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Sample records for receptor promotes longevity

  1. Cell Non-Autonomous Activation of Flavin-containing Monooxygenase Promotes Longevity and Healthspan

    PubMed Central

    Leiser, Scott F.; Fletcher, Marissa; Leonard, Alison; Primitivo, Melissa; Rintala, Nicholas; Ramos, Fresnida J.; Miller, Dana L.; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) increases lifespan and healthspan in nematodes through an unknown mechanism. We report that neuronal stabilization of HIF-1 mediates these effects in C. elegans through a cell non-autonomous signal to the intestine resulting in activation of the xenobiotic detoxification enzyme flavin-containing monooxygenase-2 (FMO-2). This pro-longevity signal requires the serotonin biosynthetic enzyme TPH-1 in neurons and the serotonin receptor SER-7 in the intestine. Intestinal FMO-2 is also activated by dietary restriction (DR) and necessary for DR-mediated lifespan extension, suggesting that this enzyme represents a point of convergence for two distinct longevity pathways. FMOs are conserved in eukaryotes and induced by multiple lifespan-extending interventions in mice, suggesting that these enzymes may play a critical role in promoting health and longevity across phyla. PMID:26586189

  2. Lithium Promotes Longevity through GSK3/NRF2-Dependent Hormesis

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Li, Li; Kinghorn, Kerri J.; Ivanov, Dobril K.; Tain, Luke S.; Slack, Cathy; Kerr, Fiona; Nespital, Tobias; Thornton, Janet; Hardy, John; Bjedov, Ivana; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Summary The quest to extend healthspan via pharmacological means is becoming increasingly urgent, both from a health and economic perspective. Here we show that lithium, a drug approved for human use, promotes longevity and healthspan. We demonstrate that lithium extends lifespan in female and male Drosophila, when administered throughout adulthood or only later in life. The life-extending mechanism involves the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF-2). Combining genetic loss of the NRF-2 repressor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) with lithium treatment revealed that high levels of NRF-2 activation conferred stress resistance, while low levels additionally promoted longevity. The discovery of GSK-3 as a therapeutic target for aging will likely lead to more effective treatments that can modulate mammalian aging and further improve health in later life. PMID:27068460

  3. Cell nonautonomous activation of flavin-containing monooxygenase promotes longevity and health span.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Scott F; Miller, Hillary; Rossner, Ryan; Fletcher, Marissa; Leonard, Alison; Primitivo, Melissa; Rintala, Nicholas; Ramos, Fresnida J; Miller, Dana L; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2015-12-11

    Stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) increases life span and health span in nematodes through an unknown mechanism. We report that neuronal stabilization of HIF-1 mediates these effects in Caenorhabditis elegans through a cell nonautonomous signal to the intestine, which results in activation of the xenobiotic detoxification enzyme flavin-containing monooxygenase-2 (FMO-2). This prolongevity signal requires the serotonin biosynthetic enzyme TPH-1 in neurons and the serotonin receptor SER-7 in the intestine. Intestinal FMO-2 is also activated by dietary restriction (DR) and is necessary for DR-mediated life-span extension, which suggests that this enzyme represents a point of convergence for two distinct longevity pathways. FMOs are conserved in eukaryotes and induced by multiple life span-extending interventions in mice, which suggests that these enzymes may play a critical role in promoting health and longevity across phyla.

  4. Association of vitamin D receptor with longevity and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Najmi Varzaneh, Farnaz; Sharifi, Farshad; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Mirarefin, Mojde; Maghbooli, Zhila; Ghaderpanahi, Maryam; Larijani, Bagher; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Longevity is a multifaceted trait in which variety of genes and environmental factors are involved. Newly, the role of vitamin D has been revived regarding its potential advantage on delaying the aging process. Vitamin D exerts its effect through vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR-FokI is the only polymorphism which alters the VDR length. We examined the frequency of FokI genotypes in old age population as compared to young adults to determine the discerning genotype of FokI polymorphism leading to longer living. In addition, to highlight the position of FokІ polymorphism in quality of life; a cognitive function assessment was performed. 728 participants participated in this study of which 166 individuals were elderly residents of Kahrizak Charity Foundation. The rest were participants of Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and VDR genotype was detected by the polymerase chain reaction. The participants in the elderly group underwent a cognitive function assessment. Cognitive function was measured with the mini mental state examination (MMSE). Data were analyzed by SPSS 16.5. The prevalence of ff genotype showed 48% decrease in elderly population as compared to young adults (P=0.06). In addition, F allele was over-represented in the elderly group as compared to controls (P=0.05). Also, "FF" participants of elderly group had higher MMSE as compared to "ff" genotype (18.16Vs17.12). Our data suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FokI may be possibly involved in longevity and cognitive function. PMID:23690102

  5. Identification of longevity, fertility and growth-promoting properties of pomegranate in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kılıçgün, Hasan; Arda, Nazlı; Uçar, Evren Önay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is commonly consumed as fresh fruit and fruit juice. It is also used in the production of jam, wine, food coloring agent, and flavor enhancer. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the possible longevity, fertility and growth promoting properties of different ethanolic extract concentrations of pomegranate in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is increasingly popular and has proven to be a very useful experimental model organism for aging studies as well as for testing antioxidants and other compounds for effects on longevity. Materials and Methods: In this study, five experimental groups (20, 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg pomegranate extract/mL and one control group) were used to determine the most effective dose of pomegranate in terms of longevity, fertility and growth parameters. Results: It was seen that, pomegranate extracts up to the concentration of 5 mg/mL, had the potential to promote for the longevity, formation of new generations, fertility of new generations and growth properties of C. elegans although higher concentrations significantly reduced these parameters. Conclusion: these findings indicated that pomegranate could be used as a supplement to enhance longevity, fertility and growth rate for the other living organisms and human beings, but the dose should be carefully adjusted to avoid adverse effects. PMID:25829775

  6. Promoting longevity by maintaining metabolic and proliferative homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifen; Karpac, Jason; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a widespread loss of homeostasis in biological systems. An important part of this decline is caused by age-related deregulation of regulatory processes that coordinate cellular responses to changing environmental conditions, maintaining cell and tissue function. Studies in genetically accessible model organisms have made significant progress in elucidating the function of such regulatory processes and the consequences of their deregulation for tissue function and longevity. Here, we review such studies, focusing on the characterization of processes that maintain metabolic and proliferative homeostasis in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The primary regulatory axis addressed in these studies is the interaction between signaling pathways that govern the response to oxidative stress, and signaling pathways that regulate cellular metabolism and growth. The interaction between these pathways has important consequences for animal physiology, and its deregulation in the aging organism is a major cause for increased mortality. Importantly, protocols to tune such interactions genetically to improve homeostasis and extend lifespan have been established by work in flies. This includes modulation of signaling pathway activity in specific tissues, including adipose tissue and insulin-producing tissues, as well as in specific cell types, such as stem cells of the fly intestine.

  7. The Somatic Reproductive Tissues of C. elegans Promote Longevity through Steroid Hormone Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yamawaki, Tracy M.; Berman, Jennifer R.; Suchanek-Kavipurapu, Monika; McCormick, Mark; Gaglia, Marta Maria; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, removing the germline precursor cells increases lifespan. In worms, and possibly also in flies, this lifespan extension requires the presence of somatic reproductive tissues. How the somatic gonad signals other tissues to increase lifespan is not known. The lifespan increase triggered by loss of the germ cells is known to require sterol hormone signaling, as reducing the activity of the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, or genes required for synthesis of the DAF-12 ligand dafachronic acid, prevents germline loss from extending lifespan. In addition to sterol signaling, the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required to extend lifespan in animals that lack germ cells. DAF-12/NHR is known to assist with the nuclear accumulation of DAF-16/FOXO in these animals, yet we find that loss of DAF-12/NHR has little or no effect on the expression of at least some DAF-16/FOXO target genes. In this study, we show that the DAF-12-sterol signaling pathway has a second function to activate a distinct set of genes and extend lifespan in response to the somatic reproductive tissues. When germline-deficient animals lacking somatic reproductive tissues are given dafachronic acid, their expression of DAF-12/NHR-dependent target genes is restored and their lifespan is increased. Together, our findings indicate that in C. elegans lacking germ cells, the somatic reproductive tissues promote longevity via steroid hormone signaling to DAF-12. PMID:20824162

  8. Longevity-Promoting Pharmaceuticals: Is it a Time for Implementation?

    PubMed

    Vaiserman, Alexander M; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    Recent experimental studies demonstrate that medications targeting aging (antioxidants, calorie restriction mimetics, autophagy inductors, etc.) can substantially promote health and extend lifespan. Pharmacologically targeting aging appears to be more effective in preventing age-related pathology compared with treatments targeted to particular pathologies. The development of new antiaging drugs represents a great opportunity for the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries. PMID:27113007

  9. Brain Molecular Aging, Promotion of Neurological Disease and Modulation by Sirtuin5 Longevity Gene Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Glorioso, Christin; Oh, Sunghee; Douillard, Gaelle Guilloux; Sibille, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms determining characteristic age of onset for neurological diseases are largely unknown. Normal brain aging associates with robust and progressive transcriptome changes (“molecular aging”), but the intersection with disease pathways is mostly uncharacterized. Here, using cross-cohort microarray analysis of four human brain areas, we show that neurological disease pathways largely overlap with molecular aging and that subjects carrying a newly-characterized low-expressing polymorphism in a putative longevity gene (Sirtuin5; SIRT5prom2) have older brain molecular ages. Specifically, molecular aging was remarkably conserved across cohorts and brain areas, and included numerous developmental and transcription-regulator genes. Neurological disease-associated genes were highly overrepresented within age-related genes and changed almost unanimously in pro-disease directions, together suggesting an underlying genetic “program” of aging that progressively promotes disease. To begin testing this putative pathway, we developed and used an age-biosignature to assess five candidate longevity gene polymorphisms association with molecular aging rates. Most robustly, aging was accelerated in cingulate, but not amygdala, of subjects carrying a SIRT5 promoter polymorphism (+9yrs, p=0.004), in concordance with cingulate-specific decreased SIRT5 expression. This effect was driven by a set of core transcripts (+24 yrs, p=0.0004), many of which were mitochondrial, including Parkinson’s disease genes, PINK1 and DJ1/PARK7, hence suggesting that SIRT5prom2 may represent a risk factor for mitochondrial dysfunction-related diseases, including Parkinson s, through accelerated molecular aging of disease-related genes. Based on these results we speculate that a “common mechanism” may underlie age of onset across several neurological diseases. Confirming this pathway and its regulation by common genetic variants would provide new strategies for predicting, delaying, and

  10. RNA helicase HEL-1 promotes longevity by specifically activating DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mihwa; Seo, Keunhee; Hwang, Wooseon; Koo, Hee Jung; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Yang, Jae-Seong; Han, Seong Kyu; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Sanguk; Jang, Sung Key; Lee, Yoontae; Nam, Hong Gil; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2015-08-01

    The homeostatic maintenance of the genomic DNA is crucial for regulating aging processes. However, the role of RNA homeostasis in aging processes remains unknown. RNA helicases are a large family of enzymes that regulate the biogenesis and homeostasis of RNA. However, the functional significance of RNA helicases in aging has not been explored. Here, we report that a large fraction of RNA helicases regulate the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, we show that a DEAD-box RNA helicase, helicase 1 (HEL-1), promotes longevity by specifically activating the DAF-16/forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor signaling pathway. We find that HEL-1 is required for the longevity conferred by reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) and is sufficient for extending lifespan. We further show that the expression of HEL-1 in the intestine and neurons contributes to longevity. HEL-1 enhances the induction of a large fraction of DAF-16 target genes. Thus, the RNA helicase HEL-1 appears to promote longevity in response to decreased IIS as a transcription coregulator of DAF-16. Because HEL-1 and IIS are evolutionarily well conserved, a similar mechanism for longevity regulation via an RNA helicase-dependent regulation of FOXO signaling may operate in mammals, including humans. PMID:26195740

  11. RNA helicase HEL-1 promotes longevity by specifically activating DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mihwa; Seo, Keunhee; Hwang, Wooseon; Koo, Hee Jung; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Yang, Jae-Seong; Han, Seong Kyu; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Sanguk; Jang, Sung Key; Lee, Yoontae; Nam, Hong Gil; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2015-08-01

    The homeostatic maintenance of the genomic DNA is crucial for regulating aging processes. However, the role of RNA homeostasis in aging processes remains unknown. RNA helicases are a large family of enzymes that regulate the biogenesis and homeostasis of RNA. However, the functional significance of RNA helicases in aging has not been explored. Here, we report that a large fraction of RNA helicases regulate the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, we show that a DEAD-box RNA helicase, helicase 1 (HEL-1), promotes longevity by specifically activating the DAF-16/forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor signaling pathway. We find that HEL-1 is required for the longevity conferred by reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) and is sufficient for extending lifespan. We further show that the expression of HEL-1 in the intestine and neurons contributes to longevity. HEL-1 enhances the induction of a large fraction of DAF-16 target genes. Thus, the RNA helicase HEL-1 appears to promote longevity in response to decreased IIS as a transcription coregulator of DAF-16. Because HEL-1 and IIS are evolutionarily well conserved, a similar mechanism for longevity regulation via an RNA helicase-dependent regulation of FOXO signaling may operate in mammals, including humans.

  12. DAF-16 employs the chromatin remodeller SWI/SNF to promote stress resistance and longevity.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Christian G; Dowen, Robert H; Lourenco, Guinevere F; Kirienko, Natalia V; Heimbucher, Thomas; West, Jason A; Bowman, Sarah K; Kingston, Robert E; Dillin, Andrew; Asara, John M; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-05-01

    Organisms are constantly challenged by stresses and privations and require adaptive responses for their survival. The forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor DAF-16 (hereafter referred to as DAF-16/FOXO) is a central nexus in these responses, but despite its importance little is known about how it regulates its target genes. Proteomic identification of DAF-16/FOXO-binding partners in Caenorhabditis elegans and their subsequent functional evaluation by RNA interference revealed several candidate DAF-16/FOXO cofactors, most notably the chromatin remodeller SWI/SNF. DAF-16/FOXO and SWI/SNF form a complex and globally co-localize at DAF-16/FOXO target promoters. We show that specifically for gene activation, DAF-16/FOXO depends on SWI/SNF, facilitating SWI/SNF recruitment to target promoters, to activate transcription by presumed remodelling of local chromatin. For the animal, this translates into an essential role for SWI/SNF in DAF-16/FOXO-mediated processes, in particular dauer formation, stress resistance and the promotion of longevity. Thus, we give insight into the mechanisms of DAF-16/FOXO-mediated transcriptional regulation and establish a critical link between ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling and lifespan regulation.

  13. Autophagy and leucine promote chronological longevity and respiration proficiency during calorie restriction in yeast.

    PubMed

    Aris, John P; Alvers, Ashley L; Ferraiuolo, Roy A; Fishwick, Laura K; Hanvivatpong, Amanda; Hu, Doreen; Kirlew, Christine; Leonard, Michael T; Losin, Kyle J; Marraffini, Michelle; Seo, Arnold Y; Swanberg, Veronica; Westcott, Jennifer L; Wood, Michael S; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Dunn, William A

    2013-10-01

    We have previously shown that autophagy is required for chronological longevity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we examine the requirements for autophagy during extension of chronological life span (CLS) by calorie restriction (CR). We find that autophagy is upregulated by two CR interventions that extend CLS: water wash CR and low glucose CR. Autophagy is required for full extension of CLS during water wash CR under all growth conditions tested. In contrast, autophagy was not uniformly required for full extension of CLS during low glucose CR, depending on the atg allele and strain genetic background. Leucine status influenced CLS during CR. Eliminating the leucine requirement in yeast strains or adding supplemental leucine to growth media extended CLS during CR. In addition, we observed that both water wash and low glucose CR promote mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging of autophagy-deficient yeast. In general, the extension of CLS by water wash or low glucose CR was inversely related to respiration deficiency in autophagy-deficient cells. Also, autophagy is required for full extension of CLS under non-CR conditions in buffered media, suggesting that extension of CLS during CR is not solely due to reduced medium acidity. Thus, our findings show that autophagy is: (1) induced by CR, (2) required for full extension of CLS by CR in most cases (depending on atg allele, strain, and leucine availability) and, (3) promotes mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging under CR conditions.

  14. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    PubMed

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases. PMID:24291541

  15. Functional granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor is constitutively expressed on neoplastic plasma cells and mediates tumour cell longevity.

    PubMed

    Villunger, A; Egle, A; Kos, M; Egle, D; Tinhofer, I; Henn, T; Uberall, F; Maly, K; Greil, R

    1998-09-01

    It has been shown that granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is able to support myeloma cell propagation in cooperation with interleukin (IL)-6, the major growth factor for malignant plasma cells, although the biological mechanisms involved remain unknown. Therefore we investigated (i) the expression levels of the GM-CSF receptor (GM-CSFR) constituents in three malignant plasma cell lines and in native malignant plasma cells, (ii) the ability of the receptor to mediate common signalling pathways regulating proliferation and cell survival in malignant plasma cell lines, and (iii) the effects of GM-CSF on tumour cell biology. The GM-CSFRalpha subunit was detected in the malignant plasma cell lines RPMI-8226, MC/CAR, IM-9 as well as 6/6 native myeloma cell samples derived from the bone marrow of patients with overt disease. Furthermore, GM-CSFR expression was also detected in the CD19+ fraction from 2/3 bone marrow samples and 5/8 peripheral blood samples derived from patients with malignant plasma cell disorders, but not in the CD19+ fraction of peripheral blood from healthy donors. The expressed cytokine receptor alpha-subunit was able to constitute a functional signalling complex with the ubiquitously expressed GM-CSFRbeta subunit, as demonstrated by the fact that GM-CSF induced the p21-ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascade in malignant plasma cell lines. Since this signalling cascade plays an essential role in the mediation of both proliferation and cell survival, we investigated the impact of GM-CSF on these two events. Application of GM-CSF led to an increase of DNA-synthesis in MC/CAR, IM-9 and RPMI-8226 cells. Furthermore, it increased longevity of these malignant plasma cell lines by reducing the rates of spontaneous apoptosis. We conclude that (i) the functional GM-CSFR is commonly expressed on malignant plasma cells and that (ii) GM-CSF promotes the clonal expansion of myeloma cells by inhibiting spontaneous

  16. Mondo complexes regulate TFEB via TOR inhibition to promote longevity in response to gonadal signals

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Shuhei; Karalay, Özlem; Jäger, Philipp S.; Horikawa, Makoto; Klein, Corinna; Nakamura, Kayo; Latza, Christian; Templer, Sven E.; Dieterich, Christoph; Antebi, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Germline removal provokes longevity in several species and shifts resources towards survival and repair. Several Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factors regulate longevity arising from germline removal; yet, how they work together is unknown. Here we identify a Myc-like HLH transcription factor network comprised of Mondo/Max-like complex (MML-1/MXL-2) to be required for longevity induced by germline removal, as well as by reduced TOR, insulin/IGF signalling and mitochondrial function. Germline removal increases MML-1 nuclear accumulation and activity. Surprisingly, MML-1 regulates nuclear localization and activity of HLH-30/TFEB, a convergent regulator of autophagy, lysosome biogenesis and longevity, by downregulating TOR signalling via LARS-1/leucyl-transfer RNA synthase. HLH-30 also upregulates MML-1 upon germline removal. Mammalian MondoA/B and TFEB show similar mutual regulation. MML-1/MXL-2 and HLH-30 transcriptomes show both shared and preferential outputs including MDL-1/MAD-like HLH factor required for longevity. These studies reveal how an extensive interdependent HLH transcription factor network distributes responsibility and mutually enforces states geared towards reproduction or survival. PMID:27001890

  17. Mondo complexes regulate TFEB via TOR inhibition to promote longevity in response to gonadal signals.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shuhei; Karalay, Özlem; Jäger, Philipp S; Horikawa, Makoto; Klein, Corinna; Nakamura, Kayo; Latza, Christian; Templer, Sven E; Dieterich, Christoph; Antebi, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Germline removal provokes longevity in several species and shifts resources towards survival and repair. Several Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factors regulate longevity arising from germline removal; yet, how they work together is unknown. Here we identify a Myc-like HLH transcription factor network comprised of Mondo/Max-like complex (MML-1/MXL-2) to be required for longevity induced by germline removal, as well as by reduced TOR, insulin/IGF signalling and mitochondrial function. Germline removal increases MML-1 nuclear accumulation and activity. Surprisingly, MML-1 regulates nuclear localization and activity of HLH-30/TFEB, a convergent regulator of autophagy, lysosome biogenesis and longevity, by downregulating TOR signalling via LARS-1/leucyl-transfer RNA synthase. HLH-30 also upregulates MML-1 upon germline removal. Mammalian MondoA/B and TFEB show similar mutual regulation. MML-1/MXL-2 and HLH-30 transcriptomes show both shared and preferential outputs including MDL-1/MAD-like HLH factor required for longevity. These studies reveal how an extensive interdependent HLH transcription factor network distributes responsibility and mutually enforces states geared towards reproduction or survival. PMID:27001890

  18. Secrets of long life: cross-cultural explorations in sustainably enhancing vitality and promoting longevity via elders' practice wisdom.

    PubMed

    Pesek, Todd; Reminick, Ronald; Nair, Murali

    2010-01-01

    In searching for different patterns of practice, lifestyle, and environment supportive of optimal health, we look to our elders around the world, who in the wisdom that has sustained them, we learn from with careful attention. Thirty-seven elders who live by their traditions participated in the present study. They assisted in the refinement of the methodology and collections and preparation of these data. These participants are well-respected, representative elders and traditional healers of their regions. These data, from study sites of the Eastern Afromontane and Albertine Rift region of Ethiopia, Africa; the Maya Mountains region of Belize, Central America; the Western Ghats region of India; and the Appalachian Mountains region of the United States, were grouped into three major categories: (1) philosophy, attitudes, and outlook, (2) lifestyle practices, and (3) dietary and nutritional practices. These elders demonstrate a relatively comprehensive but simple set of practices that can enhance our vitality and promote longevity sustainably. In essence, these practices, or practice wisdom, of our longest living elders, promote propagation of healthful lifestyles by following traditional ways and taking care of body, mind, spirit and our environment. Further field research among a larger cohort is required to fully generalize the findings of this study, but much of it is consistent with what we already know should be done. These data begin illustration of practice wisdom for implementation and serve to engage our universities, our hospitals, our industries, and our students, who we must position toward social change. PMID:21040883

  19. An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 μg/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective

  20. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor polymorphism rs2229765 and circulating interleukin-6 level affect male longevity in a population-based prospective study (Treviso Longeva--TRELONG).

    PubMed

    Albani, Diego; Mazzuco, Stefano; Polito, Letizia; Batelli, Sara; Biella, Gloria; Ongaro, Fausta; Gustafson, Deborah R; Antuono, Piero; Gajo, Gianbattista; Durante, Elisabetta; Caberlotto, Livio; Zanardo, Andrea; Siculi, Marinella; Gallucci, Maurizio; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2011-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling modulation has been associated with increased lifespan in model organisms, while high levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) are a marker of disability and mortality. In the prospective, population-based "Treviso Longeva"--TRELONG Study from Italy (n = 668, age range 70-105.5 years at baseline, followed for seven years) we investigated the effects of survival on the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) gene polymorphism rs2229765, the IL-6 gene promoter polymorphism rs1800795, and plasma concentrations of IGF-1 and IL-6, alone or in combination. We found a sex-dependent effect for the IGF-1R rs2229765 polymorphism, as male carriers of the homozygous A/A genotype survived longer, while the IL-6 rs1800795 genotype did not influence overall or sex-specific longevity. Higher IL-6 levels were more detrimental for survival among males than females, while IGF-1 had no dose-response effect. These findings sustain the hypothesis that sex-specific longevity relies on detectable differences in genetic and biochemical parameters between males and females.

  1. The novel adjuvant dmLT promotes dose sparing, mucosal immunity and longevity of antibody responses to the inactivated polio vaccine in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth B; Bauer, David L; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Lawson, Louise B; Clements, John D

    2015-04-15

    One option for achieving global polio eradication is to replace the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), which has the risk of reversion to wild-type virulence, with the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) vaccine. Adjuvants and alternate routes of immunization are promising options that may reduce antigen dose in IPV vaccinations, potentially allowing dose sparing and cost savings. Use of adjuvants and alternate routes of immunization could also help promote mucosal immunity, potentially mimicking the protection against intestinal virus shedding seen with OPV. In the current study, we examined the impact of combining the novel adjuvant dmLT with trivalent IPV for dose sparing, induction of mucosal immunity and increasing longevity of anti-poliovirus (PV) responses in a mouse model following either intradermal (ID) or intramuscular (IM) delivery. We found that non-adjuvanted ID delivery was not superior to IM delivery for fractional dose sparing, but was associated with development of mucosal immunity. Vaccination with IPV+dmLT promoted serum anti-PV neutralizing antibodies with fractional IPV doses by either IM or ID delivery, achieving at least five-fold dose sparing above non-adjuvanted fractional doses. These responses were most noticeable with the PV1 component of the trivalent vaccine. dmLT also promoted germinal center formation and longevity of serum anti-PV neutralizing titers. Lastly, dmLT enhanced mucosal immunity, as defined by fecal and intestinal anti-PV IgA secretion, when included in IPV immunization by ID or IM delivery. These studies demonstrate that dmLT is an effective adjuvant for either IM or ID delivery of IPV. Inclusion of dmLT in IPV immunizations allows antigen dose sparing and enhances mucosal immunity and longevity of anti-PV responses.

  2. The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging and Aging-related Diseases to Improve Health and Longevity of the Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kunlin; Simpkins, James W.; Ji, Xunming; Leis, Miriam; Stambler, Ilia

    2015-01-01

    Due to the aging of the global population and the derivative increase in aging-related non-communicable diseases and their economic burden, there is an urgent need to promote research on aging and aging-related diseases as a way to improve healthy and productive longevity for the elderly population. To accomplish this goal, we advocate the following policies: 1) Increasing funding for research and development specifically directed to ameliorate degenerative aging processes and to extend healthy and productive lifespan for the population; 2) Providing a set of incentives for commercial, academic, public and governmental organizations to foster engagement in such research and development; and 3) Establishing and expanding coordination and consultation structures, programs and institutions involved in aging-related research, development and education in academia, industry, public policy agencies and at governmental and supra-governmental levels. PMID:25657847

  3. Mitotic degradation of yeast Fkh1 by the Anaphase Promoting Complex is required for normal longevity, genomic stability and stress resistance

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Mackenzie E.; Postnikoff, Spike D.L.; Arnason, Terra G.; Harkness, Troy A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Forkhead Box (Fox) orthologs, Forkheads (Fkh) 1 and 2, are conserved transcription factors required for stress response, cell cycle progression and longevity. These yeast proteins play a key role in mitotic progression through activation of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC) via transcriptional control. Here, we used genetic and molecular analyses to demonstrate that the APC E3 activity is necessary for mitotic Fkh1 protein degradation and subsequent cell cycle progression. We report that Fkh1 protein degradation occurs specifically during mitosis, requires APCCdc20 and proteasome activity, and that a stable Fkh1 mutant reduces normal chronological lifespan, increases genomic instability, and increases sensitivity to stress. Our data supports a model whereby cell cycle progression through mitosis and G1 requires the targeted degradation of Fkh1 by the APC. This is significant to many fields as these results impact our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the control of aging and cancer. PMID:27099939

  4. Longevity, mortality and body weight.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Thomas T; Storms, Lowell H; Elrick, Harold

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation of total body weight to longevity and mortality. The MEDLINE database was searched for data that allow analysis of the relationship between absolute body weight and longevity or mortality. Additional data were used involving US veterans and baseball players. Trend lines of age at death versus body weight are presented. Findings show absolute body size is negatively related to longevity and life expectancy and positively to mortality. Trend lines show an average age at death versus weight slope of -0.4 years/kg. We also found that gender differences in longevity may be due to differences in body size. Animal research is consistent with the findings presented. Biological mechanisms are also presented to explain why increased body mass may reduce longevity. Life expectancy has increased dramatically through improved public health measures and medical care and reduced malnutrition. However, overnourishment and increased body size have promoted an epidemic of chronic disease and reduced our potential longevity. In addition, both excess lean body mass and fat mass may promote chronic disease.

  5. Homocysteine and Familial Longevity: The Leiden Longevity Study

    PubMed Central

    Wijsman, Carolien A.; van Heemst, Diana; Rozing, Maarten P.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Maier, Andrea B.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Blom, Henk J.; Mooijaart, Simon P.

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine concentrations are a read-out of methionine metabolism and have been related to changes in lifespan in animal models. In humans, high homocysteine concentrations are an important predictor of age related disease. We aimed to explore the association of homocysteine with familial longevity by testing whether homocysteine is lower in individuals that are genetically enriched for longevity. We measured concentrations of total homocysteine in 1907 subjects from the Leiden Longevity Study consisting of 1309 offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who are enriched with familial factors promoting longevity, and 598 partners thereof as population controls. We found that homocysteine was related to age, creatinine, folate, vitamin B levels and medical history of hypertension and stroke in both groups (all p<0.001). However, levels of homocysteine did not differ between offspring enriched for longevity and their partners, and no differences in the age-related rise in homocysteine levels were found between groups (p for interaction 0.63). The results suggest that homocysteine metabolism is not likely to predict familial longevity. PMID:21408159

  6. A New Schizosaccharomyces pombe Chronological Lifespan Assay Reveals that Caloric Restriction Promotes Efficient Cell Cycle Exit and Extends Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo-Ruei; Runge, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new chronological lifespan (CLS) assay for the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Yeast CLS assays monitor the loss of cell viability in a culture over time, and this new assay shows a continuous decline in viability without detectable regrowth until all cells in the culture are dead. Thus, the survival curve is not altered by the generation of mutants that can grow during the experiments, and one can monitor the entire lifespan of a strain until the number of viable cells has decreased over 106-fold. This CLS assay recapitulates the evolutionarily conserved features of lifespan shortening by over nutrition, lifespan extension by caloric restriction, increased stress resistance of calorically restricted cells and lifespan control by the AKT kinases. Both S. pombe AKT kinase orthologs regulate CLS: loss of sck1+ extended lifespan in over nutrition conditions, loss of sck2+ extended lifespan under both normal and over nutrition conditions, and loss of both genes showed that sck1+ and sck2+ control different longevity pathways. The longest-lived S. pombe cells showed the most efficient cell cycle exit, demonstrating that caloric restriction links these two processes. This new S. pombe CLS assay will provide a valuable tool for aging research. PMID:19409973

  7. Adenosine receptor agonists for promotion of dermal wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Valls, María D.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Montesinos, M. Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex process that involves a well coordinated, highly regulated series of events including inflammation, tissue formation, revascularization and tissue remodeling. However, this orderly sequence is impaired in certain pathophysiological conditions such as diabetes mellitus, venous insufficiency, chronic glucocorticoid use, aging and malnutrition. Together with proper wound care, promotion of the healing process is the primary objective in the management of chronic poorly healing wounds. Recent studies have demonstrated that A2A adenosine receptor agonists promote wound healing in normal and diabetic animals and one such agonist, Sonedenoson, is currently being evaluated as a prospective new therapy of diabetic foot ulcers. We will review the mechanisms by which adenosine receptor activation affects the function of the cells and tissues that participate in wound healing, emphasizing the potential beneficial impact of adenosine receptor agonists in diabetic impaired healing. PMID:19041853

  8. Tor-Sch9 deficiency activates catabolism of the ketone body-like acetic acid to promote trehalose accumulation and longevity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Wei, Min; Mirzaei, Hamed; Madia, Federica; Mirisola, Mario; Amparo, Camille; Chagoury, Shawna; Kennedy, Brian; Longo, Valter D

    2014-06-01

    In mammals, extended periods of fasting leads to the accumulation of blood ketone bodies including acetoacetate. Here we show that similar to the conversion of leucine to acetoacetate in fasting mammals, starvation conditions induced ketone body-like acetic acid generation from leucine in S. cerevisiae. Whereas wild-type and ras2Δ cells accumulated acetic acid, long-lived tor1Δ and sch9Δ mutants rapidly depleted it through a mitochondrial acetate CoA transferase-dependent mechanism, which was essential for lifespan extension. The sch9Δ-dependent utilization of acetic acid also required coenzyme Q biosynthetic genes and promoted the accumulation of intracellular trehalose. These results indicate that Tor-Sch9 deficiency extends longevity by switching cells to an alternative metabolic mode, in which acetic acid can be utilized for the storage of stress resistance carbon sources. These effects are reminiscent of those described for ketone bodies in fasting mammals and raise the possibility that the lifespan extension caused by Tor-S6K inhibition may also involve analogous metabolic changes in higher eukaryotes.

  9. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  10. The functional VNTR of IGH enhancer HS1.2 associates with human longevity and interacts with TNFA promoter diplotype in a population of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Napolioni, Valerio; Serone, Eliseo; Iacoacci, Valentina; Carpi, Francesco M; Giambra, Vincenzo; Frezza, Domenico

    2014-11-10

    The dysregulation of both immune and inflammatory responses occurring with aging is believed to substantially contribute to morbidity and mortality in humans. We have already reported the association of the functional Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) at the Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) enhancer HS1.2 with Immunoglobulin levels and with several autoimmune diseases. Herein we tested the association of the VNTR at the HS1.2 enhancer with human longevity, also evaluating the possible modulatory effect of TNFA promoter diplotype (rs361525/rs1800629). HS1.2 enhancer genotypes have been determined for 193 unrelated healthy individuals from Central Italy divided into two groups: Group 1 (18-84 yrs, mean age 56.8 ± 19.4) and Group 2 (85-100 yrs, mean age 93.0 ± 3.5). Homozygous subjects for 2 allele were significantly disadvantaged in reaching higher life-expectancy (OR=0.457, p=0.021). A significant interaction between TNFA promoter diplotype status, HS1.2 2/2 genotype and the two Groups was found (p=0.014). Of note, TNFA -308A allele seems to exert a protective effect in HS1.2 2/2 carriers. These results support the hypothesis of an important role of HS1.2 VNTR in the puzzle of the immune-system regulation, evidenced also by the potential interaction with TNFA. Moreover, the previous results showing the association of HS1.2 2 allele with inflammatory phenomena are consistent with the hypothesis that this allele is a detrimental factor in reaching advanced age.

  11. Regulation of longevity by the reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Antebi, Adam

    2013-07-01

    Pioneering work in model organisms reveals that the reproductive system is involved not only in propagation of the species but also regulates organismal metabolism and longevity. In C. elegans, prevention of germline stem cell proliferation results in a 60% extension of lifespan, termed gonadal longevity. Gonadal longevity relies on the transcriptional activities of steroid nuclear receptor DAF-12, the FOXO transcription factor homolog DAF-16, the FOXA transcription factor homolog PHA-4, and the HNF-4-like nuclear receptor NHR-80. These transcription factors work in an integrated transcriptional network to regulate fatty acid lipolysis, autophagy, stress resistance and other processes, which altogether enhance homeostasis and extend life. Because the reproductive system also regulates longevity in other species, studies in C. elegans may shed light on ancient mechanisms governing reproduction and survival.

  12. Phorbol esters promote alpha 1-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and receptor uncoupling from inositol phospholipid metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Leeb-Lundberg, L M; Cotecchia, S; Lomasney, J W; DeBernardis, J F; Lefkowitz, R J; Caron, M G

    1985-01-01

    DDT1 MF-2 cells, which are derived from hamster vas deferens smooth muscle, contain alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (54,800 +/- 2700 sites per cell) that are coupled to stimulation of inositol phospholipid metabolism. Incubation of these cells with tumor-promoting phorbol esters, which stimulate calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, leads to a marked attenuation of the ability of alpha 1-receptor agonists such as norepinephrine to stimulate the turnover of inositol phospholipids. This turnover was measured by determining the 32P content of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid after prelabeling of the cellular ATP pool with 32Pi. These phorbol ester-treated cells also displayed a decrease in binding affinity of cellular alpha 1 receptors for agonists with no change in antagonist affinity. By using affinity chromatography on the affinity resin Affi-Gel-A55414, the alpha 1 receptors were purified approximately equal to 300-fold from control and phorbol ester-treated 32Pi-prelabeled cells. As assessed by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the Mr 80,000 alpha 1-receptor ligand-binding subunit is a phosphopeptide containing 1.2 mol of phosphate per mol of alpha 1 receptor. After phorbol ester treatment this increased to 3.6 mol of phosphate per mol of alpha 1 receptor. The effect of phorbol esters on norepinephrine-stimulated inositol phospholipid turnover and alpha 1-receptor phosphorylation showed the same rapid time course with a t1/2 less than 2 min. These results indicate that calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase may play an important role in regulating the function of receptors that are coupled to the inositol phospholipid cycle by phosphorylating and deactivating them. Images PMID:2994039

  13. Lack of serotonin1B receptor expression leads to age-related motor dysfunction, early onset of brain molecular aging and reduced longevity

    PubMed Central

    Sibille, E; Su, J; Leman, S; Le Guisquet, AM; Ibarguen-Vargas, Y; Joeyen-Waldorf, J; Glorioso, C; Tseng, GC; Pezzone, M; Hen, R; Belzung, C

    2008-01-01

    Normal aging of the brain differs from pathological conditions and is associated with increased risk for psychiatric and neurological disorders. In addition to its role in the etiology and treatment of mood disorders, altered serotonin (5-HT) signaling is considered a contributing factor to aging; however, no causative role has been identified in aging. We hypothesized that a deregulation of the 5-HT system would reveal its contribution to age-related processes and investigated behavioral and molecular changes throughout adult life in mice lacking the regulatory presynaptic 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR), a candidate gene for 5-HT-mediated age-related functions. We show that the lack of 5-HT1BR (Htr1bKO mice) induced an early age-related motor decline and resulted in decreased longevity. Analysis of life-long transcriptome changes revealed an early and global shift of the gene expression signature of aging in the brain of Htr1bKO mice. Moreover, molecular changes reached an apparent maximum effect at 18-months in Htr1bKO mice, corresponding to the onset of early death in that group. A comparative analysis with our previous characterization of aging in the human brain revealed a phylogenetic conservation of age-effect from mice to humans, and confirmed the early onset of molecular aging in Htr1bKO mice. Potential mechanisms appear independent of known central mechanisms (Bdnf, inflammation), but may include interactions with previously identified age-related systems (IGF-1, sirtuins). In summary, our findings suggest that the onset of age-related events can be influenced by altered 5-HT function, thus identifying 5-HT as a modulator of brain aging, and suggesting age-related consequences to chronic manipulation of 5-HT. PMID:17420766

  14. Innate immunity receptor CD36 promotes cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Laibaik; Zhou, Joan; Zhou, Ping; Pistick, Rose; El Jamal, Sleiman; Younkin, Linda; Pierce, Joseph; Arreguin, Andrea; Anrather, Josef; Younkin, Steven G.; Carlson, George A.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in cerebral arteries, known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), occurs both in the setting of Alzheimer’s disease and independent of it, and can cause cerebrovascular insufficiency and cognitive deficits. The mechanisms leading to CAA have not been established, and no therapeutic targets have been identified. We investigated the role of CD36, an innate immunity receptor involved in Aβ trafficking, in the neurovascular dysfunction, cognitive deficits, and amyloid accumulation that occurs in mice expressing the Swedish mutation of the amyloid precursor protein (Tg2576). We found that Tg2576 mice lacking CD36 have a selective reduction in Aβ1-40 and CAA. This reduced vascular amyloid deposition was associated with preservation of the Aβ vascular clearance receptor LRP-1, and protection from the deleterious effects of Aβ on cerebral arterioles. These beneficial vascular effects were reflected by marked improvements in neurovascular regulation and cognitive performance. Our data suggest that CD36 promotes vascular amyloid deposition and the resulting cerebrovascular damage, leading to neurovascular dysfunction and cognitive deficits. These findings identify a previously unrecognized role of CD36 in the mechanisms of vascular amyloid deposition, and suggest that this scavenger receptor is a putative therapeutic target for CAA and related conditions. PMID:23382216

  15. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-02-16

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress. PMID:26831097

  16. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress. PMID:26831097

  17. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-02-16

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress.

  18. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor promotes aging phenotypes across species

    PubMed Central

    Eckers, Anna; Jakob, Sascha; Heiss, Christian; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Goy, Christine; Brinkmann, Vanessa; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Sansone, Roberto; Esser, Charlotte; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Altschmied, Joachim; Ventura, Natascia; Haendeler, Judith

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces drug metabolizing enzymes as well as regulators of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Certain AhR ligands promote atherosclerosis, an age-associated vascular disease. Therefore, we investigated the role of AhR in vascular functionality and aging. We report a lower pulse wave velocity in young and old AhR-deficient mice, indicative of enhanced vessel elasticity. Moreover, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) showed increased activity in the aortas of these animals, which was reflected in increased NO production. Ex vivo, AhR activation reduced the migratory capacity of primary human endothelial cells. AhR overexpression as well as treatment with a receptor ligand, impaired eNOS activation and reduced S-NO content. All three are signs of endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, AhR expression in blood cells of healthy human volunteers positively correlated with vessel stiffness. In the aging model Caenorhabditis elegans, AhR-deficiency resulted in increased mean life span, motility, pharynx pumping and heat shock resistance, suggesting healthier aging. Thus, AhR seems to have a negative impact on vascular and organismal aging. Finally, our data from human subjects suggest that AhR expression levels could serve as an additional, new predictor of vessel aging. PMID:26790370

  19. The glycocalyx promotes cooperative binding and clustering of adhesion receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Qian, Jin; Hu, Jinglei

    2016-05-18

    Cell adhesion plays a pivotal role in various biological processes, e.g., immune responses, cancer metastasis, and stem cell differentiation. The adhesion behaviors depend subtly on the binding kinetics of receptors and ligands restricted at the cell-substrate interfaces. Although much effort has been directed toward investigating the kinetics of adhesion molecules, the role of the glycocalyx, anchored on cell surfaces as an exterior layer, is still unclear. In this paper, we propose a theoretical approach to study the collective binding kinetics of a few and a large number of binders in the presence of the glycocalyx, representing the cases of initial and mature adhesions of cells, respectively. The analytical results are validated by finding good agreement with our Monte Carlo simulations. In the force loading case, the on-rate and affinity increase as more bonds form, whereas this cooperative effect is not observed in the displacement loading case. The increased thickness and stiffness of the glycocalyx tend to decrease the affinity for a few bonds, while they have less influence on the affinity for a large number of bonds. Moreover, for a flexible membrane with thermally-excited shape fluctuations, the glycocalyx is exhibited to promote the formation of bond clusters, mainly due to the cooperative binding of binders. This study helps to understand the cooperative kinetics of adhesion receptors under physiologically relevant loading conditions and sheds light on the novel role of the glycocalyx in cell adhesion. PMID:27102288

  20. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  1. Exercise, Aging and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stanley P.; Cundiff, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether or not a lifelong program of exercise actually has a bearing on longevity is discussed. The effects of exercise on the aging process, and the longevity-exercise relationship are reviewed. The conflicting evidence on the subject is presented. (JL)

  2. Dissection of androgen receptor-promoter interactions: steroid receptors partition their interaction energetics in parallel with their phylogenetic divergence.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Rolando W; Yang, Qin; Miura, Michael T; Bain, David L

    2013-11-15

    Steroid receptors comprise a homologous family of ligand-activated transcription factors. The members include androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and progesterone receptor (PR). Phylogenetic studies demonstrate that AR, GR, MR, and PR are most closely related, falling into subgroup 3C. ER is more distantly related, falling into subgroup 3A. To determine the quantitative basis by which receptors generate their unique transcriptional responses, we are systematically dissecting the promoter-binding energetics of all receptors under a single "standard state" condition. Here, we examine the self-assembly and promoter-binding energetics of full-length AR and a mutant associated with prostate cancer, T877A. We first demonstrate that both proteins exist only as monomers, showing no evidence of dimerization. Although this result contradicts the traditional understanding that steroid receptors dimerize in the absence of DNA, it is fully consistent with our previous work demonstrating that GR and two PR isoforms either do not dimerize or dimerize only weakly. Moreover, both AR proteins exhibit substantial cooperativity between binding sites, again as seen for GR and PR. In sharp contrast, the more distantly related ER-α dimerizes so strongly that energetics can only be measured indirectly, yet cooperativity is negligible. Thus, homologous receptors partition their promoter-binding energetics quite differently. Moreover, since receptors most closely related by phylogeny partition their energetics similarly, such partitioning appears to be evolutionarily conserved. We speculate that such differences in energetics, coupled with different promoter architectures, serve as the basis for generating receptor-specific promoter occupancy and thus function.

  3. Exploring mechanisms of sex differences in longevity: lifetime ovary exposure and exceptional longevity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Waters, David J; Kengeri, Seema S; Clever, Beth; Booth, Julie A; Maras, Aimee H; Schlittler, Deborah L; Hayek, Michael G

    2009-12-01

    To move closer to understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of sex differences in human longevity, we studied pet dogs to determine whether lifetime duration of ovary exposure was associated with exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, age at death, and cause of death for a cohort of canine 'centenarians'--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than average life expectancy for the breed. Sex and lifetime ovary exposure in the oldest-old Rottweilers (age at death, > or = 13 years) were compared to a cohort of Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death, 8.0-10.8 years). Like women, female dogs were more likely than males to achieve exceptional longevity (OR, 95% CI = 2.0, 1.2-3.3; P = 0.006). However, removal of ovaries during the first 4 years of life erased the female survival advantage. In females, a strong positive association between ovaries and longevity persisted in multivariate analysis that considered other factors, such as height, body weight, and mother with exceptional longevity. A beneficial effect of ovaries on longevity in females could not be attributed to resistance against a particular disease or major cause of death. Our results document in dogs a female sex advantage for achieving exceptional longevity and show that lifetime ovary exposure, a factor not previously evaluated in women, is associated with exceptional longevity. This work introduces a conceptual framework for designing additional studies in pet dogs to define the ovary-sensitive biological processes that promote healthy human longevity. PMID:19732047

  4. Truncating Prolactin Receptor Mutations Promote Tumor Growth in Murine Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Mammary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Obi L; Chan, Szeman Ruby; Griffith, Malachi; Krysiak, Kilannin; Skidmore, Zachary L; Hundal, Jasreet; Allen, Julie A; Arthur, Cora D; Runci, Daniele; Bugatti, Mattia; Miceli, Alexander P; Schmidt, Heather; Trani, Lee; Kanchi, Krishna-Latha; Miller, Christopher A; Larson, David E; Fulton, Robert S; Vermi, William; Wilson, Richard K; Schreiber, Robert D; Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-09-27

    Estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ERα+) luminal tumors are the most frequent subtype of breast cancer. Stat1(-/-) mice develop mammary tumors that closely recapitulate the biological characteristics of this cancer subtype. To identify transforming events that contribute to tumorigenesis, we performed whole genome sequencing of Stat1(-/-) primary mammary tumors and matched normal tissues. This investigation identified somatic truncating mutations affecting the prolactin receptor (PRLR) in all tumor and no normal samples. Targeted sequencing confirmed the presence of these mutations in precancerous lesions, indicating that this is an early event in tumorigenesis. Functional evaluation of these heterozygous mutations in Stat1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that co-expression of truncated and wild-type PRLR led to aberrant STAT3 and STAT5 activation downstream of the receptor, cellular transformation in vitro, and tumor formation in vivo. In conclusion, truncating mutations of PRLR promote tumor growth in a model of human ERα+ breast cancer and warrant further investigation. PMID:27681435

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis.

  6. Oxytocin Receptor Genetic Variation Promotes Human Trust Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Frank; Parasuraman, Raja; Iyengar, Vijeth; Thornburg, Matthew; Weel, Jaap; Lin, Mingkuan; Clarke, Ellen; McCabe, Kevin; Lipsky, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Given that human trust behavior is heritable and intranasal administration of oxytocin enhances trust, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene is an excellent candidate to investigate genetic contributions to individual variations in trust behavior. Although a single-nucleotide polymorphism involving an adenine (A)/guanine (G) transition (rs53576) has been associated with socio-emotional phenotypes, its link to trust behavior is unclear. We combined genotyping of healthy male students (n = 108) with the administration of a trust game experiment. Our results show that a common occurring genetic variation (rs53576) in the OXTR gene is reliably associated with trust behavior rather than a general increase in trustworthy or risk behaviors. Individuals homozygous for the G allele (GG) showed higher trust behavior than individuals with A allele carriers (AA/AG). Although the molecular functionality of this polymorphism is still unknown, future research should clarify how the OXTR gene interacts with other genes and the environment in promoting socio-emotional behaviors. PMID:22347177

  7. Activated Scavenger Receptor A Promotes Glial Internalization of Aβ

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei-wei; Wang, Shao-wei; Xu, Peng-xin; Yu, Xiao-lin; Liu, Rui-tian

    2014-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates have a pivotal role in pathological processing of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The clearance of Aβ monomer or aggregates is a causal strategy for AD treatment. Microglia and astrocytes are the main macrophages that exert critical neuroprotective roles in the brain. They may effectively clear the toxic accumulation of Aβ at the initial stage of AD, however, their functions are attenuated because of glial overactivation. In this study, we first showed that heptapeptide XD4 activates the class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) on the glia by increasing the binding of Aβ to SR-A, thereby promoting glial phagocytosis of Aβ oligomer in microglia and astrocytes and triggering intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. Moreover, XD4 enhances the internalization of Aβ monomers to microglia and astrocytes through macropinocytosis or SR-A-mediated phagocytosis. Furthermore, XD4 significantly inhibits Aβ oligomer-induced cytotoxicity to glial cells and decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may provide a novel strategy for AD treatment by activating SR-A. PMID:24718459

  8. Cutting Edge: IL-36 Receptor Promotes Resolution of Intestinal Damage.

    PubMed

    Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Harusato, Akihito; Nishio, Hikaru; Flannigan, Kyle L; Ngo, Vu; Leoni, Giovanna; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Geem, Duke; Lili, Loukia N; Ramadas, Ravisankar A; Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Parkos, Charles A; Towne, Jennifer E; Nusrat, Asma; Denning, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    IL-1 family members are central mediators of host defense. In this article, we show that the novel IL-1 family member IL-36γ was expressed during experimental colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease. Germ-free mice failed to induce IL-36γ in response to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced damage, suggesting that gut microbiota are involved in its induction. Surprisingly, IL-36R-deficient (Il1rl2(-/-)) mice exhibited defective recovery following DSS-induced damage and impaired closure of colonic mucosal biopsy wounds, which coincided with impaired neutrophil accumulation in the wound bed. Failure of Il1rl2(-/-) mice to recover from DSS-induced damage was associated with a profound reduction in IL-22 expression, particularly by colonic neutrophils. Defective recovery of Il1rl2(-/-) mice could be rescued by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, which was sufficient to restore IL-22 expression and promote full recovery from DSS-induced damage. These findings implicate the IL-36/IL-36R axis in the resolution of intestinal mucosal wounds.

  9. [Dietary habit and longevity].

    PubMed

    Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    Obesity is one of the most important causes of life-style related diseases, and recently its pathophysiology is emphasized as metabolic syndrome. Preventing obesity by good dietary habit is a key to achieve healthy longevity. However, a lean body is not always good for health. There is an ideal body size for each person. This ideal body size differs according to age. Especially in the elderly, to prevent weight loss is more important for maintaining health and longevity than to be obese. Malnutrition is a critical factor of diseases and death in the elderly. Problems in nutritional status, and dietary intake, and methods of nutritional assessment in the elderly are discussed. Ideal body size for health and longevity, the relationship of body fat distribution and intra-abdominal fat accumulation health, and the effects of rapid weight change are also discussed to clarify the association of dietary habit and nutrition with longevity.

  10. Genomics of human longevity.

    PubMed

    Slagboom, P E; Beekman, M; Passtoors, W M; Deelen, J; Vaarhorst, A A M; Boer, J M; van den Akker, E B; van Heemst, D; de Craen, A J M; Maier, A B; Rozing, M; Mooijaart, S P; Heijmans, B T; Westendorp, R G J

    2011-01-12

    In animal models, single-gene mutations in genes involved in insulin/IGF and target of rapamycin signalling pathways extend lifespan to a considerable extent. The genetic, genomic and epigenetic influences on human longevity are expected to be much more complex. Strikingly however, beneficial metabolic and cellular features of long-lived families resemble those in animals for whom the lifespan is extended by applying genetic manipulation and, especially, dietary restriction. Candidate gene studies in humans support the notion that human orthologues from longevity genes identified in lower species do contribute to longevity but that the influence of the genetic variants involved is small. Here we discuss how an integration of novel study designs, labour-intensive biobanking, deep phenotyping and genomic research may provide insights into the mechanisms that drive human longevity and healthy ageing, beyond the associations usually provided by molecular and genetic epidemiology. Although prospective studies of humans from the cradle to the grave have never been performed, it is feasible to extract life histories from different cohorts jointly covering the molecular changes that occur with age from early development all the way up to the age at death. By the integration of research in different study cohorts, and with research in animal models, biological research into human longevity is thus making considerable progress.

  11. A constitutive promoter directs expression of the nerve growth factor receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal, A.; Patil, N.; Chao, M.

    1988-08-01

    Expression of nerve growth factor receptor is normally restricted to cells derived from the neural crest in a developmentally regulated manner. The authors analyzed promoter sequences for the human nerve growth factor receptor gene and found that the receptor promoter resembles others which are associated with constitutively expressed genes that have housekeeping and growth-related functions. Unlike these other genes, the initiation of transcription occurred at one major site rather than at multiple sites. The constitutive nature of the nerve growth factor receptor promoter may account for the ability of this gene to be transcribed in a diverse number of heterologous cells after gene transfer. The intron-exon structure of the receptor gene indicated that structural features are precisely divided into discrete domains.

  12. Birth month affects longevity.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2010-09-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and player position. The authors determined that the most likely explanation is that those born during seasons when mortalities are highest are constitutionally weakened and more likely to succumb to life threatening conditions later in life. PMID:24482849

  13. Birth month affects longevity.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2010-09-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and player position. The authors determined that the most likely explanation is that those born during seasons when mortalities are highest are constitutionally weakened and more likely to succumb to life threatening conditions later in life.

  14. Mesotocin and nonapeptide receptors promote estrildid flocking behavior.

    PubMed

    Goodson, James L; Schrock, Sara E; Klatt, James D; Kabelik, David; Kingsbury, Marcy A

    2009-08-14

    Proximate neural mechanisms that influence preferences for groups of a given size are almost wholly unknown. In the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata), blockade of nonapeptide receptors by an oxytocin (OT) antagonist significantly reduced time spent with large groups and familiar social partners independent of time spent in social contact. Opposing effects were produced by central infusions of mesotocin (MT, avian homolog of OT). Most drug effects appeared to be female-specific. Across five estrildid finch species, species-typical group size correlates with nonapeptide receptor distributions in the lateral septum, and sociality in female zebra finches was reduced by OT antagonist infusions into the septum but not a control area. We propose that titration of sociality by MT represents a phylogenetically deep framework for the evolution of OT's female-specific roles in pair bonding and maternal functions. PMID:19679811

  15. High-throughput mapping of the promoters of the mouse olfactory receptor genes reveals a new type of mammalian promoter and provides insight into olfactory receptor gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Clowney, E. Josephine; Magklara, Angeliki; Colquitt, Bradley M.; Pathak, Nidhi; Lane, Robert P.; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    The olfactory receptor (OR) genes are the largest mammalian gene family and are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion in olfactory neurons. Using a high-throughput approach, we mapped the transcription start sites of 1085 of the 1400 murine OR genes and performed computational analysis that revealed potential transcription factor binding sites shared by the majority of these promoters. Our analysis produced a hierarchical model for OR promoter recognition in which unusually high AT content, a unique epigenetic signature, and a stereotypically positioned O/E site distinguish OR promoters from the rest of the murine promoters. Our computations revealed an intriguing correlation between promoter AT content and evolutionary plasticity, as the most AT-rich promoters regulate rapidly evolving gene families. Within the AT-rich promoter category the position of the TATA-box does not correlate with the transcription start site. Instead, a spike in GC composition might define the exact location of the TSS, introducing the concept of “genomic contrast” in transcriptional regulation. Finally, our experiments show that genomic neighborhood rather than promoter sequence correlates with the probability of different OR genes to be expressed in the same olfactory cell. PMID:21705439

  16. Sports and longevity.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, M J

    1976-01-01

    The mortality of 396 Finnish champion skiers born from 1845 to 1910 was followed up to the end of 1967. Their median life expectancy was 73.0 years, ie.e 4.3 years longer than that for the Finnish male population during the same period. Former skiers have low blood pressure, seldom smoke and are physically active. Increased longevity has been reported also for American college oarsmen and baseball players.

  17. The Mouse Solitary Odorant Receptor Gene Promoters as Models for the Study of Odorant Receptor Gene Choice

    PubMed Central

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, several anatomical regions located within the nasal cavity mediate olfaction. Among these, the main olfactory epithelium detects most conventional odorants. Olfactory sensory neurons, provided with cilia exposed to the air, detect volatile chemicals via an extremely large family of seven-transmembrane chemoreceptors named odorant receptors. Their genes are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion: a single allele of a single odorant receptor gene is transcribed in a given mature neuron, through a still uncharacterized molecular mechanism known as odorant receptor gene choice. Aim Odorant receptor genes are typically arranged in genomic clusters, but a few are isolated (we call them solitary) from the others within a region broader than 1 Mb upstream and downstream with respect to their transcript's coordinates. The study of clustered genes is problematic, because of redundancy and ambiguities in their regulatory elements: we propose to use the solitary genes as simplified models to understand odorant receptor gene choice. Procedures Here we define number and identity of the solitary genes in the mouse genome (C57BL/6J), and assess the conservation of the solitary status in some mammalian orthologs. Furthermore, we locate their putative promoters, predict their homeodomain binding sites (commonly present in the promoters of odorant receptor genes) and compare candidate promoter sequences with those of wild-caught mice. We also provide expression data from histological sections. Results In the mouse genome there are eight intact solitary genes: Olfr19 (M12), Olfr49, Olfr266, Olfr267, Olfr370, Olfr371, Olfr466, Olfr1402; five are conserved as solitary in rat. These genes are all expressed in the main olfactory epithelium of three-day-old mice. The C57BL/6J candidate promoter of Olfr370 has considerably varied compared to its wild-type counterpart. Within the putative promoter for Olfr266 a homeodomain binding site is predicted. As a

  18. Metabotropic GABA signalling modulates longevity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Lei; Gong, Jianke; Yuan, Fengling; Zhang, Bi; Liu, Hongkang; Zheng, Tianlin; Yu, Teng; Xu, X. Z. Shawn; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important but poorly understood role in modulating longevity. GABA, a prominent inhibitory neurotransmitter, is best known to regulate nervous system function and behaviour in diverse organisms. Whether GABA signalling affects aging, however, has not been explored. Here we examined mutants lacking each of the major neurotransmitters in C. elegans, and find that deficiency in GABA signalling extends lifespan. This pro-longevity effect is mediated by the metabotropic GABAB receptor GBB-1, but not ionotropic GABAA receptors. GBB-1 regulates lifespan through G protein-PLCβ signalling, which transmits longevity signals to the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO, a key regulator of lifespan. Mammalian GABAB receptors can functionally substitute for GBB-1 in lifespan control in C. elegans. Our results uncover a new role of GABA signalling in lifespan regulation in C. elegans, raising the possibility that a similar process may occur in other organisms. PMID:26537867

  19. Intestinal farnesoid X receptor signaling promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Changtao; Xie, Cen; Li, Fei; Zhang, Limin; Nichols, Robert G.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Cai, Jingwei; Qi, Yunpeng; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Takahashi, Shogo; Tanaka, Naoki; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu G.; Albert, Istvan; Patterson, Andrew D.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major worldwide health problem. Recent studies suggest that the gut microbiota influences NAFLD pathogenesis. Here, a murine model of high-fat diet–induced (HFD-induced) NAFLD was used, and the effects of alterations in the gut microbiota on NAFLD were determined. Mice treated with antibiotics or tempol exhibited altered bile acid composition, with a notable increase in conjugated bile acid metabolites that inhibited intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling. Compared with control mice, animals with intestine-specific Fxr disruption had reduced hepatic triglyceride accumulation in response to a HFD. The decrease in hepatic triglyceride accumulation was mainly due to fewer circulating ceramides, which was in part the result of lower expression of ceramide synthesis genes. The reduction of ceramide levels in the ileum and serum in tempol- or antibiotic-treated mice fed a HFD resulted in downregulation of hepatic SREBP1C and decreased de novo lipogenesis. Administration of C16:0 ceramide to antibiotic-treated mice fed a HFD reversed hepatic steatosis. These studies demonstrate that inhibition of an intestinal FXR/ceramide axis mediates gut microbiota–associated NAFLD development, linking the microbiome, nuclear receptor signaling, and NAFLD. This work suggests that inhibition of intestinal FXR is a potential therapeutic target for NAFLD treatment. PMID:25500885

  20. Activation of Dopamine Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Promotes Sucrose-Reinforced Cued Approach Behavior

    PubMed Central

    du Hoffmann, Johann; Nicola, Saleem M.

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards. Intriguingly, cued approach to food occurred in clusters, with several cued responses followed by successive non-responses. This pattern suggested that behavior was dictated by transitions between two states, responsive and non-responsive. Injection of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor agonists into the NAc dose-dependently increased cue responding by promoting transitions to the responsive state and by preventing transitions to the non-responsive state. In contrast, antagonists of either D1 or D2 receptors promoted long bouts of non-responding by inducing transitions to the non-responsive state and by preventing transitions to the responsive state. Moreover, locomotor behavior during the inter-trial interval was correlated with the responsive state, and was also increased by dopamine receptor agonists. These results suggest that activation of NAc dopamine receptors plays an important role in regulating the probability of approach to food under conditions of normative satiety. PMID:27471453

  1. Activation of Dopamine Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Promotes Sucrose-Reinforced Cued Approach Behavior.

    PubMed

    du Hoffmann, Johann; Nicola, Saleem M

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards. Intriguingly, cued approach to food occurred in clusters, with several cued responses followed by successive non-responses. This pattern suggested that behavior was dictated by transitions between two states, responsive and non-responsive. Injection of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor agonists into the NAc dose-dependently increased cue responding by promoting transitions to the responsive state and by preventing transitions to the non-responsive state. In contrast, antagonists of either D1 or D2 receptors promoted long bouts of non-responding by inducing transitions to the non-responsive state and by preventing transitions to the responsive state. Moreover, locomotor behavior during the inter-trial interval was correlated with the responsive state, and was also increased by dopamine receptor agonists. These results suggest that activation of NAc dopamine receptors plays an important role in regulating the probability of approach to food under conditions of normative satiety. PMID:27471453

  2. Impaired wake-promoting mechanisms in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Matthew; Pellinen, Jacob; Kapás, Levente; Szentirmai, Éva

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin receptors are expressed by key components of the arousal system. Exogenous ghrelin induces behavioral activation, promotes wakefulness and stimulates eating. We hypothesized that ghrelin-sensitive mechanisms play a role in the arousal system. To test this, we investigated the responsiveness of ghrelin receptor knockout (KO) mice to two natural wake-promoting stimuli. Additionally, we assessed the integrity of their homeostatic sleep-promoting system using sleep deprivation. There was no significant difference in the spontaneous sleep-wake activity between ghrelin receptor KO and wild-type (WT) mice. WT mice mounted robust arousal responses to a novel environment and food deprivation. Wakefulness increased for 6 h after cage change accompanied by increases in body temperature and locomotor activity. Ghrelin receptor KO mice completely lacked the wake and body temperature responses to new environment. When subjected to 48 h food deprivation, WT mice showed marked increases in their waking time during the dark periods of both days. Ghrelin receptor KO mice failed to mount an arousal response on the first night and wake increases were attenuated on the second day. The responsiveness to sleep deprivation did not differ between the two genotypes. These results indicate that the ghrelin-receptive mechanisms play an essential role in the function of the arousal system but not in homeostatic sleep-promoting mechanisms.

