163-5174) concludes that UBPY negatively regulates EGFR degradation by de-ubiquitinating the EGFR on endosomes, another report (Row, P. E., Prior, I. A., McCullough, J., Clague, M. J., and Urbe, S. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 12618-12624) concludes that UBPY-mediated EGFR de-ubiquitination is essential for EGFR degradation. Here, we demonstrate that Usp8/UBPY, the mammalian ortholog of budding yeast Ubp4/Doa4, constitutively co-precipitates in a bivalent manner with the EGFR. Moreover, UBPY is a substrate for Src-family tyrosine kinases that are activated after ligand-induced EGFR activation. Using overexpression of three different recombinant dominant negative UBPY mutants (UBPY C748A mutant, UBPY 1-505, and UBPY 640-1080) in NIH3T3 and HEK293 cells, we demonstrate that UBPY affects both constitutive and ligand-induced (i) EGFR ubiquitination, (ii) EGFR expression levels, and (iii) the appearance of intermediate EGFR degradation products as well as (iv) downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction. Our findings provide further evidence in favor of the model that UBPY-mediated EGFR de-ubiquitination promotes EGFR degradation.

  20. The p75 neurotrophin receptor promotes Aβ-induced neuritic dystrophy in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Juliet; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Nguyen, Thuy-Vi V.; Yang, Tao; LeMieux, Melburne C.; Griend, Lilith Vander; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Massa, Stephen M.; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Longo, Frank M.

    2009-01-01

    Oligomeric forms of amyloid-β(1–42) (Aβ) are thought to play a causal role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) has been implicated in Aβ-induced neurodegeneration. To further define the functions of p75NTR in AD, we examined the interaction of oligomeric Aβ with p75NTR, and the effects of that interaction on neurite integrity in neuron cultures and in a chronic AD mouse model. Atomic force microscopy was used to ascertain the aggregated state of Aβ, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis revealed that Aβ oligomers interact with the extracellular domain of p75NTR. In vitro studies of Aβ-induced death in neuron cultures isolated from wildtype and p75NTR −/− mice, in which the p75NTR extracellular domain is deleted, showed reduced sensitivity of mutant cells to Aβ-induced cell death. Interestingly, Aβ-induced neuritic dystrophy and activation of c-Jun, a known mediator of Aβ-induced deleterious signaling, were completely prevented in p75NTR −/− neuron cultures. Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe X p75NTR−/− mice exhibited significantly diminished hippocampal neuritic dystrophy and complete reversal of basal forebrain cholinergic neurite degeneration relative to those expressing wild type p75NTR. Aβ levels were not affected, suggesting that removal of p75NTR extracellular domain reduced the ability of excess Aβ to promote neuritic degeneration. These findings indicate that while p75NTR likely does not mediate all Aβ effects, it does play a significant role in enabling Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo, establishing p75NTR as an important therapeutic target for AD. PMID:19710315

  1. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, X X; Jiang, D Y; Huang, X X; Guo, S L; Yuan, W; Dai, H P

    2015-12-21

    The specific role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis of mice, a model of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has not been characterized. We injected bleomycin intratracheally into TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. Twenty-one days after injection, mice were sacrificed and their lungs were harvested for pathological, hydroxyproline, mRNA expression, and collagen I analyses. Body weight changes and mortality were observed. Light microscopy showed that lung fibrosis was minimal in TLR4(-/-) compared to that in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin instillation. The Ashcroft score was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (3.667 ± 0.730 vs 4.945 ± 0.880, P < 0.05). Hydroxyproline content was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin injection (0.281 ± 0.022 vs 0.371 ± 0.047, P < 0.05). Compared to WT mice, bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice expressed significantly lower type I collagen mRNA levels (mesenchymal marker; 11.069 ± 2.627 vs 4.589 ± 1.440, P < 0.05). Collagen I was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (0.838 ± 0.352 vs 2.427 ± 0.551, P < 0.05). Bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice had a significantly lower mortality rate on day 21 than WT mice (33 vs 75%, P < 0.05). Body weight reduction was lower in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice; this difference was not statistically significant (-3.735 ± 5.276 vs -6.698 ± 3.218, P > 0.05). Thus, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is TLR4-dependent and TLR4 promoted fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice.

  2. Functional Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Regulate ICAM-1 Expression and Promote Leukocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Massimiliano; Newfell, Brenna G.; la Sala, Andrea; Baur, Wendy; Fabbri, Andrea; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mendelsohn, Michael E.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2008-01-01

    In clinical trials, aldosterone antagonists decrease cardiovascular mortality and ischemia by unknown mechanisms. The steroid hormone aldosterone acts by binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. In humans, aldosterone causes MR-dependent endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and in animal models, aldosterone increases vascular macrophage infiltration and atherosclerosis. MR antagonists inhibit these effects without changing blood pressure, suggesting a direct role for vascular MR in EC function and atherosclerosis. Whether human vascular EC express functional MR is not known. Here we show that human coronary artery and aortic EC express MR mRNA and protein and that EC MR mediates aldosterone-dependent gene transcription. Human EC also express the enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2(11βHSD2) and inhibition of 11βHSD2 in aortic EC enhances gene transactivation by cortisol, supporting that EC 11βHSD2 is functional. Furthermore, aldosterone stimulates transcription of the proatherogenic leukocyte-EC adhesion molecule Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM1) gene and protein expression on human coronary artery EC, an effect inhibited by the MR antagonist spironolactone and by MR knock-down with siRNA. Cell adhesion assays demonstrate that aldosterone promotes leukocyte-EC adhesion, an effect that is inhibited by spironolactone and ICAM1 blocking antibody, supporting that aldosterone induction of EC ICAM1 surface expression via MR mediates leukocyte-EC adhesion. These data show that aldosterone activates endogenous EC MR and proatherogenic gene expression in clinically important human EC. These studies describe a novel mechanism by which aldosterone may influence ischemic cardiovascular events and support a new explanation for the decrease in ischemic events in patients treated with aldosterone antagonists. PMID:18467630

  3. Specific epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation sites promote mouse colon epithelial cell chemotaxis and restitution.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Toshimitsu; Frey, Mark R; Dise, Rebecca S; Bernard, Jessica K; Polk, D Brent

    2011-08-01

    Upon ligand binding, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (R) autophosphorylates on COOH-terminal tyrosines, generating docking sites for signaling partners that stimulate proliferation, restitution, and chemotaxis. Specificity for individual EGFR tyrosines in cellular responses has been hypothesized but not well documented. Here we tested the requirement for particular tyrosines, and associated downstream pathways, in mouse colon epithelial cell chemotactic migration. We compared these requirements to those for the phenotypically distinct restitution (wound healing) migration. Wild-type, Y992/1173F, Y1045F, Y1068F, and Y1086F EGFR constructs were expressed in EGFR(-/-) cells; EGF-induced chemotaxis or restitution were determined by Boyden chamber or modified scratch wound assay, respectively. Pharmacological inhibitors of p38, phospholipase C (PLC), Src, MEK, JNK/SAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and protein kinase C (PKC) were used to block EGF-stimulated signaling. Pathway activation was determined by immunoblot analysis. Unlike wild-type EGFR, Y992/1173F and Y1086F EGFR did not stimulate colon epithelial cell chemotaxis toward EGF; Y1045F and Y1068F EGFR partially stimulated chemotaxis. Only wild-type EGFR promoted colonocyte restitution. Inhibition of p38, PLC, and Src, or Grb2 knockdown, blocked chemotaxis; JNK, PI 3-kinase, and PKC inhibitors or c-Cbl knockdown blocked restitution but not chemotaxis. All four EGFR mutants stimulated downstream signaling in response to EGF, but Y992/1173F EGFR was partially defective in PLCγ activation whereas both Y1068F and Y1086F EGFR failed to activate Src. We conclude that specific EGFR tyrosines play key roles in determining cellular responses to ligand. Chemotaxis and restitution, which have different migration phenotypes and physiological consequences, have overlapping but not identical EGFR signaling requirements.

  4. The HIV coat protein gp120 promotes forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hangxiu; Bae, Mihyun; Tovar-y-Romo, Luis B.; Patel, Neha; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Pomerantz, Daniel; Steiner, Joseph; Haughey, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    Infection by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in debilitating neurological syndromes collectively known as HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While the HIV coat protein gp120 has been identified as a potent neurotoxin that enhances NMDA receptor function, the exact mechanisms for effect are not known. Here we provide evidence that gp120 activates two separate signaling pathways that converge to enhance NMDA-evoked calcium flux by clustering NMDA receptors in modified membrane microdomains. HIV gp120 enlarged, and stabilized the structure of lipid rafts on neuronal dendrites by mechanisms that involved a redox-regulated translocation of a sphingomyelin hydrolase (neutral sphingomyelinase-2; nSMase2) to the plasma membrane. A concurrent pathway was activated that enhanced the forward traffic of NMDA receptors by promoting a PKA-dependent phopshorylation of the NR1 C-terminal serine 897 (that masks an ER retention signal), followed by a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of serine 896 (important for surface expression). NMDA receptors were preferentially targeted to synapses, and clustered in modified membrane microdomains. In these conditions, NMDA receptors were unable to laterally disperse, and did not internalize, even in response to strong agonist induction. Focal NMDA-evoked calcium bursts were enhanced three-fold in these regions. Inhibiting membrane modification or NR1 phosphorylation prevented gp120 from enhancing the surface localization and clustering of NMDA receptors, while disrupting the structure of membrane microdomains restored the ability of NMDA receptors to disperse and internalize following gp120. These findings demonstrate that gp120 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in the setting of HIV-infection by interfering with the traffic of NMDA receptors. PMID:22114277

  5. Considerations on Temperature, Longevity and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    A modest reduction in body temperature prolongs longevity and possibly retards aging in both poikilotherm and homeotherm animals. Some of the possible mechanisms mediating these effects are considered here with respect to major aging models and theories. PMID:18425417

  6. Cross-talk between lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 and tropomyosin receptor kinase A promotes lung epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Nan, Ling; Wei, Jianxin; Jacko, Anastasia M; Culley, Miranda K; Zhao, Jing; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Ma, Haichun; Zhao, Yutong

    2016-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lysophospholipid, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. LPA exerts its biological effects mainly through binding to cell-surface LPA receptors (LPA1-6), which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Recent studies suggest that cross-talk between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and GPCRs modulates GPCRs-mediated signaling. Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) is a RTK, which mediates nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced biological functions including cell migration in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we show LPA1 transactivation of TrkA in murine lung epithelial cells (MLE12). LPA induced tyrosine phosphorylation of TrkA in both time- and dose-dependent manners. Down-regulation of LPA1 by siRNA transfection attenuated LPA-induced phosphorylation of TrkA, suggesting a cross-talk between LPA1 and TrkA. To investigate the molecular regulation of the cross-talk, we focused on the interaction between LPA1 and TrkA. We found that LPA induced interaction between LPA1 and TrkA. The LPA1/TrkA complex was localized on the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm. The C-terminus of LPA1 was identified as the binding site for TrkA. Inhibition of TrkA attenuated LPA-induced phosphorylation of TrkA and LPA1 internalization, as well as lung epithelial cell migration. These studies provide a molecular mechanism for the transactivation of TrkA by LPA, and suggest that the cross-talk between LPA1 and TrkA regulates LPA-induced receptor internalization and lung epithelial cell migration.

  7. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M. Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2016-06-01

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTAH/KDEL), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface.

  8. B cell IFN-γ receptor signaling promotes autoimmune germinal centers via cell-intrinsic induction of BCL-6

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Shaun W.; Jacobs, Holly M.; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Dam, Elizabeth M.; Scharping, Nicole E.; Kolhatkar, Nikita S.; Hou, Baidong; Buckner, Jane H.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated germinal center (GC) responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although both type 1 and type 2 interferons (IFNs) are involved in lupus pathogenesis, their respective impacts on the establishment of autoimmune GCs has not been addressed. In this study, using a chimeric model of B cell-driven autoimmunity, we demonstrate that B cell type 1 IFN receptor signals accelerate, but are not required for, lupus development. In contrast, B cells functioning as antigen-presenting cells initiate CD4+ T cell activation and IFN-γ production, and strikingly, B cell–intrinsic deletion of the IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) abrogates autoimmune GCs, class-switched autoantibodies (auto-Abs), and systemic autoimmunity. Mechanistically, although IFN-γR signals increase B cell T-bet expression, B cell–intrinsic deletion of T-bet exerts an isolated impact on class-switch recombination to pathogenic auto-Ab subclasses without impacting GC development. Rather, in both mouse and human B cells, IFN-γ synergized with B cell receptor, toll-like receptor, and/or CD40 activation signals to promote cell-intrinsic expression of the GC master transcription factor, B cell lymphoma 6 protein. Our combined findings identify a novel B cell–intrinsic mechanism whereby IFN signals promote lupus pathogenesis, implicating this pathway as a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:27069113

  9. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  10. Activation of purinergic receptors (P2) in the renal medulla promotes endothelin-dependent natriuresis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Gohar, Eman Y; Speed, Joshua S; Kasztan, Malgorzata; Jin, Chunhua; Pollock, David M

    2016-08-01

    Renal endothelin-1 (ET-1) and purinergic signaling systems regulate Na(+) reabsorption in the renal medulla. A link between the renal ET-1 and purinergic systems was demonstrated in vitro, however, the in vivo interaction between these systems has not been defined. To test whether renal medullary activation of purinergic (P2) receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis, we determined the effect of increased medullary NaCl loading on Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence and absence of purinergic receptor antagonism. Isosmotic saline (NaCl; 284 mosmol/kgH2O) was infused into the medullary interstitium (500 μl/h) during a 30-min baseline urine collection period, followed by isosmotic or hyperosmotic saline (1,800 mosmol/kgH2O) for two further 30-min urine collection periods. Na(+) excretion was significantly increased during intramedullary infusion of hyperosmotic saline. Compared with isosmotic saline, hyperosmotic saline infused into the renal medulla caused significant increases in inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression. Renal intramedullary infusion of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin inhibited the increase in Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression induced by NaCl loading in the renal medulla. Activation of medullary P2Y2/4 receptors by infusion of UTP increased urinary Na(+) excretion. Combined ETA and ETB receptor blockade abolished the natriuretic response to intramedullary infusion of UTP. These data demonstrate that activation of medullary P2 receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis in male rats, suggesting that the renal ET-1 and purinergic signaling systems interact to efficiently facilitate excretion of a NaCl load.

  11. The Sleep-Promoting and Hypothermic Effects of Glycine are Mediated by NMDA Receptors in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Nobuhiro; Sakai, Noriaki; Okuro, Masashi; Karakawa, Sachie; Tsuneyoshi, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Noriko; Takeda, Tomoko; Bannai, Makoto; Nishino, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of glycine as a therapeutic option for improving sleep quality is a novel and safe approach. However, despite clinical evidence of its efficacy, the details of its mechanism remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the site of action and sleep-promoting mechanisms of glycine in rats. In acute sleep disturbance, oral administration of glycine-induced non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and shortened NREM sleep latency with a simultaneous decrease in core temperature. Oral and intracerebroventricular injection of glycine elevated cutaneous blood flow (CBF) at the plantar surface in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in heat loss. Pretreatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists AP5 and CGP78608 but not the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine inhibited the CBF increase caused by glycine injection into the brain. Induction of c-Fos expression was observed in the hypothalamic nuclei, including the medial preoptic area (MPO) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) shell after glycine administration. Bilateral microinjection of glycine into the SCN elevated CBF in a dose-dependent manner, whereas no effect was observed when glycine was injected into the MPO and dorsal subparaventricular zone. In addition, microinjection of D-serine into the SCN also increased CBF, whereas these effects were blocked in the presence of L-701324. SCN ablation completely abolished the sleep-promoting and hypothermic effects of glycine. These data suggest that exogenous glycine promotes sleep via peripheral vasodilatation through the activation of NMDA receptors in the SCN shell. PMID:25533534

  12. The lifespan-promoting effect of acetic acid and Reishi polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ming-Hong; Chiou, Shyh-Horng; Huang, Chun-Hao; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2009-11-15

    Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, various natural substances and commercial health-food supplements were screened to evaluate their effects on longevity. Among the substances tested, acetic acid and Reishi polysaccharide fraction 3 (RF3) were shown to increase the expression of the lifespan and longevity-related transcription factor DAF-16 in C. elegans. We have shown that RF3 activates DAF-16 expression via TIR-1 receptor and MAPK pathway whereas acetic acid inhibits the trans-membrane receptor DAF-2 of the insulin/IGF-1 pathway to indirectly activate DAF-16 expression. In addition, a mixture of acetic acid and RF3 possesses a combined effect 30-40% greater than either substance used alone. A proteomic analysis of C. elegans using 2-DE and LC-MS/MS was then carried out, and 15 differentially expressed proteins involved in the lifespan-promoting activity were identified.

  13. [Preventing dependency: the longevity challenge].

    PubMed

    Forette, Françoise

    2009-02-01

    Longevity can only be considered a privilege if the majority of the elderly population is active and in good health. In contrast to certain statistical interpretations, the HID study gives cause for optimism. It showed that only 7% of subjects aged 60 years and over suffer from dependency and, therefore, that 93% of the population remains independent. Of course, the rate of dependency increases with age, particularly in women and after 90 years of age. Dependency is mostly due to age-related diseases. The second cause is "frailty" and the third is inactivity, or more generally, lifestyle. All age-related diseases have modifiable risk factors and are thus accessible to prevention. Prevention must be started as soon as possible. It has been demonstrated that a mother's educational level influences her children's health in adulthood. It is never too late. The Hyvet study recently showed that the treatment of hypertension after 80 years of age is still able to significantly reduce the risk of death, stroke, heart failure and other cardiovascular complications. Inadequate disease management may also lead to avoidable dependency. This is the case of congestive heart failure and osteoporosis, which are not always treated in very old patients according to evidence-based principles. Another means of prevention is the detection and management of the frailty syndrome, which carries a measurable risk of loss of independence. In addition to these medical approaches, occupational activity involving strong cognitive stimulation has been shown to postpone the onset of cognitive impairment.

  14. Associations between STR autosomal markers and longevity.

    PubMed

    Bediaga, N G; Aznar, J M; Elcoroaristizabal, X; Albóniga, O; Gómez-Busto, F; Artaza Artabe, I; Rocandio, Ana; de Pancorbo, M M

    2015-10-01

    Life span is a complex and multifactorial trait, which is shaped by genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and stochastic factors. The possibility that highly hypervariable short tandem repeats (STRs) associated with longevity has been largely explored by comparing the genotypic pools of long lived and younger individuals, but results so far have been contradictory. In view of these contradictory findings, the present study aims to investigate whether HUMTHO1 and HUMCSF1PO STRs, previously associated with longevity, exert a role as a modulator of life expectancy, as well as to assess the extent to which other autosomal STR markers are associated with human longevity in population from northern Spain. To that end, 21 autosomal microsatellite markers have been studied in 304 nonagenarian individuals (more than 90 years old) and 516 younger controls of European descent. Our results do not confirm the association found in previous studies between longevity and THO1 and CSF1PO loci. However, significant association between longevity and autosomal STR markers D12S391, D22S1045, and DS441 was observed. Even more, when we compared allelic frequency distribution of the 21 STR markers between cases and controls, we found that 6 out of the 21 STRs studied showed different allelic frequencies, thus suggesting that the genomic portrait of the human longevity is far complex and probably shaped by a high number of genomic loci.

  15. The deubiquitinating enzyme USP8 promotes trafficking and degradation of the chemokine receptor 4 at the sorting endosome.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ilana; Higginbotham, Katherine M; Dise, Rebecca S; Sierra, Maria I; Nash, Piers D

    2010-11-26

    Reversible ubiquitination orchestrated by the opposition of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes mediates endocytic trafficking of cell surface receptors for lysosomal degradation. Ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) has previously been implicated in endocytosis of several receptors by virtue of their deubiquitination. The present study explores an indirect role for USP8 in cargo trafficking through its regulation of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Contrary to the effects of USP8 loss on enhanced green fluorescent protein, we find that USP8 depletion stabilizes CXCR4 on the cell surface and attenuates receptor degradation without affecting its ubiquitination status. In the presence of ligand, diminished CXCR4 turnover is accompanied by receptor accumulation on enlarged early endosomes and leads to enhancement of phospho-ERK signaling. Perturbation in CXCR4 trafficking, resulting from USP8 inactivation, occurs at the ESCRT-0 checkpoint, and catalytic mutation of USP8 specifically targeted to the ESCRT-0 complex impairs the spatial and temporal organization of the sorting endosome. USP8 functionally opposes the ubiquitin ligase AIP4 with respect to ESCRT-0 ubiquitination, thereby promoting trafficking of CXCR4. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a functional cooperation between USP8, AIP4, and the ESCRT-0 machinery at the early sorting phase of CXCR4 and underscore the versatility of USP8 in shaping trafficking events at the early-to-late endosome transition.

  16. Pharmacological activation of cannabinoid 2 receptor attenuates inflammation, fibrogenesis, and promotes re-epithelialization during skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Rui; Li, Jiao-Yong; Li, Shan-Shan; Liu, Min; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Meng-Zhou; Dong, Wen-Wen; Jiang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Miao; Tian, Zhi-Ling; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Guan, Da-Wei

    2016-09-05

    Previous studies showed that cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor is expressed in multiple effector cells during skin wound healing. Meanwhile, its functional involvement in inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation in other organs and skin diseases implied CB2 receptor might also regulate skin wound healing. To verify this hypothesis, mice excisional wounds were created and treated with highly selective CB2 receptor agonist GP1a (1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-6-methyl- N-piperidin-1-yl-4H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamide) and antagonist AM630 ([6-iodo-2- methyl-1-(2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)indol-3-yl]-(4-methoxyphenyl)methanone) respectively. The inflammatory infiltration, cytokine expression, fibrogenesis, and wound re-epithelialization were analyzed. After CB2 receptor activation, neutrophil and macrophage infiltrations were reduced, and expressions of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1, Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A were decreased. Keratinocyte proliferation and migration were enhanced. Wound re-epithelialization was accelerated. Fibroblast accumulation and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transformation were attenuated, and expression of pro-collagen I was decreased. Furthermore, HaCaT cells in vitro were treated with GP1a or AM630, which revealed that CB2 receptor activation promoted keratinocyte migration by inducing the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These results, taken together, indicate that activating CB2 receptor could ameliorate wound healing by reducing inflammation, accelerating re-epithelialization, and attenuating scar formation. Thus, CB2 receptor agonist might be a novel perspective for skin wound therapy.

  17. Amplification and analysis of promoter region of insulin receptor gene in a patient with leprechaunism associated with severe insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Haruta, T; Imamura, T; Iwanishi, M; Egawa, K; Goji, K; Kobayashi, M

    1995-04-01

    A patient with leprechaunism associated with severe insulin resistance was studied to identify the molecular and genetic basis for insulin resistance. Insulin binding and surface labeling of transformed lymphocytes prepared from the patient showed a significantly decreased insulin receptor number on the cell surface. Southern blot analysis of the insulin receptor gene showed no evidence of large insertions or deletions. Furthermore, direct sequencing of all 22 exons and exon-intron junctions of the insulin receptor gene failed to show any missense mutations, nonsense mutations, or mutations at exon-intron junctions. However, Northern blot analysis indicated significantly decreased insulin receptor mRNA expression in the patient's cells. Moreover, restriction endonuclease digestion of the amplified cDNA suggested that the expression levels of one allele were less efficient than the other. These findings suggested that the regulatory region of the insulin receptor gene might have abnormalities. Therefore, we examined the 5' flanking region of the insulin receptor gene. Southern blot analysis showed no major deletions or insertions between positions -1,823 and -2 relative to the translation initiation site. A 5' flanking region of the insulin receptor gene spanning positions -881 approximately +7 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and introduced into a reporter plasmid carrying the human growth hormone (hGH) gene. The nucleotide sequence of the amplified fragment showed two polymorphic sites at positions -603 and -500 in the patient, as well as in normal subjects. No other abnormal sequence was found in the patient. Promoter activity measured by hGH expression in transfected mouse L cells was not influenced by the polymorphism at position -603 located in a cluster of GC boxes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Dietary homocysteine promotes atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inducing scavenger receptors expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the causative mechanisms have not been delineated. Scavenger receptors such as scavenger receptor-AI/II (SR-A), CD36, and lectin-like oxidized LDL ...

  19. Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, M Carmen; Desai-Merchant, Avani; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-12-01

    Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on full-thickness excisional wound closure in wild-type, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice. Wound closure was impaired in tPA- and uPA-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice, and topical application of CGS-21680 significantly increased the rate at which wounds closed in wild-type mice and uPA-deficient mice, but not in tPA-deficient mice. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed that tPA was present in endothelial cells and histiocytes by day 3 post-wound and also by day 6. In contrast, uPA was more prominent in these cell types only by day 6 post-wound. Our results confirm that plasminogen activation contributes to wound repair and are consistent with the hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptor activation promotes wound closure by a mechanism that depends upon tPA, but not uPA. Moreover, our results suggest that topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful in promotion of wound closure in patients with impaired wound healing.

  20. Wnt5a promotes cancer cell invasion and proliferation by receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively

    PubMed Central

    Shojima, Kensaku; Sato, Akira; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsujimoto, Ikuko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Hattori, Kazunari; Sato, Yuji; Dohi, Keiji; Hirata, Michinari; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Wnt5a activates the Wnt/β-catenin-independent pathway and its overexpression is associated with tumor aggressiveness enhancing invasive activity. For this action, Wnt5a-induced receptor endocytosis with clathrin is required. Wnt5a expression was previously believed to be associated with cancer cell motility but not proliferation. Recently, it was reported that Wnt5a is also implicated in cancer cell proliferation, but the mechanism was not clear. In this study, we generated a neutralizing anti-Wnt5a monoclonal antibody (mAb5A16) to investigate the mechanism by which Wnt5a regulates cancer cell proliferation. Wnt5a stimulated both invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells, including HeLaS3 cervical cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells although Wnt5a promoted invasion but not proliferation in other cancer cells such as KKLS gastric cancer cells. mAb5A16 did not affect the binding of Wnt5a to its receptor, but it suppressed Wnt5a-induced receptor-mediated endocytosis. mAb5A16 inhibited invasion but not proliferation of HeLaS3 and A549 cells. Wnt5a activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and Wnt5a-dependent cancer cell proliferation was dependent on SFKs, yet blockade of receptor-mediated endocytosis did not affect cancer cell proliferation and SFK activity. These results suggest that Wnt5a promotes invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. PMID:25622531

  1. Evidence for multiple promoters of the human IL-5 receptor alpha subunit gene: a novel 6-base pair element determines cell-specific promoter function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Kuvelkar, R; Cheewatrakoolpong, B; Williams, S; Egan, R W; Billah, M M

    1997-12-01

    In addition to a previously characterized promoter (P1), we now show the existence of a second promoter for the human IL-5Ralpha gene. Initially, a genomic region (P2) 5' upstream of human IL-5Ralpha exon 2 was cloned by an inverted PCR. The transcriptional start site was then mapped to a deoxycytidine (C) residue within P2 by analyzing cellular mRNA with both the 5' rapid amplification of cDNA end-PCR and S1 nuclease protection assays. Transfection of eosinophilic HL-60 cells with reporter gene constructs in which either P1 or P2 was linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene resulted in CAT expression; little or no CAT expression occurred in other myeloid and nonmyeloid cell lines. Deletion studies showed that a 66-bp region, ranging from -31 to +35, was sufficient to promote CAT expression in eosinophilic HL-60 cells. Analysis of linker-scanning mutants identified a novel 6-bp element (5' CTAATT 3') spanning -19 to -14 that was essential for P2 promoter activity. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, a P2 region from -31 to +1 containing the unique 6-bp element, when used as a probe, formed a complex with a protein(s) that was found only in the eosinophilic cell line. This binding activity was lost upon replacement of the 6-bp element with a 6-bp linker, suggesting that this element likely serves as the binding site for an eosinophilic HL-60 cell-specific transcription factor(s). Together, these data suggest an important role for P2 promoter in the regulation of eosinophil-specific expression of the human IL-5 receptor alpha gene.

  2. Mitochondrial genomes and exceptional longevity in a Chinese population: the Rugao longevity study.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Liu, Zuyun; Qin, Zhendong; Chen, Fei; Qian, Degui; Xu, Jun; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    Genetic variants of whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that predispose to exceptional longevity need to be systematically identified and appraised. Here, we conducted a case-control study with 237 exceptional longevity subjects (aged 95-107) and 444 control subjects (aged 40-69) randomly recruited from a "longevity town"-the city of Rugao in China-to investigate the effects of mtDNA variants on exceptional longevity. We sequenced the entire mtDNA genomes of the 681 subjects using a next-generation platform and employed a complete mtDNA phylogenetic analytical strategy. We identified T3394C as a candidate that counteracts longevity, and we observed a higher load of private nonsynonymous mutations in the COX1 gene predisposing to female longevity. Additionally, for the first time, we identified several variants and new subhaplogroups related to exceptional longevity. Our results provide new clues for genetic mechanisms of longevity and shed light on strategies for evaluating rare mitochondrial variants that underlie complex traits.

  3. MIF promotes B cell chemotaxis through the receptors CXCR4 and CD74 and ZAP-70 signaling.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Christina; Ohl, Kim; Sternkopf, Marieke; Shachar, Idit; Schmitz, Corinna; Heussen, Nicole; Hobeika, Elias; Levit-Zerdoun, Ella; Tenbrock, Klaus; Reth, Michael; Bernhagen, Jürgen; El Bounkari, Omar

    2014-06-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine with chemokine-like functions that plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases by promoting leukocyte recruitment. We showed that MIF promotes the atherogenic recruitment of monocytes and T cells through its receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4. Effects of MIF on B cell recruitment have not been addressed. In this study, we tested the involvement of MIF in B cell chemotaxis and studied the underlying mechanism. We show that MIF promotes primary murine B cell chemotaxis in a dose-dependent manner, comparable to the B cell chemokines CXCL13 and CXCL12. Splenic B cells express CXCR4 and the receptor CD74 but not CXCR2. Inhibition of CXCR4 or CD74 or a genetic deficiency of Cd74 in primary B cells fully abrogated MIF-mediated B cell migration, implying cooperative involvement of both receptors. MIF stimulation of B cells resulted in a rapid increase in intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and F-actin polymerization. Intriguingly, the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 was activated upon MIF and CXCL12 treatment in a CXCR4- and CD74-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of ZAP-70 resulted in abrogation of primary B cell migration. Functional involvement of ZAP-70 was confirmed by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown in Ramos B cell migration. Finally, primary B cells from ZAP-70 gene-deficient mice exhibited ablated transmigration in response to MIF or CXCL12. We conclude that MIF promotes the migration of B cells through a ZAP-70-dependent pathway mediated by cooperative engagement of CXCR4 and CD74. The data also suggest that MIF may contribute to B cell recruitment in vivo (e.g., in B cell-related immune disorders).

  4. Genetics of healthy aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2013-12-01

    Longevity and healthy aging are among the most complex phenotypes studied to date. The heritability of age at death in adulthood is approximately 25 %. Studies of exceptionally long-lived individuals show that heritability is greatest at the oldest ages. Linkage studies of exceptionally long-lived families now support a longevity locus on chromosome 3; other putative longevity loci differ between studies. Candidate gene studies have identified variants at APOE and FOXO3A associated with longevity; other genes show inconsistent results. Genome-wide association scans (GWAS) of centenarians vs. younger controls reveal only APOE as achieving genome-wide significance (GWS); however, analyses of combinations of SNPs or genes represented among associations that do not reach GWS have identified pathways and signatures that converge upon genes and biological processes related to aging. The impact of these SNPs, which may exert joint effects, may be obscured by gene-environment interactions or inter-ethnic differences. GWAS and whole genome sequencing data both show that the risk alleles defined by GWAS of common complex diseases are, perhaps surprisingly, found in long-lived individuals, who may tolerate them by means of protective genetic factors. Such protective factors may 'buffer' the effects of specific risk alleles. Rare alleles are also likely to contribute to healthy aging and longevity. Epigenetics is quickly emerging as a critical aspect of aging and longevity. Centenarians delay age-related methylation changes, and they can pass this methylation preservation ability on to their offspring. Non-genetic factors, particularly lifestyle, clearly affect the development of age-related diseases and affect health and lifespan in the general population. To fully understand the desirable phenotypes of healthy aging and longevity, it will be necessary to examine whole genome data from large numbers of healthy long-lived individuals to look simultaneously at both common and

  5. The A2B adenosine receptor promotes Th17 differentiation via stimulation of dendritic cell IL-6.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeffrey M; Kurtz, Courtney C; Black, Steven G; Ross, William G; Alam, Mohammed S; Linden, Joel; Ernst, Peter B

    2011-06-15

    Adenosine is an endogenous metabolite produced during hypoxia or inflammation. Previously implicated as an anti-inflammatory mediator in CD4(+) T cell regulation, we report that adenosine acts via dendritic cell (DC) A(2B) adenosine receptor (A(2B)AR) to promote the development of Th17 cells. Mouse naive CD4(+) T cells cocultured with DCs in the presence of adenosine or the stable adenosine mimetic 5'-(N-ethylcarboximado) adenosine resulted in the differentiation of IL-17- and IL-22-secreting cells and elevation of mRNA that encode signature Th17-associated molecules, such as IL-23R and RORγt. The observed response was similar when DCs were generated from bone marrow or isolated from small intestine lamina propria. Experiments using adenosine receptor antagonists and cells from A(2B)AR(-/-) or A(2A)AR(-/-)/A(2B)AR(-/-) mice indicated that the DC A(2B)AR promoted the effect. IL-6, stimulated in a cAMP-independent manner, is an important mediator in this pathway. Hence, in addition to previously noted direct effects of adenosine receptors on regulatory T cell development and function, these data indicated that adenosine also acts indirectly to modulate CD4(+) T cell differentiation and suggested a mechanism for putative proinflammatory effects of A(2B)AR.