  3. Estrogen Receptor beta binds Sp1 and recruits a Corepressor Complex to the Estrogen Receptor alpha Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Bartella, V; Rizza, P; Barone, I; Zito, D; Giordano, F; Giordano, C; Catalano, S; Mauro, L; Sisci, D; Panno, ML; Fuqua, SA; Andò, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Human estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha and beta are crucially involved in the regulation of mammary growth and development. Normal breast tissues display a prevalently expression of ER beta than ER alpha, which drastically increases during breast tumorogenesis. So, it is reasonable to assume how a dysregulation of the two estrogen receptor subtypes may induce breast cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the opposite role played by the two estrogen receptors on tumor cell growth remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we have demonstrated that ER beta overexpression in breast cancer cells decreases cell proliferation and down-regulates ER alpha mRNA and protein content along with a concomitant repression of estrogen-regulated genes. Transient transfection experiments, using a vector containing the human ER alpha promoter region, showed that elevated levels of the ER beta down-regulated basal ER alpha promoter activity. Furthermore, side-directed mutagenesis and deletion analysis have revealed that the proximal GC-rich motifs at −223 and −214 is crucial for the ER beta-induced ER alpha down-regulation in breast cancer cells. This occurred through ER beta-Sp1 protein-protein interaction within the ER alpha promoter region and the recruitment of a corepressor complex containing NCoR/SMRT (nuclear receptor corepressor/silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor), accompanied by hypoacetylation of histone H4 and displacement of RNA polymerase II. Silencing of NCoR gene expression by RNA interference reversed the down-regulatory effect of ER beta on ER alpha gene expression and cell proliferation. Our results provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which overexpression of ER beta through NCoR is able to down regulate ER alpha gene expression, thus inhibiting ER alpha’s driving role on breast cancer cell growth. PMID:22622808

  4. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Promotes Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jingru; Ma, Xue; Wang, Ning; Jia, Min; Bi, Long; Wang, Yunying; Li, Mingkai; Zhang, Huinan; Xue, Xiaoyan; Hou, Zheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Zhibin; He, Gonghao; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Summary Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) promoted bone formation and increased bone mass and quality in a rat unloading-induced bone loss model. These functions were accompanied by an increase in osteoblast number and serum bone formation markers, while the adipocyte number was decreased. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor was detected in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), but not in osteoblast. Activation of GLP-1 receptor by Ex-4 promoted the osteogenic differentiation and inhibited BMSC adipogenic differentiation through regulating PKA/β-catenin and PKA/PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling. These findings reveal that GLP-1 receptor regulates BMSC osteogenic differentiation and provide a molecular basis for therapeutic potential of GLP-1 against osteoporosis. PMID:26947974

  5. The duration of sleep promoting efficacy by dual orexin receptor antagonists is dependent upon receptor occupancy threshold

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drugs targeting insomnia ideally promote sleep throughout the night, maintain normal sleep architecture, and are devoid of residual effects associated with morning sedation. These features of an ideal compound are not only dependent upon pharmacokinetics, receptor binding kinetics, potency and pharmacodynamic activity, but also upon a compound’s mechanism of action. Results Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) block the arousal-promoting activity of orexin peptides and, as demonstrated in the current work, exhibit an efficacy signal window dependent upon oscillating levels of endogenous orexin neuropeptide. Sleep efficacy of structurally diverse DORAs in rat and dog was achieved at plasma exposures corresponding to orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) occupancies in the range of 65 to 80%. In rats, the time course of OX2R occupancy was dependent upon receptor binding kinetics and was tightly correlated with the timing of active wake reduction. In rhesus monkeys, direct comparison of DORA-22 with GABA-A modulators at similar sleep-inducing doses revealed that diazepam produced next-day residual sleep and both diazepam and eszopiclone induced next-day cognitive deficits. In stark contrast, DORA-22 did not produce residual effects. Furthermore, DORA-22 evoked only minimal changes in quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) activity during the normal resting phase in contrast to GABA-A modulators which induced substantial qEEG changes. Conclusion The higher levels of receptor occupancy necessary for DORA efficacy require a plasma concentration profile sufficient to maintain sleep for the duration of the resting period. DORAs, with a half-life exceeding 8 h in humans, are expected to fulfill this requirement as exposures drop to sub-threshold receptor occupancy levels prior to the wake period, potentially avoiding next-day residual effects at therapeutic doses. PMID:23981345

  6. Endurance exercise and selective breeding for longevity extend Drosophila healthspan by overlapping mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sujkowski, Alyson; Bazzell, Brian; Carpenter, Kylie; Arking, Robert; Wessells, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Endurance exercise has emerged as a powerful intervention that promotes healthy aging by maintaining the functional capacity of critical organ systems. In addition, long-term exercise reduces the incidence of age-related diseases in humans and in model organisms. Despite these evident benefits, the genetic pathways required for exercise interventions to achieve these effects are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we compare gene expression changes during endurance training in Drosophila melanogaster to gene expression changes during selective breeding for longevity. Microarrays indicate that 65% of gene expression changes found in flies selectively bred for longevity are also found in flies subjected to three weeks of exercise training. We find that both selective breeding and endurance training increase endurance, cardiac performance, running speed, flying height, and levels of autophagy in adipose tissue. Both interventions generally upregulate stress defense, folate metabolism, and lipase activity, while downregulating carbohydrate metabolism and odorant receptor expression. Several members of the methuselah-like (mthl) gene family are downregulated by both interventions. Knockdown of mthl-3 was sufficient to provide extension of negative geotaxis behavior, endurance and cardiac stress resistance. These results provide support for endurance exercise as a broadly acting anti-aging intervention and confirm that exercise training acts in part by targeting longevity assurance pathways. PMID:26298685

  7. Endurance exercise and selective breeding for longevity extend Drosophila healthspan by overlapping mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sujkowski, Alyson; Bazzell, Brian; Carpenter, Kylie; Arking, Robert; Wessells, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Endurance exercise has emerged as a powerful intervention that promotes healthy aging by maintaining the functional capacity of critical organ systems. In addition, long-term exercise reduces the incidence of age-related diseases in humans and in model organisms. Despite these evident benefits, the genetic pathways required for exercise interventions to achieve these effects are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we compare gene expression changes during endurance training in Drosophila melanogaster to gene expression changes during selective breeding for longevity. Microarrays indicate that 65% of gene expression changes found in flies selectively bred for longevity are also found in flies subjected to three weeks of exercise training. We find that both selective breeding and endurance training increase endurance, cardiac performance, running speed, flying height, and levels of autophagy in adipose tissue. Both interventions generally upregulate stress defense, folate metabolism, and lipase activity, while downregulating carbohydrate metabolism and odorant receptor expression. Several members of the methuselah-like (mthl) gene family are downregulated by both interventions. Knockdown of mthl-3 was sufficient to provide extension of negative geotaxis behavior, endurance and cardiac stress resistance. These results provide support for endurance exercise as a broadly acting anti-aging intervention and confirm that exercise training acts in part by targeting longevity assurance pathways. PMID:26298685

  8. Neurosteroids promote phosphorylation and membrane insertion of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abramian, Armen M.; Comenencia-Ortiz, Eydith; Modgil, Amit; Vien, Thuy N.; Nakamura, Yasuko; Moore, Yvonne E.; Maguire, Jamie L.; Terunuma, Miho; Davies, Paul A.; Moss, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurosteroids are synthesized within the brain and act as endogenous anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and sedative agents, actions that are principally mediated via their ability to potentiate phasic and tonic inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs). Although neurosteroids are accepted allosteric modulators of GABAARs, here we reveal they exert sustained effects on GABAergic inhibition by selectively enhancing the trafficking of GABAARs that mediate tonic inhibition. We demonstrate that neurosteroids potentiate the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of S443 within α4 subunits, a component of GABAAR subtypes that mediate tonic inhibition in many brain regions. This process enhances insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAAR subtypes into the membrane, resulting in a selective and sustained elevation in the efficacy of tonic inhibition. Therefore, the ability of neurosteroids to modulate the phosphorylation and membrane insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAARs may underlie the profound effects these endogenous signaling molecules have on neuronal excitability and behavior. PMID:24778259

  9. Neurosteroids promote phosphorylation and membrane insertion of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Abramian, Armen M; Comenencia-Ortiz, Eydith; Modgil, Amit; Vien, Thuy N; Nakamura, Yasuko; Moore, Yvonne E; Maguire, Jamie L; Terunuma, Miho; Davies, Paul A; Moss, Stephen J

    2014-05-13

    Neurosteroids are synthesized within the brain and act as endogenous anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and sedative agents, actions that are principally mediated via their ability to potentiate phasic and tonic inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs). Although neurosteroids are accepted allosteric modulators of GABAARs, here we reveal they exert sustained effects on GABAergic inhibition by selectively enhancing the trafficking of GABAARs that mediate tonic inhibition. We demonstrate that neurosteroids potentiate the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of S443 within α4 subunits, a component of GABAAR subtypes that mediate tonic inhibition in many brain regions. This process enhances insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAAR subtypes into the membrane, resulting in a selective and sustained elevation in the efficacy of tonic inhibition. Therefore, the ability of neurosteroids to modulate the phosphorylation and membrane insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAARs may underlie the profound effects these endogenous signaling molecules have on neuronal excitability and behavior. PMID:24778259

  10. Neurotrophin receptor TrkB promotes lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sinkevicius, Kerstin W; Kriegel, Christina; Bellaria, Kelly J; Lee, Jaewon; Lau, Allison N; Leeman, Kristen T; Zhou, Pengcheng; Beede, Alexander M; Fillmore, Christine M; Caswell, Deborah; Barrios, Juliana; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Sholl, Lynette M; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Bronson, Roderick T; Chirieac, Lucian R; Winslow, Monte M; Haigis, Marcia C; Kim, Carla F

    2014-07-15

    Lung cancer is notorious for its ability to metastasize, but the pathways regulating lung cancer metastasis are largely unknown. An in vitro system designed to discover factors critical for lung cancer cell migration identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which stimulates cell migration through activation of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB; also called NTRK2). Knockdown of TrkB in human lung cancer cell lines significantly decreased their migratory and metastatic ability in vitro and in vivo. In an autochthonous lung adenocarcinoma model driven by activated oncogenic Kras and p53 loss, TrkB deficiency significantly reduced metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 directly regulated TrkB expression, and, in turn, TrkB activated Akt signaling in metastatic lung cancer cells. Finally, TrkB expression was correlated with metastasis in patient samples, and TrkB was detected more often in tumors that did not have Kras or epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. These studies demonstrate that TrkB is an important therapeutic target in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24982195

  11. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    PubMed

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma.

  12. Longevity Genes Revealed by Integrative Analysis of Isoform-Specific daf-16/FoxO Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Albert Tzong-Yang; Guo, Chunfang; Itani, Omar A; Budaitis, Breane G; Williams, Travis W; Hopkins, Christopher E; McEachin, Richard C; Pande, Manjusha; Grant, Ana R; Yoshina, Sawako; Mitani, Shohei; Hu, Patrick J

    2015-10-01

    FoxO transcription factors promote longevity across taxa. How they do so is poorly understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the A- and F-isoforms of the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16 extend life span in the context of reduced DAF-2 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR) signaling. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for DAF-16/FoxO-dependent life span extension, we performed an integrative analysis of isoform-specific daf-16/FoxO mutants. In contrast to previous studies suggesting that DAF-16F plays a more prominent role in life span control than DAF-16A, isoform-specific daf-16/FoxO mutant phenotypes and whole transcriptome profiling revealed a predominant role for DAF-16A over DAF-16F in life span control, stress resistance, and target gene regulation. Integration of these datasets enabled the prioritization of a subset of 92 DAF-16/FoxO target genes for functional interrogation. Among 29 genes tested, two DAF-16A-specific target genes significantly influenced longevity. A loss-of-function mutation in the conserved gene gst-20, which is induced by DAF-16A, reduced life span extension in the context of daf-2/IGFR RNAi without influencing longevity in animals subjected to control RNAi. Therefore, gst-20 promotes DAF-16/FoxO-dependent longevity. Conversely, a loss-of-function mutation in srr-4, a gene encoding a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor family member that is repressed by DAF-16A, extended life span in control animals, indicating that DAF-16/FoxO may extend life span at least in part by reducing srr-4 expression. Our discovery of new longevity genes underscores the efficacy of our integrative strategy while providing a general framework for identifying specific downstream gene regulatory events that contribute substantially to transcription factor functions. As FoxO transcription factors have conserved functions in promoting longevity and may be dysregulated in aging-related diseases, these findings promise to illuminate fundamental

  13. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of the mouse claudin-5 promoter by estrogen receptor alpha and beta.

    PubMed

    Burek, Malgorzata; Steinberg, Katrin; Förster, Carola Y

    2014-07-01

    Claudin-5 is an integral membrane protein and a critical component of endothelial tight junctions that control paracellular permeability. Claudin-5 is expressed at high levels in the brain vascular endothelium. Estrogens have multiple effects on vascular physiology and function. The biological actions of estrogens are mediated by two different estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER alpha and ER beta. Estrogens have beneficial effects in several vascular disorders. Recently we have cloned and characterized a murine claudin-5 promoter and demonstrated 17beta-estradiol (E2)-mediated regulation of claudin-5 in brain and heart microvascular endothelium on promoter, mRNA and protein level. Sequence analysis revealed a putative estrogen response element (ERE) and a putative Sp1 transcription factor binding site in the claudin-5 promoter. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the estrogen-responsive elements of claudin-5 promoter. First, we introduced point mutations in ERE or Sp1 site in -500/+111 or in Sp1 site of -268/+111 claudin-5 promoter construct, respectively. Basal and E2-mediated transcriptional activation of mutated constructs was abrogated in the luciferase reporter gene assay. Next, we examined whether estrogen receptor subtypes bind to the claudin-5 promoter region. For this purpose we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using anti-estrogen receptor antibodies and cellular lysates of E2-treated endothelial cells followed by quantitative PCR analysis. We show enrichment of claudin-5 promoter fragments containing the ERE- and Sp1-binding site in immunoprecipitates after E2 treatment. Finally, in a gel mobility shift assay, we demonstrated DNA-protein interaction of both ER subtypes at ERE. In summary, this study provides evidence that both a non-consensus ERE and a Sp1 site in the claudin-5 promoter are functional and necessary for the basal and E2-mediated activation of the promoter.

  14. CB2 cannabinoid receptors promote neural progenitor cell proliferation via mTORC1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Palazuelos, Javier; Ortega, Zaira; Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is known to regulate neural progenitor (NP) cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In particular, CB(2) cannabinoid receptors have been shown to promote NP proliferation. As CB(2) receptors are not expressed in differentiated neurons, CB(2)-selective agonists are promising candidates to manipulate NP proliferation and indirectly neurogenesis by overcoming the undesired psychoactive effects of neuronal CB(1) cannabinoid receptor activation. Here, by using NP cells, brain organotypic cultures, and in vivo animal models, we investigated the signal transduction mechanism involved in CB(2) receptor-induced NP cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Exposure of hippocampal HiB5 NP cells to the CB(2) receptor-selective agonist HU-308 led to the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which, by inhibiting its downstream target p27Kip1, induced NP proliferation. Experiments conducted with the CB(2) receptor-selective antagonist SR144528, inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 axis, and CB(2) receptor transient-transfection vector further supported that CB(2) receptors control NP cell proliferation via activation of mTORC1 signaling. Likewise, CB(2) receptor engagement induced cell proliferation in an mTORC1-dependent manner both in embryonic cortical slices and in adult hippocampal NPs. Thus, HU-308 increased ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in wild-type but not CB(2) receptor-deficient NPs of the mouse subgranular zone. Moreover, adult hippocampal NP proliferation induced by HU-308 and excitotoxicity was blocked by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Altogether, these findings provide a mechanism of action and a rationale for the use of nonpsychotomimetic CB(2) receptor-selective ligands as a novel strategy for the control of NP cell proliferation and neurogenesis.

  15. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors Promote Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation via mTORC1 Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Palazuelos, Javier; Ortega, Zaira; Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is known to regulate neural progenitor (NP) cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In particular, CB2 cannabinoid receptors have been shown to promote NP proliferation. As CB2 receptors are not expressed in differentiated neurons, CB2-selective agonists are promising candidates to manipulate NP proliferation and indirectly neurogenesis by overcoming the undesired psychoactive effects of neuronal CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation. Here, by using NP cells, brain organotypic cultures, and in vivo animal models, we investigated the signal transduction mechanism involved in CB2 receptor-induced NP cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Exposure of hippocampal HiB5 NP cells to the CB2 receptor-selective agonist HU-308 led to the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which, by inhibiting its downstream target p27Kip1, induced NP proliferation. Experiments conducted with the CB2 receptor-selective antagonist SR144528, inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 axis, and CB2 receptor transient-transfection vector further supported that CB2 receptors control NP cell proliferation via activation of mTORC1 signaling. Likewise, CB2 receptor engagement induced cell proliferation in an mTORC1-dependent manner both in embryonic cortical slices and in adult hippocampal NPs. Thus, HU-308 increased ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation in wild-type but not CB2 receptor-deficient NPs of the mouse subgranular zone. Moreover, adult hippocampal NP proliferation induced by HU-308 and excitotoxicity was blocked by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Altogether, these findings provide a mechanism of action and a rationale for the use of nonpsychotomimetic CB2 receptor-selective ligands as a novel strategy for the control of NP cell proliferation and neurogenesis. PMID:22102284

  16. Defining Molecular Basis for Longevity Traits in Natural Yeast Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Alaattin; Ma, Siming; Wasko, Brian; Lee, Mitchell; Kaeberlein, Matt; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast has served as a useful model organism in aging studies, leading to the identification of genetic determinants of longevity, many of which are conserved in higher eukaryotes. However, factors that promote longevity in laboratory setting often have severe fitness disadvantage in the wild. Here, to obtain an unbiased view on longevity regulation we analyzed how replicative lifespan is shaped by transcriptional, translational, metabolic, and morphological factors across 22 wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates. We observed significant differences in lifespan across these strains and found that their longevity is strongly associated with up-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and respiration and down-regulation of amino acid and nitrogen compound biosynthesis. Since calorie restriction and TOR signaling also extend lifespan by adjusting many of the identified pathways, the data suggest that natural plasticity of yeast lifespan is shaped by processes that not only do not impose cost on fitness, but are amenable to dietary intervention. PMID:27030810

  17. Aging, longevity and health.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-10-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health.

  18. The proximal J kappa germline-transcript promoter facilitates receptor editing through control of ordered recombination.

    PubMed

    Vettermann, Christian; Timblin, Greg A; Lim, Vivian; Lai, Ernest C; Schlissel, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    V(D)J recombination creates antibody light chain diversity by joining a Vκ gene segment with one of four Jκ segments. Two Jκ germline-transcript (GT) promoters control Vκ-Jκ joining, but the mechanisms that govern Jκ choice are unclear. Here, we show in gene-targeted mice that the proximal GT promoter helps targeting rearrangements to Jκ1 by preventing premature DNA breaks at Jκ2. Consequently, cells lacking the proximal GT promoter show a biased utilization of downstream Jκ segments, resulting in a diminished potential for receptor editing. Surprisingly, the proximal--in contrast to the distal--GT promoter is transcriptionally inactive prior to Igκ recombination, indicating that its role in Jκ choice is independent of classical promoter function. Removal of the proximal GT promoter increases H3K4me3 levels at Jκ segments, suggesting that this promoter could act as a suppressor of recombination by limiting chromatin accessibility to RAG. Our findings identify the first cis-element critical for Jκ choice and demonstrate that ordered Igκ recombination facilitates receptor editing.

  19. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man.

    PubMed

    Gotter, Anthony L; Forman, Mark S; Harrell, Charles M; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J; Fox, Steven V; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Garson, Susan L; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J; Herring, W Joseph; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  20. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man.

    PubMed

    Gotter, Anthony L; Forman, Mark S; Harrell, Charles M; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J; Fox, Steven V; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Garson, Susan L; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J; Herring, W Joseph; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism.

  1. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Forman, Mark S.; Harrell, Charles M.; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J.; Fox, Steven V.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Garson, Susan L.; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J.; Herring, W. Joseph; Renger, John J.; Winrow, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  2. Age-related changes in the proteostasis network in the brain of the naked mole-rat: Implications promoting healthy longevity.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Judy C; Tramutola, Antonella; Swomley, Aaron; Kirk, Jessime; Grimes, Kelly; Lewis, Kaitilyn; Orr, Miranda; Rodriguez, Karl; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Perluigi, Marzia; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-10-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent and possesses several exceptional traits: marked cancer resistance, negligible senescence, prolonged genomic integrity, pronounced proteostasis, and a sustained health span. The underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to these extraordinary attributes are currently under investigation to gain insights that may conceivably promote and extend human health span and lifespan. The ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems play a vital role in eliminating cellular detritus to maintain proteostasis and have been previously shown to be more robust in NMRs when compared with shorter-lived rodents. Using a 2-D PAGE proteomics approach, differential expression and phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in proteostasis networks were evaluated in the brains of NMRs in an age-dependent manner. We identified 9 proteins with significantly altered levels and/or phosphorylation states that have key roles involved in proteostasis networks. To further investigate the possible role that autophagy may play in maintaining cellular proteostasis, we examined aspects of the PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis as well as levels of Beclin-1, LC3-I, and LC3-II in the brain of the NMR as a function of age. Together, these results show that NMRs maintain high levels of autophagy throughout the majority of their lifespan and may contribute to the extraordinary health span of these rodents. The potential of augmenting human health span via activating the proteostasis network will require further studies.

  3. Age-related changes in the proteostasis network in the brain of the naked mole-rat: Implications promoting healthy longevity.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Judy C; Tramutola, Antonella; Swomley, Aaron; Kirk, Jessime; Grimes, Kelly; Lewis, Kaitilyn; Orr, Miranda; Rodriguez, Karl; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Perluigi, Marzia; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-10-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent and possesses several exceptional traits: marked cancer resistance, negligible senescence, prolonged genomic integrity, pronounced proteostasis, and a sustained health span. The underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to these extraordinary attributes are currently under investigation to gain insights that may conceivably promote and extend human health span and lifespan. The ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems play a vital role in eliminating cellular detritus to maintain proteostasis and have been previously shown to be more robust in NMRs when compared with shorter-lived rodents. Using a 2-D PAGE proteomics approach, differential expression and phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in proteostasis networks were evaluated in the brains of NMRs in an age-dependent manner. We identified 9 proteins with significantly altered levels and/or phosphorylation states that have key roles involved in proteostasis networks. To further investigate the possible role that autophagy may play in maintaining cellular proteostasis, we examined aspects of the PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis as well as levels of Beclin-1, LC3-I, and LC3-II in the brain of the NMR as a function of age. Together, these results show that NMRs maintain high levels of autophagy throughout the majority of their lifespan and may contribute to the extraordinary health span of these rodents. The potential of augmenting human health span via activating the proteostasis network will require further studies. PMID:26248058

  4. R-spondin 2 promotes acetylcholine receptor clustering at the neuromuscular junction via Lgr5

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Fukudome, Takayasu; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Okuno, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Sobue, Gen; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering is mediated by spinal motor neuron (SMN)-derived agrin and its receptors on the muscle, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Additionally, AChR clustering is mediated by the components of the Wnt pathway. Laser capture microdissection of SMNs revealed that a secreted activator of Wnt signaling, R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), is highly expressed in SMNs. We found that Rspo2 is enriched at the NMJ, and that Rspo2 induces MuSK phosphorylation and AChR clustering. Rspo2 requires Wnt ligands, but not agrin, for promoting AChR clustering in cultured myotubes. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), an Rspo2 receptor, is also accumulated at the NMJ, and is associated with MuSK via LRP4. Lgr5 is required for Rspo2-mediated AChR clustering in myotubes. In Rspo2-knockout mice, the number and density of AChRs at the NMJ are reduced. The Rspo2-knockout diaphragm has an altered ultrastructure with widened synaptic clefts and sparse synaptic vesicles. Frequency of miniature endplate currents is markedly reduced in Rspo2-knockout mice. To conclude, we demonstrate that Rspo2 and its receptor Lgr5 are Wnt-dependent and agrin-independent regulators of AChR clustering at the NMJ. PMID:27328992

  5. R-spondin 2 promotes acetylcholine receptor clustering at the neuromuscular junction via Lgr5.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Fukudome, Takayasu; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Okuno, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Sobue, Gen; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering is mediated by spinal motor neuron (SMN)-derived agrin and its receptors on the muscle, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Additionally, AChR clustering is mediated by the components of the Wnt pathway. Laser capture microdissection of SMNs revealed that a secreted activator of Wnt signaling, R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), is highly expressed in SMNs. We found that Rspo2 is enriched at the NMJ, and that Rspo2 induces MuSK phosphorylation and AChR clustering. Rspo2 requires Wnt ligands, but not agrin, for promoting AChR clustering in cultured myotubes. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), an Rspo2 receptor, is also accumulated at the NMJ, and is associated with MuSK via LRP4. Lgr5 is required for Rspo2-mediated AChR clustering in myotubes. In Rspo2-knockout mice, the number and density of AChRs at the NMJ are reduced. The Rspo2-knockout diaphragm has an altered ultrastructure with widened synaptic clefts and sparse synaptic vesicles. Frequency of miniature endplate currents is markedly reduced in Rspo2-knockout mice. To conclude, we demonstrate that Rspo2 and its receptor Lgr5 are Wnt-dependent and agrin-independent regulators of AChR clustering at the NMJ. PMID:27328992

  6. Particulate Matter Promotes In Vitro Receptor-Recognizable Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Dysfunction of Lipid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Sevilla-Tapia, Laura; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Serrano, Jesús; O’Neill, Marie S.; García-Cuellar, Claudia M.; Quintana, Raúl; Vázquez-López, Inés

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter may promote cardiovascular disease, possibly as a consequence of its oxidative potential. Studies using susceptible animals indicate that particulate matter aggravates atherosclerosis by increasing lipid/macrophage content in plaques. Macrophage lipid uptake requires oxidized low-density lipoprotein and scavenger receptors; same receptors are involved in particulate matter uptake. We studied in vitro particulate matter potential to oxidize low-density lipoproteins and subsequent cell uptake through scavenger receptors. Particulate matter-induced low-density lipoproteins oxidation was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid assay. Binding/internalization was tested in wild type and scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, and in RAW264.7 cells using fluorescently labeled low-density lipoproteins. Dose-dependent binding/internalization only occurred in scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells and RAW264.7 cells. Competition binding/internalization using particles showed that particulate matter induced decreased binding (~50%) and internalization (~70%) of particle-oxidized low-density lipoproteins and native low-density lipoproteins. Results indicate that particulate matter was capable of oxidizing low-density lipoproteins, favoring macrophage internalization, and also altered scavenger and low-density lipoproteins receptor function. PMID:23297186

  7. The NMDA receptor functions independently and as an LRP1 co-receptor to promote Schwann cell survival and migration.

    PubMed

    Mantuano, Elisabetta; Lam, Michael S; Shibayama, Masataka; Campana, W Marie; Gonias, Steven L

    2015-09-15

    NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors, which associate with LDL-receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) to trigger cell signaling in response to protein ligands in neurons. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the NMDA-R is expressed by rat Schwann cells and functions independently and with LRP1 to regulate Schwann cell physiology. The NR1 (encoded by GRIN1) and NR2b (encoded by GRIN2B) NMDA-R subunits were expressed by cultured Schwann cells and upregulated in sciatic nerves following crush injury. The ability of LRP1 ligands to activate ERK1/2 (also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, respectively) and promote Schwann cell migration required the NMDA-R. NR1 gene silencing compromised Schwann cell survival. Injection of the LRP1 ligands tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, also known as PLAT) or MMP9-PEX into crush-injured sciatic nerves activated ERK1/2 in Schwann cells in vivo, and the response was blocked by systemic treatment with the NMDA-R inhibitor MK801. tPA was unique among the LRP1 ligands examined because tPA activated cell signaling and promoted Schwann cell migration by interacting with the NMDA-R independently of LRP1, albeit with delayed kinetics. These results define the NMDA-R as a Schwann cell signaling receptor for protein ligands and a major regulator of Schwann cell physiology, which may be particularly important in peripheral nervous system (PNS) injury. PMID:26272917

  8. EPO-independent functional EPO receptor in breast cancer enhances estrogen receptor activity and promotes cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbothe, Susann; Larsson, Anna-Maria; Vaapil, Marica; Wigerup, Caroline; Sun, Jianmin; Jögi, Annika; Neumann, Drorit; Rönnstrand, Lars; Påhlman, Sven

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • New anti-human EPOR antibody confirms full-length EPOR expression in breast cancer cells. • Proliferation of breast cancer cells is not affected by rhEPO treatment in vitro. • EPOR knockdown impairs proliferation of ERa positive breast cancer cells. • EPOR knockdown reduces AKT phosphorylation and ERa activity. - Abstract: The main function of Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) is the stimulation of erythropoiesis. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is therefore used to treat anemia in cancer patients. However, clinical trials have indicated that rhEPO treatment might promote tumor progression and has a negative effect on patient survival. In addition, EPOR expression has been detected in several cancer forms. Using a newly produced anti-EPOR antibody that reliably detects the full-length isoform of the EPOR we show that breast cancer tissue and cells express the EPOR protein. rhEPO stimulation of cultured EPOR expressing breast cancer cells did not result in increased proliferation, overt activation of EPOR (receptor phosphorylation) or a consistent activation of canonical EPOR signaling pathway mediators such as JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or AKT. However, EPOR knockdown experiments suggested functional EPO receptors in estrogen receptor positive (ERα{sup +}) breast cancer cells, as reduced EPOR expression resulted in decreased proliferation. This effect on proliferation was not seen in ERα negative cells. EPOR knockdown decreased ERα activity further supports a mechanism by which EPOR affects proliferation via ERα-mediated mechanisms. We show that EPOR protein is expressed in breast cancer cells, where it appears to promote proliferation by an EPO-independent mechanism in ERα expressing breast cancer cells.

  9. The NMDA receptor functions independently and as an LRP1 co-receptor to promote Schwann cell survival and migration

    PubMed Central

    Mantuano, Elisabetta; Lam, Michael S.; Shibayama, Masataka; Campana, W. Marie; Gonias, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors, which associate with LDL-receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) to trigger cell signaling in response to protein ligands in neurons. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the NMDA-R is expressed by rat Schwann cells and functions independently and with LRP1 to regulate Schwann cell physiology. The NR1 (encoded by GRIN1) and NR2b (encoded by GRIN2B) NMDA-R subunits were expressed by cultured Schwann cells and upregulated in sciatic nerves following crush injury. The ability of LRP1 ligands to activate ERK1/2 (also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, respectively) and promote Schwann cell migration required the NMDA-R. NR1 gene silencing compromised Schwann cell survival. Injection of the LRP1 ligands tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, also known as PLAT) or MMP9-PEX into crush-injured sciatic nerves activated ERK1/2 in Schwann cells in vivo, and the response was blocked by systemic treatment with the NMDA-R inhibitor MK801. tPA was unique among the LRP1 ligands examined because tPA activated cell signaling and promoted Schwann cell migration by interacting with the NMDA-R independently of LRP1, albeit with delayed kinetics. These results define the NMDA-R as a Schwann cell signaling receptor for protein ligands and a major regulator of Schwann cell physiology, which may be particularly important in peripheral nervous system (PNS) injury. PMID:26272917

  10. Substituted pyrrolidin-2-ones: Centrally acting orexin receptor antagonists promoting sleep. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Sifferlen, Thierry; Boller, Amandine; Chardonneau, Audrey; Cottreel, Emmanuelle; Gatfield, John; Treiber, Alexander; Roch, Catherine; Jenck, Francois; Aissaoui, Hamed; Williams, Jodi T; Brotschi, Christine; Heidmann, Bibia; Siegrist, Romain; Boss, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    Starting from advanced pyrrolidin-2-one lead compounds, this novel series of small-molecule orexin receptor antagonists was further optimized by fine-tuning of the C-3 substitution at the γ-lactam ring. We discuss our design to align in vitro potency with metabolic stability and improved physicochemical/pharmacokinetic properties while avoiding P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux. These investigations led to the identification of the orally active 3-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one 46, a potent and selective orexin-2 receptor antagonist, that achieved good brain exposure and promoted physiological sleep in rats.

  11. Loss of p53 induces epidermal growth factor receptor promoter activity in normal human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bheda, A; Creek, KE; Pirisi, L

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human papillomavirus type 16-immortalized human keratinocytes (HKc) is caused by the viral oncoprotein E6, which targets p53 for degradation. We have previously observed that expression of p53 RNAi in normal HKc is associated with an increase in EGFR mRNA and protein. We now report that p53 RNAi induces EGFR promoter activity up to approximately 10-fold in normal HKc, and this effect does not require intact p53 binding sites on the EGFR promoter. Exogenous wild-type p53 inhibits the EGFR promoter at low levels, and activates it at higher concentrations. Yin Yang 1 (YY1), which negatively regulates p53, induces EGFR promoter activity, and this effect is augmented by p53 RNAi. Intact p53 binding sites on the EGFR promoter are not required for activation by YY1. In addition, Sp1 and YY1 synergistically induce the EGFR promoter in normal HKc, indicating that Sp1 may recruit YY1 as a co-activator. Wild-type p53 suppressed Sp1- and YY1-mediated induction of the EGFR promoter. We conclude that acute loss of p53 in normal HKc induces EGFR expression bya mechanism that involves YY1 and Sp1 and does not require p53 binding to the EGFR promoter. PMID:18391986

  12. A comparative cellular and molecular biology of longevity database.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jeffrey A; Liang, Ping; Luo, Xuemei; Page, Melissa M; Gallagher, Emily J; Christoff, Casey A; Robb, Ellen L

    2013-10-01

    Discovering key cellular and molecular traits that promote longevity is a major goal of aging and longevity research. One experimental strategy is to determine which traits have been selected during the evolution of longevity in naturally long-lived animal species. This comparative approach has been applied to lifespan research for nearly four decades, yielding hundreds of datasets describing aspects of cell and molecular biology hypothesized to relate to animal longevity. Here, we introduce a Comparative Cellular and Molecular Biology of Longevity Database, available at ( http://genomics.brocku.ca/ccmbl/ ), as a compendium of comparative cell and molecular data presented in the context of longevity. This open access database will facilitate the meta-analysis of amalgamated datasets using standardized maximum lifespan (MLSP) data (from AnAge). The first edition contains over 800 data records describing experimental measurements of cellular stress resistance, reactive oxygen species metabolism, membrane composition, protein homeostasis, and genome homeostasis as they relate to vertebrate species MLSP. The purpose of this review is to introduce the database and briefly demonstrate its use in the meta-analysis of combined datasets.

  13. Class A scavenger receptor promotes osteoclast differentiation via the enhanced expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK)

    SciTech Connect

    Takemura, Kenichi; Sakashita, Naomi; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Lei, XiaoFeng; Ohnishi, Koji; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro

    2010-01-22

    Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, and their differentiation depends on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) ligand. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is one of the principal functional molecules of macrophages, and its level of expression declines during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of SR-A in osteoclastogenesis, we examined pathological changes in femoral bone and the expression levels of osteoclastogenesis-related molecules in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. The femoral osseous density of SR-A{sup -/-} mice was higher than that of SR-A{sup +/+} mice, and the number of multinucleated osteoclasts was significantly decreased. An in vitro differentiation assay revealed that the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts from bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is impaired in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. Elimination of SR-A did not alter the expression level of the M-CSF receptor, c-fms; however, the expression levels of RANK and RANK-related osteoclast-differentiation molecules such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) significantly decreased. Furthermore, acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), an SR-A ligand, significantly increased the expression level of RANK and MITF during osteoclast differentiation. These data indicate that SR-A promotes osteoclastogenesis via augmentation of the expression level of RANK and its related molecules.

  14. Agonist-promoted ubiquitination differentially regulates receptor trafficking of endothelin type A and type B receptors.

    PubMed

    Terada, Koji; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Higashi, Tsunehito; Nepal, Prabha; Horiguchi, Mika; Karki, Sarita; Hatate, Chizuru; Hoshi, Akimasa; Harada, Takuya; Mai, Yosuke; Ohba, Yusuke; Miwa, Soichi

    2014-12-19

    Two types of G protein-coupled receptors for endothelin-1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ETAR) and ETBR, closely resemble each other, but upon ET-1 stimulation, they follow totally different intracellular trafficking pathways; ETAR is recycled back to plasma membrane, whereas ETBR is targeted to lysosome for degradation. However, the mechanisms for such different fates are unknown. Here we demonstrated that ETBR but not ETAR was ubiquitinated on the cell surface following ET-1 stimulation and that ETBR was internalized and degraded in lysosome more rapidly than ETAR. The mutant ETBR (designated "5KR mutant") in which 5 lysine residues in the C-tail were substituted to arginine was not ubiquitinated, and its rates of internalization and degradation after ET-1 stimulation became slower, being comparable with those of ETAR. Confocal microscopic study showed that following ET-1 stimulation, ETAR and 5KR mutant of ETBR were co-localized mainly with Rab11, a marker of recycling endosome, whereas ETBR was co-localized with Rab7, a marker of late endosome/lysosome. In the 5KR mutant, ET-1-induced ERK phosphorylation and an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration upon repetitive ET-1 stimulation were larger. A series of ETBR mutants (designated "4KR mutant"), in which either one of 5 arginine residues of the 5KR mutant was reverted to lysine, were normally ubiquitinated, internalized, and degraded, with ERK phosphorylation being normalized. These results demonstrate that agonist-induced ubiquitination at either lysine residue in the C-tail of ETBR but not ETAR switches intracellular trafficking from recycling to plasma membrane to targeting to lysosome, causing decreases in the cell surface level of ETBR and intracellular signaling.

  15. α(2A) adrenergic receptor promotes amyloidogenesis through disrupting APP-SorLA interaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunjia; Peng, Yin; Che, Pulin; Gannon, Mary; Liu, Yin; Li, Ling; Bu, Guojun; van Groen, Thomas; Jiao, Kai; Wang, Qin

    2014-12-01

    Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides in the brain is the key pathogenic factor driving Alzheimer's disease (AD). Endocytic sorting of amyloid precursor protein (APP) mediated by the vacuolar protein sorting (Vps10) family of receptors plays a decisive role in controlling the outcome of APP proteolytic processing and Aβ generation. Here we report for the first time to our knowledge that this process is regulated by a G protein-coupled receptor, the α(2A) adrenergic receptor (α(2A)AR). Genetic deficiency of the α(2A)AR significantly reduces, whereas stimulation of this receptor enhances, Aβ generation and AD-related pathology. Activation of α(2A)AR signaling disrupts APP interaction with a Vps10 family receptor, sorting-related receptor with A repeat (SorLA), in cells and in the mouse brain. As a consequence, activation of α(2A)AR reduces Golgi localization of APP and concurrently promotes APP distribution in endosomes and cleavage by β secretase. The α(2A)AR is a key component of the brain noradrenergic system. Profound noradrenergic dysfunction occurs consistently in patients at the early stages of AD. α(2A)AR-promoted Aβ generation provides a novel mechanism underlying the connection between noradrenergic dysfunction and AD. Our study also suggests α(2A)AR as a previously unappreciated therapeutic target for AD. Significantly, pharmacological blockade of the α(2A)AR by a clinically used antagonist reduces AD-related pathology and ameliorates cognitive deficits in an AD transgenic model, suggesting that repurposing clinical α(2A)R antagonists would be an effective therapeutic strategy for AD.

  16. CIN85 modulates TGFβ signaling by promoting the presentation of TGFβ receptors on the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Yakymovych, Ihor; Yakymovych, Mariya; Zang, Guangxiang; Mu, Yabing; Bergh, Anders; Landström, Maréne

    2015-01-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family initiate cellular responses by binding to TGFβ receptor type II (TβRII) and type I (TβRI) serine/threonine kinases, whereby Smad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated and activated, promoting their association with Smad4. We report here that TβRI interacts with the SH3 domains of the adaptor protein CIN85 in response to TGFβ stimulation in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown of CIN85 resulted in accumulation of TβRI in intracellular compartments and diminished TGFβ-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation. Overexpression of CIN85 instead increased the amount of TβRI at the cell surface. This effect was inhibited by a dominant-negative mutant of Rab11, suggesting that CIN85 promoted recycling of TGFβ receptors. CIN85 enhanced TGFβ-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation, transcriptional responses, and cell migration. CIN85 expression correlated with the degree of malignancy of prostate cancers. Collectively, our results reveal that CIN85 promotes recycling of TGFβ receptors and thereby positively regulates TGFβ signaling. PMID:26169354

  17. Soluble forms of VEGF receptor-1 and -2 promote vascular maturation via mural cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lorquet, Sophie; Berndt, Sarah; Blacher, Silvia; Gengoux, Emily; Peulen, Olivier; Maquoi, Erik; Noël, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Munaut, Carine; Péqueux, Christel

    2010-10-01

    Two soluble forms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2, are physiologically released and overproduced in some pathologies. They are known to act as anti-VEGF agents. Here we report that these soluble receptors contribute to vessel maturation by mediating a dialogue between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells that leads to blood vessel stabilization. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we provide evidence that these soluble VEGF receptors promote mural cell migration through a paracrine mechanism involving interplay in ECs between VEGF/VEGFR-2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate type-1 (S1P)/S1P1 pathways that leads to endothelial nitric oxyde synthase (eNOS) activation. This new paradigm is supported by the finding that sVEGFR-1 and -2 perform the following actions: 1) induce an eNOS-dependent outgrowth of a mural cell network in an ex vivo model of angiogenesis, 2) increase the mural cell coverage of neovessels in vitro and in vivo, 3) promote mural cell migration toward ECs, and 4) stimulate endothelial S1P1 overproduction and eNOS activation that promote the migration and the recruitment of neighboring mural cells. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms regulating physiological and pathological angiogenesis and vessel stabilization.

  18. Characterization of promoter sequence of toll-like receptor genes in Vechur cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, R.; Jayavardhanan, K. K.; Aravindakshan, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR) genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique. Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases. PMID:27397987

  19. [Cloning and regulation of pig estrogen related receptor β gene (ESRRB) promoter].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Yaxian; Du, Lixia; Wang, Huayan

    2015-04-01

    The estrogen related receptor family member Esrrb (Estrogen related receptor β) is a gene that expresses in the early stage of embryo and plays an important role in the core pluripotent network. Its function has been analyzed in human and mouse, although no report so far related to pig. Therefore, to explore its mechanism of transcriptional regulation and expression pattern, we cloned a 3.3 kb pig ESRRB promoter by PCR and constructed the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter vector pE3.3. We used these vectors to study the ESRRB expression pattern in 293T, Hela and C2C12. Sequence was analyzed for regulatory elements that share homology to known transcription factor binding sites by TFSEARCH and JASPER program. Some pluripotency related genes such as SMAD, STAT3, MYC, KLF4 and ESRRB have been found within the 3.3 kb sequence by co-transfected pig ESRRB promoter and these potential regulators. We found that ESRRB only expressed in 293T and SMAD could activate ESRRB expression obviously. To determine the core promoter region, a series of ESRRB promoter fragments with gradually truncated 5'-end were produced by PCR and inserted into pGL3-Basic vector. After transient transfection into 293T, dual luciferase assay was used to measure these promoter activities. The result suggested that the core promoter of pig ESRRB located within -25 bp to -269 bp region. These results suggest that these transcription factor binding sites and the core promoter region may be essential for transcriptional regulation of pig ESRRB gene. PMID:26380406

  20. Longevity of aeolian megaripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhaq, H.; Katra, I.

    2015-07-01

    Megaripples are distinguished from regular ripples by their larger dimensions and bimodal grain-size distributions. The interplay between wind, grain size and ripple morphology (height and wavelength) controls their development. Two main mechanisms limit megaripple height. The first, megaripple flattening due to winds that are above the fluid threshold of the coarse grains, destroys the armoring layer of the megaripple. The second is megaripple erosion by the impacts of fast-moving, fine saltating grains that propel the coarse grains constituting the armoring layer. For any given wind regime and grain size distribution, the potential megaripple dimensions are limited by these two mechanisms. Here we study the first mechanism and estimate the duration of strong winds (sustained above the fluid threshold) needed to flatten megaripples. Strong gusts of wind, in contrast, cannot destroy the megaripples but can cause ripple migration. Based on data from previous works on megaripples, we find a scaling law between the ripple morphology and the coarse mode of grains at the crest. Using this scaling relation allows us to calculate the wind velocity and duration needed for megaripple flattening. In general, the coarser the particles at the megaripple crest, the stronger the wind needed to flatten the megaripples. Moreover, the greater the strength of the wind required to flatten the megaripples, the lower the recurrence probability. Taken together, these findings increase the longevity of megaripples. We apply the results for a megaripple field in the southern Arava valley (Israel).

  1. Thermosensation and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Liu, Jianfeng; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Temperature has profound effects on behavior and aging in both poikilotherms and homeotherms. To thrive under the ever fluctuating environmental temperatures, animals have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense and adapt to temperature changes. Animals sense temperature through various molecular thermosensors, such as thermosensitive TRP channels expressed in neurons, keratinocytes, and intestine. These evolutionarily conserved thermosensitive TRP channels feature distinct activation thresholds, thereby covering a wide spectrum of ambient temperature. Temperature changes trigger complex thermosensory behaviors. Due to the simplicity of the nervous system in model organisms such as C. elegans and Drosophila, the mechanisms of thermosensory behaviors in these species have been extensively studied at the circuit and molecular levels. While much is known about temperature regulation of behavior, it remains largely unclear how temperature affects aging. Recent studies in C. elegans demonstrate that temperature modulation of longevity is not simply a passive thermodynamic phenomenon as suggested by the rate-of-living theory, but rather a process that is actively regulated by genes, including those encoding thermosensitive TRP channels. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of thermosensation and its role in aging. PMID:26101089

  2. The protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 promotes D2-like dopamine receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Likhite, Neah; Jackson, Christopher A; Liang, Mao-Shih; Krzyzanowski, Michelle C; Lei, Pedro; Wood, Jordan F; Birkaya, Barbara; Michaels, Kerry L; Andreadis, Stelios T; Clark, Stewart D; Yu, Michael C; Ferkey, Denise M

    2015-11-10

    Protein arginine methylation regulates diverse functions of eukaryotic cells, including gene expression, the DNA damage response, and circadian rhythms. We showed that arginine residues within the third intracellular loop of the human D2 dopamine receptor, which are conserved in the DOP-3 receptor in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, were methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). By mutating these arginine residues, we further showed that their methylation enhanced the D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells. Analysis of prmt-5-deficient worms indicated that methylation promoted the dopamine-mediated modulation of chemosensory and locomotory behaviors in C. elegans through the DOP-3 receptor. In addition to delineating a previously uncharacterized means of regulating GPCR (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor) signaling, these findings may lead to the development of a new class of pharmacological therapies that modulate GPCR signaling by changing the methylation status of these key proteins. PMID:26554819

  3. The Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Protein 2 promotes food intake through inhibition of the Prokineticin Receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Chaly, Anna L; Srisai, Dollada; Gardner, Ellen E; Sebag, Julien A

    2016-01-01

    The Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Protein 2 (MRAP2) is an important regulator of energy homeostasis and its loss causes severe obesity in rodents. MRAP2 mediates its action in part through the potentiation of the MC4R, however, it is clear that MRAP2 is expressed in tissues that do not express MC4R, and that the deletion of MRAP2 does not recapitulate the phenotype of Mc4r KO mice. Consequently, we hypothesized that other GPCRs involved in the control of energy homeostasis are likely to be regulated by MRAP2. In this study we identified PKR1 as the first non-melanocortin GPCR to be regulated by MRAP2. We show that MRAP2 significantly and specifically inhibits PKR1 signaling. We also demonstrate that PKR1 and MRAP2 co-localize in neurons and that Mrap2 KO mice are hypersensitive to PKR1 stimulation. This study not only identifies new partners of MRAP2 but also a new pathway through which MRAP2 regulates energy homeostasis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12397.001 PMID:26829592

  4. Human pregnane X receptor compromises the function of p53 and promotes malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, D; Cherian, M; Wu, J; Chen, T

    2016-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is well established as a nuclear receptor that has a central role in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition. However, emerging evidence suggests that PXR is also a regulator of apoptosis, promoting a malignant phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. The tumor suppressor p53 can be activated in the presence of DNA damage and induce cell cycle arrest to allow for DNA repair or, ultimately, apoptosis to suppress tumor formation. We previously identified p53 as a novel PXR-associated protein by using a mass spectrometric approach. In the current study, we identified a novel inhibitory effect of PXR on p53, revealing an anti-apoptotic function of PXR in colon carcinogenesis. PXR expression reduced p53 transactivation and the expression of its downstream target genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by decreasing p53 recruitment to the promoter regions of these genes. Consistent with the inhibitory effect of PXR on p53, elevated PXR levels decreased doxorubicin- or nutlin-3a-mediated toxicity and promoted malignant transformation in colon cancer cells. Our findings show for the first time that PXR expression modulates p53 target gene promoter binding and contributes to the downregulation of p53 function in human colon cancer cells. These results define the functional significance of PXR expression in modulating p53-mediated mechanisms of tumor suppression. PMID:27547448

  5. Transactivation of the proximal promoter of human oxytocin gene by TR4 orphan receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-P.; Lee, Y.-F.; Chang, C.; Lee, H.-J. . E-mail: hjlee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2006-12-08

    The human testicular receptor 4 (TR4) shares structural homology with members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Some other members of this superfamily were able to regulate the transcriptional activity of the human oxytocin (OXT) promoter by binding to the first DR0 regulatory site. However, little investigation was conducted systematically in the study of the second dDR4 site of OXT proximal promoter, and the relationship between the first and the second sites of OXT promoter. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that TR4 could increase the proximal promoter activity of the human OXT gene via DR0, dDR4, and OXT (both DR0 and dDR4) elements, respectively. TR4 might induce OXT gene expression through the OXT element in a dose-dependent manner. However, there is no synergistic effect between DR0 and dDR4 elements during TR4 transactivation. Taken together, these results suggested that TR4 should be one of important regulators of OXT gene expression.

  6. Synergistic activation of the human orphan nuclear receptor SHP gene promoter by basic helix–loop–helix protein E2A and orphan nuclear receptor SF-1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Jong; Kim, Joon-Young; Park, Yun-Yong; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2003-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2) is an unusual orphan nuclear receptor that lacks a conventional DNA-binding domain and acts as a modulator of transcriptional activities of a number of nuclear receptors. We have previously reported that the orphan nuclear receptor ERRγ activates the SHP promoter. In this study, we have found that basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors, the E2A proteins (E47, E12 and E2/5), activated the human but not the mouse SHP promoter. In contrast, the tissue-specific E47 heterodimer partner BETA2 repressed the E47- mediated transactivation of the human SHP (hSHP) promoter. Using serial deletions and E-box mutant constructs of the hSHP promoter, we identified two E-boxes (E6 and E7) as E47-responsive E-boxes, which are not conserved in the mouse SHP promoter. Moreover, gel shift, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and northern blot assays demonstrated that E47 directly binds to the hSHP promoter in vivo and in vitro and that Id proteins inhibited E47 binding to the hSHP promoter. Finally, we found that E47 and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), a regulator of the SHP promoter, synergistically activate the human but not the mouse SHP promoter. Our findings suggest that the E2A proteins differentially regulate the human and mouse SHP promoters and cooperate with orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 for transcriptional activation of the hSHP promoter. PMID:14627819

  7. The putative signal peptide of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is not required for receptor synthesis but promotes receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yunjun; Yang, Dehua; Dai, Antao; Zhou, Caihong; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    GLP-1R (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor) mediates the ‘incretin effect’ and many other anti-diabetic actions of its cognate ligand, GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1). It belongs to the class B family of GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors) and possesses an N-terminal putative SP (signal peptide). It has been reported that this sequence is required for the synthesis of GLP-1R and is cleaved after receptor synthesis. In the present study, we conducted an in-depth exploration towards the role of the putative SP in GLP-1R synthesis. A mutant GLP-1R without this sequence was expressed in HEK293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) and displayed normal functionality with respect to ligand binding and activation of adenylate cyclase. Thus the putative SP does not seem to be required for receptor synthesis. Immunoblotting analysis shows that the amount of GLP-1R synthesized in HEK293 cells is low when the putative SP is absent. This indicates that the role of the sequence is to promote the expression of GLP-1R. Furthermore, epitopes tagged at the N-terminal of GLP-1R are detectable by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting in our experiments. In conclusion, the present study points to different roles of SP in GLP-1R expression which broadens our understanding of the functionality of this putative SP of GLP-1R and possibly other Class B GPCRs. PMID:25330813

  8. Blockade of orexin-1 receptors attenuates orexin-2 receptor antagonism-induced sleep promotion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dugovic, Christine; Shelton, Jonathan E; Aluisio, Leah E; Fraser, Ian C; Jiang, Xiaohui; Sutton, Steven W; Bonaventure, Pascal; Yun, Sujin; Li, Xiaorong; Lord, Brian; Dvorak, Curt A; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Lovenberg, Timothy W

    2009-07-01

    Orexins are peptides produced by lateral hypothalamic neurons that exert a prominent role in the maintenance of wakefulness by activating orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptor located in wake-active structures. Pharmacological blockade of both receptors by the dual OX1/2R antagonist (2R)-2-[(1S)-6,7-dimethoxy-1-{2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl]-N-methyl-2-phenylethanamide (almorexant) has been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans during their active period. However, the selective distribution of OX1R and OX2R in distinct neuronal circuits may result in a differential impact of these receptors in sleep-wake modulation. The respective role of OX1R and OX2R on sleep in correlation with monoamine release was evaluated in rats treated with selective antagonists alone or in combination. When administered in either phase of the light/dark cycle, the OX2R antagonist 1-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-3-[(4S,5S)-2,2-dimethyl-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl]urea (JNJ-10397049) decreased the latency for persistent sleep and increased nonrapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep time. Almorexant produced less hypnotic activity, whereas the OX1R antagonist 1-(6,8-difluoro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]urea (SB-408124) had no effect. Microdialysis studies showed that either OX2R or OX1/2R antagonism decreased extracellular histamine concentration in the lateral hypothalamus, whereas both OX1R and OX1/2R antagonists increased dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, coadministration of the OX1R with the OX2R antagonist greatly attenuated the sleep-promoting effects of the OX2R antagonist. These results indicate that blockade of OX2R is sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, consistent with the hypothesis of a deactivation of the histaminergic system. In addition, it is suggested that simultaneous inhibition of OX1R attenuates the sleep-promoting effects mediated by selective OX2R blockade, possibly correlated

  9. The DEK oncogene promotes cellular proliferation through paracrine Wnt signaling in Ron receptor positive breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Privette Vinnedge, Lisa M.; Benight, Nancy M.; Wagh, Purnima K.; Pease, Nicholas A.; Nashu, Madison A.; Serrano-Lopez, Juana; Adams, Allie K.; Cancelas, Jose A.; Waltz, Susan E.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2014-01-01

    Disease progression and recurrence are major barriers to surviving breast cancer. Understanding the etiology of recurrent or metastatic breast cancer and underlying mechanisms is critical for the development of new treatments and improved survival. Here, we report that two commonly over-expressed breast cancer oncogenes, Ron and DEK, cooperate to promote advanced disease through multi-pronged effects on β-catenin signaling. The Ron receptor is commonly activated in breast cancers, and Ron over-expression in human disease stimulates β-catenin nuclear translocation and is an independent predictor of metastatic dissemination. Dek is a chromatin-associated oncogene whose expression has been linked to cancer through multiple mechanisms, including β-catenin activity. We demonstrate here that Dek is a downstream target of Ron receptor activation in murine and human models. The absence of Dek in the MMTV-Ron mouse model led to a significant delay in tumor development, characterized by decreased cell proliferation, diminished metastasis, and fewer cells expressing cancer stem cell markers. Dek complementation of cell lines established from this model was sufficient to promote cellular growth and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, Dek expression stimulated the production and secretion of Wnt ligands to sustain an autocrine/paracrine canonical β-catenin signaling loop. Finally, we show that Dek over-expression promotes tumorigenic phenotypes in immortalized human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells and, in the context of Ron receptor activation, correlates with disease recurrence and metastasis in patients. Overall, our studies demonstrate that DEK over-expression, due in part to Ron receptor activation, drives breast cancer progression through the induction of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:24954505

  10. Transcriptional activation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor promoter by human p53.

    PubMed Central

    Ludes-Meyers, J H; Subler, M A; Shivakumar, C V; Munoz, R M; Jiang, P; Bigger, J E; Brown, D R; Deb, S P; Deb, S

    1996-01-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promoter is activated by both wild-type and tumor-derived mutant p53. In this communication, we demonstrate that EGFR promoter sequence requirements for transactivation by wild-type and mutant p53 are different. Transient-expression assays with EGFR promoter deletions identified a wild-type human p53 response element, 5'-AGCTAGACGTCCGGGCAGCCCCCGGCG -3', from positions --265 to --239. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis and DNase I footprinting assays indicated that wild-type p53 binds sequence specifically to the response element. Using circularly permuted DNA fragments containing the p53-binding site, we show that wild-type p53 binding induces DNA bending at this site. We further show that the EGFR promoter is also activated by tumor-derived p53 mutants p53-143A, p53-175H, p53-248W, p53-273H, and p53-281G. However, the transactivation by mutant p53 does not require the wild-type p53-binding site. The minimal EGFR promoter from positions --104 to --20 which does not contain the wild-type p53-binding site is transactivated by the p53 mutants but not by the wild-type protein, showing a difference in the mechanism of transactivation by wild-type and mutant p53. Transactivation of the EGFR promoter by p53 may represent a novel mechanism of cell growth regulation. PMID:8887630

  11. Tumour-cell-induced endothelial cell necroptosis via death receptor 6 promotes metastasis.

    PubMed

    Strilic, Boris; Yang, Lida; Albarrán-Juárez, Julián; Wachsmuth, Laurens; Han, Kang; Müller, Ulrike C; Pasparakis, Manolis; Offermanns, Stefan

    2016-08-11

    Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death in humans. It is a complex multistep process during which individual tumour cells spread primarily through the circulatory system to colonize distant organs. Once in the circulation, tumour cells remain vulnerable, and their metastatic potential largely depends on a rapid and efficient way to escape from the blood stream by passing the endothelial barrier. Evidence has been provided that tumour cell extravasation resembles leukocyte transendothelial migration. However, it remains unclear how tumour cells interact with endothelial cells during extravasation and how these processes are regulated on a molecular level. Here we show that human and murine tumour cells induce programmed necrosis (necroptosis) of endothelial cells, which promotes tumour cell extravasation and metastasis. Treatment of mice with the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-inhibitor necrostatin-1 or endothelial-cell-specific deletion of RIPK3 reduced tumour-cell-induced endothelial necroptosis, tumour cell extravasation and metastasis. In contrast, pharmacological caspase inhibition or endothelial-cell-specific loss of caspase-8 promoted these processes. We furthermore show in vitro and in vivo that tumour-cell-induced endothelial necroptosis leading to extravasation and metastasis requires amyloid precursor protein expressed by tumour cells and its receptor, death receptor 6 (DR6), on endothelial cells as the primary mediators of these effects. Our data identify a new mechanism underlying tumour cell extravasation and metastasis, and suggest endothelial DR6-mediated necroptotic signalling pathways as targets for anti-metastatic therapies. PMID:27487218

  12. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces expression of the growth-promoting receptor ICOS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hongyi; Kantekure, Kanchan; Paterson, Jennifer C; Liu, Xiaobin; Schaffer, Andras; Paulos, Chrystal; Milone, Michael C; Odum, Niels; Turner, Suzanne; Marafioti, Teresa; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2011-09-15

    Here we report that T-cell lymphoma cells carrying the NPM-ALK fusion protein (ALK(+) TCL) frequently express the cell-stimulatory receptor ICOS. ICOS expression in ALK(+) TCL is moderate and strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK induces ICOS expression via STAT3, which triggers the transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene promoter. In addition, STAT3 suppresses the expression of miR-219 that, in turn, selectively inhibits ICOS expression. ALK(+) TCL cell lines display extensive DNA methylation of the CpG island located within intron 1, the putative enhancer region, of the ICOS gene, whereas cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines, which strongly express ICOS, show no methylation of the island. Treatment of the ALK(+) TCL cell lines with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor reversed the CpG island methylation and augmented the expression of ICOS mRNA and protein. Stimulation of the ICOS receptor with anti-ICOS antibody or ICOS ligand-expressing B cells markedly enhanced proliferation of the ALK(+) TCL cells. These results demonstrate that NPM-ALK, acting through STAT3 as the gene transcriptional activator, induces the expression of ICOS, a cell growth promoting receptor. These data also show that the DNA methylation status of the intronic CpG island affects transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene and, consequently, modulates the concentration of the expressed ICOS protein.

  13. Nerve growth factor and its low-affinity receptor promote Schwann cell migration.

    PubMed Central

    Anton, E S; Weskamp, G; Reichardt, L F; Matthew, W D

    1994-01-01

    Migrating Schwann cells in developing or regenerating peripheral nerves are known to express dramatically increased levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and the low-affinity NGF receptor (LNGFR). Schwann cells do not express detectable pp140trk, the NGF-activated receptor tyrosine kinase which is essential for neuronal responses to NGF. The temporal correlation observed in Schwann cells between migration and the enhanced expression of NGF and LNGFR suggests that NGF and LNGFR may promote Schwann cell migration. To test this possibility, we examined the effects of NGF on Schwann cell migration on cryostat sections of biologically relevant NGF-poor and NGF-rich substrates--normal or denervated peripheral (sciatic) nerve, untreated or pretreated with NGF. Results show that Schwann cells migrate more rapidly on denervated than on normal sciatic nerve. Antibodies to NGF or to LNGFR strongly, but incompletely, inhibit enhanced migration on denervated nerves. Pretreatment of denervated nerve sections with NGF increases further the rate of Schwann cell migration. The same antibodies to NGF or to LNGFR abolish this response. These results suggest that one function of the elevated levels of NGF known to be present in embryonic and regenerating peripheral nerves is to promote the migration of Schwann cells. In contrast to neurons, where pp140trk appears to be the functionally critical NGF receptor, NGF responses in Schwann cells depend on LNGFR. Images PMID:8146193

  14. AMPA-Kainate Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neurologic Recovery in Premature Rabbits with Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dohare, Preeti; Zia, Muhammad T.; Ahmed, Ehsan; Ahmed, Asad; Yadala, Vivek; Schober, Alexandra L.; Ortega, Juan Alberto; Kayton, Robert; Ungvari, Zoltan; Mongin, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    of survivors with IVH develop cerebral palsy and cognitive deficits. The development of IVH leads to inflammation of the periventricular white matter, apoptosis and arrested maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and hypomyelination. Here, we show that AMPA-kainate receptor inhibition by NBQX suppresses inflammation, attenuates apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and promotes myelination as well as clinical recovery in preterm rabbits with IVH. Importantly, AMPA-specific inhibition by the FDA-approved perampanel, which unlike NBQX has a low side-effect profile, also enhances myelination and neurological recovery in rabbits with IVH. Hence, the present study highlights the role of AMPA-kainate receptor in IVH-induced white matter injury and identifies a novel strategy of neuroprotection, which might improve the neurological outcome for premature infants with IVH. PMID:26985043

  15. Perceptions of Longevity and Successful Aging in Very Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Marks, Loren D.; Benedetto, Tim; Sullivan, Marisa C.; Barker, Alyse

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceptions of longevity and successful aging in young-old (60 to 74 years), old-old (75 to 89 years), and oldest-old (90 + years) adults drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Participants’ responses to three open-ended questions that assessed their attributions for longevity, what they look forward to, and advice for younger persons today were compared. Content analyses yielded three emergent themes: maintaining physical, mental, and relational well-being; living a healthy life; and living a faithful life. Implications of these findings for current views on successful aging and insights for promoting a long and healthy life are considered. PMID:24353480

  16. Health Consequences of Familial Longevity Influence Among the Chinese Elderly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. A comparative analysis between centenarians’ children and neighborhood controls is an efficient approach to learn how familial longevity influence and its interaction with environmental factors affect healthy aging. Yet, there are few extant studies that inform this topic; this study expands this literature. Methods. We analyze data from 417 children of centenarians and 560 neighborhood controls without family history of longevity in China (all participants aged 60–80) using ordered logit regression models. Results. We found that, compared to the neighborhood controls and adjusted for various potentially confounding factors, centenarians’ children had significantly better instrumental activities of daily living function(p < .001), smaller number of chronic conditions or health problems(p < .01), less anxiety and loneliness(p < .01), better cognitive function (p < .01), more resilience (p < .01), better self-rated health (p < .001), and better self-rated life satisfaction (p < .001). The results also reveal that interactions between familial longevity influence and one of three environmental factors (whether, as children, they received adequate medical care when ill, number of living children, and household economic conditions) may possibly affect health outcomes at old ages (p < .05). We discovered that effects of the environmental factors on health outcome are substantially stronger among elders who have no family history of longevity compared to centenarians’ children who probably carry positive genes and/or lifestyle behaviors from their long-lived parent(s), which may promote longevity. Conclusion. Familial longevity influence, through genetics and family lifestyle, is significantly associated with various aspects of health at older ages. Interactions between familial longevity influence and some environmental factors may affect health in old age. PMID:23064818

  17. A novel fibroblast growth factor receptor family member promotes neuronal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity in aplysia.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Daniela D; Minh, Bui Quang; Cicvaric, Ana; Monje, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptors (FGFRs) regulate essential biological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cellular growth and memory-related long-term synaptic plasticity. Whereas canonical FGFRs depend exclusively on extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains for ligand binding, other receptor types, including members of the tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) family, use either Ig-like or Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) motifs, or both. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events leading to the differential incorporation of LRR domains into Ig-containing tyrosine kinase receptors. Moreover, although FGFRs have been identified in many vertebrate species, few reports describe their existence in invertebrates. Information about the biological relevance of invertebrate FGFRs and evolutionary divergences between them and their vertebrate counterparts is therefore limited. Here, we characterized ApLRRTK, a neuronal cell-surface protein recently identified in Aplysia. We unveiled ApLRRTK as the first member of the FGFRs family deprived of Ig-like domains that instead contains extracellular LRR domains. We describe that ApLRRTK exhibits properties typical of canonical vertebrate FGFRs, including promotion of FGF activity, enhancement of neuritic outgrowth and signaling via MAPK and the transcription factor CREB. ApLRRTK also enhanced the synaptic efficiency of neurons known to mediate in vivo memory-related defensive behaviors. These data reveal a novel molecular regulator of neuronal function in invertebrates, provide the first evolutionary linkage between LRR proteins and FGFRs and unveil an unprecedented mechanism of FGFR gene diversification in primeval central nervous systems.

  18. Glycone-rich Soy Isoflavone Extracts Promote Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kailee A; Vemuri, Sravan; Alsahafi, Sameerh; Castillo, Rudy; Cheriyath, Venugopalan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the association of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with breast cancer risk, estrogenically active soy isoflavones are considered as an HRT alternative to alleviate menopausal symptoms. However, several recent reports challenged the health benefits of soy isoflavones and associated them with breast cancer promotion. While glyconic isoflavones are the major constituents of soybean seeds, due to their low cell permeability, they are considered to be biologically inactive. The glyconic isoflavones may exert their effects on membrane-bound estrogen receptors or could be converted to aglycones by extracellular β-glucosidases. Therefore, we hypothesized that despite their low cell permeability, soybean cultivars with high glyconic isoflavones may promote breast cancer cell growth. To test this, composition and estrogenic activity of isoflavones from 54 commercial soybean cultivars were determined. Soybean seeds produced in identical climate and growth conditions were used to minimize the effects of extraneous factors on isoflavone profile and concentrations. The glyconic daidzin concentration negatively correlated with genistin and with other aglycones. Relative to control, isoflavone extracts from 51 cultivars were estrogenic and promoted the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cell line MCF-7 from 1.14 to 4.59 folds and other three cultivars slightly reduced the growth. Among these, extracts from three cultivars were highly estrogenic and promoted MCF-7 cell growth by 2.59-4.64 folds (P<0.005). Among six isoflavones, daidzin was positively associated with MCF-7 cell growth (P<0.005, r = 0.13966), whereas the negative correlation between genistin and MCF-7 cell growth was nearly significant (P≤0.0562, r = -0.026141). Furthermore, in drug interaction studies daidzin-rich isoflavone extracts antagonized tamoxifen, an ER inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that the glyconic daidzin-rich soy isoflavone extracts may exert estrogenic

  19. Cancer cell-selective promoter recognition accompanies antitumor effect by glucocorticoid receptor-targeted gold nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Sau, Samaresh; Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Bag, Indira; Sreedhar, Bojja; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2014-06-21

    Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied on the delivery of 'exogenous' genes invoking gene knockdown or replacement. Practically, there are no instances for the nanoparticle-mediated promoter regulation of 'endogenous' genes, more so, as a cancer selective phenomenon. In this regard, we report the development of a simple, easily modifiable GNP-formulation, which promoted/up-regulated the expression of a specific category of 'endogenous' genes, the glucocorticoid responsive genes. This genetic up-regulation was induced in only cancer cells by modified GNP-mediated transcriptional activation of its cytoplasmic receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normal cells and their GR remained primarily unperturbed by this GNP-formulation. The most potent gene up-regulating GNP-formulation down-regulated a cancer-specific proliferative signal, phospho-Akt in cancer cells, which accompanied retardation of tumor growth in the murine melanoma model. We show that GR-targeted GNPs may find potential use in the targeting and modulation of genetic information in cancer towards developing novel anticancer therapeutics.

  20. Nanoparticle-induced unfolding of fibrinogen promotes Mac-1 receptor activation and inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhou J.; Liang, Mingtao; Monteiro, Michael; Toth, Istvan; Minchin, Rodney F.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition, size, shape and surface characteristics of nanoparticles affect the way proteins bind to these particles, and this in turn influences the way in which nanoparticles interact with cells and tissues. Nanomaterials bound with proteins can result in physiological and pathological changes, including macrophage uptake, blood coagulation, protein aggregation and complement activation, but the mechanisms that lead to these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we show that negatively charged poly(acrylic acid)-conjugated gold nanoparticles bind to and induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes interaction with the integrin receptor, Mac-1. Activation of this receptor increases the NF-κB signalling pathway, resulting in the release of inflammatory cytokines. However, not all nanoparticles that bind to fibrinogen demonstrated this effect. Our results show that the binding of certain nanoparticles to fibrinogen in plasma offers an alternative mechanism to the more commonly described role of oxidative stress in the inflammatory response to nanomaterials.

  1. Formylpeptide Receptors Promote the Migration and Differentiation of Rat Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Xingxing; Xue, Xin; Guo, Qiaonan; Liu, Mingyong; Zhao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) bear characteristics for proliferation, migration and differentiation into three main neural cell type(s): neurons, astrocytes and/or oligodendrocytes. Formylpeptide receptors (Fprs), belonging to the family of G protein-coupled chemoattractant receptors, have been detected on neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we report that Fpr1 and Fpr2 are expressed on NSCs as detected with immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and WB assays. In addition, Fpr1 and Fpr2 promoted NSC migration through F-actin polymerization and skewed NSC differentiation to neurons. Our study demonstrates a unique role of Fpr1 and Fpr2 in NSCs and opens a novel window for cell replacement therapies for brain and spinal cord injury. PMID:27173446

  2. The Shh receptor Boc promotes progression of early medulloblastoma to advanced tumors.

    PubMed

    Mille, Frédéric; Tamayo-Orrego, Lukas; Lévesque, Martin; Remke, Marc; Korshunov, Andrey; Cardin, Julie; Bouchard, Nicolas; Izzi, Luisa; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A; Taylor, Michael D; Pfister, Stefan M; Charron, Frédéric

    2014-10-13

    During cerebellar development, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling drives the proliferation of granule cell precursors (GCPs). Aberrant activation of Shh signaling causes overproliferation of GCPs, leading to medulloblastoma. Although the Shh-binding protein Boc associates with the Shh receptor Ptch1 to mediate Shh signaling, whether Boc plays a role in medulloblastoma is unknown. Here, we show that BOC is upregulated in medulloblastomas and induces GCP proliferation. Conversely, Boc inactivation reduces proliferation and progression of early medulloblastomas to advanced tumors. Mechanistically, we find that Boc, through elevated Shh signaling, promotes high levels of DNA damage, an effect mediated by CyclinD1. High DNA damage in the presence of Boc increases the incidence of Ptch1 loss of heterozygosity, an important event in the progression from early to advanced medulloblastoma. Together, our results indicate that DNA damage promoted by Boc leads to the demise of its own coreceptor, Ptch1, and consequently medulloblastoma progression. PMID:25263791

  3. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Relays Metabolic Signals to Promote Cellular Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    While sensing the cell environment, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) interacts with different pathways involved in cellular homeostasis. This review summarizes evidence suggesting that cellular regeneration in the context of aging and diseases can be modulated by AHR signaling on stem cells. New insights connect orphaned observations into AHR interactions with critical signaling pathways such as WNT to propose a role of this ligand-activated transcription factor in the modulation of cellular regeneration by altering pathways that nurture cellular expansion such as changes in the metabolic efficiency rather than by directly altering cell cycling, proliferation, or cell death. Targeting the AHR to promote regeneration might prove to be a useful strategy to avoid unbalanced disruptions of homeostasis that may promote disease and also provide biological rationale for potential regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:27563312

  4. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches.

  5. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  6. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Relays Metabolic Signals to Promote Cellular Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Casado, Fanny L

    2016-01-01

    While sensing the cell environment, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) interacts with different pathways involved in cellular homeostasis. This review summarizes evidence suggesting that cellular regeneration in the context of aging and diseases can be modulated by AHR signaling on stem cells. New insights connect orphaned observations into AHR interactions with critical signaling pathways such as WNT to propose a role of this ligand-activated transcription factor in the modulation of cellular regeneration by altering pathways that nurture cellular expansion such as changes in the metabolic efficiency rather than by directly altering cell cycling, proliferation, or cell death. Targeting the AHR to promote regeneration might prove to be a useful strategy to avoid unbalanced disruptions of homeostasis that may promote disease and also provide biological rationale for potential regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:27563312

  7. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  8. Prostaglandin E2 promotes proliferation of skeletal muscle myoblasts via EP4 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mo, Chenglin; Zhao, Ruonan; Vallejo, Julian; Igwe, Orisa; Bonewald, Lynda; Wetmore, Lori; Brotto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that conditioned media (CM) from osteocytes enhances myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, suggesting that signaling from bone may be important for skeletal muscle myogenesis. The effect of CM was closely mimicked by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a bioactive lipid mediator in various physiological or pathological conditions. PGE2 is secreted at high levels by osteocytes and such secretion is further enhanced under loading conditions. Although four types of receptors, EP1 to EP4, mediate PGE2 signaling, it is unknown whether these receptors play a role in myogenesis. Therefore, in this study, the expression of EPs in mouse primary myoblasts was characterized, followed by examination of their roles in myoblast proliferation by treating myoblasts with PGE2 or specific agonists. All four PGE2 receptor mRNAs were detectable by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), but only PGE2 and EP4 agonist CAY 10598 significantly enhance myoblast proliferation. EP1/EP3 agonist 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 (17-PT PGE2) and EP2 agonist butaprost did not have any significant effects. Moreover, treatment with EP4 antagonist L161,982 dose-dependently inhibited myoblast proliferation. These results were confirmed by cell cycle analysis and the gene expression of cell cycle regulators. Concomitant with the inhibition of myoblast proliferation, treatment with L161,982 significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Cotreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or sodium ascorbate (SA) successfully reversed the inhibition of myoblast proliferation and ROS overproduction caused by L161,982. Therefore, PGE2 signaling via the EP4 receptor regulates myogenesis by promoting myoblast proliferation and blocking this receptor results in increased ROS production in myoblasts.

  9. Methylation Status of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Promoter in Benign and Malignant Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, Catia; Rebellato, Andrea; Urbanet, Riccardo; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Cappellesso, Rocco; Sasano, Hironobu; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed a decreased expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA/protein in a small group of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) tissues, suggesting the loss of a protective role of VDR against malignant cell growth in this cancer type. Downregulation of VDR gene expression may result from epigenetics events, that is, methylation of cytosine nucleotide of CpG islands in VDR gene promoter. We analyzed methylation of CpG sites in the VDR gene promoter in normal adrenals and adrenocortical tumor samples. Methylation of CpG-rich 5′ regions was assessed by bisulfite sequencing PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from archival microdissected paraffin-embedded adrenocortical tissues. Three normal adrenals and 23 various adrenocortical tumor samples (15 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) were studied. Methylation in the promoter region of VDR gene was found in 3/8 ACCs, while no VDR gene methylation was observed in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas. VDR mRNA and protein levels were lower in ACCs than in benign tumors, and VDR immunostaining was weak or negative in ACCs, including all 3 methylated tissue samples. The association between VDR gene promoter methylation and reduced VDR gene expression is not a rare event in ACC, suggesting that VDR epigenetic inactivation may have a role in adrenocortical carcinogenesis. PMID:26843863

  10. Interferon-gamma receptor 1 promoter polymorphisms: population distribution and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Sergio D; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Ding, Li; Sullivan, Rachel; Enyedi, Balasz; Yim, Jae-Joon; Cook, James L; Musser, James M; Holland, Steven M

    2004-07-01

    Different polymorphisms have been described in the minimal promoter region (MPR) of the interferon-gamma receptor 1 (IFNGR1), a molecule that plays a critical role in mycobacterial control. We sequenced the IFNGR1 MPR from African American, Caucasian and Korean controls, and from mycobacteria-infected patients. Six different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the IFNGR1 MPR. The three ethnic groups showed different SNP distribution patterns, but no significant differences were detected between mycobacterial cases and controls. Two polymorphisms were found in all populations (G-611A, T-56C). We cloned the four allelic variants (var) of haplotype G-611A/T-56C into a luciferase reporter vector and determined their promoter activity. Polymorphisms at position -611 had a stronger effect on the promoter activity than those at position -56, and constructs carrying G-611 produced a stronger promoter activity than -611A constructs. The IFNGR1 MPR is a polymorphic region with at least two SNPs influencing its activity, but these are not associated with increased mycobacterial susceptibility.

  11. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darrion L.; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  12. Term myometrium is characterized by increased activating epigenetic modifications at the progesterone receptor-A promoter.

    PubMed

    Chai, S Y; Smith, R; Zakar, T; Mitchell, C; Madsen, G

    2012-08-01

    Term human myometrial expression of progesterone receptor (PR)-A is increased relative to PR-B, and as PR-A is a repressor of progesterone action mediated through PR-B, this increase may mediate the withdrawal of progesterone action and precipitate the onset of labour. PR-A and PR-B expression is regulated by two separate promoters of the PR gene. We hypothesized that epigenetic histone modifications at the two promoters contribute to the labour-associated regulation of PR-A and PR-B expression in term myometrium. PR total, PR-B and PR-A mRNA levels were determined using quantitative real-time PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to determine the levels of activating and repressive histone modifications at the PR-A and PR-B promoters in human myometrial samples not in labour (n = 4) and in labour (n = 4). Chromatin extracts were immunoprecipitated with antibodies against activating (histone H3 and H4 acetylation and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation), and repressive (histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation and asymmetrical histone H3 arginine 2 dimethylation) histone modifications. PR-A mRNA levels increased during labour, while PR-B mRNA levels remained constant resulting in an increase of PR-A/PR-B mRNA ratio, as expected. Regardless of labour status, significantly higher levels of the activating histone modifications were found at the PR-A promoter compared with the PR-B promoter (P <0.001). H3K4me3 increased significantly at both promoters with labour onset (P =0.001). Low levels of the repressive histone modifications were also present at both promoters, with no labour-associated changes observed. Our data indicate that the PR-A promoter is epigenetically marked for activation in term myometrium more extensively than the PR-B promoter, and that labour is associated with an increase in H3K4me3 activating modification, consistent with the previously described increase in PR protein at this time. PMID:22369759

  13. Liver X receptors alpha and beta promote myelination and remyelination in the cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Meffre, Delphine; Shackleford, Ghjuvan’Ghjacumu; Hichor, Mehdi; Gorgievski, Victor; Tzavara, Eleni T.; Trousson, Amalia; Ghoumari, Abdel M.; Deboux, Cyrille; Nait Oumesmar, Brahim; Liere, Philippe; Schumacher, Michael; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Charbonnier, Frédéric; Grenier, Julien; Massaad, Charbel

    2015-01-01

    The identification of new pathways governing myelination provides innovative avenues for remyelination. Liver X receptors (LXRs) α and β are nuclear receptors activated by oxysterols that originated from the oxidation of cholesterol. They are crucial for cholesterol homeostasis, a major lipid constituent of myelin sheaths that are formed by oligodendrocytes. However, the role of LXRs in myelin generation and maintenance is poorly understood. Here, we show that LXRs are involved in myelination and remyelination processes. LXRs and their ligands are present in oligodendrocytes. We found that mice invalidated for LXRs exhibit altered motor coordination and spatial learning, thinner myelin sheaths, and reduced myelin gene expression. Conversely, activation of LXRs by either 25-hydroxycholesterol or synthetic TO901317 stimulates myelin gene expression at the promoter, mRNA, and protein levels, directly implicating LXRα/β in the transcriptional control of myelin gene expression. Interestingly, activation of LXRs also promotes oligodendroglial cell maturation and remyelination after lysolecithin-induced demyelination of organotypic cerebellar slice cultures. Together, our findings represent a conceptual advance in the transcriptional control of myelin gene expression and strongly support a new role of LXRs as positive modulators in central (re)myelination processes. PMID:26023184

  14. Extracellular vimentin interacts with insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor to promote axonal growth.

    PubMed

    Shigyo, Michiko; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Sawai, Yusuke; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Tohda, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is generally recognised as an intracellular protein. Previously, we reported that vimentin was secreted from astrocytes and promoted axonal growth. The effect of extracellular vimentin in neurons was a new finding, but its signalling pathway was unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the signalling mechanism of extracellular vimentin that facilitates axonal growth. We first identified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as a receptor that is highly phosphorylated by vimentin stimulation. IGF1R blockades diminished vimentin- or IGF1-induced axonal growth in cultured cortical neurons. IGF1, IGF2 and insulin were not detected in the neuron culture medium after vimentin treatment. The combined drug affinity responsive target stability method and western blotting analysis showed that vimentin and IGF1 interacted with IGF1R directly. In addition, immunoprecipitation and western blotting analyses confirmed that recombinant IGF1R bound to vimentin. The results of a molecular dynamics simulation revealed that C-terminal residues (residue number 330-407) in vimentin are the most appropriate binding sites with IGF1R. Thus, extracellular vimentin may be a novel ligand of IGF1R that promotes axonal growth in a similar manner to IGF1. Our results provide novel findings regarding the role of extracellular vimentin and IGF1R in axonal growth. PMID:26170015

  15. Liver X receptors alpha and beta promote myelination and remyelination in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Meffre, Delphine; Shackleford, Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu; Hichor, Mehdi; Gorgievski, Victor; Tzavara, Eleni T; Trousson, Amalia; Ghoumari, Abdel M; Deboux, Cyrille; Nait Oumesmar, Brahim; Liere, Philippe; Schumacher, Michael; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Charbonnier, Frédéric; Grenier, Julien; Massaad, Charbel

    2015-06-16

    The identification of new pathways governing myelination provides innovative avenues for remyelination. Liver X receptors (LXRs) α and β are nuclear receptors activated by oxysterols that originated from the oxidation of cholesterol. They are crucial for cholesterol homeostasis, a major lipid constituent of myelin sheaths that are formed by oligodendrocytes. However, the role of LXRs in myelin generation and maintenance is poorly understood. Here, we show that LXRs are involved in myelination and remyelination processes. LXRs and their ligands are present in oligodendrocytes. We found that mice invalidated for LXRs exhibit altered motor coordination and spatial learning, thinner myelin sheaths, and reduced myelin gene expression. Conversely, activation of LXRs by either 25-hydroxycholesterol or synthetic TO901317 stimulates myelin gene expression at the promoter, mRNA, and protein levels, directly implicating LXRα/β in the transcriptional control of myelin gene expression. Interestingly, activation of LXRs also promotes oligodendroglial cell maturation and remyelination after lysolecithin-induced demyelination of organotypic cerebellar slice cultures. Together, our findings represent a conceptual advance in the transcriptional control of myelin gene expression and strongly support a new role of LXRs as positive modulators in central (re)myelination processes.

  16. A Novel 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase That Regulates Reproductive Development and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Wollam, Joshua; Magner, Daniel B.; Magomedova, Lilia; Rass, Elisabeth; Shen, Yidong; Rottiers, Veerle; Habermann, Bianca; Cummins, Carolyn L.; Antebi, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous small molecule metabolites that regulate animal longevity are emerging as a novel means to influence health and life span. In C. elegans, bile acid-like steroids called the dafachronic acids (DAs) regulate developmental timing and longevity through the conserved nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, a homolog of mammalian sterol-regulated receptors LXR and FXR. Using metabolic genetics, mass spectrometry, and biochemical approaches, we identify new activities in DA biosynthesis and characterize an evolutionarily conserved short chain dehydrogenase, DHS-16, as a novel 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Through regulation of DA production, DHS-16 controls DAF-12 activity governing longevity in response to signals from the gonad. Our elucidation of C. elegans bile acid biosynthetic pathways reveals the possibility of novel ligands as well as striking biochemical conservation to other animals, which could illuminate new targets for manipulating longevity in metazoans. PMID:22505847

  17. Paeoniflorin Promotes Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Adenosine A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Rui; Sun, Yu; Luo, Yan-Jia; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2016-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF, C23H28O11), one of the principal active ingredients of Paeonia Radix, exerts depressant effects on the central nervous system. We determined whether PF could modulate sleep behaviors and the mechanisms involved. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings in mice showed that intraperitoneal PF administered at a dose of 25 or 50 mg/kg significantly shortened the sleep latency and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM). Immunohistochemical study revealed that PF decreased c-fos expression in the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). The sleep-promoting effects and changes in c-fos induced by PF were reversed by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, and PF-induced sleep was not observed in adenosine A1 receptor knockout mice. Whole-cell patch clamping in mouse brain slices showed that PF significantly decreased the firing frequency of histaminergic neurons in TMN, which could be completely blocked by CPT. These results indicate that PF increased NREM sleep by inhibiting the histaminergic system via A1 receptors.

  18. Phosphorylation of farnesoid X receptor by protein kinase C promotes its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Gineste, Romain; Sirvent, Audrey; Paumelle, Réjane; Helleboid, Stéphane; Aquilina, Alexis; Darteil, Raphaël; Hum, Dean W; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart

    2008-11-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and is activated by bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, or synthetic ligands such as GW4064. FXR is implicated in the regulation of bile acid, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Posttranslational modifications regulating its activity have not been investigated yet. Here, we demonstrate that calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition impairs ligand-mediated regulation of FXR target genes. Moreover, in a transactivation assay, we show that FXR transcriptional activity is modulated by PKC. Furthermore, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate , a PKC activator, induces the phosphorylation of endogenous FXR in HepG2 cells and PKCalpha phosphorylates in vitro FXR in its DNA-binding domain on S135 and S154. Mutation of S135 and S154 to alanine residues reduces in cell FXR phosphorylation. In contrast to wild-type FXR, mutant FXRS135AS154A displays an impaired PKCalpha-induced transactivation and a decreased ligand-dependent FXR transactivation. Finally, phosphorylation of FXR by PKC promotes the recruitment of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha. In conclusion, these findings show that the phosphorylation of FXR induced by PKCalpha directly modulates the ability of agonists to activate FXR.

  19. Involvement of RTE1 in conformational changes promoting ETR1 ethylene receptor signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Josephine S; Rivarola, Maximo; Chang, Caren

    2008-11-01

    Ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis perceives ethylene through five homologous receptors that negatively regulate ethylene responses. RTE1, a novel gene conserved in plants, animals and some protists, was recently identified as a positive regulator of the ETR1 ethylene receptor. Here, we genetically analyze the dependence of ETR1 on RTE1 in order to obtain further insight into RTE1 function. The function of RTE1 was found to be independent and distinct from that of RAN1, which encodes a copper transporter required for ethylene receptor function. We tested the ability of an rte1 loss-of-function mutation to suppress 11 etr1 ethylene-binding domain mis-sense mutations, all of which result in dominant ethylene insensitivity due to constitutive signaling. This suppression test uncovered two classes of etr1 mutations -RTE1-dependent and RTE1-independent. The nature of these mutations suggests that the ethylene-binding domain is a possible target of RTE1 action. Based on these findings, we propose that RTE1 promotes ETR1 signaling through a conformational effect on the ethylene-binding domain.

  20. Longevity and diet. Myth or pragmatism?

    PubMed

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-12-01

    Longevity is a very complex phenomenon, because many environmental, behavioral, socio-demographic and dietary factors influence the physiological pathways of aging and life-expectancy. Nutrition has been recognized to have an important impact on overall mortality and morbidity; and its role in extending life expectancy has been the object of extensive scientific research. This paper reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms that potentially link aging with diet and the scientific evidence supporting the anti-aging effect of the traditional Mediterranean diet, as well as of some specific foods. The diet and several of its components have additionally been shown to have beneficial effects on the co-morbidities typical of elderly populations. Furthermore, the epigenetic effects of diet on the aging process - through calorie restriction and the consumption of foods like red wine, orange juice, probiotics and prebiotics - have attracted scientific interest. Some, such as dark chocolate, red wine, nuts, beans, avocados are being promoted as anti-aging foods, due to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Finally, an important moderator in the relationship between diet, longevity and human health remains the socio-economic status of individual, as a healthy diet, due to its higher cost, is closely related to higher financial and educational status.

  1. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  2. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  3. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert D.; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism. PMID:21461047

  4. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  5. Longevity Of Dry Film Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Stockwell, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes evaluation of dry film lubricants candidate for use in rotary joints of proposed Space Station. Study included experiments and theoretical analyses focused on longevity of sputtered molybdenum disulfide films and ion-plated lead films under conditions partially simulating rolling contact.

  6. For longevity, perception is everything.

    PubMed

    Lakhina, Vanisha; Murphy, Coleen T

    2015-02-26

    Aging is a risk factor for chronic diseases, and identifying targets for intervention is a goal of the aging field. Burkewitz et al. now describe a mechanism that mediates the specific role for AMPK in longevity, whereby its activity in neurons modulates metabolism and mitochondrial integrity in peripheral tissues.

  7. Cancer cell-selective promoter recognition accompanies antitumor effect by glucocorticoid receptor-targeted gold nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau, Samaresh; Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Bag, Indira; Sreedhar, Bojja; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied on the delivery of `exogenous' genes invoking gene knockdown or replacement. Practically, there are no instances for the nanoparticle-mediated promoter regulation of `endogenous' genes, more so, as a cancer selective phenomenon. In this regard, we report the development of a simple, easily modifiable GNP-formulation, which promoted/up-regulated the expression of a specific category of `endogenous' genes, the glucocorticoid responsive genes. This genetic up-regulation was induced in only cancer cells by modified GNP-mediated transcriptional activation of its cytoplasmic receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normal cells and their GR remained primarily unperturbed by this GNP-formulation. The most potent gene up-regulating GNP-formulation down-regulated a cancer-specific proliferative signal, phospho-Akt in cancer cells, which accompanied retardation of tumor growth in the murine melanoma model. We show that GR-targeted GNPs may find potential use in the targeting and modulation of genetic information in cancer towards developing novel anticancer therapeutics.Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied

  8. Morphine Inhibits Sleep-Promoting Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area Via Mu Receptors and Induces Wakefulness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Yue, Xiao-Fang; Qu, Wei-Min; Tan, Rong; Zheng, Ping; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2013-01-01

    Morphine is the most efficacious and widely prescribed treatment for pain. However, it decreases the total amount of deep sleep and rapid eye movement sleep in humans. Acute morphine administration at low doses causes wakefulness in animal models. To clarify the mechanism by which morphine affects sleep–wake behavior, we investigated the effects of morphine on the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), a putative sleep-active nucleus, using in vitro brain slices by the patch-clamp technique. We also examined the effects of morphine on sleep–wake profiles after administration of opioid receptor antagonist to the VLPO using EEG and electromyogram recordings in freely moving rats. The results showed that morphine inhibited the firing rate of sleep-promoting neurons and hyperpolarized their membrane potentials without affecting interneurons in the VLPO. Morphine-induced hyperpolarization of membrane potentials could be reversed by, D-Phe-Cys-Thr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), a mu receptor antagonist, in the presence of tetrodotoxin. However, after the mu receptors were blocked by CTOP, morphine still suppressed the firing of the sleep-promoting neurons. This effect was antagonized by nor-BIN, a kappa receptor antagonist. Activation of kappa receptor by U50488H inhibited the firing of the sleep-promoting neurons. These results indicate that morphine could inhibit the activity of sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO through mu and kappa receptors. EEG recordings revealed that morphine injected subcutaneously induced arousal in a dose-dependent manner. CTOP microinjected into VLPO antagonized the arousal effects of morphine, but nor-BIN did not. However, CTOP alone was not associated with any changes in the physiological sleep–wake cycle. Taken together, these findings clearly indicate that morphine inhibits sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO by affecting mu receptors and so induces wakefulness in rats. PMID:23303062

  9. Association of follicle stimulating hormone receptor promoter with ovarian response in IVF-ET patients

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Wang; Jing, Gao; Liangbin, Xia; Ting, Zhang; Ying, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor ovarian response phenomenon has been observed in some of the in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer patients. Some investigations found that follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene plays a role in the process, but no direct evidence shows the correlation between genotypes of FSHR and ovarian response. Objective: Exploring the molecular mechanism behind the mutation of FSHR promoter association with ovarian granulosa cells and poor ovarian response. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed using 158 women undergoing the controlled short program ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment. The 263 bp DNA fragments before the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor 5' initiation site were sequenced in the patients under IVF cycle, 70 of which had poor ovarian response and 88 showed normal ovarian responses. Results: With a mutation rate of 40%, 63 in 158 cases showed a 29th site G→A point mutation; among the mutated cases, the mutation rate of the poor ovarian responders was significantly higher than the normal group (60% versus 23.9%; χ2=21.450, p<0.001). Besides, the variability was also obvious in antral follicle count, and ovum pick-ups. The estradiol peak values and the number of mature eggs between the two groups had significant difference. However, there was no obvious variability (t=0.457, p=0.324) in the basic FSH values between the two groups (normal group, 7.2±2.3 U/L; mutation group, 7.1±2.0 U/L). Conclusion: The activity of FSHR promoter is significantly affected by the 29th site G→A mutation that will weaken promoter activity and result in poor response to FSH. PMID:26730247

  10. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promotes ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Kasina, Sathish; Macoska, Jill A

    2012-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the transition of some prostate cancers from androgen ligand-dependent to androgen ligand-independent are incompletely established. Molecules that are ligands for G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in ligand-independent androgen receptor (AR) activation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether CXCL12, the ligand for the GPCR, CXCR4, might mediate prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR-dependent mechanisms involving functional transactivation of the AR in the absence of androgen. The results of these studies showed that activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promoted: The nuclear accumulation of both wild-type and mutant AR in several prostate epithelial cell lines; AR-dependent proliferative responses; nuclear accumulation of the AR co-regulator SRC-1 protein; SRC-1:AR protein:protein association; co-localization of AR and SRC-1 on the promoters of AR-regulated genes; AR- and SRC-1 dependent transcription of AR-regulated genes; AR-dependent secretion of the AR-regulated PSA protein; P13K-dependent phosphorylation of AR; MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of SRC-1, and both MAPK- and P13K-dependent secretion of the PSA protein, in the absence of androgen. Taken together, these studies identify CXCL12 as a novel, non-steroidal growth factor that promotes the growth of prostate epithelial cells through AR-dependent mechanisms in the absence of steroid hormones. These findings support the development of novel therapeutics targeting the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis as an ancillary to those targeting the androgen/AR axis to effectively treat castration resistant/recurrent prostate tumors.

  11. Farnesoid X receptor activation promotes cell proliferation via PDK4-controlled metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yang; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Xuefang; Wu, Yuzheng; Cao, Lijuan; Wu, Mengqiu; Xie, Wen; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of various metabolic pathways as well as liver regeneration. However, the casual link between cell proliferative effects during liver regeneration and metabolic regulation of FXR was elusive. In this study, we found that FXR activation significantly promotes HepG2 cell proliferation accompanied with metabolic switch towards the excessive accumulation of aerobic glycolytic intermediates including lactic acid, pyruvate and the subsequently increased biosynthesis of glycine. This FXR-induced metabolic switch was found dependent on an up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenate kinase 4 (PDK4), a FXR target gene. FXR agonists were found to promote liver regeneration in the murine model of APAP induced liver injury, which was associated with a metabolic switch favoring the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates as precursors for generation of biomass. However, FXR activation has little effect on the glycolytic metabolism in healthy primary hepatocytes in vitro and the liver of healthy mice in vivo. Therefore, we conclude that FXR may promote the proliferation of tumor cells and the hepatocytes in the process of liver regeneration by activating the PDK4-mediated metabolic reprogramming to generate glycolytic intermediates essential for rapid biomass generation, establishing a mechanistic link between cell proliferation and metabolic switch. PMID:26728993

  12. Loss of estrogen-related receptor α promotes hepatocarcinogenesis development via metabolic and inflammatory disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Levasseur, Marie-Pier; Dufour, Catherine R.; Perry, Marie-Claude; Giguère, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) is a key regulator of mitochondrial function and metabolism essential for energy-driven cellular processes in both normal and cancer cells. ERRα has also been shown to mediate bone-derived macrophage activation by proinflammatory cytokines. However, the role of ERRα in cancer in which inflammation acts as a tumor promoter has yet to be investigated. Herein we show that global loss of ERRα accelerates the development of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Biochemical and metabolomics studies revealed that loss of ERRα promotes hepatocyte necrosis over apoptosis in response to DEN due to a deficiency in energy production. We further show that increased hepatocyte death and associated compensatory proliferation observed in DEN-injured ERRα-null livers is concomitant with increased nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)–dependent transcriptional control of cytokine expression in Kupffer cells. In particular, we demonstrate that loss of ERRα-dependent regulation of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα leads to enhanced NF-κB activity and cytokine gene activation. Our work thus shows that global loss of ERRα activity promotes hepatocellular carcinoma by independent but synergistic mechanisms in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, implying that pharmacological manipulation of ERRα activity may have a significant clinical impact on carcinogen-induced cancers. PMID:24127579

  13. MEK5/ERK5 signaling suppresses estrogen receptor expression and promotes hormone-independent tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Antoon, James W; Martin, Elizabeth C; Lai, Rongye; Salvo, Virgilo A; Tang, Yan; Nitzchke, Ashley M; Elliott, Steven; Nam, Seung Yoon; Xiong, Wei; Rhodes, Lyndsay V; Collins-Burow, Bridgette; David, Odile; Wang, Guandi; Shan, Bin; Beckman, Barbara S; Nephew, Kenneth P; Burow, Matthew E

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine resistance and metastatic progression are primary causes of treatment failure in breast cancer. While mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are known to promote ligand-independent cell growth, the role of the MEK5-ERK5 pathway in the progression of clinical breast carcinoma remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated increased ERK5 activation in 30 of 39 (76.9%) clinical tumor samples, as well as across breast cancer cell systems. Overexpression of MEK5 in MCF-7 cells promoted both hormone-dependent and hormone-independent tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo and conferred endocrine therapy resistance to previously sensitive breast cancer cells. Expression of MEK5 suppressed estrogen receptor (ER)α, but not ER-β protein levels, and abrogated downstream estrogen response element (ERE) transcriptional activity and ER-mediated gene transcription. Global gene expression changes associated with upregulation of MEK5 included increased activation of ER-α independent growth signaling pathways and promotion of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Taken together, our findings show that the MEK5-ERK5 pathway mediates progression to an ER(-), mesenchymal and endocrine therapy resistant phenotype. Given the need for new clinical therapeutic targets, our results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting the MEK5-ERK5 pathway in breast cancer.

  14. Thyroid hormone receptor binds to a site in the rat growth hormone promoter required for induction by thyroid hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, R J; Brent, G A; Warne, R L; Larsen, P R; Moore, D D

    1987-01-01

    Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. We have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. We show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor. Images PMID:3475698

  15. The Pentapeptide RM-131 Promotes Food Intake and Adiposity in Wildtype Mice but Not in Mice Lacking the Ghrelin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Katrin; Finan, Brian; Clemmensen, Christoffer; van der Ploeg, Lex H. T.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Müller, Timo D.

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin is the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (a.k.a. ghrelin receptor, GHR). Currently, ghrelin is the only circulating peripheral hormone with the ability to promote a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake while decreasing energy expenditure and body fat utilization, as defined in rodents. Based on these and additional, beneficial effects on metabolism, the endogenous ghrelin system is considered an attractive target to treat diverse pathological conditions including those associated with eating/wasting disorders and cachexia. As the pharmacological potential of ghrelin is hampered by its relatively short half-life, ghrelin analogs with enhanced pharmacokinetics offer the potential to sustainably improve metabolism. One of these ghrelin analogs is the pentapeptide RM-131, which promotes food intake and adiposity with higher potency as compared to native ghrelin in rodents. Whereas, the effect of RM-131 on energy metabolism is solidly confirmed in rodents, it remains elusive whether RM-131 exerts its effect solely via the ghrelin receptor. Accordingly, we assessed the receptor specificity of RM-131 to promote food intake and adiposity in mice lacking the GHR. Our data show that in wildtype mice RM-131 potently promotes weight gain and adiposity through stimulation of food intake. However, RM-131 fails to affect food intake and body weight in mice lacking the GHR, underlining that the anabolic effects of RM-131 are mediated via the ghrelin receptor in mice. PMID:25988130

  16. Exceptional longevity in female Rottweiler dogs is not encumbered by investment in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kengeri, S S; Maras, A H; Suckow, C L; Chiang, E C; Waters, D J

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the potential trade-off between female reproductive investment and longevity in an emerging model of human healthspan, we studied pet dogs to determine whether intensity of reproduction (total number of offspring) encumbered the likelihood of exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, including complete reproductive histories, for a cohort of canine "centenarians"--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than the breed's average life expectancy. Reproductive intensity (number of litters, total number of pups) and tempo of reproductive effort (age at first reproduction, mean interbirth interval, age at last reproduction) in 78 exceptionally long-lived female Rottweilers (>13 years old) were compared to a cohort of 97 female Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death 8.0-10.75 years). We found no evidence that a mother's physiological investment in offspring was associated with disadvantaged longevity. Instead, similar to some studies in women, our data showed an inverted U-shaped trend, suggesting that moderate investment in reproduction may promote longevity. Late reproductive success, a much-studied surrogate of maternal fitness in women, was not a strong predictor of longevity in this canine cohort. Instead, independent of reproductive investment, the duration of lifetime ovary exposure was significantly associated with highly successful aging. Our results from exceptionally long-lived pet dogs provide rationale for further investigative efforts to understand the ovary-sensitive biological factors that promote healthy longevity in women and pet dogs.

  17. Asperosaponin VI promotes progesterone receptor expression in decidual cells via the notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Zhou, Chun; Li, Yadi; Gao, Feixia; Wu, Haiwang; Yang, Lilin; Qiu, Weiyu; Zhu, Lin; Du, Xin; Lin, Weixian; Huang, Dandan; Liu, Haibin; Liang, Chun; Luo, Songping

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a common clinical condition, but its reasons remain unknown in 37-79% of the affected women. The steroid hormone progesterone (P4) is an integral mediator of early pregnancy events, exerting its effects via the progesterone receptor (PR). Dipsaci Radix (DR) has long been used for treating gynecological diseases in Chinese medicine, while its molecular mechanisms and active ingredients are still unclear. We report here the progesterone-like effects of the alcohol extraction and Asperosaponin VI from DR in primary decidual cells and HeLa cell line. We first determined the safe concentration of Asperosaponin VI in the cells with MTT assay and then found by using dual luciferase reporter and Western blotting that Asperosaponin VI significantly increased PR expression. Moreover, we explored the mechanisms of action of the DR extracts and Asperosaponin VI, and the results showed that they could activate Notch signaling, suggesting that they may function by promoting decidualization. PMID:27370099

  18. Small-molecule ghrelin receptor antagonists improve glucose tolerance, suppress appetite, and promote weight loss.

    PubMed

    Esler, William P; Rudolph, Joachim; Claus, Thomas H; Tang, Weifeng; Barucci, Nicole; Brown, Su-Ellen; Bullock, William; Daly, Michelle; Decarr, Lynn; Li, Yaxin; Milardo, Lucinda; Molstad, David; Zhu, Jian; Gardell, Stephen J; Livingston, James N; Sweet, Laurel J

    2007-11-01

    Ghrelin, through action on its receptor, GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), exerts a variety of metabolic functions including stimulation of appetite and weight gain and suppression of insulin secretion. In the present study, we examined the effects of novel small-molecule GHS-R1a antagonists on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance, and weight loss. Ghrelin dose-dependently suppressed insulin secretion from dispersed rat islets. This effect was fully blocked by a GHS-R1a antagonist. Consistent with this observation, a single oral dose of a GHS-R1a antagonist improved glucose homeostasis in an ip glucose tolerance test in rat. Improvement in glucose tolerance was attributed to increased insulin secretion. Daily oral administration of a GHS-R1a antagonist to diet-induced obese mice led to reduced food intake and weight loss (up to 15%) due to selective loss of fat mass. Pair-feeding experiments indicated that weight loss was largely a consequence of reduced food intake. The impact of a GHS-R1a antagonist on gastric emptying was also examined. Although the GHS-R1a antagonist modestly delayed gastric emptying at the highest dose tested (10 mg/kg), delayed gastric emptying does not appear to be a requirement for weight loss because lower doses produced weight loss without an effect on gastric emptying. Consistent with the hypothesis that ghrelin regulates feeding centrally, the anorexigenic effects of potent GHS-R1a antagonists in mice appeared to correspond with their brain exposure. These observations demonstrate that GHS-R1a antagonists have the potential to improve the diabetic condition by promoting glucose-dependent insulin secretion and promoting weight loss.

  19. Longevity and ageing: appraising the evolutionary consequences of growing old

    PubMed Central

    Bonsall, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    Senescence or ageing is an increase in mortality and/or decline in fertility with increasing age. Evolutionary theories predict that ageing or longevity evolves in response to patterns of extrinsic mortality or intrinsic damage. If ageing is viewed as the outcome of the processes of behaviour, growth and reproduction then it should be possible to predict mortality rate. Recent developments have shown that it is now possible to integrate these ecological and physiological processes and predict the shape of mortality trajectories. By drawing on the key exciting developments in the cellular, physiological and ecological process of longevity the evolutionary consequences of ageing are reviewed. In presenting these ideas an evolutionary demographic framework is used to argue how trade-offs in life-history strategies are important in the maintenance of variation in longevity within and between species. Evolutionary processes associated with longevity have an important role in explaining levels of biological diversity and speciation. In particular, the effects of life-history trait trade-offs in maintaining and promoting species diversity are explored. Such trade-offs can alleviate the effects of intense competition between species and promote species coexistence and diversification. These results have important implications for understanding a number of core ecological processes such as how species are divided among niches, how closely related species co-occur and the rules by which species assemble into food-webs. Theoretical work reveals that the proximate physiological processes are as important as the ecological factors in explaining the variation in the evolution of longevity. Possible future research challenges integrating work on the evolution and mechanisms of growing old are briefly discussed. PMID:16553312

  20. An olfactory receptor for food-derived odours promotes male courtship in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Yael; Rytz, Raphael; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Abuin, Liliane; Cortot, Jérôme; Jefferis, Gregory S X E; Benton, Richard

    2011-10-13

    Many animals attract mating partners through the release of volatile sex pheromones, which can convey information on the species, gender and receptivity of the sender to induce innate courtship and mating behaviours by the receiver. Male Drosophila melanogaster fruitflies display stereotyped reproductive behaviours towards females, and these behaviours are controlled by the neural circuitry expressing male-specific isoforms of the transcription factor Fruitless (FRU(M)). However, the volatile pheromone ligands, receptors and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that promote male courtship have not been identified in this important model organism. Here we describe a novel courtship function of Ionotropic receptor 84a (IR84a), which is a member of the chemosensory ionotropic glutamate receptor family, in a previously uncharacterized population of FRU(M)-positive OSNs. IR84a-expressing neurons are activated not by fly-derived chemicals but by the aromatic odours phenylacetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde, which are widely found in fruit and other plant tissues that serve as food sources and oviposition sites for drosophilid flies. Mutation of Ir84a abolishes both odour-evoked and spontaneous electrophysiological activity in these neurons and markedly reduces male courtship behaviour. Conversely, male courtship is increased--in an IR84a-dependent manner--in the presence of phenylacetic acid but not in the presence of another fruit odour that does not activate IR84a. Interneurons downstream of IR84a-expressing OSNs innervate a pheromone-processing centre in the brain. Whereas IR84a orthologues and phenylacetic-acid-responsive neurons are present in diverse drosophilid species, IR84a is absent from insects that rely on long-range sex pheromones. Our results suggest a model in which IR84a couples food presence to the activation of the fru(M) courtship circuitry in fruitflies. These findings reveal an unusual but effective evolutionary solution to coordinate feeding and

  1. Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: Molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Jin; Wang, Ying; Su, Ke; Liu, Min; Hu, Peng-Chao; Ma, Tian; Li, Jia-Xi; Wei, Lei; Zheng, Zhongliang; Yang, Fang

    2014-10-01

    Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17β-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist for E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ERα between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ERα. We also found that RTV directly bound to ERα and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ERα, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ERα-LBD like E2, which explained how ERα lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17β-estradiol in regulating α subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis. - Graphical abstract: RTV directly binds to ERα and Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain is essential for the interaction. - Highlights: • RTV increases the thickness of rat coronary artery wall and foam cell formation. • RTV downregulates the expression of ERα and ERβ. • RTV inhibits ERα promoter activity. • RTV directly binds to ERα and the key amino acid is Leu536. • RTV inhibits the nuclear translocation of ERα and GPER.

  2. The receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 promotes hepatic fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mimche, Patrice N.; Brady, Lauren M.; Bray, Christian F.; Mimche, Sylvie M.; Thapa, Manoj; King, Thayer P.; Quicke, Kendra; McDermott, Courtney D.; Lee, Choon M.; Grakoui, Arash; Morgan, Edward T.; Lamb, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the well-defined role of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases in developmental processes, cell motility, cell trafficking/adhesion and cancer, nothing is known about their involvement in liver pathologies. During blood-stage rodent malaria infection we have found that EphB2 transcripts and proteins were upregulated in the liver, a result likely driven by elevated surface expression on immune cells including macrophages. This was significant for malaria pathogenesis because EphB2−/− mice were protected from malaria-induced liver fibrosis despite having a similar liver parasite burden compared with littermate control mice. This protection was correlated with a defect in the inflammatory potential of hepatocytes from EphB2−/− mice resulting in a reduction in adhesion molecules, chemokines/chemokines receptors RNA levels and infiltration of leukocytes including macrophages/Kupffer cells which mediate liver fibrosis during rodent malaria infections. These observations are recapitulated in the well-established carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) model of liver fibrosis in which EphB2−/− CCL4-treated mice showed a significant reduction of liver fibrosis compared to CCL4-treated littermate mice. Depletion of macrophages by clodronate-liposome abrogates liver EphB2 mRNA and proteins up-regulation and fibrosis in malaria-infected mice. Conclusion: During rodent malaria, EphB2 expression promotes malaria-associated liver fibrosis. To our knowledge, our data is the first to reveal the implication of the EphB family of receptor tyrosine kinases in liver fibrosis or in the pathogenesis of malaria infection. PMID:25784101

  3. Endothelin-1 Promotes Survival and Chemoresistance in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells through ETA Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Silvia; Castelli, Ilaria; Valenti, Vanessa; Rossi, Davide; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Zucchini, Patrizia; Potenza, Leonardo; Vallisa, Daniele; Gattei, Valter; Poeta, Giovanni Del; Forconi, Francesco; Gaidano, Gianluca; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Marasca, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The endothelin axis, comprising endothelins (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) and their receptors (ETAR and ETBR), has emerged as relevant player in tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we investigated the involvement of ET-1/ETAR axis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). CLL cells expressed higher levels of ET-1 and ETA receptor as compared to normal B cells. ET-1 peptide stimulated phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, improved survival and promoted proliferation of leukemic cells throughout ETAR triggering. Moreover, the blockade of ETAR by the selective antagonist BQ-123 inhibited the survival advantage acquired by CLL cells in contact with endothelial layers. We also found that blocking ETAR via BQ-123 interferes with ERK phosphorylation and CLL pro-survival effect mediated by B-cell receptor (BCR) activation. The pro-apoptotic effect of phosphoinositide-3-kinase δ inhibitor idelalisib and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD98059 was decreased by the addition of ET-1 peptide. Then, ET-1 also reduced the cytotoxic effect of fludarabine on CLL cells cultured alone or co-cultured on endothelial layers. ETAR blockade by BQ-123 inhibited the ET-1-mediated protection against drug-induced apoptosis. Lastly, higher plasma levels of big ET-1 were detected in patients (n = 151) with unfavourable prognostic factors and shorter time to first treatment. In conclusion, our data describe for the first time a role of ET-1/ETAR signaling in CLL pathobiology. ET-1 mediates survival, drug-resistance, and growth signals in CLL cells that can be blocked by ETAR inhibition. PMID:24901342

  4. Muscle Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor α Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery Following Peripheral Nerve Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy; Spearry, Rachel P.; Leahy, Kendra M.; Robitz, Rachel; Trinh, Dennis S.; Mason, Carter O.; Zurbrugg, Rebekah J.; Batt, Myra K.; Paul, Richard J.; Maclennan, A. John

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration maintains, protects, and promotes the regeneration of both motor neurons (MNs) and skeletal muscle in a wide variety of models. Expression of CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα), an essential CNTF receptor component, is greatly increased in skeletal muscle following neuromuscular insult. Together the data suggest that muscle CNTFRα may contribute to neuromuscular maintenance, protection, and/or regeneration in vivo. To directly address the role of muscle CNTFRα, we selectively-depleted it in vivo by using a “floxed” CNTFRα mouse line and a gene construct (mlc1f-Cre) that drives the expression of Cre specifically in skeletal muscle. The resulting mice were challenged with sciatic nerve crush. Counting of nerve axons and retrograde tracing of MNs indicated that muscle CNTFRα contributes to MN axonal regeneration across the lesion site. Walking track analysis indicated that muscle CNTFRα is also required for normal recovery of motor function. However, the same muscle CNTFRα depletion unexpectedly had no detected effect on the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself, even though exogenous CNTF has been shown to affect these functions. Similarly, MN survival and lesion-induced terminal sprouting were unaffected. Therefore, muscle CNTFRα is an interesting new example of a muscle growth factor receptor that, in vivo under physiological conditions, contributes much more to neuronal regeneration than to the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself. This novel form of muscle–neuron interaction also has implications in the therapeutic targeting of the neuromuscular system in MN disorders and following nerve injury. PMID:23504871

  5. Activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Promotes Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Vergarajauregui, Silvia; Miguel, Anitza San; Puertollano, Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Endocytic trafficking plays an important role in the regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). To address if cellular kinases regulate EGFR internalization, we used anisomycin, a potent activator of kinase cascades in mammalian cells, especially the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase subtypes. Here, we report that activation of p38 MAP kinase by anisomycin is sufficient to induce internalization of EGFR. Anisomycin and EGF employ different mechanisms to promote EGFR endocytosis as anisomycin-induced internalization does not require tyrosine kinase activity or ubiquitination of the receptor. In addition, anisomycin treatment did not result in delivery and degradation of EGFR at lysosomes. Incubation with a specific inhibitor of p38, or depletion of endogenous p38 by small interfering RNAs, abolished anisomycin-induced internalization of EGFR while having no effect on transferrin endocytosis, indicating that the effect of p38 activation on EGFR endocytosis is specific. Interestingly, inhibition of p38 activation also abolished endocytosis of EGFR induced by UV radiation. Our results reveal a novel role for p38 in the regulation of EGFR endocytosis and suggest that stimulation of EGFR internalization by p38 might represent a general mechanism to prevent generation of proliferative or anti-apoptotic signals under stress conditions. PMID:16683917

  6. GABA A receptor π subunit promotes apoptosis of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblastic cells: Implications in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    LU, JUNJIE; ZHANG, QIAN; TAN, DONGMEI; LUO, WENPING; ZHAO, HAI; MA, JING; LIANG, HAO; TAN, YI

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions primarily as an inhibitory neurotransmitter through its receptors in the mature central nervous system. The GABA type A receptor π subunit (GABRP) has been identified in the tissues of the reproductive system, particularly in the uterus. In addition, we have previously detected GABRP expression in both human and mouse placentas. To examine the role of GABRP in trophoblastic cell invasion, we constructed a pIRES2-GABRP-EGFP plasmid which was used for the transfection of a human placental cell line derived from first trimester extravillous trophoblasts (HTR-8/SVneo). The number of invaded cells was decreased by GABRP overexpression. Notably, the decrease in the invasive cell number may be due to the increased apoptosis of the HTR-8/SVneo cells following GABRP transfection, which was further confirmed by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. Based on the increased apoptosis of trophoblastic cells in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) and the fact that GABRP promotes the apoptosis of trophoblastic cells, we hypothesized that GABRP expression is increased in the placental tissues from patients with PE compared with that in the normal groups and this hypothesis was confirmed by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Taken together, these findings imply that GABRP plays an important role in placentation and this pathway may be a promising molecular target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for PE. PMID:27221053

  7. Histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis regulates wake-promoting signals in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yangkyun; Jang, Donghoon; Sonn, Jun Young; Choe, Joonho

    2013-01-01

    Histamine and its two receptors, histamine-gated chloride channel subunit 1 (HisCl1) and ora transientless (Ort), are known to control photoreception and temperature sensing in Drosophila. However, histamine signaling in the context of neural circuitry for sleep-wake behaviors has not yet been examined in detail. Here, we obtained mutant flies with compromised or enhanced histamine signaling and tested their baseline sleep. Hypomorphic mutations in histidine decarboxylase (HDC), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion from histidine to histamine, caused an increase in sleep duration. Interestingly, hisCl1 mutants but not ort mutants showed long-sleep phenotypes similar to those in hdc mutants. Increased sleep duration in hisCl1 mutants was rescued by overexpressing hisCl1 in circadian pacemaker neurons expressing a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF). Consistently, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hisCl1 in PDF neurons was sufficient to mimic hisCl1 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that PDF neurons are crucial for sleep regulation by the histamine-HisCl1 signaling. Finally, either hisCl1 mutation or genetic ablation of PDF neurons dampened wake-promoting effects of elevated histamine signaling via direct histamine administration. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis can activate and maintain the wake state in Drosophila and that wake-activating signals may travel via the PDF neurons.

  8. The chemokine receptor CCR7 promotes mammary tumorigenesis through amplification of stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Boyle, S T; Ingman, W V; Poltavets, V; Faulkner, J W; Whitfield, R J; McColl, S R; Kochetkova, M

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 is widely implicated in breast cancer pathobiology. Although recent reports correlated high CCR7 levels with more advanced tumor grade and poor prognosis, limited in vivo data are available regarding its specific function in mammary gland neoplasia and the underlying mechanisms involved. To address these questions we generated a bigenic mouse model of breast cancer combined with CCR7 deletion, which revealed that CCR7 ablation results in a considerable delay in tumor onset as well as significantly reduced tumor burden. Importantly, CCR7 was found to exert its function by regulating mammary cancer stem-like cells in both murine and human tumors. In vivo experiments showed that loss of CCR7 activity either through deletion or pharmacological antagonism significantly decreased functional pools of stem-like cells in mouse primary mammary tumors, providing a mechanistic explanation for the tumor-promoting role of this chemokine receptor. These data characterize the oncogenic properties of CCR7 in mammary epithelial neoplasia and point to a new route for therapeutic intervention to target evasive cancer stem cells.

  9. Phase transitions of multivalent proteins can promote clustering of membrane receptors

    PubMed Central

    Banjade, Sudeep; Rosen, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of proteins into micrometer-sized structures at membranes is observed in many signaling pathways. Most models of clustering are specific to particular systems, and relationships between physical properties of the clusters and their molecular components are not well understood. We report biochemical reconstitution on supported lipid bilayers of protein clusters containing the adhesion receptor Nephrin and its cytoplasmic partners, Nck and N-WASP. With Nephrin attached to the bilayer, multivalent interactions enable these proteins to polymerize on the membrane surface and undergo two-dimensional phase separation, producing micrometer-sized clusters. Dynamics and thermodynamics of the clusters are modulated by the valencies and affinities of the interacting species. In the presence of the Arp2/3 complex, the clusters assemble actin filaments, suggesting that clustering of regulatory factors could promote local actin assembly at membranes. Interactions between multivalent proteins could be a general mechanism for cytoplasmic adaptor proteins to organize membrane receptors into micrometer-scale signaling zones. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04123.001 PMID:25321392

  10. Histamine-HisCl1 Receptor Axis Regulates Wake-Promoting Signals in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yangkyun; Jang, Donghoon; Sonn, Jun Young; Choe, Joonho

    2013-01-01

    Histamine and its two receptors, histamine-gated chloride channel subunit 1 (HisCl1) and ora transientless (Ort), are known to control photoreception and temperature sensing in Drosophila. However, histamine signaling in the context of neural circuitry for sleep-wake behaviors has not yet been examined in detail. Here, we obtained mutant flies with compromised or enhanced histamine signaling and tested their baseline sleep. Hypomorphic mutations in histidine decarboxylase (HDC), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion from histidine to histamine, caused an increase in sleep duration. Interestingly, hisCl1 mutants but not ort mutants showed long-sleep phenotypes similar to those in hdc mutants. Increased sleep duration in hisCl1 mutants was rescued by overexpressing hisCl1 in circadian pacemaker neurons expressing a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF). Consistently, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hisCl1 in PDF neurons was sufficient to mimic hisCl1 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that PDF neurons are crucial for sleep regulation by the histamine-HisCl1 signaling. Finally, either hisCl1 mutation or genetic ablation of PDF neurons dampened wake-promoting effects of elevated histamine signaling via direct histamine administration. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis can activate and maintain the wake state in Drosophila and that wake-activating signals may travel via the PDF neurons. PMID:23844178

  11. mGlu3 receptor blockade inhibits proliferation and promotes astrocytic phenotype in glioma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kun; Song, Yechun; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Chunqing; Shu, Haifeng; Yang, Hui; Wang, Bin

    2014-04-01

    We have characterised, using both in vivo and in vitro methods, the effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGlu3) antagonist (LY341495) and agonist (LY379268) on the proliferation and differentiation of glioma stem cells (GSC). For in vitro studies, a CCK-8 assay was used to determine the cell proliferation, flow cytometry was performed to determine cell cycle phases, and immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy were employed to detect CD133 expression. For in vivo studies, GSCs were injected into nude mice treated with either LY379268 or LY341495 and the growth of the tumours was measured after 3 weeks. When compared with controls, the proliferation rates and proportion of cells in S phase within the LY341495 treated group decreased in a time-dependent manner. In the presence of differentiation medium containing LY341495, GSC differentiation was diverted into an astrocyte rather than neuronal phenotype. The growth rate and volume of tumours injected into nude mice was reduced in LY341495 treated mice compared with controls. Thus pharmacological blockade of mGlu3 receptor signalling pathway significantly inhibits the growth and proliferation of GSCs both in vitro and in vivo while promoting differentiation to astrocytes. These results further implicate mGlu3 in the biology of glioma and as a target for continued research. PMID:24482010

  12. The NMDA Receptor Promotes Sleep in the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Jun; Ueno, Taro; Mitsuyoshi, Madoka; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that sleep is essential for learning and memory. Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a novel model for studying sleep. We previously found a short sleeper mutant, fumin (fmn), and identified its mutation in the dopamine transporter gene. We reported similarities in the molecular basis of sleep and arousal regulation between mammals and Drosophila. In aversive olfactory learning tasks, fmn mutants demonstrate defective memory retention, which suggests an association between sleep and memory. In an attempt to discover additional sleep related genes in Drosophila, we carried out a microarray analysis comparing mRNA expression in heads of fmn and control flies and found that 563 genes are differentially expressed. Next, using the pan-neuronal Gal4 driver elav-Gal4 and UAS-RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown individual genes, we performed a functional screen. We found that knockdown of the NMDA type glutamate receptor channel gene (Nmdar1) (also known as dNR1) reduced sleep. The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays an important role in learning and memory both in Drosophila and mammals. The application of the NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, reduced sleep in control flies, but not in fmn. These results suggest that NMDAR promotes sleep regulation in Drosophila. PMID:26023770

  13. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Daniela S.; Soria, Javier A.; Gaviglio, Emilia A.; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Cancela, Liliana M.; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C.; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in pathological conditions, resulting in microgliosis, manifested by increased cell numbers and inflammation in the affected regions. Thus, controlling microgliosis is important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to microglial survival. We observed that activation of microglial cells with peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and other TLR2 ligands results in cell activation followed by the induction of autophagy and autophagy-dependent cell death. In C57BL/6J mice, intracerebral injection of PGN increased the autophagy of microglial cells and reduced the microglial/macrophage cell number in brain parenchyma. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TLRs in the regulation of microglial cell activation and survival, which are important for the control of microgliosis and associated inflammatory responses in the CNS.—Arroyo, D. S., Soria, J. A., Gaviglio, E. A., Garcia-Keller, C., Cancela, L. M., Rodriguez-Galan, M. C., Wang, J. M., Iribarren, P. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy. PMID:23073832

  14. Mutation of tyrosine-141 inhibits insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation and increased responsiveness of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Valiquette, M; Parent, S; Loisel, T P; Bouvier, M

    1995-01-01

    The ability of insulin to promote phosphorylation of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) was assessed in Chinese hamster fibroblasts transfected with beta 2AR cDNA. Phosphotyrosine residues were detected in purified beta 2AR using a polyclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and by phosphoamino acid analysis following metabolic labelling with inorganic 32P. Treatment of the cells with insulin induced a 2.4-fold increase in the phosphotyrosine content of the receptor. The insulin-promoted phosphorylation of the beta 2AR was accompanied by an increase in the beta-adrenergic-stimulated adenyl cyclase activity. Substitution of a phenylalanine residue for tyrosine-141 completely prevented both the increased tyrosine phosphorylation and the enhanced responsiveness of the beta 2AR promoted by insulin treatment. Mutation of three other tyrosines located in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor, tyrosine-366, tyrosine-350 and tyrosine-354, did not abolish the insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that insulin promotes phosphorylation of the beta 2AR on tyrosine-141 and that such phosphorylation leads to a supersensitization of the receptor. Images PMID:8521811

  15. Longevity: epigenetic and biomolecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Giusi; Mirisola, Mario G

    2015-04-01

    Many aging theories and their related molecular mechanisms have been proposed. Simple model organisms such as yeasts, worms, fruit flies and others have massively contributed to their clarification, and many genes and pathways have been associated with longevity regulation. Among them, insulin/IGF-1 plays a key and evolutionary conserved role. Interestingly, dietary interventions can modulate this pathway. Calorie restriction (CR), intermittent fasting, and protein and amino acid restriction prolong the lifespan of mammals by IGF-1 regulation. However, some recent findings support the hypothesis that the long-term effects of diet also involve epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we describe the best characterized aging pathways and highlight the role of epigenetics in diet-mediated longevity. PMID:25883209

  16. Maternal Care Determinant of Longevity?

    PubMed

    Giorgio, Marco; Renzi, Chiara; Oliveri, Serena; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Maternal care is an essential early environment in mammals that ensures emotional regulation and adaptive fitness of progeny. Longevity and healthy aging are associated with favorable environmental factors including fitting social and behavioral features. In the present review, we discuss the findings that link rearing conditions and early maternal care with life span and aging from an evolutionary, psychological, and molecular perspective. The quality of maternal care may influence internal adaptation through a variety of parallel mechanisms including emotional regulation, stress sensitivity, coping and other behavioral strategies in response to events requiring adaptation. From a biological perspective, it regulates physiological pathways that may persist in adulthood through epigenetic mechanisms, influencing disease susceptibility and, potentially, longevity. Abnormal maternal care induces maladaptation that persists over the life span, may accelerate the onset of aging associated diseases, and shorten life span. This may have important implications in the development of preventive approaches and early interventions. PMID:27548096

  17. The atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine promote down-regulation and display functional selectivity at human 5-HT7 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Andressen, K W; Manfra, O; Brevik, C H; Ulsund, A H; Vanhoenacker, P; Levy, F O; Krobert, K A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Classically, ligands of GPCRs have been classified primarily upon their affinity and efficacy to activate a signal transduction pathway. Recent reports indicate that the efficacy of a particular ligand can vary depending on the receptor-mediated response measured (e.g. activating G proteins, other downstream responses, internalization). Previously, we reported that inverse agonists induce both homo- and heterologous desensitization, similar to agonist stimulation, at the Gs-coupled 5-HT7 receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether different inverse agonists at the 5-HT7 receptor also induce internalization and/or degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. Experimental Approach HEK293 cells expressing 5-HT7(a, b or d) receptors were pre-incubated with 5-HT, clozapine, olanzapine, mesulergine or SB269970 and their effects upon receptor density, AC activity, internalization, recruitment of β-arrestins and lysosomal trafficking were measured. Key Results The agonist 5-HT and three out of four inverse agonists tested increased internalization independently of β-arrestin recruitment. Among these, only the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine promoted lysosomal sorting and reduced 5-HT7 receptor density (∼60% reduction within 24 h). Inhibition of lysosomal degradation with chloroquine blocked the clozapine- and olanzapine-induced down-regulation of 5-HT7 receptors. Incubation with SB269970 decreased both 5-HT7(b) constitutive internalization and receptor density but increased 5-HT7(d) receptor density, indicating differential ligand regulation among the 5-HT7 splice variants. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, we found that various ligands differentially activate regulatory processes governing receptor internalization and degradation in addition to signal transduction. Thus, these data extend our understanding of functional selectivity at the 5-HT7 receptor. PMID:25884989

  18. Statistical laws for career longevity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Alexander; Jung, Woo-Sung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2009-03-01

    Career length distinguishes successful long tenures from unsuccessful short stints, and partially reflects the contributions of an employee to the goals of the employer. In some professions, there are well-defined metrics that quantify career longevity, prowess, and productivity, which together contribute to the overall success rating for an individual employee. In this talk, I motivate a stochastic model for career development that relies on two key ingredients, random progress within the career and random stopping times terminating the career. This model is exactly solvable, predicting the probability density function (pdf) of career longevity, characterized by two parameters, α and xc. The parameter α quantifies the power-law scaling of the pdf, which is terminated by an exponential cutoff after a crossover value xc, representing the mean career lifetime. We test the model with the large quantity of empirical data available for several professional sports leagues, American baseball, Korean baseball, American basketball, and English soccer, finding excellent agreement with the model's predictions. In all, the generality of the model suggests that there may be common stochastic forces that underly progress, success, and longevity in various professions.

  19. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  20. Hepatic Scavenger Receptor BI Protects Against Polymicrobial-induced Sepsis through Promoting LPS Clearance in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ling; Zheng, Zhong; Ai, Junting; Huang, Bin; Li, Xiang-An

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI or Scarb1) plays a critical protective role in sepsis. However, the mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. In this study, using Scarb1I179N mice, a mouse model specifically deficient in hepatic SR-BI, we report that hepatic SR-BI protects against cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis as shown by 75% fatality in Scarb1I179N mice, but only 21% fatality in C57BL/6J control mice. The increase in fatality in Scarb1I179N mice was associated with an exacerbated inflammatory cytokine production. Further study demonstrated that hepatic SR-BI exerts its protection against sepsis through its role in promoting LPS clearance without affecting the inflammatory response in macrophages, the glucocorticoid production in adrenal glands, the leukocyte recruitment to peritoneum or the bacterial clearance in liver. Our findings reveal hepatic SR-BI as a critical protective factor in sepsis and point out that promoting hepatic SR-BI-mediated LPS clearance may provide a therapeutic approach for sepsis. PMID:24719333

  1. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  2. Activation of NMDA receptors promotes dendritic spine development through MMP-mediated ICAM-5 cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Stefanidakis, Michael; Ning, Lin; Van Lint, Philippe; Nyman-Huttunen, Henrietta; Libert, Claude; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Mishina, Masayoshi; Rauvala, Heikki; Gahmberg, Carl G.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 are pivotal in remodeling many tissues. However, their functions and candidate substrates for brain development are poorly characterized. Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5; Telencephalin) is a neuronal adhesion molecule that regulates dendritic elongation and spine maturation. We find that ICAM-5 is cleaved from hippocampal neurons when the cells are treated with N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA). The cleavage is blocked by MMP-2 and -9 inhibitors and small interfering RNAs. Newborn MMP-2– and MMP-9–deficient mice brains contain more full-length ICAM-5 than wild-type mice. NMDA receptor activation disrupts the actin cytoskeletal association of ICAM-5, which promotes its cleavage. ICAM-5 is mainly located in dendritic filopodia and immature thin spines. MMP inhibitors block the NMDA-induced cleavage of ICAM-5 more efficiently in dendritic shafts than in thin spines. ICAM-5 deficiency causes retraction of thin spine heads in response to NMDA stimulation. Soluble ICAM-5 promotes elongation of dendritic filopodia from wild-type neurons, but not from ICAM-5–deficient neurons. Thus, MMPs are important for ICAM-5–mediated dendritic spine development. PMID:17682049

  3. Growth-promoting effect of oestriol in a lymphoma lacking oestrogen receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kawatsu, R.; Ezaki, T.; Kotani, M.; Akagi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Various doses (1 microgram to 10 mg) of oestriol (E3) were intraperitoneally injected into mice immediately after subcutaneous inoculation of an oestrogen receptor-negative lymphoma cell line (KE-5) established from a spontaneously developed AKR thymic lymphoma. The growth of KE-5 cells was markedly promoted by E3 at the early stage of tumour growth. At this stage, 1 microgram E3 enhanced tumour growth significantly and the maximum effect was obtained with 1 mg E3. Normal female mice showed a higher incidence and shorter latency than males. However, once tumours became palpable, the tumour growth rate appeared to be unaffected. Histological observations using Alcian blue and colloidal iron revealed a marked increase of hyaluronic acid in the subcutaneous connective tissue of the tumour-injection site within 3-5 days after intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg E3. Biochemical analyses showed a rapid and marked increase in skin hyaluronic acid content to over 3 times the control levels (0.25 +/- 0.10 mg g-1 skin) within 3 days of E3 administration. Subcutaneous inoculation of KE-5 cells together with hyaluronic acid (0.2 mg) resulted in markedly enhanced tumour growth, particularly at the early stage. These results suggest that an increase in stromal hyaluronic acid content is the most likely mechanism responsible for the promoting effect of E3 on KE-5 cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2713243

  4. Persistent transcription-blocking DNA lesions trigger somatic growth attenuation associated with longevity

    PubMed Central

    Garinis, George A.; Uittenboogaard, Lieneke M.; Stachelscheid, Heike; Fousteri, Maria; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Breit, Timo M.; van Steeg, Harry; Mullenders, Leon H.F.; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T.J.; Brüning, Jens C.; Niessen, Carien M.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Schumacher, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of stochastic DNA damage throughout organisms’ lifespan is thought to contribute to aging. Conversely, aging appears phenotypically reproducible and regulated through genetic pathways such as the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) receptors, which are central mediators of the somatic growth axis. Here, we report that persistent DNA damage in primary cells elicits similar changes in global gene expression as those occurring in various organs of naturally aged animals. Importantly, we show that, as in aging animals, IGF-1 receptor and GH receptor expression is attenuated resulting in cellular IGF-1 resistance. This cell-autonomous attenuation is specifically induced by persistent lesions leading to RNA polymerase II stalling, in proliferating, quiescent and terminally differentiated cells, is exacerbated and prolonged in cells from progeroid mice and confers resistance to oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that DNA damage accumulation in transcribed genes in most if not all tissues, contributes to the aging-associated shift from growth to somatic maintenance that triggers stress resistance and is thought to promote longevity. PMID:19363488

  5. Promoter Methylation of Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Is Associated with Subclinical Atherosclerosis: a Monozygotic Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinying; An, Qiang; Goldberg, Jack; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Vaccarino, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endothelial dysfunction assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a marker of early atherosclerosis. Glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) regulates many biological processes, including stress response, behavioral, cardiometabolic and immunologic functions. Genetic variants in NR3C1 have been associated with atherosclerosis and related risk factors. This study investigated the association of NR3C1 promoter methylation with FMD, independent of genetic and family-level environmental factors. Methods We studied 84 middle-aged, male-male monozygotic twin pairs recruited from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Brachial artery FMD was measured by ultrasound. DNA methylation levels at 22 CpG residues in the NR3C1 exon 1F promoter region were quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing in genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. Co-twin control analyses were conducted to examine the association of methylation variation with FMD, adjusting for smoking, physical activity, body mass index, lipids, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and depressive symptoms. Multiple testing was corrected using the false discovery rate. Results Mean methylation level across the 22 studied CpG sites was 2.02%. Methylation alterations at 12 out of the 22 CpG residues were significantly associated with FMD. On average, a 1% increase in the intra-pair difference in mean DNA methylation was associated with 2.83% increase in the intra-pair difference in FMD (95% CI: 1.46-4.20; P <0.0001) after adjusting for risk factors and multiple testing. Conclusion Methylation variation in NR3C1 exon 1F promoter significantly influences subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of genetic, early family environmental and other risk factors. PMID:26186654

  6. Evidence that estrogen receptor beta enhances MMP-13 promoter activity in HIG-82 cells and that this enhancement can be influenced by ligands and involves specific promoter sites.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Achari, Yamini; Rattner, Jerome B; Hart, David A

    2007-06-01

    Degradation of articular cartilage is characteristic of osteoarthritis, and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) has been implicated in this condition. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are present in connective tissues, indicating these tissues' potential responsiveness to estrogen. We based this study on the hypothesis that estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) can modulate MMP-13 promoter activity. Transfection of cells with ERbeta constructs led to the induction of the endogenous MMP-13 gene, as evidenced by increased mRNA levels. The results also indicated that MMP-13 promoter construct activity in the HIG-82 cell line significantly increased when ERbeta was present, and that estrogen downregulated this response in a dose-dependent manner. ERbeta was shown to enhance MMP-13 expression somewhat more strongly than ERalpha, and the impact of a number of selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and ICI 182,780) on ERbeta enhancement of promoter activity was found to be significantly less than that of estrogen. Furthermore, transcription regulatory sites in the MMP-13 promoter, specifically AP-1 and PEA-3, were shown to act in conjunction to mediate ERbeta effects. Thus, ERbeta likely influences MMP-13 promoter expression in normal and disease processes.