  6. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity.

    PubMed

    de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Willems, Leo; van Arkel, Jeroen; Dekkers, Bas J W; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Bentsink, Leónie

    2016-05-01

    Reduced seed longevity or storability is a major problem in seed storage and contributes to increased costs in crop production. Here we investigated whether seed galactinol contents could be predictive for seed storability behavior in Arabidopsis, cabbage and tomato. The analyses revealed a positive correlation between galactinol content and seed longevity in the three species tested, which indicates that this correlation is conserved in the Brassicaceae and beyond. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in tomato revealed a co-locating QTL for galactinol content and seed longevity on chromosome 2. A candidate for this QTL is the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE gene (Solyc02g084980.2.1) that is located in the QTL interval. GALACTINOL SYNTHASE is a key enzyme of the raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) pathway. To investigate the role of enzymes in the RFO pathway in more detail, we applied a reverse genetics approach using T-DNA knock-out lines in genes encoding enzymes of this pathway (GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 1, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 2, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE, STACHYOSE SYNTHASE and ALPHA-GALACTOSIDASE) and overexpressors of the cucumber GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 2 gene in Arabidopsis. The galactinol synthase 2 mutant and the galactinol synthase 1 galactinol synthase 2 double mutant contained the lowest seed galactinol content which coincided with lower seed longevity. These results show that galactinol content of mature dry seed can be used as a biomarker for seed longevity in Brassicaceae and tomato.

  7. CB2 cannabinoid receptor activation promotes colon cancer progression via AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Esther; Martín-Ruiz, Asunción; Martín, Paloma; Calvo, Virginia; Provencio, Mariano; García, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological activation of the cannabinoid receptor type 2, CB2, has been shown to elicit anti-tumoral mechanisms in different cancer types. However, little is known about its endogenous role in tumor pathophysiology, and different studies have attributed pro-tumorigenic properties to this receptor. In a previous work, we showed that CB2 expression is a poor prognostic factor in colon cancer patients. Here we report that activation of CB2 with low doses of specific agonists induce cell proliferation and favor the acquisition of aggressive molecular features in colon cancer cells. We show that sub-micromolar concentrations of CB2-specific agonists, JWH-133 and HU-308, promote an increase in cell proliferation rate through the activation of AKT/PKB pathway in colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. AKT activation promotes GSK3β inhibition and thus, a more aggressive cell phenotype with the subsequent elevation of SNAIL levels, E-cadherin degradation and β-catenin delocalization from cell membrane. Taken together, our data show that CB2 activation with sub-micromolar doses of agonists, which could be more similar to endogenous levels of cannabinoids, promote colon cancer progression, implicating that CB2 could have a pro-tumorigenic endogenous role in colon cancer. PMID:27634891

  8. Cannabinoid 1 receptor promotes cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Mohanraj; Bátkai, Sándor; Kechrid, Malek; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Lee, Wen-Shin; Horváth, Béla; Holovac, Eileen; Cinar, Resat; Liaudet, Lucas; Mackie, Ken; Haskó, György; Pacher, Pál

    2012-03-01

    Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid 1 (CB(1)) receptors have been implicated in cardiac dysfunction, inflammation, and cell death associated with various forms of shock, heart failure, and atherosclerosis, in addition to their recognized role in the development of various cardiovascular risk factors in obesity/metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In this study, we explored the role of CB(1) receptors in myocardial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress, cell death, and interrelated signaling pathways, using a mouse model of type 1 diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was characterized by increased myocardial endocannabinoid anandamide levels, oxidative/nitrative stress, activation of p38/Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), enhanced inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase 2, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1), increased expression of CB(1), advanced glycation end product (AGE) and angiotensin II type 1 receptors (receptor for advanced glycation end product [RAGE], angiotensin II receptor type 1 [AT(1)R]), p47(phox) NADPH oxidase subunit, β-myosin heavy chain isozyme switch, accumulation of AGE, fibrosis, and decreased expression of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a). Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of CB(1) receptors attenuated the diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction and the above-mentioned pathological alterations. Activation of CB(1) receptors by endocannabinoids may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy by facilitating MAPK activation, AT(1)R expression/signaling, AGE accumulation, oxidative/nitrative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Conversely, CB(1) receptor inhibition may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiovascular complications.

  9. Impact of genetic background and experimental reproducibility on identifying chemical compounds with robust longevity effects

    PubMed Central

    Lucanic, Mark; Plummer, W. Todd; Chen, Esteban; Harke, Jailynn; Foulger, Anna C.; Onken, Brian; Coleman-Hulbert, Anna L.; Dumas, Kathleen J.; Guo, Suzhen; Johnson, Erik; Bhaumik, Dipa; Xue, Jian; Crist, Anna B.; Presley, Michael P.; Harinath, Girish; Sedore, Christine A.; Chamoli, Manish; Kamat, Shaunak; Chen, Michelle K.; Angeli, Suzanne; Chang, Christina; Willis, John H.; Edgar, Daniel; Royal, Mary Anne; Chao, Elizabeth A.; Patel, Shobhna; Garrett, Theo; Ibanez-Ventoso, Carolina; Hope, June; Kish, Jason L; Guo, Max; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Driscoll, Monica; Phillips, Patrick C.

    2017-01-01

    Limiting the debilitating consequences of ageing is a major medical challenge of our time. Robust pharmacological interventions that promote healthy ageing across diverse genetic backgrounds may engage conserved longevity pathways. Here we report results from the Caenorhabditis Intervention Testing Program in assessing longevity variation across 22 Caenorhabditis strains spanning 3 species, using multiple replicates collected across three independent laboratories. Reproducibility between test sites is high, whereas individual trial reproducibility is relatively low. Of ten pro-longevity chemicals tested, six significantly extend lifespan in at least one strain. Three reported dietary restriction mimetics are mainly effective across C. elegans strains, indicating species and strain-specific responses. In contrast, the amyloid dye ThioflavinT is both potent and robust across the strains. Our results highlight promising pharmacological leads and demonstrate the importance of assessing lifespans of discrete cohorts across repeat studies to capture biological variation in the search for reproducible ageing interventions. PMID:28220799

  10. The longevity effect of echinacoside in Caenorhabditis elegans mediated through daf-16.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Zhang, Jiaolong; Lu, Lulu; Zhou, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Echinacoside (ECH), a natural polyphenolic compound, has been reported to possess important pharmacological activities. However, very little is known about whether or how ECH affects longevity in vivo. We have examined the effects of ECH on the life span and stress tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our studies demonstrate that the life span of wild-type worms could be extended in the presence of ECH. Furthermore, ECH was found to increase tolerance of worms to heat shock and oxidative stress, while not exerting any influence on pharyngeal pumping rate and progeny production. Our mechanistic studies indicate that supplementation of ECH increases the transcript level of daf-16. ECH treatment also modulates the nuclear localization and transcriptional activities of daf-16, thus fine tunes the expression of daf-16 target genes to promote longevity and increases stress response in C. elegans. Overall, this work reveals the longevity effect of ECH and elucidates the underpinning mechanisms.

  11. P2X7 receptor promotes intestinal inflammation in chemically induced colitis and triggers death of mucosal regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Figliuolo, Vanessa R; Savio, Luiz Eduardo Baggio; Safya, Hanaa; Nanini, Hayandra; Bernardazzi, Cláudio; Abalo, Alessandra; de Souza, Heitor S P; Kanellopoulos, Jean; Bobé, Pierre; Coutinho, Cláudia M L M; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2017-03-07

    P2X7 receptor activation contributes to inflammation development in different pathologies. We previously reported that the P2X7 receptor is over-expressed in the gut mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and that P2X7 inhibition protects against chemically induced colitis. Here, we investigated in detail the role of the P2X7 receptor in inflammatory bowel disease development, by treating P2X7 knockout (KO) and WT mice with two different (and established) colitis inductors. P2X7 KO mice were protected against gut inflammation induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or oxazolone, with no weight loss or gut histological alterations after treatment. P2X7 receptor knockout induced regulatory T cell accumulation in the colon, as evaluated by qRT-PCR for FoxP3 expression and immunostaining for CD90/CD45RB(low). Flow cytometry analysis of mesenteric lymph node cells showed that P2X7 activation (by ATP) triggered regulatory T cell death. In addition, such cells from P2X7 KO mice expressed more CD103, suggesting increased migration of regulatory T cells to the colon (relative to the WT). Our results show that the P2X7 has a key role during inflammation development in inflammatory bowel disease, by triggering the death and retention in the mesenteric lymph nodes of regulatory T cells that would otherwise promote immune system tolerance in the gut.

  12. [Adiponectin receptor-targeted therapy for lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Iwabu, Masato; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Given that appropriate control of responses of the body to nutritional status is assumed to modulate the pace of aging, thus prolonging lifespan and maintaining youth in humans, expectations are mounting worldwide for modalities targeting the pathways in metabolic regulation for healthy longevity. Of these, this review focuses attention on adiponectin-targeted therapy and discusses milestones in this approach, which include the discovery of the ability of adiponectin to protect against lifestyle-related diseases, identification of its receptors (AdipoRs), elucidation of AdipoR-mediated signaling pathways that promote healthy longevity and acquisition of small-molecule AdipoR agonist, and explores future prospects on adiponectin-targeted therapy.

  13. CDK11{sup p58} represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional activation through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Yayun; Hong, Yi; Zong, Hongliang; Wang, Yanlin; Zou, Weiying; Yang, Junwu; Kong, Xiangfei; Yun, Xiaojing; Gu, Jianxin

    2009-08-28

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates transcription of target genes. In this study, we identified CDK11{sup p58} as a novel protein involved in the regulation of VDR. CDK11{sup p58}, a member of the large family of p34cdc2-related kinases, is associated with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, and apoptotic signaling. Our study demonstrated that CDK11{sup p58} interacted with VDR and repressed VDR-dependent transcriptional activation. Furthermore, overexpression of CDK11{sup p58} decreased the stability of VDR through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK11{sup p58} is involved in the negative regulation of VDR.

  14. Agonist-promoted desensitization and phosphorylation of. cap alpha. /sub 1/-adrenergic receptors coupled to stimulation of phosphatidylinositol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Leeb-Lundberg, L.M.F.; Cotecchia, S.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1986-03-05

    In the DDT/sub 1/ MF-2 hamster vas deferens smooth muscle cell line the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptor (..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR) agonist norepinephrine (NE) promotes rapid attenuation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR-mediated phosphatidylinositol (PI) metabolism which is paralleled by rapid phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR. Cells were labeled by incubation with /sup 32/P/sub i/. Coincubation with NE (100 ..mu..M) significantly increases the rate of /sup 32/P-labeling of both PI and phosphatidic acid. Pretreatment of cells with 100 ..mu..M NE (in the presence of 1 ..mu..M propranolol to prevent ..beta..-AR interactions) results in a drastic attenuation of the NE response on PI metabolism. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR from labeled cells can be solubilized and purified by affinity chromatography on Affigel-A55414 and wheat germ agglutinin agarose chromatography. SDS-PAGE of purified ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR shows a NE-promoted increase in phosphorylation of the M/sub r/ 80K ligand binding peptide. Stoichiometry of phosphorylation increases from approx. 1 mol phosphate/mol ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR in the basal condition to approx. 2.5 after NE treatment. Both desensitization and phosphorylation are rapid being maximal within 10-20 min of agonist exposure. These results together with previous findings that phorbol esters promote rapid ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR uncoupling and phosphorylation suggest that receptor phosphorylation is an important mechanism of regulation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR receptor responsiveness.

  15. Longevity and aging. Mechanisms and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Labat-Robert, J; Robert, L

    2015-12-01

    Longevity can mostly be determined with relative accuracy from birth and death registers when available. Aging is a multifactorial process, much more difficult to quantitate. Every measurable physiological function declines with specific speeds over a wide range. The mechanisms involved are also different, genetic factors are of importance for longevity determinations. The best-known genes involved are the Sirtuins, active at the genetic and epigenetic level. Aging is multifactorial, not "coded" in the genome. There are, however, a number of well-studied physical and biological parameters involved in aging, which can be determined and quantitated. We shall try to identify parameters affecting longevity as well as aging and suggest some reasonable predictions for the future.

  16. Down-modulation of receptors for phorbol ester tumor promoter in primary epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Solanki, V.; Slaga, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    The specific (20-/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ((/sup 3/H)PDBu) binding to intact epidermal cells displayed the phenomenon of down-modulation, i.e., the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)PDBu to its receptors on primary epidermal cells reached a maximum within 1 h and steadily declined thereafter. The apparent down-modulation of radiolabel resulted from a partial loss in the total number of receptors; the affinity of receptors for the ligand was essentially unchanged. A number of agents such as chloroquine, methylamine, or arginine which are known to prevent clustering, down-modulation, and/or internalization of several hormone receptors did not affect the down-modulation of phorbol ester receptors. Furthermore, cycloheximide had no effect either on down-modulation or on the binding capacity of cells. The surface binding capacity of down-modulated cells following a 90-min incubation with unlabeled ligand was almost returned to normal within 1 h. The effect of the antidepressant drug chlorpromazine, which is known to interact with calmodulin, on (/sup 3/H)PDBu binding was also investigated. Our data indicate that the effect of chlorpromazine on (/sup 3/H)PDBu binding is probably unrelated to its calmodulin-binding activity.

  17. DDR2 receptor promotes MMP-2-mediated proliferation and invasion by hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Olaso, E; Ikeda, K; Eng, F J; Xu, L; Wang, L H; Lin, H C; Friedman, S L

    2001-11-01

    Type I collagen provokes activation of hepatic stellate cells during liver injury through mechanisms that have been unclear. Here, we tested the role of the discoidin domain tyrosine kinase receptor 2 (DDR2), which signals in response to type I collagen, in this pathway. DDR2 mRNA and protein are induced in stellate cells activated by primary culture or in vivo during liver injury. The receptor becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in response to either endogenous or exogenous type I collagen, whereas its expression is downregulated during cellular quiescence induced by growth on Matrigel. We developed stellate cell lines stably overexpressing either wild-type DDR2, a constitutively active chimeric DDR2 receptor (Fc-DDR2), a truncated receptor expressing the extracellular domain, or a kinase-dead DDR2 Cells overexpressing DDR2 showed enhanced proliferation and invasion through Matrigel, activities that were directly related to increased expression of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). These data show that DDR2 is induced during stellate cell activation and implicate the phosphorylated receptor as a mediator of MMP-2 release and growth stimulation in response to type I collagen. Moreover, type I collagen-dependent upregulation of DDR2 expression establishes a positive feedback loop in activated stellate cells, leading to further proliferation and enhanced invasive activity.

  18. Amisulpride promotes cognitive flexibility in rats: the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr

    2013-07-01

    The antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the antidepressant and procognitive actions of the atypical antipsychotic drug, amisulpride. It has been previously demonstrated that the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist reversed restraint stress-induced cognitive impairments in a rat model of frontal-dependent attentional set-shifting task (ASST). Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of amisulpride against stress-evoked cognitive inflexibility. The second goal was to elucidate whether the pro-cognitive effect of amisulpride could be due to the compound's action at 5-HT7 receptors. Rats repeatedly exposed (1 h daily for 7 days) to restraint stress demonstrated impaired performance on the extra-dimensional (ED) set-shifting stage of the ASST. Amisulpride (3 mg/kg) given to stressed rats 30 min before testing reversed this restraint-induced cognitive inflexibility and improved ED performance of the unstressed control group. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS19 (10 mg/kg), abolished the pro-cognitive efficacy of amisulpride (3 mg/kg). The present study suggests that the antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the mechanisms underlining the pro-cognitive action of amisulpride. These results may have therapeutic implications in frontal-like deficits associated with stress-related disorders.

  19. Targeting peripheral opioid receptors to promote analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions

    PubMed Central

    Iwaszkiewicz, Katerina S.; Schneider, Jennifer J.; Hua, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of endogenous pain control are significant. Increasing studies have clearly produced evidence for the clinical usefulness of opioids in peripheral analgesia. The immune system uses mechanisms of cell migration not only to fight pathogens but also to control pain and inflammation within injured tissue. It has been demonstrated that peripheral inflammatory pain can be effectively controlled by an interaction of immune cell-derived opioid peptides with opioid receptors on peripheral sensory nerve terminals. Experimental and clinical studies have clearly shown that activation of peripheral opioid receptors with exogenous opioid agonists and endogenous opioid peptides are able to produce significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, without central opioid mediated side effects (e.g., respiratory depression, sedation, tolerance, dependence). This article will focus on the role of opioids in peripheral inflammatory conditions and the clinical implications of targeting peripheral opioid receptors. PMID:24167491

  20. The liver X-receptor gene promoter is hypermethylated in a mouse model of prenatal protein restriction.

    PubMed

    van Straten, Esther M E; Bloks, Vincent W; Huijkman, Nicolette C A; Baller, Julius F W; van Meer, Hester; Lütjohann, Dieter; Kuipers, Folkert; Plösch, Torsten

    2010-02-01

    Prenatal nutrition as influenced by the nutritional status of the mother has been identified as a determinant of adult disease. Feeding low-protein diets during pregnancy in rodents is a well-established model to induce programming events in offspring. We hypothesized that protein restriction would influence fetal lipid metabolism by inducing epigenetic adaptations. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to a protein-restriction protocol (9% vs. 18% casein). Shortly before birth, dams and fetuses were killed. To identify putative epigenetic changes, CG-dinucleotide-rich region in the promoter of a gene (CpG island) methylation microarrays were performed on DNA isolated from fetal livers. Two hundred four gene promoter regions were differentially methylated upon protein restriction. The liver X-receptor (Lxr) alpha promoter was hypermethylated in protein-restricted pups. Lxr alpha is a nuclear receptor critically involved in control of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. The mRNA level of Lxra was reduced by 32% in fetal liver upon maternal protein restriction, whereas expression of the Lxr target genes Abcg5/Abcg8 was reduced by 56% and 51%, respectively, measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The same effect, although less pronounced, was observed in the fetal intestine. In vitro methylation of a mouse Lxra-promoter/luciferase expression cassette resulted in a 24-fold transcriptional repression. Our study demonstrates that, in mice, protein restriction during pregnancy interferes with DNA methylation in fetal liver. Lxra is a target of differential methylation, and Lxra transcription is dependent on DNA methylation. It is tempting to speculate that perinatal nutrition may influence adult lipid metabolism by DNA methylation, which may contribute to the epidemiological relation between perinatal/neonatal nutrition and adult disease.

  1. Innate immunity mediated longevity and longevity induced by germ cell removal converge on the C-type lectin domain protein IRG-7

    PubMed Central

    Yunger, Elad; Safra, Modi; Levi-Ferber, Mor; Haviv-Chesner, Anat

    2017-01-01

    In C. elegans, removal of the germline triggers molecular events in the neighboring intestine, which sends an anti-aging signal to the rest of the animal. In this study, we identified an innate immunity related gene, named irg-7, as a novel mediator of longevity in germlineless animals. We consider irg-7 to be an integral downstream component of the germline longevity pathway because its expression increases upon germ cell removal and its depletion interferes with the activation of the longevity-promoting transcription factors DAF-16 and DAF-12 in germlineless animals. Furthermore, irg-7 activation by itself sensitizes the animals' innate immune response and extends the lifespan of animals exposed to live bacteria. This lifespan-extending pathogen resistance relies on the somatic gonad as well as on many genes previously associated with the reproductive longevity pathway. This suggests that these genes are also relevant in animals with an intact gonad, and can affect their resistance to pathogens. Altogether, this study demonstrates the tight association between germline homeostasis and the immune response of animals, and raises the possibility that the reproductive system can act as a signaling center to divert resources towards defending against putative pathogen attacks. PMID:28196094

  2. Plasma long-chain free fatty acids predict mammalian longevity.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Aledo, Juan Carlos; Cabré, Rosanna; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-11-28

    Membrane lipid composition is an important correlate of the rate of aging of animals and, therefore, the determination of their longevity. In the present work, the use of high-throughput technologies allowed us to determine the plasma lipidomic profile of 11 mammalian species ranging in maximum longevity from 3.5 to 120 years. The non-targeted approach revealed a specie-specific lipidomic profile that accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and longevity demonstrated that the longer the longevity of a species, the lower is its plasma long-chain free fatty acid (LC-FFA) concentrations, peroxidizability index, and lipid peroxidation-derived products content. The inverse association between longevity and LC-FFA persisted after correction for body mass and phylogenetic interdependence. These results indicate that the lipidomic signature is an optimized feature associated with animal longevity, emerging LC-FFA as a potential biomarker of longevity.

  3. Glucocorticoid-induced glucocorticoid-receptor expression and promoter usage is not linked to glucocorticoid resistance in childhood ALL.

    PubMed

    Tissing, Wim J E; Meijerink, Jules P P; Brinkhof, Bas; Broekhuis, Mathilde J C; Menezes, Renee X; den Boer, Monique L; Pieters, Rob

    2006-08-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance is an adverse prognostic factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but little is known about causes of GC resistance. Up-regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been suggested as an essential step to the induction of apoptosis in leukemic cells. In this study we investigated whether baseline mRNA expression levels of the 5 different GR promoter transcripts (1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1B, and 1C) or differences in the degree of regulation of the GR or GR promoter transcripts upon GC exposure are related to GC resistance. Therefore, mRNA levels of the 5 GR promoter transcripts and of the GR were measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; Taqman) technology in primary ALL cells prior to and after 3, 8, and 24 hours of prednisolone exposure. GR expression is induced upon GC exposure in primary ALL patient samples, which is opposite to what is found in tissues in which GCs do not induce apoptosis. GC resistance in childhood ALL cannot be attributed to an inability of resistant cells to up-regulate the expression of the GR upon GC exposure, nor to differences in GR promoter usage (at baseline and upon GC exposure).

  4. Antenatal hypoxia induces epigenetic repression of glucocorticoid receptor and promotes ischemic-sensitive phenotype in the developing heart.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fuxia; Lin, Thant; Song, Minwoo; Ma, Qingyi; Martinez, Shannalee R; Lv, Juanxiu; MataGreenwood, Eugenia; Xiao, Daliao; Xu, Zhice; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-02-01

    Large studies in humans and animals have demonstrated a clear association of an adverse intrauterine environment with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Yet mechanisms remain largely elusive. The present study tested the hypothesis that gestational hypoxia leads to promoter hypermethylation and epigenetic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene in the developing heart, resulting in increased heart susceptibility to ischemia and reperfusion injury in offspring. Hypoxic treatment of pregnant rats from day 15 to 21 of gestation resulted in a significant decrease of GR exon 14, 15, 16, and 17 transcripts, leading to down-regulation of GR mRNA and protein in the fetal heart. Functional cAMP-response elements (CREs) at -4408 and -3896 and Sp1 binding sites at -3425 and -3034 were identified at GR untranslated exon 1 promoters. Hypoxia significantly increased CpG methylation at the CREs and Sp1 binding sites and decreased transcription factor binding to GR exon 1 promoter, accounting for the repression of the GR gene in the developing heart. Of importance, treatment of newborn pups with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed hypoxia-induced promoter methylation, restored GR expression and prevented hypoxia-mediated increase in ischemia and reperfusion injury of the heart in offspring. The findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of epigenetic repression of the GR gene in fetal stress-mediated programming of ischemic-sensitive phenotype in the heart.

  5. Antenatal Hypoxia Induces Epigenetic Repression of Glucocorticoid Receptor and Promotes Ischemic-Sensitive Phenotype in the Developing Heart

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fuxia; Lin, Thant; Song, Minwoo; Ma, Qingyi; Martinez, Shannalee R.; Lv, Juanxiu; MataGreenwood, Eugenia; Xiao, Daliao; Xu, Zhice; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-01-01

    Large studies in humans and animals have demonstrated a clear association of an adverse intrauterine environment with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Yet mechanisms remain largely elusive. The present study tested the hypothesis that gestational hypoxia leads to promoter hypermethylation and epigenetic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene in the developing heart, resulting in increased heart susceptibility to ischemia and reperfusion injury in offspring. Hypoxic treatment of pregnant rats from day 15 to 21 of gestation resulted in a significant decrease of GR exon 14, 15, 16, and 17 transcripts, leading to down-regulation of GR mRNA and protein in the fetal heart. Functional cAMP-response elements (CREs) at −4408 and −3896 and Sp1 binding sites at −3425 and −3034 were identified at GR untranslated exon 1 promoters. Hypoxia significantly increased CpG methylation at the CREs and Sp1 binding sites and decreased transcription factor binding to GR exon 1 promoter, accounting for the repression of the GR gene in the developing heart. Of importance, treatment of newborn pups with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine reversed hypoxia-induced promoter methylation, restored GR expression and prevented hypoxia-mediated increase in ischemia and reperfusion injury of the heart in offspring. The findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of epigenetic repression of the GR gene in fetal stress-mediated programming of ischemic-sensitive phenotype in the heart. PMID:26779948

  6. Novel NFAT sites that mediate activation of the interleukin-2 promoter in response to T-cell receptor stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, J W; Sun, Y L; Glimcher, L H; Hoey, T

    1995-01-01

    The transcription factors NFAT and AP-1 have been shown to be essential for inducible interleukin-2 (IL-2) expression in activated T cells. NFAT has been previously reported to bind to two sites in the IL-2 promoter: in association with AP-1 at the distal antigen response element at -280 and at -135. On the basis of DNase I footprinting with recombinant NFAT and AP-1 proteins, gel shift assays, and transfection experiments, we have identified three additional NFAT sites in the IL-2 promoter. Strikingly, all five NFAT sites are essential for the full induction of promoter activity in response to T-cell receptor stimulation. Four of the five NFAT sites are part of composite elements able to bind AP-1 in association with NFAT. These sites display a diverse range of cooperativity and interdependency on NFAT and AP-1 proteins for binding. One of the NFAT sites directly overlaps the CD28-responsive element. We present evidence that CD28 inducibility is conferred by the AP-1 component in NFAT-AP-1 composite elements. These findings provide further insight into the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the IL-2 promoter. PMID:7565783

  7. Enhanced AMPA Receptor Function Promotes Cerebellar Long-Term Depression Rather than Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beugen, Boeke J.; Qiao, Xin; Simmons, Dana H.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Hansel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ampakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at cerebellar…

  8. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McWilliams, Melissa A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, "NR3C1," which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of "NR3C1" to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in…

  9. D1-D2 Dopamine Receptor Synergy Promotes Calcium Signaling via Multiple Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Lani S.; Free, R. Benjamin; Doyle, Trevor B.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Rankin, Michele L.

    2013-01-01

    The D1 dopamine receptor (D1R) has been proposed to form a hetero-oligomer with the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), which in turn results in a complex that couples to phospholipase C–mediated intracellular calcium release. We have sought to elucidate the pharmacology and mechanism of action of this putative signaling pathway. Dopamine dose-response curves assaying intracellular calcium mobilization in cells heterologously expressing the D1 and D2 subtypes, either alone or in combination, and using subtype selective ligands revealed that concurrent stimulation is required for coupling. Surprisingly, characterization of a putative D1-D2 heteromer-selective ligand, 6-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-1-(3-methylphenyl)-1H-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol (SKF83959), found no stimulation of calcium release, but it did find a broad range of cross-reactivity with other G protein–coupled receptors. In contrast, SKF83959 appeared to be an antagonist of calcium mobilization. Overexpression of Gqα with the D1 and D2 dopamine receptors enhanced the dopamine-stimulated calcium response. However, this was also observed in cells expressing Gqα with only the D1R. Inactivation of Gi or Gs with pertussis or cholera toxin, respectively, largely, but not entirely, reduced the calcium response in D1R and D2R cotransfected cells. Moreover, sequestration of Gβγ subunits through overexpression of G protein receptor kinase 2 mutants either completely or largely eliminated dopamine-stimulated calcium mobilization. Our data suggest that the mechanism of D1R/D2R–mediated calcium signaling involves more than receptor-mediated Gq protein activation, may largely involve downstream signaling pathways, and may not be completely heteromer-specific. In addition, SKF83959 may not exhibit selective activation of D1-D2 heteromers, and its significant cross-reactivity to other receptors warrants careful interpretation of its use in vivo. PMID:23680635

  10. Sodium channel activation augments NMDA receptor function and promotes neurite outgrowth in immature cerebrocortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    George, Joju; Dravid, Shashank M.; Prakash, Anand; Xie, Jun; Peterson, Jennifer; Jabba, Sairam V.; Baden, Daniel G.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    A range of extrinsic signals, including afferent activity, affect neuronal growth and plasticity. Neuronal activity regulates intracellular Ca2+ and activity-dependent calcium signaling has been shown to regulate dendritic growth and branching (Konur and Ghosh, 2005). NMDA receptor (NMDAR) stimulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase signaling cascades has moreover been demonstrated to regulate neurite/axonal outgrowth (Wayman et al., 2004). We used a sodium channel activator, brevetoxin (PbTx-2), to explore the relationship between intracellular [Na+] and NMDAR-dependent development. PbTx-2 alone, at a concentration of 30 nM, did not affect Ca2+ dynamics in DIV-2 cerebrocortical neurons; however, this treatment robustly potentiated NMDA-induced Ca2+ influx. The 30 nM PbTx-2 treatment produced a maximum [Na+]i of 16.9 ± 1.5 mM representing an increment of 8.8 ± 1.8 mM over basal. The corresponding membrane potential change produced by 30 nM PbTx-2 was modest and therefore insufficient to relieve the voltage-dependent Mg2+ block of NMDARs. To unambiguously demonstrate the enhancement of NMDA receptor function by PbTx-2, we recorded single-channel currents from cell-attached patches. PbTx-2 treatment was found to increase both the mean open time and open probability of NMDA receptors. These effects of PbTx-2 on NMDA receptor function were dependent on extracellular Na+ and activation of Src kinase. The functional consequences of PbTx-2-induced enhancement of NMDAR function were evaluated in immature cerebrocortical neurons. PbTx-2 concentrations between 3 and 300 nM enhanced neurite outgrowth. Voltage-gated sodium channel activators may accordingly represent a novel pharmacologic strategy to regulate neuronal plasticity through an NMDA receptor and Src family kinase-dependent mechanism. PMID:19279266

  11. Activated c-Kit receptor in the heart promotes cardiac repair and regeneration after injury

    PubMed Central

    Di Siena, S; Gimmelli, R; Nori, S L; Barbagallo, F; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P; Venneri, M A; Giannetta, E; Gianfrilli, D; Feigenbaum, L; Lenzi, A; Naro, F; Cianflone, E; Mancuso, T; Torella, D; Isidori, A M; Pellegrini, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of endogenous c-Kit receptor activation on cardiac cell homeostasis and repair remains largely unexplored. Transgenic mice carrying an activating point mutation (TgD814Y) in the kinase domain of the c-Kit gene were generated. c-KitTgD814Y receptor was expressed in the heart during embryonic development and postnatal life, in a similar timing and expression pattern to that of the endogenous gene, but not in the hematopoietic compartment allowing the study of a cardiac-specific phenotype. c-KitTgD814Y mutation produced a constitutive active c-Kit receptor in cardiac tissue and cells from transgenic mice as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, which are the main downstream molecular effectors of c-Kit receptor signaling. In adult transgenic hearts, cardiac morphology, size and total c-Kit+ cardiac cell number was not different compared with wt mice. However, when c-KitTgD814Y mice were subjected to transmural necrotic heart damage by cryoinjury (CI), all transgenic survived, compared with half of wt mice. In the sub-acute phase after CI, transgenic and wt mice showed similar heart damage. However, 9 days after CI, transgenic mice exhibited an increased number of c-Kit+CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells surrounding the necrotic area. At later follow-up, a consistent reduction of fibrotic area, increased capillary density and increased cardiomyocyte replenishment rate (as established by BrdU incorporation) were observed in transgenic compared with wt mice. Consistently, CD45−c-Kit+ cardiac stem cells isolated from transgenic c-KitTgD814Y mice showed an enhanced endothelial and cardiomyocyte differentiation potential compared with cells isolated from the wt. Constitutive activation of c-Kit receptor in mice is associated with an increased cardiac myogenic and vasculogenic reparative potential after injury, with a significant improvement of survival. PMID:27468693

  12. Mutation of C. elegans demethylase spr-5 extends transgenerational longevity

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Eric Lieberman; Becker, Ben; Latza, Christian; Antebi, Adam; Shi, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Complex organismal properties such as longevity can be transmitted across generations by non-genetic factors. Here we demonstrate that deletion of the C. elegans histone H3 lysine 4 dimethyl (H3K4me2) demethylase, spr-5, causes a trans-generational increase in lifespan. We identify a chromatin-modifying network, which regulates this lifespan extension. We further show that this trans-generational lifespan extension is dependent on a hormonal signaling pathway involving the steroid dafachronic acid, an activator of the nuclear receptor DAF-12. These findings suggest that loss of the demethylase SPR-5 causes H3K4me2 mis-regulation and activation of a known lifespan-regulating signaling pathway, leading to trans-generational lifespan extension. PMID:26691751

  13. Genetics and gene-environment interactions on longevity and lifespan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longevity is a complex trait and highly associated with healthspan – lifespan without major diseases. In human populations there is a large amount of variation in longevity, which can be attributed to genetics, environment, and interactions between them. The genetic contribution to longevity is abou...