  7. C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor LOX-1 Promotes Dendritic Cell-Mediated Class-Switched B Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Joo, HyeMee; Li, Dapeng; Dullaers, Melissa; Kim, Tae-Whan; Duluc, Dorothee; Upchurch, Katherine; Xue, Yaming; Zurawski, Sandy; Le Grand, Roger; Liu, Yong-Jun; Kuroda, Marcelo; Zurawski, Gerard; Oh, SangKon

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a pattern recognition receptor for a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands. However, LOX-1 function in the host immune response is not fully understood. Here, we report that LOX-1 expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells promotes humoral responses. On B cells LOX-1 signaling upregulated CCR7, promoting cellular migration towards lymphoid tissues. LOX-1 signaling on DCs licensed the cells to promote B cell differentiation into class-switched plasmablasts, and led to downregulation of chemokine receptor CXCR5 and upregulation of chemokine receptor CCR10 on plasmablasts, which enabled their exit from germinal centers and migration towards local mucosa and skin. Finally, we found that targeting influenza hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) subunit to LOX-1 elicited HA1-specific protective antibody responses in rhesus macaques. Thus, LOX-1 expressed on B cells and DC cells has complementary functions to promote humoral immune responses. PMID:25308333

  8. Angiotensin II receptor blockade promotes repair of skeletal muscle through down-regulation of aging-promoting C1q expression

    PubMed Central

    Yabumoto, Chizuru; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Rie; Yano, Masamichi; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Sumida, Tomokazu; Kamo, Takehiro; Yagi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yu; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Sakata, Yasushi; Uejima, Etsuko; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor prolonged life span in mice. Since aging-related decline in skeletal muscle function was retarded in Atgr1a−/− mice, we examined the role of AT1 receptor in muscle regeneration after injury. Administration of AT1 receptor blocker irbesartan increased the size of regenerating myofibers, decreased fibrosis, and enhanced functional muscle recovery after cryoinjury. We recently reported that complement C1q, secreted by macrophages, activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promoted aging-related decline in regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. Notably, irbesartan induced M2 polarization of macrophages, but reduced C1q expression in cryoinjured muscles and in cultured macrophage cells. Irbesartan inhibited up-regulation of Axin2, a downstream gene of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in cryoinjured muscles. In addition, topical administration of C1q reversed beneficial effects of irbesartan on skeletal muscle regeneration after injury. These results suggest that AT1 receptor blockade improves muscle repair and regeneration through down-regulation of the aging-promoting C1q-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26571361

  9. Progesterone receptor directly inhibits β-casein gene transcription in mammary epithelial cells through promoting promoter and enhancer repressive chromatin modifications.

    PubMed

    Buser, Adam C; Obr, Alison E; Kabotyanski, Elena B; Grimm, Sandra L; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Edwards, Dean P

    2011-06-01

    Differentiated HC-11 cells ectopically expressing progesterone receptor (PR) were used to explore the molecular mechanisms by which progesterone suppresses β-casein gene transcription induced by prolactin (PRL) and glucocorticoids in the mammary gland. As detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, treatment of cells with the progestin agonist R5020 induced a rapid recruitment (5 min) of PR to the proximal promoter (-235 bp) and distal enhancer (-6 kb upstream of transcription start site) of β-casein. PR remained bound for 4 h and was dissociated by 24 h after treatment. Despite efficient binding, the hormone agonist-occupied PR did not stimulate transcription of the β-casein gene. Recruitment of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a, glucocorticoid receptor, and the CCAAT enhancer binding protein β to the enhancer and proximal promoter of β-casein induced by PRL and glucocorticoids was blocked by progestin cotreatment, whereas PR binding was induced under these conditions. PRL/glucocorticoid-induced histone acetylation and the recruitment of the coactivator p300 and RNA polymerase II required for gene activation were also inhibited by progestin. In addition, progestin prevented dissociation of the corepressors Yin and Yang 1 and histone deacetylase 3 from the promoter, and demethylation of lysine 9 of histone 3 induced by PRL and glucocorticoids. These studies are consistent with the conclusion that progesterone interferes with PRL/glucocorticoid induction of β-casein transcription by a physical interaction of PR with the promoter and enhancer that blocks assembly of a transcriptional activation complex and dissociation of corepressors and promotes repressive chromatin modifications. These studies define a novel mechanism of steroid receptor-mediated transcriptional repression of a physiologically important gene in mammary gland development and differentiation.

  10. G Protein-Coupled Receptor 87 (GPR87) Promotes Cell Proliferation in Human Bladder Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Liu, Dage; Hayashida, Yushi; Okazoe, Homare; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Ueda, Nobufumi; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 87 (GPR87) is a newly deorphanized member of the cell surface molecule G protein-coupled receptor family. GPR signaling was shown to play a role in promotion of cell growth and survival, metastasis, and drug resistance. The overexpression of GPR87 has also been reported in many malignant tumors including bladder cancer. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of silencing GPR87 expression with a replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector expressing short hairpin RNA targeting GPR87 (Ad-shGPR87) and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms in bladder cancer cells. Six GPR87-expressing human bladder cancer cells, HT1197, HT1376, J82, RT112, TCCSUP and UMUC3, were used. Infection with Ad-shGPR87 effectively downregulated the GPR87 expression, and significantly reduced the percentage of viable cells in 4 of 6 cell lines as detected by an MTT assay. Significant inhibition on cell proliferation with Ad-shGPR87 was observed in the wild-type p53 bladder cancer cell lines (HT1197, RT112, TCCSUP and UMUC3), but not in the mutant p53 cells (HT1376 and J82). As represented by a wild-type p53 RT112 cell, Ad-shGPR87 infection significantly enhanced p53 and p21 expression and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with Ad-shGPR87 exerted a significant antitumor effect against the GPR87-expressing RT112 xenografts. GPR87 appeared to be a promising target for gene therapy, and Ad-shGPR87 had strong antitumor effects, specifically anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects, against GPR87-expressing human bladder cancer cells. PMID:26473854

  11. Upregulation of orexin receptor in paraventricular nucleus promotes sympathetic outflow in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Li, De-Pei

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic vasomotor tone is elevated in obesity-related hypertension. Orexin importantly regulates energy metabolism and autonomic function. We hypothesized that alteration of orexin receptor in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone in obesity. We used in vivo measurement of sympathetic vasomotor tone and microinjection into brain nucleus, whole-cell patch clamp recording in brain slices, and immunocytochemical staining in obese Zucker rats (OZRs) and lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Microinjection of orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB334867 into the PVN reduced basal arterial blood pressure (ABP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in anesthetized OZRs but not in LZRs. Microinjection of orexin A into the PVN produced greater increases in ABP and RSNA in OZRs than in LZRs. Western blot analysis revealed that OX1R expression levels in the PVN were significantly increased in OZRs compared with LZRs. OX1R immunoreactivity was positive in retrogradely labeled PVN-spinal neurons. The basal firing rate of labeled PVN-spinal neurons was higher in OZRs than in LZRs. SB334867 decreased the basal firing activity of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs but had no effect in LZRs. Orexin A induced a greater increase in the firing rate of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. In addition, orexin A induced larger currents in PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. These data suggest that upregulation of OX1R in the PVN promotes hyperactivity of PVN presympathetic neurons and elevated sympathetic outflow in obesity.

  12. Deficiency of interferon-gamma or its receptor promotes colorectal cancer development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Yan; Song, Zhiyu; Chu, Jiahui; Qu, Xianjun

    2015-04-01

    Genetic variations in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and its receptor (IFNγR) subunits are closely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and survival after diagnosis. However, the role of loss of IFN-γ or IFNγR function in the pathogenesis of CRC remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous IFN-γ deficiency in adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)-mediated intestinal tumor by developing a variant of Apc(Min/+) mice. The Apc(Min/+)IFN-γ(+/-) mice presented with increased number and size of adenomas, and 41.7% of these mice developed adenocarcinoma. Molecular analyses of the adenomas suggested that heterozygous deletion of IFN-γ promoted EGFR/Erk1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In vitro, IFN-γ administration inhibited Apc-mutated HT-29 colon cancer cell proliferation and had no effect on the proliferation of HCT-116 colon cancer cells that express wild-type Apc. Besides, we challenged HT-29 cells with small interfering RNA targeting one of its receptor subunits IFNγR1. We found that knockdown of IFNγR1 in HT-29 cells stimulated cell proliferation and colony formation, which was also related to the regulation of EGFR/Erk1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Thus, our results strongly support the notion that IFN-γ and IFNγR1 act as a rate-limiting factor in the development of CRC, uncovering a novel role for them in cancer biology.

  13. Supersensitive Kappa Opioid Receptors Promotes Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Behaviors and Reduce Dopamine Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jamie H.; Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Chen, Rong; Gioia, Dominic; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Becker, Howard C.; McCool, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic ethanol exposure reduces dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, which may contribute to the negative affective symptoms associated with ethanol withdrawal. Kappa opioid receptors have been implicated in withdrawal-induced excessive drinking and anxiety-like behaviors and are known to inhibit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The effects of chronic ethanol exposure on kappa opioid receptor-mediated changes in dopamine transmission at the level of the dopamine terminal and withdrawal-related behaviors were examined. Methods: Five weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in male C57BL/6 mice were used to examine the role of kappa opioid receptors in chronic ethanol-induced increases in ethanol intake and marble burying, a measure of anxiety/compulsive-like behavior. Drinking and marble burying were evaluated before and after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure, with and without kappa opioid receptor blockade by nor-binaltorphimine (10mg/kg i.p.). Functional alterations in kappa opioid receptors were assessed using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens. Results: Chronic intermittent ethanol-exposed mice showed increased ethanol drinking and marble burying compared with controls, which was attenuated with kappa opioid receptor blockade. Chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increases in behavior were replicated with kappa opioid receptor activation in naïve mice. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed that chronic intermittent ethanol reduced accumbal dopamine release and increased uptake rates, promoting a hypodopaminergic state of this region. Kappa opioid receptor activation with U50,488H concentration-dependently decreased dopamine release in both groups; however, this effect was greater in chronic intermittent ethanol-treated mice, indicating kappa opioid receptor supersensitivity in this group. Conclusions: These data suggest that the chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increase

  14. Gut Microbiota and Extreme Longevity.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Elena; Franceschi, Claudio; Rampelli, Simone; Severgnini, Marco; Ostan, Rita; Turroni, Silvia; Consolandi, Clarissa; Quercia, Sara; Scurti, Maria; Monti, Daniela; Capri, Miriam; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The study of the extreme limits of human lifespan may allow a better understanding of how human beings can escape, delay, or survive the most frequent age-related causes of morbidity, a peculiarity shown by long-living individuals. Longevity is a complex trait in which genetics, environment, and stochasticity concur to determine the chance to reach 100 or more years of age [1]. Because of its impact on human metabolism and immunology, the gut microbiome has been proposed as a possible determinant of healthy aging [2, 3]. Indeed, the preservation of host-microbes homeostasis can counteract inflammaging [4], intestinal permeability [5], and decline in bone and cognitive health [6, 7]. Aiming at deepening our knowledge on the relationship between the gut microbiota and a long-living host, we provide for the first time the phylogenetic microbiota analysis of semi-supercentenarians, i.e., 105-109 years old, in comparison to adults, elderly, and centenarians, thus reconstructing the longest available human microbiota trajectory along aging. We highlighted the presence of a core microbiota of highly occurring, symbiotic bacterial taxa (mostly belonging to the dominant Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Bacteroidaceae families), with a cumulative abundance decreasing along with age. Aging is characterized by an increasing abundance of subdominant species, as well as a rearrangement in their co-occurrence network. These features are maintained in longevity and extreme longevity, but peculiarities emerged, especially in semi-supercentenarians, describing changes that, even accommodating opportunistic and allochthonous bacteria, might possibly support health maintenance during aging, such as an enrichment and/or higher prevalence of health-associated groups (e.g., Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and Christensenellaceae). PMID:27185560

  15. Pregnane X receptor activation and silencing promote steatosis of human hepatic cells by distinct lipogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Andreas; Rümmele, Petra; Klein, Kathrin; Kandel, Benjamin A; Rieger, Jessica K; Nüssler, Andreas K; Zanger, Ulrich M; Trauner, Michael; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    In addition to its well-characterized role in the regulation of drug metabolism and transport by xenobiotics, pregnane X receptor (PXR) critically impacts on lipid homeostasis. In mice, both ligand-dependent activation and knockout of PXR were previously shown to promote hepatic steatosis. To elucidate the respective pathways in human liver, we generated clones of human hepatoma HepG2 cells exhibiting different PXR protein levels, and analyzed effects of PXR activation and knockdown on steatosis and expression of lipogenic genes. Ligand-dependent activation as well as knockdown of PXR resulted in increased steatosis in HepG2 cells. Activation of PXR induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1-dependent lipogenic pathway via PXR-dependent induction of SREBP1a, which was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. Inhibiting SREBP1 activity by blocking the cleavage-dependent maturation of SREBP1 protein impaired the induction of lipogenic SREBP1 target genes and triglyceride accumulation by PXR activation. On the other hand, PXR knockdown resulted in up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, which enhanced the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-catalyzed reaction step of de novo lipogenesis. In a cohort of human liver samples histologically classified for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, AKR1B10, SREBP1a and SREBP1 lipogenic target genes proved to be up-regulated in steatohepatitis, while PXR protein was reduced. In summary, our data suggest that activation and knockdown of PXR in human hepatic cells promote de novo lipogenesis and steatosis by induction of the SREBP1 pathway and AKR1B10-mediated increase of ACC activity, respectively, thus providing mechanistic explanations for a putative dual role of PXR in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. PMID:25182422

  16. Sox2 Is an Androgen Receptor-Repressed Gene That Promotes Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kregel, Steven; Kiriluk, Kyle J.; Rosen, Alex M.; Cai, Yi; Reyes, Edwin E.; Otto, Kristen B.; Tom, Westin; Paner, Gladell P.; Szmulewitz, Russell Z.; Vander Griend, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in detection and therapy, castration-resistant prostate cancer continues to be a major clinical problem. The aberrant activity of stem cell pathways, and their regulation by the Androgen Receptor (AR), has the potential to provide insight into novel mechanisms and pathways to prevent and treat advanced, castrate-resistant prostate cancers. To this end, we investigated the role of the embryonic stem cell regulator Sox2 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2] in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. In the normal prostate, Sox2 is expressed in a portion of basal epithelial cells. Prostate tumors were either Sox2-positive or Sox2-negative, with the percentage of Sox2-positive tumors increasing with Gleason Score and metastases. In the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line CWR-R1, endogenous expression of Sox2 was repressed by AR signaling, and AR chromatin-IP shows that AR binds the enhancer element within the Sox2 promoter. Likewise, in normal prostate epithelial cells and human embryonic stem cells, increased AR signaling also decreases Sox2 expression. Resistance to the anti-androgen MDV3100 results in a marked increase in Sox2 expression within three prostate cancer cell lines, and in the castration-sensitive LAPC-4 prostate cancer cell line ectopic expression of Sox2 was sufficient to promote castration-resistant tumor formation. Loss of Sox2 expression in the castration-resistant CWR-R1 prostate cancer cell line inhibited cell growth. Up-regulation of Sox2 was not associated with increased CD133 expression but was associated with increased FGF5 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 5) expression. These data propose a model of elevated Sox2 expression due to loss of AR-mediated repression during castration, and consequent castration-resistance via mechanisms not involving induction of canonical embryonic stem cell pathways. PMID:23326489

  17. Promotion of adipogenesis by an EP2 receptor agonist via stimulation of angiogenesis in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2014-08-01

    Body weight loss is a common manifestation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly those with severe emphysema. Adipose angiogenesis is a key mediator of adipogenesis and use of pro-angiogenic agents may serve as a therapeutic option for lean COPD patients. Since angiogenesis is stimulated by PGE2, we examined whether ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, might promote adipose angiogenesis and adipogenesis in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice). Mice were intratracheally instilled with elastase or saline, followed after 4 weeks by intraperitoneal administration of ONO-AE1-259 for 4 weeks. The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) weight decreased in the EIE mice, whereas in the EIE mice treated with ONO-AE1-259, the SAT weight was largely restored, which was associated with significant increases in SAT adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and VEGF protein production. In contrast, ONO-AE1-259 administration induced no alteration in the weight of the visceral adipose tissue. These results suggest that in EIE mice, ONO-AE1-259 stimulated adipose angiogenesis possibly via VEGF production, and thence, adipogenesis. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for weight loss in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the adipose tissue vascular component.

  18. A Matrix Metalloproteinase-1/Protease Activated Receptor-1 signaling axis promotes melanoma invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jessica S.; Liu, Ingrid; Coon, Charles I.; Brinckerhoff, Constance E.

    2009-01-01

    Hallmarks of malignant melanoma are its propensity to metastasize and its resistance to treatment, giving patients with advanced disease a poor prognosis. The transition of melanoma from non-invasive radial growth phase (RGP) to invasive and metastatically competent vertical growth phase (VGP) is a major step in tumor progression, yet the mechanisms governing this transformation are unknown. Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is highly expressed by VGP melanomas, and is thought to contribute to melanoma progression by degrading type I collagen within the skin to facilitate melanoma invasion. Protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is activated by MMP-1, and is also expressed by VGP melanomas. However, the effects MMP-1 signaling through PAR-1 have not been examined in melanoma. Here, we demonstrate that an MMP-1/PAR-1 signaling axis exists in VGP melanoma, and is necessary for melanoma invasion. Introduction of MMP-1 into RGP melanoma cells induced gene expression associated with tumor progression and promoted invasion in vitro, and enhanced tumor growth and conferred metastatic capability in vivo. This study demonstrates that both the type I collagenase and PAR-1 activating functions of MMP-1 are required for melanoma progression, and suggests that MMP-1 may be a major contributor to the transformation of melanoma from non-invasive to malignant disease. PMID:19734937

  19. Alu retrotransposons promote differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Hernández, Antonio; González-Rico, Francisco J.; Román, Angel C.; Rico-Leo, Eva; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Sánchez, Laura; Macia, Ángela; Heras, Sara R.; García-Pérez, José L.; Merino, Jaime M.; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell differentiation is a central process in development and in cancer growth and dissemination. OCT4 (POU5F1) and NANOG are essential for cell stemness and pluripotency; yet, the mechanisms that regulate their expression remain largely unknown. Repetitive elements account for almost half of the Human Genome; still, their role in gene regulation is poorly understood. Here, we show that the dioxin receptor (AHR) leads to differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the transcriptional upregulation of Alu retrotransposons, whose RNA transcripts can repress pluripotency genes. Despite the genome-wide presence of Alu elements, we provide evidences that those located at the NANOG and OCT4 promoters bind AHR, are transcribed by RNA polymerase-III and repress NANOG and OCT4 in differentiated cells. OCT4 and NANOG repression likely involves processing of Alu-derived transcripts through the miRNA machinery involving the Microprocessor and RISC. Consistently, stable AHR knockdown led to basal undifferentiation, impaired Alus transcription and blockade of OCT4 and NANOG repression. We suggest that transcripts produced from AHR-regulated Alu retrotransposons may control the expression of stemness genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation of carcinoma cells. The control of discrete Alu elements by specific transcription factors may have a dynamic role in genome regulation under physiological and diseased conditions. PMID:26883630

  20. Targeted overexpression of androgen receptor with a liver-specific promoter in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, B; Song, C S; Jung, M H; Chen, S; Walter, C A; Herbert, D C; Weaker, F J; Mancini, M A; Roy, A K

    1996-01-01

    The rodent liver displays marked age- and sex-dependent changes in androgen sensitivity due to the sexually dimorphic and temporally programmed expression of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We have altered this normal phenotype by constitutive overexpression of the rat AR transgene in the mouse liver by targeting it via the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (hPAH) gene promoter. These transgenic animals in their heterozygous state produce an approximately 30-fold higher level of the AR in the liver as compared with the nontransgenic control. Androgen inactivation via sulfonation of the hormone by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (DST), an androgen-repressible enzyme, also contributes to the age- and sex-dependent regulation of hepatic androgen sensitivity. DST has a broad range of substrate specificity and is responsible for the age- and sex-specific activation of certain polycyclic aromatic hepatocarcinogens as well, by converting them to electrophilic sulfonated derivatives. In the transgenic female, the hepatic expression of DST was approximately 4-fold lower than in normal females, a level comparable to that in normal males. The hPAH-AR mice will serve as a valuable model for studying the sex- and age-invariant expression of liver-specific genes, particularly those involved in the activation of environmental hepatocarcinogens such as the aromatic hydrocarbons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8570624

  1. Promotion of adipogenesis by an EP2 receptor agonist via stimulation of angiogenesis in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2014-08-01

    Body weight loss is a common manifestation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly those with severe emphysema. Adipose angiogenesis is a key mediator of adipogenesis and use of pro-angiogenic agents may serve as a therapeutic option for lean COPD patients. Since angiogenesis is stimulated by PGE2, we examined whether ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, might promote adipose angiogenesis and adipogenesis in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice). Mice were intratracheally instilled with elastase or saline, followed after 4 weeks by intraperitoneal administration of ONO-AE1-259 for 4 weeks. The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) weight decreased in the EIE mice, whereas in the EIE mice treated with ONO-AE1-259, the SAT weight was largely restored, which was associated with significant increases in SAT adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and VEGF protein production. In contrast, ONO-AE1-259 administration induced no alteration in the weight of the visceral adipose tissue. These results suggest that in EIE mice, ONO-AE1-259 stimulated adipose angiogenesis possibly via VEGF production, and thence, adipogenesis. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for weight loss in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the adipose tissue vascular component. PMID:24911647

  2. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor controls cyclin O to promote epithelial multiciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Matteo; Crotta, Stefania; Dingwell, Kevin S.; Hirst, Elizabeth M. A.; Gialitakis, Manolis; Ahlfors, Helena; Smith, James C.; Stockinger, Brigitta; Wack, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia function as barriers against environmental insults and express the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, AhR function in these tissues is unknown. Here we show that AhR regulates multiciliogenesis in both murine airway epithelia and in Xenopus laevis epidermis. In air-exposed airway epithelia, induction of factors required for multiciliogenesis, including cyclin O (Ccno) and Multicilin (Mcidas), is AhR dependent, and air exposure induces AhR binding to the Ccno promoter. Submersion and hypoxic conditions impede AhR-dependent Ccno induction. This is mediated by the persistence of Notch signalling, as Notch blockade renders multiciliogenesis and Ccno induction by AhR independent from air exposure. In contrast to Ccno induction, air exposure does not induce the canonical AhR target cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1). Inversely, exposure to AhR ligands induces Cyp1a1 but not Ccno and impeded ciliogenesis. These data indicate that AhR involvement in detoxification of environmental pollutants may impede its physiological role, resulting in respiratory pathology. PMID:27554288

  3. Enhanced Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 IIIc Promotes Human Esophageal Carcinoma Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Akio; Kanai, Michiyuki; Iwaya, Yugo; Ueda, Shugo; Nakayama, Jun; Seo, Misuzu Kurokawa

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) and their ligands plays critical roles in tumorigenesis. The gene expression of an alternatively spliced isoforms of FGFR3, FGFR3IIIc, was analyzed by RT-PCR in samples from patients with esophageal carcinoma (EC), including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma (EAC). The incidence of FGFR3IIIc was higher in EC [12/16 (75%); p=0.073] than in non-cancerous mucosa (NCM) [6/16 (38%)]. Indeed, an immunohistochemical analysis of early-stage ESCC showed that carcinoma cells expressing FGFR3IIIc stained positively with SCC-112, a tumor marker, and Ki67, a cell proliferation marker, suggesting that the expression of FGFR3IIIc promotes cell proliferation. We used EC-GI-10 cells endogenously expressing FGFR3IIIc as a model of ESCC to provide mechanistic insight into the role of FGFR3IIIc in ESCC. The knockdown of endogenous FGFR3 using siRNA treatment significantly abrogated cell proliferation and the overexpression of FGFR3IIIc in cells with enhanced cell proliferation. EC-GI-10 cells and ESCC from patients with EC showed endogenous expression of FGF2, a specific ligand for FGFR3IIIc, suggesting that the upregulated expression of FGFR3IIIc may create autocrine FGF signaling in ESCC. Taken together, FGFR3IIIc may have the potential to be an early-stage tumor marker and a molecular target for ESCC therapy.

  4. Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα)-Associated Fibroblasts Promote Cell Growth in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Da, Jun; Lu, Mujun; Wang, Zhong

    2015-12-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the stromal compartment of cancerous prostate. However, the effect of ERα in CAF cells on prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth remains unclear. We used lentiviral transduction to stably express ERα in CAF cells isolated from transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model. MTT and 3D colony-formation assays demonstrated that conditioned medium from ERα-expressing CAF cells (CAF-ERα+) promoted cell proliferation and colony growth of various PCa cell lines, such as PC3, LNCaP, 22RV1, and C4-2. We further confirmed the in vitro data by orthotopically co-implanting 22RV1, transfected with firefly luciferase, and CAF-ERα+ cells in vivo using mouse model. Mice co-implanted with CAF-ERα+ exhibited stronger luciferase signals and bigger tumor size compared to animals co-implanted with CAF that do not express ER. Our results demonstrate that ER expressed in CAF might play a pro-proliferative role in PCa. PMID:27259327

  5. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor controls cyclin O to promote epithelial multiciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Villa, Matteo; Crotta, Stefania; Dingwell, Kevin S; Hirst, Elizabeth M A; Gialitakis, Manolis; Ahlfors, Helena; Smith, James C; Stockinger, Brigitta; Wack, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia function as barriers against environmental insults and express the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, AhR function in these tissues is unknown. Here we show that AhR regulates multiciliogenesis in both murine airway epithelia and in Xenopus laevis epidermis. In air-exposed airway epithelia, induction of factors required for multiciliogenesis, including cyclin O (Ccno) and Multicilin (Mcidas), is AhR dependent, and air exposure induces AhR binding to the Ccno promoter. Submersion and hypoxic conditions impede AhR-dependent Ccno induction. This is mediated by the persistence of Notch signalling, as Notch blockade renders multiciliogenesis and Ccno induction by AhR independent from air exposure. In contrast to Ccno induction, air exposure does not induce the canonical AhR target cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1). Inversely, exposure to AhR ligands induces Cyp1a1 but not Ccno and impeded ciliogenesis. These data indicate that AhR involvement in detoxification of environmental pollutants may impede its physiological role, resulting in respiratory pathology. PMID:27554288

  6. α7 Nicotinic Receptor Promotes the Neuroprotective Functions of Astrocytes against Oxaliplatin Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Tenci, Barbara; Zanardelli, Matteo; Failli, Paola; Ghelardini, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathies are characterized by a complex response of the central nervous system to injuries. Glial cells are recruited to maintain neuronal homeostasis but dysregulated activation leads to pain signaling amplification and reduces the glial neuroprotective power. Recently, we highlighted the property of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor (nAChR) agonists to relieve pain and induce neuroprotection simultaneously with a strong increase in astrocyte density. Aimed to study the role of α7 nAChR in the neuron-glia cross-talk, we treated primary rat neurons and astrocytes with the neurotoxic anticancer drug oxaliplatin evaluating the effect of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU-282987 (PNU). Oxaliplatin (1 μM, 48 h) reduced cell viability and increased caspase-3 activity of neuron monocultures without damaging astrocytes. In cocultures, astrocytes were not able to protect neurons by oxaliplatin even if glial cell metabolism was stimulated (pyruvate increase). On the contrary, the coculture incubation with 10 μM PNU improved neuron viability and inhibited apoptosis. In the absence of astrocytes, the protection disappeared. Furthermore, PNU promoted the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 and the expression of the glutamate-detoxifying enzyme glutamine synthetase. The α7 nAChR stimulation protects neurons from oxaliplatin toxicity through an astrocyte-mediated mechanism. α7 nAChR is suggested for recovering the homeostatic role of astrocytes. PMID:26146570

  7. Selective Retinoic Acid Receptor γ Agonists Promote Repair of Injured Skeletal Muscle in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Di Rocco, Agnese; Uchibe, Kenta; Larmour, Colleen; Berger, Rebecca; Liu, Min; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Iwamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid signaling regulates several biological events, including myogenesis. We previously found that retinoic acid receptor γ (RARγ) agonist blocks heterotopic ossification, a pathological bone formation that mostly occurs in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, RARγ agonist also weakened deterioration of muscle architecture adjacent to the heterotopic ossification lesion, suggesting that RARγ agonist may oppose skeletal muscle damage. To test this hypothesis, we generated a critical defect in the tibialis anterior muscle of 7-week-old mice with a cautery, treated them with RARγ agonist or vehicle corn oil, and examined the effects of RARγ agonist on muscle repair. The muscle defects were partially repaired with newly regenerating muscle cells, but also filled with adipose and fibrous scar tissue in both RARγ-treated and control groups. The fibrous or adipose area was smaller in RARγ agonist–treated mice than in the control. In addition, muscle repair was remarkably delayed in RARγ-null mice in both critical defect and cardiotoxin injury models. Furthermore, we found a rapid increase in retinoid signaling in lacerated muscle, as monitored by retinoid signaling reporter mice. Together, our results indicate that endogenous RARγ signaling is involved in muscle repair and that selective RARγ agonists may be beneficial to promote repair in various types of muscle injuries. PMID:26205250

  8. BAP18 coactivates androgen receptor action and promotes prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shiying; Zhong, Xinping; Wang, Chunyu; Sun, Hongmiao; Wang, Shengli; Zhou, Tingting; Zou, Renlong; Lin, Lin; Sun, Ning; Sun, Ge; Wu, Yi; Wang, Botao; Song, Xiaoyu; Cao, Liu; Zhao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    BPTF associated protein of 18 kDa (BAP18) has been reported as a component of MLL1-WDR5 complex. However, BAP18 is an uncharacterized protein. The detailed biological functions of BAP18 and underlying mechanisms have not been defined. Androgen receptor (AR), a member of transcription factor, plays an essential role in prostate cancer (PCa) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression. Here, we demonstrate that BAP18 is identified as a coactivator of AR in Drosophilar experimental system and mammalian cells. BAP18 facilitates the recruitment of MLL1 subcomplex and AR to androgen-response element (ARE) of AR target genes, subsequently increasing histone H3K4 trimethylation and H4K16 acetylation. Knockdown of BAP18 attenuates cell growth and proliferation of PCa cells. Moreover, BAP18 depletion results in inhibition of xenograft tumor growth in mice even under androgen-depletion conditions. In addition, our data show that BAP18 expression in clinical PCa samples is higher than that in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Our data suggest that BAP18 as an epigenetic modifier regulates AR-induced transactivation and the function of BAP18 might be targeted in human PCa to promote tumor growth and progression to castration-resistance. PMID:27226492

  9. Structural Basis of Natural Promoter Recognition by a Unique Nuclear Receptor, HNF4[alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Peng; Rha, Geun Bae; Melikishvili, Manana; Wu, Guangteng; Adkins, Brandon C.; Fried, Michael G.; Chi, Young-In

    2010-11-09

    HNF4{alpha} (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha}) plays an essential role in the development and function of vertebrate organs, including hepatocytes and pancreatic {beta}-cells by regulating expression of multiple genes involved in organ development, nutrient transport, and diverse metabolic pathways. As such, HNF4{alpha} is a culprit gene product for a monogenic and dominantly inherited form of diabetes, known as maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). As a unique member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, HNF4{alpha} recognizes target genes containing two hexanucleotide direct repeat DNA-response elements separated by one base pair (DR1) by exclusively forming a cooperative homodimer. We describe here the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of human HNF4{alpha} DNA binding domain in complex with a high affinity promoter element of another MODY gene, HNF1{alpha}, which reveals the molecular basis of unique target gene selection/recognition, DNA binding cooperativity, and dysfunction caused by diabetes-causing mutations. The predicted effects of MODY mutations have been tested by a set of biochemical and functional studies, which show that, in contrast to other MODY gene products, the subtle disruption of HNF4{alpha} molecular function can cause significant effects in afflicted MODY patients.

  10. Epigenetic DNA methylation in the promoters of the Igf1 receptor and insulin receptor genes in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Nikoshkov, Andrej; Sunkari, Vivekananda; Savu, Octavian; Forsberg, Elisabete; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Brismar, Kerstin

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated promoter methylation of the Insr, Igf1 and Igf1r genes in skeletal and cardiac muscles of normal and diabetic db/db mice. No differences in Insr promoter methylation were found in the heart and skeletal muscles and no methylation was detected in the Igf1 promoter in skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, db/db males exhibited a 7.4-fold increase in Igf1r promoter methylation, which was accompanied by a 1.8-fold decrease in Igf1r mRNA levels, compared with controls. More than 50% of the detected methylation events were concentrated within an 18 bp sequence that includes one of the Sp1 binding sites. We conclude that the methylation level and pattern of the Igf1r promoter in skeletal muscle is related to gender and the diabetic state. PMID:21474992

  11. Deletion of G-protein-coupled receptor 55 promotes obesity by reducing physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the best-characterized cannabinoid receptor, and CB1 antagonists are used in clinical trials to treat obesity. Because of the wide range of CB1 functions, the side effects of CB1 antagonists pose serious concerns. G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is an atypical c...

  12. Correlation between hormone dependency and the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by tumor promoters in human mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, W; Fabbro, D; Küng, W; Costa, S D; Eppenberger, U

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the tumor promoter phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA) on the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor levels were investigated in hormone-dependent (MCF-7, T-47-D, and ZR-75-1) and hormone-independent (MDA-MB-231, HBL-100, and BT-20) human mammary carcinoma cell lines. In the absence of TPA, hormone-independent cell lines contained high concentrations of low-affinity EGF receptors (apparent Kd = 8 X 10(-10) M), whereas hormone-dependent cell lines exhibited low concentrations of high-affinity receptors (apparent Kd = 1 X 10(-10) M). TPA causes a change of the receptor from a high- to the low-affinity state in hormone-dependent cell lines (MCF-7, T-47-D, and ZR-75-1), as well as in the hormone-independent HBL-100, whereas the affinity remained unchanged in MDA-MB-231 and BT-20 cells. In addition, progesterone receptor levels are decreased after TPA treatment in the hormone-dependent cell lines MCF-7, T-47-D, and ZR-75-1, whereas the estrogen receptor levels remained unchanged. Tumor promoters such as TPA or teleocidin inhibited the proliferation of these cell lines at concentrations above 10 microM with the exception of the T-47-D cells. The most sensitive cell line towards growth inhibition by tumor promoter was the hormone-dependent MCF-7 cell line. Evaluation of different TPA analogs indicated a positive correlation between the growth-inhibitory effects and their ability to stimulate the subcellular redistribution of protein kinase C activity in MCF-7 cells. These data suggest a protein kinase C-mediated down-regulation of the progesterone receptor concentration and of the EGF receptor affinity, which is supposed to mediate the mitogenic response. Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that the tumor-derived growth factors induced by estradiol act via the EGF receptor in hormone-dependent mammary carcinoma cells. PMID:3006036

  13. Longevity of the Human Spaceflight Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gott, J. Richard

    2007-02-01

    The longevity of the human spaceflight program is important to our survival prospects. On May 27, 1993 I proposed a method for estimating future longevity, based on past observed longevity using the Copernican Principle: if your observation point is not special the 95% confidence level prediction of future longevity is between (1/39)th and 39 times the past longevity. The prediction for the future longevity of the human spaceflight program (then 32 years old) was greater than 10 months but less than 1248 years. We have already passed the lower limit. This Copernican formula has been tested a number of times, correctly predicting, among other things, future longevities of Broadway plays and musicals, and the Conservative Government in the United Kingdom. Recently, a study of future longevities of the 313 world leaders in power on May 27, 1993 has been completed. Assuming none still in office serve past age 100, the success rate of the 95% Copernican Formula is currently 94.55% with only one case (out of 313) left to be decided. The human spaceflight program has not been around long and so there is the danger its future will not be long enough to allow us to colonize off the earth. Policy implications are discussed. A smart plan would be to try to establish a self-supporting colony on Mars in the next 45 years. This should not require sending any more tons of material into space in the next 45 years than we have in the last 45 years.

  14. Genetics, lifestyle and longevity: Lessons from centenarians.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Diddahally; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2015-03-01

    Longevity as a complex life-history trait shares an ontogenetic relationship with other quantitative traits and varies among individuals, families and populations. Heritability estimates of longevity suggest that about a third of the phenotypic variation associated with the trait is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest is influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Individuals react differently to the environments that they are a part of, as well as to the environments they construct for their survival and reproduction; the latter phenomenon is known as niche construction. Lifestyle influences longevity at all the stages of development and levels of human diversity. Hence, lifestyle may be viewed as a component of niche construction. Here, we: a) interpret longevity using a combination of genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (GEP) map approach and niche-construction theory, and b) discuss the plausible influence of genetic and epigenetic factors in the distribution and maintenance of longevity among individuals with normal life span on the one hand, and centenarians on the other. Although similar genetic and environmental factors appear to be common to both of these groups, exceptional longevity may be influenced by polymorphisms in specific genes, coupled with superior genomic stability and homeostatic mechanisms, maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. We suggest that a comparative analysis of longevity between individuals with normal life span and centenarians, along with insights from population ecology and evolutionary biology, would not only advance our knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying human longevity, but also provide deeper insights into extending healthy life span.

  15. Genetics, lifestyle and longevity: Lessons from centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Diddahally; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Longevity as a complex life-history trait shares an ontogenetic relationship with other quantitative traits and varies among individuals, families and populations. Heritability estimates of longevity suggest that about a third of the phenotypic variation associated with the trait is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest is influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Individuals react differently to the environments that they are a part of, as well as to the environments they construct for their survival and reproduction; the latter phenomenon is known as niche construction. Lifestyle influences longevity at all the stages of development and levels of human diversity. Hence, lifestyle may be viewed as a component of niche construction. Here, we: a) interpret longevity using a combination of genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (GEP) map approach and niche-construction theory, and b) discuss the plausible influence of genetic and epigenetic factors in the distribution and maintenance of longevity among individuals with normal life span on the one hand, and centenarians on the other. Although similar genetic and environmental factors appear to be common to both of these groups, exceptional longevity may be influenced by polymorphisms in specific genes, coupled with superior genomic stability and homeostatic mechanisms, maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. We suggest that a comparative analysis of longevity between individuals with normal life span and centenarians, along with insights from population ecology and evolutionary biology, would not only advance our knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying human longevity, but also provide deeper insights into extending healthy life span. PMID:26937346

  16. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided...

  17. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided...

  18. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided...

  19. 77 FR 5443 - Longevity Annuity Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... for Participants and Beneficiaries in Retirement Plans in the Federal Register (75 FR 5253). That... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK23 Longevity Annuity Contracts AGENCY: Internal Revenue... document contains proposed regulations relating to the purchase of longevity annuity contracts under...

  20. A novel signaling pathway of tissue kallikrein in promoting keratinocyte migration: Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2010-02-01

    Biological functions of tissue kallikrein (TK, KLK1) are mainly mediated by kinin generation and subsequent kinin B2 receptor activation. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TK and its signaling pathways in cultured human keratinocyte migration and in a rat skin wound healing model. Herein, we show that TK promoted cell migration and proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Inactive TK or kinin had no significant effect on cell migration. Interestingly, cell migration induced by active TK was not blocked by icatibant or L-NAME, indicating an event independent of kinin B2 receptor and nitric oxide formation. TK's stimulatory effect on cell migration was inhibited by small interfering RNA for proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR{sub 1}), and by PAR{sub 1} inhibitor. TK-induced migration was associated with increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), Src, EGFR and ERK. TK-induced cell migration and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked by metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, heparin, and antibodies against EGFR external domain, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AR). Local application of TK promoted skin wound healing in rats, whereas icatibant and EGFR inhibitor blocked TK's effect. Skin wound healing was further delayed by aprotinin and neutralizing TK antibody. This study demonstrates a novel role of TK in skin wound healing and uncovers new signaling pathways mediated by TK in promoting keratinocyte migration through activation of the PAR{sub 1}-PKC-Src-MMP pathway and HB-EGF/AR shedding-dependent EGFR transactivation.

  1. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes phosphorylation at threonine-654 of the EGF receptor: possible role of protein kinase C in homologous regulation of the EGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, B.; Glaser, L.

    1986-10-01

    Treatment of cells with tumor-promoting phorbol diesters, which causes activation of protein kinase C, leads to phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor at threonine-654. Addition of phorbol diesters to intact cells causes inhibition of the EGF-induced tyrosine-protein kinase activity of the EGF receptor and it has been suggested that this effect of phorbol diesters is mediated by the phosphorylation of the receptor by protein kinase C. The authors measured the activity of protein kinase C in A431 cells by determining the incorporation of (/sup 32/P)phosphate into peptides containing threonine-654 obtained by trypsin digestion of EGF receptors. After 3 h of exposure to serum-free medium, A431 cells had no detectable protein kinase C activity. Addition of EGF to these cells resulted in (/sup 32/P) incorporation into threonine-654 as well as into tyrosine residues. This indicates that EGF promotes the activation of protein kinase C in A431 cells. The phophorylation of threonine-654 induced by EGF was maximal after only 5 min of EGF addition and the (/sup 32/P) incorporation into threonine-654 reached 50% of the (/sup 32/P) in a tyrosine-containing peptide. This indicates that a significant percentage of the total EGF receptors are phosphorylated by protein kinase C. A variety of external stimuli activate Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange, including EGF, phorbol diesters, and hypertonicity. To ascertain whether activation of protein kinase C is an intracellular common effector of all of these systems, the authors measured the activity of protein kinase C after exposure of A431 cells to hyperosmotic conditions and observed no effect on phosphorylation of threonine-654, therefore, activation of Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange by hypertonic medium is independent of protein kinase C activity.

  2. DRD4 genotype predicts longevity in mouse and human

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Deborah L.; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Corrada, Maria M.; Barnett, Jeffrey C.; Ciobanu, Valentina; Shustarovich, Diana; Napoli, Anthony; Moyzis, Alexandra G.; Grandy, David; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Wang, Gene-Jack; H.Kawas, Claudia; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Wang, Eric; Volkow, Nora D.; Moyzis, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Longevity is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The brain's dopamine system may be particularly relevant, since it modulates traits (e.g., sensitivity to reward, incentive motivation, sustained effort) that impact behavioral responses to the environment. In particular, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) has been shown to moderate the impact of environments on behavior and health. We tested the hypothesis that the DRD4 gene influences longevity and that its impact is mediated through environmental effects. Surviving participants of a 30 year-old population-based health survey (N=310, age range 90–109; the 90+ Study) were genotyped/resequenced at the DRD4 gene, and compared to a European ancestry-matched younger population (N=2902, age range 7–45). We found that the oldest-old population had a 66% increase in individuals carrying the DRD4 7R allele relative to the younger sample (p=3.5 × 10−9), and that this genotype was strongly correlated with increased levels of physical activity. Consistent with these results, DRD4 knockout mice, when compared to wild-type and heterozygous mice, displayed a 7–9.7% decrease in lifespan, reduced spontaneous locomotor activity, and no lifespan increase when reared in an enriched environment. These results support the hypothesis that DRD4 gene variants contribute to longevity in humans and in mice, and suggest that this effect is mediated by shaping behavioral responses to the environment. PMID:23283341

  3. Autophagy-mediated longevity is modulated by lipoprotein biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Nicole E.; de Magalhaes Filho, C. Daniel; Petrashen, Anna P.; Henderson, Hope R.; Laguer, Jade; Gonzalez, Julissa; Dillin, Andrew; Hansen, Malene; Lapierre, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy-dependent longevity models in C. elegans display altered lipid storage profiles, but the contribution of lipid distribution to life-span extension is not fully understood. Here we report that lipoprotein production, autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis are linked to modulate life span in a conserved fashion. We find that overexpression of the yolk lipoprotein VIT/vitellogenin reduces the life span of long-lived animals by impairing the induction of autophagy-related and lysosomal genes necessary for longevity. Accordingly, reducing vitellogenesis increases life span via induction of autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis. Life-span extension due to reduced vitellogenesis or enhanced lysosomal lipolysis requires nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) NHR-49 and NHR-80, highlighting novel roles for these NHRs in lysosomal lipid signaling. In dietary-restricted worms and mice, expression of VIT and hepatic APOB (apolipoprotein B), respectively, are significantly reduced, suggesting a conserved longevity mechanism. Altogether, our study demonstrates that lipoprotein biogenesis is an important mechanism that modulates aging by impairing autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis. PMID:26671266

  4. Histone H4 Lys 20 methyltransferase SET8 promotes androgen receptor-mediated transcription activation in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Lushuai; Li, Yanyan; Du, Fengxia; Han, Xiao; Li, Xiaohua; Niu, Yuanjie; Ren, Shancheng; Sun, Yingli

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Dihydrotestosterone stimulates H4K20me1 enrichment at the PSA promoter. • SET8 promotes AR-mediated transcription activation. • SET8 interacts with AR and promotes cell proliferation. - Abstract: Histone methylation status in different lysine residues has an important role in transcription regulation. The effect of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene transcription remains unclear. Here we show that AR agonist stimulates the enrichment of H4K20me1 and SET8 at the promoter of AR target gene PSA in an AR dependent manner. Furthermore, SET8 is crucial for the transcription activation of PSA. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that SET8 interacts with AR. Therefore, we conclude that SET8 is involved in AR-mediated transcription activation, possibly through its interaction with AR and H4K20me1 modification.

  5. PPAR-α and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R; Peters, Luanne L; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-06-25

    Many acute and chronic anaemias, including haemolysis, sepsis and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production. Treatment of these anaemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of an early erythroid progenitor, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Here we show that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) by the PPAR-α agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate synergizes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures of both mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and mobilized human adult CD34(+) peripheral blood progenitors, with a new and effective culture system being used for the human cells that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. Although Ppara(-/-) mice show no haematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPAR-α agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type but not Ppara(-/-) mice from PHZ-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. We also show that PPAR-α alleviates anaemia in a mouse model of chronic anaemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells, PPAR-α co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPAR-α agonists, additional PPAR-α is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPAR-α agonists in stimulating self-renewal of early erythroid

  6. PPARα and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M. Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R.; Peters, Luanne L.; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many acute and chronic anemias, including hemolysis, sepsis, and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA), are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production 1,2,3–5,6,7,8,9. Treatment of these anemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of the early erythroid progenitor, the burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells 10,11. Here we demonstrate that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) by PPARα agonists, GW7647 and fenofibrate, synergizes with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures both of mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and of mobilized human adult CD34+ peripheral blood progenitors, the latter employing a new and effective culture system that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. While PPARα−/− mice show no hematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPARα agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type mice, but not PPARα−/− mice, from PHZ-induced acute hemolytic anemia. We also showed that PPARα alleviates anemia in a mouse model of chronic anemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells PPARα co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPARα agonists, additional PPARα is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPARα agonists in stimulating self

  7. PPAR-α and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R; Peters, Luanne L; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-06-25

    Many acute and chronic anaemias, including haemolysis, sepsis and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production. Treatment of these anaemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of an early erythroid progenitor, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Here we show that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) by the PPAR-α agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate synergizes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures of both mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and mobilized human adult CD34(+) peripheral blood progenitors, with a new and effective culture system being used for the human cells that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. Although Ppara(-/-) mice show no haematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPAR-α agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type but not Ppara(-/-) mice from PHZ-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. We also show that PPAR-α alleviates anaemia in a mouse model of chronic anaemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells, PPAR-α co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPAR-α agonists, additional PPAR-α is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPAR-α agonists in stimulating self-renewal of early erythroid

  8. Cross-talk between lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 and tropomyosin receptor kinase A promotes lung epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Nan, Ling; Wei, Jianxin; Jacko, Anastasia M; Culley, Miranda K; Zhao, Jing; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Ma, Haichun; Zhao, Yutong

    2016-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lysophospholipid, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. LPA exerts its biological effects mainly through binding to cell-surface LPA receptors (LPA1-6), which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Recent studies suggest that cross-talk between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and GPCRs modulates GPCRs-mediated signaling. Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) is a RTK, which mediates nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced biological functions including cell migration in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we show LPA1 transactivation of TrkA in murine lung epithelial cells (MLE12). LPA induced tyrosine phosphorylation of TrkA in both time- and dose-dependent manners. Down-regulation of LPA1 by siRNA transfection attenuated LPA-induced phosphorylation of TrkA, suggesting a cross-talk between LPA1 and TrkA. To investigate the molecular regulation of the cross-talk, we focused on the interaction between LPA1 and TrkA. We found that LPA induced interaction between LPA1 and TrkA. The LPA1/TrkA complex was localized on the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm. The C-terminus of LPA1 was identified as the binding site for TrkA. Inhibition of TrkA attenuated LPA-induced phosphorylation of TrkA and LPA1 internalization, as well as lung epithelial cell migration. These studies provide a molecular mechanism for the transactivation of TrkA by LPA, and suggest that the cross-talk between LPA1 and TrkA regulates LPA-induced receptor internalization and lung epithelial cell migration. PMID:26597701

  9. Altered promoter recycling rates contribute to dominant-negative activity of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma mutations associated with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Leff, Todd

    2007-04-01

    The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) plays an important role in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients when activated by thiazolidinedione drugs. Several loss-of-function mutations in PPARgamma have been identified that cause lipodystrophy and diabetes in humans. Because affected individuals are heterozygotes and have one normal PPARgamma allele, it is of interest to know whether these mutations act in a dominant-negative fashion to inhibit the activity of the wild-type (WT) receptor. Here we compare the molecular phenotypes of two previously identified PPARgamma mutations: P467L, reported to be dominant negative; and F388L, reported to be devoid of dominant-negative activity. We developed a competitive chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to measure the relative ability of mutant PPARgamma to compete with WT receptor for binding to a PPAR regulatory element (PPRE)-containing promoter. By determining the ratio of mutant and WT receptors bound to a PPRE over time, we estimated the relative promoter turnover rate of each receptor. This assay demonstrated that PPARgamma bearing the P467L had a reduced promoter turnover rate compared with the F388L receptor, and over time out-competed the WT receptor for promoter binding sites. We propose that the P467L receptor is dominant negative because in a cell containing both WT and mutant receptors, the majority of the PPAR-regulated promoters will be occupied by the transcriptionally defective mutant receptor. In contrast, the F388L mutation lacks dominant-negative activity because its more rapid promoter turnover rate prevented it from out-competing the WT receptor for promoter binding sites.

  10. The HIV coat protein gp120 promotes forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hangxiu; Bae, Mihyun; Tovar-y-Romo, Luis B.; Patel, Neha; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Pomerantz, Daniel; Steiner, Joseph; Haughey, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    Infection by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in debilitating neurological syndromes collectively known as HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While the HIV coat protein gp120 has been identified as a potent neurotoxin that enhances NMDA receptor function, the exact mechanisms for effect are not known. Here we provide evidence that gp120 activates two separate signaling pathways that converge to enhance NMDA-evoked calcium flux by clustering NMDA receptors in modified membrane microdomains. HIV gp120 enlarged, and stabilized the structure of lipid rafts on neuronal dendrites by mechanisms that involved a redox-regulated translocation of a sphingomyelin hydrolase (neutral sphingomyelinase-2; nSMase2) to the plasma membrane. A concurrent pathway was activated that enhanced the forward traffic of NMDA receptors by promoting a PKA-dependent phopshorylation of the NR1 C-terminal serine 897 (that masks an ER retention signal), followed by a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of serine 896 (important for surface expression). NMDA receptors were preferentially targeted to synapses, and clustered in modified membrane microdomains. In these conditions, NMDA receptors were unable to laterally disperse, and did not internalize, even in response to strong agonist induction. Focal NMDA-evoked calcium bursts were enhanced three-fold in these regions. Inhibiting membrane modification or NR1 phosphorylation prevented gp120 from enhancing the surface localization and clustering of NMDA receptors, while disrupting the structure of membrane microdomains restored the ability of NMDA receptors to disperse and internalize following gp120. These findings demonstrate that gp120 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in the setting of HIV-infection by interfering with the traffic of NMDA receptors. PMID:22114277

  11. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M. Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTAH/KDEL), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface. PMID:27353000

  12. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, X X; Jiang, D Y; Huang, X X; Guo, S L; Yuan, W; Dai, H P

    2015-12-21

    The specific role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis of mice, a model of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has not been characterized. We injected bleomycin intratracheally into TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. Twenty-one days after injection, mice were sacrificed and their lungs were harvested for pathological, hydroxyproline, mRNA expression, and collagen I analyses. Body weight changes and mortality were observed. Light microscopy showed that lung fibrosis was minimal in TLR4(-/-) compared to that in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin instillation. The Ashcroft score was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (3.667 ± 0.730 vs 4.945 ± 0.880, P < 0.05). Hydroxyproline content was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin injection (0.281 ± 0.022 vs 0.371 ± 0.047, P < 0.05). Compared to WT mice, bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice expressed significantly lower type I collagen mRNA levels (mesenchymal marker; 11.069 ± 2.627 vs 4.589 ± 1.440, P < 0.05). Collagen I was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (0.838 ± 0.352 vs 2.427 ± 0.551, P < 0.05). Bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice had a significantly lower mortality rate on day 21 than WT mice (33 vs 75%, P < 0.05). Body weight reduction was lower in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice; this difference was not statistically significant (-3.735 ± 5.276 vs -6.698 ± 3.218, P > 0.05). Thus, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is TLR4-dependent and TLR4 promoted fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice.

  13. Lymphotoxin β receptor activation promotes bladder cancer in a nuclear factor-κB-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, MO; DUAN, XIUZHI; ZHOU, PING; ZHOU, WU; WU, XIULING; XU, SIQI; CHEN, YUHUA; TAO, ZHIHUA

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most common tumor of the urinary system. Chronic inflammation in the papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP)may contribute to carcinogenesis, including that of BCa, via poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we show that the lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) is upregulated in BCa via activation of the canonical and non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. The mRNA expression of LTβR in 81 BCa, 10 chronic cystitis and 23 healthy bladder mucosa tissues was investigated by reverse transcription-fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-FQ-PCR), and protein expression was studied in 73 BCa, 30 cystitis and 15 healthy paraffin-embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Both LTβR mRNA and protein were upregulated in BCa and cystitis compared to the healthy group (P<0.05). The mRNA level of the downstream NF-κB canonical pathway p65 gene and of the non-canonical pathway RelB gene were higher in the BCa and cystitis groups compared to the healthy one. The level of phosphorylated p65 (p-p65) protein of the canonical NF-κB pathway and that of p52, a protein of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway, were also higher in the BCa and cystitis group compared to the healthy group. The levels of these proteins significantly correlated to the pathological grade, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of BCa patients (P<0.05). In addition, there was a positive correlation between LTβR and NF-κB pathway proteins. Thus, LTβR signaling may be involved in promoting BCa through the NF-κB pathway, and which may represent the molecular link between inflammation and BCa. PMID:25369740

  14. Lymphotoxin β receptor activation promotes bladder cancer in a nuclear factor-κB-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mo; Duan, Xiuzhi; Zhou, Ping; Zhou, Wu; Wu, Xiuling; Xu, Siqi; Chen, Yuhua; Tao, Zhihua

    2015-02-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most common tumor of the urinary system. Chronic inflammation in the papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP)may contribute to carcinogenesis, including that of BCa, via poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we show that the lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) is upregulated in BCa via activation of the canonical and non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. The mRNA expression of LTβR in 81 BCa, 10 chronic cystitis and 23 healthy bladder mucosa tissues was investigated by reverse transcription-fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-FQ-PCR), and protein expression was studied in 73 BCa, 30 cystitis and 15 healthy paraffin-embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Both LTβR mRNA and protein were upregulated in BCa and cystitis compared to the healthy group (P<0.05). The mRNA level of the downstream NF-κB canonical pathway p65 gene and of the non-canonical pathway RelB gene were higher in the BCa and cystitis groups compared to the healthy one. The level of phosphorylated p65 (p-p65) protein of the canonical NF-κB pathway and that of p52, a protein of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway, were also higher in the BCa and cystitis group compared to the healthy group. The levels of these proteins significantly correlated to the pathological grade, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of BCa patients (P<0.05). In addition, there was a positive correlation between LTβR and NF-κB pathway proteins. Thus, LTβR signaling may be involved in promoting BCa through the NF-κB pathway, and which may represent the molecular link between inflammation and BCa.

  15. Promoter-dependent activity on androgen receptor N-terminal domain mutations in androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Rieko; Davies, John; Mongan, Nigel P; Bunch, Trevor; Brown, Rosalind S; Audi, Laura; Watt, Kate; McEwan, Iain J; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mutations are associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Missense mutations identified in the AR-N-terminal domain (AR-NTD) are rare, and clinical phenotypes are typically mild. We investigated 7 missense mutations and 2 insertion/deletions located in the AR-NTD. This study aimed to elucidate the pathogenic role of AR-NTD mutants in AIS and to use this knowledge to further define AR-NTD function. AR-NTD mutations (Q120E, A159T, G216R, N235K, G248V, L272F, and P380R) were introduced into AR-expression plasmids. Stably expressing cell lines were established for del57L and ins58L. Transactivation was measured using luciferase reporter constructs under the control of GRE and Pem promoters. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and partial proteolysis studies were performed for mutations which showed reduced activities by using a purified AR-AF1 protein. Pem-luciferase reporter activation was reduced for A159T, N235K, and G248V but not the GRE-luciferase reporter. Protein structure analysis detected no significant change in the AR-AF1 region for these mutations. Reduced cellular expression and transactivation activity were observed for ins58L. The mutations Q120E, G216R, L272F, P380R, and del57L showed small or no detectable changes in function. Thus, clinical and experimental analyses have identified novel AR-signalling defects associated with mutations in the structurally disordered AR-NTD domain in patients with AIS.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 promotes the development of the lymphatic vasculature.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Michael T; Meadows, Stryder M; Wynne, Katherine; Cleaver, Ondine; Brekken, Rolf A

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is highly expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells and has been shown to stimulate lymphangiogenesis in adult mice. However, the role VEGFR2 serves in the development of the lymphatic vascular system has not been defined. Here we use the Cre-lox system to show that the proper development of the lymphatic vasculature requires VEGFR2 expression by lymphatic endothelium. We show that Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice possess significantly fewer dermal lymphatic vessels than Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice. Although Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice exhibit lymphatic hypoplasia, the lymphatic network is functional and contains all of the key features of a normal lymphatic network (initial lymphatic vessels and valved collecting vessels surrounded by smooth muscle cells (SMCs)). We also show that Lyve-1(Cre) mice display robust Cre activity in macrophages and in blood vessels in the yolk sac, liver and lung. This activity dramatically impairs the development of blood vessels in these tissues in Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) embryos, most of which die after embryonic day14.5. Lastly, we show that inactivation of Vegfr2 in the myeloid lineage does not affect the development of the lymphatic vasculature. Therefore, the abnormal lymphatic phenotype of Lyve-1(wt/Cre);Vegfr2(flox/flox) mice is due to the deletion of Vegfr2 in the lymphatic vasculature not macrophages. Together, this work demonstrates that VEGFR2 directly promotes the expansion of the lymphatic network and further defines the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of the lymphatic vascular system.

  17. Functional Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Regulate ICAM-1 Expression and Promote Leukocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Massimiliano; Newfell, Brenna G.; la Sala, Andrea; Baur, Wendy; Fabbri, Andrea; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mendelsohn, Michael E.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2008-01-01

    In clinical trials, aldosterone antagonists decrease cardiovascular mortality and ischemia by unknown mechanisms. The steroid hormone aldosterone acts by binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. In humans, aldosterone causes MR-dependent endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and in animal models, aldosterone increases vascular macrophage infiltration and atherosclerosis. MR antagonists inhibit these effects without changing blood pressure, suggesting a direct role for vascular MR in EC function and atherosclerosis. Whether human vascular EC express functional MR is not known. Here we show that human coronary artery and aortic EC express MR mRNA and protein and that EC MR mediates aldosterone-dependent gene transcription. Human EC also express the enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2(11βHSD2) and inhibition of 11βHSD2 in aortic EC enhances gene transactivation by cortisol, supporting that EC 11βHSD2 is functional. Furthermore, aldosterone stimulates transcription of the proatherogenic leukocyte-EC adhesion molecule Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM1) gene and protein expression on human coronary artery EC, an effect inhibited by the MR antagonist spironolactone and by MR knock-down with siRNA. Cell adhesion assays demonstrate that aldosterone promotes leukocyte-EC adhesion, an effect that is inhibited by spironolactone and ICAM1 blocking antibody, supporting that aldosterone induction of EC ICAM1 surface expression via MR mediates leukocyte-EC adhesion. These data show that aldosterone activates endogenous EC MR and proatherogenic gene expression in clinically important human EC. These studies describe a novel mechanism by which aldosterone may influence ischemic cardiovascular events and support a new explanation for the decrease in ischemic events in patients treated with aldosterone antagonists. PMID:18467630

  18. EP4 Receptor-Associated Protein in Microglia Promotes Inflammation in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Risako; Higuchi, Sei; Nakatsuji, Masato; Yasui, Mika; Ikedo, Taichi; Nagata, Manabu; Yokode, Masayuki; Minami, Manabu

    2016-08-01

    Microglial cells play a key role in neuronal damage in neurodegenerative disorders. Overactivated microglia induce detrimental neurotoxic effects through the excess production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the mechanisms of microglial activation are poorly understood. We focused on prostaglandin E2 type 4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP), which suppresses macrophage activation. We demonstrated that EPRAP exists in microglia in the brain. Furthermore, EPRAP-deficient mice displayed less microglial accumulation, and intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA in the brains of EPRAP-deficient mice. Consistently, EPRAP-deficient microglia showed a marked decrease in the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induced by LPS treatment compared with wild-type controls. In addition, EPRAP deficiency decreased microglial activation and neuronal cell death induced by intraventricular injection of kainic acid. EPRAP deficiency impaired the LPS-induced phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in microglia. The phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4-which phosphorylates c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-were also decreased in EPRAP-deficient microglia after LPS stimulation. Although EPRAP in macrophages plays a role in the attenuation of inflammation, EPRAP promotes proinflammatory activation of microglia through mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4-mediated signaling and may be key to the deteriorating neuronal damage brought on by brain inflammation. PMID:27315781

  19. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yun-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Guo, Sen; Liu, Yi; Iqbal, Mohammad; Ning, Shang-Lei; Yang, Hui; Suo, Ning; Chen, Yu-Xin

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • FGFR4 is significantly related with N stage in IHCC, with T stage and TNM stage in PHCC. • FGFR4 is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC and PHCC. • FGFR4 promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT in cholangiocarinoma cell lines. • Inhibitor AP24354 can decrease proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P = 0.002) and PHCC (P = 0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.045) and PHCC (P = 0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.

  20. Activation of purinergic receptors (P2) in the renal medulla promotes endothelin-dependent natriuresis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Gohar, Eman Y; Speed, Joshua S; Kasztan, Malgorzata; Jin, Chunhua; Pollock, David M

    2016-08-01

    Renal endothelin-1 (ET-1) and purinergic signaling systems regulate Na(+) reabsorption in the renal medulla. A link between the renal ET-1 and purinergic systems was demonstrated in vitro, however, the in vivo interaction between these systems has not been defined. To test whether renal medullary activation of purinergic (P2) receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis, we determined the effect of increased medullary NaCl loading on Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence and absence of purinergic receptor antagonism. Isosmotic saline (NaCl; 284 mosmol/kgH2O) was infused into the medullary interstitium (500 μl/h) during a 30-min baseline urine collection period, followed by isosmotic or hyperosmotic saline (1,800 mosmol/kgH2O) for two further 30-min urine collection periods. Na(+) excretion was significantly increased during intramedullary infusion of hyperosmotic saline. Compared with isosmotic saline, hyperosmotic saline infused into the renal medulla caused significant increases in inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression. Renal intramedullary infusion of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin inhibited the increase in Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression induced by NaCl loading in the renal medulla. Activation of medullary P2Y2/4 receptors by infusion of UTP increased urinary Na(+) excretion. Combined ETA and ETB receptor blockade abolished the natriuretic response to intramedullary infusion of UTP. These data demonstrate that activation of medullary P2 receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis in male rats, suggesting that the renal ET-1 and purinergic signaling systems interact to efficiently facilitate excretion of a NaCl load.

  1. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  2. B cell IFN-γ receptor signaling promotes autoimmune germinal centers via cell-intrinsic induction of BCL-6

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Shaun W.; Jacobs, Holly M.; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Dam, Elizabeth M.; Scharping, Nicole E.; Kolhatkar, Nikita S.; Hou, Baidong; Buckner, Jane H.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated germinal center (GC) responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although both type 1 and type 2 interferons (IFNs) are involved in lupus pathogenesis, their respective impacts on the establishment of autoimmune GCs has not been addressed. In this study, using a chimeric model of B cell-driven autoimmunity, we demonstrate that B cell type 1 IFN receptor signals accelerate, but are not required for, lupus development. In contrast, B cells functioning as antigen-presenting cells initiate CD4+ T cell activation and IFN-γ production, and strikingly, B cell–intrinsic deletion of the IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) abrogates autoimmune GCs, class-switched autoantibodies (auto-Abs), and systemic autoimmunity. Mechanistically, although IFN-γR signals increase B cell T-bet expression, B cell–intrinsic deletion of T-bet exerts an isolated impact on class-switch recombination to pathogenic auto-Ab subclasses without impacting GC development. Rather, in both mouse and human B cells, IFN-γ synergized with B cell receptor, toll-like receptor, and/or CD40 activation signals to promote cell-intrinsic expression of the GC master transcription factor, B cell lymphoma 6 protein. Our combined findings identify a novel B cell–intrinsic mechanism whereby IFN signals promote lupus pathogenesis, implicating this pathway as a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:27069113

  3. Yoga breathing, meditation, and longevity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard P; Gerbarg, Patricia L

    2009-08-01

    Yoga breathing is an important part of health and spiritual practices in Indo-Tibetan traditions. Considered fundamental for the development of physical well-being, meditation, awareness, and enlightenment, it is both a form of meditation in itself and a preparation for deep meditation. Yoga breathing (pranayama) can rapidly bring the mind to the present moment and reduce stress. In this paper, we review data indicating how breath work can affect longevity mechanisms in some ways that overlap with meditation and in other ways that are different from, but that synergistically enhance, the effects of meditation. We also provide clinical evidence for the use of yoga breathing in the treatment of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and for victims of mass disasters. By inducing stress resilience, breath work enables us to rapidly and compassionately relieve many forms of suffering.

  4. Energetics and longevity in birds

    PubMed Central

    Furness, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    The links between energy expenditure and ageing are different at different levels of enquiry. When studies have examined the relationships between different species within a given class the association is generally negative—animals with greater metabolism per gram of tissue live shorter lives. Within species, or between classes (e.g. between birds and mammals) the association is the opposite—animals with higher metabolic rates live longer. We have previously shown in mammals that the negative association between lifespan and metabolic rate is in fact an artefact of using resting rather than daily energy expenditure, and of failing to adequately take into account the confounding effects of body size and the lack of phylogenetic independence of species data. When these factors are accounted for, across species of mammals, the ones with higher metabolism also have the largest lifetime expenditures of energy—consistent with the inter-class and intra-specific data. A previous analysis in birds did not yield the same pattern, but this may have been due to a lack of sufficient power in the analysis. Here we present an analysis of a much enlarged data set (>300 species) for metabolic and longevity traits in birds. These data show very similar patterns to those in mammals. Larger individuals have longer lives and lower per-gram resting and daily energy expenditures, hence there is a strong negative relationship between longevity and mass-specific metabolism. This relationship disappears when the confounding effects of body mass and phylogeny are accounted for. Across species of birds, lifetime expenditure of energy per gram of tissue based on both daily and resting energy expenditure is positively related to metabolic intensity, mirroring these statistical relationships in mammals and synergising with the positive associations of metabolism with lifespan within species and between vertebrate classes. PMID:19424858

  5. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated repression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone promoter activity in GT1 hypothalamic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chandran, U R; Attardi, B; Friedman, R; Dong, K W; Roberts, J L; DeFranco, D B

    1994-03-01

    The synthesis and release of GnRH within a specific subset of neurons in the hypothalamus, which serves as the primary drive to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, is subject to various levels of control. Although a number of direct synaptic connections to GnRH-containing neurons have been identified, which presumably provide some regulatory inputs, the mechanisms responsible for hormonal regulation of GnRH synthesis and release mediated by either cell surface or intracellular receptors remain controversial. The recent demonstration that a subset of GnRH-containing neurons in the rat hypothalamus possesses immunoreactive glucocorticoid receptors (GR) implies that this class of steroid hormones could exert a direct effect to regulate the functioning of these neurons and perhaps the HPG axis. We used the GT1-3 and GT1-7 cell lines of immortalized GnRH-secreting hypothalamic neurons as a model to study the direct effects of glucocorticoids on GnRH gene expression. We demonstrated that these cell lines possess GR that bind the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, in vitro with high affinity (Kd = 2-3 nM). These receptors are functional, as indicated by their ability to activate transcription from exogenously introduced heterologous glucocorticoid-responsive promoters. Furthermore, dexamethasone represses both the endogenous mouse GnRH gene, decreasing steady state levels of GnRH mRNA, and the transcriptional activity of transfected rat GnRH promoter-reporter gene vectors. Glucocorticoid repression of rat GnRH promoter activity appears to be mediated by sequences contained within the promoter proximal 459 basepairs and not be influenced by the relative basal activity of the GnRH promoter. Thus, our results provide the first direct demonstration of glucocorticoid repression of transcription in a hypothalamic cell line and suggest that GR acting directly within GnRH neurons could be at least partly responsible for negative regulation of the HPG axis by

  6. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  7. Reproduction-longevity trade-offs reflect diet, not adaptation.

    PubMed

    Attisano, A; Moore, A J; Moore, P J

    2012-05-01

    A tenet of life history evolution is that allocation of limited resources results in trade-offs, such as that between reproduction and lifespan. Reproduction and lifespan are also influenced proximately by differences in the availability of specific nutrients. What is unknown is how the evolution of the ability to use a nutritionally novel diet is reflected in this fundamental trade-off. Does the evolution of the ability to use a nutritionally novel food maintain the trade-off in reproduction and longevity, or do the proximate effects of nutrition alter the adapted trade-off? We tested this by measuring trade-offs in male milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus, fed either an adapted diet of sunflower or the ancestral diet of milkweed. Sunflower-fed males lived longer but invested less in reproduction, both in mating and fertility. Milkweed-fed males invested in both mating and fertility at the expense of survival. The evolution of an expanded diet was not constrained by the existing trade-off, but instead was accompanied by a different trade-off between reproduction and longevity. We suggest that this occurs because diets differ in promoting germ line development or longevity. PMID:22356585

  8. The GH/IGF-1 axis in ageing and longevity

    PubMed Central

    List, Edward O.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Murrey, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Secretion of growth hormone (GH), and consequently that of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), declines over time until only low levels can be detected in individuals aged ≥60 years. This phenomenon, which is known as the ‘somatopause’, has led to recombinant human GH being widely promoted and abused as an antiageing drug, despite lack of evidence of efficacy. By contrast, several mutations that decrease the tone of the GH/IGF-1 axis are associated with extended longevity in mice. In humans, corresponding or similar mutations have been identified, but whether these mutations alter longevity has yet to be established. The powerful effect of reduced GH activity on lifespan extension in mice has generated the hypothesis that pharmaceutically inhibiting, rather than increasing, GH action might delay ageing. Moreover, mice as well as humans with reduced activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis are protected from cancer and diabetes mellitus, two major ageing-related morbidities. Here, we review data on mouse strains with alterations in the GH/IGF-1 axis and their effects on lifespan. The outcome of corresponding or similar mutations in humans is described, as well as the potential mechanisms underlying increased longevity and the therapeutic benefits and risks of medical disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis in humans. PMID:23591370

  9. Longevity factor klotho and chronic psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Prather, A A; Epel, E S; Arenander, J; Broestl, L; Garay, B I; Wang, D; Dubal, D B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and premature morbidity and mortality; however, the biology linking chronic psychological stress and its maladaptive effects remains largely unknown. Klotho is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates the aging process and promotes better brain and body health. Whether klotho is linked to psychosocial stress or its negative impact in humans has not been investigated. To address this gap, we recruited 178 healthy women who were either chronically high-stress maternal caregivers for a child with autism spectrum disorder (n=90) or low-stress control mothers of a typically developing child (n=88). We found that women under high chronic stress displayed significantly lower levels of the longevity hormone klotho compared with low-stress controls (t(176)=2.92, P=0.004; d=0.44), and the decrease among those under high stress was age-dependent. In addition, high-stress caregivers who reported more depressive symptoms displayed even lower klotho levels compared with low-stress participants. These findings provide the first evidence that klotho levels are sensitive to psychosocial stressors and raise the possibility that klotho may serve as a novel biological link connecting stress, depression and risk for accelerated disease development. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for understanding the plasticity of the aging process and may represent a therapeutic target for mitigating the deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress on health and well-being. PMID:26080320

  10. Dietary homocysteine promotes atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inducing scavenger receptors expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the causative mechanisms have not been delineated. Scavenger receptors such as scavenger receptor-AI/II (SR-A), CD36, and lectin-like oxidized LDL ...

  11. RhoA, Rho kinase, JAK2, and STAT3 may be the intracellular determinants of longevity implicated in the progeric influence of obesity: Insulin, IGF-1, and leptin may all conspire to promote stem cell exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Patrick C

    2006-01-01

    seen with the inexorable passage of time. Besides the obvious utility for the management for human age-related dysfunction that investigation of pharmacologic inhibitors of these proteins would provide, interventions such as caloric restriction and possibly intermittent fasting may beneficially influence stem cell proliferation dynamics and reduce intracellular correlates of mitogenic drive. Integrating the findings present in the present body of research may reveal endocrinological states that are compatible with longevity, and will also provide novel insight into the specific proteomic determinants of age-related physiologic decline, ushering in a new epoch of medicine that fosters the management of the "pre-etiopathology" of chronic disease and disability of aging, therefore mitigating the suffering widely thought to be inherent in the latter stages of life.

  12. Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, M Carmen; Desai-Merchant, Avani; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-12-01

    Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on full-thickness excisional wound closure in wild-type, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice. Wound closure was impaired in tPA- and uPA-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice, and topical application of CGS-21680 significantly increased the rate at which wounds closed in wild-type mice and uPA-deficient mice, but not in tPA-deficient mice. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed that tPA was present in endothelial cells and histiocytes by day 3 post-wound and also by day 6. In contrast, uPA was more prominent in these cell types only by day 6 post-wound. Our results confirm that plasminogen activation contributes to wound repair and are consistent with the hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptor activation promotes wound closure by a mechanism that depends upon tPA, but not uPA. Moreover, our results suggest that topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful in promotion of wound closure in patients with impaired wound healing.

  13. Expression of CSA-hm2 fusion in Dictyostelium discoideum under the control of the Dictyostelium ras promoter reveals functional muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Dingermann, T

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed the human m2 muscarinic receptor gene in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Expression under the control of the constitutive actin 6 promoter without a D. discoideum leader peptide results in cells which seem to respond to muscarinic agonists initially, but which quickly revert to non responding cells only after a few generations. However, when expressing the hm2 gene as a fusion gene together with the CSA leader peptide under the control of the regulated D. discoideum ras promoter cells are obtained which express functional muscarinic M2 receptors in a stable manner. As expected from the typical regulation of the ras promoter, M2 receptors are expressed only during development. In ligand binding assays these heterologously expressed receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic M2 receptors. PMID:8570674

  14. Wnt5a promotes cancer cell invasion and proliferation by receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively

    PubMed Central

    Shojima, Kensaku; Sato, Akira; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsujimoto, Ikuko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Hattori, Kazunari; Sato, Yuji; Dohi, Keiji; Hirata, Michinari; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Wnt5a activates the Wnt/β-catenin-independent pathway and its overexpression is associated with tumor aggressiveness enhancing invasive activity. For this action, Wnt5a-induced receptor endocytosis with clathrin is required. Wnt5a expression was previously believed to be associated with cancer cell motility but not proliferation. Recently, it was reported that Wnt5a is also implicated in cancer cell proliferation, but the mechanism was not clear. In this study, we generated a neutralizing anti-Wnt5a monoclonal antibody (mAb5A16) to investigate the mechanism by which Wnt5a regulates cancer cell proliferation. Wnt5a stimulated both invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells, including HeLaS3 cervical cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells although Wnt5a promoted invasion but not proliferation in other cancer cells such as KKLS gastric cancer cells. mAb5A16 did not affect the binding of Wnt5a to its receptor, but it suppressed Wnt5a-induced receptor-mediated endocytosis. mAb5A16 inhibited invasion but not proliferation of HeLaS3 and A549 cells. Wnt5a activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and Wnt5a-dependent cancer cell proliferation was dependent on SFKs, yet blockade of receptor-mediated endocytosis did not affect cancer cell proliferation and SFK activity. These results suggest that Wnt5a promotes invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. PMID:25622531

  15. Structure of the human luteinizing hormone-choriogonadotropin receptor gene: unusual promoter and 5' non-coding regions.

    PubMed

    Atger, M; Misrahi, M; Sar, S; Le Flem, L; Dessen, P; Milgrom, E

    1995-06-01

    The complete organization of the human luteinizing hormone-choriogonadotropin (LH/CG) receptor (LH/CGR) gene and the structure of 1591 bp of its 5' flanking region have been determined. This gene spans over 70 kbp and contains 11 exons. The first ten exons and part of the last exon encode the extracellular domain of the receptor while the transmembrane and intracellular domains are encoded by the remaining part of the last exon. The gene encodes a 701 amino acids long preprotein, contrary to a previous report of 699 amino acids. Primer extension experiments and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mapping allowed definition of the transcription initiation site, which is located 1085 bp upstream from the initiation codon. The 5' non-coding region is thus unusually long. The promoter region which is different from the murine LH/CG receptor promoter, contains two putative TATA boxes at positions -34 and -47 and a CAAT box consensus sequence at position -89. A consensus sequence corresponding to a cAMP responsive element is found at position -697. Seven API consensus sequences are also found in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Southern blot experiments demonstrated an informative biallelic polymorphism within the human LH/CG receptor gene locus using BglII endonuclease. The cloning of the human LH/CGR gene and the determination of the organization and structure of its 5' flanking region allow the study of its hormonal, developmental and tissue-specific regulation. Primers and PCR conditions are described for the direct genomic sequencing of all the exons of the gene. This information should facilitate the study of pathological mutations of the receptor.

  16. Astroglial mGlu3 receptors promote alpha-secretase-mediated amyloid precursor protein cleavage.

    PubMed

    Durand, Daniela; Carniglia, Lila; Beauquis, Juan; Caruso, Carla; Saravia, Flavia; Lasaga, Mercedes

    2014-04-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) shedding yields the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related peptide amyloid β (Aβ) through β- and γ-secretase cleavage. Alternatively, α-secretase cleavage generates a soluble and neuroprotective fragment (sAPPα) while precludes the production of Aβ. Although metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors were associated with induction of sAPPα production in astrocytes, there was no further evidence regarding the specific subtype receptor or the mechanisms involved in this action. In the present study, we used the dual mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268, which in pure astrocyte cultures selectively activates mGlu3 receptor subtype since mGlu2 receptor subtype is not expressed by these cells. We showed that LY379268 incremented sAPPα release from cultured astrocytes by inducing α-secretases expression, whereas it decreased β-secretase levels. LY379268-induced increase of PPAR-γ levels could be involved in the effect of the agonist on sAPPα release. Using the PDAPP-J20 murine model of AD we described a strong reduction in mGlu2/3 receptor expression in the hippocampus of 5- and 14-month-old transgenic mice compared to control littermates. Moreover, mGlu3 receptor expression is also decreased specifically in hippocampal astrocytes of these transgenic animals as a function of age. Therefore, diminished levels of hippocampal mGlu3 receptors might have implications in the development of the disease in these transgenic mice considering the anti-amyloidogenic action of mGlu3 receptors in astrocytes. PMID:24291464

  17. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Acts Primarily via Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor α to Promote Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pennock, Steven; Haddock, Luis J.; Mukai, Shizuo; Kazlauskas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a nonneovascular blinding disease and the leading cause for failure in surgical repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Once formed, PVR is difficult to treat. Hence, there is an acute interest in developing approaches to prevent PVR. Of the many growth factors and cytokines that accumulate in vitreous as PVR develops, neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A has recently been found to prevent PVR in at least one animal model. The goal of this study was to test if Food and Drug Administration–approved agents could protect the eye from PVR in multiple animal models and to further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Neutralizing VEGF with aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye) safely and effectively protected rabbits from PVR in multiple models of disease. Furthermore, aflibercept reduced the bioactivity of both experimental and clinical PVR vitreous. Finally, although VEGF could promote some PVR-associated cellular responses via VEGF receptors expressed on the retinal pigment epithelial cells that drive this disease, VEGF's major contribution to vitreal bioactivity occurred via platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. Thus, VEGF promotes PVR by a noncanonical ability to engage platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. These findings indicate that VEGF contributes to nonangiogenic diseases and that anti–VEGF-based therapies may be effective on a wider spectrum of diseases than previously appreciated. PMID:25261788

  18. Associations between STR autosomal markers and longevity.

    PubMed

    Bediaga, N G; Aznar, J M; Elcoroaristizabal, X; Albóniga, O; Gómez-Busto, F; Artaza Artabe, I; Rocandio, Ana; de Pancorbo, M M

    2015-10-01

    Life span is a complex and multifactorial trait, which is shaped by genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and stochastic factors. The possibility that highly hypervariable short tandem repeats (STRs) associated with longevity has been largely explored by comparing the genotypic pools of long lived and younger individuals, but results so far have been contradictory. In view of these contradictory findings, the present study aims to investigate whether HUMTHO1 and HUMCSF1PO STRs, previously associated with longevity, exert a role as a modulator of life expectancy, as well as to assess the extent to which other autosomal STR markers are associated with human longevity in population from northern Spain. To that end, 21 autosomal microsatellite markers have been studied in 304 nonagenarian individuals (more than 90 years old) and 516 younger controls of European descent. Our results do not confirm the association found in previous studies between longevity and THO1 and CSF1PO loci. However, significant association between longevity and autosomal STR markers D12S391, D22S1045, and DS441 was observed. Even more, when we compared allelic frequency distribution of the 21 STR markers between cases and controls, we found that 6 out of the 21 STRs studied showed different allelic frequencies, thus suggesting that the genomic portrait of the human longevity is far complex and probably shaped by a high number of genomic loci. PMID:26335621

  19. Estradiol differentially induces progesterone receptor isoforms expression through alternative promoter regulation in a mouse embryonic hypothalamic cell line.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, Edgar Ricardo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel; Rodríguez, María Carmen; Mendoza-Garcés, Luciano; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Cerbón, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) presents two main isoforms (PR-A and PR-B) that are regulated by two specific promoters and transcribed from alternative transcriptional start sites. The molecular regulation of PR isoforms expression in embryonic hypothalamus is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to assess estradiol regulation of PR isoforms in a mouse embryonic hypothalamic cell line (mHypoE-N42), as well as the transcriptional status of their promoters. MHypoE-N42 cells were treated with estradiol for 6 and 12 h. Then, Western blot, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and chromatin and DNA immunoprecipitation experiments were performed. PR-B expression was transiently induced by estradiol after 6 h of treatment in an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-dependent manner. This induction was associated with an increase in ERα phosphorylation (serine 118) and its recruitment to PR-B promoter. After 12 h of estradiol exposure, a downregulation of this PR isoform was associated with a decrease of specific protein 1, histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation, and RNA polymerase II occupancy on PR-B promoter, without changes in DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. In contrast, there were no estradiol-dependent changes in PR-A expression that could be related with the epigenetic marks or the transcription factors evaluated. We demonstrate that PR isoforms are differentially regulated by estradiol and that the induction of PR-B expression is associated to specific transcription factors interactions and epigenetic changes in its promoter in embryonic hypothalamic cells. PMID:26676302

  20. Estradiol differentially induces progesterone receptor isoforms expression through alternative promoter regulation in a mouse embryonic hypothalamic cell line.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, Edgar Ricardo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel; Rodríguez, María Carmen; Mendoza-Garcés, Luciano; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Cerbón, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) presents two main isoforms (PR-A and PR-B) that are regulated by two specific promoters and transcribed from alternative transcriptional start sites. The molecular regulation of PR isoforms expression in embryonic hypothalamus is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to assess estradiol regulation of PR isoforms in a mouse embryonic hypothalamic cell line (mHypoE-N42), as well as the transcriptional status of their promoters. MHypoE-N42 cells were treated with estradiol for 6 and 12 h. Then, Western blot, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and chromatin and DNA immunoprecipitation experiments were performed. PR-B expression was transiently induced by estradiol after 6 h of treatment in an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-dependent manner. This induction was associated with an increase in ERα phosphorylation (serine 118) and its recruitment to PR-B promoter. After 12 h of estradiol exposure, a downregulation of this PR isoform was associated with a decrease of specific protein 1, histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation, and RNA polymerase II occupancy on PR-B promoter, without changes in DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. In contrast, there were no estradiol-dependent changes in PR-A expression that could be related with the epigenetic marks or the transcription factors evaluated. We demonstrate that PR isoforms are differentially regulated by estradiol and that the induction of PR-B expression is associated to specific transcription factors interactions and epigenetic changes in its promoter in embryonic hypothalamic cells.

  1. CDK11{sup p58} represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional activation through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Yayun; Hong, Yi; Zong, Hongliang; Wang, Yanlin; Zou, Weiying; Yang, Junwu; Kong, Xiangfei; Yun, Xiaojing; Gu, Jianxin

    2009-08-28

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates transcription of target genes. In this study, we identified CDK11{sup p58} as a novel protein involved in the regulation of VDR. CDK11{sup p58}, a member of the large family of p34cdc2-related kinases, is associated with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, and apoptotic signaling. Our study demonstrated that CDK11{sup p58} interacted with VDR and repressed VDR-dependent transcriptional activation. Furthermore, overexpression of CDK11{sup p58} decreased the stability of VDR through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK11{sup p58} is involved in the negative regulation of VDR.

  2. Genome-wide association study for longevity with whole-genome sequencing in 3 cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    Longevity is an important economic trait in dairy production. Improvements in longevity could increase the average number of lactations per cow, thereby affecting the profitability of the dairy cattle industry. Improved longevity for cows reduces the replacement cost of stock and enables animals to achieve the highest production period. Moreover, longevity is an indirect indicator of animal welfare. Using whole-genome sequencing variants in 3 dairy cattle breeds, we carried out an association study and identified 7 genomic regions in Holstein and 5 regions in Red Dairy Cattle that were associated with longevity. Meta-analyses of 3 breeds revealed 2 significant genomic regions, located on chromosomes 6 (META-CHR6-88MB) and 18 (META-CHR18-58MB). META-CHR6-88MB overlaps with 2 known genes: neuropeptide G-protein coupled receptor (NPFFR2; 89,052,210-89,059,348 bp) and vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC; 88,695,940-88,739,180 bp). The NPFFR2 gene was previously identified as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. META-CHR18-58MB overlaps with zinc finger protein 717 (ZNF717; 58,130,465-58,141,877 bp) and zinc finger protein 613 (ZNF613; 58,115,782-58,117,110 bp), which have been associated with calving difficulties. Information on longevity-associated genomic regions could be used to find causal genes/variants influencing longevity and exploited to improve the reliability of genomic prediction. PMID:27289149

  3. Agonist-promoted desensitization and phosphorylation of. cap alpha. /sub 1/-adrenergic receptors coupled to stimulation of phosphatidylinositol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Leeb-Lundberg, L.M.F.; Cotecchia, S.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1986-03-05

    In the DDT/sub 1/ MF-2 hamster vas deferens smooth muscle cell line the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptor (..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR) agonist norepinephrine (NE) promotes rapid attenuation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR-mediated phosphatidylinositol (PI) metabolism which is paralleled by rapid phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR. Cells were labeled by incubation with /sup 32/P/sub i/. Coincubation with NE (100 ..mu..M) significantly increases the rate of /sup 32/P-labeling of both PI and phosphatidic acid. Pretreatment of cells with 100 ..mu..M NE (in the presence of 1 ..mu..M propranolol to prevent ..beta..-AR interactions) results in a drastic attenuation of the NE response on PI metabolism. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR from labeled cells can be solubilized and purified by affinity chromatography on Affigel-A55414 and wheat germ agglutinin agarose chromatography. SDS-PAGE of purified ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR shows a NE-promoted increase in phosphorylation of the M/sub r/ 80K ligand binding peptide. Stoichiometry of phosphorylation increases from approx. 1 mol phosphate/mol ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR in the basal condition to approx. 2.5 after NE treatment. Both desensitization and phosphorylation are rapid being maximal within 10-20 min of agonist exposure. These results together with previous findings that phorbol esters promote rapid ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR uncoupling and phosphorylation suggest that receptor phosphorylation is an important mechanism of regulation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR receptor responsiveness.

  4. Amisulpride promotes cognitive flexibility in rats: the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr

    2013-07-01

    The antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the antidepressant and procognitive actions of the atypical antipsychotic drug, amisulpride. It has been previously demonstrated that the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist reversed restraint stress-induced cognitive impairments in a rat model of frontal-dependent attentional set-shifting task (ASST). Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of amisulpride against stress-evoked cognitive inflexibility. The second goal was to elucidate whether the pro-cognitive effect of amisulpride could be due to the compound's action at 5-HT7 receptors. Rats repeatedly exposed (1 h daily for 7 days) to restraint stress demonstrated impaired performance on the extra-dimensional (ED) set-shifting stage of the ASST. Amisulpride (3 mg/kg) given to stressed rats 30 min before testing reversed this restraint-induced cognitive inflexibility and improved ED performance of the unstressed control group. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS19 (10 mg/kg), abolished the pro-cognitive efficacy of amisulpride (3 mg/kg). The present study suggests that the antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the mechanisms underlining the pro-cognitive action of amisulpride. These results may have therapeutic implications in frontal-like deficits associated with stress-related disorders.

  5. Neuronal specificity of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor promoter develops during morphogenesis of the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Matter-Sadzinski, L; Hernandez, M C; Roztocil, T; Ballivet, M; Matter, J M

    1992-01-01

    A transient transfection assay has been developed to analyse promoter activity in neuronal cells freshly dissociated from the chick central nervous system. The assay enabled us to identify cis-acting regulatory elements within the 5'-flanking region of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene. In differentiated retina, regulatory elements direct reporter gene expression to a small subset of neurons which has been identified as ganglion cells, i.e. to the population of neurons in which alpha 7 transcripts were localized by in situ hybridization. However, these promoter elements exhibit ubiquitous activity in undifferentiated neural cells and in mesodermal stem cells. Our study supports the idea that alpha 7 regulatory elements acquire their neuronal specificity in the course of embryogenesis. Images PMID:1425587

  6. NMDA treatment and K(+)-induced depolarization selectively promote the expression of an NMDA-preferring class of the ionotropic glutamate receptors in cerebellar granule neurones.

    PubMed

    Balázs, R; Resink, A; Hack, N; Van der Valk, J B; Kumar, K N; Michaelis, E

    1992-03-16

    Growth conditions which promote the survival of cerebellar granule cells in culture, such as high K+ or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) treatment, also promote the functional expression of an NMDA-preferring subtype alone of the ionotropic glutamate receptors. The selective regulation of NMDA receptors detected electrophysiologically in individual cells, using the whole cell patch clamp technique, is characteristic of granule cells in general: NMDA-induced 45Ca2+ influx increased several-fold in cultures treated with either high K+ or NMDA. The increase in NMDA receptor activity was correlated with an increase in the expression of an NMDA receptor protein. Since the effect of these 'trophic' conditions is mediated through Ca2+, the induced increase in the density of NMDA receptors (which gate a Ca2+ conductance) provides a positive feedback for strengthening the trophic influences.

  7. The mouse CCR2 gene is regulated by two promoters that are responsive to plasma cholesterol and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yiming; Green, Simone R.; Ho, Jessica; Li, Andrew; Almazan, Felizidad; Quehenberger, Oswald . E-mail: oquehenberger@ucsd.edu

    2005-06-24

    We have previously shown that the expression of monocyte CCR2, the receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, is induced by plasma cholesterol. The present study examines the mechanisms that regulate monocyte CCR2 expression in hypercholesterolemia using a mouse model. Our data demonstrate that in the mouse, CCR2 expression in circulating monocytes is controlled by two promoters P1 and P2. The two distinct transcripts, which encode the same protein, are produced by alternative splicing in the 5'-untranslated region. Both promoters are constitutively active, but only P2 is stimulated by cholesterol. However, both promoters are repressed by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}.

  8. Antenatal hypoxia induces epigenetic repression of glucocorticoid receptor and promotes ischemic-sensitive phenotype in the developing heart.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fuxia; Lin, Thant; Song, Minwoo; Ma, Qingyi; Martinez, Shannalee R; Lv, Juanxiu; MataGreenwood, Eugenia; Xiao, Daliao; Xu, Zhice; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-02-01

    Large studies in humans and animals have demonstrated a clear association of an adverse intrauterine environment with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Yet mechanisms remain largely elusive. The present study tested the hypothesis that gestational hypoxia leads to promoter hypermethylation and epigenetic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene in the developing heart, resulting in increased heart susceptibility to ischemia and reperfusion injury in offspring. Hypoxic treatment of pregnant rats from day 15 to 21 of gestation resulted in a significant decrease of GR exon 14, 15, 16, and 17 transcripts, leading to down-regulation of GR mRNA and protein in the fetal heart. Functional cAMP-response elements (CREs) at -4408 and -3896 and Sp1 binding sites at -3425 and -3034 were identified at GR untranslated exon 1 promoters. Hypoxia significantly increased CpG methylation at the CREs and Sp1 binding sites and decreased transcription factor binding to GR exon 1 promoter, accounting for the repression of the GR gene in the developing heart. Of importance, treatment of newborn pups with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed hypoxia-induced promoter methylation, restored GR expression and prevented hypoxia-mediated increase in ischemia and reperfusion injury of the heart in offspring. The findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of epigenetic repression of the GR gene in fetal stress-mediated programming of ischemic-sensitive phenotype in the heart. PMID:26779948

  9. Enhanced AMPA Receptor Function Promotes Cerebellar Long-Term Depression Rather than Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beugen, Boeke J.; Qiao, Xin; Simmons, Dana H.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Hansel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ampakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at cerebellar…

  10. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McWilliams, Melissa A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, "NR3C1," which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of "NR3C1" to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in…

  11. Galectin-3 regulates intracellular trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor through Alix and promotes keratinocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Hsu, Daniel K.; Chen, Huan-Yuan; Yang, Ri-Yao; Carraway, Kermit L.; Isseroff, Roslyn R.; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2012-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling pathways are important in a variety of cellular processes, including cell migration and wound re-epithelialization. Intracellular trafficking of EGFR is critical for maintaining EGFR surface expression. Galectin-3, a member of an animal lectin family, has been implicated in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Through studies of galectin-3-deficient mice and cells isolated from these mice, we demonstrated that absence of galectin-3 impairs keratinocyte migration and skin wound re-epithelialization. We have linked this pro-migratory function to a crucial role of cytosolic galectin-3 in controlling intracellular trafficking and cell surface expression of EGFR after EGF stimulation. Without galectin-3, the surface levels of EGFR are dramatically reduced and the receptor accumulates diffusely in the cytoplasm. This is associated with reduced rates of both endocytosis and recycling of the receptor. We have provided evidence that this novel function of galectin-3 may be mediated through interaction with its binding partner Alix, which is a protein component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Our results suggest that galectin-3 is potentially a critical regulator of a number of important cellular responses through its intracellular control of trafficking of cell surface receptors. PMID:22785133

  12. Selective induction of endothelial P2Y6 nucleotide receptor promotes vascular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, Ann-Kathrin; Faigle, Marion; Zug, Stephanie; Rosenberger, Peter; Robaye, Bernard; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    During a systemic inflammatory response endothelial-expressed surface molecules have been strongly implicated in orchestrating immune responses. Previous studies have shown enhanced extracellular nucleotide release during acute inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that endothelial nucleotide receptors could play a role in vascular inflammation. To address this hypothesis, we performed screening experiments and exposed human microvascular endothelia to inflammatory stimuli, followed by measurements of P2Y or P2X transcriptional responses. These studies showed a selective induction of the P2Y6 receptor (> 4-fold at 24 hours). Moreover, studies that used real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, or immunofluorescence confirmed time- and dose-dependent induction of P2Y6 with tumor necrosis factor α or Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Studies that used MRS 2578 as P2Y6 receptor antagonist showed attenuated nuclear factor κB reporter activity and proinflammatory gene expression in human microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. Moreover, pharmacologic or genetic in vivo studies showed attenuated inflammatory responses in P2Y6−/− mice or after P2Y6 antagonist treatment during LPS-induced vascular inflammation. These studies show an important contribution of P2Y6 signaling in enhancing vascular inflammation during systemic LPS challenge and implicate the P2Y6 receptor as a therapeutic target during systemic inflammatory responses. PMID:21173118

  13. Activation of serotonin receptors promotes microglial injury-induced motility but attenuates phagocytic activity.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, Grietje; Matyash, Vitali; Pannasch, Ulrike; Mamer, Lauren; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2012-03-01

    Microglia, the brain immune cell, express several neurotransmitter receptors which modulate microglial functions. In this project we studied the impact of serotonin receptor activation on distinct microglial properties as serotonin deficiency not only has been linked to a number of psychiatric disease like depression and anxiety but may also permeate from the periphery through blood-brain barrier openings seen in neurodegenerative disease. First, we tested the impact of serotonin on the microglial response to an insult caused by a laser lesion in the cortex of acute slices from Cx3Cr1-GFP-/+ mice. In the presence of serotonin the microglial processes moved more rapidly towards the laser lesion which is considered to be a chemotactic response to ATP. Similarly, the chemotactic response of cultured microglia to ATP was also enhanced by serotonin. Quantification of phagocytic activity by determining the uptake of microspheres showed that the amoeboid microglia in slices from early postnatal animals or microglia in culture respond to serotonin application with a decreased phagocytic activity whereas we could not detect any significant change in ramified microglia in situ. The presence of microglial serotonin receptors was confirmed by patch-clamp experiments in culture and amoeboid microglia and by qPCR analysis of RNA isolated from primary cultured and acutely isolated adult microglia. These data suggest that microglia express functional serotonin receptors linked to distinct microglial properties. PMID:22198120

  14. Activated c-Kit receptor in the heart promotes cardiac repair and regeneration after injury

    PubMed Central

    Di Siena, S; Gimmelli, R; Nori, S L; Barbagallo, F; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P; Venneri, M A; Giannetta, E; Gianfrilli, D; Feigenbaum, L; Lenzi, A; Naro, F; Cianflone, E; Mancuso, T; Torella, D; Isidori, A M; Pellegrini, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of endogenous c-Kit receptor activation on cardiac cell homeostasis and repair remains largely unexplored. Transgenic mice carrying an activating point mutation (TgD814Y) in the kinase domain of the c-Kit gene were generated. c-KitTgD814Y receptor was expressed in the heart during embryonic development and postnatal life, in a similar timing and expression pattern to that of the endogenous gene, but not in the hematopoietic compartment allowing the study of a cardiac-specific phenotype. c-KitTgD814Y mutation produced a constitutive active c-Kit receptor in cardiac tissue and cells from transgenic mice as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, which are the main downstream molecular effectors of c-Kit receptor signaling. In adult transgenic hearts, cardiac morphology, size and total c-Kit+ cardiac cell number was not different compared with wt mice. However, when c-KitTgD814Y mice were subjected to transmural necrotic heart damage by cryoinjury (CI), all transgenic survived, compared with half of wt mice. In the sub-acute phase after CI, transgenic and wt mice showed similar heart damage. However, 9 days after CI, transgenic mice exhibited an increased number of c-Kit+CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells surrounding the necrotic area. At later follow-up, a consistent reduction of fibrotic area, increased capillary density and increased cardiomyocyte replenishment rate (as established by BrdU incorporation) were observed in transgenic compared with wt mice. Consistently, CD45−c-Kit+ cardiac stem cells isolated from transgenic c-KitTgD814Y mice showed an enhanced endothelial and cardiomyocyte differentiation potential compared with cells isolated from the wt. Constitutive activation of c-Kit receptor in mice is associated with an increased cardiac myogenic and vasculogenic reparative potential after injury, with a significant improvement of survival. PMID:27468693

  15. Activated c-Kit receptor in the heart promotes cardiac repair and regeneration after injury.

    PubMed

    Di Siena, S; Gimmelli, R; Nori, S L; Barbagallo, F; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P; Venneri, M A; Giannetta, E; Gianfrilli, D; Feigenbaum, L; Lenzi, A; Naro, F; Cianflone, E; Mancuso, T; Torella, D; Isidori, A M; Pellegrini, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of endogenous c-Kit receptor activation on cardiac cell homeostasis and repair remains largely unexplored. Transgenic mice carrying an activating point mutation (TgD814Y) in the kinase domain of the c-Kit gene were generated. c-Kit(TgD814Y) receptor was expressed in the heart during embryonic development and postnatal life, in a similar timing and expression pattern to that of the endogenous gene, but not in the hematopoietic compartment allowing the study of a cardiac-specific phenotype. c-Kit(TgD814Y) mutation produced a constitutive active c-Kit receptor in cardiac tissue and cells from transgenic mice as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, which are the main downstream molecular effectors of c-Kit receptor signaling. In adult transgenic hearts, cardiac morphology, size and total c-Kit(+) cardiac cell number was not different compared with wt mice. However, when c-Kit(TgD814Y) mice were subjected to transmural necrotic heart damage by cryoinjury (CI), all transgenic survived, compared with half of wt mice. In the sub-acute phase after CI, transgenic and wt mice showed similar heart damage. However, 9 days after CI, transgenic mice exhibited an increased number of c-Kit(+)CD31(+) endothelial progenitor cells surrounding the necrotic area. At later follow-up, a consistent reduction of fibrotic area, increased capillary density and increased cardiomyocyte replenishment rate (as established by BrdU incorporation) were observed in transgenic compared with wt mice. Consistently, CD45(-)c-Kit(+) cardiac stem cells isolated from transgenic c-Kit(TgD814Y) mice showed an enhanced endothelial and cardiomyocyte differentiation potential compared with cells isolated from the wt. Constitutive activation of c-Kit receptor in mice is associated with an increased cardiac myogenic and vasculogenic reparative potential after injury, with a significant improvement of survival. PMID:27468693

  16. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity.

    PubMed

    de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Willems, Leo; van Arkel, Jeroen; Dekkers, Bas J W; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Bentsink, Leónie

    2016-05-01

    Reduced seed longevity or storability is a major problem in seed storage and contributes to increased costs in crop production. Here we investigated whether seed galactinol contents could be predictive for seed storability behavior in Arabidopsis, cabbage and tomato. The analyses revealed a positive correlation between galactinol content and seed longevity in the three species tested, which indicates that this correlation is conserved in the Brassicaceae and beyond. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in tomato revealed a co-locating QTL for galactinol content and seed longevity on chromosome 2. A candidate for this QTL is the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE gene (Solyc02g084980.2.1) that is located in the QTL interval. GALACTINOL SYNTHASE is a key enzyme of the raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) pathway. To investigate the role of enzymes in the RFO pathway in more detail, we applied a reverse genetics approach using T-DNA knock-out lines in genes encoding enzymes of this pathway (GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 1, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 2, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE, STACHYOSE SYNTHASE and ALPHA-GALACTOSIDASE) and overexpressors of the cucumber GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 2 gene in Arabidopsis. The galactinol synthase 2 mutant and the galactinol synthase 1 galactinol synthase 2 double mutant contained the lowest seed galactinol content which coincided with lower seed longevity. These results show that galactinol content of mature dry seed can be used as a biomarker for seed longevity in Brassicaceae and tomato. PMID:26993241

  17. A MAPK cascade downstream of ERECTA receptor-like protein kinase regulates Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture by promoting localized cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangzong; Wang, Huachun; He, Yunxia; Liu, Yidong; Walker, John C; Torii, Keiko U; Zhang, Shuqun

    2012-12-01

    Spatiotemporal-specific cell proliferation and cell differentiation are critical to the formation of normal tissues, organs, and organisms. The highly coordinated cell differentiation and proliferation events illustrate the importance of cell-cell communication during growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ERECTA (ER), a receptor-like protein kinase, plays important roles in promoting localized cell proliferation, which determines inflorescence architecture, organ shape, and size. However, the downstream signaling components remain unidentified. Here, we report a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; or MPK) cascade that functions downstream of ER in regulating localized cell proliferation. Similar to an er mutant, loss of function of MPK3/MPK6 or their upstream MAPK kinases (MAPKKs; or MKKs), MKK4/MKK5, resulted in shortened pedicels and clustered inflorescences. Epistasis analysis demonstrated that the gain of function of MKK4 and MKK5 transgenes could rescue the loss-of-function er mutant phenotype at both morphological and cellular levels, suggesting that the MPK3/MPK6 cascade functions downstream of the ER receptor. Furthermore, YODA (YDA), a MAPKK kinase, was shown to be upstream of MKK4/MKK5 and downstream of ER in regulating inflorescence architecture based on both gain- and loss-of-function data. Taken together, these results suggest that the YDA-MKK4/MKK5-MPK3/MPK6 cascade functions downstream of the ER receptor in regulating localized cell proliferation, which further shapes the morphology of plant organs. PMID:23263767

  18. Retinoid X receptor:vitamin D3 receptor heterodimers promote stable preinitiation complex formation and direct 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-dependent cell-free transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, B D; Fondell, J D; Freedman, L P

    1997-01-01

    The numerous members of the steroid/nuclear hormone receptor superfamily act as direct transducers of circulating signals, such as steroids, thyroid hormone, and vitamin or lipid metabolites, and modulate the transcription of specific target genes, primarily as dimeric complexes. The receptors for 9-cis retinoic acid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], RXR and VDR, respectively, as members of this superfamily, form a heterodimeric complex and bind cooperatively to vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) to activate or repress the transcription of a multitude of genes which regulate a variety of physiological functions. To directly investigate RXR- and VDR-mediated transactivation, we developed a cell-free transcription system for 1,25(OH)2D3 signaling by utilizing crude nuclear extracts and a G-free cassette-based assay. Transcriptional enhancement in vitro was dependent on purified, exogenous RXR and VDR and was responsive to physiological concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3. We found that RXR and VDR transactivated selectively from VDRE-linked templates exclusively as a heterodimeric complex, since neither receptor alone enhanced transcription in vitro. By the addition of low concentrations of the anionic detergent Sarkosyl to limit cell-free transcription to a single round and the use of agarose gel mobility shift experiments to assay factor complex assembly, we observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 enhanced RXR:VDR-mediated stabilization or assembly of preinitiation complexes to effect transcriptional enhancement from VDRE-linked promoter-containing DNA. PMID:9121440

  19. Diosgenin promotes oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation through estrogen receptor-mediated ERK1/2 activation to accelerate remyelination.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Guo, Dazhi; Hu, Chun; Shen, Weiran; Shan, Lei; Li, Cui; Liu, Xiuyun; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Weidong; He, Cheng

    2012-07-01

    Differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into mature oligodendrocytes is a prerequisite for remyelination after demyelination, and impairment of this process is suggested to be a major reason for remyelination failure. Diosgenin, a plant-derived steroid, has been implicated for therapeutic use in many diseases, but little is known about its effect on the central nervous system. In this study, using a purified rat OPC culture model, we show that diosgenin significantly and specifically promotes OPC differentiation without affecting the viability, proliferation, or migration of OPC. Interestingly, the effect of diosgenin can be blocked by estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182780 but not by glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor antagonist RU38486, nor by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spirolactone. Moreover, it is revealed that both ER-alpha and ER-beta are expressed in OPC, and diosgenin can activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in OPC via ER. The pro-differentiation effect of diosgenin can also be obstructed by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Furthermore, in the cuprizone-induced demyelination model, it is demonstrated that diosgenin administration significantly accelerates/enhances remyelination as detected by Luxol fast blue stain, MBP immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR. Diosgenin also increases the number of mature oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum while it does not affect the number of OPCs. Taking together, our results suggest that diosgenin promotes the differentiation of OPC into mature oligodendrocyte through an ER-mediated ERK1/2 activation pathway to accelerate remyelination, which implicates a novel therapeutic usage of this steroidal natural product in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS).

  20. Genetic basis of olfactory cognition: extremely high level of DNA sequence polymorphism in promoter regions of the human olfactory receptor genes revealed using the 1000 Genomes Project dataset

    PubMed Central

    Ignatieva, Elena V.; Levitsky, Victor G.; Yudin, Nikolay S.; Moshkin, Mikhail P.; Kolchanov, Nikolay A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of olfactory cognition is very complicated. Olfactory cognition is initiated by olfactory receptor proteins (odorant receptors), which are activated by olfactory stimuli (ligands). Olfactory receptors are the initial player in the signal transduction cascade producing a nerve impulse, which is transmitted to the brain. The sensitivity to a particular ligand depends on the expression level of multiple proteins involved in the process of olfactory cognition: olfactory receptor proteins, proteins that participate in signal transduction cascade, etc. The expression level of each gene is controlled by its regulatory regions, and especially, by the promoter [a region of DNA about 100–1000 base pairs long located upstream of the transcription start site (TSS)]. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms using human whole-genome data from the 1000 Genomes Project and revealed an extremely high level of single nucleotide polymorphisms in promoter regions of olfactory receptor genes and HLA genes. We hypothesized that the high level of polymorphisms in olfactory receptor promoters was responsible for the diversity in regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of olfactory receptor proteins. Such diversity of regulatory mechanisms may cause the great variability of olfactory cognition of numerous environmental olfactory stimuli perceived by human beings (air pollutants, human body odors, odors in culinary etc.). In turn, this variability may provide a wide range of emotional and behavioral reactions related to the vast variety of olfactory stimuli. PMID:24715883

  1. A Cytoprotective Perspective on Longevity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Shore, David E.; Ruvkun, Gary

    2014-01-01

    There are many mechanisms of lifespan extension, including the disruption of insulin/IGF-1 signaling, metabolism, translation, or feeding. Despite the disparate functions of these pathways, inhibition of each induces responses that buffer stress and damage. Here, emphasizing data from genetic analyses in C. elegans, we explore the effectors and upstream regulatory components of numerous cytoprotective mechanisms activated as major elements of longevity programs, including detoxification, innate immunity, proteostasis, and oxidative stress response. We show that their induction underpins longevity extension across functionally diverse triggers and across species. Intertwined with the evolution of longevity, cytoprotective pathways are coupled to the surveillance of core cellular components, with important implications in normal and aberrant responses to drugs, chemicals, and pathogens. PMID:23726168

  2. TGF-α/HA complex promotes tympanic membrane keratinocyte migration and proliferation via ErbB1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Teh, Bing; Redmond, Sharon L.; Shen, Yi; Atlas, Marcus D.; Marano, Robert J.; Dilley, Rodney J.

    2013-04-01

    Tympanic membrane perforations are common and represent a management challenge to clinicians. Current treatments for chronic perforations involve a graft surgery and require general anaesthesia, including associated costs and morbidities. Bioactive molecules (e.g. growth factors, cytokines) play an important role in promoting TM wound healing following perforation and the use of growth factors as a topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations has been suggested as an alternative to surgery. However, the choice of bioactive molecules best suited to promote wound healing has yet to be identified. We investigated the effects of hyaluronic acid, vitronectin, TGF-α, IL-24 and their combinations on migration, proliferation and adhesion of cultured human tympanic membrane-derived keratinocytes (hTM), in addition to their possible mechanisms of action. We found that TGF-α, TGF-α/HA and TGF-α/IL-24 promoted wound healing by significantly increasing both migration and proliferation. TGF-α and/or HA treated cells showed comparable cell–cell adhesion whilst maintaining an epithelial cell phenotype. With the use of receptor binding inhibitors for ErbB1 (AG1478) and CD44 (BRIC235), we revealed that the activation of ErbB1 is required for TGF-α/HA-mediated migration and proliferation. These results suggest factors that may be incorporated into a tissue-engineered membrane or directly as topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations and hence reduce the need for a surgery. - Highlights: ► TGF-α, TGF-α/HA and TGF-α/IL-24 improved hTM keratinocyte migration and proliferation. ► TGF-α and/or HA maintained epithelial cell phenotype. ► TGF-α/HA-mediated migration and proliferation requires activation of ErbB1 receptor.

  3. Receptor FGFRL1 does not promote cell proliferation but induces cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    YANG, XIAOCHEN; STEINBERG, FLORIAN; ZHUANG, LEI; BESSEY, RALPH; TRUEB, BEAT

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-like protein 1 (FGFRL1) is the most recently discovered member of the FGFR family. Owing to the fact that it interacts with FGF ligands, but lacks the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain, several researchers have speculated that it may function as a decoy receptor and exert a negative effect on cell proliferation. In this study, we performed overexpression experiments with TetOn-inducible cell clones and downregulation experiments with siRNA oligonucleotides, and found that FGFRL1 had absolutely no effect on cell growth and proliferation. Likewise, we did not observe any influence of FGFRL1 on ERK1/2 activation and on the phosphorylation of 250 other signaling proteins analyzed by the Kinexus antibody microarray. On the other hand, with bacterial petri dishes, we observed a clear effect of FGFRL1 on cell adhesion during the initial hours after cell seeding. Our results suggest that FGFRL1 is a cell adhesion protein similar to the nectins rather than a signaling receptor similar to FGFR1-FGFR4. PMID:27220341

  4. Actinin-4 Governs Dendritic Spine Dynamics and Promotes Their Remodeling by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Magdalena; Chávez, Andrés E.; Lutzu, Stefano; Castillo, Pablo E.; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.; Francesconi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic spines are dynamic, actin-rich protrusions in neurons that undergo remodeling during neuronal development and activity-dependent plasticity within the central nervous system. Although group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are critical for spine remodeling under physiopathological conditions, the molecular components linking receptor activity to structural plasticity remain unknown. Here we identify a Ca2+-sensitive actin-binding protein, α-actinin-4, as a novel group 1 mGluR-interacting partner that orchestrates spine dynamics and morphogenesis in primary neurons. Functional silencing of α-actinin-4 abolished spine elongation and turnover stimulated by group 1 mGluRs despite intact surface receptor expression and downstream ERK1/2 signaling. This function of α-actinin-4 in spine dynamics was underscored by gain-of-function phenotypes in untreated neurons. Here α-actinin-4 induced spine head enlargement, a morphological change requiring the C-terminal domain of α-actinin-4 that binds to CaMKII, an interaction we showed to be regulated by group 1 mGluR activation. Our data provide mechanistic insights into spine remodeling by metabotropic signaling and identify α-actinin-4 as a critical effector of structural plasticity within neurons. PMID:25944910

  5. NMDA Receptors Enhance Spontaneous Activity and Promote Neuronal Survival in the Developing Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Zhang-Hooks, YingXin; Agarwal, Amit; Mishina, Masayoshi; Bergles, Dwight E

    2016-01-20

    Spontaneous bursts of activity in developing sensory pathways promote maturation of neurons, refinement of neuronal connections, and assembly of appropriate functional networks. In the developing auditory system, inner hair cells (IHCs) spontaneously fire Ca(2+) spikes, each of which is transformed into a mini-burst of action potentials in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Here we show that NMDARs are expressed in SGN dendritic terminals and play a critical role during transmission of activity from IHCs to SGNs before hearing onset. NMDAR activation enhances glutamate-mediated Ca(2+) influx at dendritic terminals, promotes repetitive firing of individual SGNs in response to each synaptic event, and enhances coincident activity of neighboring SGNs that will eventually encode similar frequencies of sound. Loss of NMDAR signaling from SGNs reduced their survival both in vivo and in vitro, revealing that spontaneous activity in the prehearing cochlea promotes maturation of auditory circuitry through periodic activation of NMDARs in SGNs. PMID:26774161

  6. A family longevity selection score: ranking sibships by their longevity, size, and availability for study.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, Paola; Hadley, Evan C; Province, Michael; Christensen, Kaare; Rossi, Winifred; Perls, Thomas T; Ash, Arlene S

    2009-12-15

    Family studies of exceptional longevity can potentially identify genetic and other factors contributing to long life and healthy aging. Although such studies seek families that are exceptionally long lived, they also need living members who can provide DNA and phenotype information. On the basis of these considerations, the authors developed a metric to rank families for selection into a family study of longevity. Their measure, the family longevity selection score (FLoSS), is the sum of 2 components: 1) an estimated family longevity score built from birth-, gender-, and nation-specific cohort survival probabilities and 2) a bonus for older living siblings. The authors examined properties of FLoSS-based family rankings by using data from 3 ongoing studies: the New England Centenarian Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and screenees for the Long Life Family Study. FLoSS-based selection yields families with exceptional longevity, satisfactory sibship sizes and numbers of living siblings, and high ages. Parameters in the FLoSS formula can be tailored for studies of specific populations or age ranges or with different conditions. The first component of the FLoSS also provides a conceptually sound survival measure to characterize exceptional longevity in individuals or families in various types of studies and correlates well with later-observed longevity.

  7. Glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) promoter is hypermethylated in Thai females with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nantharat, M; Wanitchanon, T; Amesbutr, M; Tammachote, R; Praphanphoj, V

    2015-12-29

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with the stress response in the brain, which is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This HPA negative feedback mechanism acts via the activation of glucocorticoid receptor, which is encoded by the NR3C1 gene. The methylation status at the promoter of NR3C1 has been correlated with traumatic experiences in early life, which develop into mental disorder. The aim of this study was to examine the potential associations between the methylation status of NR3C1 promoter, gene expression, blood plasma cortisol levels, and adulthood MDD. The study was conducted with 29 MDD patients (9 males, 20 females) and 33 normal individuals (7 males, 26 females). Bisulfite pyrosequencing on 7 CpG dinucleotides in the region showed significantly higher methylation levels at the CpG7 in MDD patients. When separated by gender, the methylation levels differed significantly in females, but not in males. No significant differences between NR3C1 gene expression level and plasma cortisol levels of MDD patients and normal controls were observed. These data suggest that higher levels of methylation at the NR3C1 promoter may be associated with MDD in a gender-specific manner.

  8. MicroRNA-223 promotes mast cell apoptosis by targeting the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    GAO, HAIYAN; DENG, HUAN; XU, HONG; YANG, QIANYUAN; ZHOU, YAO; ZHANG, JIAMIN; ZHAO, DEYU; LIU, FENG

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the functional role of miR-223 in the regulation of mast cell apoptosis. Overexpressed miR-223 in mast cells transfected by Lipofectamine 2000 was used as a model, and miR-223 was found to promote mast cell apoptosis. To investigate the underlying mechanisms involved, the potential and putative target molecules of miR-223 were detected by bioinformatical analysis using predictive software, and western blotting. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was found to be the functional target of miR-223 in the promotion of cell apoptosis. The downstream PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway was also inhibited, and signaling was mediated by IGF-1R. Furthermore, the relative luciferase activity of the reporter containing the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of IGF-1R was significantly suppressed, while suppression of miR-223-inhibited IGF-1R protein expression was also observed. In conclusion, the results suggest that IGF-1R is the functional target for miR-223 promotion of cell apoptosis, and its downstream PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by miR-223 through targeting of IGF-1R. PMID:27284298

  9. Androgen receptor promotes gastric cancer cell migration and invasion via AKT-phosphorylation dependent upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Ming-de; Chang, Qing; Fan, Zhi-yuan; Li, Jian-fang; Yu, Bei-qin; Su, Li-ping; Li, Chen; Yan, Chao; Gu, Qin-long; Zhu, Zheng-gang; Yan, Min; Liu, Bingya

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays an important role in many kinds of cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of AR in gastric cancer (GC) are poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the role of AR in GC cell migration, invasion and metastatic potential. Our data showed that AR expression was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis and late TNM stages. These findings were accompanied by activation of AKT and upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). AR overexpression induced increases in GC cell migration, invasion and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. These effects were attenuated by inhibition of AKT, AR and MMP9. AR overexpression upregulated MMP9 protein levels, whereas this effect was counteracted by AR siRNA. Inhibition of AKT by siRNA or an inhibitor (MK-2206 2HC) decreased AR protein expression in both stably transfected and parental SGC-7901 cells. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that AR bound to the AR-binding sites of the MMP9 promoter. In summary, AR overexpression induced by AKT phosphorylation upregulated MMP9 by binding to its promoter region to promote gastric carcinogenesis. The AKT/AR/MMP9 pathway plays an important role in GC metastasis and may be a novel therapeutic target for GC treatment. PMID:25301736

  10. Plasma long-chain free fatty acids predict mammalian longevity

    PubMed Central

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Aledo, Juan Carlos; Cabré, Rosanna; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition is an important correlate of the rate of aging of animals and, therefore, the determination of their longevity. In the present work, the use of high-throughput technologies allowed us to determine the plasma lipidomic profile of 11 mammalian species ranging in maximum longevity from 3.5 to 120 years. The non-targeted approach revealed a specie-specific lipidomic profile that accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and longevity demonstrated that the longer the longevity of a species, the lower is its plasma long-chain free fatty acid (LC-FFA) concentrations, peroxidizability index, and lipid peroxidation-derived products content. The inverse association between longevity and LC-FFA persisted after correction for body mass and phylogenetic interdependence. These results indicate that the lipidomic signature is an optimized feature associated with animal longevity, emerging LC-FFA as a potential biomarker of longevity. PMID:24284984

  11. Plasma long-chain free fatty acids predict mammalian longevity.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Aledo, Juan Carlos; Cabré, Rosanna; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-11-28

    Membrane lipid composition is an important correlate of the rate of aging of animals and, therefore, the determination of their longevity. In the present work, the use of high-throughput technologies allowed us to determine the plasma lipidomic profile of 11 mammalian species ranging in maximum longevity from 3.5 to 120 years. The non-targeted approach revealed a specie-specific lipidomic profile that accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and longevity demonstrated that the longer the longevity of a species, the lower is its plasma long-chain free fatty acid (LC-FFA) concentrations, peroxidizability index, and lipid peroxidation-derived products content. The inverse association between longevity and LC-FFA persisted after correction for body mass and phylogenetic interdependence. These results indicate that the lipidomic signature is an optimized feature associated with animal longevity, emerging LC-FFA as a potential biomarker of longevity.

  12. Dopamine receptor activation promotes adult neurogenesis in an acute Parkinson model

    PubMed Central

    Winner, Beate; Desplats, Paula; Hagl, Christian; Klucken, Jochen; Aigner, Robert; Ploetz, Sonja; Laemke, Jörn; Karl, Alexandra; Aigner, Ludwig; Masliah, Eliezer; Buerger, Erich; Winkler, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation of neural progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of Parkinson disease (PD) patients and animal models is decreased. It was previously demonstrated that the neurotransmitter dopamine modulates cell proliferation in the embryonic brain. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether oral treatment with the dopamine receptor agonist pramipexole (PPX) modulates adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/ olfactory bulb system in a dopaminergic lesion model. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned adult rats received either PPX (1,0 mg/kg) or PBS orally twice daily and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, a cell proliferation marker) for 10 days and were perfused immediately after treatment or 4 weeks after PPX withdrawal. Stereological analysis revealed a significant augmentation in SVZ proliferation by PPX. Consecutively, enhanced neuronal differentiation and more new neurons were present in the olfactory bulb 4 weeks after PPX withdrawal. In addition, dopaminergic neurogenesis was increased in the olfactory bulb after PPX treatment. Motor activity as assessed by using an open field paradigm was permanently increased even after long term PPX withdrawal. In addition, we demonstrate that D2 and D3 receptors are present on adult rat SVZ derived neural progenitors in vitro, and PPX specifically increased mRNA levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and paired box gene 6 (Pax6). Oral PPX treatment selectively increases adult neurogenesis in the SVZ-olfactory bulb system by increasing proliferation and cell survival of newly generated neurons. Analyzing the neurogenic fate decisions mediated by D2/D3 signaling pathways may lead to new avenues to induce neural repair in the adult brain. PMID:19619535

  13. The adenosine/neutrophil paradox resolved: human neutrophils possess both A1 and A2 receptors that promote chemotaxis and inhibit O2 generation, respectively.

    PubMed Central

    Cronstein, B N; Daguma, L; Nichols, D; Hutchison, A J; Williams, M

    1990-01-01

    Occupancy of specific receptors on neutrophils by adenosine or its analogues diminishes the stimulated release of toxic oxygen metabolites from neutrophils, while paradoxically promoting chemotaxis. We now report evidence that two distinct adenosine receptors are found on neutrophils (presumably the A1 and A2 receptors of other cell types). These adenosine receptors modulate chemotaxis and O2- generation, respectively. N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a selective A1 agonist, promoted neutrophil chemotaxis to the chemoattractant FMLP as well as or better than 5'N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA). In contrast, CPA did not inhibit O2- generation stimulated by FMLP. Pertussis toxin completely abolished promotion of chemotaxis by CPA but enhanced inhibition by NECA of O2- generation. Disruption of microtubules by colchicine or vinblastine also abrogated the enhancement by NECA of chemotaxis whereas these agents did not markedly interfere with inhibition by NECA of O2- generation. FMLP receptors, once they have bound ligand, shift to a high affinity state and become associated with the cytoskeleton. NECA significantly increased association of [3H]FMLP with cytoskeletal preparations as it inhibited O2-. Disruption of microtubules did not prevent NECA from increasing association of [3H]FMLP with cytoskeletal preparations. Additionally, CPA (A1 agonist) did not increase binding of [3H]FMLP to the cytoskeleton as well as NECA (A2 agonist). These studies indicate that occupancy of one class of adenosine receptors (A1) promotes chemotaxis by a mechanism requiring intact microtubules and G proteins whereas engagement of a second class of receptors (A2) inhibits O2- generation. Signalling via A2 receptors is independent of microtubules, insensitive to pertussis toxin and is associated with binding of [3H]FMLP to cytoskeletal preparations. PMID:2156895

  14. P2Y₁ receptor-dependent diacylglycerol signaling microdomains in β cells promote insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Anne; Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Tengholm, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) controls numerous cell functions by regulating the localization of C1-domain-containing proteins, including protein kinase C (PKC), but little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of the lipid. Here, we explored plasma membrane DAG dynamics in pancreatic β cells and determined whether DAG signaling is involved in secretagogue-induced pulsatile release of insulin. Single MIN6 cells, primary mouse β cells, and human β cells within intact islets were transfected with translocation biosensors for DAG, PKC activity, or insulin secretion and imaged with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Muscarinic receptor stimulation triggered stable, homogenous DAG elevations, whereas glucose induced short-lived (7.1 ± 0.4 s) but high-amplitude elevations (up to 109 ± 10% fluorescence increase) in spatially confined membrane regions. The spiking was mimicked by membrane depolarization and suppressed after inhibition of exocytosis or of purinergic P2Y₁, but not P2X receptors, reflecting involvement of autocrine purinoceptor activation after exocytotic release of ATP. Each DAG spike caused local PKC activation with resulting dissociation of its substrate protein MARCKS from the plasma membrane. Inhibition of spiking reduced glucose-induced pulsatile insulin secretion. Thus, stimulus-specific DAG signaling patterns appear in the plasma membrane, including distinct microdomains, which have implications for the kinetic control of exocytosis and other membrane-associated processes.

  15. EGFR regulates iron homeostasis to promote cancer growth through redistribution of transferrin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biao; Zhang, Jiqin; Song, Fei; Tian, Mi; Shi, Bizhi; Jiang, Hua; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hai; Zhou, Min; Pan, Xiaorong; Gu, Jianren; Yang, Shengli; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Zonghai

    2016-10-28

    Dysregulation in iron metabolism can lead to a wide range of diseases including cancer. Iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) and iron responsive elements (IREs) have been established as post-transcriptional regulators of intracellular iron homeostasis. The roles of other pathways involved in this process, however, remain largely unknown. Here we report that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), an oncogenic driver, binds to and regulates the subcellular distribution of transferrin receptor 1(TfR1) through its tyrosine kinase activity and thus is required for cellular iron import. Inactivation of EGFR reduces the cell surface TfR1 expression, which leads to decreased iron import due to impaired TfR1-mediated iron uptake. This damaged iron assimilation results in cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition, which can be partially rescued by non-Tf-bound iron supplements. Evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer samples reveals a positive correlation between EGFR activation and membrane TfR1 expression. Our findings uncover a new role of EGFR in modulating cellular iron homeostasis through redistribution of TfR1, which is essential for cancer development and progression. PMID:27523281

  16. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 promotes leukocyte rolling by mobilizing endothelial P-selectin.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, Claudia; Bannenberg, Sarah; Keul, Petra; Gräler, Markus H; Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano F; Korhonen, Hanna; von Wnuck Lipinski, Karin; Heusch, Gerd; de Castro Faria Neto, Hugo C; Rohwedder, Ina; Göthert, Joachim R; Prasad, Vysakh Pushpa; Haufe, Günter; Lange-Sperandio, Baerbel; Offermanns, Stefan; Sperandio, Markus; Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) participates in inflammation; however, its role in leukocyte rolling is still unclear. Here we use intravital microscopy in inflamed mouse cremaster muscle venules and human endothelial cells to show that S1P contributes to P-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling through endothelial S1P receptor 3 (S1P3) and Gαq, PLCβ and Ca(2+). Intra-arterial S1P administration increases leukocyte rolling, while S1P3 deficiency or inhibition dramatically reduces it. Mast cells involved in triggering rolling also release S1P that mobilizes P-selectin through S1P3. Histamine and epinephrine require S1P3 for full-scale effect accomplishing it by stimulating sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1). In a counter-regulatory manner, S1P1 inhibits cAMP-stimulated Sphk1 and blocks rolling as observed in endothelial-specific S1P1(-/-) mice. In agreement with a dominant pro-rolling effect of S1P3, FTY720 inhibits rolling in control and S1P1(-/-) but not in S1P3(-/-) mice. Our findings identify S1P as a direct and indirect contributor to leukocyte rolling and characterize the receptors mediating its action.

  17. A cyclic AMP receptor protein mutant that constitutively activates an Escherichia coli promoter disrupted by an IS5 insertion.