  14. 5-HT4 Receptors Constitutively Promote the Non-Amyloidogenic Pathway of APP Cleavage and Interact with ADAM10

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the amyloidogenic pathway, amyloid precursor protein (APP) can be cleaved by α-secretases, producing soluble and neuroprotective APP alpha (sAPPα) (nonamyloidogenic pathway) and thus preventing the generation of pathogenic amyloid-β. However, the mechanisms regulating APP cleavage by α-secretases remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that expression of serotonin type 4 receptors (5-HT4Rs) constitutively (without agonist stimulation) induced APP cleavage by the α-secretase ADAM10 and the release of neuroprotective sAPPα in HEK-293 cells and cortical neurons. This effect was independent of cAMP production. Interestingly, we demonstrated that 5-HT4 receptors physically interacted with the mature form of ADAM10. Stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors by an agonist further increased sAPPα secretion, and this effect was mediated by cAMP/Epac signaling. These findings describe a new mechanism whereby a GPCR constitutively stimulates the cleavage of APP by α-secretase and promotes the nonamyloidogenic pathway of APP processing. PMID:23336052

  15. Discoidin domain receptor 1 promotes Th17 cell migration by activating the RhoA/ROCK/MAPK/ERK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Azreq, Mohammed-Amine El; Kadiri, Maleck; Boisvert, Marc; Pagé, Nathalie; Tessier, Philippe A.; Aoudjit, Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Effector T cell migration through the tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important step of the adaptive immune response and in the development of inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we addressed the role of a collagen receptor, the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), in the migration of Th17 cells. We showed that the vast majority of human Th17 cells express DDR1 and that silencing DDR1 or using the blocking recombinant receptor DDR1:Fc significantly reduced their motility and invasion in three-dimensional (3D) collagen. DDR1 promoted Th17 migration by activating RhoA/ROCK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. Interestingly, the RhoA/ROCK signaling module was required for MAPK/ERK activation. Finally, we showed that DDR1 is important for the recruitment of Th17 cells into the mouse dorsal air pouch containing the chemoattractant CCL20. Collectively, our results indicate that DDR1, via the activation of RhoA/ROCK/MAPK/ERK signaling axis, is a key pathway of effector T cell migration through collagen of perivascular tissues. As such, DDR1 can contribute to the development of Th17-dependent inflammatory diseases. PMID:27391444

  16. Activation of the orphan receptor GPR55 by lysophosphatidylinositol promotes metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andradas, Clara; Blasco-Benito, Sandra; Castillo-Lluva, Sonia; Dillenburg-Pilla, Patricia; Diez-Alarcia, Rebeca; Juanes-García, Alba; García-Taboada, Elena; Hernando-Llorente, Rodrigo; Soriano, Joaquim; Hamann, Sigrid; Wenners, Antonia; Alkatout, Ibrahim; Klapper, Wolfram; Rocken, Christoph; Bauer, Maret; Arnold, Norbert; Quintanilla, Miguel; Megías, Diego; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Urigüen, Leyre; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Guzmán, Manuel; Pérez-Gómez, Eduardo; Sánchez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 has been directly or indirectly related to basic alterations that drive malignant growth: uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation, sustained angiogenesis, and cancer cell adhesion and migration. However, little is known about the involvement of this receptor in metastasis. Here, we show that elevated GPR55 expression in human tumors is associated with the aggressive basal/triple-negative breast cancer population, higher probability to develop metastases, and therefore poor patient prognosis. Activation of GPR55 by its proposed endogenous ligand lysophosphatidylinositol confers pro-invasive features on breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, this effect is elicited by coupling to Gq/11 heterotrimeric proteins and the subsequent activation, through ERK, of the transcription factor ETV4/PEA3. Together, these data show that GPR55 promotes breast cancer metastasis, and supports the notion that this orphan receptor may constitute a new therapeutic target and potential biomarker in the highly aggressive triple-negative subtype. PMID:27340777

  17. Calycosin Promotes Angiogenesis Involving Estrogen Receptor and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Signaling Pathway in Zebrafish and HUVEC

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen Hua; Zhang, Zai Jun; Hu, Guang; Cheang, Lorita Chi Veng; Alex, Deepa; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen

    2010-01-01

    tamoxifen, by displaying selective potency and affinity to estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ. Our results further indicated that calycosin promotes angiogenesis via activation of MAPK with the involvement of ERK1/2 and ER. Together, this study revealed, for the first time, that calycosin acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) to promote angiogenesis, at least in part through VEGF-VEGFR2 and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:20686605

  18. Longevity and Patau syndrome: what determines survival?

    PubMed

    Peroos, Sherina; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pugh, Jennifer Harriet; Arthur-Farraj, Peter; Hodes, Deborah

    2012-12-06

    The authors report of an 8-year-old girl with non-mosaic Patau syndrome. The median life expectancy of Patau syndrome is 7-10 days, and 90% die in the first year of life. Survival is often attributed to mosaicism and the severity of associated malformations. We delineate the developing phenotype and review the literature discussing potential contributory factors to longevity.

  19. Longevity and Mortality in Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thase, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Research on the longevity of Down's Syndrome persons is reviewed, and the life span is noted to have increased, although the overall mortality rate is still five times greater than that for the general population. Statistics on causes of mortality (such as immunological abnormalities, congenital heart disease, and malignancy) are summarized. (CL)

  20. Longevity and Education: Survey Results, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Barbara; Lange, Mary Sue

    In order to better serve the needs of people in midlife and beyond, Mt. San Antonio College (Mt. SAC), California, is considering the establishment of a Center for Longevity and Education (CLE). The CLE mission would be to foster a supportive environment for lifelong learning and life transitions for midlife and beyond, while channeling the…

  1. Translational genomics for improving sow reproductive longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sow reproductive longevity is a composite trait that is expressed throughout life that depends on the potential of females to resume ovarian cyclicity, re-breed, and farrow multiple parities. Approximately 50% of sows are culled annually with more than one third due to poor fertility. Age at puberty...

  2. Longevity and Depreciation of Audiovisual Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Describes results of survey of media service directors at public universities in Ohio to determine the expected longevity of audiovisual equipment. Use of the Delphi technique for estimates is explained, results are compared with an earlier survey done in 1977, and use of spreadsheet software to calculate depreciation is discussed. (LRW)

  3. Androgen receptor promotes sex-independent angiogenesis in response to ischemia and is required for activation of vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Sumiko; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Sumitomo-Ueda, Yuka; Uemoto, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Kazue; Ise, Takayuki; Yagi, Shusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Mouri, Yasuhiro; Sakari, Matomo; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Takeyama, Ken-ichi; Akaike, Masashi; Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Sata, Masataka; Walsh, Kenneth; Kato, Shigeaki; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoandrogenemia is associated with an increased risk of ischemic diseases. Since actions of androgens are exerted through androgen receptor (AR) activation, we studied hind limb ischemia in AR knockout (KO) mice to elucidate the role of AR in response to ischemia. Methods and Results Both male and female ARKO mice exhibited impaired blood flow recovery, more cellular apoptosis and a higher incidence of autoamputation after ischemia. In ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis studies, AR-deficient vascular endothelial cells showed reduced angiogenic capability. In ischemic limbs of ARKO mice, reductions in the phosphorylation of the Akt protein kinase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were observed despite a robust increase in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) gene expression. In in vitro studies, siRNA-mediated ablation of AR in vascular endothelial cells blunted VEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. Immunoprecipitation experiments documented an association between AR and kinase insert domain protein receptor (KDR) that promoted the recruitment of downstream signaling components. Conclusion These results document a physiological role of AR in gender-independent angiogenic potency and provide evidence for a novel cross-talk between androgen/AR signaling and VEGF/KDR signaling pathways. PMID:23723256

  4. NMDA Receptors Enhance Spontaneous Activity and Promote Neuronal Survival in the Developing Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang-Hooks, YingXin; Agarwal, Amit; Mishina, Masayoshi; Bergles, Dwight E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Spontaneous bursts of activity in developing sensory pathways promote maturation of neurons, refinement of neuronal connections and assembly of appropriate functional networks. In the developing auditory system, inner hair cells (IHCs) spontaneously fire Ca2+ spikes, each of which is transformed into a mini-burst of action potentials in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Here we show that NMDARs are expressed in SGN dendritic terminals and play a critical role during transmission of activity from IHCs to SGNs before hearing onset. NMDAR activation enhances glutamate-mediated Ca2+ influx at dendritic terminals, promotes repetitive firing of individual SGNs in response to each synaptic event, and enhances coincident activity of neighboring SGNs that will eventually encode similar frequencies of sound. Loss of NMDAR signaling from SGNs reduced their survival both in vivo and in vitro, revealing that spontaneous activity in the prehearing cochlea promotes maturation of auditory circuitry through periodic activation of NMDARs in SGNs. PMID:26774161

  5. Methylation of the Claudin 1 Promoter Is Associated with Loss of Expression in Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Di Cello, Francescopaolo; Cope, Leslie; Li, Huili; Jeschke, Jana; Wang, Wei; Baylin, Stephen B.; Zahnow, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Downregulation of the tight junction protein claudin 1 is a frequent event in breast cancer and is associated with recurrence, metastasis, and reduced survival, suggesting a tumor suppressor role for this protein. Tumor suppressor genes are often epigenetically silenced in cancer. Downregulation of claudin 1 via DNA promoter methylation may thus be an important determinant in breast cancer development and progression. To investigate if silencing of claudin 1 has an epigenetic etiology in breast cancer we compared gene expression and methylation data from 217 breast cancer samples and 40 matched normal samples available through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Moreover, we analyzed claudin 1 expression and methylation in 26 breast cancer cell lines. We found that methylation of the claudin 1 promoter CpG island is relatively frequent in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer and is associated with low claudin 1 expression. In contrast, the claudin 1 promoter was not methylated in most of the ER-breast cancers samples and some of these tumors overexpress claudin 1. In addition, we observed that the demethylating agents, azacitidine and decitabine can upregulate claudin 1 expression in breast cancer cell lines that have a methylated claudin 1 promoter. Taken together, our results indicate that DNA promoter methylation is causally associated with downregulation of claudin 1 in a subgroup of breast cancer that includes mostly ER+ tumors, and suggest that epigenetic therapy to restore claudin 1 expression might represent a viable therapeutic strategy in this subtype of breast cancer. PMID:23844228

  6. TGF-α/HA complex promotes tympanic membrane keratinocyte migration and proliferation via ErbB1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Teh, Bing; Redmond, Sharon L.; Shen, Yi; Atlas, Marcus D.; Marano, Robert J.; Dilley, Rodney J.

    2013-04-01

    Tympanic membrane perforations are common and represent a management challenge to clinicians. Current treatments for chronic perforations involve a graft surgery and require general anaesthesia, including associated costs and morbidities. Bioactive molecules (e.g. growth factors, cytokines) play an important role in promoting TM wound healing following perforation and the use of growth factors as a topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations has been suggested as an alternative to surgery. However, the choice of bioactive molecules best suited to promote wound healing has yet to be identified. We investigated the effects of hyaluronic acid, vitronectin, TGF-α, IL-24 and their combinations on migration, proliferation and adhesion of cultured human tympanic membrane-derived keratinocytes (hTM), in addition to their possible mechanisms of action. We found that TGF-α, TGF-α/HA and TGF-α/IL-24 promoted wound healing by significantly increasing both migration and proliferation. TGF-α and/or HA treated cells showed comparable cell–cell adhesion whilst maintaining an epithelial cell phenotype. With the use of receptor binding inhibitors for ErbB1 (AG1478) and CD44 (BRIC235), we revealed that the activation of ErbB1 is required for TGF-α/HA-mediated migration and proliferation. These results suggest factors that may be incorporated into a tissue-engineered membrane or directly as topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations and hence reduce the need for a surgery. - Highlights: ► TGF-α, TGF-α/HA and TGF-α/IL-24 improved hTM keratinocyte migration and proliferation. ► TGF-α and/or HA maintained epithelial cell phenotype. ► TGF-α/HA-mediated migration and proliferation requires activation of ErbB1 receptor.

  7. Suicide, stress and serotonin receptor 1A promoter polymorphism -1019C>G in Slovenian suicide victims.

    PubMed

    Videtic, Alja; Zupanc, Tomaz; Pregelj, Peter; Balazic, Joze; Tomori, Martina; Komel, Radovan

    2009-06-01

    Implication of serotonergic system in suicide and suicide attempts has been discussed for several years. One of the most abundant serotonin receptors in the mammalian brain is the receptor 1A (5-HT1A); studies of its polymorphisms and suicide have provided very inconsistent results so far. The suggestion that the G allele depresses HTR1A autoreceptor expression, and therefore reduces serotonergic neurotransmission that might predispose to depression and suicide, made the promoter polymorphism -1019C>G a very promising candidate gene. In our study we analyzed promoter polymorphism -1019C>G on 323 suicide victims and 190 controls (all of Slovenian origin), taking into account sex, suicide method, and in case of suicide victims also stressful life events. Differences in the distributions of genotype and allele frequencies were not statistically significant between suicide victims and control group, and the same was found for distributions according to sex and suicide method. For 62 suicide victims information about stressful life events in the month prior to the suicide and in childhood was provided. For analysis we combined CG/GG genotypes and compared them to the CC genotype. More stressful life events in the month prior to the suicide were reported for the subgroup with CC genotype (mean number of events = 2.53; SD = 1.50) in comparison to subgroup with CG/GG genotypes (mean number of events = 1.58; SD = 1.32; P < 0.05). However, subgroups of suicide victims with CC or CG/GG genotypes did not differ regarding numbers of reported stressful life events in childhood (P > 0.05). Our study provides no evidence for the implication of HTR1A promoter polymorphism in suicide in general, but it suggests further studies that would take into account the interconnected network of suicide completion, genetic background and stress, beside other risk factors.

  8. Activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) promotes blastocyst hatching in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Jung; Hwang, Soo Jin; Yoon, Jung Ah; Jun, Jin Hyun; Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Yoon, Tae Ki; Song, Haengseok

    2011-10-01

    Prostaglandins participate in a variety of female reproductive processes, including ovulation, fertilization, embryo implantation and parturition. In particular, maternal prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is critical for embryo implantation and the action of PGI(2) is not mediated via its G-protein-coupled membrane receptor, IP, but its nuclear receptor, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ). Recently, several studies have shown that PGI(2) enhances blastocyst development and/or hatching rate in vitro, and subsequently implantation and live birth rates in mice. However, the mechanism by which PGI(2) improves preimplantation embryo development in vitro remains unclear. Using molecular, pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we show that PGI(2)-induced PPARδ activation accelerates blastocyst hatching in mice. mRNAs for PPARδ, retinoid X receptor (heterodimeric partners of PPARδ) and PGI(2) synthase (PGIS) are temporally induced after zygotic gene activation, and their expression reaches maximum levels at the blastocyst stage, suggesting that functional complex of PPARδ can be formed in the blastocyst. Carbaprostacyclin (a stable analogue of PGI(2)) and GW501516 (a PPARδ selective agonist) significantly accelerated blastocyst hatching but did not increase total cell number of cultured blastocysts. Whereas U51605 (a PGIS inhibitor) interfered with blastocyst hatching, GW501516 restored U51605-induced retarded hatching. In contrast to the improvement of blastocyst hatching by PPARδ agonists, PPAR antagonists significantly inhibited blastocyst hatching. Furthermore, deletion of PPARδ at early stages of preimplantation mouse embryos caused delay of blastocyst hatching, but did not impair blastocyst development. Taken together, PGI(2)-induced PPARδ activation accelerates blastocyst hatching in mice.

  9. DDR1 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes prosurvival pathway through Notch1 activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Gu; Hwang, So-Young; Aaronson, Stuart A; Mandinova, Anna; Lee, Sam W

    2011-05-20

    DDR1 (discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 1) kinase s highly expressed in a variety of human cancers and occasionally mutated in lung cancer and leukemia. It is now clear that aberrant signaling through the DDR1 receptor is closely associated with various steps of tumorigenesis, although little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the role of DDR1 in cancer. Besides the role of DDR1 in tumorigenesis, we previously identified DDR1 kinase as a transcriptional target of tumor suppressor p53. DDR1 is functionally activated as determined by its tyrosine phosphorylation, in response to p53-dependent DNA damage. In this study, we report the characterization of the Notch1 protein as an interacting partner of DDR1 receptor, as determined by tandem affinity protein purification. Upon ligand-mediated DDR1 kinase activation, Notch1 was activated, bound to DDR1, and activated canonical Notch1 targets, including Hes1 and Hey2. Moreover, DDR1 ligand (collagen I) treatment significantly increased the active form of Notch1 receptor in the nuclear fraction, whereas DDR1 knockdown cells show little or no increase of the active form of Notch1 in the nuclear fraction, suggesting a novel intracellular mechanism underlying autocrine activation of wild-type Notch signaling through DDR1. DDR1 activation suppressed genotoxic-mediated cell death, whereas Notch1 inhibition by a γ-secretase inhibitor, DAPT, enhanced cell death in response to stress. Moreover, the DDR1 knockdown cancer cells showed the reduced transformed phenotypes in vitro and in vivo xenograft studies. The results suggest that DDR1 exerts prosurvival effect, at least in part, through the functional interaction with Notch1.

  10. Ca2+ activity at GABAB receptors constitutively promotes metabotropic glutamate signaling in the absence of GABA

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Toshihide; Araishi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Hashimotodani, Yuki; van der Putten, Herman; Bettler, Bernhard; Kano, Masanobu

    2004-01-01

    Type B γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABABR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that regulates neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability throughout the brain. In various neurons, GABABRs are concentrated at excitatory synapses. Although these receptors are assumed to respond to GABA spillover from neighboring inhibitory synapses, their function is not fully understood. Here we show a previously undescribed function of GABABR exerted independent of GABA. In cerebellar Purkinje cells, interaction of GABABR with extracellular Ca2+ (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{Ca}}_{{\\mathrm{o}}}^{2+}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}) leads to a constitutive increase in the glutamate sensitivity of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1). mGluR1 sensitization is clearly mediated by GABABR because it is absent in GABABR1 subunit-knockout cells. However, the mGluR1 sensitization does not require Gi/o proteins that mediate the GABABR's classical functions. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation reveals complex formation between GABABR and mGluR1 in the cerebellum. These findings demonstrate that GABABR can act as \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{Ca}}_{{\\mathrm{o}}}^{2+}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}-dependent cofactors to enhance neuronal metabotropic glutamate signaling. PMID:15550547

  11. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Containing a Glypican 5 Core and 2-O-Sulfo-iduronic Acid Function as Sonic Hedgehog Co-receptors to Promote Proliferation*♦

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Rochelle M.; Hecht, Marie-Lyn; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Cohen, Samuel M.; Noti, Christian; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Fuller, Maria; Chan, Jennifer A.; Hopwood, John J.; Seeberger, Peter H.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2013-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is crucial for growth, cell fate determination, and axonal guidance in the developing nervous system. Although the receptors Patched (Ptch1) and Smoothened (Smo) are required for Shh signaling, a number of distinct co-receptors contribute to these critical responses to Shh. Several membrane-embedded proteins such as Boc, Cdo, and Gas1 bind Shh and promote signaling. In addition, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have also been implicated in the initiation of Shh responses. However, the attributes of HSPGs that function as co-receptors for Shh have not yet been defined. Here, we identify HSPGs containing a glypican 5 core protein and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid residues at the nonreducing ends of the glycans as co-receptors for Shh. These HSPG co-receptors are expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors and promote Shh binding and signaling. At the subcellular level, these HSPG co-receptors are located adjacent to the primary cilia that act as Shh signaling organelles. Thus, Shh binds to HSPG co-receptors containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid to promote neural precursor proliferation. PMID:23867465

  12. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid function as Sonic Hedgehog co-receptors to promote proliferation.

    PubMed

    Witt, Rochelle M; Hecht, Marie-Lyn; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Cohen, Samuel M; Noti, Christian; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Fuller, Maria; Chan, Jennifer A; Hopwood, John J; Seeberger, Peter H; Segal, Rosalind A

    2013-09-06

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is crucial for growth, cell fate determination, and axonal guidance in the developing nervous system. Although the receptors Patched (Ptch1) and Smoothened (Smo) are required for Shh signaling, a number of distinct co-receptors contribute to these critical responses to Shh. Several membrane-embedded proteins such as Boc, Cdo, and Gas1 bind Shh and promote signaling. In addition, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have also been implicated in the initiation of Shh responses. However, the attributes of HSPGs that function as co-receptors for Shh have not yet been defined. Here, we identify HSPGs containing a glypican 5 core protein and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid residues at the nonreducing ends of the glycans as co-receptors for Shh. These HSPG co-receptors are expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors and promote Shh binding and signaling. At the subcellular level, these HSPG co-receptors are located adjacent to the primary cilia that act as Shh signaling organelles. Thus, Shh binds to HSPG co-receptors containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid to promote neural precursor proliferation.

  13. NMDA receptor activation inhibits alpha-secretase and promotes neuronal amyloid-beta production.

    PubMed

    Lesné, Sylvain; Ali, Carine; Gabriel, Cecília; Croci, Nicole; MacKenzie, Eric T; Glabe, Charles G; Plotkine, Michel; Marchand-Verrecchia, Catherine; Vivien, Denis; Buisson, Alain

    2005-10-12

    Acute brain injuries have been identified as a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because glutamate plays a pivotal role in these pathologies, we studied the influence of glutamate receptor activation on amyloid-beta (Abeta) production in primary cultures of cortical neurons. We found that sublethal NMDA receptor activation increased the production and secretion of Abeta. This effect was preceded by an increased expression of neuronal Kunitz protease inhibitory domain (KPI) containing amyloid-beta precursor protein (KPI-APP) followed by a shift from alpha-secretase to beta-secretase-mediated APP processing. This shift is a result of the inhibition of the alpha-secretase candidate tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) when associated with neuronal KPI-APPs. This KPI-APP/TACE interaction was also present in AD brains. Thus, our findings reveal a cellular mechanism linking NMDA receptor activation to neuronal Abeta secretion. These results suggest that even mild deregulation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission may increase Abeta production and represent a causal risk factor for developing AD.

  14. Receptor FGFRL1 does not promote cell proliferation but induces cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    YANG, XIAOCHEN; STEINBERG, FLORIAN; ZHUANG, LEI; BESSEY, RALPH; TRUEB, BEAT

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-like protein 1 (FGFRL1) is the most recently discovered member of the FGFR family. Owing to the fact that it interacts with FGF ligands, but lacks the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain, several researchers have speculated that it may function as a decoy receptor and exert a negative effect on cell proliferation. In this study, we performed overexpression experiments with TetOn-inducible cell clones and downregulation experiments with siRNA oligonucleotides, and found that FGFRL1 had absolutely no effect on cell growth and proliferation. Likewise, we did not observe any influence of FGFRL1 on ERK1/2 activation and on the phosphorylation of 250 other signaling proteins analyzed by the Kinexus antibody microarray. On the other hand, with bacterial petri dishes, we observed a clear effect of FGFRL1 on cell adhesion during the initial hours after cell seeding. Our results suggest that FGFRL1 is a cell adhesion protein similar to the nectins rather than a signaling receptor similar to FGFR1-FGFR4. PMID:27220341

  15. Actinin-4 Governs Dendritic Spine Dynamics and Promotes Their Remodeling by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Magdalena; Chávez, Andrés E.; Lutzu, Stefano; Castillo, Pablo E.; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.; Francesconi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic spines are dynamic, actin-rich protrusions in neurons that undergo remodeling during neuronal development and activity-dependent plasticity within the central nervous system. Although group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are critical for spine remodeling under physiopathological conditions, the molecular components linking receptor activity to structural plasticity remain unknown. Here we identify a Ca2+-sensitive actin-binding protein, α-actinin-4, as a novel group 1 mGluR-interacting partner that orchestrates spine dynamics and morphogenesis in primary neurons. Functional silencing of α-actinin-4 abolished spine elongation and turnover stimulated by group 1 mGluRs despite intact surface receptor expression and downstream ERK1/2 signaling. This function of α-actinin-4 in spine dynamics was underscored by gain-of-function phenotypes in untreated neurons. Here α-actinin-4 induced spine head enlargement, a morphological change requiring the C-terminal domain of α-actinin-4 that binds to CaMKII, an interaction we showed to be regulated by group 1 mGluR activation. Our data provide mechanistic insights into spine remodeling by metabotropic signaling and identify α-actinin-4 as a critical effector of structural plasticity within neurons. PMID:25944910

  16. Application of RGS box proteins to evaluate G-protein selectivity in receptor-promoted signaling.

    PubMed

    Hains, Melinda D; Siderovski, David P; Harden, T Kendall

    2004-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domains bind directly to GTP-bound Galpha subunits and accelerate their intrinsic GTPase activity by up to several thousandfold. The selectivity of RGS proteins for individual Galpha subunits has been illustrated. Thus, the expression of RGS proteins can be used to inhibit signaling pathways activated by specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This article describes the use of specific RGS domain constructs to discriminate among G(i/o), Gq-and G(12/13)-mediated activation of phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes in COS-7 cells. Overexpression of the N terminus of GRK2 (amino acids 45-178) or p115 RhoGEF (amino acids 1-240) elicited selective inhibition of Galphaq- or Galpha(12/13)-mediated signaling to PLC activation, respectively. In contrast, RGS2 overexpression was found to inhibit PLC activation by both G(i/o)- and Gq-coupled GPCRs. RGS4 exhibited dramatic receptor selectivity in its inhibitory actions; of the G(i/o)- and Gq-coupled GPCRs tested (LPA1, LPA2, P2Y1, S1P3), only the Gq-coupled lysophosphatidic acid-activated LPA2 receptor was found to be inhibited by RGS4 overexpression.

  17. The human constitutive androstane receptor promotes the differentiation and maturation of hepatic-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fengming; Zamule, Stephanie M.; Coslo, Denise M.; Chen, Tao; Omiecinski, Curtis J.

    2013-01-01

    Expression of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is enriched in the mature mammalian liver and increasingly recognized for its prominent role in regulating a myriad of processes including biotransformation, chemical transport, energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis. Previously, we demonstrated that CAR levels were markedly enhanced during the differentiation of hepatic-like cells derived from hESCs, prompting the hypothesis that CAR contributes a key functional role in directing human hepatogenesis. Here we demonstrate that over-expression of CAR in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), transduced by a lentiviral vector, accelerates the maturation of hepatic-like cells, with CAR over-expressing cells exhibiting a 2.5-fold increase in albumin secretion by day 20 in culture differentiation, and significantly enhanced levels of mRNA expression of several liver-selective markers, including hepatic transcription factors, plasma proteins, biotransformation enzymes, and metabolic enzymes. CAR over-expressing cells also exhibited enhanced CITCO-inducible CYP3A7 enzymatic activity. Knockdown of CAR via siRNA attenuated the differentiation-dependent expression programs. In contrast, expression levels of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor most similar to CAR in primary sequence, were negligible in human fetal liver tissues or in the differentiating hESCs, and stable over-expression of PXR in hepatic-induced hESCs failed to enhance expression of hepatic phenotype markers. Together, these results define a novel role for human CAR in hepatic lineage commitment. PMID:24144921

  18. The Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter-Transcription Factor II Negatively Regulates the Transactivation of Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chin-Hee; Lee, Hyun Joo; Park, Eunsook; Lee, Keesook

    2012-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancers. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain incompletely understood. In previous reports, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TF II) has been suggested to play a role in the development of cancers. In the present study, we explored a putative role of COUP-TF II in prostate cancers by investigating its effect on cell proliferation and a cross-talk between COUP-TF II and AR. Overexpression of COUP-TF II results in the inhibition of androgen-dependent proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Further studies show that COUP-TF II functions as a corepressor of AR. It represses AR transactivation on target promoters containing the androgen response element (ARE) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, COUP-TF II interacts physically with AR in vitro and in vivo. It binds to both the DNA binding domain (DBD) and the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR and disrupts the N/C terminal interaction of AR. Furthermore, COUP-TF II competes with coactivators such as ARA70, SRC-1, and GRIP1 to modulate AR transactivation as well as inhibiting the recruitment of AR to its ARE-containing target promoter. Taken together, our findings suggest that COUP-TF II is a novel corepressor of AR, and provide an insight into the role of COUP-TF II in prostate cancers. PMID:23145053

  19. The activity of interleukin-4 receptor alpha-chain promoter is regulated by a GT box element.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Beatriz; Martín-Saavedra, Francisco M; Jerez, María J; Ballester, Sara

    2006-04-01

    Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) is the cell surface complex through which interleukin-4 (IL-4) signals exert its critical biological effects. The alpha-chain of IL-4R is responsible for the high affinity binding of IL-4. In this report, is characterized, the 5' untranslated flanking region of murine IL-4Ralpha gene in the Th2 clone D10.G4.1. We have analyzed a DNA fragment spanning from -995 to +84 relative to the transcription start point. Mutagenesis analysis shows that, neither the previously described Stat6 (-395) nor the NFAT (-266) and NFkappaB (+25) sequences localized here, are involved in the IL-4Ralpha promoter activity. Reporter assays demonstrate that maximum transcriptional activity is achieved by the -89 to +84 sequence and this activity is independent of a TATA-like box located at -25. We have identified a GT box located at -45 as the critical element for the IL-4Ralpha promoter activity. Experiments in SL2 cells, which lack endogenous Sp proteins, show that IL-4Ralpha minimal promoter is transactivated by proteins of Sp family.

  20. Diet mediates the relationship between longevity and reproduction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-06-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis posits a negative correlation between longevity and reproduction, presumably because these aspects of fitness compete for a limited pool of nutrients. However, diet, which varies widely among animals, could affect the availability of key nutrients required for both reproduction and longevity, especially protein. We used a comparative database of mammal life history data to test the hypothesis that carnivores experience less of a negative relationship between reproduction and longevity than herbivores. Annual reproduction and adult mass were significant predictors of longevity among all mammals; although, the relative importance of reproduction and mass for explaining longevity varied among trophic levels. In herbivores, reproduction was a stronger predictor of longevity than mass. Carnivores showed the opposite pattern with reproduction explaining much less of the variation in longevity. Omnivores showed an intermediate pattern with mass and reproduction explaining similar amounts of variation in longevity. In addition, longevity and reproduction were significantly higher in omnivores than herbivores and carnivores, which were not different from each other. Higher dietary protein at higher trophic levels may allow mammals to avoid potential conflicts between reproduction and longevity. However, there may be potential costs of carnivorous diets that limit the overall performance of carnivores and explain the peak in reproduction and longevity for omnivores.