    PubMed

    Podolny, V; Lin, E C; Hochschild, A

    1999-12-01

    Previously an Escherichia coli mutant that had acquired the ability to grow on propanediol as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated. This phenotype is the result of the constitutive expression of the fucO gene (in the fucAO operon), which encodes one of the enzymes in the fucose metabolic pathway. The mutant was found to bear an IS5 insertion in the intergenic regulatory region between the divergently oriented fucAO and fucPIK operons. Though expression of the fucAO operon was constitutive, the fucPIK operon became noninducible such that the mutant could no longer grow on fucose. A fucose-positive revertant which was found to contain a suppressor mutation in the crp gene was selected. Here we identify this crp mutation, which results in a single amino acid substitution (K52N) that has been proposed previously to uncover a cryptic activating region in the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). We show that the mutant CRP constitutively activates transcription from both the IS5-disrupted and the wild-type fucPIK promoters, and we identify the CRP-binding site that is required for this activity. Our results show that the fucPIK promoter, a complex promoter which ordinarily depends on both CRP and the fucose-specific regulator FucR for its activation, can be activated in the absence of FucR by a mutant CRP that uses three, rather than two, activating regions to contact RNA polymerase. For the IS5-disrupted promoter, which retains a single CRP-binding site, the additional activating region of the mutant CRP evidently compensates for the lack of upstream regulatory sequences. PMID:10601201

  18. DNA methylation in the Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1) promoter in relation to asthma and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Reinius, Lovisa E; Gref, Anna; Sääf, Annika; Acevedo, Nathalie; Joerink, Maaike; Kupczyk, Maciej; D'Amato, Mauro; Bergström, Anna; Melén, Erik; Scheynius, Annika; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Pershagen, Göran; Söderhäll, Cilla; Kere, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Asthma and allergy are complex disorders influenced by both inheritance and environment, a relationship that might be further clarified by epigenetics. Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1) has been associated with asthma and allergy and a study suggested modulation of the genetic risk by environmental factors. We aimed to study DNA methylation in the promoter region of NPSR1 in relation to asthma and environmental exposures. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) was used to investigate potential functional roles of both genotypes and methylation status in the NPSR1 promoter. DNA methylation was analysed using EpiTYPER in blood samples from two well-characterized cohorts; the BIOAIR study of severe asthma in adults and the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE. We observed that DNA methylation and genetic variants in the promoter influenced the binding of nuclear proteins to DNA, suggesting functional relevance. Significant, although small, differences in methylation were related to both adult severe asthma (p = 0.0001) and childhood allergic asthma (p = 0.01). Furthermore, DNA methylation was associated with exposures such as current smoking in adults for two CpG sites (p = 0.005 and 0.04), parental smoking during infancy in the children (p = 0.02) and in which month the sample was taken (p = 0.01). In summary, DNA methylation levels in the promoter of NPSR1 showed small but significant associations with asthma, both in adults and in children, and to related traits such as allergy and certain environmental exposures. Both genetic variation and the methylated state of CpG sites seem to have an effect on the binding of nuclear proteins in the regulatory region of NPSR1 suggesting complex regulation of this gene in asthma and allergy. PMID:23372674

  19. The EGF Receptor Promotes the Malignant Potential of Glioma by Regulating Amino Acid Transport System xc(-).

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Okazaki, Shogo; Ohmura, Mitsuyo; Ishikawa, Miyuki; Sampetrean, Oltea; Onishi, Nobuyuki; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Momoko; Seishima, Ryo; Iwasaki, Yoshimi; Morikawa, Takayuki; Abe, Shinya; Takao, Ayumi; Shimizu, Misato; Masuko, Takashi; Nagane, Motoo; Furnari, Frank B; Akiyama, Tetsu; Suematsu, Makoto; Baba, Eishi; Akashi, Koichi; Saya, Hideyuki; Nagano, Osamu

    2016-05-15

    Extracellular free amino acids contribute to the interaction between a tumor and its microenvironment through effects on cellular metabolism and malignant behavior. System xc(-) is composed of xCT and CD98hc subunits and functions as a plasma membrane antiporter for the uptake of extracellular cystine in exchange for intracellular glutamate. Here, we show that the EGFR interacts with xCT and thereby promotes its cell surface expression and function in human glioma cells. EGFR-expressing glioma cells manifested both enhanced antioxidant capacity as a result of increased cystine uptake, as well as increased glutamate, which promotes matrix invasion. Imaging mass spectrometry also revealed that brain tumors formed in mice by human glioma cells stably overexpressing EGFR contained higher levels of reduced glutathione compared with those formed by parental cells. Targeted inhibition of xCT suppressed the EGFR-dependent enhancement of antioxidant capacity in glioma cells, as well as tumor growth and invasiveness. Our findings establish a new functional role for EGFR in promoting the malignant potential of glioma cells through interaction with xCT at the cell surface. Cancer Res; 76(10); 2954-63. ©2016 AACR.

  20. Nucleus Accumbens Shell and mPFC but Not Insula Orexin-1 Receptors Promote Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A.; Yu, Ji Hwan; Mototake, Arisa; Hu, Bing; Hopf, Frederic W.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to alcohol remains a major social and economic problem, in part because of the high motivation for alcohol that humans exhibit and the hazardous binge intake this promotes. Orexin-1-type receptors (OX1Rs) promote reward intake under conditions of strong drives for reward, including excessive alcohol intake. While systemic modulation of OX1Rs can alter alcohol drinking, the brain regions that mediate this OX1R enhancement of excessive drinking remain unknown. Given the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and anterior insular cortex (aINS) in driving many addictive behaviors, including OX1Rs within these regions, we examined the importance of OX1Rs in these regions on excessive alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice during limited-access alcohol drinking in the dark cycle. Inhibition of OX1Rs with the widely used SB-334867 within the medial NAc Shell (mNAsh) significantly reduced drinking of alcohol, with no effect on saccharin intake, and no effect on alcohol consumption when infused above the mNAsh. In contrast, intra-mNAsh infusion of the orexin-2 receptor TCS-OX2-29 had no impact on alcohol drinking. In addition, OX1R inhibition within the aINS had no effect on excessive drinking, which was surprising given the importance of aINS-NAc circuits in promoting alcohol consumption and the role for aINS OX1Rs in driving nicotine intake. However, OX1R inhibition within the mPFC did reduce alcohol drinking, indicating cortical OXR involvement in promoting intake. Also, in support of the critical role for mNAsh OX1Rs, SB within the mNAsh also significantly reduced operant alcohol self-administration in rats. Finally, orexin ex vivo enhanced firing in mNAsh neurons from alcohol-drinking mice, with no effect on evoked EPSCs or input resistance; a similar orexin increase in firing without a change in input resistance was observed in alcohol-naïve mice. Taken together, our results suggest that OX1Rs within the mNAsh and mPFC, but not the aINS, play a central role in

  1. Nucleus Accumbens Shell and mPFC but Not Insula Orexin-1 Receptors Promote Excessive Alcohol Drinking.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji Hwan; Mototake, Arisa; Hu, Bing; Hopf, Frederic W

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to alcohol remains a major social and economic problem, in part because of the high motivation for alcohol that humans exhibit and the hazardous binge intake this promotes. Orexin-1-type receptors (OX1Rs) promote reward intake under conditions of strong drives for reward, including excessive alcohol intake. While systemic modulation of OX1Rs can alter alcohol drinking, the brain regions that mediate this OX1R enhancement of excessive drinking remain unknown. Given the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and anterior insular cortex (aINS) in driving many addictive behaviors, including OX1Rs within these regions, we examined the importance of OX1Rs in these regions on excessive alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice during limited-access alcohol drinking in the dark cycle. Inhibition of OX1Rs with the widely used SB-334867 within the medial NAc Shell (mNAsh) significantly reduced drinking of alcohol, with no effect on saccharin intake, and no effect on alcohol consumption when infused above the mNAsh. In contrast, intra-mNAsh infusion of the orexin-2 receptor TCS-OX2-29 had no impact on alcohol drinking. In addition, OX1R inhibition within the aINS had no effect on excessive drinking, which was surprising given the importance of aINS-NAc circuits in promoting alcohol consumption and the role for aINS OX1Rs in driving nicotine intake. However, OX1R inhibition within the mPFC did reduce alcohol drinking, indicating cortical OXR involvement in promoting intake. Also, in support of the critical role for mNAsh OX1Rs, SB within the mNAsh also significantly reduced operant alcohol self-administration in rats. Finally, orexin ex vivo enhanced firing in mNAsh neurons from alcohol-drinking mice, with no effect on evoked EPSCs or input resistance; a similar orexin increase in firing without a change in input resistance was observed in alcohol-naïve mice. Taken together, our results suggest that OX1Rs within the mNAsh and mPFC, but not the aINS, play a central role in

  2. Nucleus Accumbens Shell and mPFC but Not Insula Orexin-1 Receptors Promote Excessive Alcohol Drinking.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji Hwan; Mototake, Arisa; Hu, Bing; Hopf, Frederic W

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to alcohol remains a major social and economic problem, in part because of the high motivation for alcohol that humans exhibit and the hazardous binge intake this promotes. Orexin-1-type receptors (OX1Rs) promote reward intake under conditions of strong drives for reward, including excessive alcohol intake. While systemic modulation of OX1Rs can alter alcohol drinking, the brain regions that mediate this OX1R enhancement of excessive drinking remain unknown. Given the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and anterior insular cortex (aINS) in driving many addictive behaviors, including OX1Rs within these regions, we examined the importance of OX1Rs in these regions on excessive alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice during limited-access alcohol drinking in the dark cycle. Inhibition of OX1Rs with the widely used SB-334867 within the medial NAc Shell (mNAsh) significantly reduced drinking of alcohol, with no effect on saccharin intake, and no effect on alcohol consumption when infused above the mNAsh. In contrast, intra-mNAsh infusion of the orexin-2 receptor TCS-OX2-29 had no impact on alcohol drinking. In addition, OX1R inhibition within the aINS had no effect on excessive drinking, which was surprising given the importance of aINS-NAc circuits in promoting alcohol consumption and the role for aINS OX1Rs in driving nicotine intake. However, OX1R inhibition within the mPFC did reduce alcohol drinking, indicating cortical OXR involvement in promoting intake. Also, in support of the critical role for mNAsh OX1Rs, SB within the mNAsh also significantly reduced operant alcohol self-administration in rats. Finally, orexin ex vivo enhanced firing in mNAsh neurons from alcohol-drinking mice, with no effect on evoked EPSCs or input resistance; a similar orexin increase in firing without a change in input resistance was observed in alcohol-naïve mice. Taken together, our results suggest that OX1Rs within the mNAsh and mPFC, but not the aINS, play a central role in

  3. Nucleus Accumbens Shell and mPFC but Not Insula Orexin-1 Receptors Promote Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A.; Yu, Ji Hwan; Mototake, Arisa; Hu, Bing; Hopf, Frederic W.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to alcohol remains a major social and economic problem, in part because of the high motivation for alcohol that humans exhibit and the hazardous binge intake this promotes. Orexin-1-type receptors (OX1Rs) promote reward intake under conditions of strong drives for reward, including excessive alcohol intake. While systemic modulation of OX1Rs can alter alcohol drinking, the brain regions that mediate this OX1R enhancement of excessive drinking remain unknown. Given the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and anterior insular cortex (aINS) in driving many addictive behaviors, including OX1Rs within these regions, we examined the importance of OX1Rs in these regions on excessive alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice during limited-access alcohol drinking in the dark cycle. Inhibition of OX1Rs with the widely used SB-334867 within the medial NAc Shell (mNAsh) significantly reduced drinking of alcohol, with no effect on saccharin intake, and no effect on alcohol consumption when infused above the mNAsh. In contrast, intra-mNAsh infusion of the orexin-2 receptor TCS-OX2-29 had no impact on alcohol drinking. In addition, OX1R inhibition within the aINS had no effect on excessive drinking, which was surprising given the importance of aINS-NAc circuits in promoting alcohol consumption and the role for aINS OX1Rs in driving nicotine intake. However, OX1R inhibition within the mPFC did reduce alcohol drinking, indicating cortical OXR involvement in promoting intake. Also, in support of the critical role for mNAsh OX1Rs, SB within the mNAsh also significantly reduced operant alcohol self-administration in rats. Finally, orexin ex vivo enhanced firing in mNAsh neurons from alcohol-drinking mice, with no effect on evoked EPSCs or input resistance; a similar orexin increase in firing without a change in input resistance was observed in alcohol-naïve mice. Taken together, our results suggest that OX1Rs within the mNAsh and mPFC, but not the aINS, play a central role in

  4. Longevity and Education: Survey Results, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Barbara; Lange, Mary Sue

    In order to better serve the needs of people in midlife and beyond, Mt. San Antonio College (Mt. SAC), California, is considering the establishment of a Center for Longevity and Education (CLE). The CLE mission would be to foster a supportive environment for lifelong learning and life transitions for midlife and beyond, while channeling the…

  5. Evolutionary genetic bases of longevity and senescence.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R

    2015-01-01

    Senescence, as a time-dependent developmental process, affects all organisms at every stage in their development and growth. During this process, genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors are known to introduce a wide range of variation for longevity among individuals. As an important life-history trait, longevity shows ontogenetic relationships with other complex traits, and hence may be viewed as a composite trait. Factors that influence the origin and maintenance of diversity of life are ultimately governed by Darwinian processes. Here we review evolutionary genetic mechanisms underlying longevity and senescence in humans from a life-history and genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (G-E-P) map prospective. We suggest that synergistic and cascading effects of cis-ruptive mechanisms in the genome, and epigenetic disruptive processes in relation to environmental factors may lead to sequential slippage in the G-E-P space. These mechanisms accompany age, stage and individual specific senescent processes, influenced by positive pleiotropy of certain genes, superior genome integrity, negative-frequency dependent selection and other factors that universally regulate rarity in nature. Finally we interpret life span as an inherent property of self-organizing systems that, accordingly, maintain species-specific limits for the entire complex of fitness traits. We conclude that Darwinian approaches provide unique opportunities to discover the biological bases of longevity as well as devise individual specific medical or other interventions toward improving health span.

  6. Longevity and Depreciation of Audiovisual Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Describes results of survey of media service directors at public universities in Ohio to determine the expected longevity of audiovisual equipment. Use of the Delphi technique for estimates is explained, results are compared with an earlier survey done in 1977, and use of spreadsheet software to calculate depreciation is discussed. (LRW)

  7. Translational genomics for improving sow reproductive longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sow reproductive longevity is a composite trait that is expressed throughout life that depends on the potential of females to resume ovarian cyclicity, re-breed, and farrow multiple parities. Approximately 50% of sows are culled annually with more than one third due to poor fertility. Age at puberty...

  8. Longevity and Mortality in Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thase, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Research on the longevity of Down's Syndrome persons is reviewed, and the life span is noted to have increased, although the overall mortality rate is still five times greater than that for the general population. Statistics on causes of mortality (such as immunological abnormalities, congenital heart disease, and malignancy) are summarized. (CL)

  9. Statin-activated nuclear receptor PXR promotes SGK2 dephosphorylation by scaffolding PP2C to induce hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Saki; Negishi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Statin therapy is known to increase blood glucose levels in humans. Statins utilize pregnane X receptor (PXR) and serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 2 (SGK2) to activate phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PEPCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) genes, thereby increasing glucose production in human liver cells. Here, the novel statin/PXR/SGK2-mediated signaling pathway has now been characterized for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Statin-activated PXR scaffolds the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) and SGK2 to stimulate PP2C to dephosphorylate SGK2 at threonine 193. Non-phosphorylated SGK2 co-activates PXR-mediated trans-activation of promoters of gluconeogenic genes in human liver cells, thereby enhancing gluconeogenesis. This gluconeogenic statin-PXR-SGK2 signal is not present in mice, in which statin treatment suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. These findings provide the basis for statin-associated side effects such as an increased risk for Type 2 diabetes. PMID:26392083

  10. Loss of nuclear receptor RXRα in epidermal keratinocytes promotes the formation of Cdk4-activated invasive melanomas.

    PubMed

    Hyter, Stephen; Bajaj, Gaurav; Liang, Xiaobo; Barbacid, Mariano; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Indra, Arup Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Keratinocytes contribute to melanocyte transformation by affecting their microenvironment, in part through the secretion of paracrine factors. Here we report a loss of expression of nuclear receptor RXRα in epidermal keratinocytes during human melanoma progression. In the absence of keratinocytic RXRα, in combination with mutant Cdk4, cutaneous melanoma was generated that metastasized to lymph nodes in a bigenic mouse model. Expression of several keratinocyte-derived mitogenic growth factors (Et-1, Hgf, Scf, α-MSH and Fgf 2 ) was elevated in skin of bigenic mice, whereas Fas, E-cadherin and Pten, implicated in apoptosis, cellular invasion and melanomagenesis, respectively, were downregulated within the microdissected melanocytic tumors. We demonstrated that RXRα is recruited on the proximal promoter of both Et-1 and Hgf, possibly directly regulating their transcription in keratinocytes. These studies demonstrate the contribution of keratinocytic paracrine signaling during the cellular transformation and malignant conversion of melanocytes.

  11. Single chain precursor prohaptoglobin promotes angiogenesis by upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor2.

    PubMed

    Oh, Mi-Kyung; Park, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Mi; Kim, In-Sook

    2015-04-13

    Prohaptoglobin (proHp) is processed into mature haptoglobin via site-specific cleavage. Although haptoglobin has been well studied, the functions of proHp remain unclear. We investigated the angiogenic action of proHp in endothelial cells, demonstrating that proHp upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression and endothelial sprouting and branching. ProHp-induced sprouting was attenuated by a VEGFR2 inhibitor. Moreover, proHp was detected in sera of cancer patients by immunoprecipitation and Western blot. These findings indicate that proHp promotes angiogenesis via VEGF/VEGFR2 signalling, and serum proHp level may be a useful biomarker for diseases associated with angiogenesis. PMID:25775978

  12. Loss of nuclear receptor RXRα in epidermal keratinocytes promotes the formation of Cdk4-activated invasive melanomas.

    PubMed

    Hyter, Stephen; Bajaj, Gaurav; Liang, Xiaobo; Barbacid, Mariano; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Indra, Arup Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Keratinocytes contribute to melanocyte transformation by affecting their microenvironment, in part through the secretion of paracrine factors. Here we report a loss of expression of nuclear receptor RXRα in epidermal keratinocytes during human melanoma progression. In the absence of keratinocytic RXRα, in combination with mutant Cdk4, cutaneous melanoma was generated that metastasized to lymph nodes in a bigenic mouse model. Expression of several keratinocyte-derived mitogenic growth factors (Et-1, Hgf, Scf, α-MSH and Fgf 2 ) was elevated in skin of bigenic mice, whereas Fas, E-cadherin and Pten, implicated in apoptosis, cellular invasion and melanomagenesis, respectively, were downregulated within the microdissected melanocytic tumors. We demonstrated that RXRα is recruited on the proximal promoter of both Et-1 and Hgf, possibly directly regulating their transcription in keratinocytes. These studies demonstrate the contribution of keratinocytic paracrine signaling during the cellular transformation and malignant conversion of melanocytes. PMID:20629968

  13. Receptors and growth-promoting effects of insulin and insulinlike growth factors on cells from bovine retinal capillaries and aorta.

    PubMed Central

    King, G L; Goodman, A D; Buzney, S; Moses, A; Kahn, C R

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that elevated levels of insulin or insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a role in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Previously, we have shown a differential response to insulin between vascular cells from retinal capillaries and large arteries with the former being much more insulin responsive. In the present study, we have characterized the receptors and the growth-promoting effect of insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) and multiplication-stimulating activity (MSA, an IGF-II) on endothelial cells and pericytes from calf retinal capillaries and on endothelial and smooth muscle cells from calf aorta. We found single and separate populations of high affinity receptors for IGF-I and MSA with respective affinity constants of 1 X 10(-9) M-1 and 10(-8) M-1 in all four cell types studied. Specific binding of IGF-I was between 7.2 and 7.9% per milligram of protein in endothelial cells and 9.1 and 10.4% in the vascular supporting cells. For 125I-MSA, retinal endothelial cells bound only 1.7-2.5%, whereas the aortic endothelial cells and the vascular supporting cells bound between 5.6 and 8.5% per milligram of protein. The specificity of the receptors for IGF-I and MSA differed, as insulin and MSA was able to compete with 125I-IGF-I for binding to the IGF-I receptors with 0.01-0.1, the potency of unlabeled IGF-I, whereas even 1 X 10(-6) M, insulin did not significantly compete with 125I-MSA for binding to the receptors for MSA. For growth-promoting effects, as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, confluent retinal endothelial cells responded to IGF-I and MSA by up to threefold increase in the rate of DNA synthesis, whereas confluent aortic endothelial cells did not respond at all. A similar differential of response to insulin between micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells was reported by us previously. In the retinal endothelium, insulin was more potent than IGF-I and IGF-I was more potent that MSA. In the

  14. Induction of murine adenosine A(2A) receptor expression by LPS: analysis of the 5' upstream promoter.

    PubMed

    Elson, G; Eisenberg, M; Garg, C; Outram, S; Ferrante, C J; Hasko, G; Leibovich, S J

    2013-04-01

    Non-activated macrophages express low levels of A(2A)Rs and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) upregulates A(2A)R expression in an NF-κB-dependent manner. The murine A(2A)R gene is encoded by three exons, m1, m2 and m3. Exons m2 and m3 are conserved, while m1 encodes the 5' untranslated UTR. Three m1 variants have been defined, m1A, m1B and m1C, with m1C being farthest from the transcriptional start site. LPS upregulates A(2A)Rs in primary murine peritoneal and bone-marrow-derived macrophages and RAW264.7 cells by selectively splicing m1C to m2, through a promoter located upstream of m1C. We have cloned ∼1.6 kb upstream of m1C into pGL4.16(luc2CP/Hygro) promoterless vector. This construct in RAW 264.7 cells responds to LPS, and adenosine receptor agonists augmented LPS responsiveness. The NF-κB inhibitors BAY-11 and triptolide inhibited LPS-dependent induction. Deletion of a key proximal NF-κB site (402-417) abrogated LPS responsiveness, while deletion of distal NF-κB and C/EBPβ sites did not. Site-directed mutagenesis of CREB (309-320), STAT1 (526-531) and AP2 (566-569) sites had little effect on LPS and adenosine receptor agonist responsiveness; however, mutation of a second STAT1 site (582-588) abrogated this responsiveness. Further analysis of this promoter should provide valuable insights into regulation of A(2A)R expression in macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli.

  15. Honokiol promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep via the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor in mice

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Wei-Min; Yue, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Yu; Fan, Kun; Chen, Chang-Rui; Hou, Yi-Ping; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Decoctions of the Chinese herb houpu contain honokiol and are used to treat a variety of mental disorders, including depression. Depression commonly presents alongside sleep disorders and sleep disturbances, which appear to be a major risk factor for depression. Here, we have evaluated the somnogenic effect of honokiol and the mechanisms involved. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Honokiol was administered i.p. at 20:00 h in mice. Flumazenil, an antagonist at the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, was administered i.p. 15 min before honokiol. The effects of honokiol were measured by EEG and electromyogram (EMG), c-Fos expression and in vitro electrophysiology. KEY RESULTS Honokiol (10 and 20 mg·kg−1) significantly shortened the sleep latency to non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep and increased the amount of NREM sleep. Honokiol increased the number of state transitions from wakefulness to NREM sleep and, subsequently, from NREM sleep to wakefulness. However, honokiol had no effect on either the amount of REM sleep or EEG power density of both NREM and REM sleep. Honokiol increased c-Fos expression in ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) neurons, as examined by immunostaining, and excited sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO by whole-cell patch clamping in the brain slice. Pretreatment with flumazenil abolished the somnogenic effects and activation of the VLPO neurons by honokiol. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Honokiol promoted NREM sleep by modulating the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, suggesting potential applications in the treatment of insomnia, especially for patients who experience difficulty in falling and staying asleep. PMID:22537192

  16. Tensile force on human macrophage cells promotes osteoclastogenesis through receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand induction.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Wen; Chien, Chien-Fang; Shie, Ming-You; Yeh, Chia-Hung

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the effects of tensile forces on osteoclastogenesis by human monocytes in the absence of mechanosensitive cells, including osteoblasts and fibroblasts. In this study we consider the effects of tensile force on osteoclastogenesis in human monocytes. The cells were treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) to promote osteoclastogenesis. Then,expression and secretion of cathepsin K were examined. RANKL and the formation of osteoclasts during the osteoclast differentiation process under continual tensile stress were evaluated by Western blot. It was also found that -100 kPa or lower induces RANKL-enhanced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, an increased tensile force raises the expression and secretion of cathepsin K elevated by RANKL, and is concurrent with the increase of TNF-receptor-associated factor 6 induction and nuclear factor κB activation. Overall, the current report demonstrates that tensile force reinforces RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by retarding osteoclast differentiation. The tensile force is able to modify every cell through dose-dependent in vitro RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, affecting the fusion of preosteoclasts and function of osteoclasts. However, tensile force increased TNF-receptor-associated factor 6 expression. These results are in vitro findings and were obtained under a condition of tensile force. The current results help us to better understand the cellular roles of human macrophage populations in osteoclastogenesis as well as in alveolar bone remodeling when there is tensile stress.

  17. Hypomorphic MGAT5 polymorphisms promote multiple sclerosis cooperatively with MGAT1 and interleukin-2 and 7 receptor variants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carey F.; Zhou, Raymond W.; Mkhikian, Haik; Newton, Barbara L.; Yu, Zhaoxia; Demetriou, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Deficiency of the Golgi N-glycan branching enzyme Mgat5 in mice promotes T cell hyperactivity, endocytosis of CTLA-4 and autoimmunity, including a spontaneous multiple sclerosis (MS)-like disease. Multiple genetic and environmental MS risk factors lower N-glycan branching in T cells. These include variants in interleukin-2 receptor-α (IL2RA), interleukin-7 receptor-α (IL7RA), and MGAT1, a Golgi branching enzyme upstream of MGAT5, as well as vitamin D3 deficiency and Golgi substrate metabolism. Here we describe linked intronic variants of MGAT5 that are associated with reduced N-glycan branching, CTLA-4 surface expression and MS (p = 5.79 × 10−9, n = 7,741), the latter additive with the MGAT1, IL2RA and IL7RA MS risk variants (p = 1.76 × 10−9, OR = 0.67−1.83, n = 3,518). PMID:23351704

  18. A Toll receptor-FoxO pathway represses Pavarotti/MKLP1 to promote microtubule dynamics in motoneurons.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Colleen N; Nechipurenko, Inna V; Liu, Nan; Broihier, Heather T

    2016-08-15

    FoxO proteins are evolutionarily conserved regulators of neuronal structure and function, yet the neuron-specific pathways within which they act are poorly understood. To elucidate neuronal FoxO function in Drosophila melanogaster, we first screened for FoxO's upstream regulators and downstream effectors. On the upstream side, we present genetic and molecular pathway analyses indicating that the Toll-6 receptor, the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain adaptor dSARM, and FoxO function in a linear pathway. On the downstream side, we find that Toll-6-FoxO signaling represses the mitotic kinesin Pavarotti/MKLP1 (Pav-KLP), which itself attenuates microtubule (MT) dynamics. We next probed in vivo functions for this novel pathway and found that it is essential for axon transport and structural plasticity in motoneurons. We demonstrate that elevated expression of Pav-KLP underlies transport and plasticity phenotypes in pathway mutants, indicating that Toll-6-FoxO signaling promotes MT dynamics by limiting Pav-KLP expression. In addition to uncovering a novel molecular pathway, our work reveals an unexpected function for dynamic MTs in enabling rapid activity-dependent structural plasticity. PMID:27502486

  19. Cooperativity among secretory IgA, the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, and the gut microbiota promotes host-microbial mutualism.

    PubMed

    Kaetzel, Charlotte S

    2014-12-01

    Secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies in the intestinal tract form the first line of antigen-specific immune defense, preventing access of pathogens as well as commensal microbes to the body proper. SIgA is transported into external secretions by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Evidence is reported here that the gut microbiota regulates production of SIgA and pIgR, which act together to regulate the composition and activity of the microbiota. SIgA in the intestinal mucus layer helps to maintain spatial segregation between the microbiota and the epithelial surface without compromising the metabolic activity of the microbes. Products shed by members of the microbial community promote production of SIgA and pIgR by activating pattern recognition receptors on host epithelial and immune cells. Maternal SIgA in breast milk provides protection to newborn mammals until the developing intestinal immune system begins to produce its own SIgA. Disruption of the SIgA-pIgR-microbial triad can increase the risk of infectious, allergic and inflammatory diseases of the intestine.

  20. Coupling of HIV-1 Antigen to the Selective Autophagy Receptor SQSTM1/p62 Promotes T-Cell-Mediated Immunity.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Aram Nikolai; Landsverk, Ole Jørgen; Simonsen, Anne; Bogen, Bjarne; Corthay, Alexandre; Øynebråten, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines aiming to promote T-cell-mediated immune responses have so far showed limited efficacy, and there is a need for novel strategies. Studies indicate that autophagy plays an inherent role in antigen processing and presentation for CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Here, we report a novel vaccine strategy based on fusion of antigen to the selective autophagy receptor sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1)/p62. We hypothesized that redirection of vaccine antigen from proteasomal degradation into the autophagy pathway would increase the generation of antigen-specific T cells. A hybrid vaccine construct was designed in which the antigen is fused to the C-terminus of p62, a signaling hub, and a receptor that naturally delivers ubiquitinated cargo for autophagic degradation. Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 antigen Gagp24 to p62 resulted in efficient antigen delivery into the autophagy pathway. Intradermal immunization of mice revealed that, in comparison to Gagp24 delivered alone, fusion to p62 enhanced the number of Gagp24-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells, including CD8(+) T cells. The strategy may also have the potential to modulate the antigenic peptide repertoire. Because p62 and autophagy are highly conserved between species, we anticipate this strategy to be a candidate for the development of T-cell-based vaccines in humans. PMID:27242780

  1. Androgen receptor (AR) suppresses miRNA-145 to promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression independent of VHL status

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Sun, Yin; Rao, Qun; Xu, Hua; Li, Lei; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    Mutational inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor plays key roles in the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and mutated VHL-mediated VEGF induction has become the main target for the current RCC therapy. Here we identified a signal pathway of VEGF induction by androgen receptor (AR)/miRNA-145 as a new target to suppress RCC progression. Mechanism dissection revealed that AR might function through binding to the androgen receptor element (ARE) located on the promoter region of miRNA-145 to suppress p53's ability to induce expression of miRNA-145 that normally suppresses expression of HIF2α/VEGF/MMP9/CCND1. Suppressing AR with AR-shRNA or introducing exogenous miRNA-145 mimic can attenuate RCC progression independent of VHL status. MiR-145 mimic in preclinical RCC orthotopic xenograft mouse model revealed its efficacy in suppression of RCC progression. These results together identified signals by AR-suppressed miRNA-145 as a key player in the RCC progression via regulating HIF2α/VEGF/MMP9/CCND1 expression levels. Blockade of the newly identified signal by AR inhibition or miRNA-145 mimics has promising therapeutic benefit to suppress RCC progression. PMID:26304926

  2. Coupling of HIV-1 Antigen to the Selective Autophagy Receptor SQSTM1/p62 Promotes T-Cell-Mediated Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Aram Nikolai; Landsverk, Ole Jørgen; Simonsen, Anne; Bogen, Bjarne; Corthay, Alexandre; Øynebråten, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines aiming to promote T-cell-mediated immune responses have so far showed limited efficacy, and there is a need for novel strategies. Studies indicate that autophagy plays an inherent role in antigen processing and presentation for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Here, we report a novel vaccine strategy based on fusion of antigen to the selective autophagy receptor sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1)/p62. We hypothesized that redirection of vaccine antigen from proteasomal degradation into the autophagy pathway would increase the generation of antigen-specific T cells. A hybrid vaccine construct was designed in which the antigen is fused to the C-terminus of p62, a signaling hub, and a receptor that naturally delivers ubiquitinated cargo for autophagic degradation. Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 antigen Gagp24 to p62 resulted in efficient antigen delivery into the autophagy pathway. Intradermal immunization of mice revealed that, in comparison to Gagp24 delivered alone, fusion to p62 enhanced the number of Gagp24-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells, including CD8+ T cells. The strategy may also have the potential to modulate the antigenic peptide repertoire. Because p62 and autophagy are highly conserved between species, we anticipate this strategy to be a candidate for the development of T-cell-based vaccines in humans. PMID:27242780

  3. An Sp1 Modulated Regulatory Region Unique to Higher Primates Regulates Human Androgen Receptor Promoter Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hay, Colin W; Hunter, Irene; MacKenzie, Alasdair; McEwan, Iain J

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mediated signalling is necessary for normal development of the prostate gland and also drives prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth and survival, with many studies showing a correlation between increased receptor levels and therapy resistance with progression to fatal castrate recurrent PCa (CRPC). Although it has been held for some time that the transcription factor Sp1 is the main stimulator of AR gene transcription, comprehensive knowledge of the regulation of the AR gene remains incomplete. Here we describe and characterise in detail two novel active regulatory elements in the 5'UTR of the human AR gene. Both of these elements contain overlapping binding sites for the positive transcription factor Sp1 and the repressor protein pur-α. Aberrant cell signalling is characteristic of PCa and the transcriptional activity of the AR promoter in PCa cells is dependent upon the relative amounts of the two transcription factors. Together with our corroboration of the dominant role of Sp1, the findings support the rationale of targeting this transcription factor to inhibit tumour progression. This should be of particular therapeutic relevance in CRPC where the levels of the repressor pur-α are reduced. PMID:26448047

  4. Salicylic acid receptors activate jasmonic acid signalling through a non-canonical pathway to promote effector-triggered immunity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijing; Sonbol, Fathi-Mohamed; Huot, Bethany; Gu, Yangnan; Withers, John; Mwimba, Musoki; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Dong, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    It is an apparent conundrum how plants evolved effector-triggered immunity (ETI), involving programmed cell death (PCD), as a major defence mechanism against biotrophic pathogens, because ETI-associated PCD could leave them vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens that thrive on dead host cells. Interestingly, during ETI, the normally antagonistic defence hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) associated with defence against biotrophs and necrotrophs respectively, both accumulate to high levels. In this study, we made the surprising finding that JA is a positive regulator of RPS2-mediated ETI. Early induction of JA-responsive genes and de novo JA synthesis following SA accumulation is activated through the SA receptors NPR3 and NPR4, instead of the JA receptor COI1. We provide evidence that NPR3 and NPR4 may mediate this effect by promoting degradation of the JA transcriptional repressor JAZs. This unique interplay between SA and JA offers a possible explanation of how plants can mount defence against a biotrophic pathogen without becoming vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27725643

  5. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase CLR-1 acts in skin cells to promote sensory dendrite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianzhuang; Wang, Xiangming; Shen, Kang

    2016-05-01

    Sensory dendrite morphogenesis is directed by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The extracellular environment plays instructive roles in patterning dendrite growth and branching. However, the molecular mechanism is not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the proprioceptive neuron PVD forms highly branched sensory dendrites adjacent to the hypodermis. We report that receptor tyrosine phosphatase CLR-1 functions in the hypodermis to pattern the PVD dendritic branches. Mutations in clr-1 lead to loss of quaternary branches, reduced secondary branches and increased ectopic branches. CLR-1 is necessary for the dendrite extension but not for the initial filopodia formation. Its role is dependent on the intracellular phosphatase domain but not the extracellular adhesion domain, indicating that it functions through dephosphorylating downstream factors but not through direct adhesion with neurons. Genetic analysis reveals that clr-1 also functions in parallel with SAX-7/DMA-1 pathway to control PVD primary dendrite development. We provide evidence of a new environmental factor for PVD dendrite morphogenesis. PMID:26968353

  6. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Daniela S; Soria, Javier A; Gaviglio, Emilia A; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Cancela, Liliana M; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in pathological conditions, resulting in microgliosis, manifested by increased cell numbers and inflammation in the affected regions. Thus, controlling microgliosis is important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to microglial survival. We observed that activation of microglial cells with peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and other TLR2 ligands results in cell activation followed by the induction of autophagy and autophagy-dependent cell death. In C57BL/6J mice, intracerebral injection of PGN increased the autophagy of microglial cells and reduced the microglial/macrophage cell number in brain parenchyma. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TLRs in the regulation of microglial cell activation and survival, which are important for the control of microgliosis and associated inflammatory responses in the CNS. PMID:23073832

  7. Aldosterone promotes vascular remodeling by direct effects on smooth muscle cell mineralocorticoid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pruthi, Dafina; McCurley, Amy; Aronovitz, Mark; Galayda, Carol; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Vascular remodeling occurs after endothelial injury resulting in smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and vascular fibrosis. We previously demonstrated that the blood pressure-regulating hormone aldosterone enhances vascular remodeling in mice at sites of endothelial injury in a placental growth factor (PlGF)-dependent manner. We now test the hypothesis that SMC mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) directly mediate the remodeling effects of aldosterone and further explore the mechanism. Approach and Results A wire-induced carotid injury model was performed in wild type (WT) mice and mice with inducible SMC-specific deletion of MR (SMC-MR-KO). Aldosterone did not affect re-endothelialization after injury in WT mice. Deletion of SMC-MR prevented the 79% increase in SMC proliferation induced by aldosterone after injury in MR-Intact littermates. Moreover, both injury-induced and aldosterone-enhanced vascular fibrosis were attenuated in SMC-MR-KO mice. Further exploration of the mechanism revealed that aldosterone-induced vascular remodeling is prevented by blockade of the PlGF-specific receptor, VEGFR1, in vivo. Immunohistochemistry of carotid vessels shows that the induction of VEGFR1 expression in SMC after vascular injury is attenuated by 72% in SMC-MR-KO mice. Moreover, aldosterone induction of vascular PlGF mRNA expression and protein release are also prevented in vessels lacking SMC-MR. Conclusions These studies reveal that SMC-MR is necessary for aldosterone-induced vascular remodeling independent of renal effects on blood pressure. SMC-MR contributes to induction of SMC VEGFR1 in the area of vascular injury and to aldosterone-enhanced vascular PlGF expression and hence the detrimental effects of aldosterone are prevented by VEGFR1-blockade. This study supports exploring MR antagonists and VEGFR1-blockade to prevent pathological vascular remodeling induced by aldosterone. PMID:24311380

  8. Progesterone promotes survival of the rat corpus luteum in the absence of cognate receptors.

    PubMed

    Goyeneche, Alicia A; Deis, Ricardo P; Gibori, Geula; Telleria, Carlos M

    2003-01-01

    Progesterone production by the corpus luteum (CL) is essential for preparation of the endometrium for implantation and for the maintenance of gestation. Progesterone modulates its own production and opposes functional luteal regression induced by exogenous agents, such as prostaglandin F(2alpha). In the present study, we evaluated whether progesterone is also capable of interfering with the process of structural luteal regression, which is characterized by a decrease in weight and size of the gland because of programmed cell death (i.e., apoptosis). We have found that a low number of luteal cells undergo apoptosis throughout gestation. On the day of parturition, but following the initial decline in endogenous progesterone production, a small increase in the number of luteal cells undergoing cell death was observed. This increase in apoptotic cells continued postpartum, reaching dramatic levels by Day 4 postpartum, and was accompanied by a marked decrease in average luteal weight. We have established that the exogenous administration of progesterone significantly reduces the decline in luteal weight observed during structural luteal regression postpartum. This effect was associated with a decrease in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis and with enhanced circulating levels of androstenedione. Furthermore, in vivo administration of progesterone delayed the occurrence of DNA fragmentation in postpartum CL incubated in serum-free conditions. Finally, we have shown that neither the CL of gestation nor the newly formed CL after postpartum ovulation express the classic progesterone-receptor mRNA. In summary, the present results support a protective action of progesterone on the function and survival of the CL through inhibition of apoptosis and stimulation of androstenedione production. Furthermore, this effect is carried out in the absence of classic progesterone receptors.

  9. Mammary Adipose Tissue-Derived Lysophospholipids Promote Estrogen Receptor-Negative Mammary Epithelial Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Volden, Paul A; Skor, Maxwell N; Johnson, Marianna B; Singh, Puneet; Patel, Feenalie N; McClintock, Martha K; Brady, Matthew J; Conzen, Suzanne D

    2016-05-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting in an autocrine or paracrine fashion through G protein-coupled receptors, has been implicated in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including cancer. LPA is converted from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by the secreted phospholipase autotaxin (ATX). Although various cell types can produce ATX, adipocyte-derived ATX is believed to be the major source of circulating ATX and also to be the major regulator of plasma LPA levels. In addition to ATX, adipocytes secrete numerous other factors (adipokines); although several adipokines have been implicated in breast cancer biology, the contribution of mammary adipose tissue-derived LPC/ATX/LPA (LPA axis) signaling to breast cancer is poorly understood. Using murine mammary fat-conditioned medium, we investigated the contribution of LPA signaling to mammary epithelial cancer cell biology and identified LPA signaling as a significant contributor to the oncogenic effects of the mammary adipose tissue secretome. To interrogate the role of mammary fat in the LPA axis during breast cancer progression, we exposed mammary adipose tissue to secreted factors from estrogen receptor-negative mammary epithelial cell lines and monitored changes in the mammary fat pad LPA axis. Our data indicate that bidirectional interactions between mammary cancer cells and mammary adipocytes alter the local LPA axis and increase ATX expression in the mammary fat pad during breast cancer progression. Thus, the LPC/ATX/LPA axis may be a useful target for prevention in patients at risk of ER-negative breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 367-78. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26862086

  10. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Promotes RORγt+ ILCs and Controls Intestinal Immunity and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Unlike adaptive immune cells that require antigen recognition and functional maturation during infection, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) usually respond to pathogens promptly and serve as the first line of defense in infectious diseases. RAR-related orphan receptors (RORγt)+ ILCs are one of the innate cell populations that have recently been intensively studied. During the fetal stage of development, RORγt+ ILCs (e.g., lymphoid tissue inducer-LTi cells) are required for lymphoid organogenesis. In adult mice, RORγt+ ILCs are abundantly present in the gut to exert immune defensive functions. Under certain circumstances, however, RORγt+ ILCs can be pathogenic and contribute to intestinal inflammation. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor, is widely expressed by various immune and non-immune cells. In the gut, the ligand for Ahr can be derived/generated from diet, microflora, and/or host cells. Ahr has been shown to regulate different cell populations in the immune system including RORγt+ ILCs, T helper (Th)17/22 cells, γδT cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), Tr1 cells, and antigen presenting cells (APCs). In this review, we will focus on the development and function of RORγt+ ILCs, and discuss the role of Ahr in intestinal immunity and inflammation in mice and in humans. Better understanding the function of Ahr in the gut is important for developing new therapeutic means to target Ahr in future treatment of infectious and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23975386

  11. Optimal Retirement with Increasing Longevity*

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Moore, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We develop an optimizing life-cycle model of retirement with perfect capital markets. We show that longer healthy life expectancy usually leads to later retirement, but with an elasticity less than unity. We calibrate our model using data from the US and find that, over the last century, the effect of rising incomes, which promote early retirement, has dominated the effect of rising lifespans. Our model predicts continuing declines in the optimal retirement age, despite rising life expectancy, provided the rate of real wage growth remains as high as in the last century. PMID:24954970

  12. Cysteine dioxygenase type 1 promotes adipogenesis via interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Peng; Chen, Yi; Ji, Ning; Lin, Yunfeng; Yuan, Quan; Ye, Ling; Chen, Qianming

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (CDO1) is an essential enzyme for taurine biosynthesis and the biodegradation of toxic cysteine. As previously suggested, Cdo1 may be a marker of liposarcoma progression and adipogenic differentiation, but the role of Cdo1 in adipogenesis has yet been reported. In this study, we found that the expression of Cdo1 is dramatically elevated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs). Conversely, knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 cells and mBMSCs. Mechanistically, we found Cdo1 interacted with Pparγ in response to adipogenic stimulus. Further, depletion of Cdo1 reduced the recruitment of Pparγ to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4. Collectively, our finding indicates that Cdo1 may be a co-activator of Pparγ in adipogenesis, and may contribute to the development of disease associated with excessive adipose tissue. - Highlights: • Cdo1expression is highly up-regulated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 and mBMSCs. • Depletion of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation. • Cdo1interacts with Pparγ during adipogenesis. • Knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited Pparγ binding to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4.

  13. Innate lymphotoxin receptor mediated signaling promotes HSV-1 associated neuroinflammation and viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yong; Yang, Kaiting; Guo, Jingya; Wroblewska, Joanna; Fu, Yang-Xin; Peng, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Host anti-viral innate immunity plays important roles in the defense against HSV-1 infection. In this study, we find an unexpected role for innate LT/LIGHT signaling in promoting HSV-1 replication and virus induced inflammation in immunocompromised mice. Using a model of footpad HSV-1 infection in Rag1–/– mice, we observed that blocking LT/LIGHT signaling with LTβR-Ig could significantly delay disease progression and extend the survival of infected mice. LTβR-Ig treatment reduced late proinflammatory cytokine release in the serum and nervous tissue, and inhibited chemokine expression and inflammatory cells infiltration in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Intriguingly, LTβR-Ig treatment restricted HSV-1 replication in the DRG but not the footpad. These findings demonstrate a critical role for LT/LIGHT signaling in modulating innate inflammation and promoting HSV-1 replication in the nervous system, and suggest a new target for treatment of virus-induced adverse immune response and control of severe HSV-1 infection. PMID:25993659

  14. Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang; Goto, Yutaka; Mukasa, Chizu; Ashida, Kenji; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancer cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.

  15. Histone acetylation characterizes chromatin presetting by NF1 and Oct1 and enhances glucocorticoid receptor binding to the MMTV promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Astrand, Carolina; Belikov, Sergey; Wrange, Orjan

    2009-09-10

    Transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). This switch was reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. Previously, we showed that Nuclear Factor 1 (NF1) and Octamer Transcription Factor 1 (Oct1) bind constitutively to the MMTV promoter and thereby induce translational nucleosome positioning representing an intermediary, i.e. preset, state of nucleosome organization. Here we further characterize this NF1 and Oct1 induced preset chromatin in relation to the inactive and the hormone-activated state. The preset chromatin exhibits increased histone acetylation but does not cause dissociation of histone H1 as oppose to the hormone-activated state. Furthermore, upon hormone induction the preset MMTV chromatin displays an enhanced and prolonged GR binding capacity and transcription during an intrinsic and time-dependent silencing of the injected template. The silencing process correlates with a reduced histone acetylation. However, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), does not counteract silencing in spite of its distinct stimulation of GR-DNA binding. The latter indicates the importance of histone acetylation to maintain DNA access for inducible factor binding. We discuss how constitutively bound factors such as NF1 and Oct1 may participate in the maintenance of tissue specificity of hormone responsive genes.

  16. Common Mechanisms for Calorie Restriction and AC5 Knockout Models of Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lin; Park, Ji Yeon; Dillinger, Jean-Guillaume; De Lorenzo, Mariana S.; Yuan, Chujun; Lai, Lo; Wang, Chunbo; Ho, David; Tian, Bin; Stanley, William C; Auwerx, Johan; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Vatner, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Adenylyl cyclase type 5 knockout mice (AC5 KO) live longer and are stress resistant, similar to calorie restriction (CR). AC5 KO mice eat more, but actually weigh less and accumulate less fat compared to WT mice. CR applied to AC5 KO result in rapid decrease in body weight, metabolic deterioration and death. These data suggest that despite restricted food intake in CR, but augmented food intake in AC5 KO, the two models affect longevity and metabolism similarly. To determine shared molecular mechanisms, mRNA expression was examined genome-wide for brain, heart, skeletal muscle and liver. Significantly more genes were regulated commonly rather than oppositely in all the tissues in both models, indicating commonality between AC5 KO and CR. Gene Ontology analysis identified many significantly regulated, tissue-specific pathways shared by the two models, including sensory perception in heart and brain, muscle function in skeletal muscle, and lipid metabolism in liver. Moreover, when comparing gene expression changes in the heart under stress, the glutathione regulatory pathway was consistently upregulated in the longevity models but downregulated with stress. In addition, AC5 and CR shared changes in genes and proteins involved in the regulation of longevity and stress resistance, including Sirt1, ApoD and olfactory receptors in both young and intermediate age mice. Thus, the similarly regulated genes and pathways in AC5 KO and CR, particularly related to the metabolic phenotype, suggest a unified theory for longevity and stress resistance. PMID:23020244

  17. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport pathway mediates chemokine receptor CXCR4-promoted lysosomal degradation of the mammalian target of rapamycin antagonist DEPTOR.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rita; Marchese, Adriano

    2015-03-13

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling mediates many cellular functions, including cell survival, proliferation, and cell motility. Many of these processes are mediated by GPCR-promoted activation of Akt signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GPCRs govern Akt activation by these kinases remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway mediates Akt signaling promoted by the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Pharmacological inhibition of heterotrimeric G protein Gαi or PI3K signaling and siRNA targeting ESCRTs blocks CXCR4-promoted degradation of DEPTOR, an endogenous antagonist of mTORC2 activity. Depletion of ESCRTs by siRNA leads to increased levels of DEPTOR and attenuated CXCR4-promoted Akt activation and signaling, consistent with decreased mTORC2 activity. In addition, ESCRTs likely have a broad role in Akt signaling because ESCRT depletion also attenuates receptor tyrosine kinase-promoted Akt activation and signaling. Our data reveal a novel role for the ESCRT pathway in promoting intracellular signaling, which may begin to identify the signal transduction pathways that are important in the physiological roles of ESCRTs and Akt.

  18. Downregulation of the Escherichia coli guaB promoter by upstream-bound cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Husnain, Seyyed I; Busby, Stephen J W; Thomas, Mark S

    2009-10-01

    The Escherichia coli guaB promoter (P(guaB)) is responsible for directing transcription of the guaB and guaA genes, which specify the biosynthesis of the nucleotide GMP. P(guaB) is subject to growth rate-dependent control (GRDC) and possesses an UP element that is required for this regulation. In addition, P(guaB) contains a discriminator, three binding sites for the nucleoid-associated protein FIS, and putative binding sites for the regulatory proteins DnaA, PurR, and cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). Here we show that the CRP-cyclic AMP (cAMP) complex binds to a site located over 100 bp upstream of the guaB transcription start site, where it serves to downregulate P(guaB). The CRP-mediated repression of P(guaB) activity increases in media that support lower growth rates. Inactivation of the crp or cyaA gene or ablation/translocation of the CRP site relieves repression by CRP and results in a loss of GRDC of P(guaB). Thus, GRDC of P(guaB) involves a progressive increase in CRP-mediated repression of the promoter as the growth rate decreases. Our results also suggest that the CRP-cAMP complex does not direct GRDC at P(guaB) and that at least one other regulatory factor is required for conferring GRDC on this promoter. However, PurR and DnaA are not required for this regulatory mechanism.

  19. Non-genomic estrogen/estrogen receptor α promotes cellular malignancy of immature ovarian teratoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chun; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Ying-Yi; Wu, Ling-Yu; Chung, Wei-Min; Lin, Tze-Yi; Chen, Liang-Chi; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2014-06-01

    Malignant immature ovarian teratomas (IOTs) most often occur in women of reproductive age. It is unclear, however, what roles estrogenic signaling plays in the development of IOT. In this study, we examined whether estrogen receptors (ERα and β) promote the cellular malignancy of IOT. Estradiol (E2), PPT (propylpyrazole), and DPN (diarylpropionitrile) (ERα- and β-specific agonists, respectively), as well as ERα- or ERβ-specific short hairpin (sh)RNA were applied to PA-1 cells, a well-characterized IOT cell line. Cellular tumorigenic characteristics, for example, cell migration/invasion, expression of the cancer stem/progenitor cell marker CD133, and evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were examined. In PA-1 cells that expressed ERα and ERβ, we found that ERα promoted cell migration and invasion. We also found that E2/ERα signaling altered cell behavior through non-classical transactivation function. Our data show non-genomic E2/ERα activations of focal adhesion kinase-Ras homolog gene family member A (FAK-RhoA) and ERK governed cell mobility capacity. Moreover, E2/ERα signaling induces EMT and overexpression of CD133 through upregulation micro-RNA 21 (miR21; IOT stem/progenitor promoter), and ERK phosphorylations. Furthermore, E2/ERα signaling triggers a positive feedback regulatory loop within miR21 and ERK. At last, expression levels of ERα, CD133, and EMT markers in IOT tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that cytosolic ERα was co-expressed with CD133 and mesenchymal cell markers but not epithelial cell markers. In conclusion, estrogenic signals exert malignant transformation capacity of cancer cells, exclusively through non-genomic regulation in female germ cell tumors.

  20. Multiple Promoter Elements Contribute to Activity of the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Gene in Testicular Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heckert, Leslie L.; Daggett, Melissa A. F.; Chen, Jiangkai

    2006-01-01

    The FSH receptor (FSHR) is expressed only in granulosa cells of the ovary and Sertoli cells of the testis. This highly specific pattern of gene expression asserts that transcriptional events unique to these two cell types are responsible for activation of the FSHR gene. We have characterized the promoter elements required for activity of the rat FSHR gene in a Sertoli cell line MSC-1, primary cultures of rat Sertoli cells, and two non-Sertoli cell lines. Transient transfection analysis of deletion and block replacement mutants identified several elements, both 5′ and 3′ to the transcriptional start sites, that are essential for full promoter activity in Sertoli cells. These studies confirmed the use of an important E box element (CACGTG), which had the single greatest impact on promoter function. Bases within the core CACGTG of the E box, as well as flanking sequences, were shown to be essential for its function. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified both upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) and USF2 as primary components of the complexes binding the E box. Sequence requirements for USF binding in vitro modestly diverged from the sequence requirements for in vivo function of the element. Comparison of the E box binding proteins in different cell types revealed that similar proteins bind the E box in Sertoli and non-Sertoli cell lines. Extracts from primary cultures of rat and mouse Sertoli cells have a second E box-binding complex that cross-reacts with USF antibodies that is not present in the cell lines. PMID:9773974

  1. Non-genomic estrogen/estrogen receptor α promotes cellular malignancy of immature ovarian teratoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chun; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Ying-Yi; Wu, Ling-Yu; Chung, Wei-Min; Lin, Tze-Yi; Chen, Liang-Chi; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2014-06-01

    Malignant immature ovarian teratomas (IOTs) most often occur in women of reproductive age. It is unclear, however, what roles estrogenic signaling plays in the development of IOT. In this study, we examined whether estrogen receptors (ERα and β) promote the cellular malignancy of IOT. Estradiol (E2), PPT (propylpyrazole), and DPN (diarylpropionitrile) (ERα- and β-specific agonists, respectively), as well as ERα- or ERβ-specific short hairpin (sh)RNA were applied to PA-1 cells, a well-characterized IOT cell line. Cellular tumorigenic characteristics, for example, cell migration/invasion, expression of the cancer stem/progenitor cell marker CD133, and evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were examined. In PA-1 cells that expressed ERα and ERβ, we found that ERα promoted cell migration and invasion. We also found that E2/ERα signaling altered cell behavior through non-classical transactivation function. Our data show non-genomic E2/ERα activations of focal adhesion kinase-Ras homolog gene family member A (FAK-RhoA) and ERK governed cell mobility capacity. Moreover, E2/ERα signaling induces EMT and overexpression of CD133 through upregulation micro-RNA 21 (miR21; IOT stem/progenitor promoter), and ERK phosphorylations. Furthermore, E2/ERα signaling triggers a positive feedback regulatory loop within miR21 and ERK. At last, expression levels of ERα, CD133, and EMT markers in IOT tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that cytosolic ERα was co-expressed with CD133 and mesenchymal cell markers but not epithelial cell markers. In conclusion, estrogenic signals exert malignant transformation capacity of cancer cells, exclusively through non-genomic regulation in female germ cell tumors. PMID:24142535

  2. Prorenin/Renin Receptor Blockade Promotes a Healthy Fat Distribution in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Paul; Blais, Carolane; Nguyen, Thi M.-D.; Schiller, Peter W.; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Lavoie, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Administration of the handle region peptide (HRP), a (pro)renin receptor blocker, decreases body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF/HC) diet-fed mice. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential mechanisms implicated in these observations. Methods Mice were given a normal or a HF/HC diet along with saline or HRP for 10 weeks. Results In HF/HC-fed mice, HRP increased the expression of several enzymes implicated in lipogenesis and lipolysis in subcutaneous fat (SCF) while the expression of the enzyme implicated in the last step of lipogenesis decreased in VAT. A reduction was also observed in circulating free fatty acids in these animals which was accompanied by normalized adipocyte size in VAT and increased adipocyte size in SCF. “Beiging“ is the evolution of a white adipose tissue toward a brown-like phenotype characterized by an increased mitochondrial density and small lipid droplets. HRP increased the expression of’ “beiging” markers in SCF of HF/HC diet-fed mice. Conclusions HRP treatment may favor healthy fat storage in SCF by activating a triglyceride/free fatty acid cycling and “beiging,” which could explain the body weight and fat mass reduction. PMID:27458124

  3. Nicotinic receptors in the ventral tegmental area promote uncertainty-seeking.

    PubMed

    Naudé, Jérémie; Tolu, Stefania; Dongelmans, Malou; Torquet, Nicolas; Valverde, Sébastien; Rodriguez, Guillaume; Pons, Stéphanie; Maskos, Uwe; Mourot, Alexandre; Marti, Fabio; Faure, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Cholinergic neurotransmission affects decision-making, notably through the modulation of perceptual processing in the cortex. In addition, acetylcholine acts on value-based decisions through as yet unknown mechanisms. We found that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are involved in the translation of expected uncertainty into motivational value. We developed a multi-armed bandit task for mice with three locations, each associated with a different reward probability. We found that mice lacking the nAChR β2 subunit showed less uncertainty-seeking than their wild-type counterparts. Using model-based analysis, we found that reward uncertainty motivated wild-type mice, but not mice lacking the nAChR β2 subunit. Selective re-expression of the β2 subunit in the VTA was sufficient to restore spontaneous bursting activity in dopamine neurons and uncertainty-seeking. Our results reveal an unanticipated role for subcortical nAChRs in motivation induced by expected uncertainty and provide a parsimonious account for a wealth of behaviors related to nAChRs in the VTA expressing the β2 subunit. PMID:26780509

  4. Protease induced plasticity: matrix metalloproteinase-1 promotes neurostructural changes through activation of protease activated receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Megan; Ghosh, Suhasini; Ahern, Gerard P.; Villapol, Sonia; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.; Conant, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of secreted endopeptidases expressed by neurons and glia. Regulated MMP activity contributes to physiological synaptic plasticity, while dysregulated activity can stimulate injury. Disentangling the role individual MMPs play in synaptic plasticity is difficult due to overlapping structure and function as well as cell-type specific expression. Here, we develop a novel system to investigate the selective overexpression of a single MMP driven by GFAP expressing cells in vivo. We show that MMP-1 induces cellular and behavioral phenotypes consistent with enhanced signaling through the G-protein coupled protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Application of exogenous MMP-1, in vitro, stimulates PAR1 dependent increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and dendritic arborization. Overexpression of MMP-1, in vivo, increases dendritic complexity and induces biochemical and behavioral endpoints consistent with increased GPCR signaling. These data are exciting because we demonstrate that an astrocyte-derived protease can influence neuronal plasticity through an extracellular matrix independent mechanism. PMID:27762280

  5. Infiltrating macrophages promote prostate tumorigenesis via modulating androgen receptor-mediated CCL4-STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei-Ya; Izumi, Kouji; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Liang, Liang; Li, Lei; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Lin, Wen-Jye; Chang, Chawnshang

    2013-09-15

    Infiltrating macrophages are a key component of inflammation during tumorigenesis, but the direct evidence of such linkage remains unclear. We report here that persistent coculturing of immortalized prostate epithelial cells with macrophages, without adding any carcinogens, induces prostate tumorigenesis and that induction involves the alteration of signaling of macrophage androgen receptor (AR)-inflammatory chemokine CCL4-STAT3 activation as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and downregulation of p53/PTEN tumor suppressors. In vivo studies further showed that PTEN(+/-) mice lacking macrophage AR developed far fewer prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions, supporting an in vivo role for macrophage AR during prostate tumorigenesis. CCL4-neutralizing antibody effectively blocked macrophage-induced prostate tumorigenic signaling and targeting AR via an AR-degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, reduced CCL4 expression, and xenografted tumor growth in vivo. Importantly, CCL4 upregulation was associated with increased Snail expression and downregulation of p53/PTEN in high-grade PIN and prostate cancer. Together, our results identify the AR-CCL4-STAT3 axis as key regulators during prostate tumor initiation and highlight the important roles of infiltrating macrophages and inflammatory cytokines for the prostate tumorigenesis.

  6. Adiponectin receptor 1 conserves docosahexaenoic acid and promotes photoreceptor cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Dennis S.; Calandria, Jorgelina M.; Gordon, William C.; Jun, Bokkyoo; Zhou, Yongdong; Gelfman, Claire M.; Li, Songhua; Jin, Minghao; Knott, Eric J.; Chang, Bo; Abuin, Alex; Issa, Tawfik; Potter, David; Platt, Kenneth A.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of pathways necessary for photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) function is critical to uncover therapies for blindness. Here we report the discovery of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) as a regulator of these cells’ functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is avidly retained in photoreceptors, while mechanisms controlling DHA uptake and retention are unknown. Thus, we demonstrate that AdipoR1 ablation results in DHA reduction. In situ hybridization reveals photoreceptor and RPE cell AdipoR1 expression, blunted in AdipoR1−/− mice. We also find decreased photoreceptor-specific phosphatidylcholine containing very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and severely attenuated electroretinograms. These changes precede progressive photoreceptor degeneration in AdipoR1−/− mice. RPE-rich eyecup cultures from AdipoR1−/− reveal impaired DHA uptake. AdipoR1 overexpression in RPE cells enhances DHA uptake, whereas AdipoR1 silencing has the opposite effect. These results establish AdipoR1 as a regulatory switch of DHA uptake, retention, conservation and elongation in photoreceptors and RPE, thus preserving photoreceptor cell integrity. PMID:25736573

  7. The receptor tyrosine kinase Pvr promotes tissue closure by coordinating corpse removal and epidermal zippering

    PubMed Central

    Garlena, Rebecca A.; Lennox, Ashley L.; Baker, Lewis R.; Parsons, Trish E.; Weinberg, Seth M.; Stronach, Beth E.

    2015-01-01

    A leading cause of human birth defects is the incomplete fusion of tissues, often manifested in the palate, heart or neural tube. To investigate the molecular control of tissue fusion, embryonic dorsal closure and pupal thorax closure in Drosophila are useful experimental models. We find that Pvr mutants have defects in dorsal midline closure with incomplete amnioserosa internalization and epidermal zippering, as well as cardia bifida. These defects are relatively mild in comparison to those seen with other signaling mutants, such as in the JNK pathway, and we demonstrate that JNK signaling is not perturbed by altering Pvr receptor tyrosine kinase activity. Rather, modulation of Pvr levels in the ectoderm has an impact on PIP3 membrane accumulation, consistent with a link to PI3K signal transduction. Polarized PI3K activity influences protrusive activity from the epidermal leading edge and the protrusion area changes in accord with Pvr signaling intensity, providing a possible mechanism to explain Pvr mutant phenotypes. Tissue-specific rescue experiments indicate a partial requirement in epithelial tissue, but confirm the essential role of Pvr in hemocytes for embryonic survival. Taken together, we argue that inefficient removal of the internalizing amnioserosa tissue by mutant hemocytes coupled with impaired midline zippering of mutant epithelium creates a situation in some embryos whereby dorsal midline closure is incomplete. Based on these observations, we suggest that efferocytosis (corpse clearance) could contribute to proper tissue closure and thus might underlie some congenital birth defects. PMID:26293306

  8. Nicotinic receptors in the ventral tegmental area promote uncertainty-seeking.

    PubMed

    Naudé, Jérémie; Tolu, Stefania; Dongelmans, Malou; Torquet, Nicolas; Valverde, Sébastien; Rodriguez, Guillaume; Pons, Stéphanie; Maskos, Uwe; Mourot, Alexandre; Marti, Fabio; Faure, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Cholinergic neurotransmission affects decision-making, notably through the modulation of perceptual processing in the cortex. In addition, acetylcholine acts on value-based decisions through as yet unknown mechanisms. We found that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are involved in the translation of expected uncertainty into motivational value. We developed a multi-armed bandit task for mice with three locations, each associated with a different reward probability. We found that mice lacking the nAChR β2 subunit showed less uncertainty-seeking than their wild-type counterparts. Using model-based analysis, we found that reward uncertainty motivated wild-type mice, but not mice lacking the nAChR β2 subunit. Selective re-expression of the β2 subunit in the VTA was sufficient to restore spontaneous bursting activity in dopamine neurons and uncertainty-seeking. Our results reveal an unanticipated role for subcortical nAChRs in motivation induced by expected uncertainty and provide a parsimonious account for a wealth of behaviors related to nAChRs in the VTA expressing the β2 subunit.

  9. The export receptor Crm1 forms a dimer to promote nuclear export of HIV RNA

    PubMed Central

    Booth, David S; Cheng, Yifan; Frankel, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    The HIV Rev protein routes viral RNAs containing the Rev Response Element (RRE) through the Crm1 nuclear export pathway to the cytoplasm where viral proteins are expressed and genomic RNA is delivered to assembling virions. The RRE assembles a Rev oligomer that displays nuclear export sequences (NESs) for recognition by the Crm1-RanGTP nuclear receptor complex. Here we provide the first view of an assembled HIV-host nuclear export complex using single-particle electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, Crm1 forms a dimer with an extensive interface that enhances association with Rev-RRE and poises NES binding sites to interact with a Rev oligomer. The interface between Crm1 monomers explains differences between Crm1 orthologs that alter nuclear export and determine cellular tropism for viral replication. The arrangement of the export complex identifies a novel binding surface to possibly target an HIV inhibitor and may point to a broader role for Crm1 dimerization in regulating host gene expression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04121.001 PMID:25486595

  10. Prokineticin receptor-1 signaling promotes Epicardial to Mesenchymal Transition during heart development

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Himanshu; Boulberdaa, Mounia; Qureshi, Rehana; Bitirim, Verda; Gasser, Adeline; Messaddeq, Nadia; Dolle, Pascal; Nebigil, Canan G.

    2016-01-01

    The epicardium plays an essential role in coronary artery formation and myocardial development. However, signals controlling the developing epicardium and epicardial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the normal and diseased adult heart are studied less rigorously. Here we investigated the role of angiogenic hormone, prokineticin-2 and its receptor PKR1 in the epicardium of developing and adult heart. Genetic ablation of PKR1 in epicardium leads to partial embryonic and postnatal lethality with abnormal heart development. Cardiac developmental defects are manifested in the adult stage as ischemic cardiomyopathy with systolic dysfunction. We discovered that PKR1 regulates epicardial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) for epicardial-derived progenitor cell (EPDC), formation. This event affects at least three consequential steps during heart development: (i) EPDC and cardiomyocyte proliferation involved in thickening of an outer compact ventricular chamber wall, (ii) rhythmicity, (iii) formation of coronary circulation. In isolated embryonic EPDCs, overexpression or activation of PKR1 alters cell morphology and EMT markers via activating Akt signaling. Lack of PKR1 signal in epicardium leads to defective heart development and underlies the origin of congenital heart disease in adult mice. Our mice provide genetic models for congenital dysfunction of the heart and should facilitate studies of both pathogenesis and therapy of cardiac disorders in humans. PMID:27150455

  11. The export receptor Crm1 forms a dimer to promote nuclear export of HIV RNA.

    PubMed

    Booth, David S; Cheng, Yifan; Frankel, Alan D

    2014-12-08

    The HIV Rev protein routes viral RNAs containing the Rev Response Element (RRE) through the Crm1 nuclear export pathway to the cytoplasm where viral proteins are expressed and genomic RNA is delivered to assembling virions. The RRE assembles a Rev oligomer that displays nuclear export sequences (NESs) for recognition by the Crm1-Ran(GTP) nuclear receptor complex. Here we provide the first view of an assembled HIV-host nuclear export complex using single-particle electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, Crm1 forms a dimer with an extensive interface that enhances association with Rev-RRE and poises NES binding sites to interact with a Rev oligomer. The interface between Crm1 monomers explains differences between Crm1 orthologs that alter nuclear export and determine cellular tropism for viral replication. The arrangement of the export complex identifies a novel binding surface to possibly target an HIV inhibitor and may point to a broader role for Crm1 dimerization in regulating host gene expression.

  12. KPNA7, a nuclear transport receptor, promotes malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Laurila, Eeva; Vuorinen, Elisa; Savinainen, Kimmo; Rauhala, Hanna; Kallioniemi, Anne

    2014-03-10

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. The high mortality rate is mostly due to the lack of appropriate tools for early detection of the disease and a shortage of effective therapies. We have previously shown that karyopherin alpha 7 (KPNA7), the newest member of the alpha karyopherin family of nuclear import receptors, is frequently amplified and overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that KPNA7 expression is absent in practically all normal human adult tissues but elevated in several pancreatic cancer cell lines. Inhibition of KPNA7 expression in AsPC-1 and Hs700T pancreatic cancer cells led to a reduction in cell growth and decreased anchorage independent growth, as well as increased autophagy. The cell growth effects were accompanied by an induction of the cell cycle regulator p21 and a G1 arrest of the cell cycle. Interestingly, the p21 induction was caused by increased mRNA synthesis and not defective nuclear transport. These data strongly demonstrate that KPNA7 silencing inhibits the malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and thereby provide the first evidence on the functional role for KPNA7 in human cancer. - Highlights: • KPNA7 expression is elevated in several pancreatic cancer cell lines. • KPNA7 silencing in high expressing cancer cells leads to growth inhibition. • The cell growth reduction is associated with p21 induction and G1 arrest. • KPNA7 silencing is also accompanied with increased autophagy.

  13. The Gut Epithelial Receptor LRRC19 Promotes the Recruitment of Immune Cells and Gut Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shuisong; Su, Xiaomin; Zeng, Benhua; Yan, Hui; Huang, Yugang; Wang, Enlin; Yun, Huan; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Feifei; Li, Wenxia; Wei, Hong; Che, Yongzhe; Yang, Rongcun

    2016-01-01

    Summary Commensal microbes are necessary for a healthy gut immune system. However, the mechanism involving these microbes that establish and maintain gut immune responses is largely unknown. Here, we have found that the gut immune receptor leucine-rich repeat (LRR) C19 is involved in host-microbiota interactions. LRRC19 deficiency not only impairs the gut immune system but also reduces inflammatory responses in gut tissues. We demonstrate that the LRRC19-associated chemokines CCL6, CCL9, CXCL9, and CXCL10 play a critical role in immune cell recruitment and intestinal inflammation. The expression of these chemokines is associated with regenerating islet-derived (REG) protein-mediated microbiotas. We also found that the expression of REGs may be regulated by gut Lactobacillus through LRRC19-mediated activation of NF-κB. Therefore, our study establishes a regulatory axis of LRRC19, REGs, altered microbiotas, and chemokines for the recruitment of immune cells and the regulation of intestinal inflammation. PMID:26776522

  14. MUC1-C oncoprotein promotes FLT3 receptor activation in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Suiyang; Yin, Li; Stroopinsky, Dina; Rajabi, Hasan; Puissant, Alexandre; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Avigan, David; Kharbanda, Surender; Kufe, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Blasts from approximately one-third of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbor activating mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) receptor tyrosine kinase that confer a poor prognosis. The Mucin 1-C-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) oncoprotein is aberrantly expressed in AML blasts and stem cells; however, there is no known interaction between MUC1-C and FLT3. The present studies demonstrate that MUC1-C associates with wild-type and mutant FLT3 in AML cells. Targeting MUC1-C with the cell-penetrating peptide inhibitor GO-203 disrupts MUC1-C/FLT3 complexes and downregulates FLT3 activation. GO-203 treatment of AML cells was also associated with inhibition of the FLT3 downstream effectors AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and STAT5. The results further show that AML cells with FLT3-activating mutations and resistant to the FLT3 inhibitor midostaurin/PKC412 are sensitive to GO-203–induced growth arrest and death. Moreover, GO-203 increases sensitivity of mutant FLT3 AML cells to FLT3 inhibitor treatment. These results indicate that MUC1-C contributes to FLT3 activation in AML cells and that targeting MUC1-C inhibits the FLT3 signaling pathway. Our findings support the development of MUC1-C inhibitors alone and in combination with agents that target FLT3 for the treatment of wild-type and mutant FLT3 AML. PMID:24282218

  15. The receptor tyrosine kinase Pvr promotes tissue closure by coordinating corpse removal and epidermal zippering.

    PubMed

    Garlena, Rebecca A; Lennox, Ashley L; Baker, Lewis R; Parsons, Trish E; Weinberg, Seth M; Stronach, Beth E

    2015-10-01

    A leading cause of human birth defects is the incomplete fusion of tissues, often manifested in the palate, heart or neural tube. To investigate the molecular control of tissue fusion, embryonic dorsal closure and pupal thorax closure in Drosophila are useful experimental models. We find that Pvr mutants have defects in dorsal midline closure with incomplete amnioserosa internalization and epidermal zippering, as well as cardia bifida. These defects are relatively mild in comparison to those seen with other signaling mutants, such as in the JNK pathway, and we demonstrate that JNK signaling is not perturbed by altering Pvr receptor tyrosine kinase activity. Rather, modulation of Pvr levels in the ectoderm has an impact on PIP3 membrane accumulation, consistent with a link to PI3K signal transduction. Polarized PI3K activity influences protrusive activity from the epidermal leading edge and the protrusion area changes in accord with Pvr signaling intensity, providing a possible mechanism to explain Pvr mutant phenotypes. Tissue-specific rescue experiments indicate a partial requirement in epithelial tissue, but confirm the essential role of Pvr in hemocytes for embryonic survival. Taken together, we argue that inefficient removal of the internalizing amnioserosa tissue by mutant hemocytes coupled with impaired midline zippering of mutant epithelium creates a situation in some embryos whereby dorsal midline closure is incomplete. Based on these observations, we suggest that efferocytosis (corpse clearance) could contribute to proper tissue closure and thus might underlie some congenital birth defects. PMID:26293306

  16. The Retinoid-Related Orphan Receptor RORα Promotes Keratinocyte Differentiation via FOXN1

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jun; Brooks, Yang; Lefort, Karine; Getsios, Spiro; Dotto, G. Paolo

    2013-01-01

    RORα is a retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor that regulates inflammation, lipid metabolism, and cellular differentiation of several non-epithelial tissues. In spite of its high expression in skin epithelium, its functions in this tissue remain unclear. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches to alter RORα gene expression in human keratinocytes (HKCs), we have found that this transcription factor functions as a regulator of epidermal differentiation. Among the 4 RORα isoforms, RORα4 is prominently expressed by keratinocytes in a manner that increases with differentiation. In contrast, RORα levels are significantly lower in skin squamous cell carcinoma tumors (SCCs) and cell lines. Increasing the levels of RORα4 in HKCs enhanced the expression of structural proteins associated with early and late differentiation, as well as genes involved in lipid barrier formation. Gene silencing of RORα impaired the ability of keratinocytes to differentiate in an in vivo epidermal cyst model. The pro-differentiation function of RORα is mediated at least in part by FOXN1, a well-known pro-differentiation transcription factor that we establish as a novel direct target of RORα in keratinocytes. Our results point to RORα as a novel node in the keratinocyte differentiation network and further suggest that the identification of RORα ligands may prove useful for treating skin disorders that are associated with abnormal keratinocyte differentiation, including cancer. PMID:23922987

  17. Diet mediates the relationship between longevity and reproduction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-06-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis posits a negative correlation between longevity and reproduction, presumably because these aspects of fitness compete for a limited pool of nutrients. However, diet, which varies widely among animals, could affect the availability of key nutrients required for both reproduction and longevity, especially protein. We used a comparative database of mammal life history data to test the hypothesis that carnivores experience less of a negative relationship between reproduction and longevity than herbivores. Annual reproduction and adult mass were significant predictors of longevity among all mammals; although, the relative importance of reproduction and mass for explaining longevity varied among trophic levels. In herbivores, reproduction was a stronger predictor of longevity than mass. Carnivores showed the opposite pattern with reproduction explaining much less of the variation in longevity. Omnivores showed an intermediate pattern with mass and reproduction explaining similar amounts of variation in longevity. In addition, longevity and reproduction were significantly higher in omnivores than herbivores and carnivores, which were not different from each other. Higher dietary protein at higher trophic levels may allow mammals to avoid potential conflicts between reproduction and longevity. However, there may be potential costs of carnivorous diets that limit the overall performance of carnivores and explain the peak in reproduction and longevity for omnivores.

  18. Fc gamma receptor IIb on target B cells promotes rituximab internalization and reduces clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sean H; Vaughan, Andrew T; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Williams, Emily L; Dixon, Sandra V; Chan, H T Claude; Beers, Stephen A; French, Ruth R; Cox, Kerry L; Davies, Andrew J; Potter, Kathleen N; Mockridge, C Ian; Oscier, David G; Johnson, Peter W M; Cragg, Mark S; Glennie, Martin J

    2011-09-01

    The anti-CD20 mAb rituximab is central to the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but resistance remains a significant problem. We recently reported that resistance could be explained, in part, by internalization of rituximab (type I anti-CD20) from the surface of certain B-cell malignancies, thus limiting engagement of natural effectors and increasing mAb consumption. Internalization of rituximab was most evident in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), but the extent of internalization was heterogeneous within each disease. Here, we show that the inhibitory FcγRIIb on target B cells promotes this process and is largely responsible for the observed heterogeneity across a range of B-cell malignancies. Internalization correlated strongly with FcγRIIb expression on normal and malignant B cells, and resulted in reduced macrophage phagocytosis of mAb-coated targets. Furthermore, transfection of FcγRIIb into FcγRIIb negative Ramos cells increased internalization of rituximab in a dose-dependent manner. Target-cell FcγRIIb promoted rituximab internalization in a cis fashion and was independent of FcγRIIb on neighboring cells. It became phosphorylated and internalized along with CD20:anti-CD20 complexes before lysosomal degradation. In MCL patients, high FcγRIIb expression predicted less durable responses after rituximab-containing regimens. Therefore, target-cell FcγRIIb provides a potential biomarker of response to type I anti-CD20 mAb.

  19. Enhanced Chemokine Receptor Recycling and Impaired S1P1 Expression Promote Leukemic Cell Infiltration of Lymph Nodes in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Patrussi, Laura; Capitani, Nagaja; Martini, Veronica; Pizzi, Marco; Trimarco, Valentina; Frezzato, Federica; Marino, Filippo; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Trentin, Livio; Baldari, Cosima T

    2015-10-01

    Lymphocyte trafficking is orchestrated by chemokine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors that enable homing and egress from secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). These receptors undergo rapid internalization and plasma membrane recycling to calibrate cellular responses to local chemoattractants. Circulating chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells display an abnormal increase in the surface levels of the homing receptors CCR7 and CXCR4 concomitant with low S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) expression. In this study, we investigated the role of receptor recycling on CXCR4/CCR7 surface levels in CLL cells and addressed the impact of quantitative alterations of these receptors and S1P1 on the ability of leukemic cells to accumulate in SLOs. We show that recycling accounts, to a major extent, for the high levels of surface CXCR4/CCR7 on CLL cells. In addition, increased expression of these receptors, together with S1P1 deficiency, is detectable not only in circulating leukemic cells, but also in SLOs of CLL patients with lymphoadenopathy. We further provide evidence that ibrutinib, a Btk inhibitor that promotes mobilization of leukemic cells from SLOs, normalizes the imbalance between CXCR4/CCR7 and S1P1. Taken together, our results highlight the relevance of chemokine and S1P receptor recycling in CLL pathogenesis and clinical outcome.

  20. Autocrine motility factor receptor promotes the proliferation of human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YINGCHAO; MA, LINA; WANG, CHUNMEI; SHENG, GUANGYAO; FENG, LEI; YIN, CHUYUN

    2015-01-01

    The aberrant activation of autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) has been implicated in several types of human cancer. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of AMFR on the regulation of proliferation in an acute monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1. THP-1 cells were transfected with AMFR-targeted small interfering (si)RNA and a plasmid encoding a truncated AMFR, AMFR-C, (pcDNA3.1-AMFR-C). The mRNA and protein levels of AMFR and the downstream targets, rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), cyclin D1, and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, were measured using reverse transcription-quantitatibe polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. The effects on cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. The present study successfully established the knockdown of AMFR and expression of AMFR-C in the THP-1 cells. Downregulation of AMFR induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, and increased apoptosis of the THP-1 cells (all P<0.05). The AMFR siRNA increased the percentage of early apoptotic cells between 3.88±1.43 and 19.58±4.29% (P<0.05). The expression levels of ROCK2, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 were reduced by the downregulation of AMFR and enhanced by overexpression of AMFR-C. In conclusion, AMFR appears to be crucial for the proliferation of the THP-1 acute monocytic leukemia cell line. Therefore, AMFR may represent a potential target for the treatment of acute monocytic leukemia. PMID:26136223

  1. Hyaluronan and the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM promote focal adhesion turnover and transient tyrosine kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms whereby hyaluronan (HA) stimulates cell motility was investigated in a C-H-ras transformed 10T 1/2 fibroblast cell line (C3). A significant (p < 0.001) stimulation of C3 cell motility with HA (10 ng/ml) was accompanied by an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation as detected by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies using immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence staining of cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins was found to be both rapid and transient with phosphorylation occurring within 1 min of HA addition and dissipating below control levels 10-15 min later. These responses were also elicited by an antibody generated against a peptide sequence within the HA receptor RHAMM. Treatment of cells with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein, 10 micrograms/ml or herbimycin A, 0.5 micrograms/ml) or microinjection of anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies inhibited the transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation in response to HA as well as prevented HA stimulation of cell motility. To determine a link between HA-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and the resulting cell locomotion, cytoskeletal reorganization was examined in C3 cells plated on fibronectin and treated with HA or anti-RHAMM antibody. These agents caused a rapid assembly and disassembly of focal adhesions as revealed by immunofluorescent localization of vinculin. The time course with which HA and antibody induced focal adhesion turnover exactly paralleled the induction of transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, phosphotyrosine staining colocalized with vinculin within structures in the lamellapodia of these cells. Notably, the focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, was rapidly phosphorylated and dephosphorylated after HA stimulation. These results suggest that HA stimulates locomotion via a rapid and transient protein tyrosine kinase signaling event mediated by RHAMM. They also provide a possible molecular basis for focal adhesion turnover, a process that is

  2. Deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist promotes spontaneous femoral artery aneurysm formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Kikuo; Kitagaki, Manabu; Niida, Tomiharu; Kondo, Harumi; Matsubara, Osamu; Kikuchi, Makoto; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Adachi, Takeshi

    2012-03-01

    Femoral artery aneurysms (FAAs) are very rare, and their natural history is not well understood. In this study, we sought to analyze the pathogenesis of inflammatory FAAs in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist-deficient (IL-1Ra(-/-)) B6 mice. Systolic arterial pressures and plasma lipid levels of IL-1Ra(-/-) mice and wild-type (WT) mice did not differ significantly. However, IL-1Ra(-/-) mice spontaneously developed fusiform FAAs. Real-time PCR of 9-month-old IL-1Ra(-/-) mice revealed significantly increased mRNA levels of IL-1β (6.6-fold), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (12.4-fold), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (6.0-fold) compared with WT mice. Histological analysis revealed numerous inflammatory cells around the FAAs in IL-1Ra(-/-) mice, and elastin staining showed destruction of both the internal and external elastic lamina in IL-1Ra(-/-) mice. Afterward, macrophage function was studied. After lipopolysaccharide (1 μg/mL) stimulation, IL-1Ra-deficient macrophages produced much higher levels of TNF-α than those from WT mice. Finally, we performed bone marrow cell transplantation. FAAs with many inflammatory cells in the adventitia were detected in several WT mice that received bone marrow cells from IL-1Ra(-/-) mice (44%), but not from WT mice (0%). Our study is the first to demonstrate that IL-1Ra deficiency in inflammatory cells disrupts immune system homeostasis and induces inflammatory FAAs in IL-1Ra(-/-) B6 mice. We believe that these mice will provide much information about the natural history and management of FAAs.

  3. The flavonoid baicalein promotes NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and enhances memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Fang; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Long, Li-Hong; Fu, Hui; Xie, Na; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is growing interest in the physiological functions of flavonoids, especially in their effects on cognitive function and on neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the role of the flavonoid baicalein in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region and cognitive behavioural performance. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of baicalein on LTP in rat hippocampal slices were investigated by electrophysiological methods. Phosphorylation of Akt (at Ser473), the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (at Ser133) were analysed by Western blot. Fear conditioning was used to determine whether baicalein could improve learning and memory in rats. KEY RESULTS Baicalein enhanced the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor-dependent LTP in a bell-shaped concentration-dependent manner. Addition of the lipoxygenase metabolites 12(S)-HETE and 12(S)-HPETE did not reverse these effects of baicalein. Baicalein treatment enhanced phosphorylation of Akt during induction of LTP with the same bell-shaped dose–response curve. LTP potentiation induced by baicalein was blocked by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. CREB phosphorylation was also increased in the CA1 region of baicalein-treated slices. Baicalein-treated rats performed significantly better than controls in a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Furthermore, baicalein treatment selectively increased the phosphorylation of Akt and CREB in the CA1 region of hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex, after fear conditioning training. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results demonstrate that the flavonoid baicalein can facilitate memory, and therefore it might be useful in the treatment of patients with memory disorders. PMID:21133890

  4. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets.

  5. Ventral tegmental area orexin 1 receptors promote palatable food intake and oppose postingestive negative feedback.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Sarah J; Hyde, Kellie M; Kay, Kristen E; Greene, Hayden E; Maske, Calyn B; Knierim, Amanda E; Davis, Jon F; Williams, Diana L

    2016-09-01

    Hypothalamic orexin neurons project to numerous brain areas, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is involved in motivation and food-seeking behavior. Here we address how exogenously administered orexin-A and endogenous orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) activation in the VTA affects feeding behavior. We hypothesized that orexin-A and OX1R antagonist SB334867 delivered to the VTA, at doses that were subthreshold for effect when injected into the ventricle, would affect intake of palatable foods in multiple test situations. We first used a hedonic feeding model in which satiated rats selectively consume a high-fat diet (HFD). Intra-VTA orexin-A stimulated additional consumption of chow and increased HFD intake in this model. In ad libitum-fed rats given daily 30-min test sessions, intra-VTA orexin-A also increased intake of HFD and 0.1 M sucrose. Further analysis of licking patterns revealed that that VTA orexin-A increased meal size and licking burst size only toward the end of the meal. Consistent with this finding, a subthreshold dose of VTA orexin-A prevented intake suppression induced by gastrointestinal nutrient infusion. Surprisingly, intra-VTA orexin-A had no effect on operant responding for sucrose pellets on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. A role for endogenous VTA OX1R stimulation is supported by our finding that bilateral VTA injection of the selective OX1R antagonist SB334867 suppressed 0.1 M sucrose intake. Together, our data suggest that OX1R activity in the VTA facilitates food intake, potentially by counteracting postingestive negative feedback that would normally suppress feeding later in a meal. PMID:27385732

  6. Cathepsin S Cleavage of Protease-Activated Receptor-2 on Endothelial Cells Promotes Microvascular Diabetes Complications.

    PubMed

    Kumar Vr, Santhosh; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Steiger, Stefanie; Devarapu, Satish Kumar; Tato, Maia; Kukarni, Onkar P; Mulay, Shrikant R; Thomasova, Dana; Popper, Bastian; Demleitner, Jana; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph; Cohen, Clemens D; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Liapis, Helen; Moll, Solange; Reid, Emma; Stitt, Alan W; Schott, Brigitte; Gruner, Sabine; Haap, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Martin; Hartmann, Guido; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a central pathomechanism in diabetes-associated complications. We hypothesized a pathogenic role in this dysfunction of cathepsin S (Cat-S), a cysteine protease that degrades elastic fibers and activates the protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on endothelial cells. We found that injection of mice with recombinant Cat-S induced albuminuria and glomerular endothelial cell injury in a PAR2-dependent manner. In vivo microscopy confirmed a role for intrinsic Cat-S/PAR2 in ischemia-induced microvascular permeability. In vitro transcriptome analysis and experiments using siRNA or specific Cat-S and PAR2 antagonists revealed that Cat-S specifically impaired the integrity and barrier function of glomerular endothelial cells selectively through PAR2. In human and mouse type 2 diabetic nephropathy, only CD68(+) intrarenal monocytes expressed Cat-S mRNA, whereas Cat-S protein was present along endothelial cells and inside proximal tubular epithelial cells also. In contrast, the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C was expressed only in tubules. Delayed treatment of type 2 diabetic db/db mice with Cat-S or PAR2 inhibitors attenuated albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis (indicators of diabetic nephropathy) and attenuated albumin leakage into the retina and other structural markers of diabetic retinopathy. These data identify Cat-S as a monocyte/macrophage-derived circulating PAR2 agonist and mediator of endothelial dysfunction-related microvascular diabetes complications. Thus, Cat-S or PAR2 inhibition might be a novel strategy to prevent microvascular disease in diabetes and other diseases.

  7. Ectopic expression of a chimeric colony-stimulating factor-1/TrkB-receptor promotes CSF-1-dependent survival of cultured sympathetic neurons.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, K S; Kaiser, A D; Klinz, F J; Zhong, J; Krautwald, S; Heumann, R

    1998-08-28

    The regulation of the density of innervation and the promotion of survival of neurons are the original effects depending on neurotrophins. Here we analyse such effects evoked by trkB tyrosine kinase in transfected PC12 cells and transfected sympathetic neurons. In order to exclude the previously described modulation of trk kinase activity by the extracellular activation of the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor, we applied a chimeric receptor approach: The extracellular domain of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor was fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain of the trkB tyrosine kinase receptor, allowing its selective activation by the heterologous ligand. Protein expression and CSF-1-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the chimeric receptor protein was demonstrated in transfected COS cells. After stable transfection into nerve growth factor (NGF)-responsive PC12 cells, CSF-1 mediated the K252a-sensitive induction of fiber outgrowth. Furthermore, we were able to show by heterologous expression of the chimeric receptor, that activation of trkB tyrosine kinase activity is sufficient to promote survival of neurotrophin deprived sympathetic neurons. PMID:9731232

  8. Host Langerin (CD207) is a receptor for Yersinia pestis phagocytosis and promotes dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Park, Chae G; Cheong, Cheolho; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Zhang, Shusheng; Zhang, Pei; He, Yingxia; Jiang, Lingyu; Huang, Hongping; Ding, Honghui; Wu, Yiping; Wang, Shaogang; Zhang, Lin; Li, Anyi; Xia, Lianxu; Bartra, Sara S; Plano, Gregory V; Skurnik, Mikael; Klena, John D; Chen, Tie

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes plague. After Y. pestis overcomes the skin barrier, it encounters antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as Langerhans and dendritic cells. They transport the bacteria from the skin to the lymph nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial transmission are unclear. Langerhans cells (LCs) express Langerin (CD207), a calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin. Furthermore, Y. pestis possesses exposed core oligosaccharides. In this study, we show that Y. pestis invades LCs and Langerin-expressing transfectants. However, when the bacterial core oligosaccharides are shielded or truncated, Y. pestis propensity to invade Langerhans and Langerin-expressing cells decreases. Moreover, the interaction of Y. pestis with Langerin-expressing transfectants is inhibited by purified Langerin, a DC-SIGN (DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing nonintegrin)-like molecule, an anti-CD207 antibody, purified core oligosaccharides and several oligosaccharides. Furthermore, covering core oligosaccharides reduces the mortality associated with murine infection by adversely affecting the transmission of Y. pestis to lymph nodes. These results demonstrate that direct interaction of core oligosaccharides with Langerin facilitates the invasion of LCs by Y. pestis. Therefore, Langerin-mediated binding of Y. pestis to APCs may promote its dissemination and infection. PMID:25829141

  9. Seasonal programming of adult longevity in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaiserman, A. M.; Collinson, A. C.; Koshel, N. M.; Belaja, I. I.; Voitenko, V. P.

    2002-09-01

    Longevity was significantly associated with season of birth in 101,634 individuals who died in Kiev during the period 1990-2000. The relationship between age at death and month of birth showed a very similar pattern for both men and women. Mean values for the age at death were lowest for subjects born in April-July, and highest for individuals born at the beginning and end of the year. Minimum and maximum ages at death, analysed according to month of birth, differed by 2.6 years in men and 2.3 years in women. For all major causes of death causes, the mean age at death for persons born in the fourth quarter was the highest. These results suggest that, in this population, longevity is affected by prenatal or early postnatal seasonal factors. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the rate of ageing may be programmed in response to environmental influences at critical periods of early development.

  10. Longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, David

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials (CRWMS M and O 1999a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M and O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M and O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (CRWMS M and O 1999b), and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials.

  11. Longevity of major league baseball players.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether major league baseball players live lontger than the general public. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1950 were obtained, and differences between ages of death and age-adjusted life expectancies were determined by analysis of variance and t-tests, taking into account player position. Correlational analysis also was conducted to determine if career length affected longevity. Baseball players lived an average of four years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length did not affect longevity among players. We concluded that professional athletes, as represented by major league baseball players, have increased life expectancies. This increase cannot be explained by increased fitness associated with working as a professionral athlete, but is likely the result of an initial selection process for becoming a professional athlete.

  12. Symbolic significance of initials on longevity.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2007-02-01

    The longevities of deceased major league baseball players who died prior to 1950 (N=3835) and whose initials formed acronyms, words, or names with "positive" or "negative" affect, as rated a priori by two judges, were compared with those for a group of neutral controls matched for birth year and career length, using the Berkeley standardized mortality tables. Players (n=11) with positive initials, e.g., A.C.E., lived a mean of 13 years longer than players (n=30) with negative initials, e.g., D.E.D., or players with neutral initials (n=864). These results corroborated a previous study and suggest positive name symbols are associated with increased longevity in this sample.

  13. Adenosine in the tuberomammillary nucleus inhibits the histaminergic system via A1 receptors and promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yo; Huang, Zhi-Li; Fredholm, Bertil B; Urade, Yoshihiro; Hayaishi, Osamu

    2008-12-16

    Adenosine has been proposed to promote sleep through A(1) receptors (A(1)R's) and/or A(2A) receptors in the brain. We previously reported that A(2A) receptors mediate the sleep-promoting effect of prostaglandin D(2), an endogenous sleep-inducing substance, and that activation of these receptors induces sleep and blockade of them by caffeine results in wakefulness. On the other hand, A(1)R has been suggested to increase sleep by inhibition of the cholinergic region of the basal forebrain. However, the role and target sites of A(1)R in sleep-wake regulation remained controversial. In this study, immunohistochemistry revealed that A(1)R was expressed in histaminergic neurons of the rat tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). In vivo microdialysis showed that the histamine release in the frontal cortex was decreased by microinjection into the TMN of N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an A(1)R agonist, adenosine or coformycin, an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, which catabolizes adenosine to inosine. Bilateral injection of CPA into the rat TMN significantly increased the amount and the delta power density of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM; NREM) sleep but did not affect REM sleep. CPA-promoted sleep was observed in WT mice but not in KO mice for A(1)R or histamine H(1) receptor, indicating that the NREM sleep promoted by A(1)R-specific agonist depended on the histaminergic system. Furthermore, the bilateral injection of adenosine or coformycin into the rat TMN increased NREM sleep, which was completely abolished by coadministration of 1,3-dimethyl-8-cyclopenthylxanthine, a selective A(1)R antagonist. These results indicate that endogenous adenosine in the TMN suppresses the histaminergic system via A(1)R to promote NREM sleep.

  14. Genome Sequencing Fishes out Longevity Genes.

    PubMed

    Lakhina, Vanisha; Murphy, Coleen T

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the molecular basis underlying aging is critical if we are to fully understand how and why we age-and possibly how to delay the aging process. Up until now, most longevity pathways were discovered in invertebrates because of their short lifespans and availability of genetic tools. Now, Reichwald et al. and Valenzano et al. independently provide a reference genome for the short-lived African turquoise killifish, establishing its role as a vertebrate system for aging research. PMID:26638067

  15. Genome Sequencing Fishes out Longevity Genes.

    PubMed

    Lakhina, Vanisha; Murphy, Coleen T

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the molecular basis underlying aging is critical if we are to fully understand how and why we age-and possibly how to delay the aging process. Up until now, most longevity pathways were discovered in invertebrates because of their short lifespans and availability of genetic tools. Now, Reichwald et al. and Valenzano et al. independently provide a reference genome for the short-lived African turquoise killifish, establishing its role as a vertebrate system for aging research.

  16. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life and Midlife Conditions, and Familial Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890–1891 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are occupation as a farmer at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States, and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880–1895. We found that male gender of centenarian has a significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival

  17. SUMO-Mediated Inhibition of Glucocorticoid Receptor Synergistic Activity Depends on Stable Assembly at the Promoter But Not on DAXX

    PubMed Central

    Holmstrom, Sam R.; Chupreta, Sergey; So, Alex Yick-Lun; Iñiguez-Lluhí, Jorge A.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple transcription factors, including members of the nuclear receptor family, harbor one or more copies of a short regulatory motif that limits synergistic transactivation in a context-dependent manner. These synergy control (SC) motifs exert their effects by serving as sites for posttranslational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins. By analyzing the requirements for both synergy control and SUMOylation in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), we find that an intact ligand-binding domain and an engaged DNA- binding domain dimerization interface are necessary for effective synergy control. However, these features, which promote stable assembly of GR-DNA complexes, are required downstream of SUMOylation because their disruption or deletion does not interfere with SUMO modification. Remarkably, in the absence of these features, sensitivity to the effects of SUMOylation can be restored simply by stabilization of DNA interactions through a heterologous DNA binding domain. The data indicate that stable interaction with DNA is an important prerequisite for SUMO-dependent transcriptional inhibition. Analysis of genomic regions occupied by GR indicates that the effects of SC motif SUMOylation are most evident at multiple, near-ideal GR binding sites and that SUMOylation selectively affects the induction of linked endogenous genes. Although the SUMO-binding protein DAXX has been proposed to mediate the inhibitory effects of GR SUMOylation, we find that inhibition by DAXX is independent of GR SUMOylation. Furthermore, neither expression nor knockdown of DAXX influences SUMO effects on GR. We therefore propose that stable binding of GR to multiple sites on DNA allows for the SUMO-dependent recruitment of inhibitory factors distinct from DAXX. PMID:18562626

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8 promotes the metastasis of cervical cancer via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Bao, Wei; Fan, Qiong; Shi, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhu-Nan; Xu, Ying; Wu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8) has been identified as a novel substrate for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase and is involved in EGFR-mediated signaling pathways correlated with tumorigenesis, proliferation and metastasis in various cancer types. However, the precise role of Eps8 in cervical cancer metastasis remains to be elucidated. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Eps8 was significantly increased in cervical cancer specimens compared with squamous intraepithelial lesion and normal cervical tissues. Additionally, it was revealed that Eps8 expression not only correlated with cervical cancer progression, but also exhibited a close correlation with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, E-cadherin and vimentin. Furthermore, the present study focused predominantly on the EMT-associated role of Eps8 in the EMT, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. Eps8-short hairpin (sh) RNA was transfected into HeLa and SiHa cells to deplete its expression, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were performed to confirm Eps8-knockdown and to investigate the influence of Eps8 on EMT markers. The present findings have revealed that Eps8 silencing led to the upregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, while expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin and the transcription factor snail was decreased at both mRNA and protein expression levels. Transwell cell migration and Matrigel invasion assays showed that downregulation of Eps8 significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion of HeLa and SiHa cells. Taken together, these results suggested that Eps8 promotes cervical cancer metastasis by orchestrating the EMT. PMID:27573546

  19. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract modulates CHOP/GADD153 to promote androgen receptor degradation and decreases xenograft tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Berhe, Saba; Li, Gongbo; Puthenveetil, Angela G; Rahman, Ozair; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to "normal" cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union) have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a "Mediterranean Diet" in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary extracts.

  20. Specific activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor by ginsenoside Rg5 promotes angiogenesis and vasorelaxation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Lai; Hur, Sung-Mo; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Dong-Keon; Choe, Jongeon; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Jeoung, Dooil; Han, Sanghwa; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Lee, Hansoo; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg5 is a compound newly synthesized during the steaming process of ginseng; however, its biological activity has not been elucidated with regard to endothelial function. We found that Rg5 stimulated in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells, consistent with increased neovascularization and blood perfusion in a mouse hind limb ischemia model. Rg5 also evoked vasorelaxation in aortic rings isolated from wild type and high cholesterol-fed ApoE(-/-) mice but not from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice. Angiogenic activity of Rg5 was highly associated with a specific increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation and subsequent activation of multiple angiogenic signals, including ERK, FAK, Akt/eNOS/NO, and Gi-mediated phospholipase C/Ca(2+)/eNOS dimerization pathways. The vasodilative activity of Rg5 was mediated by the eNOS/NO/cGMP axis. IGF-1R knockdown suppressed Rg5-induced angiogenesis and vasorelaxation by inhibiting key angiogenic signaling and NO/cGMP pathways. In silico docking analysis showed that Rg5 bound with high affinity to IGF-1R at the same binding site of IGF. Rg5 blocked binding of IGF-1 to its receptor with an IC50 of ∼90 nmol/liter. However, Rg5 did not induce vascular inflammation and permeability. These data suggest that Rg5 plays a novel role as an IGF-1R agonist, promoting therapeutic angiogenesis and improving hypertension without adverse effects in the vasculature. PMID:25391655

  1. Specific Activation of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor by Ginsenoside Rg5 Promotes Angiogenesis and Vasorelaxation*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Lai; Hur, Sung-Mo; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Dong-Keon; Choe, Jongeon; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Jeoung, Dooil; Han, Sanghwa; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Lee, Hansoo; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg5 is a compound newly synthesized during the steaming process of ginseng; however, its biological activity has not been elucidated with regard to endothelial function. We found that Rg5 stimulated in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells, consistent with increased neovascularization and blood perfusion in a mouse hind limb ischemia model. Rg5 also evoked vasorelaxation in aortic rings isolated from wild type and high cholesterol-fed ApoE−/− mice but not from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice. Angiogenic activity of Rg5 was highly associated with a specific increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation and subsequent activation of multiple angiogenic signals, including ERK, FAK, Akt/eNOS/NO, and Gi-mediated phospholipase C/Ca2+/eNOS dimerization pathways. The vasodilative activity of Rg5 was mediated by the eNOS/NO/cGMP axis. IGF-1R knockdown suppressed Rg5-induced angiogenesis and vasorelaxation by inhibiting key angiogenic signaling and NO/cGMP pathways. In silico docking analysis showed that Rg5 bound with high affinity to IGF-1R at the same binding site of IGF. Rg5 blocked binding of IGF-1 to its receptor with an IC50 of ∼90 nmol/liter. However, Rg5 did not induce vascular inflammation and permeability. These data suggest that Rg5 plays a novel role as an IGF-1R agonist, promoting therapeutic angiogenesis and improving hypertension without adverse effects in the vasculature. PMID:25391655

  2. Arabidopsis seed-specific vacuolar aquaporins are involved in maintaining seed longevity under the control of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhilei; Sun, Weining

    2015-01-01

    The tonoplast intrinsic proteins TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 are specifically expressed during seed maturation and localized to the seed protein storage vacuole membrane. However, the function and physiological roles of TIP3s are still largely unknown. The seed performance of TIP3 knockdown mutants was analysed using the controlled deterioration test. The tip3;1/tip3;2 double mutant was affected in seed longevity and accumulated high levels of hydrogen peroxide compared with the wild type, suggesting that TIP3s function in seed longevity. The transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) is known to be involved in seed desiccation tolerance and seed longevity. TIP3 transcript and protein levels were significantly reduced in abi3-6 mutant seeds. TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 promoters could be activated by ABI3 in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA) in Arabidopsis protoplasts. TIP3 proteins were detected in the protoplasts transiently expressing ABI3 and in ABI3-overexpressing seedlings when treated with ABA. Furthermore, ABI3 directly binds to the RY motif of the TIP3 promoters. Therefore, seed-specific TIP3s may help maintain seed longevity under the expressional control of ABI3 during seed maturation and are members of the ABI3-mediated seed longevity pathway together with small heat shock proteins and late embryo abundant proteins. PMID:26019256

  3. Arabidopsis seed-specific vacuolar aquaporins are involved in maintaining seed longevity under the control of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhilei; Sun, Weining

    2015-08-01

    The tonoplast intrinsic proteins TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 are specifically expressed during seed maturation and localized to the seed protein storage vacuole membrane. However, the function and physiological roles of TIP3s are still largely unknown. The seed performance of TIP3 knockdown mutants was analysed using the controlled deterioration test. The tip3;1/tip3;2 double mutant was affected in seed longevity and accumulated high levels of hydrogen peroxide compared with the wild type, suggesting that TIP3s function in seed longevity. The transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) is known to be involved in seed desiccation tolerance and seed longevity. TIP3 transcript and protein levels were significantly reduced in abi3-6 mutant seeds. TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 promoters could be activated by ABI3 in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA) in Arabidopsis protoplasts. TIP3 proteins were detected in the protoplasts transiently expressing ABI3 and in ABI3-overexpressing seedlings when treated with ABA. Furthermore, ABI3 directly binds to the RY motif of the TIP3 promoters. Therefore, seed-specific TIP3s may help maintain seed longevity under the expressional control of ABI3 during seed maturation and are members of the ABI3-mediated seed longevity pathway together with small heat shock proteins and late embryo abundant proteins. PMID:26019256

  4. Expression of the human oestrogen receptor-alpha gene is regulated by promoter F in MG-63 osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Penolazzi, Letizia; Giordano, Silvia; Del Senno, Laura; Piva, Roberta

    2003-01-01

    (O)estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), a hormone-dependent transcription factor belonging to the steroid/thyroid-hormone-receptor superfamily, plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of the skeleton. Here we report the analysis of an unexplored sequence inside the bone-specific distal promoter F (PF) with respect to the regulation of ERalpha gene expression in bone. This sequence, 785 bp in size, is localized upstream of the assigned transcription start site of exon F, at -117140 bp from the originally described transcription start site +1. It contains a TA reach box, a conventional CAAT box and potential regulatory elements for many transcription factors, including Cbfa1 [OSE2 (osteoblast-specific element) core binding factor], GATA-1 [(A/T)GATA(A/G) binding protein], Sox5 [sex-determining region Y (SRY)-type HMG bOX protein, belonging to a subfamily of DNA-binding proteins with an HMG domain], Sry, AP1 (activator protein 1) and CP2 (activator of gamma-globin). It is able to strongly activate the luciferase reporter gene in MG-63 osteoblastic-like cells, but not in MCF7 breast-cancer cells. This is in agreement with different transcripts that we found in the two cell types. The footprinting and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSAs) showed that, inside the region analysed, there were some sequences that specifically reacted to nuclear proteins isolated from MG-63 cells. In particular, we identified two regions, named PF a and PF b, that do not present binding sites for known transcription factors and that are involved in a strong DNA-protein interaction in MG-63, but not in MCF7, cells. The analysis of three transcription factors (GATA-1, Sry and Sox) that might bind the identified footprinted areas suggested a possible indirect role of these proteins in the regulation of ERalpha gene expression in bone. These data provide evidence for different promoter usage of the ERalpha gene through the recruitment of tissue-specific transcription

  5. Bisphenol A promotes dendritic morphogenesis of hippocampal neurons through estrogen receptor-mediated ERK1/2 signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohong; Lu, Yang; Zhang, Guangxia; Chen, Lei; Tian, Dong; Shen, Xiuying; Yang, Yanling; Dong, Fanni

    2014-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disruptor, has attracted increasing attention to its adverse effects on brain developmental process. The previous study indicated that BPA rapidly increased motility and density of dendritic filopodia and enhanced the phosphorylation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR2B in cultured hippocampal neurons within 30min. The purpose of the present study was further to investigate the effects of BPA for 24h on dendritic morphogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. After cultured for 5d in vitro, the hippocampal neurons from 24h-old rat were infected by AdV-EGFP to indicate time-lapse imaging of living neurons. The results demonstrated that the exposure of the cultured hippocampal neurons to BPA (10, 100nM) or 17β-estradiol (17β-E2, 10nM) for 24h significantly promoted dendritic development, as evidenced by the increased total length of dendrite and the enhanced motility and density of dendritic filopodia. However, these changes were suppressed by an ERs antagonist, ICI182,780, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, and a mitogen-activated ERK1/2-activating kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor, U0126. Meanwhile, the increased F-actin (filamentous actin) induced by BPA (100nM) was also completely eliminated by these blockers. Furthermore, the result of western blot analyses showed that, the exposure of the cultures to BPA or 17β-E2 for 24h promoted the expression of Rac1/Cdc42 but inhibited that of RhoA, suggesting Rac1 (Ras related C3 botulinum toxinsubstrate 1)/Cdc42 (cell divisioncycle 42) and RhoA (Ras homologous A), the Rho family of small GTPases, were involved in BPA- or 17β-E2-induced changes in the dendritic morphogenesis of neurons. These BPA- or 17β-E2-induced effects were completely blocked by ICI182,780, and were partially suppressed by U0126. These results reveal that, similar to 17β-E2, BPA exerts its effects on dendritic morphogenesis by eliciting both nuclear actions and extranuclear

  6. Has gene duplication impacted the evolution of Eutherian longevity?

    PubMed

    Doherty, Aoife; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2016-10-01

    One of the greatest unresolved questions in aging biology is determining the genetic basis of interspecies longevity variation. Gene duplication is often the key to understanding the origin and evolution of important Eutherian phenotypes. We systematically identified longevity-associated genes in model organisms that duplicated throughout Eutherian evolution. Longevity-associated gene families have a marginally significantly higher rate of duplication compared to non-longevity-associated gene families. Anti-longevity-associated gene families have significantly increased rate of duplication compared to pro-longevity gene families and are enriched in neurodegenerative disease categories. Conversely, duplicated pro-longevity-associated gene families are enriched in cell cycle genes. There is a cluster of longevity-associated gene families that expanded solely in long-lived species that is significantly enriched in pathways relating to 3-UTR-mediated translational regulation, metabolism of proteins and gene expression, pathways that have the potential to affect longevity. The identification of a gene cluster that duplicated solely in long-lived species involved in such fundamental processes provides a promising avenue for further exploration of Eutherian longevity evolution. PMID:27378378

  7. Inflammatory Pain Promotes Increased Opioid Self-Administration: Role of Dysregulated Ventral Tegmental Area μ Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hipólito, Lucia; Wilson-Poe, Adrianne; Campos-Jurado, Yolanda; Zhong, Elaine; Gonzalez-Romero, Jose; Virag, Laszlo; Whittington, Robert; Comer, Sandra D.; Carlton, Susan M.; Walker, Brendan M.; Bruchas, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Pain management in opioid abusers engenders ethical and practical difficulties for clinicians, often resulting in pain mismanagement. Although chronic opioid administration may alter pain states, the presence of pain itself may alter the propensity to self-administer opioids, and previous history of drug abuse comorbid with chronic pain promotes higher rates of opioid misuse. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inflammatory pain leads to increased heroin self-administration resulting from altered mu opioid receptor (MOR) regulation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission. To this end, the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammation was used to assess the neurochemical and functional changes induced by inflammatory pain on MOR-mediated mesolimbic DA transmission and on rat intravenous heroin self-administration under fixed ratio (FR) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In the presence of inflammatory pain, heroin intake under an FR schedule was increased for high, but attenuated for low, heroin doses with concomitant alterations in mesolimbic MOR function suggested by DA microdialysis. Consistent with the reduction in low dose FR heroin self-administration, inflammatory pain reduced motivation for a low dose of heroin, as measured by responding under a PR schedule of reinforcement, an effect dissociable from high heroin dose PR responding. Together, these results identify a connection between inflammatory pain and loss of MOR function in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway that increases intake of high doses of heroin. These findings suggest that pain-induced loss of MOR function in the mesolimbic pathway may promote opioid dose escalation and contribute to opioid abuse-associated phenotypes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study provides critical new insights that show that inflammatory pain alters heroin intake through a desensitization of MORs located within the VTA. These findings expand our knowledge of the interactions between

  8. Fine Root Longevity Still Under Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keel, S. G.; Blackburn, M.; Campbell, C.; Högberg, M. N.; Richter, A.; Wild, B.; Högberg, P.

    2008-12-01

    Assuming that fine roots (< 2 mm in diameter) turn over once per year, they represent a third of the global annual net primary productivity. These turnover estimates are based on rhizotron studies, where root longevity is determined by monitoring the appearance/disappearance of roots on a screen, which is inserted into the soil. Much slower fine root turnover rates were found using carbon (C) isotope methods (either 14C dating or continuous 13C-labelling), resulting in root longevities of several years. Stable C isotope tracer experiments, are argued to overestimate fine root longevities, mainly because the smallest roots with the highest turn over, are easily missed during sampling. The goal of the present study was therefore to carry out a C-labelling experiment, and specifically focus on the finest roots, namely root tips. In addition we sampled whole fine roots (<1 mm and 1-3 mm in diameter), as in other studies. We pulse labelled 14-year-old Pinus sylvestris (Pine) trees in the field for only three hours with highly 13C-enriched CO2 (24 atom percent). The mean residence time (MRT) of recently assimilated C in root tips was determined, as a measure for root longevity. Already two days after labelling, recent C had been translocated from the crowns to fine roots indicating rapid belowground C allocation. 13C signals in root tips were stronger than in whole roots, which shows that they are the most active part of the root system. MRT of C calculated using first order exponential decay functions of C in bulk roots were around 20 days in both <1mm and 1-3mm roots and 29 days in root tips. A rapid decline in 13C signals was observed which could be explained by a rapid decrease in the signal of the sucrose pool, which had a MRT of 5 days. However, part of the labelled C had been allocated to a pool with a slower turnover rate (most likely structural compounds such as cellulose) as indicated by persisting 13C signals measured 120 days after labelling. MRT of C in

  9. Neuropeptide Y is produced in visceral adipose tissue and promotes proliferation of adipocyte precursor cells via the Y1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaiping; Guan, Haiyan; Arany, Edith; Hill, David J; Cao, Xiang

    2008-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is synthesized in neural tissue of the central and peripheral nervous systems and has a number of important functions besides regulating appetite and energy homeostasis. Here we identify a novel site of NPY biosynthesis and a role for NPY in promoting proliferation of adipocyte precursor cells. We show that NPY mRNA is not only expressed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) but that its levels are up-regulated 6-fold in our early-life programmed rat model of increased visceral adiposity. This is accompanied by a parallel rise in NPY protein, demonstrating that VAT is a novel peripheral site of NPY biosynthesis. Furthermore, NPY mRNA expression is also elevated >2-fold in VAT of obese Zucker rats. Importantly, NPY stimulates proliferation of primary rat preadipocytes as well as 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in vitro. This mitogenic effect appears to be mediated by the Y1 receptor and involves the activation of extracellular related kinase 1/2. In addition, insulin and glucocorticoid up-regulate VAT NPY expression in lean but not obese Zucker rats. Taken together, these results suggest that an enhanced local expression of NPY within VAT may be a common feature of and contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying increased visceral adiposity.

  10. The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Barry, William E; Thummel, Carl S

    2016-01-01

    Although mutations in HNF4A were identified as the cause of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young 1 (MODY1) two decades ago, the mechanisms by which this nuclear receptor regulates glucose homeostasis remain unclear. Here we report that loss of Drosophila HNF4 recapitulates hallmark symptoms of MODY1, including adult-onset hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). These defects are linked to a role for dHNF4 in promoting mitochondrial function as well as the expression of Hex-C, a homolog of the MODY2 gene Glucokinase. dHNF4 is required in the fat body and insulin-producing cells to maintain glucose homeostasis by supporting a developmental switch toward oxidative phosphorylation and GSIS at the transition to adulthood. These findings establish an animal model for MODY1 and define a developmental reprogramming of metabolism to support the energetic needs of the mature animal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11183.001 PMID:27185732

  11. Sensitive ChIP-DSL technology reveals an extensive estrogen receptor alpha-binding program on human gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young-Soo; Garcia-Bassets, Ivan; Hutt, Kasey R; Cheng, Christine S; Jin, Mingjie; Liu, Dongyan; Benner, Chris; Wang, Dong; Ye, Zhen; Bibikova, Marina; Fan, Jian-Bing; Duan, Lingxun; Glass, Christopher K; Rosenfeld, Michael G; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2007-03-20

    ChIP coupled with microarray provides a powerful tool to determine in vivo binding profiling of transcription factors to deduce regulatory circuitries in mammalian cells. Aiming at improving the specificity and sensitivity of such analysis, we developed a new technology called ChIP-DSL using the DNA selection and ligation (DSL) strategy, permitting robust analysis with much reduced materials compared with standard procedures. We profiled general and sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factors using a full human genome promoter array based on the ChIP-DSL technology, revealing an unprecedented number of the estrogen receptor (ERalpha) target genes in MCF-7 cells. Coupled with gene expression profiling, we found that only a fraction of these direct ERalpha target genes were highly responsive to estrogen and that the expression of those ERalpha-bound, estrogen-inducible genes was associated with breast cancer progression in humans. This study demonstrates the power of the ChIP-DSL technology in revealing regulatory gene expression programs that have been previously invisible in the human genome.

  12. Androgen receptor facilitates the recruitment of macrophages in tumor microenvironment to promote upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Chi-Ping; Hsieh, Teng-Fu; Chiu, Wei-Kai; Chang, Wen-Ling; Shyr, Chih-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between infiltrating macrophages in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and tumor cells contribute to tumor progression. The potential impacts of recruited macrophages to the upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinomas (UUTUCs) progression remain unclear. Here we found human UUTUCs might recruit more macrophages than surrounding normal urothelial cells in human clinical specimens and in in vitro co-culture experiments with UUTUC cells and macrophages. The consequences of recruiting more macrophages to UUTUCs might then enhance UUTUC cell growth, migration and invasion. Further investigation found that the androgen receptor (AR) not only enhanced UUTUC cells capacity to recruit more macrophages, it could also promote the macrophages-enhanced UUTUC cells growth, migration and invasion. Downstream AR target cytokine search found AR might function through modulating CCL5 expression to influence UTTUC progression. Interruption of CCL5 partially reversed the AR-regulated macrophage-enhanced UUTUC progression. AR in UUTUC cells also increased tumor formation in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that macrophages recruitment may enhance UUTUC progression, modulated by AR-CCL5 signal through alterations in chromatin state to establish a tumor microenvironment with recruited macrophages and cytokines to facilitate cell growth, migration and invasion. PMID:27725899

  13. Androgen receptor (AR) promotes male bladder cancer cell proliferation and migration via regulating CD24 and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guoqing; Yu, Shicheng; Cheng, Sheng; Li, Gonghui; Yu, Yanlan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has proved the pivotal roles of androgen receptor in various diseases, including prostate cancer and bladder cancer. The CD24 has been proved to be correlated to bladder cancer metastasis and tumorigenesis in recent study. This study was aimed to investigate the roles of AR in bladder cell proliferation and metastasis and to explore its potential mechanism. Expressions of AR in two kinds of bladder tumor cells (T24 and UM-UC-3) were analyzed using the CRISPR Activation Plasmid transfection or siRNA-mediated gene. The effects of AR on tumor cell proliferation and migration were also analyzed. Moreover, the effects of CD24 and influence of AR on cell proliferation and metastasis-related protein were also analyzed. The results showed that AR was significantly down-regulated in T24 cells but was significantly overexpressed in UM-UC-3 cells. The up-regulated T24 promotes cell proliferation, but this enhance effect was blocked by silencing CD24. Additionally, the AR overexpression significantly increased the VEGF and CD24 expression. Besides, the migrated bladder cells was increased by the up-regulated AR, but was decreased by silencing CD24 or silencing VEGF. Taken together, our study suggested that the up-regulated AR enhances the male bladder tumor cell proliferation and metastasis via modulating the CD24 and VEGF. This study may provide theoretical basis for the possibility of AR to be a therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  14. Intestinal Insulin Signaling Encodes Two Different Molecular Mechanisms for the Shortened Longevity Induced by Graphene Oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunli; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to cause multiple toxicities in various organisms. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for GO-induced shortened longevity are still unclear. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible involvement of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Mutation of daf-2, age-1, akt-1, or akt-2 gene induced a resistant property of nematodes to GO toxicity, while mutation of daf-16 gene led to a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity, suggesting that GO may dysregulate the functions of DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor, AGE-1, AKT-1 and AKT-2-mediated kinase cascade, and DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Genetic interaction analysis suggested the involvement of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the control of GO toxicity on longevity. Moreover, intestinal RNA interference (RNAi) analysis demonstrated that GO reduced longevity by affecting the functions of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the intestine. DAF-16 could also regulate GO toxicity on longevity by functioning upstream of SOD-3, which encodes an antioxidation system that prevents the accumulation of oxidative stress. Therefore, intestinal insulin signaling may encode two different molecular mechanisms responsible for the GO toxicity in inducing the shortened longevity. Our results highlight the key role of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity in organisms.

  15. Intestinal Insulin Signaling Encodes Two Different Molecular Mechanisms for the Shortened Longevity Induced by Graphene Oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunli; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to cause multiple toxicities in various organisms. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for GO-induced shortened longevity are still unclear. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible involvement of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Mutation of daf-2, age-1, akt-1, or akt-2 gene induced a resistant property of nematodes to GO toxicity, while mutation of daf-16 gene led to a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity, suggesting that GO may dysregulate the functions of DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor, AGE-1, AKT-1 and AKT-2-mediated kinase cascade, and DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Genetic interaction analysis suggested the involvement of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the control of GO toxicity on longevity. Moreover, intestinal RNA interference (RNAi) analysis demonstrated that GO reduced longevity by affecting the functions of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the intestine. DAF-16 could also regulate GO toxicity on longevity by functioning upstream of SOD-3, which encodes an antioxidation system that prevents the accumulation of oxidative stress. Therefore, intestinal insulin signaling may encode two different molecular mechanisms responsible for the GO toxicity in inducing the shortened longevity. Our results highlight the key role of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity in organisms. PMID:27040644

  16. Platelet Specific Promoters Are Insufficient to Express Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Transgene in Mouse Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Arachiche, Amal; de la Fuente, María; Nieman, Marvin T.

    2014-01-01

    The in vivo study of protease activated receptors (PARs) in platelets is complicated due to species specific expression profiles. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4 whereas mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4. Further, PAR subtypes interact with one another to influence activation and signaling. The goal of the current study was to generate mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets using transgenic approaches to mimic PAR expression found in human platelets. This system would allow us to examine specific signaling from PAR1 and the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer in vivo. Our first approach used the mouse GPIbα promoter to drive expression of mouse PAR1 in platelets (GPIbα-Tg-mPAR1). We obtained the expected frequency of founders carrying the transgene and had the expected Mendelian distribution of the transgene in multiple founders. However, we did not observe expression or a functional response of PAR1. As a second approach, we targeted human PAR1 with the same promoter (GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1). Once again we observed the expected frequency and distributing of the transgene. Human PAR1 expression was detected in platelets from the GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1 mice by flow cytometry, however, at a lower level than for human platelets. Despite a low level of PAR1 expression, platelets from the GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1 mice did not respond to the PAR1 agonist peptide (SFLLRN). In addition, they did not respond to thrombin when crossed to the PAR4−/− mice. Finally, we used an alternative platelet specific promoter, human αIIb, to express human PAR1 (αIIb-Tg-hPAR1). Similar to our previous attempts, we obtained the expected number of founders but did not detect PAR1 expression or response in platelets from αIIb-Tg-hPAR1 mice. Although unsuccessful, the experiments described in this report provide a resource for future efforts in generating mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets. We provide an experimental framework and offer considerations that will save time and research funds. PMID:24830314

  17. Platelet specific promoters are insufficient to express protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) transgene in mouse platelets.

    PubMed

    Arachiche, Amal; de la Fuente, María; Nieman, Marvin T

    2014-01-01

    The in vivo study of protease activated receptors (PARs) in platelets is complicated due to species specific expression profiles. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4 whereas mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4. Further, PAR subtypes interact with one another to influence activation and signaling. The goal of the current study was to generate mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets using transgenic approaches to mimic PAR expression found in human platelets. This system would allow us to examine specific signaling from PAR1 and the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer in vivo. Our first approach used the mouse GPIbα promoter to drive expression of mouse PAR1 in platelets (GPIbα-Tg-mPAR1). We obtained the expected frequency of founders carrying the transgene and had the expected Mendelian distribution of the transgene in multiple founders. However, we did not observe expression or a functional response of PAR1. As a second approach, we targeted human PAR1 with the same promoter (GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1). Once again we observed the expected frequency and distributing of the transgene. Human PAR1 expression was detected in platelets from the GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1 mice by flow cytometry, however, at a lower level than for human platelets. Despite a low level of PAR1 expression, platelets from the GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1 mice did not respond to the PAR1 agonist peptide (SFLLRN). In addition, they did not respond to thrombin when crossed to the PAR4-/- mice. Finally, we used an alternative platelet specific promoter, human αIIb, to express human PAR1 (αIIb-Tg-hPAR1). Similar to our previous attempts, we obtained the expected number of founders but did not detect PAR1 expression or response in platelets from αIIb-Tg-hPAR1 mice. Although unsuccessful, the experiments described in this report provide a resource for future efforts in generating mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets. We provide an experimental framework and offer considerations that will save time and research funds. PMID:24830314

  18. Molecular characterization of three NPY receptors (Y2, Y5 and Y7) in chickens: Gene structure, tissue expression, promoter identification, and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Chen; Zhang, Jiannan; Gao, Shunyu; Meng, Fengyan; Bu, Guixian; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2016-09-15

    Six neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors are suggested to mediate the biological actions of NPY, peptide YY (PYY), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), such as food intake in birds, however, information regarding the structure and signaling of avian NPY receptors are rather limited. In this study, we investigated the gene structure, tissue expression and signaling property of three NPY receptors (cY2, cY5 and cY7) in chickens. The results showed that 1) cY2, cY5 and cY7 contain novel non-coding exons upstream of their start codon and alternative mRNA splicing in their 5'-UTR results in the formation of multiple transcript variants; 2) cY2, cY5 and cY7 transcripts were detected to be widely expressed in adult chicken tissues including various brain regions by RT-PCR, and their expression is controlled by a promoter(s) near exon 1, which display promoter activity in DF-1 cells as demonstrated by Dual-luciferase reporter assay; 3) cY2, cY5 and cY7 expressed in HEK293 cells were preferentially (or potently) activated by cNPY1-36 and cPYY1-37, but not by cPP1-36, and their activation led to the inhibition of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and activation of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, monitored by the cell-based luciferase reporter systems or western blots, indicating that the three NPY receptors are functional and capable of transmitting signals effectively. On the whole, our data establishes a molecular basis to elucidate the actions of three functional NPY receptors (cY2, cY5 and cY7) and their ligands in birds, which helps to uncover the conserved roles of these ligand-receptor pairs in vertebrates. PMID:27142335

  19. Molecular characterization of three NPY receptors (Y2, Y5 and Y7) in chickens: Gene structure, tissue expression, promoter identification, and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Chen; Zhang, Jiannan; Gao, Shunyu; Meng, Fengyan; Bu, Guixian; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2016-09-15

    Six neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors are suggested to mediate the biological actions of NPY, peptide YY (PYY), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), such as food intake in birds, however, information regarding the structure and signaling of avian NPY receptors are rather limited. In this study, we investigated the gene structure, tissue expression and signaling property of three NPY receptors (cY2, cY5 and cY7) in chickens. The results showed that 1) cY2, cY5 and cY7 contain novel non-coding exons upstream of their start codon and alternative mRNA splicing in their 5'-UTR results in the formation of multiple transcript variants; 2) cY2, cY5 and cY7 transcripts were detected to be widely expressed in adult chicken tissues including various brain regions by RT-PCR, and their expression is controlled by a promoter(s) near exon 1, which display promoter activity in DF-1 cells as demonstrated by Dual-luciferase reporter assay; 3) cY2, cY5 and cY7 expressed in HEK293 cells were preferentially (or potently) activated by cNPY1-36 and cPYY1-37, but not by cPP1-36, and their activation led to the inhibition of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and activation of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, monitored by the cell-based luciferase reporter systems or western blots, indicating that the three NPY receptors are functional and capable of transmitting signals effectively. On the whole, our data establishes a molecular basis to elucidate the actions of three functional NPY receptors (cY2, cY5 and cY7) and their ligands in birds, which helps to uncover the conserved roles of these ligand-receptor pairs in vertebrates.

  20. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone promoted gastric cancer growth through prostaglandin E receptor (EP2 and EP4) in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shin, Vivian Y; Jin, Hong C; Ng, Enders K O; Cho, Chi H; Leung, Wai K; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chu, Kent-Man

    2011-05-01

    Prostaglandin E (EP) receptor is positively related with COX-2, which is involved in cancer biology. A mechanistic study on how 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) promotes gastric carcinogenesis is lacking. Recently, we found that nicotine promoted tumor growth through upregulation of the COX-2/prostaglandin E(2) pathway. This extended our study on the involvement of EP receptors in gastric carcinogenesis. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that NNK promoted cancer cell growth with concomitant EP2 and EP4 upregulation. We found that NNK stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenesis, but suppressed apoptosis by increasing Bcl2 and decreasing caspase-3 expressions. Both EP2 and EP4 siRNA significantly impaired these tumorigenic actions of NNK in xenograft tumor. Cell cycle analysis showed that NNK increased S phase entry with increased cyclin D1 and the associated cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, and downregulation of p21 and p27. The p38 phosphorylation was EP2/4-dependent, and SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) suppressed NNK-induced prostaglandin E(2) , VEGF, and cell proliferation. Antagonists of EP2 or EP4 abolished the elevated VEGF and VEGF receptor-2. These data strongly indicate that EP2/4 are important for NNK-promoted gastric carcinogenesis, thus providing a framework for future evaluation of EP antagonist(s) as anticancer drugs for smokers.

  1. A polymorphic autoregulatory hormone response element in the human estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) promoter dictates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha control of ERRalpha expression.

    PubMed

    Laganière, Josée; Tremblay, Gilles B; Dufour, Catherine R; Giroux, Sylvie; Rousseau, François; Giguère, Vincent

    2004-04-30

    The orphan nuclear estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) and transcriptional cofactor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. Recently, extensive cross-talk between PGC-1alpha and ERRalpha has been demonstrated. The presence of PGC-1alpha is associated with an elevated expression of ERRalpha, and the two proteins can influence the transcriptional activities of one another. Using a candidate gene approach to detect regulatory variants within genes encoding nuclear receptors, we have identified a 23-bp sequence (ESRRA23) containing two nuclear receptor recognition half-site motifs that is present in 1-4 copies within the promoter of the human ESRRA gene encoding ERRalpha. The ESRRA23 sequence contains a functional ERR response element that is specifically bound by ERRalpha, and chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that endogenous ERRalpha occupies its own promoter in vivo. Strikingly, introduction of PGC-1alpha in HeLa cells by transient transfection induces the activity of the ESRRA promoter in a manner that is dependent on the presence of the ESRRA23 element and on its dosage. Coexpression of ERRalpha and PGC-1alpha results in a synergistic activation of the ESRRA promoter. In experiments using ERRalpha null fibroblasts, the ability of PGC-1alpha to stimulate the ESRRA promoter is considerably reduced but can be restored by addition of ERRalpha. Taken together, these results demonstrate that an interdependent ERRalpha/PGC-1alpha-based transcriptional pathway targets the ESRRA23 element to dictate the level of ERRalpha expression. This study further suggests that this regulatory polymorphism may provide differential responses to ERRalpha/PGC-1alpha-mediated metabolic cues in the human population.

  2. Life in the cold: links between mammalian hibernation and longevity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-02-01

    The biological process of aging is the primary determinant of lifespan, but the factors that influence the rate of aging are not yet clearly understood and remain a challenging question. Mammals are characterized by >100-fold differences in maximal lifespan, influenced by relative variances in body mass and metabolic rate. Recent discoveries have identified long-lived mammalian species that deviate from the expected longevity quotient. A commonality among many long-lived species is the capacity to undergo metabolic rate depression, effectively re-programming normal metabolism in response to extreme environmental stress and enter states of torpor or hibernation. This stress tolerant phenotype often involves a reduction in overall metabolic rate to just 1-5% of the normal basal rate as well as activation of cytoprotective responses. At the cellular level, major energy savings are achieved via coordinated suppression of many ATP-expensive cell functions; e.g. global rates of protein synthesis are strongly reduced via inhibition of the insulin signaling axis. At the same time, various studies have shown activation of stress survival signaling during hibernation including up-regulation of protein chaperones, increased antioxidant defenses, and transcriptional activation of pro-survival signaling such as the FOXO and p53 pathways. Many similarities and parallels exist between hibernation phenotypes and different long-lived models, e.g. signal transduction pathways found to be commonly regulated during hibernation are also known to induce lifespan extension in animals such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, we highlight some of the molecular mechanisms that promote longevity in classic aging models C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice, while providing a comparative analysis to how they are regulated during mammalian hibernation.