  1. Scavenger receptor class B, type I (Scarb1) deficiency promotes osteoblastogenesis but stunts terminal osteocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, Corine; Kevorkova, Olha; Brissette, Louise; Moreau, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR‐BI), the Scarb1 gene product, is a high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor which was shown to influence bone metabolism. Its absence in mice is associated with alterations of the glucocorticoid/adrenocorticotropic hormone axis, and translated in high bone mass and enhanced bone formation. Since the cellular alterations underlying the enhanced bone formation remain unknown, we investigated Scarb1‐deficient marrow stromal cells (MSC) behavior in vitro. No difference in HDL3, cholesteryl ester (CE) or estradiol (E) association/binding was measured between Scarb1‐null and wild‐type (WT) cells. Scarb1 genic expression was down‐regulated twofold following osteogenic treatment. Neither WT nor null cell proliferation was influenced by HDL3 exposure whereas this condition decreased genic expression of osteoblastic marker osterix (Sp7), and osteocyte markers sclerostin (Sost) and dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) independently of genotype. Sost and Dmp1 basal expression in null cells was 40% and 50% that of WT cells; accordingly, osteocyte density was 20% lower in vertebrae from Scarb1‐null mice. Genic expression of co‐receptors for Wnt signaling, namely LDL‐related protein (Lrp) 5 and Lrp8, was increased, respectively, by two‐ and threefold, and of transcription target‐genes axis inhibition protein 2 (Axin2) and lymphoid enhancer‐binding factor 1 (Lef1) over threefold. Gene expression of Wnt signaling agonist Wnt5a and of the antagonist dickkopfs‐related protein 1 (Dkk1) were found to be increased 10‐ to 20‐fold in null MSC. These data suggest alterations of Wnt pathways in Scarb1‐deficient MSC potentially explaining their enhanced function, hence contributing to the high bone mass observed in these mice. PMID:25281615

  2. LINGO-1 receptor promotes neuronal apoptosis by inhibiting WNK3 kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohuan; Xu, Xiaohui; Xiang, Zhenghua; Yu, Zhongwang; Feng, Jifeng; He, Cheng

    2013-04-26

    LINGO-1 is a functional component of the Nogo receptor 1 · p75(NTR) · LINGO-1 and Nogo receptor 1 · TAJ (TNFRSF19/TROY)·LINGO-1 signaling complexes. It has recently been shown that LINGO-1 antagonists significantly improve neuronal survival after neural injury. However, the mechanism by which LINGO-1 signaling influences susceptibility to apoptosis remains unknown. In an effort to better understand how LINGO-1 regulates these signaling pathways, we used an established model of serum deprivation (SD) to induce neuronal apoptosis. We demonstrate that treatment either with a construct containing the intracellular domain of LINGO-1 or with Nogo66, a LINGO-1 receptor complex agonist, resulted in an enhanced rate of apoptosis in primary cultured cortical neurons under SD. Reducing the expression levels of the serine/threonine kinase WNK3 using shRNA or inhibiting its kinase activity had similar effects on the survival of serum-deprived neurons. Consistent with these observations, we found that LINGO-1 and WNK3 co-localized and co-precipitated in cultured cortical neurons and brain tissue. Significantly, this co-association was enhanced by Nogo66 treatment. Binding of WNK3 to the intracellular domain of LINGO-1 led to a reduction in WNK3 kinase activity, as did Nogo66 stimulation. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo evidence indicates that endogenous WNK3 suppresses SD-induced neuronal apoptosis in a kinase-dependent manner, as the expression of either a WNK3 RNAi construct or a kinase-dead N-terminal fragment of WNK3 led to increased apoptosis. Taken together, our results show that LINGO-1 potentiates neuronal apoptosis, likely by inhibiting WNK3 kinase activity.

  3. The glucocorticoid receptor binds to a sequence overlapping the TATA box of the human osteocalcin promoter: a potential mechanism for negative regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Strömstedt, P E; Poellinger, L; Gustafsson, J A; Carlstedt-Duke, J

    1991-01-01

    Expression of the human osteocalcin promoter is negatively regulated by glucocorticoids in vivo. In vitro DNase I and exonuclease III footprinting analysis showed binding of purified glucocorticoid receptor in close proximity to and overlapping with the TATA box of the osteocalcin gene. These results imply competition or interference with binding of the TATA box-binding transcription factor IID as a mechanism of repression of this gene by glucocorticoids. In support of this notion, point mutation analysis of the receptor binding site indicated that flanking nucleotides and not the TATA box motif per se were important for receptor interaction. Moreover, DNA binding competition assays showed specific binding of the receptor only to the TATA box region of the osteocalcin gene and not to the corresponding region of an immunoglobulin heavy-chain promoter. Images PMID:2038339

  4. Pursuing the longevity dividend: scientific goals for an aging world.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, S Jay; Perry, Daniel; Miller, Richard A; Butler, Robert N

    2007-10-01

    The aging of humanity is about to experience a radical change as the demographic transformation to an older world is approaching its final stage. In recent decades, scientists have learned enough about the biological aging processes that many believe it will become possible to slow aging in humans. We contend that the social, economic, and health benefits that would result from such advances may be thought of as "longevity dividends," and that they should be aggressively pursued as the new approach to health promotion and disease prevention in the 21st century. The time has arrived for governments and national and international healthcare organizations to make research into healthy aging a major research priority.

  5. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) promoter targeting through a novel chromatin remodeling complex.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shigeaki; Fujiki, Ryoji; Kitagawa, Hirochika

    2004-05-01

    We have purified nuclear complexes for Vitamin D receptor (VDR), and identified one of them as a novel ATP-dependent chromatine remodeling containing Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF), that is supposed to be responsible for Williams syndrome. This complex (WSTF including nucleosome assembly complex (WINAC)) exhibited an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity in vitro. Transient expression assays revealed that WINAC potentiates ligand-induced function of VDR in gene activation and repression. Thus, this study describes a molecular basis of the VDR function on chromosomal DNA through chromatine remodeling.

  6. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 functions as an epigenetic activator of the androgen receptor to promote prostate cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Deng, X; Shao, G; Zhang, H-T; Li, C; Zhang, D; Cheng, L; Elzey, B D; Pili, R; Ratliff, T L; Huang, J; Hu, C-D

    2017-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an emerging epigenetic enzyme that mainly represses transcription of target genes via symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histones H4R3, H3R8 and H2AR3. Accumulating evidence suggests that PRMT5 may function as an oncogene to drive cancer cell growth by epigenetic inactivation of several tumor suppressors. Here, we provide evidence that PRMT5 promotes prostate cancer cell growth by epigenetically activating transcription of the androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of PRMT5 or inhibition of PRMT5 by a specific inhibitor reduces the expression of AR and suppresses the growth of multiple AR-positive, but not AR-negative, prostate cancer cells. Significantly, knockdown of PRMT5 in AR-positive LNCaP cells completely suppresses the growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Molecular analysis reveals that PRMT5 binds to the proximal promoter region of the AR gene and contributes mainly to the enriched symmetric dimethylation of H4R3 in the same region. Mechanistically, PRMT5 is recruited to the AR promoter by its interaction with Sp1, the major transcription factor responsible for AR transcription, and forms a complex with Brg1, an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler, on the proximal promoter region of the AR gene. Furthermore, PRMT5 expression in prostate cancer tissues is significantly higher than that in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues, and PRMT5 expression correlates positively with AR expression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Taken together, our results identify PRMT5 as a novel epigenetic activator of AR in prostate cancer. Given that inhibiting AR transcriptional activity or androgen synthesis remains the major mechanism of action for most existing anti-androgen agents, our findings also raise an interesting possibility that targeting PRMT5 may represent a novel approach for prostate cancer treatment by eliminating AR expression. PMID:27546619

  7. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 functions as an epigenetic activator of the androgen receptor to promote prostate cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Deng, X; Shao, G; Zhang, H-T; Li, C; Zhang, D; Cheng, L; Elzey, B D; Pili, R; Ratliff, T L; Huang, J; Hu, C-D

    2017-03-02

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an emerging epigenetic enzyme that mainly represses transcription of target genes via symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histones H4R3, H3R8 and H2AR3. Accumulating evidence suggests that PRMT5 may function as an oncogene to drive cancer cell growth by epigenetic inactivation of several tumor suppressors. Here, we provide evidence that PRMT5 promotes prostate cancer cell growth by epigenetically activating transcription of the androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of PRMT5 or inhibition of PRMT5 by a specific inhibitor reduces the expression of AR and suppresses the growth of multiple AR-positive, but not AR-negative, prostate cancer cells. Significantly, knockdown of PRMT5 in AR-positive LNCaP cells completely suppresses the growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Molecular analysis reveals that PRMT5 binds to the proximal promoter region of the AR gene and contributes mainly to the enriched symmetric dimethylation of H4R3 in the same region. Mechanistically, PRMT5 is recruited to the AR promoter by its interaction with Sp1, the major transcription factor responsible for AR transcription, and forms a complex with Brg1, an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler, on the proximal promoter region of the AR gene. Furthermore, PRMT5 expression in prostate cancer tissues is significantly higher than that in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues, and PRMT5 expression correlates positively with AR expression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Taken together, our results identify PRMT5 as a novel epigenetic activator of AR in prostate cancer. Given that inhibiting AR transcriptional activity or androgen synthesis remains the major mechanism of action for most existing anti-androgen agents, our findings also raise an interesting possibility that targeting PRMT5 may represent a novel approach for prostate cancer treatment by eliminating AR expression.

  8. Dynein axonemal heavy chain 8 promotes androgen receptor activity and associates with prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Ledet, Russell J.; Imberg-Kazdan, Keren; Logan, Susan K.; Garabedian, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    To gain insight into cellular factors regulating AR action that could promote castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen for factors that promote ligand-independent AR transcriptional activity and integrated clinical databases for candidate genes that are positively associated with prostate cancer metastasis and recurrence. From this analysis, we identified Dynein Axonemal Heavy Chain 8 (DNAH8) as an AR regulator that displayed higher mRNA expression in metastatic than in primary tumors, and showed high expression in patients with poor prognosis. Axonemal dyneins function in cellular motility, but the function of DNAH8 in prostate cancer or other cell types has not been reported. DNAH8 is on chromosome 6q21.2, a cancer-associated amplicon, and is primarily expressed in prostate and testis. Its expression is higher in primary tumors compared to normal prostate, and is further increased in metastatic prostate cancers. Patients expressing high levels of DNAH8 have a greater risk of relapse and a poor prognosis after prostatectomy. Depletion of DNAH8 in prostate cancer cells suppressed AR transcriptional activity and proliferation. Androgen treatment increased DNAH8 mRNA expression, and AR bound the DNAH8 promoter sequence indicating DNAH8 is an AR target gene. Thus, DNAH8 is a new regulator of AR associated with metastatic tumors and poor prognosis. PMID:27363033

  9. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 promotes granuloma formation by sustaining a mycobacteria-induced angiogenesis programme

    PubMed Central

    Torraca, Vincenzo; Tulotta, Claudia; Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa; Meijer, Annemarie H.

    2017-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 plays a critical role in chemotaxis and leukocyte differentiation. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that links this receptor to angiogenesis. Using the well-established zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum model for tuberculosis, angiogenesis was recently found to be important for the development of cellular aggregates called granulomas that contain the mycobacteria and are the hallmark of tuberculosis disease. Here, we found that initiation of the granuloma-associated proangiogenic programme requires CXCR4 signalling. The nascent granulomas in cxcr4b-deficient zebrafish embryos were poorly vascularised, which in turn also delayed bacterial growth. Suppressed infection expansion in cxcr4b mutants could not be attributed to an overall deficient recruitment of leukocytes or to different intramacrophage bacterial growth rate, as cxcr4b mutants displayed similar microbicidal capabilities against initial mycobacterial infection and the cellular composition of granulomatous lesions was similar to wildtype siblings. Expression of vegfaa was upregulated to a similar extent in cxcr4b mutants and wildtypes, suggesting that the granuloma vascularisation phenotype of cxcr4b mutants is independent of vascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:28332618

  10. Activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase signaling promotes insulin receptor-mediated cone photoreceptor survival

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Ammaji; Wang, Yuhong; Rajala, Raju V.S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, daylight vision is primarily mediated by cone photoreceptors. These cells die in age-related retinal degenerations. Prolonging the life of cones for even one decade would have an enormous beneficial effect on usable vision in an aging population. Photoreceptors are postmitotic, but shed 10% of their outer segments daily, and must synthesize the membrane and protein equivalent of a proliferating cell each day. Although activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase and inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase signaling is known to be essential for tumor progression, the cellular regulation of this signaling in postmitotic photoreceptor cells has not been studied. In the present study, we report that a novel G-protein coupled receptor–mediated insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway is regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src through the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase IB (PTP1B). We demonstrated the functional significance of this pathway through conditional deletion of IR and PTP1B in cones, in addition to delaying the death of cones in a mouse model of cone degeneration by activating the Src. This is the first study demonstrating the molecular mechanism of a novel signaling pathway in photoreceptor cells, which provides a window of opportunity to save the dying cones in retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27391439

  11. Estrogen related receptor alpha in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells promotes tumor progression in bone

    PubMed Central

    Delliaux, Carine; Gervais, Manon; Kan, Casina; Benetollo, Claire; Pantano, Francesco; Vargas, Geoffrey; Bouazza, Lamia; Croset, Martine; Bala, Yohann; Leroy, Xavier; Rosol, Thomas J; Rieusset, Jennifer; Bellahcène, Akeila; Castronovo, Vincent; Aubin, Jane E; Clézardin, Philippe; Duterque-Coquillaud, Martine; Bonnelye, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are one of the main complications of prostate cancer and they are incurable. We investigated whether and how estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is involved in bone tumor progression associated with advanced prostate cancer. By meta-analysis, we first found that ERRα expression is correlated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), the hallmark of progressive disease. We then analyzed tumor cell progression and the associated signaling pathways in gain-of-function/loss-of-function CRPC models in vivo and in vitro. Increased levels of ERRα in tumor cells led to rapid tumor progression, with both bone destruction and formation, and direct impacts on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. VEGF-A, WNT5A and TGFβ1 were upregulated by ERRα in tumor cells and all of these factors also significantly and positively correlated with ERRα expression in CRPC patient specimens. Finally, high levels of ERRα in tumor cells stimulated the pro-metastatic factor periostin expression in the stroma, suggesting that ERRα regulates the tumor stromal cell microenvironment to enhance tumor progression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that ERRα is a regulator of CRPC cell progression in bone. Therefore, inhibiting ERRα may constitute a new therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer skeletal-related events. PMID:27776343

  12. Pregnane X-receptor promotes stem cell-mediated colon cancer relapse.

    PubMed

    Planque, Chris; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Grillet, Fanny; Finetti, Pascal; Bertucci, François; Gironella, Meritxell; Lozano, Juan José; Beucher, Bertrand; Giraud, Julie; Garambois, Véronique; Vincent, Charles; Brown, Daniel; Caillo, Ludovic; Kantar, Jovana; Pelegrin, André; Prudhomme, Michel; Ripoche, Jérémie; Bourgaux, Jean François; Ginestier, Christophe; Castells, Antoni; Hollande, Frédéric; Pannequin, Julie; Pascussi, Jean Marc

    2016-08-30

    Colorectal cancer lethality usually results from post-treatment relapse in the majority of stage II-IV patients, due to the enhanced resistance of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs). Here, we show that the nuclear receptor Pregnane X Receptor (PXR, NR1I2), behaves as a key driver of CSC-mediated tumor recurrence. First, PXR is specifically expressed in CSCs, where it drives the expression of genes involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Clinically, high levels of PXR correlate with poor recurrence-free survival in a cohort of >200 stage II/III colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, for whom finding biomarkers of treatment outcome is an urgent clinical need. shRNA silencing of PXR increased the chemo-sensitivity of human colon CSCs, reduced their self-renewal and tumor-initiating potential, and drastically delayed tumor recurrence in mice following chemotherapy. This study uncovers PXR as a key factor for CSC self-renewal and chemoresistance and targeting PXR thus represents a promising strategy to minimize colorectal cancer relapse by selectively sensitizing CSCs to chemotherapy.

  13. Pregnane X-receptor promotes stem cell-mediated colon cancer relapse

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Fanny; Finetti, Pascal; Bertucci, François; Gironella, Meritxell; Lozano, Juan José; Beucher, Bertrand; Giraud, Julie; Garambois, Véronique; Vincent, Charles; Brown, Daniel; Caillo, Ludovic; Kantar, Jovana; Pelegrin, André; Prudhomme, Michel; Ripoche, Jérémie; Bourgaux, Jean François; Ginestier, Christophe; Castells, Antoni; Hollande, Frédéric; Pannequin, Julie; Pascussi, Jean Marc

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer lethality usually results from post-treatment relapse in the majority of stage II-IV patients, due to the enhanced resistance of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs). Here, we show that the nuclear receptor Pregnane X Receptor (PXR, NR1I2), behaves as a key driver of CSC-mediated tumor recurrence. First, PXR is specifically expressed in CSCs, where it drives the expression of genes involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Clinically, high levels of PXR correlate with poor recurrence-free survival in a cohort of >200 stage II/III colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, for whom finding biomarkers of treatment outcome is an urgent clinical need. shRNA silencing of PXR increased the chemo-sensitivity of human colon CSCs, reduced their self-renewal and tumor-initiating potential, and drastically delayed tumor recurrence in mice following chemotherapy. This study uncovers PXR as a key factor for CSC self-renewal and chemoresistance and targeting PXR thus represents a promising strategy to minimize colorectal cancer relapse by selectively sensitizing CSCs to chemotherapy. PMID:27448961

  14. Downregulation of the CCK-B receptor in pancreatic cancer cells blocks proliferation and promotes apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Fino, Kristin K.; Matters, Gail L.; McGovern, Christopher O.; Gilius, Evan L.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrin stimulates the growth of pancreatic cancer cells through the activation of the cholecystokinin-B receptor (CCK-BR), which has been found to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we proposed that the CCK-BR drives growth of pancreatic cancer; hence, interruption of CCK-BR activity could potentially be an ideal target for cancer therapeutics. The effect of CCK-BR downregulation in the human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells was examined by utilizing specific CCK-BR-targeted RNA interference reagents. The CCK-BR receptor expression was both transiently and stably downregulated by transfection with selective CCK-BR small-interfering RNA or short-hairpin RNA, respectively, and the effects on cell growth and apoptosis were assessed. CCK-BR downregulation resulted in reduced cancer cell proliferation, decreased DNA synthesis, and cell cycle arrest as demonstrated by an inhibition of G1 to S phase progression. Furthermore, CCK-BR downregulation increased caspase-3 activity, TUNEL-positive cells, and decreased X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein expression, suggesting apoptotic activity. Pancreatic cancer cell mobility was decreased when the CCK-BR was downregulated, as assessed by a migration assay. These results show the importance of the CCK-BR in regulation of growth and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer. Strategies to decrease the CCK-BR expression and activity may be beneficial for the development of new methods to improve the treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:22442157

  15. Nucleus Accumbens Shell and mPFC but Not Insula Orexin-1 Receptors Promote Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A.; Yu, Ji Hwan; Mototake, Arisa; Hu, Bing; Hopf, Frederic W.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to alcohol remains a major social and economic problem, in part because of the high motivation for alcohol that humans exhibit and the hazardous binge intake this promotes. Orexin-1-type receptors (OX1Rs) promote reward intake under conditions of strong drives for reward, including excessive alcohol intake. While systemic modulation of OX1Rs can alter alcohol drinking, the brain regions that mediate this OX1R enhancement of excessive drinking remain unknown. Given the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and anterior insular cortex (aINS) in driving many addictive behaviors, including OX1Rs within these regions, we examined the importance of OX1Rs in these regions on excessive alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice during limited-access alcohol drinking in the dark cycle. Inhibition of OX1Rs with the widely used SB-334867 within the medial NAc Shell (mNAsh) significantly reduced drinking of alcohol, with no effect on saccharin intake, and no effect on alcohol consumption when infused above the mNAsh. In contrast, intra-mNAsh infusion of the orexin-2 receptor TCS-OX2-29 had no impact on alcohol drinking. In addition, OX1R inhibition within the aINS had no effect on excessive drinking, which was surprising given the importance of aINS-NAc circuits in promoting alcohol consumption and the role for aINS OX1Rs in driving nicotine intake. However, OX1R inhibition within the mPFC did reduce alcohol drinking, indicating cortical OXR involvement in promoting intake. Also, in support of the critical role for mNAsh OX1Rs, SB within the mNAsh also significantly reduced operant alcohol self-administration in rats. Finally, orexin ex vivo enhanced firing in mNAsh neurons from alcohol-drinking mice, with no effect on evoked EPSCs or input resistance; a similar orexin increase in firing without a change in input resistance was observed in alcohol-naïve mice. Taken together, our results suggest that OX1Rs within the mNAsh and mPFC, but not the aINS, play a central role in

  16. Dauer-independent insulin/IGF-1-signalling implicates collagen remodelling in longevity.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Collin Y; Landis, Jess N; Porter Abate, Jess; Murphy, Coleen T; Blackwell, T Keith

    2015-03-05

    Interventions that delay ageing mobilize mechanisms that protect and repair cellular components, but it is unknown how these interventions might slow the functional decline of extracellular matrices, which are also damaged during ageing. Reduced insulin/IGF-1 signalling (rIIS) extends lifespan across the evolutionary spectrum, and in juvenile Caenorhabditis elegans also allows the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO to induce development into dauer, a diapause that withstands harsh conditions. It has been suggested that rIIS delays C. elegans ageing through activation of dauer-related processes during adulthood, but some rIIS conditions confer robust lifespan extension unaccompanied by any dauer-like traits. Here we show that rIIS can promote C. elegans longevity through a program that is genetically distinct from the dauer pathway, and requires the Nrf (NF-E2-related factor) orthologue SKN-1 acting in parallel to DAF-16. SKN-1 is inhibited by IIS and has been broadly implicated in longevity, but is rendered dispensable for rIIS lifespan extension by even mild activity of dauer-related processes. When IIS is decreased under conditions that do not induce dauer traits, SKN-1 most prominently increases expression of collagens and other extracellular matrix genes. Diverse genetic, nutritional, and pharmacological pro-longevity interventions delay an age-related decline in collagen expression. These collagens mediate adulthood extracellular matrix remodelling, and are needed for ageing to be delayed by interventions that do not involve dauer traits. By genetically delineating a dauer-independent rIIS ageing pathway, our results show that IIS controls a broad set of protective mechanisms during C. elegans adulthood, and may facilitate elucidation of processes of general importance for longevity. The importance of collagen production in diverse anti-ageing interventions implies that extracellular matrix remodelling is a generally essential signature of longevity assurance

  17. Statin-activated nuclear receptor PXR promotes SGK2 dephosphorylation by scaffolding PP2C to induce hepatic gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gotoh, Saki; Negishi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Statin therapy is known to increase blood glucose levels in humans. Statins utilize pregnane X receptor (PXR) and serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 2 (SGK2) to activate phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PEPCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) genes, thereby increasing glucose production in human liver cells. Here, the novel statin/PXR/SGK2-mediated signaling pathway has now been characterized for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Statin-activated PXR scaffolds the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) and SGK2 to stimulate PP2C to dephosphorylate SGK2 at threonine 193. Non-phosphorylated SGK2 co-activates PXR-mediated trans-activation of promoters of gluconeogenic genes in human liver cells, thereby enhancing gluconeogenesis. This gluconeogenic statin-PXR-SGK2 signal is not present in mice, in which statin treatment suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. These findings provide the basis for statin-associated side effects such as an increased risk for Type 2 diabetes. PMID:26392083

  18. Statin-activated nuclear receptor PXR promotes SGK2 dephosphorylation by scaffolding PP2C to induce hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Saki; Negishi, Masahiko

    2015-09-22

    Statin therapy is known to increase blood glucose levels in humans. Statins utilize pregnane X receptor (PXR) and serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 2 (SGK2) to activate phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PEPCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) genes, thereby increasing glucose production in human liver cells. Here, the novel statin/PXR/SGK2-mediated signaling pathway has now been characterized for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Statin-activated PXR scaffolds the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) and SGK2 to stimulate PP2C to dephosphorylate SGK2 at threonine 193. Non-phosphorylated SGK2 co-activates PXR-mediated trans-activation of promoters of gluconeogenic genes in human liver cells, thereby enhancing gluconeogenesis. This gluconeogenic statin-PXR-SGK2 signal is not present in mice, in which statin treatment suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. These findings provide the basis for statin-associated side effects such as an increased risk for Type 2 diabetes.

  19. Loss of nuclear receptor RXRα in epidermal keratinocytes promotes the formation of Cdk4-activated invasive melanomas.

    PubMed

    Hyter, Stephen; Bajaj, Gaurav; Liang, Xiaobo; Barbacid, Mariano; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Indra, Arup Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Keratinocytes contribute to melanocyte transformation by affecting their microenvironment, in part through the secretion of paracrine factors. Here we report a loss of expression of nuclear receptor RXRα in epidermal keratinocytes during human melanoma progression. In the absence of keratinocytic RXRα, in combination with mutant Cdk4, cutaneous melanoma was generated that metastasized to lymph nodes in a bigenic mouse model. Expression of several keratinocyte-derived mitogenic growth factors (Et-1, Hgf, Scf, α-MSH and Fgf 2 ) was elevated in skin of bigenic mice, whereas Fas, E-cadherin and Pten, implicated in apoptosis, cellular invasion and melanomagenesis, respectively, were downregulated within the microdissected melanocytic tumors. We demonstrated that RXRα is recruited on the proximal promoter of both Et-1 and Hgf, possibly directly regulating their transcription in keratinocytes. These studies demonstrate the contribution of keratinocytic paracrine signaling during the cellular transformation and malignant conversion of melanocytes.

  20. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 promotes growth of colorectal cancer via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tao; Li, Huihui; Liu, Zifeng

    2017-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) is the receptor for tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). TNFR2 differs from tumor necrosis factor 1 (TNFR1) in various ways and is mainly expressed in hematopoietic and endothelial cells. However, studies about its functions in tumors are limited. The contributions of TNFR2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unknown. In the present study, it was found that TNFR2 was positively associated with Ki67 expression in CRC tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and western blot analysis found that Ki67 was upregulated by overexpressing TNFR2 in SW1116 cells and inhibited by silencing TNFR2 in HT29 cells. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay found that growth of SW1116 cells overexpressing TNFR2 was significantly increased compared with the control group and that the growth of HT29 cells subsequent to silencing TNFR2 was significantly decreased compared with the control group. Clone formation assay found that more clones were formed in SW1116 cells overexpressing TNFR2 than the control group, and less clones formed in HT29 cells subsequent to silencing TNFR2 than the control group. In addition, western blot analysis found that phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) was activated subsequent to overexpressing TNFR2 in SW1116 cells, and inhibited following silencing of TNFR2 in HT29 cells. Additionally, treatment using LY294002 significantly abrogated the promotion of Ki67 expression, growth and clone formation abilities induced by TNFR2 overexpression in SW1116 cells. All the results suggest that TNFR2 can significantly promote CRC growth via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway; this provides evidential support for taking TNFR2 as a new target for CRC treatment. PMID:28123565

  1. Longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, David

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials (CRWMS M and O 1999a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M and O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M and O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (CRWMS M and O 1999b), and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials.

  2. Seasonal programming of adult longevity in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaiserman, A. M.; Collinson, A. C.; Koshel, N. M.; Belaja, I. I.; Voitenko, V. P.

    2002-09-01

    Longevity was significantly associated with season of birth in 101,634 individuals who died in Kiev during the period 1990-2000. The relationship between age at death and month of birth showed a very similar pattern for both men and women. Mean values for the age at death were lowest for subjects born in April-July, and highest for individuals born at the beginning and end of the year. Minimum and maximum ages at death, analysed according to month of birth, differed by 2.6 years in men and 2.3 years in women. For all major causes of death causes, the mean age at death for persons born in the fourth quarter was the highest. These results suggest that, in this population, longevity is affected by prenatal or early postnatal seasonal factors. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the rate of ageing may be programmed in response to environmental influences at critical periods of early development.

  3. Endogenous longevity, biological deterioration and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Sanso, Marcos; Aísa, Rosa M

    2006-05-01

    The identification of the types of bidirectional interactions that take place between longevity and economic growth in the long-run is carried out by means of the integration of human capital accumulation, innovation in medical technology, a health goods sector, and individual decisions on health and longevity in a dynamic general equilibrium set-up. In this context, in which individual agents decide not only on their "quality" of life but also on its "quantity", the mere process of biological deterioration, that is to say, the continuous loss of health goods effectiveness in maintaining a given level of health as individuals age, provides the reason for an additional, and new, engine of growth.

  4. Androgen receptor (AR) suppresses miRNA-145 to promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression independent of VHL status

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Sun, Yin; Rao, Qun; Xu, Hua; Li, Lei; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    Mutational inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor plays key roles in the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and mutated VHL-mediated VEGF induction has become the main target for the current RCC therapy. Here we identified a signal pathway of VEGF induction by androgen receptor (AR)/miRNA-145 as a new target to suppress RCC progression. Mechanism dissection revealed that AR might function through binding to the androgen receptor element (ARE) located on the promoter region of miRNA-145 to suppress p53's ability to induce expression of miRNA-145 that normally suppresses expression of HIF2α/VEGF/MMP9/CCND1. Suppressing AR with AR-shRNA or introducing exogenous miRNA-145 mimic can attenuate RCC progression independent of VHL status. MiR-145 mimic in preclinical RCC orthotopic xenograft mouse model revealed its efficacy in suppression of RCC progression. These results together identified signals by AR-suppressed miRNA-145 as a key player in the RCC progression via regulating HIF2α/VEGF/MMP9/CCND1 expression levels. Blockade of the newly identified signal by AR inhibition or miRNA-145 mimics has promising therapeutic benefit to suppress RCC progression. PMID:26304926

  5. Androgen receptor (AR) suppresses miRNA-145 to promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression independent of VHL status.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Sun, Yin; Rao, Qun; Xu, Hua; Li, Lei; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-10-13

    Mutational inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor plays key roles in the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and mutated VHL-mediated VEGF induction has become the main target for the current RCC therapy. Here we identified a signal pathway of VEGF induction by androgen receptor (AR)/miRNA-145 as a new target to suppress RCC progression. Mechanism dissection revealed that AR might function through binding to the androgen receptor element (ARE) located on the promoter region of miRNA-145 to suppress p53's ability to induce expression of miRNA-145 that normally suppresses expression of HIF2α/VEGF/MMP9/CCND1. Suppressing AR with AR-shRNA or introducing exogenous miRNA-145 mimic can attenuate RCC progression independent of VHL status. MiR-145 mimic in preclinical RCC orthotopic xenograft mouse model revealed its efficacy in suppression of RCC progression. These results together identified signals by AR-suppressed miRNA-145 as a key player in the RCC progression via regulating HIF2α/VEGF/MMP9/CCND1 expression levels. Blockade of the newly identified signal by AR inhibition or miRNA-145 mimics has promising therapeutic benefit to suppress RCC progression.

  6. Prognostic significance of interleukin-6 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in neuroblastoma: rs1800795 (promoter) and rs8192284 (receptor)

    PubMed Central

    Lagmay, Joanne P.; London, Wendy B.; Gross, Thomas G.; Termuhlen, Amanda; Sullivan, Nicholas; Axel, Amy; Mundy, Bethany; Ranalli, Mark; Canner, Jason; McGrady, Patrick; Hall, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system and many patients present with high risk disease. Risk stratification, based on pathology and tumor-derived biomarkers, has improved prediction of clinical outcomes, but overall survival rates remain unfavorable and new therapeutic targets are needed. Some studies suggest a link between interleukin-6 and more aggressive behavior in neuroblastoma tumor cells. Therefore, we examined the impact of two IL-6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on neuroblastoma disease progression. Experimental design DNA samples from 96 high risk neuroblastoma patients were screened for two SNP that are known to regulate the serum levels of IL-6 and the soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), rs1800795 and rs8192284 respectively. The genotype for each SNP was determined in a blinded fashion and independent statistical analysis was performed to determine SNP-related event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Results The rs1800795 IL-6 promoter SNP is an independent prognostic factor for EFS and OS in -high risk neuroblastoma patients. In contrast, the rs8192284 IL-6 receptor SNP revealed no prognostic value. Conclusions The rs1800795 SNP (-174 IL-6 (G>C) represents a novel and independent prognostic marker for both EFS and OS in high risk neuroblastoma. Since the rs1800795 SNP (-174 IL-6 (G>C) has been shown to correlate with production of IL-6, this cytokine may represent a target for development of new therapies in neuroblastoma. PMID:19671870

  7. Chemokine receptor CXCR3 deficiency exacerbates murine autoimmune cholangitis by promoting pathogenic CD8(+) T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Di; Ma, Wen-Tao; Liu, Qing-Zhi; Zhao, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Mu-Zi-Ying; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Gao, Jin-Ming; Ridgway, William M; Ansari, Aftab A; Gershwin, M Eric; Fei, Yun-Yun; Lian, Zhe-Xiong

    2017-03-01

    CXC Chemokine Receptor 3 (CXCR3) is functionally pleiotropic and not only plays an important role in chemotaxis, but also participates in T cell differentiation and may play a critical role in inducing and maintaining immune tolerance. These observations are particularly critical for autoimmune cholangitis in which CXCR3 positive T cells are found around the portal areas of both humans and mouse models of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Herein, we investigated the role of CXCR3 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune cholangitis. We have taken advantage of a unique CXCR3 knockout dnTGFβRII mouse to focus on the role of CXCR3, both by direct observation of its influence on the natural course of disease, as well as through adoptive transfer studies into Rag-/- mice. We report herein that not only do CXCR3 deficient mice develop an exacerbation of autoimmune cholangitis associated with an expanded effector memory T cell number, but also selective adoptive transfer of CXCR3 deficient CD8(+) T cells induces autoimmune cholangitis. In addition, gene microarray analysis of CXCR3 deficient CD8(+) T cells reveal an intense pro-inflammatory profile. Our data suggests that the altered gene profiles induced by CXCR3 deficiency promotes autoimmune cholangitis through pathogenic CD8(+) T cells. These data have significance for human PBC and other autoimmune liver diseases in which therapeutic intervention might be directed to chemokines and/or their receptors.

  8. Coupling of HIV-1 Antigen to the Selective Autophagy Receptor SQSTM1/p62 Promotes T-Cell-Mediated Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Aram Nikolai; Landsverk, Ole Jørgen; Simonsen, Anne; Bogen, Bjarne; Corthay, Alexandre; Øynebråten, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines aiming to promote T-cell-mediated immune responses have so far showed limited efficacy, and there is a need for novel strategies. Studies indicate that autophagy plays an inherent role in antigen processing and presentation for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Here, we report a novel vaccine strategy based on fusion of antigen to the selective autophagy receptor sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1)/p62. We hypothesized that redirection of vaccine antigen from proteasomal degradation into the autophagy pathway would increase the generation of antigen-specific T cells. A hybrid vaccine construct was designed in which the antigen is fused to the C-terminus of p62, a signaling hub, and a receptor that naturally delivers ubiquitinated cargo for autophagic degradation. Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 antigen Gagp24 to p62 resulted in efficient antigen delivery into the autophagy pathway. Intradermal immunization of mice revealed that, in comparison to Gagp24 delivered alone, fusion to p62 enhanced the number of Gagp24-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells, including CD8+ T cells. The strategy may also have the potential to modulate the antigenic peptide repertoire. Because p62 and autophagy are highly conserved between species, we anticipate this strategy to be a candidate for the development of T-cell-based vaccines in humans. PMID:27242780

  9. The modular adaptor protein autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) promotes low density lipoprotein receptor clustering into clathrin-coated pits.

    PubMed

    Garuti, Rita; Jones, Christopher; Li, Wei-Ping; Michaely, Peter; Herz, Joachim; Gerard, Robert D; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H

    2005-12-09

    Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia is characterized by a cell type-specific defect in low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) endocytosis. LDLR-mediated uptake of LDL is impaired in the liver, but not in fibroblasts of subjects with this disorder. The disease is caused by mutations in ARH, which encodes a putative adaptor protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of the LDLR, phospholipids, and two components of the clathrin endocytic machinery, clathrin and adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) in vitro. To determine the physiological relevance of these interactions, we examined the effect of mutations in the ARH on LDLR location and function in polarized hepatocytes (WIF-B). The integrity of the FDNPVY sequence in the LDLR cytoplasmic tail was required for ARH-associated LDLR clustering into clathrin-coated pits. The phosphotyrosine binding domain of ARH plus either the clathrin box or the AP-2 binding region were required for both clustering and internalization of the LDLR. Parallel studies performed in vivo with the same recombinant forms of ARH in livers of Arh(-/-) mice confirmed the relevance of the cell culture findings. These results demonstrate that ARH must bind the LDLR tail and either clathrin or AP-2 to promote receptor clustering and internalization of LDL.

  10. Deletion of Macrophage Vitamin D Receptor Promotes Insulin Resistance and Monocyte Cholesterol Transport to Accelerate Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jisu; Riek, Amy E.; Darwech, Isra; Funai, Katsuhiko; Shao, JianSu; Chin, Kathleen; Sierra, Oscar L.; Carmeliet, Geert; Ostlund, Richard E.; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Summary Intense effort has been devoted to understanding predisposition to chronic systemic inflammation as this contributes to cardiometabolic disease. We demonstrate that deletion of the macrophage vitamin D receptor (VDR) in mice (KODMAC) is sufficient to induce insulin resistance by promoting M2 macrophage accumulation in the liver, as well as increase cytokine secretion and hepatic glucose production. Moreover, VDR deletion increases atherosclerosis by enabling lipid-laden M2 monocytes to adhere, migrate, and carry cholesterol into the atherosclerotic plaque, and by increasing macrophage cholesterol uptake and esterification. Increased foam cell formation results from lack of VDR-SERCA2b interaction, causing SERCA dysfunction, activation of ER stress-CaMKII-JNKp-PPARγ signaling, and induction of the scavenger receptors CD36 and SR-A1. BM transplant of VDR-expressing cells into KODMAC mice improved insulin sensitivity, suppressed atherosclerosis, and decreased foam cell formation. The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in macrophages are thus critical in diet-induced insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in mice. Graphical Abstract PMID:25801026

  11. Longevity and Patau syndrome: what determines survival?

    PubMed Central

    Peroos, Sherina; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pugh, Jennifer Harriet; Arthur-Farraj, Peter; Hodes, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The authors report of an 8-year-old girl with non-mosaic Patau syndrome. The median life expectancy of Patau syndrome is 7–10 days, and 90% die in the first year of life. Survival is often attributed to mosaicism and the severity of associated malformations. We delineate the developing phenotype and review the literature discussing potential contributory factors to longevity. PMID:23220825

  12. Genome Sequencing Fishes out Longevity Genes.

    PubMed

    Lakhina, Vanisha; Murphy, Coleen T

    2015-12-03

    Understanding the molecular basis underlying aging is critical if we are to fully understand how and why we age-and possibly how to delay the aging process. Up until now, most longevity pathways were discovered in invertebrates because of their short lifespans and availability of genetic tools. Now, Reichwald et al. and Valenzano et al. independently provide a reference genome for the short-lived African turquoise killifish, establishing its role as a vertebrate system for aging research.

  13. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life and Midlife Conditions, and Familial Longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1891 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are occupation as a farmer at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States, and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-1895. We found that male gender of centenarian has a significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival

  14. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life and Midlife Conditions, and Familial Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890–1891 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are occupation as a farmer at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States, and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880–1895. We found that male gender of centenarian has a significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival

  15. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Daniela S; Soria, Javier A; Gaviglio, Emilia A; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Cancela, Liliana M; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in pathological conditions, resulting in microgliosis, manifested by increased cell numbers and inflammation in the affected regions. Thus, controlling microgliosis is important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to microglial survival. We observed that activation of microglial cells with peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and other TLR2 ligands results in cell activation followed by the induction of autophagy and autophagy-dependent cell death. In C57BL/6J mice, intracerebral injection of PGN increased the autophagy of microglial cells and reduced the microglial/macrophage cell number in brain parenchyma. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TLRs in the regulation of microglial cell activation and survival, which are important for the control of microgliosis and associated inflammatory responses in the CNS.

  16. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase CLR-1 acts in skin cells to promote sensory dendrite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianzhuang; Wang, Xiangming; Shen, Kang

    2016-05-01

    Sensory dendrite morphogenesis is directed by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The extracellular environment plays instructive roles in patterning dendrite growth and branching. However, the molecular mechanism is not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the proprioceptive neuron PVD forms highly branched sensory dendrites adjacent to the hypodermis. We report that receptor tyrosine phosphatase CLR-1 functions in the hypodermis to pattern the PVD dendritic branches. Mutations in clr-1 lead to loss of quaternary branches, reduced secondary branches and increased ectopic branches. CLR-1 is necessary for the dendrite extension but not for the initial filopodia formation. Its role is dependent on the intracellular phosphatase domain but not the extracellular adhesion domain, indicating that it functions through dephosphorylating downstream factors but not through direct adhesion with neurons. Genetic analysis reveals that clr-1 also functions in parallel with SAX-7/DMA-1 pathway to control PVD primary dendrite development. We provide evidence of a new environmental factor for PVD dendrite morphogenesis.

  17. Acetylcholine Promotes Binding of α-Conotoxin MII for α3β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sambasivarao, Somisetti V.; Roberts, Jessica; Bharadwaj, Vivek S.; Slingsby, Jason G.; Rohleder, Conrad; Mallory, Chris; Groome, James R.

    2014-01-01

    α-Conotoxin MII (α-CTxMII) is a 16 amino acid peptide with the sequence GCCSNPVCHLEHSNLC containing disulfide bonds between Cys2-Cys8 and Cys3-Cys16. This peptide, isolated from the venom of the marine cone snail Conus magus, is a potent and selective antagonist of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To evaluate the impact of channel-ligand interactions on ligand binding affinity, homology models of the heteropentameric α3β2-nAChR were constructed. The models were created in MODELLER using crystal structures of the Torpedo marmorata-nAChR (Tm-nAChR, PDB ID: 2BG9) and the Aplysia californica-acetylcholine binding protein (Ac-AChBP, PDB ID: 2BR8) as templates for the α3 and β2 subunit isoforms derived from rat neuronal nAChR primary amino acid sequences. Molecular docking calculations were performed with AutoDock to evaluate interactions of the heteropentameric nAChR homology models with the ligands acetylcholine (ACh) and α-CTxMII. The nAChR homology models described here bind ACh with commensurate binding energies to previously reported systems, and identify critical interactions that facilitate both ACh and α-CTxMII ligand binding. The docking calculations revealed an increased binding affinity of the α3β2-nAChR for α-CTxMII with ACh bound to the receptor, which was confirmed through two-electrode voltage clamp experiments on oocytes from Xenopus laevis. These findings provide insights into the inhibition and mechanism of electrostatically driven antagonist properties of the α-CTxMIIs on nAChRs. PMID:24420650

  18. Receptor-promoted exocytosis of airway epithelial mucin granules containing a spectrum of adenine nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kreda, Silvia M; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; van Heusden, Catharina A; O'Neal, Wanda; Jones, Lisa; Boucher, Richard C; Lazarowski, Eduardo R

    2010-06-15

    Purinergic regulation of airway innate defence activities is in part achieved by the release of nucleotides from epithelial cells. However, the mechanisms of airway epithelial nucleotide release are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that ATP is released from ionomycin-stimulated airway epithelial goblet cells coordinately with mucin exocytosis, suggesting that ATP is released as a co-cargo molecule from mucin-containing granules. We now demonstrate that protease-activated-receptor (PAR) agonists also stimulate the simultaneous release of mucins and ATP from airway epithelial cells. PAR-mediated mucin and ATP release were dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) and actin cytoskeleton reorganization since BAPTA AM, cytochalasin D, and inhibitors of Rho and myosin light chain kinases blocked both responses. To test the hypothesis that ATP is co-released with mucin from mucin granules, we measured the nucleotide composition of isolated mucin granules purified based on their MUC5AC and VAMP-8 content by density gradients. Mucin granules contained ATP, but the levels of ADP and AMP within granules exceeded by nearly 10-fold that of ATP. Consistent with this finding, apical secretions from PAR-stimulated cells contained relatively high levels of ADP/AMP, which could not be accounted for solely based on ATP release and hydrolysis. Thus, mucin granules contribute to ATP release and also are a source of extracellular ADP and AMP. Direct release of ADP/AMP from mucin granules is likely to provide a major source of airway surface adenosine to signal in a paracrine faction ciliated cell A(2b) receptors to activate ion/water secretion and appropriately hydrate goblet cell-released mucins.

  19. Receptor-promoted exocytosis of airway epithelial mucin granules containing a spectrum of adenine nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Kreda, Silvia M; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; van Heusden, Catharina A; O’Neal, Wanda; Jones, Lisa; Boucher, Richard C; Lazarowski, Eduardo R

    2010-01-01

    Purinergic regulation of airway innate defence activities is in part achieved by the release of nucleotides from epithelial cells. However, the mechanisms of airway epithelial nucleotide release are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that ATP is released from ionomycin-stimulated airway epithelial goblet cells coordinately with mucin exocytosis, suggesting that ATP is released as a co-cargo molecule from mucin-containing granules. We now demonstrate that protease-activated-receptor (PAR) agonists also stimulate the simultaneous release of mucins and ATP from airway epithelial cells. PAR-mediated mucin and ATP release were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ and actin cytoskeleton reorganization since BAPTA AM, cytochalasin D, and inhibitors of Rho and myosin light chain kinases blocked both responses. To test the hypothesis that ATP is co-released with mucin from mucin granules, we measured the nucleotide composition of isolated mucin granules purified based on their MUC5AC and VAMP-8 content by density gradients. Mucin granules contained ATP, but the levels of ADP and AMP within granules exceeded by nearly 10-fold that of ATP. Consistent with this finding, apical secretions from PAR-stimulated cells contained relatively high levels of ADP/AMP, which could not be accounted for solely based on ATP release and hydrolysis. Thus, mucin granules contribute to ATP release and also are a source of extracellular ADP and AMP. Direct release of ADP/AMP from mucin granules is likely to provide a major source of airway surface adenosine to signal in a paracrine faction ciliated cell A2b receptors to activate ion/water secretion and appropriately hydrate goblet cell-released mucins. PMID:20421285

  20. Pharmacologic inhibition of ghrelin receptor signaling is insulin sparing and promotes insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Longo, Kenneth A; Govek, Elizabeth K; Nolan, Anna; McDonagh, Thomas; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Giuliana, Derek J; Morgan, Kristen; Hixon, Jeffrey; Zhou, Chaoseng; Kelder, Bruce; Kopchick, John J; Saunders, Jeffrey O; Navia, Manuel A; Curtis, Rory; DiStefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J

    2011-10-01

    Ghrelin influences a variety of metabolic functions through a direct action at its receptor, the GhrR (GhrR-1a). Ghrelin knockout (KO) and GhrR KO mice are resistant to the negative effects of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. We have generated several classes of small-molecule GhrR antagonists and evaluated whether pharmacologic blockade of ghrelin signaling can recapitulate the phenotype of ghrelin/GhrR KO mice. Antagonist treatment blocked ghrelin-induced and spontaneous food intake; however, the effects on spontaneous feeding were absent in GhrR KO mice, suggesting target-specific effects of the antagonists. Oral administration of antagonists to HFD-fed mice improved insulin sensitivity in both glucose tolerance and glycemic clamp tests. The insulin sensitivity observed was characterized by improved glucose disposal with dramatically decreased insulin secretion. It is noteworthy that these results mimic those obtained in similar tests of HFD-fed GhrR KO mice. HFD-fed mice treated for 56 days with antagonist experienced a transient decrease in food intake but a sustained body weight decrease resulting from decreased white adipose, but not lean tissue. They also had improved glucose disposal and a striking reduction in the amount of insulin needed to achieve this. These mice had reduced hepatic steatosis, improved liver function, and no evidence of systemic toxicity relative to controls. Furthermore, GhrR KO mice placed on low- or high-fat diets had lifespans similar to the wild type, emphasizing the long-term safety of ghrelin receptor blockade. We have therefore demonstrated that chronic pharmacologic blockade of the GhrR is an effective and safe strategy for treating metabolic syndrome.

  1. RIPK1 promotes death receptor-independent caspase-8-mediated apoptosis under unresolved ER stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Estornes, Y; Aguileta, M A; Dubuisson, C; De Keyser, J; Goossens, V; Kersse, K; Samali, A; Vandenabeele, P; Bertrand, M J M

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and results in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims at restoring ER homeostasis. However, when the stress is too severe the UPR switches from being a pro-survival response to a pro-death one, and the molecular mechanisms underlying ER stress-mediated death have remained incompletely understood. In this study, we identified receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)—a kinase at the crossroad between life and death downstream of various receptors—as a new regulator of ER stress-induced death. We found that Ripk1-deficient MEFs are protected from apoptosis induced by ER stressors, which is reflected by reduced caspase activation and PARP processing. Interestingly, the pro-apoptotic role of Ripk1 is independent of its kinase activity, is not regulated by its cIAP1/2-mediated ubiquitylation, and does not rely on the direct regulation of JNK or CHOP, two reportedly main players in ER stress-induced death. Instead, we found that ER stress-induced apoptosis in these cells relies on death receptor-independent activation of caspase-8, and identified Ripk1 upstream of caspase-8. However, in contrast to RIPK1-dependent apoptosis downstream of TNFR1, we did not find Ripk1 associated with caspase-8 in a death-inducing complex upon unresolved ER stress. Our data rather suggest that RIPK1 indirectly regulates caspase-8 activation, in part via interaction with the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1). PMID:25476903

  2. Genetic variants linked to education predict longevity.

    PubMed

    Marioni, Riccardo E; Ritchie, Stuart J; Joshi, Peter K; Hagenaars, Saskia P; Okbay, Aysu; Fischer, Krista; Adams, Mark J; Hill, W David; Davies, Gail; Nagy, Reka; Amador, Carmen; Läll, Kristi; Metspalu, Andres; Liewald, David C; Campbell, Archie; Wilson, James F; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tõnu; Porteous, David J; Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J

    2016-11-22

    Educational attainment is associated with many health outcomes, including longevity. It is also known to be substantially heritable. Here, we used data from three large genetic epidemiology cohort studies (Generation Scotland, n = ∼17,000; UK Biobank, n = ∼115,000; and the Estonian Biobank, n = ∼6,000) to test whether education-linked genetic variants can predict lifespan length. We did so by using cohort members' polygenic profile score for education to predict their parents' longevity. Across the three cohorts, meta-analysis showed that a 1 SD higher polygenic education score was associated with ∼2.7% lower mortality risk for both mothers (total ndeaths = 79,702) and ∼2.4% lower risk for fathers (total ndeaths = 97,630). On average, the parents of offspring in the upper third of the polygenic score distribution lived 0.55 y longer compared with those of offspring in the lower third. Overall, these results indicate that the genetic contributions to educational attainment are useful in the prediction of human longevity.

  3. Genetic variants linked to education predict longevity

    PubMed Central

    Marioni, Riccardo E.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Joshi, Peter K.; Hagenaars, Saskia P.; Fischer, Krista; Adams, Mark J.; Hill, W. David; Davies, Gail; Nagy, Reka; Amador, Carmen; Läll, Kristi; Metspalu, Andres; Liewald, David C.; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tõnu; Porteous, David J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Educational attainment is associated with many health outcomes, including longevity. It is also known to be substantially heritable. Here, we used data from three large genetic epidemiology cohort studies (Generation Scotland, n = ∼17,000; UK Biobank, n = ∼115,000; and the Estonian Biobank, n = ∼6,000) to test whether education-linked genetic variants can predict lifespan length. We did so by using cohort members’ polygenic profile score for education to predict their parents’ longevity. Across the three cohorts, meta-analysis showed that a 1 SD higher polygenic education score was associated with ∼2.7% lower mortality risk for both mothers (total ndeaths = 79,702) and ∼2.4% lower risk for fathers (total ndeaths = 97,630). On average, the parents of offspring in the upper third of the polygenic score distribution lived 0.55 y longer compared with those of offspring in the lower third. Overall, these results indicate that the genetic contributions to educational attainment are useful in the prediction of human longevity. PMID:27799538

  4. Cysteine dioxygenase type 1 promotes adipogenesis via interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Peng; Chen, Yi; Ji, Ning; Lin, Yunfeng; Yuan, Quan; Ye, Ling; Chen, Qianming

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (CDO1) is an essential enzyme for taurine biosynthesis and the biodegradation of toxic cysteine. As previously suggested, Cdo1 may be a marker of liposarcoma progression and adipogenic differentiation, but the role of Cdo1 in adipogenesis has yet been reported. In this study, we found that the expression of Cdo1 is dramatically elevated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs). Conversely, knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 cells and mBMSCs. Mechanistically, we found Cdo1 interacted with Pparγ in response to adipogenic stimulus. Further, depletion of Cdo1 reduced the recruitment of Pparγ to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4. Collectively, our finding indicates that Cdo1 may be a co-activator of Pparγ in adipogenesis, and may contribute to the development of disease associated with excessive adipose tissue. - Highlights: • Cdo1expression is highly up-regulated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 and mBMSCs. • Depletion of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation. • Cdo1interacts with Pparγ during adipogenesis. • Knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited Pparγ binding to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4.

  5. PMA-induced dissociation of Ku86 from the promoter causes transcriptional up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Kohei; Terao, Takuma; Sakamoto, Noriko; Yamawaki, Yosuke; Adachi, Tsubasa; Ono, Shohei; Sasaki, Yohei; Yoshimura, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is up-regulated in patients with allergic rhinitis, and its expression level strongly correlates with the severity of symptoms. However, the mechanism underlying this remains unknown. Here we report the mechanism of H1R gene up-regulation. The luciferase assay revealed the existence of two promoter regions, A and B1. Two AP-1 and one Ets-1 bound to region A, while Ku86, Ku70, and PARP-1 bound to region B1. Ku86 was responsible for DNA binding and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated in response to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate stimulation, inducing its dissociation from region B1 that is crucial for promoter activity. Knockdown of Ku86 gene enhanced up-regulation of H1R gene expression. Experiments using inhibitors for MEK and PARP-1 indicate that regions A and B1 are downstream regulatory elements of the PKCδ/ERK/PARP-1 signaling pathway. Data suggest a novel mechanism for the up-regulation of H1R gene expression. PMID:23209876

  6. Sympathetic nervous system promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating inflammation through activation of alpha1-adrenergic receptors of Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Huan, Hong-Bo; Wen, Xu-Dong; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Wu, Lin; Wu, Li-Li; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Da-Peng; Zhang, Xia; Bie, Ping; Qian, Cheng; Xia, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is known to play a significant role in tumor initiation and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently occurs in cirrhotic livers after chronic inflammation, and the SNS is hyperactive in advanced liver cirrhosis. However, it remains unclear whether the SNS promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating chronic liver inflammation. In this study, a retrospective pathological analysis and quantification of sympathetic nerve fiber densities (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH(+)) in HCC patients, and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats were performed. Our data showed that high density of sympathetic nerve fibers and α1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) of Kupffer cells (KCs) were associated with a poor prognosis of HCC. Sympathetic denervation or blocking of α1-ARs decreased DEN-induced HCC incidence and tumor development. In addition, synergistic effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in hepatocarcinogenesis were observed. The suppression of the SNS reduced IL-6 and TGF-β expression, which suppressed hepatocarcinogenesis, and KCs play a key role in this process. After the ablation of KCs, IL-6 and TGF-β expression and the development of HCC were inhibited. This study demonstrates that sympathetic innervation is crucial for hepatocarcinogenesis and that the SNS promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by activating α1-ARs of KCs to boost the activation of KCs and to maintain the inflammatory microenvironment. These results indicate that sympathetic denervation or α1-ARs blockage may represent novel treatment approaches for HCC.

  7. Adrenergic receptor β2 activation by stress promotes breast cancer progression through macrophages M2 polarization in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jun-fang; Jin, Feng-jiao; Li, Ning; Guan, Hai-tao; Lan, Lan; Ni, Hong; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Stress and its related hormones epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) play a crucial role in tumor progression. Macrophages in the tumor microenvironment (TME) polarized to M2 is also a vital pathway for tumor deterioration. Here, we explore the underlying role of macrophages in the effect of stress and E promoting breast cancer growth. It was found that the weight and volume of tumor in tumor bearing mice were increased, and dramatically accompanied with the rising E level after chronic stress using social isolation. What is most noteworthy, the number of M2 macrophages inside tumor was up-regulated with it. The effects of E treatment appear to be directly related to the change of M2 phenotype is reproduced in vitro. Moreover, E receptor ADRβ2 involved in E promoting M2 polarization was comprehended simultaneously. Our results imply psychological stress is influential on specific immune system, more essential for the comprehensive treatment against tumors. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(5): 295-300] PMID:25748171

  8. The α4 Nicotinic Receptor Promotes CD4+ T-Cell Proliferation and a Helper T-Cell Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Nordman, Jacob C.; Muldoon, Pretal; Clark, Sarah; Damaj, M. Imad

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a common addiction and a leading cause of disease. Chronic nicotine exposure is known to activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in immune cells. We demonstrate a novel role for α4 nAChRs in the effect of nicotine on T-cell proliferation and immunity. Using cell-based sorting and proteomic analysis we define an α4 nAChR expressing helper T-cell population (α4+CD3+CD4+) and show that this group of cells is responsive to sustained nicotine exposure. In the circulation, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus, we find that nicotine promotes an increase in CD3+CD4+ cells via its activation of the α4 nAChR and regulation of G protein subunit o, G protein regulated–inducer of neurite outgrowth, and CDC42 signaling within T cells. In particular, nicotine is found to promote a helper T cell 2 adaptive immunologic response within T cells that is absent in α4−/− mice. We thus present a new mechanism of α4 nAChR signaling and immune regulation in T cells, possibly accounting for the effect of smoking on the immune system. PMID:24107512

  9. Human recombinant erythropoietin does not promote cancer growth in presence of functional receptors expressed in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; Perona, Rosario; Carpeño, Javier de Castro; Cejas, Paloma; Casado, Enrique; Manguan-García, Cristina; Ibanez de Caceres, Inmaculada; Sanchez-Perez, Isabel; Andreu, Francisco Bernabeu; Ferreira, Javier Alves; Aguilera, Alfredo; de la Peña, Javier; Perez-Sánchez, Elia; Madero, Rosario; Feliu, Jaime; Sereno, María; González-Barón, Manuel

    2007-10-01

    Human recombinant erythropoietin (hrEPO) therapy might be associated with tumor progression and death. This effect has been suggested to be secondary to rhEPO binding to its receptor (EPOR) expressed on cancer cells. However, there are several concerns about EPOR functionality when expressed on cancer cells. In this paper we have provided evidence that EPOR expressed in cancer cells could be implicated in proliferation events because a transfection of EPOR siRNA to EPOR-expressing bladder cancer cells resulted in a marked reduction in cell growth. However, these cell lines do not grow in the presence of hrEPO. Furthermore, bladder cancer patients that expressed EPOR in tumor samples had a reduced survival in absence of rhEPO treatment. Therefore, EPOR is implicated in bladder cancer growth but this effect appears to be independent from rhEPO supplementation. Reports which suggest that rhEPO promotes cancer growth due to the expression of EPOR in cancer cells must be observed with caution since in the presence of functional EPOR rhEPO does not promote growth.

  10. Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang; Goto, Yutaka; Mukasa, Chizu; Ashida, Kenji; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancer cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.

  11. Polymorphism in the promoter region of the Toll-like receptor 9 gene and cervical human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lucas Boeno; Louvanto, Karolina; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Franco, Eduardo L; Villa, Luisa L

    2013-08-01

    Polymorphism in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 gene has been shown to have a significant role in some diseases; however, little is known about its possible role in the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. We investigated the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs5743836) in the promoter region of TLR9 (T1237C) and type-specific HPV infections. Specimens were derived from a cohort of 2462 women enrolled in the Ludwig-McGill Cohort Study. We randomly selected 500 women who had a cervical HPV infection detected at least once during the study as cases. We defined two control groups: (i) a random sample of 300 women who always tested HPV negative, and (ii) a sample of 234 women who were always HPV negative but had a minimum of ten visits during the study. TLR9 genotyping was performed using bidirectional PCR amplification of specific alleles. Irrespective of group, the WT homozygous TLR9 genotype (TT) was the most common form, followed by the heterozygous (TC) and the mutant homozygous (CC) forms. There were no consistent associations between polymorphism and infection risk, either overall or by type or species. Likewise, there were no consistently significant associations between polymorphism and HPV clearance or persistence. We concluded that this polymorphism in the promoter region of TLR9 gene does not seem to have a mediating role in the natural history of the HPV infection.

  12. Histone acetylation characterizes chromatin presetting by NF1 and Oct1 and enhances glucocorticoid receptor binding to the MMTV promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Astrand, Carolina; Belikov, Sergey; Wrange, Orjan

    2009-09-10

    Transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). This switch was reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. Previously, we showed that Nuclear Factor 1 (NF1) and Octamer Transcription Factor 1 (Oct1) bind constitutively to the MMTV promoter and thereby induce translational nucleosome positioning representing an intermediary, i.e. preset, state of nucleosome organization. Here we further characterize this NF1 and Oct1 induced preset chromatin in relation to the inactive and the hormone-activated state. The preset chromatin exhibits increased histone acetylation but does not cause dissociation of histone H1 as oppose to the hormone-activated state. Furthermore, upon hormone induction the preset MMTV chromatin displays an enhanced and prolonged GR binding capacity and transcription during an intrinsic and time-dependent silencing of the injected template. The silencing process correlates with a reduced histone acetylation. However, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), does not counteract silencing in spite of its distinct stimulation of GR-DNA binding. The latter indicates the importance of histone acetylation to maintain DNA access for inducible factor binding. We discuss how constitutively bound factors such as NF1 and Oct1 may participate in the maintenance of tissue specificity of hormone responsive genes.

  13. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Agonistic Antibody Promotes Host Defense against Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Naoki; Seki, Masafumi; Fukudome, Kenji; Oshima, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Taiga; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is difficult to treat due to enhanced antibiotic resistance and decreased efficacy of drug delivery to destroyed lung tissue. To determine the potential for restorative immunomodulation therapies, we evaluated the effect of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation on the host immune response to Pseudomonas infection in mice. We implanted sterile plastic tubes precoated with P. aeruginosa in the bronchi of mice, administered the TLR4/MD2 agonistic monoclonal antibody UT12 intraperitoneally every week, and subsequently analyzed the numbers of viable bacteria and inflammatory cells and the levels of cytokines. We also performed flow cytometry-based phagocytosis and opsonophagocytic killing assays in vitro using UT12-treated murine peritoneal neutrophils. UT12-treated mice showed significantly enhanced bacterial clearance, increased numbers of Ly6G+ neutrophils, and increased concentrations of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs (P < 0.05). Depletion of CD4+ T cells eliminated the ability of the UT12 treatment to improve bacterial clearance and promote neutrophil recruitment and MIP-2 production. Additionally, UT12-pretreated peritoneal neutrophils exhibited increased opsonophagocytic killing activity via activation of the serine protease pathway, specifically neutrophil elastase activity, in a TLR4-dependent manner. These data indicated that UT12 administration significantly augmented the innate immune response against chronic bacterial infection, in part by promoting neutrophil recruitment and bactericidal function. PMID:27091927

  14. Heredity and cardiometabolic risk: naturally occurring polymorphisms in the human neuropeptide Y2 receptor promoter disrupt multiple transcriptional response motifs

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhiyun; Zhang, Kuixing; Wen, Gen; Balasubramanian, Karthika; Shih, Peian B.; Rao, Fangwen; Friese, Ryan S.; Miramontes-Gonzalez, Jose P.; Schmid-Schoenbein, Geert W.; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Mahata, Sushil K.; O’Connor, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The neuropeptide Y2 G-protein-coupled receptor (NPY2R) relays signals from PYY or neuropeptide Y toward satiety and control of body mass. Targeted ablation of the NPY2R locus in mice yields obesity, and studies of NPY2R promoter genetic variation in more than 10 000 human participants indicate its involvement in control of obesity and BMI. Here we searched for genetic variation across the human NPY2R locus and probed its functional effects, especially in the proximal promoter. Methods and results Twin pair studies indicated substantial heritability for multiple cardiometabolic traits, including BMI, SBP, DBP, and PYY, an endogenous agonist at NPY2R. Systematic polymorphism discovery by resequencing across NPY2R uncovered 21 genetic variants, 10 of which were common [minor allele frequency (MAF) >5%], creating one to two linkage disequilibrium blocks in multiple biogeographic ancestries. In vivo, NPY2R haplotypes were associated with both BMI (P =3.75E–04) and PYY (P =4.01E–06). Computational approaches revealed that proximal promoter variants G-1606A, C-599T, and A-224G disrupt predicted IRF1 (A>G), FOXI1 (T>C), and SNAI1 (A>G) response elements. In neuroendocrine cells transfected with NPY2R promoter/luciferase reporter plasmids, all three variants and their resulting haplotypes influenced transcription (G-1606A, P <2.97E–06; C-599T, P <1.17E–06; A-224G, P <2.04E–06), and transcription was differentially augmented or impaired by coexpression of either the cognate full-length transcription factors or their specific siRNAs at each site. Endogenous expression of transcripts for NPY2R, IRF1, and SNAI1 was documented in neuroendocrine cells, and the NPY2R mRNA was differentially expressed in two neuroendocrine tissues (adrenal gland, brainstem) of a rodent model of hypertension and the metabolic syndrome, the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Conclusion We conclude that common genetic variation in the proximal NPY2R promoter influences transcription

  15. The EP1 receptor for prostaglandin E2 promotes the development and progression of malignant murine skin tumors

    PubMed Central

    Surh, Inok; Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Pavone, Amy; Mikulec, Carol; Abel, Erika; Simper, Melissa; Fischer, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis resulting from the upregulation of COX-2 has been shown to be critical for the development of non-melanoma skin tumors. This effect of PGE2 is likely mediated by one or more of its 4 G-protein coupled membrane receptors, EP1–4. A previous study showed that BK5.EP1 transgenic mice produced more carcinomas than wild type (WT) mice using initiation/promotion protocols, although the tumor response was dependent on the type of tumor promoter used. In this study, a single topical application of either 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) or benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), alone, was found to elicit squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in the BK5.EP1 transgenic mice, but not in WT mice. While the epidermis of both WT and transgenic mice was hyperplastic several days after DMBA, this effect regressed in the WT mice while proliferation continued in the transgenic mice. Several parameters associated with carcinogen initiation were measured and were found to be similar between genotypes, including CYP1B1 and aromatase expression, B[a]P adduct formation, Ras activity and keratinocyte stem cell numbers. However, EP1 transgene expression elevated COX-2 levels in the epidermis and SCC could be completely prevented in DMBA-treated BK5.EP1 mice either by feeding the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in their diet or by crossing them onto a COX-2 null background. These data suggest that the tumor promoting/progressing effects of EP1 require the PGE2 synthesized by COX-2. PMID:21739481

  16. Non-genomic estrogen/estrogen receptor α promotes cellular malignancy of immature ovarian teratoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chun; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Ying-Yi; Wu, Ling-Yu; Chung, Wei-Min; Lin, Tze-Yi; Chen, Liang-Chi; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2014-06-01

    Malignant immature ovarian teratomas (IOTs) most often occur in women of reproductive age. It is unclear, however, what roles estrogenic signaling plays in the development of IOT. In this study, we examined whether estrogen receptors (ERα and β) promote the cellular malignancy of IOT. Estradiol (E2), PPT (propylpyrazole), and DPN (diarylpropionitrile) (ERα- and β-specific agonists, respectively), as well as ERα- or ERβ-specific short hairpin (sh)RNA were applied to PA-1 cells, a well-characterized IOT cell line. Cellular tumorigenic characteristics, for example, cell migration/invasion, expression of the cancer stem/progenitor cell marker CD133, and evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were examined. In PA-1 cells that expressed ERα and ERβ, we found that ERα promoted cell migration and invasion. We also found that E2/ERα signaling altered cell behavior through non-classical transactivation function. Our data show non-genomic E2/ERα activations of focal adhesion kinase-Ras homolog gene family member A (FAK-RhoA) and ERK governed cell mobility capacity. Moreover, E2/ERα signaling induces EMT and overexpression of CD133 through upregulation micro-RNA 21 (miR21; IOT stem/progenitor promoter), and ERK phosphorylations. Furthermore, E2/ERα signaling triggers a positive feedback regulatory loop within miR21 and ERK. At last, expression levels of ERα, CD133, and EMT markers in IOT tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that cytosolic ERα was co-expressed with CD133 and mesenchymal cell markers but not epithelial cell markers. In conclusion, estrogenic signals exert malignant transformation capacity of cancer cells, exclusively through non-genomic regulation in female germ cell tumors.

  17. The glucocorticoid receptor regulates the binding of C/EPBbeta on the alpha-1-acid glycoprotein promoter in vivo.

    PubMed

    Savoldi, G; Fenaroli, A; Ferrari, F; Rigaud, G; Albertini, A; Di Lorenzo, D

    1997-12-01

    A complex interaction between the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR), C/EBPbeta, and other transcription factors activate the Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein (AGP) promoter in HTC(JZ-1) rat hepatoma culture cells. This effect is mediated by the so-called Steroid Responsive Unit (SRU) of the AGP promoter that contains several binding sites for C/EBP transcription factors, some of which overlap with the Glucocorticoid Responsive Element (GRE). Our in vivo footprinting experiments revealed that the GRE- and the C/EBP-binding sites were already occupied glucocorticoid dependently in HTC(JZ-1) cells 10 min after dexamethasone administration (10(-6) M). Furthermore, local changes in the chromatine structure shown by the appearance of DNAse I hypersensitive sites (HS sites) also took place. These changes were probably dependent on a tissue-specific organization of the chromatine at the SRU because they were not detectable in a different glucocorticoid-responsive cell line (PC12) that did not express AGP. Here, we have also shown that withdrawal of dexamethasone or addition of the anti-glucocorticoid RU486 were able to revert the pattern induced by dexamethasone in vivo. The disappearance of the protected region and the hypersensitive sites, typical of the hormone activated promoter, confirmed the necessity of the GR to be bound by the agonist and the inability of the GR-antagonist complex to bind the DNA. By functional assays, we showed that the occupancy of the SRU by these transcriptional proteins in vivo correlated with the activation of the AGP gene transcription. With these results, we have shown that one of the functions of the GR to activate transcription of the AGP gene is to recruit C/EBPbeta and to maintain it bound at its target DNA sequences (SRU). This process was not accomplished by RU486.

  18. Basic mechanisms of longevity: A case study of Drosophila pro-longevity genes.

    PubMed

    Proshkina, Ekaterina N; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Moskalev, Alexey A

    2015-11-01

    Drosophila is one of the most convenient model organisms in the genetics of aging and longevity. Unlike the nematodes, which allow for the detection of new pro-aging genes by knockout and RNAi-mediated knock-down, Drosophila also provides an opportunity to find new pro-longevity genes by driver-induced overexpression. Similar studies on other models are extremely rare. In this review, we focused on genes whose overexpression prolongs the life of fruit flies. The majority of longevity-associated genes regulates metabolism and stress resistance, and belongs to the IGF-1R, PI3K, PKB, AMPK and TOR metabolic regulation cluster and the FOXO, HDAC, p53 stress response cluster.

  19. The export receptor Crm1 forms a dimer to promote nuclear export of HIV RNA.

    PubMed

    Booth, David S; Cheng, Yifan; Frankel, Alan D

    2014-12-08

    The HIV Rev protein routes viral RNAs containing the Rev Response Element (RRE) through the Crm1 nuclear export pathway to the cytoplasm where viral proteins are expressed and genomic RNA is delivered to assembling virions. The RRE assembles a Rev oligomer that displays nuclear export sequences (NESs) for recognition by the Crm1-Ran(GTP) nuclear receptor complex. Here we provide the first view of an assembled HIV-host nuclear export complex using single-particle electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, Crm1 forms a dimer with an extensive interface that enhances association with Rev-RRE and poises NES binding sites to interact with a Rev oligomer. The interface between Crm1 monomers explains differences between Crm1 orthologs that alter nuclear export and determine cellular tropism for viral replication. The arrangement of the export complex identifies a novel binding surface to possibly target an HIV inhibitor and may point to a broader role for Crm1 dimerization in regulating host gene expression.

  20. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McWilliams, Melissa A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1, which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of NR3C1 to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in childhood. The current study examined links between methylation of NR3C1 and behavior problems in preschoolers. Data were drawn from a sample of preschoolers with early adversity (n=171). Children ranged in age from 3 to 5 years, were racially and ethnically diverse, and nearly all qualified for public assistance. Seventy-one children had child welfare documentation of moderate-severe maltreatment in the past six months. Structured record review and interviews in the home were used to assess early adversity. Parents reported on child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Methylation of NR3C1 at exons 1D, 1F, and 1H were measured via sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing from saliva DNA. Methylation of NR3C1 at exons 1D and 1F was positively associated with internalizing (r = .21, p < .01 and r = .23, p < .01 respectively), but not externalizing, behavior problems. Furthermore, NR3C1 methylation mediated effects of early adversity on internalizing behavior problems. These results suggest that methylation of NR3C1 contributes to psychopathology in young children, and NR3C1 methylation from saliva DNA is salient to behavioral outcomes. PMID:26822445

  1. Cholesterol activates the G-protein coupled receptor Smoothened to promote Hedgehog signaling

    PubMed Central

    Luchetti, Giovanni; Sircar, Ria; Kong, Jennifer H; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Sagner, Andreas; Byrne, Eamon FX; Covey, Douglas F; Siebold, Christian; Rohatgi, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is necessary for the function of many G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). We find that cholesterol is not just necessary but also sufficient to activate signaling by the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, a prominent cell-cell communication system in development. Cholesterol influences Hh signaling by directly activating Smoothened (SMO), an orphan GPCR that transmits the Hh signal across the membrane in all animals. Unlike many GPCRs, which are regulated by cholesterol through their heptahelical transmembrane domains, SMO is activated by cholesterol through its extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD). Residues shown to mediate cholesterol binding to the CRD in a recent structural analysis also dictate SMO activation, both in response to cholesterol and to native Hh ligands. Our results show that cholesterol can initiate signaling from the cell surface by engaging the extracellular domain of a GPCR and suggest that SMO activity may be regulated by local changes in cholesterol abundance or accessibility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20304.001 PMID:27705744

  2. KPNA7, a nuclear transport receptor, promotes malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Laurila, Eeva; Vuorinen, Elisa; Savinainen, Kimmo; Rauhala, Hanna; Kallioniemi, Anne

    2014-03-10

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. The high mortality rate is mostly due to the lack of appropriate tools for early detection of the disease and a shortage of effective therapies. We have previously shown that karyopherin alpha 7 (KPNA7), the newest member of the alpha karyopherin family of nuclear import receptors, is frequently amplified and overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that KPNA7 expression is absent in practically all normal human adult tissues but elevated in several pancreatic cancer cell lines. Inhibition of KPNA7 expression in AsPC-1 and Hs700T pancreatic cancer cells led to a reduction in cell growth and decreased anchorage independent growth, as well as increased autophagy. The cell growth effects were accompanied by an induction of the cell cycle regulator p21 and a G1 arrest of the cell cycle. Interestingly, the p21 induction was caused by increased mRNA synthesis and not defective nuclear transport. These data strongly demonstrate that KPNA7 silencing inhibits the malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and thereby provide the first evidence on the functional role for KPNA7 in human cancer. - Highlights: • KPNA7 expression is elevated in several pancreatic cancer cell lines. • KPNA7 silencing in high expressing cancer cells leads to growth inhibition. • The cell growth reduction is associated with p21 induction and G1 arrest. • KPNA7 silencing is also accompanied with increased autophagy.

  3. Acanthamoeba protease activity promotes allergic airway inflammation via protease-activated receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Kyung; Cho, Min Kyoung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hee; Yu, Hak Sun

    2014-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba commonly present in the environment and often found in human airway cavities. Acanthamoeba possesses strong proteases that can elicit allergic airway inflammation. To our knowledge, the aeroallergenicity of Acanthamoeba has not been reported. We repeatedly inoculated mice with Acanthamoeba trophozoites or excretory-secretory (ES) proteins intra-nasally and evaluated symptoms and airway immune responses. Acanthamoeba trophozoites or ES proteins elicited immune responses in mice that resembled allergic airway inflammation. ES proteins had strong protease activity and activated the expression of several chemokine genes (CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, TSLP, and IL-25) in mouse lung epithelial cells. The serine protease inhibitor phenyl-methane-sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) inhibited ES protein activity. ES proteins also stimulated dendritic cells and enhanced the differentiation of naive T cells into IL-4-secreting T cells. After repeated inoculation of the protease-activated receptor 2 knockout mouse with ES proteins, airway inflammation and Th2 immune responses were markedly reduced, but not to basal levels. Furthermore, asthma patients had higher Acanthamoeba-specific IgE titers than healthy controls and we found Acanthamoeba specific antigen from house dust in typical living room. Our findings suggest that Acanthamoeba elicits allergic airway symptoms in mice via a protease allergen. In addition, it is possible that Acanthamoeba may be one of the triggers human airway allergic disease.

  4. HSP90 promotes Burkitt lymphoma cell survival by maintaining tonic B-cell receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Walter, Roland; Pan, Kuan-Ting; Doebele, Carmen; Comoglio, Federico; Tomska, Katarzyna; Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Young, Ryan M; Jacobs, Laura; Keller, Ulrich; Bönig, Halvard; Engelke, Michael; Rosenwald, Andreas; Urlaub, Henning; Staudt, Louis M; Serve, Hubert; Zenz, Thorsten; Oellerich, Thomas

    2017-02-02

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm that is currently treated by intensive chemotherapy in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. Because of their toxicity, current treatment regimens are often not suitable for elderly patients or for patients in developing countries where BL is endemic. Targeted therapies for BL are therefore needed. In this study, we performed a compound screen in 17 BL cell lines to identify small molecule inhibitors affecting cell survival. We found that inhibitors of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) induced apoptosis in BL cells in vitro at concentrations that did not affect normal B cells. By global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling, we show that, in BL, HSP90 inhibition compromises the activity of the pivotal B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-proximal effector spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), which we identified as an HSP90 client protein. Consistently, expression of constitutively active TEL-SYK counteracted the apoptotic effect of HSP90 inhibition. Together, our results demonstrate that HSP90 inhibition impairs BL cell survival by interfering with tonic BCR signaling, thus providing a molecular rationale for the use of HSP90 inhibitors in the treatment of BL.

  5. Receptor Mincle promotes skin allergies and is capable of recognizing cholesterol sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Kostarnoy, Alexey V.; Gancheva, Petya G.; Lepenies, Bernd; Tukhvatulin, Amir I.; Dzharullaeva, Alina S.; Polyakov, Nikita B.; Grumov, Daniil A.; Egorova, Daria A.; Kulibin, Andrey Y.; Bobrov, Maxim A.; Malolina, Ekaterina A.; Soloviev, Andrey I.; Maltseva, Diana V.; Sakharov, Dmitry A.; Tonevitsky, Alexander G.; Verkhovskaya, Lyudmila V.; Logunov, Denis Y.; Naroditsky, Boris S.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.

    2017-01-01

    Sterile (noninfected) inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of many widespread diseases, such as allergies and autoimmune diseases. The evolutionarily conserved innate immune system is considered to play a key role in tissue injury recognition and the subsequent development of sterile inflammation; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Here, we show that cholesterol sulfate, a molecule present in relatively high concentrations in the epithelial layer of barrier tissues, is selectively recognized by Mincle (Clec4e), a C-type lectin receptor of the innate immune system that is strongly up-regulated in response to skin damage. Mincle activation by cholesterol sulfate causes the secretion of a range of proinflammatory mediators, and s.c. injection of cholesterol sulfate results in a Mincle-mediated induction of a severe local inflammatory response. In addition, our study reveals a role of Mincle as a driving component in the pathogenesis of allergic skin inflammation. In a well-established model of allergic contact dermatitis, the absence of Mincle leads to a significant suppression of the magnitude of the skin inflammatory response as assessed by changes in ear thickness, myeloid cell infiltration, and cytokine and chemokine secretion. Taken together, our results provide a deeper understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying sterile inflammation. PMID:28292894

  6. Ran GTPase promotes cancer progression via Met receptor-mediated downstream signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hiu-Fung; Chan, Ka-Kui; Platt-Higgins, Angela; Dakir, El-Habib; Matchett, Kyle B.; Haggag, Yusuf Ahmed; Jithesh, Puthen V.; Habib, Tanwir; Faheem, Ahmed; Dean, Fennell A.; Morgan, Richard; Rudland, Philip S.; El-Tanani, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown previously that cancer cells with an activated oncogenic pathway, including Met activation, require Ran for growth and survival. Here, we show that knockdown of Ran leads to a reduction of Met receptor expression in several breast and lung cancer cell lines. This, in turn suppressed HGF expression and the Met-mediated activation of the Akt pathway, as well as cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. In a cell line model where Met amplification has previously been shown to contribute to gefitinib resistance, Ran knockdown sensitized cells to gefitinib-mediated inhibition of Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and consequently reduced cell proliferation. We further demonstrate that Met reduction-mediated by knockdown of Ran, occurs at the post-transcriptional level, probably via a matrix metalloproteinase. Moreover, the level of immunoreactive Ran and Met are positively associated in human breast cancer specimens, suggesting that a high level of Ran may be a pre-requisite for Met overexpression. Interestingly, a high level of immunoreactive Ran dictates the prognostic significance of Met, indicating that the co-overexpression of Met and Ran may be associated with cancer progression and could be used in combination as a prognostic indicator. PMID:27716616

  7. Fingolimod Limits Acute Aβ Neurotoxicity and Promotes Synaptic Versus Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptor Functionality in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pooja; Gabrielli, Martina; Ponzoni, Luisa; Pelucchi, Silvia; Stravalaci, Matteo; Beeg, Marten; Mazzitelli, Sonia; Braida, Daniela; Sala, Mariaelvina; Boda, Enrica; Buffo, Annalisa; Gobbi, Marco; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Matteoli, Michela; Marcello, Elena; Verderio, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Fingolimod, also known as FTY720, is an analogue of the sphingolipid sphingosine, which has been proved to be neuroprotective in rodent models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Several cellular and molecular targets underlying the neuroprotective effects of FTY720 have been recently identified. However, whether the drug directly protects neurons from toxicity of amyloid-beta (Aβ) still remains poorly defined. Using a combination of biochemical assays, live imaging and electrophysiology we demonstrate that FTY720 induces a rapid increase in GLUN2A-containing neuroprotective NMDARs on the surface of dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons. In addition, the drug mobilizes extrasynaptic GLUN2B-containing NMDARs, which are coupled to cell death, to the synapses. Altered ratio of synaptic/extrasynaptic NMDARs decreases calcium responsiveness of neurons to neurotoxic soluble Aβ 1–42 and renders neurons resistant to early alteration of calcium homeostasis. The fast defensive response of FTY720 occurs through a Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1P-R) -dependent mechanism, as it is lost in the presence of S1P-R1 and S1P-R3 antagonists. We propose that rapid synaptic relocation of NMDARs might have direct impact on amelioration of cognitive performance in transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice upon sub-chronic treatment with FTY720. PMID:28134307

  8. Transgenerational impact of intimate partner violence on methylation in the promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Radtke, K M; Ruf, M; Gunter, H M; Dohrmann, K; Schauer, M; Meyer, A; Elbert, T

    2011-07-19

    Prenatal exposure to maternal stress can have lifelong implications for psychological function, such as behavioral problems and even the development of mental illness. Previous research suggests that this is due to transgenerational epigenetic programming of genes operating in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). However, it is not known whether intrauterine exposure to maternal stress affects the epigenetic state of these genes beyond infancy. Here, we analyze the methylation status of the GR gene in mothers and their children, at 10-19 years after birth. We combine these data with a retrospective evaluation of maternal exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Methylation of the mother's GR gene was not affected by IPV. For the first time, we show that methylation status of the GR gene of adolescent children is influenced by their mother's experience of IPV during pregnancy. As these sustained epigenetic modifications are established in utero, we consider this to be a plausible mechanism by which prenatal stress may program adult psychosocial function.

  9. Adiponectin receptor 1 conserves docosahexaenoic acid and promotes photoreceptor cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Dennis S.; Calandria, Jorgelina M.; Gordon, William C.; Jun, Bokkyoo; Zhou, Yongdong; Gelfman, Claire M.; Li, Songhua; Jin, Minghao; Knott, Eric J.; Chang, Bo; Abuin, Alex; Issa, Tawfik; Potter, David; Platt, Kenneth A.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of pathways necessary for photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) function is critical to uncover therapies for blindness. Here we report the discovery of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) as a regulator of these cells’ functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is avidly retained in photoreceptors, while mechanisms controlling DHA uptake and retention are unknown. Thus, we demonstrate that AdipoR1 ablation results in DHA reduction. In situ hybridization reveals photoreceptor and RPE cell AdipoR1 expression, blunted in AdipoR1−/− mice. We also find decreased photoreceptor-specific phosphatidylcholine containing very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and severely attenuated electroretinograms. These changes precede progressive photoreceptor degeneration in AdipoR1−/− mice. RPE-rich eyecup cultures from AdipoR1−/− reveal impaired DHA uptake. AdipoR1 overexpression in RPE cells enhances DHA uptake, whereas AdipoR1 silencing has the opposite effect. These results establish AdipoR1 as a regulatory switch of DHA uptake, retention, conservation and elongation in photoreceptors and RPE, thus preserving photoreceptor cell integrity. PMID:25736573

  10. Prorenin/Renin Receptor Blockade Promotes a Healthy Fat Distribution in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Paul; Blais, Carolane; Nguyen, Thi M.-D.; Schiller, Peter W.; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Lavoie, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Administration of the handle region peptide (HRP), a (pro)renin receptor blocker, decreases body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF/HC) diet-fed mice. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential mechanisms implicated in these observations. Methods Mice were given a normal or a HF/HC diet along with saline or HRP for 10 weeks. Results In HF/HC-fed mice, HRP increased the expression of several enzymes implicated in lipogenesis and lipolysis in subcutaneous fat (SCF) while the expression of the enzyme implicated in the last step of lipogenesis decreased in VAT. A reduction was also observed in circulating free fatty acids in these animals which was accompanied by normalized adipocyte size in VAT and increased adipocyte size in SCF. “Beiging“ is the evolution of a white adipose tissue toward a brown-like phenotype characterized by an increased mitochondrial density and small lipid droplets. HRP increased the expression of’ “beiging” markers in SCF of HF/HC diet-fed mice. Conclusions HRP treatment may favor healthy fat storage in SCF by activating a triglyceride/free fatty acid cycling and “beiging,” which could explain the body weight and fat mass reduction. PMID:27458124

  11. Enhanced AMPA receptor function promotes cerebellar long-term depression rather than potentiation

    PubMed Central

    van Beugen, Boeke J.; Qiao, Xin; Simmons, Dana H.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.

    2014-01-01

    Ampakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at cerebellar parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell synapses, thus resembling CX546 effects described at hippocampal synapses. Using the fluorescent calcium indicator dye Oregon Green BAPTA-2 and an ultra-high-speed CCD camera, we also monitored calcium transients in Purkinje cell dendrites. In the presence of CX546 in the bath, PF-evoked calcium transients were enhanced and prolonged, suggesting that CX546 not only enhances synaptic transmission, but also boosts dendritic calcium signaling at cerebellar synapses. In contrast to previous observations in the hippocampus, however, CX546 applied during cerebellar recordings facilitates long-term depression (LTD) rather than LTP at PF synapses. These findings show that ampakines selectively modify the LTP–LTD balance depending on the brain area and type of synapse, and may provide tools for the targeted regulation of synaptic memories. PMID:25403454

  12. Enhanced AMPA receptor function promotes cerebellar long-term depression rather than potentiation.

    PubMed

    van Beugen, Boeke J; Qiao, Xin; Simmons, Dana H; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Hansel, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Ampakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at cerebellar parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell synapses, thus resembling CX546 effects described at hippocampal synapses. Using the fluorescent calcium indicator dye Oregon Green BAPTA-2 and an ultra-high-speed CCD camera, we also monitored calcium transients in Purkinje cell dendrites. In the presence of CX546 in the bath, PF-evoked calcium transients were enhanced and prolonged, suggesting that CX546 not only enhances synaptic transmission, but also boosts dendritic calcium signaling at cerebellar synapses. In contrast to previous observations in the hippocampus, however, CX546 applied during cerebellar recordings facilitates long-term depression (LTD) rather than LTP at PF synapses. These findings show that ampakines selectively modify the LTP-LTD balance depending on the brain area and type of synapse, and may provide tools for the targeted regulation of synaptic memories.

  13. Protease induced plasticity: matrix metalloproteinase-1 promotes neurostructural changes through activation of protease activated receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Megan; Ghosh, Suhasini; Ahern, Gerard P.; Villapol, Sonia; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.; Conant, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of secreted endopeptidases expressed by neurons and glia. Regulated MMP activity contributes to physiological synaptic plasticity, while dysregulated activity can stimulate injury. Disentangling the role individual MMPs play in synaptic plasticity is difficult due to overlapping structure and function as well as cell-type specific expression. Here, we develop a novel system to investigate the selective overexpression of a single MMP driven by GFAP expressing cells in vivo. We show that MMP-1 induces cellular and behavioral phenotypes consistent with enhanced signaling through the G-protein coupled protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Application of exogenous MMP-1, in vitro, stimulates PAR1 dependent increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and dendritic arborization. Overexpression of MMP-1, in vivo, increases dendritic complexity and induces biochemical and behavioral endpoints consistent with increased GPCR signaling. These data are exciting because we demonstrate that an astrocyte-derived protease can influence neuronal plasticity through an extracellular matrix independent mechanism. PMID:27762280

  14. Downregulation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 promotes the development of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ximao; Yang, Yili; Jia, Deshui; Jing, Ying; Zhang, Shouhua; Zheng, Shan; Cui, Long; Dong, Rui; Dong, Kuiran

    2017-01-29

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. In this study, we examined the expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) in primary NB and adjacent non-tumor samples (adrenal gland). BMPR2 expression was significantly downregulated in NB tissues, particularly in high-grade NB, and was inversely related to the expression of the NB differentiation markers ferritin and enolase. The significance of the downregulation was further explored in cultured NB cells. While enforced expression of BMPR2 decreased cell proliferation and colony-forming activity, shRNA-mediated knockdown of BMPR2 led to increased cell growth and clonogenicity. In mice, NB cells harboring BMPR2 shRNA showed significantly increased tumorigenicity compared with control cells. We also performed a retrospective analysis of NB patients and identified a significant positive correlation between tumor BMPR2 expression and overall survival. These findings suggest that BMPR2 may play an important role in the development of NB.

  15. Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-life and Mid-life predictors of Human Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (<25 years) had significantly higher chances to live to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33 - 3.11, P = 0.001) while paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 and beyond are any different in physical characteristics at young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the US Social Security Administration database and linked to the US WWI civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls matched by calendar year of birth, race and place of draft registration in 1917. It was found that ‘stout’ body build (being in the heaviest 15% of population) was negatively associated with survival to age 100 years. Farmer occupation and large number of children (4+) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. Detailed description of dataset development, data cleaning procedure and validation of exceptional longevity is provided for both studies. These results demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity. PMID:22582891

  16. Intestinal Insulin Signaling Encodes Two Different Molecular Mechanisms for the Shortened Longevity Induced by Graphene Oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunli; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to cause multiple toxicities in various organisms. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for GO-induced shortened longevity are still unclear. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible involvement of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Mutation of daf-2, age-1, akt-1, or akt-2 gene induced a resistant property of nematodes to GO toxicity, while mutation of daf-16 gene led to a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity, suggesting that GO may dysregulate the functions of DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor, AGE-1, AKT-1 and AKT-2-mediated kinase cascade, and DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Genetic interaction analysis suggested the involvement of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the control of GO toxicity on longevity. Moreover, intestinal RNA interference (RNAi) analysis demonstrated that GO reduced longevity by affecting the functions of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the intestine. DAF-16 could also regulate GO toxicity on longevity by functioning upstream of SOD-3, which encodes an antioxidation system that prevents the accumulation of oxidative stress. Therefore, intestinal insulin signaling may encode two different molecular mechanisms responsible for the GO toxicity in inducing the shortened longevity. Our results highlight the key role of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity in organisms.

  17. Intestinal Insulin Signaling Encodes Two Different Molecular Mechanisms for the Shortened Longevity Induced by Graphene Oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunli; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2016-04-04

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to cause multiple toxicities in various organisms. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for GO-induced shortened longevity are still unclear. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible involvement of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Mutation of daf-2, age-1, akt-1, or akt-2 gene induced a resistant property of nematodes to GO toxicity, while mutation of daf-16 gene led to a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity, suggesting that GO may dysregulate the functions of DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor, AGE-1, AKT-1 and AKT-2-mediated kinase cascade, and DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Genetic interaction analysis suggested the involvement of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the control of GO toxicity on longevity. Moreover, intestinal RNA interference (RNAi) analysis demonstrated that GO reduced longevity by affecting the functions of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the intestine. DAF-16 could also regulate GO toxicity on longevity by functioning upstream of SOD-3, which encodes an antioxidation system that prevents the accumulation of oxidative stress. Therefore, intestinal insulin signaling may encode two different molecular mechanisms responsible for the GO toxicity in inducing the shortened longevity. Our results highlight the key role of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity in organisms.

  18. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Kenny, Paul J.; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. PMID:25869137

  19. Hyaluronan and the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM promote focal adhesion turnover and transient tyrosine kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms whereby hyaluronan (HA) stimulates cell motility was investigated in a C-H-ras transformed 10T 1/2 fibroblast cell line (C3). A significant (p < 0.001) stimulation of C3 cell motility with HA (10 ng/ml) was accompanied by an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation as detected by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies using immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence staining of cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins was found to be both rapid and transient with phosphorylation occurring within 1 min of HA addition and dissipating below control levels 10-15 min later. These responses were also elicited by an antibody generated against a peptide sequence within the HA receptor RHAMM. Treatment of cells with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein, 10 micrograms/ml or herbimycin A, 0.5 micrograms/ml) or microinjection of anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies inhibited the transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation in response to HA as well as prevented HA stimulation of cell motility. To determine a link between HA-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and the resulting cell locomotion, cytoskeletal reorganization was examined in C3 cells plated on fibronectin and treated with HA or anti-RHAMM antibody. These agents caused a rapid assembly and disassembly of focal adhesions as revealed by immunofluorescent localization of vinculin. The time course with which HA and antibody induced focal adhesion turnover exactly paralleled the induction of transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, phosphotyrosine staining colocalized with vinculin within structures in the lamellapodia of these cells. Notably, the focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, was rapidly phosphorylated and dephosphorylated after HA stimulation. These results suggest that HA stimulates locomotion via a rapid and transient protein tyrosine kinase signaling event mediated by RHAMM. They also provide a possible molecular basis for focal adhesion turnover, a process that is

  20. ASC-associated inflammation promotes cecal tumorigenesis in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Togo; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Kitazawa, Masato; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Itano, Naoki; Noda, Tetsuo; Pettersson, Sven; Poellinger, Lorenz; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Taniguchi, Shun'ichiro; Kawajiri, Kaname

    2013-07-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a suppressive role in cecal carcinogenesis by CUL4B/AhR-mediated ubiquitylation and degradation of β-catenin, which is activated by xenobiotics and natural ligands. AhR-deficient (AhR(-)(/-)) mice develop cecal tumors with severe inflammation. To elucidate whether the tumors develop autonomously in AhR(-/-) mice due to impaired β-catenin degradation or in association with accelerated inflammation, we performed two kinds of experiments using germ-free (GF) AhR(-/-) mice and compound mutant mice lacking genes for AhR and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), which plays an essential role in caspase-1 activation in inflammasomes. Both GF AhR(-/-) and AhR(-/-)•ASC(-/-) mice showed considerably reduced tumor development compared with that in AhR(-/-) mice albeit in a 'cancer-prone' state with aberrant β-catenin accumulation. Blocking of the interleukin (IL)-1β signaling pathway by treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor, YVAD, reduced cecal tumorigenesis in AhR(-/-) mice. Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation was detected in the cecal epithelium of the AhR(-/-) mice due to enhanced IL-6 production. An inhibitor of the STAT3 signaling pathway, AG490 suppressed the tumor formation. ASC-mediated inflammation was also found to play a critical role in tumor development in Apc(Min/+) mice, a mouse model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Collectively, these results revealed an important role of the bacteria-triggered or ASC-mediated inflammation signaling pathway in the intestinal tumorigenesis of mice and suggest a possible chemical therapeutic intervention, including AhR ligands and inhibitors of the inflammation pathway.

  1. Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency on ageing and longevity.

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi

    2002-01-01

    Present knowledge on the effects of growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth hormone (IGF)1 deficiency on ageing and lifespan are reviewed. Evidence is presented that isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD) including GH, as well as primary IGE1 deficiency (GH resistance, Laron syndrome) present signs of early ageing such as thin and wrinkled skin, obesity, hyperglycemia and osteoporosis. These changes do not seem to affect the lifespan, as patients reach old age. Animal models of genetic MPHD (Ames and Snell mice) and GH receptor knockout mice (primary IGF1 deficiency) also have a statistically significant higher longevity compared to normal controls. On the contrary, mice transgenic for GH and acromegalic patients secreting large amounts of GH have premature death. In conclusion longstanding GH/IGF1 deficiency affects several parameters of the ageing process without impairing lifespan, and as shown in animal models prolongs longevity. In contrast high GH/IGF1 levels accelerate death.

  2. Life in the cold: links between mammalian hibernation and longevity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-02-01

    The biological process of aging is the primary determinant of lifespan, but the factors that influence the rate of aging are not yet clearly understood and remain a challenging question. Mammals are characterized by >100-fold differences in maximal lifespan, influenced by relative variances in body mass and metabolic rate. Recent discoveries have identified long-lived mammalian species that deviate from the expected longevity quotient. A commonality among many long-lived species is the capacity to undergo metabolic rate depression, effectively re-programming normal metabolism in response to extreme environmental stress and enter states of torpor or hibernation. This stress tolerant phenotype often involves a reduction in overall metabolic rate to just 1-5% of the normal basal rate as well as activation of cytoprotective responses. At the cellular level, major energy savings are achieved via coordinated suppression of many ATP-expensive cell functions; e.g. global rates of protein synthesis are strongly reduced via inhibition of the insulin signaling axis. At the same time, various studies have shown activation of stress survival signaling during hibernation including up-regulation of protein chaperones, increased antioxidant defenses, and transcriptional activation of pro-survival signaling such as the FOXO and p53 pathways. Many similarities and parallels exist between hibernation phenotypes and different long-lived models, e.g. signal transduction pathways found to be commonly regulated during hibernation are also known to induce lifespan extension in animals such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, we highlight some of the molecular mechanisms that promote longevity in classic aging models C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice, while providing a comparative analysis to how they are regulated during mammalian hibernation.

  3. Host Langerin (CD207) is a receptor for Yersinia pestis phagocytosis and promotes dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Park, Chae G; Cheong, Cheolho; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Zhang, Shusheng; Zhang, Pei; He, Yingxia; Jiang, Lingyu; Huang, Hongping; Ding, Honghui; Wu, Yiping; Wang, Shaogang; Zhang, Lin; Li, Anyi; Xia, Lianxu; Bartra, Sara S; Plano, Gregory V; Skurnik, Mikael; Klena, John D; Chen, Tie

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes plague. After Y. pestis overcomes the skin barrier, it encounters antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as Langerhans and dendritic cells. They transport the bacteria from the skin to the lymph nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial transmission are unclear. Langerhans cells (LCs) express Langerin (CD207), a calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin. Furthermore, Y. pestis possesses exposed core oligosaccharides. In this study, we show that Y. pestis invades LCs and Langerin-expressing transfectants. However, when the bacterial core oligosaccharides are shielded or truncated, Y. pestis propensity to invade Langerhans and Langerin-expressing cells decreases. Moreover, the interaction of Y. pestis with Langerin-expressing transfectants is inhibited by purified Langerin, a DC-SIGN (DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing nonintegrin)-like molecule, an anti-CD207 antibody, purified core oligosaccharides and several oligosaccharides. Furthermore, covering core oligosaccharides reduces the mortality associated with murine infection by adversely affecting the transmission of Y. pestis to lymph nodes. These results demonstrate that direct interaction of core oligosaccharides with Langerin facilitates the invasion of LCs by Y. pestis. Therefore, Langerin-mediated binding of Y. pestis to APCs may promote its dissemination and infection. PMID:25829141

  4. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors promote glutamate synapse development in hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Kelsch, Wolfgang; Li, Zhijun; Wieland, Sebastian; Senkov, Oleg; Herb, Anne; Göngrich, Christina; Monyer, Hannah

    2014-11-26

    In postnatal development, GluN2B-containing NMDARs are critical for the functional maturation of glutamatergic synapses. GluN2B-containing NMDARs prevail until the second postnatal week when GluN2A subunits are progressively added, conferring mature properties to NMDARs. In cortical principal neurons, deletion of GluN2B results in an increase in functional AMPAR synapses, suggesting that GluN2B-containing NMDARs set a brake on glutamate synapse maturation. The function of GluN2B in the maturation of glutamatergic inputs to cortical interneurons is not known. To examine the function of GluN2B in interneurons, we generated mutant mice with conditional deletion of GluN2B in interneurons (GluN2B(ΔGAD67)). In GluN2B(ΔGAD67) mice interneurons distributed normally in cortical brain regions. After the second postnatal week, GluN2B(ΔGAD67) mice developed hippocampal seizures and died shortly thereafter. Before the onset of seizures, GluN2B-deficient hippocampal interneurons received fewer glutamatergic synaptic inputs than littermate controls, indicating that GluN2B-containing NMDARs positively regulate the maturation of glutamatergic input synapses in interneurons. These findings suggest that GluN2B-containing NMDARs keep the circuit activity under control by promoting the maturation of excitatory synapses in interneurons.

  5. Loss of the Birt-Hogg-Dubé gene product folliculin induces longevity in a hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Hakam; Fabretti, Francesca; Bharill, Puneet; Rinschen, Markus M; Brinkkötter, Sibylle; Frommolt, Peter; Burst, Volker; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Müller, Roman-Ulrich

    2013-08-01

    Signaling through the hypoxia-inducible factor hif-1 controls longevity, metabolism, and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) protein levels are regulated through an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin ligase complex. Mutations in the VHL gene, encoding a core component of this complex, cause a multitumor syndrome and renal cell carcinoma in humans. In the nematode, deficiency in vhl-1 promotes longevity mediated through HIF-1 stabilization. However, this longevity assurance pathway is not yet understood. Here, we identify folliculin (FLCN) as a novel interactor of the hif-1/vhl-1 longevity pathway. FLCN mutations cause Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome in humans, another tumor syndrome with renal tumorigenesis reminiscent of the VHL disease. Loss of the C. elegans ortholog of FLCN F22D3.2 significantly increased lifespan and enhanced stress resistance in a hif-1-dependent manner. F22D3.2, vhl-1, and hif-1 control longevity by a mechanism distinct from insulin-like signaling. Daf-16 deficiency did not abrogate the increase in lifespan mediated by flcn-1. These findings define FLCN as a player in HIF-dependent longevity signaling and connect organismal aging, stress resistance, and regulation of longevity with the formation of renal cell carcinoma.

  6. The adverse outcome pathway for rodent liver tumor promotion by sustained activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Becker, Richard A; Patlewicz, Grace; Simon, Ted W; Rowlands, J Craig; Budinsky, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    An Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) represents the existing knowledge of a biological pathway leading from initial molecular interactions of a toxicant and progressing through a series of key events (KEs), culminating with an apical adverse outcome (AO) that has to be of regulatory relevance. An AOP based on the mode of action (MOA) of rodent liver tumor promotion by dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) has been developed and the weight of evidence (WoE) of key event relationships (KERs) evaluated using evolved Bradford Hill considerations. Dioxins and DLCs are potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands that cause a range of species-specific adverse outcomes. The occurrence of KEs is necessary for inducing downstream biological responses and KEs may occur at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ levels. The common convention is that an AOP begins with the toxicant interaction with a biological response element; for this AOP, this initial event is binding of a DLC ligand to the AHR. Data from mechanistic studies, lifetime bioassays and approximately thirty initiation-promotion studies have established dioxin and DLCs as rat liver tumor promoters. Such studies clearly show that sustained AHR activation, weeks or months in duration, is necessary to induce rodent liver tumor promotion--hence, sustained AHR activation is deemed the molecular initiating event (MIE). After this MIE, subsequent KEs are 1) changes in cellular growth homeostasis likely associated with expression changes in a number of genes and observed as development of hepatic foci and decreases in apoptosis within foci; 2) extensive liver toxicity observed as the constellation of effects called toxic hepatopathy; 3) cellular proliferation and hyperplasia in several hepatic cell types. This progression of KEs culminates in the AO, the development of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas and cholangiolar carcinomas. A rich data set provides both qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the progression of

  7. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 promotes neointimal hyperplasia in mouse iliac-femoral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Takuya; De Wispelaere, Allison; Winkler, Martin; D’Souza, Travis; Caylor, Jacob; Chen, Lihua; Dastvan, Frank; Deou, Jessie; Cho, Aesim; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Reidy, Michael; Daum, Guenter

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to define a role for S1PR3 in intimal hyperplasia. Methods and Results A denudation model of the iliac-femoral artery in wild-type and S1PR3-null mice was used to define a role for S1PR3 in the arterial injury response because we found in humans and mice that expression of S1PR3 is higher in these arteries when compared to carotid arteries. At 28 days after surgery, wild-type arteries form significantly larger lesions than S1PR3-null arteries. BrdU labeling experiments demonstrate that upon injury, wild-type arteries exhibit higher medial as well as intimal proliferation than S1PR3-null arteries. Because S1PR3 expression in vitro is low, we expressed S1PR3 in S1PR3-null SMCs using retroviral-mediated gene transfer to study S1PR3 effects on cell functions and signaling. SMCs expressing S1PR3, but not vector-transfected controls, respond to S1P stimulation with activation of Rac, Erk and Akt. SMCs expressing S1PR3 also grow migrate more. Conclusion In humans and mice, S1PR3 expression is higher in iliac-femoral arteries compared to carotid arteries. S1PR3 promotes neointimal hyperplasia upon denudation of iliac-femoral arteries in mice, likely by stimulating cell migration and proliferation through activation of signaling pathways involving Erk, Akt and Rac. PMID:22308044

  8. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract modulates CHOP/GADD153 to promote androgen receptor degradation and decreases xenograft tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Berhe, Saba; Li, Gongbo; Puthenveetil, Angela G; Rahman, Ozair; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to "normal" cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union) have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a "Mediterranean Diet" in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary extracts.

  9. Specific activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor by ginsenoside Rg5 promotes angiogenesis and vasorelaxation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Lai; Hur, Sung-Mo; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Dong-Keon; Choe, Jongeon; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Jeoung, Dooil; Han, Sanghwa; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Lee, Hansoo; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2015-01-02

    Ginsenoside Rg5 is a compound newly synthesized during the steaming process of ginseng; however, its biological activity has not been elucidated with regard to endothelial function. We found that Rg5 stimulated in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells, consistent with increased neovascularization and blood perfusion in a mouse hind limb ischemia model. Rg5 also evoked vasorelaxation in aortic rings isolated from wild type and high cholesterol-fed ApoE(-/-) mice but not from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice. Angiogenic activity of Rg5 was highly associated with a specific increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation and subsequent activation of multiple angiogenic signals, including ERK, FAK, Akt/eNOS/NO, and Gi-mediated phospholipase C/Ca(2+)/eNOS dimerization pathways. The vasodilative activity of Rg5 was mediated by the eNOS/NO/cGMP axis. IGF-1R knockdown suppressed Rg5-induced angiogenesis and vasorelaxation by inhibiting key angiogenic signaling and NO/cGMP pathways. In silico docking analysis showed that Rg5 bound with high affinity to IGF-1R at the same binding site of IGF. Rg5 blocked binding of IGF-1 to its receptor with an IC50 of ∼90 nmol/liter. However, Rg5 did not induce vascular inflammation and permeability. These data suggest that Rg5 plays a novel role as an IGF-1R agonist, promoting therapeutic angiogenesis and improving hypertension without adverse effects in the vasculature.

  10. Specific Activation of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor by Ginsenoside Rg5 Promotes Angiogenesis and Vasorelaxation*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Lai; Hur, Sung-Mo; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Dong-Keon; Choe, Jongeon; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Jeoung, Dooil; Han, Sanghwa; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Lee, Hansoo; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg5 is a compound newly synthesized during the steaming process of ginseng; however, its biological activity has not been elucidated with regard to endothelial function. We found that Rg5 stimulated in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells, consistent with increased neovascularization and blood perfusion in a mouse hind limb ischemia model. Rg5 also evoked vasorelaxation in aortic rings isolated from wild type and high cholesterol-fed ApoE−/− mice but not from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice. Angiogenic activity of Rg5 was highly associated with a specific increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation and subsequent activation of multiple angiogenic signals, including ERK, FAK, Akt/eNOS/NO, and Gi-mediated phospholipase C/Ca2+/eNOS dimerization pathways. The vasodilative activity of Rg5 was mediated by the eNOS/NO/cGMP axis. IGF-1R knockdown suppressed Rg5-induced angiogenesis and vasorelaxation by inhibiting key angiogenic signaling and NO/cGMP pathways. In silico docking analysis showed that Rg5 bound with high affinity to IGF-1R at the same binding site of IGF. Rg5 blocked binding of IGF-1 to its receptor with an IC50 of ∼90 nmol/liter. However, Rg5 did not induce vascular inflammation and permeability. These data suggest that Rg5 plays a novel role as an IGF-1R agonist, promoting therapeutic angiogenesis and improving hypertension without adverse effects in the vasculature. PMID:25391655

  11. Mouse models and aging: longevity and progeria.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen-Yu; Kennedy, Brian K

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a complex, multifactorial process that is likely influenced by the activities of a range of biological pathways. Genetic approaches to identify genes modulating longevity have been highly successful and recent efforts have extended these studies to mammalian aging. A variety of genetic models have been reported to have enhanced lifespan and, similarly, many genetic interventions lead to progeroid phenotypes. Here, we detail and evaluate both sets of models, focusing on the insights they provide about the molecular processes modulating aging and the extent to which mutations conferring progeroid pathologies really phenocopy accelerated aging.

  12. Some Comments on Longevity by a Technologist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    The durability of flywheels was investigated. Since only composite flywheels possess the potential for system energy densities in the range of 20 to 40 W hr/kg, and they are not yet at a level of maturity where a comfortable data base exists, the longevity aspects of the yet to be developed devices is still a speculation. The general methodologies that have been used in some of the more established technology areas to establish some degree of credibility in the ability to predict the upper limits of expected useful life based on the current limiting decay mechanism are outlined.

  13. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, David H.

    2001-05-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M&O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4) Evaluate factors

  14. Age-Dependent Neuroendocrine Signaling from Sensory Neurons Modulates the Effect of Dietary Restriction on Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Marissa

    2017-01-01

    Dietary restriction extends lifespan in evolutionarily diverse animals. A role for the sensory nervous system in dietary restriction has been established in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, but little is known about how neuroendocrine signals influence the effects of dietary restriction on longevity. Here, we show that DAF-7/TGFβ, which is secreted from the C. elegans amphid, promotes lifespan extension in response to dietary restriction in C. elegans. DAF-7 produced by the ASI pair of sensory neurons acts on DAF-1/TGFβ receptors expressed on interneurons to inhibit the co-SMAD DAF-3. We find that increased activity of DAF-3 in the presence of diminished or deleted DAF-7 activity abrogates lifespan extension conferred by dietary restriction. We also observe that DAF-7 expression is dynamic during the lifespan of C. elegans, with a marked decrease in DAF-7 levels as animals age during adulthood. We show that this age-dependent diminished expression contributes to the reduced sensitivity of aging animals to the effects of dietary restriction. DAF-7 signaling is a pivotal regulator of metabolism and food-dependent behavior, and our studies establish a molecular link between the neuroendocrine physiology of C. elegans and the process by which dietary restriction can extend lifespan. PMID:28107363

  15. TNF receptor signaling inhibits cardiomyogenic differentiation of cardiac stem cells and promotes a neuroadrenergic-like fate.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Tariq; Xu, Yuanyuan; Ismahil, Mohamed Ameen; Li, Qianhong; Jones, Steven P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bolli, Roberto; Prabhu, Sumanth D

    2016-11-01

    Despite expansion of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs; c-kit(+)Lin(-)) after myocardial infarction, endogenous repair processes are insufficient to prevent adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF). This suggests that the microenvironment in post-ischemic and failing hearts compromises CSC regenerative potential. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), are increased after infarction and in HF; whether they modulate CSC function is unknown. As the effects of TNF are specific to its two receptors (TNFRs), we tested the hypothesis that TNF differentially modulates CSC function in a TNFR-specific manner. CSCs were isolated from wild-type (WT), TNFR1-/-, and TNFR2-/- adult mouse hearts, expanded and evaluated for cell competence and differentiation in vitro in the absence and presence of TNF. Our results indicate that TNF signaling in murine CSCs is constitutively related primarily to TNFR1, with TNFR2 inducible after stress. TNFR1 signaling modestly diminished CSC proliferation, but, along with TNFR2, augmented CSC resistance to oxidant stress. Deficiency of either TNFR1 or TNFR2 did not impact CSC telomerase activity. Importantly, TNF, primarily via TNFR1, inhibited cardiomyogenic commitment during CSC differentiation, and instead promoted smooth muscle and endothelial fates. Moreover, TNF, via both TNFR1 and TNFR2, channeled an alternate CSC neuroadrenergic-like fate (capable of catecholamine synthesis) during differentiation. Our results suggest that elevated TNF in the heart restrains cardiomyocyte differentiation of resident CSCs and may enhance adrenergic activation, both effects that would reduce the effectiveness of endogenous cardiac repair and the response to exogenous stem cell therapy, while promoting adverse cardiac remodeling.

  16. PKCθ promotes c-Rel–driven mammary tumorigenesis in mice and humans by repressing estrogen receptor α synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Belguise, Karine; Sonenshein, Gail E.

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of primary human breast cancer tissues display aberrant nuclear NF-κB c-Rel expression. A causal role for c-Rel in mammary tumorigenesis has been demonstrated using a c-Rel transgenic mouse model; however, tumors developed with a long latency, suggesting a second event is needed to trigger tumorigenesis. Here we show that c-Rel activity in the mammary gland is repressed by estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling, and we identify an epigenetic mechanism in breast cancer mediated by activation of what we believe is a novel PKCθ-Akt pathway that leads to downregulation of ERα synthesis and derepression of c-Rel. ERα levels were lower in c-Rel–induced mammary tumors compared with normal mammary gland tissue. PKCθ induced c-Rel activity and target gene expression and promoted growth of c-Rel- and c-RelxCK2α–driven mouse mammary tumor–derived cell lines. RNA expression levels of PKCθ and c-Rel target genes were inversely correlated with ERα levels in human breast cancer specimens. PKCθ activated Akt, thereby inactivating forkhead box O protein 3a (FOXO3a) and leading to decreased synthesis of its target genes, ERα and p27Kip1. Thus we have shown that activation of PKCθ inhibits the FOXO3a/ERα/p27Kip1 axis that normally maintains an epithelial cell phenotype and induces c-Rel target genes, thereby promoting proliferation, survival, and more invasive breast cancer. PMID:18037997

  17. Characterization of skn-1/wdr-23 phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans; pleiotrophy, aging, glutathione, and interactions with other longevity pathways.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lanlan; Choe, Keith P

    2015-07-01

    The SKN-1/Nrf transcription factors are master regulators of oxidative stress responses and are emerging as important determinants of longevity. We previously identified a protein named WDR-23 as a direct repressor of SKN-1 in C. elegans. Loss of wdr-23 influences stress resistance, longevity, development, and reproduction, but it is unknown if WDR-23 influences development and reproduction solely through SKN-1 and the mechanisms by which SKN-1 promotes stress resistance and longevity are poorly defined. Here, we characterize phenotypes of wdr-23 and skn-1 manipulation and explore the role of glutathione. We provide evidence that diverse wdr-23 phenotypes are dependent on SKN-1, that beneficial and detrimental phenotypes of wdr-23 and skn-1 can be partially decoupled, and that SKN-1 activation delays degenerative tissue changes during aging. We also show that total glutathione levels are substantially elevated when the wdr-23/skn-1 pathway is activated and that skn-1 is required for preserving this cellular antioxidant during stress and aging. Alternatively, total glutathione was not elevated in worms with reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling or dietary restriction suggesting that SKN-1 ensures longevity via different mechanisms under these conditions. Lastly, genetic interaction data revise our understanding of which skn-1 variants are required for longevity during dietary restriction.

  18. The longevity effect of cranberry extract in Caenorhabditis elegans is modulated by daf-16 and osr-1.

    PubMed

    Guha, Sujay; Cao, Min; Kane, Ryan M; Savino, Anthony M; Zou, Sige; Dong, Yuqing

    2013-10-01

    Nutraceuticals are known to have numerous health and disease preventing properties. Recent studies suggest that extracts containing cranberry may have anti-aging benefits. However, little is known about whether and how cranberry by itself promotes longevity and healthspan in any organism. Here we examined the effect of a cranberry only extract on lifespan and healthspan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Supplementation of the diet with cranberry extract (CBE) increased the lifespan in C. elegans in a concentration-dependent manner. Cranberry also increased tolerance of C. elegans to heat shock, but not to oxidative stress or ultraviolet irradiation. In addition, we tested the effect of cranberry on brood size and motility and found that cranberry did not influence these behaviors. Our mechanistic studies indicated that lifespan extension induced by CBE requires the insulin/IGF signaling pathway and DAF-16. We also found that cranberry promotes longevity through osmotic stress resistant-1 (OSR-1) and one of its downstream effectors, UNC-43, but not through SEK-1, a component of the p38 MAP kinase pathway. However, SIR-2.1 and JNK signaling pathways are not required for cranberry to promote longevity. Our findings suggest that cranberry supplementation confers increased longevity and stress resistance in C. elegans through pathways modulated by daf-16 and osr-1. This study reveals the anti-aging property of widely consumed cranberry and elucidates the underpinning mechanisms.

  19. Ageing and gut microbes: perspectives for health maintenance and longevity.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Elena; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Garagnani, Paolo; Franceschi, Claudio; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2013-03-01

    The ageing process affects the human gut microbiota phylogenetic composition and its interaction with the immune system. Age-related gut microbiota modifications are associated with immunosenescence and inflamm-ageing in a sort of self-sustaining loop, which allows the placement of gut microbiota unbalances among both the causes and the effects of the inflamm-ageing process. Even if, up to now, the link between gut microbiota and the ageing process is only partially understood, the gut ecosystem shows the potential to become a promising target for strategies able to contribute to the health status of older people. In this context, the consumption of pro/prebiotics may be useful in both prevention and treatment of age-related pathophysiological conditions, such as recovery and promotion of immune functions, i.e. adjuvant effect for influenza vaccine, and prevention and/or alleviation of common "winter diseases", as well as constipation and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Moreover, being involved in different mechanisms which concur in counteracting inflammation, such as down-regulation of inflammation-associated genes and improvement of colonic mucosa conditions, probiotics have the potentiality to be involved in the promotion of longevity.

  20. Scribbled Optimizes BMP Signaling through Its Receptor Internalization to the Rab5 Endosome and Promote Robust Epithelial Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gui, Jinghua; Huang, Yunxian; Shimmi, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    Epithelial cells are characterized by apical-basal polarity. Intrinsic factors underlying apical-basal polarity are crucial for tissue homeostasis and have often been identified to be tumor suppressors. Patterning and differentiation of epithelia are key processes of epithelial morphogenesis and are frequently regulated by highly conserved extrinsic factors. However, due to the complexity of morphogenesis, the mechanisms of precise interpretation of signal transduction as well as spatiotemporal control of extrinsic cues during dynamic morphogenesis remain poorly understood. Wing posterior crossvein (PCV) formation in Drosophila serves as a unique model to address how epithelial morphogenesis is regulated by secreted growth factors. Decapentaplegic (Dpp), a conserved bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-type ligand, is directionally trafficked from longitudinal veins (LVs) into the PCV region for patterning and differentiation. Our data reveal that the basolateral determinant Scribbled (Scrib) is required for PCV formation through optimizing BMP signaling. Scrib regulates BMP-type I receptor Thickveins (Tkv) localization at the basolateral region of PCV cells and subsequently facilitates Tkv internalization to Rab5 endosomes, where Tkv is active. BMP signaling also up-regulates scrib transcription in the pupal wing to form a positive feedback loop. Our data reveal a unique mechanism in which intrinsic polarity genes and extrinsic cues are coupled to promote robust morphogenesis.

  1. Fibroblast-derived Neuregulin 1 Promotes Compensatory ErbB3 Receptor Signaling in Mutant BRAF Melanoma*

    PubMed Central

    Capparelli, Claudia; Rosenbaum, Sheera; Berger, Adam C.; Aplin, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF) inhibitors are first-line treatments for patients harboring V600E/K mutant BRAF melanoma. Although RAF inhibitors produce high response rates, the degree of tumor regression is heterogeneous. Compensatory/adaptive responses to targeted inhibitors are frequently initiated by the activation of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, including ErbB3, and factors from the tumor microenvironment may play an important role. We have shown previously that mutant v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) melanoma cells have enhanced activation of ErbB3 following RAF inhibition. However, the source of neuregulin 1 (NRG1), the ligand for ErbB3, is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that NRG1 is highly expressed by dermal fibroblasts and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) isolated from mutant BRAF melanomas. Conditioned medium from fibroblasts and CAFs enhanced ErbB3 pathway activation and limited RAF inhibitor cytotoxicity in V600 mutant BRAF-harboring melanomas. Targeting the ErbB3/ErbB2 pathway partially reversed the protective effects of fibroblast/CAF-derived NRG1 on cell growth properties of RAF inhibitor-treated melanoma cells. These findings support the idea that NRG1, acting in a paracrine manner, promotes resistance to RAF inhibitors and emphasize that targeting the ErbB3/ErbB2 pathway will likely improve the efficacy of RAF inhibitors for mutant BRAF melanoma patients. PMID:26269601

  2. Flanking nuclear matrix attachment regions synergize with the T cell receptor δ enhancer to promote V(D)J recombination

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Carabaña, Juan; Krangel, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have identified nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) that are closely associated with transcriptional enhancers in the IgH, Igκ, and T cell receptor (TCR) β loci, but have yielded conflicting information regarding their functional significance. In this report, a combination of in vitro and in situ mapping approaches was used to localize three MARs associated with the human TCR δ gene. Two of these are located within the Jδ3–Cδ intron, flanking the core TCR δ enhancer (Eδ) both 5′ and 3′ in a fashion reminiscent of the Ig heavy chain intronic enhancer-associated MARs. The third is located about 20 kb upstream, tightly linked to Dδ1 and Dδ2. We have previously used a transgenic minilocus V(D)J recombination reporter to establish that Eδ functions as a developmental regulator of V(D)J recombination, and that it does so by modulating substrate accessibility to the V(D)J recombinase. We show here that the Eδ-associated MARs function synergistically with the core Eδ to promote V(D)J recombination in this system, as they are required for enhancer-dependent transgene rearrangement in single-copy transgene integrants. PMID:10518560

  3. Scribbled Optimizes BMP Signaling through Its Receptor Internalization to the Rab5 Endosome and Promote Robust Epithelial Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cells are characterized by apical-basal polarity. Intrinsic factors underlying apical-basal polarity are crucial for tissue homeostasis and have often been identified to be tumor suppressors. Patterning and differentiation of epithelia are key processes of epithelial morphogenesis and are frequently regulated by highly conserved extrinsic factors. However, due to the complexity of morphogenesis, the mechanisms of precise interpretation of signal transduction as well as spatiotemporal control of extrinsic cues during dynamic morphogenesis remain poorly understood. Wing posterior crossvein (PCV) formation in Drosophila serves as a unique model to address how epithelial morphogenesis is regulated by secreted growth factors. Decapentaplegic (Dpp), a conserved bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-type ligand, is directionally trafficked from longitudinal veins (LVs) into the PCV region for patterning and differentiation. Our data reveal that the basolateral determinant Scribbled (Scrib) is required for PCV formation through optimizing BMP signaling. Scrib regulates BMP-type I receptor Thickveins (Tkv) localization at the basolateral region of PCV cells and subsequently facilitates Tkv internalization to Rab5 endosomes, where Tkv is active. BMP signaling also up-regulates scrib transcription in the pupal wing to form a positive feedback loop. Our data reveal a unique mechanism in which intrinsic polarity genes and extrinsic cues are coupled to promote robust morphogenesis. PMID:27814354

  4. Sustained interactions between T cell receptors and antigens promote the differentiation of CD4⁺ memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chulwoo; Wilson, Theodore; Fischer, Kael F; Williams, Matthew A

    2013-09-19

    During CD4⁺ T cell activation, T cell receptor (TCR) signals impact T cell fate, including recruitment, expansion, differentiation, trafficking, and survival. To determine the impact of TCR signals on the fate decision of activated CD4⁺ T cells to become end-stage effector or long-lived memory T helper 1 (Th1) cells, we devised a deep-sequencing-based approach that allowed us to track the evolution of TCR repertoires after acute infection. The transition of effector Th1 cells into the memory pool was associated with a significant decrease in repertoire diversity, and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramer off rate, but not tetramer avidity, was a key predictive factor in the representation of individual clonal T cell populations at the memory stage. We conclude that stable and sustained interactions with antigens during the development of Th1 responses to acute infection are a determinative factor in promoting the differentiation of Th1 memory cells.

  5. Total saponins of Panax ginseng induces K562 cell differentiation by promoting internalization of the erythropoietin receptor.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Guowei; Guan, Tao; Chen, Dilong; Li, Chunli; Jiang, Rong; Luo, Chunyan; Hu, Xiaoshu; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    Ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine with a wide range of therapeutic benefits. Total saponins of Panax ginseng (TSPG) is one of the main effective components of ginseng. Our previous studies have shown that TSPG could promote the production of normal blood cells and inhibition of the leukemia cell proliferation. However, whether ginseng can induce the differentiation of leukemia cells is still unclear. This study was to examine the effect of TSPG or the combination of erythropoietin (EPO) and TSPG on the erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and their corresponding mechanisms regarding erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) expression. Under light and electron microscopes, the TSPG- or TSPG + EPO-treated K562 cells showed a tendency to undergo erythroid differentiation; early and intermediate erythroblast-like cells were observed. Hemoglobin and HIR2 expressions were significantly increased. As determined by Western blotting analysis, the EPOR protein level in the K562 cytoplasmic membrane was significantly decreased after TSPG treatment, while its cytoplasm level increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, the total cellular EPOR level was unchanged. These results indicate that TSPG-induced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells may be accompanied by the internalization of EPOR. Thus, our study suggests that treatment with a combination of TSPG and EPO may induce erythroid differentiation of K562 cells at least in part through induction of EPOR internalization.

  6. Dendritic differentiation of cerebellar Purkinje cells is promoted by ryanodine receptors expressed by Purkinje and granule cells.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ryo; Sakata, Shin-ichi; Naito, Asami; Hirashima, Naohide; Tanaka, Masahiko

    2014-04-01

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells have the most elaborate dendritic trees among neurons in the brain. We examined the roles of ryanodine receptor (RyR), an intracellular Ca(2+) release channel, in the dendrite formation of Purkinje cells using cerebellar cell cultures. In the cerebellum, Purkinje cells express RyR1 and RyR2, whereas granule cells express RyR2. When ryanodine (10 µM), a blocker of RyR, was added to the culture medium, the elongation and branching of Purkinje cell dendrites were markedly inhibited. When we transferred small interfering RNA (siRNA) against RyR1 into Purkinje cells using single-cell electroporation, dendritic branching but not elongation of the electroporated Purkinje cells was inhibited. On the other hand, transfection of RyR2 siRNA into granule cells also inhibited dendritic branching of Purkinje cells. Furthermore, ryanodine reduced the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the culture medium. The ryanodine-induced inhibition of dendritic differentiation was partially rescued when BDNF was exogenously added to the culture medium in addition to ryanodine. Overall, these results suggest that RyRs expressed by both Purkinje and granule cells play important roles in promoting the dendritic differentiation of Purkinje cells and that RyR2 expressed by granule cells is involved in the secretion of BDNF from granule cells.

  7. Androgen receptor (AR) promotes male bladder cancer cell proliferation and migration via regulating CD24 and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guoqing; Yu, Shicheng; Cheng, Sheng; Li, Gonghui; Yu, Yanlan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has proved the pivotal roles of androgen receptor in various diseases, including prostate cancer and bladder cancer. The CD24 has been proved to be correlated to bladder cancer metastasis and tumorigenesis in recent study. This study was aimed to investigate the roles of AR in bladder cell proliferation and metastasis and to explore its potential mechanism. Expressions of AR in two kinds of bladder tumor cells (T24 and UM-UC-3) were analyzed using the CRISPR Activation Plasmid transfection or siRNA-mediated gene. The effects of AR on tumor cell proliferation and migration were also analyzed. Moreover, the effects of CD24 and influence of AR on cell proliferation and metastasis-related protein were also analyzed. The results showed that AR was significantly down-regulated in T24 cells but was significantly overexpressed in UM-UC-3 cells. The up-regulated T24 promotes cell proliferation, but this enhance effect was blocked by silencing CD24. Additionally, the AR overexpression significantly increased the VEGF and CD24 expression. Besides, the migrated bladder cells was increased by the up-regulated AR, but was decreased by silencing CD24 or silencing VEGF. Taken together, our study suggested that the up-regulated AR enhances the male bladder tumor cell proliferation and metastasis via modulating the CD24 and VEGF. This study may provide theoretical basis for the possibility of AR to be a therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  8. The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Barry, William E; Thummel, Carl S

    2016-01-01

    Although mutations in HNF4A were identified as the cause of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young 1 (MODY1) two decades ago, the mechanisms by which this nuclear receptor regulates glucose homeostasis remain unclear. Here we report that loss of Drosophila HNF4 recapitulates hallmark symptoms of MODY1, including adult-onset hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). These defects are linked to a role for dHNF4 in promoting mitochondrial function as well as the expression of Hex-C, a homolog of the MODY2 gene Glucokinase. dHNF4 is required in the fat body and insulin-producing cells to maintain glucose homeostasis by supporting a developmental switch toward oxidative phosphorylation and GSIS at the transition to adulthood. These findings establish an animal model for MODY1 and define a developmental reprogramming of metabolism to support the energetic needs of the mature animal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11183.001 PMID:27185732

  9. Dietary restriction suppresses proteotoxicity and enhances longevity by an hsf-1-dependent mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Steinkraus, Katherine A; Smith, Erica D; Davis, Christina; Carr, Daniel; Pendergrass, William R; Sutphin, George L; Kennedy, Brian K; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2008-06-01

    Dietary restriction increases lifespan and slows the onset of age-associated disease in organisms from yeast to mammals. In humans, several age-related diseases are associated with aberrant protein folding or aggregation, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. We report here that dietary restriction dramatically suppresses age-associated paralysis in three nematode models of proteotoxicity. Similar to its longevity-enhancing properties, dietary restriction protects against proteotoxicity by a mechanism distinct from reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling. Instead, the heat shock transcription factor, hsf-1, is required for enhanced thermotolerance, suppression of proteotoxicity, and lifespan extension by dietary restriction. These findings demonstrate that dietary restriction confers a general protective effect against proteotoxicity and promotes longevity by a mechanism involving hsf-1.

  10. Assessment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex interactions using pBEVY plasmids: expressionvectors with bi-directional promoters for use in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Miller, C A; Martinat, M A; Hyman, L E

    1998-08-01

    The pBEVY (bi-directional expression vectors for yeast) plasmids were designed with constitutive and galactose-induced bi-directional promoters to direct the expression of multiple proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Using human estrogen receptor as a test gene, relatively balanced expression levels from each side of a bi-directional promoter were observed. Expression of a functional heterodimeric transcription factor composed of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) proteins was accomplished using a single pBEVY plasmid. Previous studies suggest that inhibitory cross-talk between the estrogen receptor and the Ahr/Arnt complex may occur and that Hsp90-Ahr complex formation is important for Ahr-mediated signal transduction. Evidence for functional interaction among these proteins was investigated using pBEVY plasmids in a yeast system. No inhibitory cross-talk was observed in signaling assays performed with yeast that co-expressed Ahr, Arnt and estrogen receptor. In contrast, Ahr/Arnt-mediated signal transduction was reduced by 80% in a temperature-sensitive Hsp90 strain grown under non-permissive conditions. We conclude that pBEVY plasmids facilitate the examination of multiple protein interactions in yeast model systems.

  11. Allelic variants of human beta-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) promoter: evolutionary relationships and predictable associations with HIV-1 disease progression.

    PubMed

    Tang, J; Rivers, C; Karita, E; Costello, C; Allen, S; Fultz, P N; Schoenbaum, E E; Kaslow, R A

    1999-09-01

    Variability in the natural history of HIV-1 infection has been repeatedly associated with genetic variants in the beta-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) locus. While CCR5 coding sequences have demonstrated relatively limited variation, sequences of its promoter appear polymorphic in all major populations. Our studies revealed five major CCR5 promoter alleles with distributions that differed widely among the four distinct ethnic groups from Kigali, Rwanda and Bronx, New York. In particular, promoter allele P*0103 (G59029-T59353-T59356-A59402-C59653) was largely restricted to black subjects. The promoter allele P*0202 (A59029-C59353-C59356-A59402-T59653) was tightly linked to the slightly less frequent CCR2b-641, a variant of the CCR2b gene, which is about 12.7 kbp upstream from the promoter region. Another closely related promoter allele P*0201 (A59029-C59353-C59356-A59402-C59653) exclusively carried the far less common CCR5-delta 32, a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 coding sequence 2 kbp downstream from the promoter. The homozygous P*0201/*0201 genotype can be predicted as a risk factor for more rapid disease progression. Among human, chimpanzee, pig-tailed macaque, and sooty mangabey promoter allelic sequences, the apparent ancestral lineage of the promoter sequence (G59029-T59353-C59356-A59402-C59653 = human P*0102) was highly conserved across the primate species analyzed here while P*0201 and P*0202 arose more recently than the other three major alleles. Further effort to establish the mechanism by which CCR chemokine receptor polymorphisms govern the initiation and pathogenesis of primate lentivirus infection apparently requires fully detailed genotypic characterization of the affected populations.

  12. Wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na, a prostaglandin DP1 receptor antagonist, in hypocretin/orexin deficient narcoleptic mice.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Yohei; Sato, Masatoshi; Sakai, Noriaki; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Chiba, Shintaro; Maruyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Junki; Nishino, Seiji

    2016-11-01

    Prostaglandin (PG)D2 is an endogenous sleep substance, and a series of animal studies reported that PGD2 or PGD2 receptor (DP1) agonists promote sleep, while DP1 antagonists promote wakefulness. This suggests the possibility of use of PG DP1 antagonists as wake-promoting compounds. We therefore evaluated the wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na, a DP1 antagonist, in a mouse model of narcolepsy (i.e., orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic mice) and compared those to effects of modafinil. ONO-4127Na perfused in the basal forebrain (BF) area potently promoted wakefulness in both wild type and narcoleptic mice, and the wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na at 2.93 × 10(-4) M roughly corresponded to those of modafinil at 100 mg/kg (p.o.). The wake promoting effects of ONO-4127Na was observed both during light and dark periods, and much larger effects were seen during the light period when mice slept most of the time. ONO-4127Na, when perfused in the hypothalamic area, had no effects on sleep. We further demonstrated that wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na were abolished in DP1 KO mice, confirming that the wake-promoting effect of ONO-4127Na is mediated by blockade of the PG DP1 receptors located in the BF area. ONO-4127Na reduced DREM, an EEG/EMG assessment of behavioral cataplexy in narcoleptic mice, suggesting that ONO-4127Na is likely to have anticataplectic effects. DP1 antagonists may be a new class of compounds for the treatment of narcolepsy-cataplexy, and further studies are warranted.

  13. Economics and extended longevity: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gori, G B; Richter, B J; Yu, W K

    1984-07-01

    Preventive and therapeutic advances have brought life expectancy in the United States to well over 70 years and have shifted mortality causes from acute to chronic diseases, the determinants of which are genetics, lifestyle, the environment, and aging itself. Plausible approaches to chronic disease prevention are likely to increase longevity further, with some foreseeable effects on demographic and economic projections. Primarily, longevity advances would swell forecasts of population size, and would thus have to be met by production advances in order to maintain or improve living standards. This study, a restricted example, considers the probable demographic and economic consequences of a limited prevention program in the context of the Ford Motor Company, based on actual experience and certain expectations up to the year 2000. According to the results, prevention would reduce outlays for life insurance, disability, and health care, but would also generate the higher costs of extending pension plans. Undoubtedly, prevention will continue to be highly ranked in society's pursuit of happiness, and society must prepare to meet its effects with appropriate social and economic policies.

  14. Heart rate reduction and longevity in mice.

    PubMed

    Gent, Sabine; Kleinbongard, Petra; Dammann, Philip; Neuhäuser, Markus; Heusch, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    Heart rate correlates inversely with life span across all species, including humans. In patients with cardiovascular disease, higher heart rate is associated with increased mortality, and such patients benefit from pharmacological heart rate reduction. However, cause-and-effect relationships between heart rate and longevity, notably in healthy individuals, are not established. We therefore prospectively studied the effects of a life-long pharmacological heart rate reduction on longevity in mice. We hypothesized, that the total number of cardiac cycles is constant, and that a 15% heart rate reduction might translate into a 15% increase in life span. C57BL6/J mice received either placebo or ivabradine at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day in drinking water from 12 weeks to death. Heart rate and body weight were monitored. Autopsy was performed on all non-autolytic cadavers, and parenchymal organs were evaluated macroscopically. Ivabradine reduced heart rate by 14% (median, interquartile range 12-15%) throughout life, and median life span was increased by 6.2% (p = 0.01). Body weight and macroscopic findings were not different between placebo and ivabradine. Life span was not increased to the same extent as heart rate was reduced, but nevertheless significantly prolonged by 6.2%.

  15. Evolution of sexually dimorphic longevity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gems, David

    2014-01-01

    Why do humans live longer than other higher primates? Why do women live longer than men? What is the significance of the menopause? Answers to these questions may be sought by reference to the mechanisms by which human aging might have evolved. Here, an evolutionary hypothesis is presented that could answer all three questions, based on the following suppositions. First, that the evolution of increased human longevity was driven by increased late-life reproduction by men in polygynous primordial societies. Second, that the lack of a corresponding increase in female reproductive lifespan reflects evolutionary constraint on late-life oocyte production. Third, that antagonistic pleiotropy acting on androgen-generated secondary sexual characteristics in men increased reproductive success earlier in life, but shortened lifespan. That the gender gap in aging is attributable to androgens appears more likely given a recent report of exceptional longevity in eunuchs. Yet androgen depletion therapy, now used to treat prostatic hyperplasia, appears to accelerate other aspects of aging (e.g. cardiovascular disease). One possibility is that low levels of androgens throughout life reduces aging rate, but late-life androgen depletion does not. PMID:24566422

  16. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    PubMed

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated.

  17. [Effect of physical activity on longevity].

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Mateusz M; Krupienicz, Andrzej

    2016-11-25

    Multiple population studies have reported a positive correlation between higher levels of physical activity (PA) and longer lifespan. It has been generally accepted that it occurs due to PA having a direct effect on longevity. However, this idea is negated by experiments on animal models and an observational study on a twin cohort published recently by Karvinen et al. This unique study includes a pairwise comparison of monozygotic twins discordant for PA, therefore eliminating any influence of genetic factors on both mortality and tendency to take up exercise. The intriguing lack of differences in lifespan in such pairs implies that PA is not an important life prolonging factor. This discovery casts doubt on the validity of PA recommendations found in numerous medical guidelines. Nevertheless, the mentioned results apply only to the plain PA - longevity relation. They do not consider health benefits of PA, for which solid evidence exists. In particular, PA clearly reduces the risk of obesity-related diseases. This may indirectly yet significantly affect the length and quality of life, even if the direct relationship between PA and lifespan will be proven false in further research.

  18. Longevity and drag reduction of omniphobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Brian; Samaha, Mohamed A.; Jacobi, Ian; Shang, Jessica; Hultmark, Marcus; Smits, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    Omniphobic surfaces, which consist of an omniphobic lubricant impregnated into a micro/nanoscale textured substrate, have been shown to repel a wide range of liquids [Wong et al. (Nature 2011)]. Here, experiments are performed on these surfaces to investigate the drag reduction as well as the time-dependent omniphobicity in the presence of flow. Drag measurements are performed in number of different flows including parallel plate and Taylor-Couette rheometers, pipe flow, and bluff body flows. The longevity of the surfaces are measured using three techniques: (i) an in situ noninvasive optical method to characterize the the loss of lubricant with time; (ii) thin-film interferometry measurements of the lubricant thickness versus time; and (iii) goniometer measurements of the time-dependent threshold sliding angle as well as contact-angle hysteresis. The impact of the substrate morphology on the drag reduction and longevity is observed both with and without flow in the surrounding water environment. This work could help to investigate ways of enhancing the drag-reducing properties of omniphobic surfaces by controlling their morphologies. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim).

  19. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    SciTech Connect

    D. Tang

    2000-01-07

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M&O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used.

  20. Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Kristen

    2003-01-01

    Great apes, our closest living relatives, live longer and mature later than most other mammals and modern humans are even later-maturing and potentially longer-lived. Evolutionary life-history theory seeks to explain cross-species differences in these variables and the covariation between them. That provides the foundation for a hypothesis that a novel role for grandmothers underlies the shift from an ape-like ancestral pattern to one more like our own in the first widely successful members of genus Homo. This hypothesis links four distinctive features of human life histories: 1). our potential longevity, 2). our late maturity, 3). our midlife menopause, and 4). our early weaning with next offspring produced before the previous infant can feed itself. I discuss the problem, then, using modern humans and chimpanzees to represent, respectively, genus Homo and australopithecines, I focus on two corollaries of this grandmother hypothesis: 1). that ancestral age-specific fertility declines persisted in our genus, while 2). senescence in other aspects of physiological performance slowed down. The data are scanty but they illustrate similarities in age-specific fertility decline and differences in somatic durability that are consistent with the hypothesis that increased longevity in our genus is a legacy of the "reproductive" role of ancestral grandmothers.

  1. Histamine Increases Neuronal Excitability and Sensitivity of the Lateral Vestibular Nucleus and Promotes Motor Behaviors via HCN Channel Coupled to H2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Ai-Hong; Peng, Xiao-Chun; Chen, Zhang-Peng; Zhou, Jia-Yuan; Chan, Ying-Shing; Wang, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Jing-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Histamine and histamine receptors in the central nervous system actively participate in the modulation of motor control. In clinic, histamine-related agents have traditionally been used to treat vestibular disorders. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed a distribution of histaminergic afferents in the brainstem vestibular nuclei, including the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN), which is critical for adjustment of muscle tone and vestibular reflexes. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of histamine on LVN neurons and the role of histamine and histaminergic afferents in the LVN in motor control are still largely unknown. Here, we show that histamine, in cellular and molecular levels, elicits the LVN neurons of rats an excitatory response, which is co-mediated by the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels and K+ channels linked to H2 receptors. Blockage of HCN channels coupled to H2 receptors decreases LVN neuronal sensitivity and changes their dynamic properties. Furthermore, in behavioral level, microinjection of histamine into bilateral LVNs significantly promotes motor performances of rats on both accelerating rota-rod and balance beam. This promotion is mimicked by selective H2 receptor agonist dimaprit, and blocked by selective H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine. More importantly, blockage of HCN channels to suppress endogenous histaminergic inputs in the LVN considerably attenuates motor balance and coordination, indicating a promotion role of hypothalamo-vestibular histaminergic circuit in motor control. All these results demonstrate that histamine H2 receptors and their coupled HCN channels mediate the histamine-induced increase in excitability and sensitivity of LVN neurons and contribute to the histaminergic improvement of the LVN-related motor behaviors. The findings suggest that histamine and the histaminergic afferents may directly modulate LVN neurons and play a critical role in the central vestibular

  2. Histamine Increases Neuronal Excitability and Sensitivity of the Lateral Vestibular Nucleus and Promotes Motor Behaviors via HCN Channel Coupled to H2 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Ai-Hong; Peng, Xiao-Chun; Chen, Zhang-Peng; Zhou, Jia-Yuan; Chan, Ying-Shing; Wang, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Jing-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Histamine and histamine receptors in the central nervous system actively participate in the modulation of motor control. In clinic, histamine-related agents have traditionally been used to treat vestibular disorders. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed a distribution of histaminergic afferents in the brainstem vestibular nuclei, including the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN), which is critical for adjustment of muscle tone and vestibular reflexes. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of histamine on LVN neurons and the role of histamine and histaminergic afferents in the LVN in motor control are still largely unknown. Here, we show that histamine, in cellular and molecular levels, elicits the LVN neurons of rats an excitatory response, which is co-mediated by the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels and K(+) channels linked to H2 receptors. Blockage of HCN channels coupled to H2 receptors decreases LVN neuronal sensitivity and changes their dynamic properties. Furthermore, in behavioral level, microinjection of histamine into bilateral LVNs significantly promotes motor performances of rats on both accelerating rota-rod and balance beam. This promotion is mimicked by selective H2 receptor agonist dimaprit, and blocked by selective H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine. More importantly, blockage of HCN channels to suppress endogenous histaminergic inputs in the LVN considerably attenuates motor balance and coordination, indicating a promotion role of hypothalamo-vestibular histaminergic circuit in motor control. All these results demonstrate that histamine H2 receptors and their coupled HCN channels mediate the histamine-induced increase in excitability and sensitivity of LVN neurons and contribute to the histaminergic improvement of the LVN-related motor behaviors. The findings suggest that histamine and the histaminergic afferents may directly modulate LVN neurons and play a critical role in the central vestibular

  3. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone promoted gastric cancer growth through prostaglandin E receptor (EP2 and EP4) in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shin, Vivian Y; Jin, Hong C; Ng, Enders K O; Cho, Chi H; Leung, Wai K; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chu, Kent-Man

    2011-05-01

    Prostaglandin E (EP) receptor is positively related with COX-2, which is involved in cancer biology. A mechanistic study on how 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) promotes gastric carcinogenesis is lacking. Recently, we found that nicotine promoted tumor growth through upregulation of the COX-2/prostaglandin E(2) pathway. This extended our study on the involvement of EP receptors in gastric carcinogenesis. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that NNK promoted cancer cell growth with concomitant EP2 and EP4 upregulation. We found that NNK stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenesis, but suppressed apoptosis by increasing Bcl2 and decreasing caspase-3 expressions. Both EP2 and EP4 siRNA significantly impaired these tumorigenic actions of NNK in xenograft tumor. Cell cycle analysis showed that NNK increased S phase entry with increased cyclin D1 and the associated cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, and downregulation of p21 and p27. The p38 phosphorylation was EP2/4-dependent, and SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) suppressed NNK-induced prostaglandin E(2) , VEGF, and cell proliferation. Antagonists of EP2 or EP4 abolished the elevated VEGF and VEGF receptor-2. These data strongly indicate that EP2/4 are important for NNK-promoted gastric carcinogenesis, thus providing a framework for future evaluation of EP antagonist(s) as anticancer drugs for smokers.

  4. Reciprocal regulation of a glucocorticoid receptor-steroidogenic factor-1 transcription complex on the Dax-1 promoter by glucocorticoids and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gummow, Brian M; Scheys, Joshua O; Cancelli, Victoria R; Hammer, Gary D

    2006-11-01

    Numerous genes required for adrenocortical steroidogenesis are activated by the nuclear hormone receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) (NR5A1). Dax-1 (NR0B1), another nuclear hormone receptor, represses SF-1-dependent activation. Glucocorticoid products of the adrenal cortex provide negative feedback to the production of hypothalamic CRH and pituitary ACTH. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids stimulate an intraadrenal negative feedback loop via activation of Dax-1 expression. Reporter constructs show glucocorticoid-dependent synergy between SF-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the activation of Dax-1, which is antagonized by ACTH signaling. We map the functional glucocorticoid response element between -718 and -704 bp, required for activation by GR and synergy with SF-1. Of three SF-1 response elements, only the -128-bp SF-1 response element is required for synergy with GR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrate that dexamethasone treatment increases GR and SF-1 binding to the endogenous murine Dax-1 promoter 10- and 3.5-fold over baseline. Serial ChIP assays reveal that that GR and SF-1 are part of the same complex on the Dax-1 promoter, whereas coimmunoprecipitation assay confirms the presence of a protein complex that contains both GR and SF-1. ACTH stimulation disrupts the formation of this complex by abrogating SF-1 binding to the Dax-1 promoter, while promoting SF-1 binding to the melanocortin-2 receptor (Mc2r) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) promoters. Finally, dexamethasone treatment increases endogenous Dax-1 expression and concordantly decreases StAR expression. ACTH signaling antagonizes the increase in Dax-1 yet strongly activates StAR transcription. These data indicate that GR provides feedback regulation of adrenocortical steroid production through synergistic activation of Dax-1 with SF-1, which is antagonized by ACTH activation of the adrenal cortex.

  5. Personality, Longevity, and Successful Aging among Tokyo Metropolitan Centenarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimonaka, Yoshiko; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined two hypotheses: (1) that androgyny and Type B behavior are related to longevity; and (2) that personality characteristics associated with longevity may also be related to successful aging. Participants were 82 centenarians (37 men, 45 women) who were compared with 605 elderly in their sixties, seventies, and eighties. Discusses study…

  6. Effect of heifer calving date on longevity and lifetime productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longevity and lifetime productivity are important factors in profitability of the beef cow herd. Therefore, a concern for many producers is the productivity and longevity of the individual cow in their herd. The 2007-08 survey from National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) reported that the l...

  7. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans.

  8. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia; Liu, Xiaomin; Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Huashuai; Xu, Hanshi; Wang, Mingbang; Ni, Ting; Li, Yang; Yan, Han; Zhang, Jin-Pei; Song, Chun; Chi, Li-Qing; Wang, Han-Ming; Dong, Jie; Zheng, Gu-Yan; Lin, Li; Qian, Feng; Qi, Yanwei; Liu, Xiao; Cao, Hongzhi; Wang, Yinghao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Zhaochun; Zhou, Yufeng; Wang, Yan; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Qi, Ming; Bolund, Lars; Yashin, Anatoliy; Land, Kenneth C; Gregory, Simon; Yang, Ze; Gottschalk, William; Tao, Wei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xun; Bae, Harold; Nygaard, Marianne; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Franceschi, Claudio; Lutz, Michael W; Gu, Jun; Tan, Qihua; Perls, Thomas; Sebastiani, Paola; Deelen, Joris; Slagboom, Eline; Hauser, Elizabeth; Xu, Huji; Tian, Xiao-Li; Yang, Huanming; Vaupel, James W

    2016-02-25

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han Chinese with a sample size 2.7 times the largest previously published GWAS on centenarians. We identified 11 independent loci associated with longevity replicated in Southern-Northern regions of China, including two novel loci (rs2069837-IL6; rs2440012-ANKRD20A9P) with genome-wide significance and the rest with suggestive significance (P < 3.65 × 10(-5)). Eight independent SNPs overlapped across Han Chinese, European and U.S. populations, and APOE and 5q33.3 were replicated as longevity loci. Integrated analysis indicates four pathways (starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism; immune response and inflammation; MAPK; calcium signaling) highly associated with longevity (P ≤ 0.006) in Han Chinese. The association with longevity of three of these four pathways (MAPK; immunity; calcium signaling) is supported by findings in other human cohorts. Our novel finding on the association of starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism pathway with longevity is consistent with the previous results from Drosophilia. This study suggests protective mechanisms including immunity and nutrient metabolism and their interactions with environmental stress play key roles in human longevity.

  9. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia; Liu, Xiaomin; Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Huashuai; Xu, Hanshi; Wang, Mingbang; Ni, Ting; Li, Yang; Yan, Han; Zhang, Jin-Pei; Song, Chun; Chi, Li-Qing; Wang, Han-Ming; Dong, Jie; Zheng, Gu-Yan; Lin, Li; Qian, Feng; Qi, Yanwei; Liu, Xiao; Cao, Hongzhi; Wang, Yinghao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Zhaochun; Zhou, Yufeng; Wang, Yan; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Qi, Ming; Bolund, Lars; Yashin, Anatoliy; Land, Kenneth C.; Gregory, Simon; Yang, Ze; Gottschalk, William; Tao, Wei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xun; Bae, Harold; Nygaard, Marianne; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Franceschi, Claudio; Lutz, Michael W.; Gu, Jun; Tan, Qihua; Perls, Thomas; Sebastiani, Paola; Deelen, Joris; Slagboom, Eline; Hauser, Elizabeth; Xu, Huji; Tian, Xiao-Li; Yang, Huanming; Vaupel, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han Chinese with a sample size 2.7 times the largest previously published GWAS on centenarians. We identified 11 independent loci associated with longevity replicated in Southern-Northern regions of China, including two novel loci (rs2069837-IL6; rs2440012-ANKRD20A9P) with genome-wide significance and the rest with suggestive significance (P < 3.65 × 10−5). Eight independent SNPs overlapped across Han Chinese, European and U.S. populations, and APOE and 5q33.3 were replicated as longevity loci. Integrated analysis indicates four pathways (starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism; immune response and inflammation; MAPK; calcium signaling) highly associated with longevity (P ≤ 0.006) in Han Chinese. The association with longevity of three of these four pathways (MAPK; immunity; calcium signaling) is supported by findings in other human cohorts. Our novel finding on the association of starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism pathway with longevity is consistent with the previous results from Drosophilia. This study suggests protective mechanisms including immunity and nutrient metabolism and their interactions with environmental stress play key roles in human longevity. PMID:26912274

  10. Increased Eps15 homology domain 1 and RAB11FIP3 expression regulate breast cancer progression via promoting epithelial growth factor receptor recycling.

    PubMed

    Tong, Dandan; Liang, Ya-Nan; Stepanova, A A; Liu, Yu; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Letian; Zhang, Fengmin; Vasilyeva, N V

    2017-02-01

    1 has a tumor suppressor function, and the combined marker of Eps15 homology domain 1/phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression was identified as a better prognostic marker in breast cancer diagnosis. Furthermore, RAB11FIP3 combines with Eps15 homology domain 1 to promote the endocytosis recycling of phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor.

  11. Dietary and microbiome factors determine longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Blanco, Adolfo; Rodríguez-Matellán, Alberto; González-Paramás, Ana; González-Manzano, Susana; Kim, Stuart K; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2016-07-01

    Diet composition affects organismal health. Nutrient uptake depends on the microbiome. Caenorhabditis elegans fed a Bacillus subtilis diet live longer than those fed the standard Escherichia coli diet. Here we report that this longevity difference is primarily caused by dietary coQ, an antioxidant synthesized by E. coli but not by B. subtilis. CoQ-supplemented E. coli fed worms have a lower oxidation state yet live shorter than coQ-less B. subtilis fed worms. We showed that mutations affecting longevity for E. coli fed worms do not always lead to similar effects when worms are fed B. subtilis. We propose that coQ supplementation by the E. coli diet alters the worm cellular REDOX homeostasis, thus decreasing longevity. Our results highlight the importance of microbiome factors in longevity, argue that antioxidant supplementation can be detrimental, and suggest that the C. elegans standard E. coli diet can alter the effect of signaling pathways on longevity.

  12. Dietary and microbiome factors determine longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Blanco, Adolfo; Rodríguez-Matellán, Alberto; González-Paramás, Ana; González-Manzano, Susana; Kim, Stuart K.; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Diet composition affects organismal health. Nutrient uptake depends on the microbiome. Caenorhabditis elegans fed a Bacillus subtilis diet live longer than those fed the standard Escherichia coli diet. Here we report that this longevity difference is primarily caused by dietary coQ, an antioxidant synthesized by E. coli but not by B. subtilis. CoQ-supplemented E. coli fed worms have a lower oxidation state yet live shorter than coQ-less B. subtilis fed worms. We showed that mutations affecting longevity for E. coli fed worms do not always lead to similar effects when worms are fed B. subtilis. We propose that coQ supplementation by the E. coli diet alters the worm cellular REDOX homeostasis, thus decreasing longevity. Our results highlight the importance of microbiome factors in longevity, argue that antioxidant supplementation can be detrimental, and suggest that the C. elegans standard E. coli diet can alter the effect of signaling pathways on longevity. PMID:27510225

  13. Human longevity is influenced by many genetic variants: evidence from 75,000 UK Biobank participants.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Luke C; Atkins, Janice L; Bowman, Kirsty; Jones, Samuel E; Tyrrell, Jessica; Beaumont, Robin N; Ruth, Katherine S; Tuke, Marcus A; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Wood, Andrew R; Freathy, Rachel M; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N; Xue, Luting; Lunetta, Kathryn; Murabito, Joanne M; Harries, Lorna W; Robine, Jean-Marie; Brayne, Carol; Kuchel, George A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M; Melzer, David

    2016-03-01

    Variation in human lifespan is 20 to 30% heritable in twins but few genetic variants have been identified. We undertook a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using age at death of parents of middle-aged UK Biobank participants of European decent (n=75,244 with father's and/or mother's data, excluding early deaths). Genetic risk scores for 19 phenotypes (n=777 proven variants) were also tested. In GWAS, a nicotine receptor locus(CHRNA3, previously associated with increased smoking and lung cancer) was associated with fathers' survival. Less common variants requiring further confirmation were also identified. Offspring of longer lived parents had more protective alleles for coronary artery disease, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and Alzheimer's disease. In candidate analyses, variants in the TOMM40/APOE locus were associated with longevity, but FOXO variants were not. Associations between extreme longevity (mother >=98 years, fathers >=95 years, n=1,339) and disease alleles were similar, with an additional association with HDL cholesterol (p=5.7x10-3). These results support a multiple protective factors model influencing lifespan and longevity (top 1% survival) in humans, with prominent roles for cardiovascular-related pathways. Several of these genetically influenced risks, including blood pressure and tobacco exposure, are potentially modifiable.

  14. Human longevity is influenced by many genetic variants: evidence from 75,000 UK Biobank participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilling, Luke C.; Atkins, Janice L.; Bowman, Kirsty; Jones, Samuel E.; Tyrrell, Jessica; Beaumont, Robin N.; Ruth, Katherine S.; Tuke, Marcus A.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Wood, Andrew R.; Freathy, Rachel M.; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N.; Xue, Luting; Lunetta, Kathryn; Murabito, Joanne M.; Harries, Lorna W.; Robine, Jean-Marie; Brayne, Carol; Kuchel, George A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M.; Melzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in human lifespan is 20 to 30% heritable in twins but few genetic variants have been identified. We undertook a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using age at death of parents of middle-aged UK Biobank participants of European decent (n=75,244 with father's and/or mother's data, excluding early deaths). Genetic risk scores for 19 phenotypes (n=777 proven variants) were also tested. In GWAS, a nicotine receptor locus (CHRNA3, previously associated with increased smoking and lung cancer) was associated with fathers' survival. Less common variants requiring further confirmation were also identified. Offspring of longer lived parents had more protective alleles for coronary artery disease, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and Alzheimer's disease. In candidate analyses, variants in the TOMM40/APOE locus were associated with longevity, but FOXO variants were not. Associations between extreme longevity (mother >=98 years, fathers >=95 years, n=1,339) and disease alleles were similar, with an additional association with HDL cholesterol (p=5.7×10-3). These results support a multiple protective factors model influencing lifespan and longevity (top 1% survival) in humans, with prominent roles for cardiovascular-related pathways. Several of these genetically influenced risks, including blood pressure and tobacco exposure, are potentially modifiable. PMID:27015805

  15. Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Jennifer J.; McCurley, Amy; Davel, Ana P.; McCarthy, Joseph; Bender, Shawn B.; Hong, Kwangseok; Yang, Yan; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Aronovitz, Mark; Baur, Wendy E.; Christou, Demetra D.; Hill, Michael A.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is nearly universal yet poorly controlled in the elderly despite proven benefits of intensive treatment. Mice lacking mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMC-MR-KO) are protected from rising blood pressure (BP) with aging, despite normal renal function. Vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged SMC-MR-KO mice, thus they were used to explore vascular mechanisms that may contribute to hypertension with aging. MicroRNA (miR) profiling identified miR-155 as the most down-regulated miR with vascular aging in MR-intact but not SMC-MR-KO mice. The aging-associated decrease in miR-155 in mesenteric resistance vessels was associated with increased mRNA abundance of MR and of predicted miR-155 targets Cav1.2 (L-type calcium channel (LTCC) subunit) and angiotensin type-1 receptor (AgtR1). SMC-MR-KO mice lacked these aging-associated vascular gene expression changes. In HEK293 cells, MR repressed miR-155 promoter activity. In cultured SMCs, miR-155 decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA. Compared to MR-intact littermates, aged SMC-MR-KO mice had decreased systolic BP, myogenic tone, SMC LTCC current, mesenteric vessel calcium influx, LTCC-induced vasoconstriction and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Restoration of miR-155 specifically in SMCs of aged MR-intact mice decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA and attenuated LTCC-mediated and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Finally, in a trial of MR blockade in elderly humans, changes in serum miR-155 predicted the BP treatment response. Thus, SMC-MR regulation of miR-155, C