  3. Life in the cold: links between mammalian hibernation and longevity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-02-01

    The biological process of aging is the primary determinant of lifespan, but the factors that influence the rate of aging are not yet clearly understood and remain a challenging question. Mammals are characterized by >100-fold differences in maximal lifespan, influenced by relative variances in body mass and metabolic rate. Recent discoveries have identified long-lived mammalian species that deviate from the expected longevity quotient. A commonality among many long-lived species is the capacity to undergo metabolic rate depression, effectively re-programming normal metabolism in response to extreme environmental stress and enter states of torpor or hibernation. This stress tolerant phenotype often involves a reduction in overall metabolic rate to just 1-5% of the normal basal rate as well as activation of cytoprotective responses. At the cellular level, major energy savings are achieved via coordinated suppression of many ATP-expensive cell functions; e.g. global rates of protein synthesis are strongly reduced via inhibition of the insulin signaling axis. At the same time, various studies have shown activation of stress survival signaling during hibernation including up-regulation of protein chaperones, increased antioxidant defenses, and transcriptional activation of pro-survival signaling such as the FOXO and p53 pathways. Many similarities and parallels exist between hibernation phenotypes and different long-lived models, e.g. signal transduction pathways found to be commonly regulated during hibernation are also known to induce lifespan extension in animals such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, we highlight some of the molecular mechanisms that promote longevity in classic aging models C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice, while providing a comparative analysis to how they are regulated during mammalian hibernation. PMID:26820181

  4. Androgen Receptor (AR) Promotes Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Development via Modulating Inflammatory IL1α and TGFβ1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Luo, Jie; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Wang, Ronghao; Pang, Haiyan; Chang, Eugene; Yan, Chen; Sparks, Janet; Lee, Soo Ok; Cho, Joshua; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    Gender difference is a risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurism formation yet the reason for male predominance remains unclear. Androgen and the androgen receptor influence the male gender difference, indicating that androgen receptor signaling may affect abdominal aortic aneurism development. Using angiotensin II induced abdominal aortic aneurism in apolipoprotein E null mouse models (82.4% abdominal aortic aneurism incidence), we found that mice lacking androgen receptor failed to develop abdominal aortic aneurism and aorta had dramatically reduced macrophages infiltration and intact elastic fibers. These findings suggested that androgen receptor expression in endothelial cells, macrophages or smooth muscle cells might play a role in abdominal aortic aneurism development. Selective knockout of androgen receptor in each of these cell types further demonstrated that mice lacking androgen receptor in macrophages (20% abdominal aortic aneurism incidence) or smooth muscle cells (12.5% abdominal aortic aneurism incidence), but not in endothelial cells (71.4% abdominal aortic aneurism incidence) had suppressed abdominal aortic aneurism development. Mechanism dissection showed that androgen receptor functioned through modulation of interleukin 1α and transforming growth factor β1 signals and by targeting androgen receptor with androgen receptor degradation enhancer ASC-J9® led to significant suppression of abdominal aortic aneurism development. These results demonstrate the underlying mechanism by which androgen receptor influences abdominal aortic aneurism development through interleukin 1α and transforming growth factor β1, and provides a potential new therapy to suppress/prevent abdominal aortic aneurism by targeting androgen receptor with ASC-J9®. PMID:26324502

  5. The functional serotonin 1a receptor promoter polymorphism, rs6295, is associated with psychiatric illness and differences in transcription.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Z R; le Francois, B; Santos, T L; Almli, L M; Boldrini, M; Champagne, F A; Arango, V; Mann, J J; Stockmeier, C A; Galfalvy, H; Albert, P R; Ressler, K J; Hen, R

    2016-01-01

    The G/C single-nucleotide polymorphism in the serotonin 1a receptor promoter, rs6295, has previously been linked with depression, suicide and antidepressant responsiveness. In vitro studies suggest that rs6295 may have functional effects on the expression of the serotonin 1a receptor gene (HTR1A) through altered binding of a number of transcription factors. To further explore the relationship between rs6295, mental illness and gene expression, we performed dual epidemiological and biological studies. First, we genotyped a cohort of 1412 individuals, randomly split into discovery and replication cohorts, to examine the relationship between rs6295 and five psychiatric outcomes: history of psychiatric hospitalization, history of suicide attempts, history of substance or alcohol abuse, current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), current depression. We found that the rs6295G allele is associated with increased risk for substance abuse, psychiatric hospitalization and suicide attempts. Overall, exposure to either childhood or non-childhood trauma resulted in increased risk for all psychiatric outcomes, but we did not observe a significant interaction between rs6295 and trauma in modulating psychiatric outcomes. In conjunction, we also investigated the potential impact of rs6295 on HTR1A expression in postmortem human brain tissue using relative allelic expression assays. We found more mRNA produced from the C versus the G-allele of rs6295 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but not in the midbrain of nonpsychiatric control subjects. Further, in the fetal cortex, rs6295C allele exhibited increased relative expression as early as gestational week 18 in humans. Finally, we found that the C:G allelic expression ratio was significantly neutralized in the PFC of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) who committed suicide as compared with controls, indicating that normal patterns of transcription may be disrupted in MDD/suicide. These data provide a putative biological

  6. Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Jennifer J.; McCurley, Amy; Davel, Ana P.; McCarthy, Joseph; Bender, Shawn B.; Hong, Kwangseok; Yang, Yan; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Aronovitz, Mark; Baur, Wendy E.; Christou, Demetra D.; Hill, Michael A.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is nearly universal yet poorly controlled in the elderly despite proven benefits of intensive treatment. Mice lacking mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMC-MR-KO) are protected from rising blood pressure (BP) with aging, despite normal renal function. Vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged SMC-MR-KO mice, thus they were used to explore vascular mechanisms that may contribute to hypertension with aging. MicroRNA (miR) profiling identified miR-155 as the most down-regulated miR with vascular aging in MR-intact but not SMC-MR-KO mice. The aging-associated decrease in miR-155 in mesenteric resistance vessels was associated with increased mRNA abundance of MR and of predicted miR-155 targets Cav1.2 (L-type calcium channel (LTCC) subunit) and angiotensin type-1 receptor (AgtR1). SMC-MR-KO mice lacked these aging-associated vascular gene expression changes. In HEK293 cells, MR repressed miR-155 promoter activity. In cultured SMCs, miR-155 decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA. Compared to MR-intact littermates, aged SMC-MR-KO mice had decreased systolic BP, myogenic tone, SMC LTCC current, mesenteric vessel calcium influx, LTCC-induced vasoconstriction and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Restoration of miR-155 specifically in SMCs of aged MR-intact mice decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA and attenuated LTCC-mediated and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Finally, in a trial of MR blockade in elderly humans, changes in serum miR-155 predicted the BP treatment response. Thus, SMC-MR regulation of miR-155, Cav1.2 and AgtR1 impacts vasoconstriction with aging. This novel mechanism identifies potential new treatment strategies and biomarkers to improve and individualize antihypertensive therapy in the elderly.

  7. Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Jennifer J; McCurley, Amy; Davel, Ana P; McCarthy, Joseph; Bender, Shawn B; Hong, Kwangseok; Yang, Yan; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Aronovitz, Mark; Baur, Wendy E; Christou, Demetra D; Hill, Michael A; Jaffe, Iris Z

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is nearly universal yet poorly controlled in the elderly despite proven benefits of intensive treatment. Mice lacking mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMC-MR-KO) are protected from rising blood pressure (BP) with aging, despite normal renal function. Vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged SMC-MR-KO mice, thus they were used to explore vascular mechanisms that may contribute to hypertension with aging. MicroRNA (miR) profiling identified miR-155 as the most down-regulated miR with vascular aging in MR-intact but not SMC-MR-KO mice. The aging-associated decrease in miR-155 in mesenteric resistance vessels was associated with increased mRNA abundance of MR and of predicted miR-155 targets Cav1.2 (L-type calcium channel (LTCC) subunit) and angiotensin type-1 receptor (AgtR1). SMC-MR-KO mice lacked these aging-associated vascular gene expression changes. In HEK293 cells, MR repressed miR-155 promoter activity. In cultured SMCs, miR-155 decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA. Compared to MR-intact littermates, aged SMC-MR-KO mice had decreased systolic BP, myogenic tone, SMC LTCC current, mesenteric vessel calcium influx, LTCC-induced vasoconstriction and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Restoration of miR-155 specifically in SMCs of aged MR-intact mice decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA and attenuated LTCC-mediated and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Finally, in a trial of MR blockade in elderly humans, changes in serum miR-155 predicted the BP treatment response. Thus, SMC-MR regulation of miR-155, Cav1.2 and AgtR1 impacts vasoconstriction with aging. This novel mechanism identifies potential new treatment strategies and biomarkers to improve and individualize antihypertensive therapy in the elderly. PMID:27683672

  8. Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Jennifer J.; McCurley, Amy; Davel, Ana P.; McCarthy, Joseph; Bender, Shawn B.; Hong, Kwangseok; Yang, Yan; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Aronovitz, Mark; Baur, Wendy E.; Christou, Demetra D.; Hill, Michael A.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is nearly universal yet poorly controlled in the elderly despite proven benefits of intensive treatment. Mice lacking mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMC-MR-KO) are protected from rising blood pressure (BP) with aging, despite normal renal function. Vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged SMC-MR-KO mice, thus they were used to explore vascular mechanisms that may contribute to hypertension with aging. MicroRNA (miR) profiling identified miR-155 as the most down-regulated miR with vascular aging in MR-intact but not SMC-MR-KO mice. The aging-associated decrease in miR-155 in mesenteric resistance vessels was associated with increased mRNA abundance of MR and of predicted miR-155 targets Cav1.2 (L-type calcium channel (LTCC) subunit) and angiotensin type-1 receptor (AgtR1). SMC-MR-KO mice lacked these aging-associated vascular gene expression changes. In HEK293 cells, MR repressed miR-155 promoter activity. In cultured SMCs, miR-155 decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA. Compared to MR-intact littermates, aged SMC-MR-KO mice had decreased systolic BP, myogenic tone, SMC LTCC current, mesenteric vessel calcium influx, LTCC-induced vasoconstriction and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Restoration of miR-155 specifically in SMCs of aged MR-intact mice decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA and attenuated LTCC-mediated and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Finally, in a trial of MR blockade in elderly humans, changes in serum miR-155 predicted the BP treatment response. Thus, SMC-MR regulation of miR-155, Cav1.2 and AgtR1 impacts vasoconstriction with aging. This novel mechanism identifies potential new treatment strategies and biomarkers to improve and individualize antihypertensive therapy in the elderly. PMID:27683672

  9. Telomeres and longevity: testing an evolutionary hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Haussmann, Mark F; Mauck, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Identifying mechanisms that underlie variation in adult survivorship provide insight into the evolution of life history strategies and phenotypic variation in longevity. There is accumulating evidence that shortening telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, play an important role in individual variation in longevity. Given that telomeres generally shorten with age, it was surprising to find that in a population of a long-lived seabird, Leach's storm petrel, telomeres appear to lengthen with age. This unique finding suggested that the longest lived individuals are able to elongate telomeres, an interpretation we call the "elongation hypothesis." Alternatively, the "selection hypothesis" states that the longest lived individuals start with the longest telomeres and variation in telomere length decreases with age due to the selective disappearance of individuals with short telomeres. In the same population in which evidence supporting both hypotheses was uncovered, we tested mutually exclusive predictions from the elongation and selection hypotheses by measuring telomere length with the telomere restriction fragment assay in hatchling and old, adult storm petrels. As previously found, adult birds had longer telomeres on average compared with hatchlings. We also found that 3 hatchlings had mean telomere lengths exceeding that of the most extreme old bird, old birds on average had longer initial telomere lengths than hatchlings, and the variance in mean telomere length was significantly greater for hatchlings than for old birds, all predicted by the selection hypothesis. Perhaps more surprisingly, the oldest adults also show little or no accumulation of short telomeres over time, a pattern unknown in other species. Long telomeres are thought to provide a buffer against cellular senescence and be generally indicative of genome stability and overall cell health. In storm petrels, because the progressive accumulation of short telomeres appears negligible

  10. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, David H.

    2001-05-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M&O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4) Evaluate factors

  11. Some Comments on Longevity by a Technologist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    The durability of flywheels was investigated. Since only composite flywheels possess the potential for system energy densities in the range of 20 to 40 W hr/kg, and they are not yet at a level of maturity where a comfortable data base exists, the longevity aspects of the yet to be developed devices is still a speculation. The general methodologies that have been used in some of the more established technology areas to establish some degree of credibility in the ability to predict the upper limits of expected useful life based on the current limiting decay mechanism are outlined.

  12. Book Longevity. Reports of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Herbert S., Jr.; And Others

    In 1979, a Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity was formed to study some aspects of the book preservation problem. Composed of representatives from libraries, publishing, and the paper industry, the committee set two primary objectives: to increase knowledge about the durability of books and other materials, and to encourage…

  13. NOVEL SPLICED VARIANTS OF IONOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR GLUR6 IN NORMAL HUMAN FIBROBLAST AND BRAIN CELLS ARE TRANSCRIBED BY TISSUE SPECIFIC PROMOTERS

    PubMed Central

    Zhawar, Vikramjit K.; Kaur, Gurpreet; deRiel, Jon K.; Kaur, G. Pal; Kandpal, Raj P.; Athwal, Raghbir S.

    2010-01-01

    The members of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, namely, a-amino-3-hydroxy-S-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, are important mediators of the rapid synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. We have investigated the splicing pattern and expression of the kainate receptor subunit GluR6 in human fibroblast cell lines and brain tissue. We demonstrate the expression of GluR6A variant specifically in brain, and four variants, namely, GluR6B, GluR6C, GluR6D and GluR6E in fibroblast cell lines. The variants GluR6D and GluR6E have not been described before, and appear to be specific for non-neuronal cells. Genomic analysis and cloning of the sequence preceding the transcribed region led to the identification of two tissue specific promoters designated as neuronal promoter PN and non-neuronal promoter PNN. We have used RNA ligase mediated RACE and in silico analyses to locate two sets of transcription start sites, and confirmed specific transcripts initiated by PN and PNN in brain cells and fibroblasts, respectively. The domain structure of variants GluR6D and GluR6E revealed the absence of three transmembrane domains. The lack of these domains suggests that the mature receptors arising from these variant subunits may not function as active channels. Based on these structural features in GluR6D and GluR6E, and the observations that GluR6B, GluR6C, GluR6D and GluR6E are exclusively expressed in non-neuronal cells, it is likely that these receptor subunits function as non-channel signaling proteins. PMID:20230879

  14. CC-chemokine receptor 7 and its ligand CCL19 promote mitral valve interstitial cell migration and repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhi; Wang, Liang; Miao, Liping; Zhao, Rong; Wu, Yanhu; Kong, Xiangqing

    2015-11-01

    The effect of CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and CC-chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) on rheumatic mitral stenosis is unknown. This study aimed to explore the roles of CCR7 and CCL19 in rheumatic mitral stenosis by measuring the expression of CCR7 and CCL19 in human mitral valves from rheumatic mitral stenosis patients. Additionally, we examined their effects on human mitral valve interstitial cells (hMVICs) proliferation, apoptosis and wound repair. CCR7 and CCL19 expression was measured in the mitral valves from rheumatic mitral stenosis patients (n = 10) and compared to normal mitral valves (n = 5). CCR7 was measured in cultured hMVICs from rheumatic mitral stenosis patients and normal donors by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. The cells were also treated with exogenous CCL19, and the effects on wound healing, proliferation and apoptosis were assayed. In the rheumatic mitral valves, valve interstitial cells expressed CCR7, while mononuclear cells and the endothelium expressed CCL19. Healthy mitral valves did not stain positive for CCR7 or CCL19. CCR7 was also detected in cultured rheumatic hMVICs or in normal hMVICs treated with CCL19. In a wound healing experiment, wound closure rates of both rheumatic and normal hMVICs were significantly accelerated by CCL19. These effects were abrogated by a CCR7 neutralizing antibody. The CCR7/CCL19 axis did not influence the proliferation or apoptosis of hMVICs, indicating that wound healing was due to increased migration rates rather than increased proliferation. In conclusion, CCR7 and CCL19 were expressed in rheumatic mitral valves. The CCR7/CCL19 axis may regulate remodeling of rheumatic valve injury through promoting migratory ability of hMVICs.

  15. PTP1B is an androgen receptor-regulated phosphatase associated with tumor-promoting functions in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Laurent; Labbé, David P.; Deblois, Geneviève; Bégin, Louis R.; Hardy, Serge; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Saad, Fred; Trotman, Lloyd; Giguère, Vincent; Tremblay, Michel L.

    2016-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR)-signaling axis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. The identification of AR targets contributing to prostate tumorigenesis is thus critical for the development of more effective therapies. Herein, we examined whether the AR could regulate classical protein tyrosine phosphatases, a family of enzymes increasingly associated with oncogenic processes. We found that protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a well-established regulator of metabolic signaling, was induced after androgenic stimulation of AR-expressing prostate cancer cells. This effect was observed both at the mRNA and protein levels, and translated into increased PTP1B activity. High-resolution location analyses on tiled array covering chromosome 20q revealed the recruitment of the AR to two response elements located within the first intron of the PTP1B gene (PTPN1) and correlated with an increase in RNA polymerase II recruitment to the transcriptional start site of PTPN1. Analysis of copy number alterations revealed that both PTPN1 and AR genes are co-amplified in metastatic tumors, and that PTPN1 amplification is associated with a subset of high-risk primary tumors. At the functional level, PTP1B depletion significantly delayed LNCaP tumor growth in vivo, and impaired androgen-induced cell migration and invasion in vitro. Importantly, androgen-independent cells also required PTP1B for optimal cell migration. Collectively, our results establish the AR as a transcriptional regulator of PTPN1 transcription, and suggest that PTP1B plays a tumor-promoting role in prostate cancer. This has important implications for prostate cancer biology, and supports the pre-clinical testing of PTP1B inhibitors for the treatment of the disease. PMID:22282656

  16. Taurolithocholic acid promotes intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell growth via muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Amonyingcharoen, Sumet; Suriyo, Tawit; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant cancer of the biliary tract and its occurrence is associated with chronic cholestasis which causes an elevation of bile acids in the liver and bile duct. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanistic effect of bile acids on the CCA cell growth. Intrahepatic CCA cell lines, RMCCA-1 and HuCCA-1, were treated with bile acids and their metabolites to determine the growth promoting effect. Cell viability, cell cycle analysis, EdU incorporation assays were conducted. Intracellular signaling proteins were detected by western immunoblotting. Among eleven forms of bile acids and their metabolites, only taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) concentration dependently (1-40 µM) increased the cell viability of RMCCA-1, but not HuCCA-1 cells. The cell cycle analysis showed induction of cells in the S phase and the EdU incorporation assay revealed induction of DNA synthesis in the TLCA-treated RMCCA-1 cells. Moreover, TLCA increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK 1/2 and also increased the expression of cyclin D1 in RMCCA-1 cells. Furthermore, TLCA-induced RMCCA-1 cell growth could be inhibited by atropine, a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist, AG 1478, a specific EGFR inhibitor, or U 0126, a specific MEK 1/2 inhibitor. These results suggest that TLCA induces CCA cell growth via mAChR and EGFR/EKR1/2 signaling pathway. Moreover, the functional presence of cholinergic system plays a certain role in TLCA-induced CCA cell growth.

  17. Prediction of response to chemoradiation in rectal cancer by a gene polymorphism in the epidermal growth factor receptor promoter region

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm . E-mail: kalgsp@vgs.vejleamt.dk; Nielsen, Jens Nederby; Lindebjerg, Jan; Brandslund, Ivan; Jakobsen, Anders

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been associated with radioresistance in solid tumors. Recently a polymorphism in the Sp1 recognition site of the EGFR promoter region was identified. The present study investigated the predictive value of this polymorphism for the outcome of chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study included 77 patients with locally advanced T3 rectal tumors. Treatment consisted of preoperative radiation therapy at a total tumor dose of 65 Gy and concomitant chemotherapy with Uftoral. Blood samples from 63 patients were evaluated for Sp1 -216 G/T polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Forty-eight primary tumor biopsies were available for EGFR immunostaining. Patients underwent surgery 8 weeks after treatment. Pathologic response evaluation was performed according to the tumor regression grade (TRG) system. Results: Forty-nine percent had major response (TRG1-2) and 51% moderate response (TRG 3-4) to chemoradiation. The rates of major response were 34% (10/29) in GG homozygote patients compared with 65% (22/34) in patients with T containing variants (p = 0.023). Fifty-eight percent of biopsies were positive for EGFR expression (28/48). The major response rates with regard to EGFR immunostaining were not significantly different. EGFR-positive tumors were found in 83% of the GG homozygote patients compared with 38% of patients with TT or GT variants (p = 0.008). Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between EGFR Sp1 -216 G/T polymorphism and treatment response to chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer. Further investigations of a second set of patient and other treatment schedules are warranted.

  18. FES kinase promotes mast cell recruitment to mammary tumors via the stem cell factor/KIT receptor signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ester; Everingham, Stephanie; Zhang, Shengnan; Greer, Peter A; Allingham, John S; Craig, Andrew W B

    2012-07-01

    KIT receptor is required for mast cell development, survival, and migration toward its ligand stem cell factor (SCF). Many solid tumors express SCF and this leads to mast cell recruitment to tumors and release of mediators linked to tumor angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis. Here, we investigate whether FES protein-tyrosine kinase, a downstream effector of KIT signaling in mast cells, is required for migration of mast cells toward SCF-expressing mammary tumors. Using a novel agarose drop assay for chemotaxis of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) toward SCF, we found that defects in chemotaxis of fes-null BMMCs correlated with disorganized microtubule networks in polarized cells. FES displayed partial colocalization with microtubules in polarized BMMCs and has at least two direct microtubule binding sites within its N-terminal F-BAR and SH2 domains. An oligomerization-disrupting mutation within the Fer/CIP4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) domain had no effect on microtubule binding, whereas microtubule binding to the SH2 domain was dependent on the phosphotyrosine-binding pocket. FES involvement in mast cell recruitment to tumors was tested using the AC2M2 mouse mammary carcinoma model. These tumor cells expressed SCF and promoted BMMC recruitment in a KIT- and FES-dependent manner. Engraftment of AC2M2 orthotopic and subcutaneous tumors in control or fes-null mice, revealed a key role for FES in recruitment of mast cells to the tumor periphery. This may contribute to the reduced tumor growth and metastases observed in fes-null mice compared with control mice. Taken together, FES is a potential therapeutic target to limit the progression of tumors with stromal mast cell involvement.

  19. Crosstalk between Wnt/β-Catenin and Estrogen Receptor Signaling Synergistically Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanhong; Huang, Enyi; Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Jinhua; Wu, Ningning; Chen, Xian; Wang, Ning; Wen, Sheng; Nan, Guoxin; Deng, Fang; Liao, Zhan; Wu, Di; Zhang, Bosi; Zhang, Junhui; Haydon, Rex C.; Luu, Hue H.; Shi, Lewis L.; He, Tong-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) are initiated and regulated by a cascade of signaling events. Either Wnt/β-catenin or estrogen signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in regulating skeletal development and maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we investigate the potential crosstalk and synergy of these two signaling pathways in regulating osteogenic differentiation of MPCs. We find that the activation of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling by estradiol (E2) or exogenously expressed ERα in MPCs synergistically enhances Wnt3A-induced early and late osteogenic markers, as well as matrix mineralization. The E2 or ERα-mediated synergy can be effectively blocked by ERα antagonist tamoxifen. E2 stimulation can enhance endochondral ossification of Wnt3A-transduced mouse fetal limb explants. Furthermore, exogenously expressed ERα significantly enhances the maturity and mineralization of Wnt3A-induced subcutaneous and intramuscular ectopic bone formation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that E2 does not exert any detectable effect on β-catenin/Tcf reporter activity. However, ERα expression is up-regulated within the first 48h in AdWnt3A-transduced MPCs, whereas ERβ expression is significantly inhibited within 24h. Moreover, the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of estrogens aromatase is modulated by Wnt3A in a biphasic manner, up-regulated at 24h but reduced after 48h. Our results demonstrate that, while ER signaling acts synergistically with Wnt3A in promoting osteogenic differentiation, Wnt3A may crosstalk with ER signaling by up-regulating ERα expression and down-regulating ERβ expression in MPCs. Thus, the signaling crosstalk and synergy between these two pathways should be further explored as a potential therapeutic approach to combating bone and skeletal disorders, such as fracture healing and osteoporosis. PMID:24340027

  20. Mood, stress and longevity: convergence on ANK3.

    PubMed

    Rangaraju, S; Levey, D F; Nho, K; Jain, N; Andrews, K D; Le-Niculescu, H; Salomon, D R; Saykin, A J; Petrascheck, M; Niculescu, A B

    2016-08-01

    Antidepressants have been shown to improve longevity in C. elegans. It is plausible that orthologs of genes involved in mood regulation and stress response are involved in such an effect. We sought to understand the underlying biology. First, we analyzed the transcriptome from worms treated with the antidepressant mianserin, previously identified in a large-scale unbiased drug screen as promoting increased lifespan in worms. We identified the most robust treatment-related changes in gene expression, and identified the corresponding human orthologs. Our analysis uncovered a series of genes and biological pathways that may be at the interface between antidepressant effects and longevity, notably pathways involved in drug metabolism/degradation (nicotine and melatonin). Second, we examined which of these genes overlap with genes which may be involved in depressive symptoms in an aging non-psychiatric human population (n=3577), discovered using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach in a design with extremes of distribution of phenotype. Third, we used a convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach to prioritize these genes for relevance to mood disorders and stress. The top gene identified was ANK3. To validate our findings, we conducted genetic and gene-expression studies, in C. elegans and in humans. We studied C. elegans inactivating mutants for ANK3/unc-44, and show that they survive longer than wild-type, particularly in older worms, independently of mianserin treatment. We also show that some ANK3/unc-44 expression is necessary for the effects of mianserin on prolonging lifespan and survival in the face of oxidative stress, particularly in younger worms. Wild-type ANK3/unc-44 increases in expression with age in C. elegans, and is maintained at lower youthful levels by mianserin treatment. These lower levels may be optimal in terms of longevity, offering a favorable balance between sufficient oxidative stress resistance in younger worms and survival

  1. Mood, stress and longevity: convergence on ANK3.

    PubMed

    Rangaraju, S; Levey, D F; Nho, K; Jain, N; Andrews, K D; Le-Niculescu, H; Salomon, D R; Saykin, A J; Petrascheck, M; Niculescu, A B

    2016-08-01

    Antidepressants have been shown to improve longevity in C. elegans. It is plausible that orthologs of genes involved in mood regulation and stress response are involved in such an effect. We sought to understand the underlying biology. First, we analyzed the transcriptome from worms treated with the antidepressant mianserin, previously identified in a large-scale unbiased drug screen as promoting increased lifespan in worms. We identified the most robust treatment-related changes in gene expression, and identified the corresponding human orthologs. Our analysis uncovered a series of genes and biological pathways that may be at the interface between antidepressant effects and longevity, notably pathways involved in drug metabolism/degradation (nicotine and melatonin). Second, we examined which of these genes overlap with genes which may be involved in depressive symptoms in an aging non-psychiatric human population (n=3577), discovered using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach in a design with extremes of distribution of phenotype. Third, we used a convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach to prioritize these genes for relevance to mood disorders and stress. The top gene identified was ANK3. To validate our findings, we conducted genetic and gene-expression studies, in C. elegans and in humans. We studied C. elegans inactivating mutants for ANK3/unc-44, and show that they survive longer than wild-type, particularly in older worms, independently of mianserin treatment. We also show that some ANK3/unc-44 expression is necessary for the effects of mianserin on prolonging lifespan and survival in the face of oxidative stress, particularly in younger worms. Wild-type ANK3/unc-44 increases in expression with age in C. elegans, and is maintained at lower youthful levels by mianserin treatment. These lower levels may be optimal in terms of longevity, offering a favorable balance between sufficient oxidative stress resistance in younger worms and survival

  2. Insulin-like Growth Factor-II (IGF-II) and IGF-II Analogs with Enhanced Insulin Receptor-a Binding Affinity Promote Neural Stem Cell Expansion*

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Amber N.; Chidambaram, Shravanthi; Forbes, Briony E.; Wood, Teresa L.; Levison, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to employ genetically engineered IGF-II analogs to establish which receptor(s) mediate the stemness promoting actions of IGF-II on mouse subventricular zone neural precursors. Neural precursors from the subventricular zone were propagated in vitro in culture medium supplemented with IGF-II analogs. Cell growth and identity were analyzed using sphere generation and further analyzed by flow cytometry. F19A, an analog of IGF-II that does not bind the IGF-2R, stimulated an increase in the proportion of neural stem cells (NSCs) while decreasing the proportion of the later stage progenitors at a lower concentration than IGF-II. V43M, which binds to the IGF-2R with high affinity but which has low binding affinity to the IGF-1R and to the A isoform of the insulin receptor (IR-A) failed to promote NSC growth. The positive effects of F19A on NSC growth were unaltered by the addition of a functional blocking antibody to the IGF-1R. Altogether, these data lead to the conclusion that IGF-II promotes stemness of NSCs via the IR-A and not through activation of either the IGF-1R or the IGF-2R. PMID:24398690

  3. The role of androgens and estrogens on healthy aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Horstman, Astrid M; Dillon, E Lichar; Urban, Randall J; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda

    2012-11-01

    Aging is associated with a loss of sex hormone in both men (andropause) and women (menopause). In men, reductions in testosterone can trigger declines in muscle mass, bone mass, and in physical function. In women, the impact of the loss of sex hormones, such as estradiol, on bone is well elucidated, but evidence is limited on whether the loss of estradiol negatively affects muscle mass and physical function. However, deficiencies in multiple anabolic hormones have been shown to predict health status and longevity in older persons. Thus, consideration should be given as to whether targeted hormone replacement therapies may prove effective at treating clinical conditions, such as age-related sarcopenia, cancer cachexia, and/or acute or chronic illnesses. If initiated carefully in the appropriate clinical population, hormone replacement therapies in men and women may prevent and reverse muscle and bone loss and functional declines and perhaps promote healthy aging and longevity. PMID:22451474

  4. Genetic landscape of APOE in human longevity revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seungjin; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir; Raghavachari, Nalini; Suh, Yousin

    2016-04-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has been the most replicated longevity-associated gene in humans. Two common APOE alleles are either significantly depleted (ε4 allele) or enriched (ε2 allele) in long-lived individuals as compared to controls. We performed high-throughput sequencing analysis of exons and 2kb proximal promoter of APOE in 450 centenarians and 500 controls of Ashkenazi Jewish decent. We found two common regulatory variants, rs405509 (p=0.006) and rs769449 (p=0.036), that were significantly depleted in centenarians. Genotyping analysis of rs7412 and rs429358 showed significant enrichment of ε2 allele (p=0.003) and ε2/ε3 genotype (p=0.005), and significant depletion of ε3/ε4 genotype (p=0.005) in centenarians. Our findings support the hypothesis that variants in both coding and regulatory regions of APOE may contribute to longevity in humans. PMID:26930295

  5. Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Kristen

    2003-01-01

    Great apes, our closest living relatives, live longer and mature later than most other mammals and modern humans are even later-maturing and potentially longer-lived. Evolutionary life-history theory seeks to explain cross-species differences in these variables and the covariation between them. That provides the foundation for a hypothesis that a novel role for grandmothers underlies the shift from an ape-like ancestral pattern to one more like our own in the first widely successful members of genus Homo. This hypothesis links four distinctive features of human life histories: 1). our potential longevity, 2). our late maturity, 3). our midlife menopause, and 4). our early weaning with next offspring produced before the previous infant can feed itself. I discuss the problem, then, using modern humans and chimpanzees to represent, respectively, genus Homo and australopithecines, I focus on two corollaries of this grandmother hypothesis: 1). that ancestral age-specific fertility declines persisted in our genus, while 2). senescence in other aspects of physiological performance slowed down. The data are scanty but they illustrate similarities in age-specific fertility decline and differences in somatic durability that are consistent with the hypothesis that increased longevity in our genus is a legacy of the "reproductive" role of ancestral grandmothers. PMID:12704714

  6. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    PubMed

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated.

  7. Heart rate reduction and longevity in mice.

    PubMed

    Gent, Sabine; Kleinbongard, Petra; Dammann, Philip; Neuhäuser, Markus; Heusch, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    Heart rate correlates inversely with life span across all species, including humans. In patients with cardiovascular disease, higher heart rate is associated with increased mortality, and such patients benefit from pharmacological heart rate reduction. However, cause-and-effect relationships between heart rate and longevity, notably in healthy individuals, are not established. We therefore prospectively studied the effects of a life-long pharmacological heart rate reduction on longevity in mice. We hypothesized, that the total number of cardiac cycles is constant, and that a 15% heart rate reduction might translate into a 15% increase in life span. C57BL6/J mice received either placebo or ivabradine at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day in drinking water from 12 weeks to death. Heart rate and body weight were monitored. Autopsy was performed on all non-autolytic cadavers, and parenchymal organs were evaluated macroscopically. Ivabradine reduced heart rate by 14% (median, interquartile range 12-15%) throughout life, and median life span was increased by 6.2% (p = 0.01). Body weight and macroscopic findings were not different between placebo and ivabradine. Life span was not increased to the same extent as heart rate was reduced, but nevertheless significantly prolonged by 6.2%.

  8. Familial versus sporadic longevity and MHC markers.

    PubMed

    Henon, N; Busson, M; Dehay-Martuchou, C; Charron, D; Hors, J

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polymorphism of HLA-A, B, in 2 elderly populations (> or = 90 years) compared to a control series of 429 healthy unrelated individuals less advanced in age. The aged population issued from the CHRONOS cohort consisted of 336 centenarians without familial history of longevity, and 102 nonagenarians index cases randomly selected from families. Almost all individuals (310) were previously typed for HLA-DRB1. The increased allelic frequency of HLA DR11 was observed in familial nonagenarians (18.3%) compared to controls (10%) (p < .001) and to sporadic centenarians (11.8%). Concerning HLA Class I alleles, only rare alleles (A30, B70) remain significantly different from the controls after correction of the p value. No distortion of the Mendelian sharing of haplotypes was observed among sibling pairs of familial nonagenarians. A protective effect of the HLA-DR11 molecule itself, presenting adequately immunogenic-infectious peptides, is probable rather than genes in disequilibrium. Our study strongly supports the heterogeneity of longevity, the association of HLA-DR11 in its familial form in aged populations.

  9. Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Kristen

    2003-01-01

    Great apes, our closest living relatives, live longer and mature later than most other mammals and modern humans are even later-maturing and potentially longer-lived. Evolutionary life-history theory seeks to explain cross-species differences in these variables and the covariation between them. That provides the foundation for a hypothesis that a novel role for grandmothers underlies the shift from an ape-like ancestral pattern to one more like our own in the first widely successful members of genus Homo. This hypothesis links four distinctive features of human life histories: 1). our potential longevity, 2). our late maturity, 3). our midlife menopause, and 4). our early weaning with next offspring produced before the previous infant can feed itself. I discuss the problem, then, using modern humans and chimpanzees to represent, respectively, genus Homo and australopithecines, I focus on two corollaries of this grandmother hypothesis: 1). that ancestral age-specific fertility declines persisted in our genus, while 2). senescence in other aspects of physiological performance slowed down. The data are scanty but they illustrate similarities in age-specific fertility decline and differences in somatic durability that are consistent with the hypothesis that increased longevity in our genus is a legacy of the "reproductive" role of ancestral grandmothers.

  10. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    SciTech Connect

    D. Tang

    2000-01-07

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M&O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used.

  11. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans.

  12. Personality, Longevity, and Successful Aging among Tokyo Metropolitan Centenarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimonaka, Yoshiko; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined two hypotheses: (1) that androgyny and Type B behavior are related to longevity; and (2) that personality characteristics associated with longevity may also be related to successful aging. Participants were 82 centenarians (37 men, 45 women) who were compared with 605 elderly in their sixties, seventies, and eighties. Discusses study…

  13. Mitochondrial Polymorphisms Are Associated Both with Increased and Decreased Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Castri, Loredana; Melendez-Obando, Mauricio; Villegas-Palma, Ramon; Barrantes, Ramiro; Raventos, Henrieta; Pereira, Reynaldo; Luiselli, Donata; Pettener, Davide; Madrigal, Lorena

    2009-01-01

    Previous work compared frequency of longevity-associated polymorphisms (LAPS) in long-lived individuals and in controls from the general population (primarily in Europe and Japan), suggesting the polymorphisms are responsible for unusual longevity. However, individuals from the general population are not the control group for long-lived subjects because both were born in different periods. We report results of a project which collected mtDNA from living subjects in Costa Rica, and traced back their maternal genealogy. Since mtDNA does not recombine and its probability of mutation is low, we can assume that the maternal ancestors had the same mtDNA of their descendants. We compared the longevity of individuals with LAPS with the longevity of controls born in the same time period. We did not confirm previous associations for several markers, but found that the 5178A mutation in haplogroup D is associated with decreased longevity, whereas the 150T mutation is associated with increased longevity. These associations however, are not significant for all time periods under study. While our data confirm that mtDNA make up affects longevity, they also indicate that the time period in which a person was born had a much greater impact on longevity than presence or absence of a marker. PMID:19077432

  14. Effect of heifer calving date on longevity and lifetime productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longevity and lifetime productivity are important factors in profitability of the beef cow herd. Therefore, a concern for many producers is the productivity and longevity of the individual cow in their herd. The 2007-08 survey from National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) reported that the l...

  15. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia; Liu, Xiaomin; Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Huashuai; Xu, Hanshi; Wang, Mingbang; Ni, Ting; Li, Yang; Yan, Han; Zhang, Jin-Pei; Song, Chun; Chi, Li-Qing; Wang, Han-Ming; Dong, Jie; Zheng, Gu-Yan; Lin, Li; Qian, Feng; Qi, Yanwei; Liu, Xiao; Cao, Hongzhi; Wang, Yinghao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Zhaochun; Zhou, Yufeng; Wang, Yan; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Qi, Ming; Bolund, Lars; Yashin, Anatoliy; Land, Kenneth C; Gregory, Simon; Yang, Ze; Gottschalk, William; Tao, Wei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xun; Bae, Harold; Nygaard, Marianne; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Franceschi, Claudio; Lutz, Michael W; Gu, Jun; Tan, Qihua; Perls, Thomas; Sebastiani, Paola; Deelen, Joris; Slagboom, Eline; Hauser, Elizabeth; Xu, Huji; Tian, Xiao-Li; Yang, Huanming; Vaupel, James W

    2016-01-01

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han Chinese with a sample size 2.7 times the largest previously published GWAS on centenarians. We identified 11 independent loci associated with longevity replicated in Southern-Northern regions of China, including two novel loci (rs2069837-IL6; rs2440012-ANKRD20A9P) with genome-wide significance and the rest with suggestive significance (P < 3.65 × 10(-5)). Eight independent SNPs overlapped across Han Chinese, European and U.S. populations, and APOE and 5q33.3 were replicated as longevity loci. Integrated analysis indicates four pathways (starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism; immune response and inflammation; MAPK; calcium signaling) highly associated with longevity (P ≤ 0.006) in Han Chinese. The association with longevity of three of these four pathways (MAPK; immunity; calcium signaling) is supported by findings in other human cohorts. Our novel finding on the association of starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism pathway with longevity is consistent with the previous results from Drosophilia. This study suggests protective mechanisms including immunity and nutrient metabolism and their interactions with environmental stress play key roles in human longevity. PMID:26912274

  16. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia; Liu, Xiaomin; Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Huashuai; Xu, Hanshi; Wang, Mingbang; Ni, Ting; Li, Yang; Yan, Han; Zhang, Jin-Pei; Song, Chun; Chi, Li-Qing; Wang, Han-Ming; Dong, Jie; Zheng, Gu-Yan; Lin, Li; Qian, Feng; Qi, Yanwei; Liu, Xiao; Cao, Hongzhi; Wang, Yinghao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Zhaochun; Zhou, Yufeng; Wang, Yan; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Qi, Ming; Bolund, Lars; Yashin, Anatoliy; Land, Kenneth C; Gregory, Simon; Yang, Ze; Gottschalk, William; Tao, Wei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xun; Bae, Harold; Nygaard, Marianne; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Franceschi, Claudio; Lutz, Michael W; Gu, Jun; Tan, Qihua; Perls, Thomas; Sebastiani, Paola; Deelen, Joris; Slagboom, Eline; Hauser, Elizabeth; Xu, Huji; Tian, Xiao-Li; Yang, Huanming; Vaupel, James W

    2016-02-25

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han Chinese with a sample size 2.7 times the largest previously published GWAS on centenarians. We identified 11 independent loci associated with longevity replicated in Southern-Northern regions of China, including two novel loci (rs2069837-IL6; rs2440012-ANKRD20A9P) with genome-wide significance and the rest with suggestive significance (P < 3.65 × 10(-5)). Eight independent SNPs overlapped across Han Chinese, European and U.S. populations, and APOE and 5q33.3 were replicated as longevity loci. Integrated analysis indicates four pathways (starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism; immune response and inflammation; MAPK; calcium signaling) highly associated with longevity (P ≤ 0.006) in Han Chinese. The association with longevity of three of these four pathways (MAPK; immunity; calcium signaling) is supported by findings in other human cohorts. Our novel finding on the association of starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism pathway with longevity is consistent with the previous results from Drosophilia. This study suggests protective mechanisms including immunity and nutrient metabolism and their interactions with environmental stress play key roles in human longevity.

  17. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia; Liu, Xiaomin; Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Huashuai; Xu, Hanshi; Wang, Mingbang; Ni, Ting; Li, Yang; Yan, Han; Zhang, Jin-Pei; Song, Chun; Chi, Li-Qing; Wang, Han-Ming; Dong, Jie; Zheng, Gu-Yan; Lin, Li; Qian, Feng; Qi, Yanwei; Liu, Xiao; Cao, Hongzhi; Wang, Yinghao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Zhaochun; Zhou, Yufeng; Wang, Yan; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Qi, Ming; Bolund, Lars; Yashin, Anatoliy; Land, Kenneth C.; Gregory, Simon; Yang, Ze; Gottschalk, William; Tao, Wei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xun; Bae, Harold; Nygaard, Marianne; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Franceschi, Claudio; Lutz, Michael W.; Gu, Jun; Tan, Qihua; Perls, Thomas; Sebastiani, Paola; Deelen, Joris; Slagboom, Eline; Hauser, Elizabeth; Xu, Huji; Tian, Xiao-Li; Yang, Huanming; Vaupel, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han Chinese with a sample size 2.7 times the largest previously published GWAS on centenarians. We identified 11 independent loci associated with longevity replicated in Southern-Northern regions of China, including two novel loci (rs2069837-IL6; rs2440012-ANKRD20A9P) with genome-wide significance and the rest with suggestive significance (P < 3.65 × 10−5). Eight independent SNPs overlapped across Han Chinese, European and U.S. populations, and APOE and 5q33.3 were replicated as longevity loci. Integrated analysis indicates four pathways (starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism; immune response and inflammation; MAPK; calcium signaling) highly associated with longevity (P ≤ 0.006) in Han Chinese. The association with longevity of three of these four pathways (MAPK; immunity; calcium signaling) is supported by findings in other human cohorts. Our novel finding on the association of starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism pathway with longevity is consistent with the previous results from Drosophilia. This study suggests protective mechanisms including immunity and nutrient metabolism and their interactions with environmental stress play key roles in human longevity. PMID:26912274

  18. Human GRK4γ142V Variant Promotes Angiotensin II Type I Receptor-Mediated Hypertension via Renal Histone Deacetylase Type 1 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zeng, Chunyu; Villar, Van Anthony M; Chen, Shi-You; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Wang, Xiaoyan; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Yu; Sanada, Hironobu; Felder, Robin A; Eisner, Gilbert M; Weir, Matthew R; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A

    2016-02-01

    The influence of a single gene on the pathogenesis of essential hypertension may be difficult to ascertain, unless the gene interacts with other genes that are germane to blood pressure regulation. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4) is one such gene. We have reported that the expression of its variant hGRK4γ(142V) in mice results in hypertension because of impaired dopamine D1 receptor. Signaling through dopamine D1 receptor and angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) reciprocally modulates renal sodium excretion and blood pressure. Here, we demonstrate the ability of the hGRK4γ(142V) to increase the expression and activity of the AT1R. We show that hGRK4γ(142V) phosphorylates histone deacetylase type 1 and promotes its nuclear export to the cytoplasm, resulting in increased AT1R expression and greater pressor response to angiotensin II. AT1R blockade and the deletion of the Agtr1a gene normalize the hypertension in hGRK4γ(142V) mice. These findings illustrate the unique role of GRK4 by targeting receptors with opposite physiological activity for the same goal of maintaining blood pressure homeostasis, and thus making the GRK4 a relevant therapeutic target to control blood pressure.

  19. Preferential Signaling and Induction of Allergy-promoting Lymphokines Upon Weak Stimulation of the High Affinity IgE Receptor on Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia; Odom, Sandra; Olivera, Ana; Hobson, J. Peyton; Martinez, Maria Eugenia Cid; Oliveira-dos-Santos, Antonio; Barra, Lillian; Spiegel, Sarah; Penninger, Josef M.; Rivera, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Mast cell degranulation and de novo cytokine production is a consequence of antigen-aggregation of the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-occupied high affinity receptor for IgE (FcɛRI). Herein, we report that lymphokines that promote allergic inflammation, like MCP-1, were potently induced at low antigen (Ag) concentrations or at low receptor occupancy with IgE whereas some that down-regulate this response, like interleukin (IL)-10, required high receptor occupancy. Weak stimulation of mast cells caused minimal degranulation whereas a half-maximal secretory response was observed for chemokines and, with the exception of TNF-α, a weaker cytokine secretory response was observed. The medium from weakly stimulated mast cells elicited a monocyte/macrophage chemotactic response similar to that observed at high receptor occupancy. Weak stimulation also favored the phosphorylation of Gab2 and p38MAPK, while LAT and ERK2 phosphorylation was induced by a stronger stimulus. Gab2-deficient mast cells were severely impaired in chemokine mRNA induction whereas LAT-deficient mast cells showed a more pronounced defect in cytokines. These findings demonstrate that perturbation of small numbers of IgE receptors on mast cells favors certain signals that contribute to a lymphokine response that can mediate allergic inflammation. PMID:12782712

  20. Human longevity is influenced by many genetic variants: evidence from 75,000 UK Biobank participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilling, Luke C.; Atkins, Janice L.; Bowman, Kirsty; Jones, Samuel E.; Tyrrell, Jessica; Beaumont, Robin N.; Ruth, Katherine S.; Tuke, Marcus A.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Wood, Andrew R.; Freathy, Rachel M.; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N.; Xue, Luting; Lunetta, Kathryn; Murabito, Joanne M.; Harries, Lorna W.; Robine, Jean-Marie; Brayne, Carol; Kuchel, George A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M.; Melzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in human lifespan is 20 to 30% heritable in twins but few genetic variants have been identified. We undertook a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using age at death of parents of middle-aged UK Biobank participants of European decent (n=75,244 with father's and/or mother's data, excluding early deaths). Genetic risk scores for 19 phenotypes (n=777 proven variants) were also tested. In GWAS, a nicotine receptor locus (CHRNA3, previously associated with increased smoking and lung cancer) was associated with fathers' survival. Less common variants requiring further confirmation were also identified. Offspring of longer lived parents had more protective alleles for coronary artery disease, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and Alzheimer's disease. In candidate analyses, variants in the TOMM40/APOE locus were associated with longevity, but FOXO variants were not. Associations between extreme longevity (mother >=98 years, fathers >=95 years, n=1,339) and disease alleles were similar, with an additional association with HDL cholesterol (p=5.7×10-3). These results support a multiple protective factors model influencing lifespan and longevity (top 1% survival) in humans, with prominent roles for cardiovascular-related pathways. Several of these genetically influenced risks, including blood pressure and tobacco exposure, are potentially modifiable. PMID:27015805

  1. Human longevity is influenced by many genetic variants: evidence from 75,000 UK Biobank participants.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Luke C; Atkins, Janice L; Bowman, Kirsty; Jones, Samuel E; Tyrrell, Jessica; Beaumont, Robin N; Ruth, Katherine S; Tuke, Marcus A; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Wood, Andrew R; Freathy, Rachel M; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N; Xue, Luting; Lunetta, Kathryn; Murabito, Joanne M; Harries, Lorna W; Robine, Jean-Marie; Brayne, Carol; Kuchel, George A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M; Melzer, David

    2016-03-01

    Variation in human lifespan is 20 to 30% heritable in twins but few genetic variants have been identified. We undertook a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using age at death of parents of middle-aged UK Biobank participants of European decent (n=75,244 with father's and/or mother's data, excluding early deaths). Genetic risk scores for 19 phenotypes (n=777 proven variants) were also tested. In GWAS, a nicotine receptor locus(CHRNA3, previously associated with increased smoking and lung cancer) was associated with fathers' survival. Less common variants requiring further confirmation were also identified. Offspring of longer lived parents had more protective alleles for coronary artery disease, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and Alzheimer's disease. In candidate analyses, variants in the TOMM40/APOE locus were associated with longevity, but FOXO variants were not. Associations between extreme longevity (mother >=98 years, fathers >=95 years, n=1,339) and disease alleles were similar, with an additional association with HDL cholesterol (p=5.7x10-3). These results support a multiple protective factors model influencing lifespan and longevity (top 1% survival) in humans, with prominent roles for cardiovascular-related pathways. Several of these genetically influenced risks, including blood pressure and tobacco exposure, are potentially modifiable. PMID:27015805

  2. Retinoic acid receptors inhibit AP1 activation by regulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase and CBP recruitment to an AP1-responsive promoter.

    PubMed

    Benkoussa, Madjid; Brand, Céline; Delmotte, Marie-Hélène; Formstecher, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2002-07-01

    Retinoids exhibit antineoplastic activities that may be linked to retinoid receptor-mediated transrepression of activating protein 1 (AP1), a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of fos- and jun-related proteins. Here we show that transcriptional activation of an AP1-regulated gene through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway (MAPK(ERK)) is characterized, in intact cells, by a switch from a fra2-junD dimer to a junD-fosB dimer loading on its promoter and by simultaneous recruitment of ERKs, CREB-binding protein (CBP), and RNA polymerase II. All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) receptor (RAR) was tethered constitutively to the AP1 promoter. AP1 transrepression by retinoic acid was concomitant to glycogen synthase kinase 3 activation, negative regulation of junD hyperphosphorylation, and to decreased RNA polymerase II recruitment. Under these conditions, fra1 loading to the AP1 response element was strongly increased. Importantly, CBP and ERKs were excluded from the promoter in the presence of atRA. AP1 transrepression by retinoids was RAR and ligand dependent, but none of the functions required for RAR-mediated transactivation was necessary for AP1 transrepression. These results indicate that transrepressive effects of retinoids are mediated through a mechanism unrelated to transcriptional activation, involving the RAR-dependent control of transcription factors and cofactor assembly on AP1-regulated promoters.

  3. Dietary and microbiome factors determine longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Blanco, Adolfo; Rodríguez-Matellán, Alberto; González-Paramás, Ana; González-Manzano, Susana; Kim, Stuart K; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2016-07-01

    Diet composition affects organismal health. Nutrient uptake depends on the microbiome. Caenorhabditis elegans fed a Bacillus subtilis diet live longer than those fed the standard Escherichia coli diet. Here we report that this longevity difference is primarily caused by dietary coQ, an antioxidant synthesized by E. coli but not by B. subtilis. CoQ-supplemented E. coli fed worms have a lower oxidation state yet live shorter than coQ-less B. subtilis fed worms. We showed that mutations affecting longevity for E. coli fed worms do not always lead to similar effects when worms are fed B. subtilis. We propose that coQ supplementation by the E. coli diet alters the worm cellular REDOX homeostasis, thus decreasing longevity. Our results highlight the importance of microbiome factors in longevity, argue that antioxidant supplementation can be detrimental, and suggest that the C. elegans standard E. coli diet can alter the effect of signaling pathways on longevity. PMID:27510225

  4. Dietary and microbiome factors determine longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Blanco, Adolfo; Rodríguez-Matellán, Alberto; González-Paramás, Ana; González-Manzano, Susana; Kim, Stuart K.; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Diet composition affects organismal health. Nutrient uptake depends on the microbiome. Caenorhabditis elegans fed a Bacillus subtilis diet live longer than those fed the standard Escherichia coli diet. Here we report that this longevity difference is primarily caused by dietary coQ, an antioxidant synthesized by E. coli but not by B. subtilis. CoQ-supplemented E. coli fed worms have a lower oxidation state yet live shorter than coQ-less B. subtilis fed worms. We showed that mutations affecting longevity for E. coli fed worms do not always lead to similar effects when worms are fed B. subtilis. We propose that coQ supplementation by the E. coli diet alters the worm cellular REDOX homeostasis, thus decreasing longevity. Our results highlight the importance of microbiome factors in longevity, argue that antioxidant supplementation can be detrimental, and suggest that the C. elegans standard E. coli diet can alter the effect of signaling pathways on longevity. PMID:27510225

  5. Polygamy and the evolution of human longevity.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    1979-02-01

    An alternative to previous explanations of the rapid increase in man's longevity and intelligence during the several million years of his recent evolution from pre-hominid, clearly shorter-lived and less intelligent, primate ancestors is presented. The general thesis is that a very greatly accelerated rate of incorporation of favorable genes or gene combinations can be achieved in surprisingly few generations among social animals provided that dominant males become the patriarchs of many descendents by virtue of their partial or complete monopoly on available females. The conclusion is that man probably differs from his ancesters of 0.5 to 5 million years ago by many thousands of genes (both structural and regulatory) rather than the dozens or few hundreds that have been postulated on the basis of more classical treatments of selection pressures, gene frequency changes and mutation rates. The concepts developed here formally apply only to two alternative alleles, rather than to groups of genes which segregate independently, or to characters determined by multiple alleles. The appropriate mathematical treatment of the latter real situation is not readily visualized; nor is account taken of the likelihood that different tribes of pre-humans developed different specializations via the above mechanisms which were then (later) combined into an emerging human stock through matings between members of different tribes. The very great variability both in longevity and in intelligence between different races of animals such as dogs, which have been the objects of deliberate genetic selection by humans for particular heritable traits, may parallel our own recent history, even though the selection mechanism (deliberate human selection vs. polygamous dominance) is quite different in the two cases. The onset of civilizations consisting of amalgums between smaller, previously competing tribes, together with the humanitarian responsibilities to each other we share as a species

  6. ESR1 gene promoter region methylation in free circulating DNA and its correlation with estrogen receptor protein expression in tumor tissue in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER) is an important marker of prognosis, and is predictive of response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Several studies have observed that epigenetic events, such methylation of cytosines and deacetylation of histones, are involved in the complex mechanisms that regulate promoter transcription. However, the exact interplay of these factors in transcription activity is not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between ER expression status in tumor tissue samples and the methylation of the 5′ CpG promoter region of the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) isolated from free circulating DNA (fcDNA) in plasma samples from breast cancer patients. Methods Patients (n = 110) with non-metastatic breast cancer had analyses performed of ER expression (luminal phenotype in tumor tissue, by immunohistochemistry method), and the ESR1-DNA methylation status (fcDNA in plasma, by quantitative methylation specific PCR technique). Results Our results showed a significant association between presence of methylated ESR1 in patients with breast cancer and ER negative status in the tumor tissue (p = 0.0179). There was a trend towards a higher probability of ESR1-methylation in those phenotypes with poor prognosis i.e. 80% of triple negative patients, 60% of HER2 patients, compared to 28% and 5.9% of patients with better prognosis such as luminal A and luminal B, respectively. Conclusion Silencing, by methylation, of the promoter region of the ESR1 affects the expression of the estrogen receptor protein in tumors of breast cancer patients; high methylation of ESR1-DNA is associated with estrogen receptor negative status which, in turn, may be implicated in the patient’s resistance to hormonal treatment in breast cancer. As such, epigenetic markers in plasma may be of interest as new targets for anticancer therapy, especially with respect to endocrine treatment. PMID:24495356

  7. Short Hairpin RNA Causes the Methylation of Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor II Promoter and Silencing of the Target Gene in Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zern, Mark A; Rossi, John J.; Wu, Jian

    2008-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) induces transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in plant and animal cells. RNA dependent DNA methylation (RdDM) accounts for TGS in plants, but it is unclear whether siRNA induces RdDM in mammalian cells. To determine whether stable expression of short hairpin siRNA (shRNA) induces DNA methylation in mammalian cells, we transduced rat hepatic stellate SBC10 cells with lentiviral vectors which encode an U6 promoter-driven shRNA expression cassette homologous to the transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβRII) promoter region. Sequencing analysis of bisulfite-modified genomic DNA showed the methylation of cytosine residues both in CpG dinucleotides and non-CpG sites around the target region of the TGFβRII promoter in SBC10 cells transduced with the promoter-targeting lentiviral vector. In these cells, real-time RT-PCR showed a decrease in TGFβRII mRNA levels which were reversed by treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Our results demonstrate that recombinant lentivirus-mediated shRNA delivery resulted in the methylation of the homologous promoter area in mammalian cells, and this approach may be used as a tool for transcriptional gene silencing by epigenetic modification of mammalian cell promoters. PMID:17533113

  8. Glucocorticoids facilitate the transcription from the human cytomegalovirus major immediate early promoter in glucocorticoid receptor- and nuclear factor-I-like protein-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue-Toyoda, Maki; Kato, Kohsuke; Nagata, Kyosuke; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-27

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common and usually asymptomatic virus agent in healthy individuals. Initiation of HCMV productive infection depends on expression of the major immediate early (MIE) genes. The transcription of HCMV MIE genes is regulated by a diverse set of transcription factors. It was previously reported that productive HCMV infection is triggered probably by elevation of the plasma hydroxycorticoid level. However, it is poorly understood whether the transcription of MIE genes is directly regulated by glucocorticoid. Here, we found that the dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, facilitates the transcription of HCMV MIE genes through the MIE promoter and enhancer in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent manner. By competitive EMSA and reporter assays, we revealed that an NF-I like protein is involved in DEX-mediated transcriptional activation of the MIE promoter. Thus, this study supports a notion that the increased level of hydroxycorticoid in the third trimester of pregnancy reactivates HCMV virus production from the latent state. - Highlights: • DEX facilitates the transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • GR is involved in DEX-dependent transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • A 17 bp repeat is responsible for the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX. • An NF-I-like protein is involved in the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX.

  9. Somatotropic Signaling: Trade-Offs Between Growth, Reproductive Development, and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liou Y.; Longo, Valter

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a key determinant of postnatal growth and plays an important role in the control of metabolism and body composition. Surprisingly, deficiency in GH signaling delays aging and remarkably extends longevity in laboratory mice. In GH-deficient and GH-resistant animals, the “healthspan” is also extended with delays in cognitive decline and in the onset of age-related disease. The role of hormones homologous to insulin-like growth factor (IGF, an important mediator of GH actions) in the control of aging and lifespan is evolutionarily conserved from worms to mammals with some homologies extending to unicellular yeast. The combination of reduced GH, IGF-I, and insulin signaling likely contributes to extended longevity in GH or GH receptor-deficient organisms. Diminutive body size and reduced fecundity of GH-deficient and GH-resistant mice can be viewed as trade-offs for extended longevity. Mechanisms responsible for delayed aging of GH-related mutants include enhanced stress resistance and xenobiotic metabolism, reduced inflammation, improved insulin signaling, and various metabolic adjustments. Pathological excess of GH reduces life expectancy in men as well as in mice, and GH resistance or deficiency provides protection from major age-related diseases, including diabetes and cancer, in both species. However, there is yet no evidence of increased longevity in GH-resistant or GH-deficient humans, possibly due to non-age-related deaths. Results obtained in GH-related mutant mice provide striking examples of mutations of a single gene delaying aging, reducing age-related disease, and extending lifespan in a mammal and providing novel experimental systems for the study of mechanisms of aging. PMID:23589828

  10. Happiness and longevity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Elizabeth M; Rogers, Richard G; Wadsworth, Tim

    2015-11-01

    This is the first study to our knowledge to examine the relationship between happiness and longevity among a nationally representative sample of adults. We use the recently-released General Social Survey-National Death Index dataset and Cox proportional hazards models to reveal that overall happiness is related to longer lives among U.S. adults. Indeed, compared to very happy people, the risk of death over the follow-up period is 6% (95% CI 1.01-1.11) higher among individuals who are pretty happy and 14% (95% CI 1.06-1.22) higher among those who are not happy, net of marital status, socioeconomic status, census division, and religious attendance. This study provides support for happiness as a stand-alone indicator of well-being that should be used more widely in social science and health research.

  11. Clinical longevities of ramus frame implants.

    PubMed

    Chamoun, E K; Lemons, J E

    1990-01-01

    A variety of ramus frame dental implant designs is indicated for endosseous restoration to retain lower dentures, and the different designs utilize various alloys. The objective of this study was to present an analysis of the clinical applications for ramus frame dental implants with emphasis on the statistics of clinical longevities. The investigation involved an extensive statistical evaluation and, when possible, metallographic, scanning electron microscopic, histological, mechanical, and stereomicroscopic surface evaluations. The statistical analysis presents averages and percentages of devices in place vs. devices removed. Analyses of survival probability were also determined by means of the Kaplan-Meier statistical methods. A comparison of these results with the general criteria listed in the Harvard Conference shows that more than 75% of the implant devices were in place after five years.

  12. Aging, cancer, and longevity: the uncertain road.

    PubMed

    Spector, Novera H; Jovanova-Nesic, Katica; Gertz, Alida M

    2013-02-01

    First, the latest scientific and clinical reports will be evaluated to separate the wheat from the chaff, that is, good data versus merely anecdotal evidence. Thus, the famous (infamous) Stromboli Cocktail will be brought up to date. Second, longevity statistics will be reviewed: Why do the most scientifically advanced countries have such low (comparatively) life expectancies? Scientific knowledge expands exponentially each decade, whereas there have been no significant advances in our knowledge, government, economics, politics, anti-corruption, and so forth since the dawn of history. What can we expect in the future? Will the human species outlive the cockroach? Can we expect to get closer to that theoretical asymptote of 120 years of human life? Will this ceiling ever be lifted? Finally, we offer two vital challenges to scientists of today. PMID:23895525

  13. Longevity suppresses conflict in animal societies.

    PubMed

    Port, Markus; Cant, Michael A

    2013-10-23

    Models of social conflict in animal societies generally assume that within-group conflict reduces the value of a communal resource. For many animals, however, the primary cost of conflict is increased mortality. We develop a simple inclusive fitness model of social conflict that takes this cost into account. We show that longevity substantially reduces the level of within-group conflict, which can lead to the evolution of peaceful animal societies if relatedness among group members is high. By contrast, peaceful outcomes are never possible in models where the primary cost of social conflict is resource depletion. Incorporating mortality costs into models of social conflict can explain why many animal societies are so remarkably peaceful despite great potential for conflict.

  14. Regional aging and longevity characteristics in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Holdaway, Jennifer; Hao, Zhe; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The factors that influence the length of human life are complex and longevity remains a controversial topic, particularly in China. This paper demonstrates the spatial patterns and changes of the elderly group (65 years old and over), the oldest old (80 years old and over) and the centenarians in China in the last decade, analyzes the influence of economic development on aging, and in the end, using a case study, explores the characteristics of the centenarians' behavior. The results indicate that high elderly and the oldest old proportions are more common in regions with higher socio-economic development and that have a favorable climate. Centenarian distribution pattern is less influenced by economic but only for few regions. Lifestyle factors, such as sufficient sleep, positive mental state and a light diet are also largely found among the centenarian group. PMID:27544461

  15. Aging, cancer, and longevity: the uncertain road.

    PubMed

    Spector, Novera H; Jovanova-Nesic, Katica; Gertz, Alida M

    2013-02-01

    First, the latest scientific and clinical reports will be evaluated to separate the wheat from the chaff, that is, good data versus merely anecdotal evidence. Thus, the famous (infamous) Stromboli Cocktail will be brought up to date. Second, longevity statistics will be reviewed: Why do the most scientifically advanced countries have such low (comparatively) life expectancies? Scientific knowledge expands exponentially each decade, whereas there have been no significant advances in our knowledge, government, economics, politics, anti-corruption, and so forth since the dawn of history. What can we expect in the future? Will the human species outlive the cockroach? Can we expect to get closer to that theoretical asymptote of 120 years of human life? Will this ceiling ever be lifted? Finally, we offer two vital challenges to scientists of today.

  16. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of "deceleration aging factor" as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models.

  17. Comparative Endocrinology of Aging and Longevity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Allard, John B.; Duan, Cunming

    2011-01-01

    Hormones regulate growth, development, metabolism, and other complex processes in multicellular animals. For many years it has been suggested that hormones may also influence the rate of the aging process. Aging is a multifactorial process that causes biological systems to break down and cease to function in adult organisms as time passes, eventually leading to death. The exact underlying causes of the aging process remain a topic for debate, and clues that may shed light on these causes are eagerly sought after. In the last two decades, gene mutations that result in delayed aging and extended longevity have been discovered, and many of the affected genes have been components of endocrine signaling pathways. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the roles of endocrine signaling in the regulation of aging and longevity in various animals. We begin by discussing the notion that conserved systems, including endocrine signaling pathways, “regulate” the aging process. Findings from the major model organisms: worms, flies, and rodents, are then outlined. Unique lessons from studies of non-traditional models: bees, salmon, and naked mole rats, are also discussed. Finally, we summarize the endocrinology of aging in humans, including changes in hormone levels with age, and the involvement of hormones in aging-related diseases. The most well studied and widely conserved endocrine pathway that affects aging is the insulin/insulin-like growth factor system. Mutations in genes of this pathway increase the lifespan of worms, flies, and mice. Population genetic evidence also suggests this pathway’s involvement in human aging. Other hormones including steroids have been linked to aging only in a subset of the models studied. Because of the value of comparative studies, it is suggested that the aging field could benefit from adoption of additional model organisms. PMID:22654825

  18. Dynamic interaction of HDAC1 with a glucocorticoid receptor-regulated gene is modulated by the activity state of the promoter.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yi; Stavreva, Diana A; Luo, Yi; Indrawan, Anindya; Chang, Myron; Hager, Gordon L

    2011-03-01

    Although histone deacetylases (HDACs) are normally considered as co-repressors, HDAC1 has been identified as a coactivator for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) (Qiu, Y., Zhao, Y., Becker, M., John, S., Parekh, B. S., Huang, S., Hendarwanto, A., Martinez, E. D., Chen, Y., Lu, H., Adkins, N. L., Stavreva, D. A., Wiench, M., Georgel, P. T., Schiltz, R. L., and Hager, G. L. (2006) Mol. Cell 22, 669-679). Furthermore, HDAC1 is acetylated, and its acetylation level is linked to the transcription state of a GR-induced promoter (mouse mammary tumor virus). GR is also known to interact dynamically with regulatory elements in living cells (McNally, J. G., Müller, W. G., Walker, D., Wolford, R., and Hager, G. L. (2000) Science 287, 1262-1265). However, HDAC1 dynamics have never been studied. We demonstrate here that HDAC1 also exchanges rapidly with promoter chromatin, and its exchange rate is significantly modulated during the development of promoter activity. Prior to induction, HDAC1 mobility was retarded compared with the exchange rate for GR. HDAC1 mobility then increased substantially, coordinately with the peak of promoter activity. At later time points, promoter activity was severely repressed, and HDAC1 mobility returned to the rate of exchange observed for the uninduced promoter. Thus, alterations of the exchange rates of HDAC1 at the promoter are correlated with the activity state of the promoter. These findings provide direct evidence for the functional role of highly mobile transcription factor complexes in transcription regulation. PMID:21127047

  19. Bovine prolactin elevates hTF expression directed by a tissue-specific goat β-casein promoter through prolactin receptor-mediated STAT5a activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shizhong; Ren, Zhaorui; Xie, Fei; Yan, Jingbin; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Yitao

    2012-11-01

    Prolactin promotes the expression of exogenous human transferrin gene in the milk of transgenic mice. To elucidate this, a recombinant plasmid of bovine prolactin plus human transferrin vector was co-transfected into cultured murine mammary gland epithelial cells. Prolactin-receptor antagonist and shRNA corresponding to prolactin-receptor mRNA were added into the cell culture mixture to investigate the relations between prolactin-receptor and human transferrin expression after bovine prolactin inducement. Levels of human transferrin in the supernatants were increased under the presentation of bovine prolactin (from 1,076 ± 115 to 1,886 ± 114 pg/ml). With the treatment of prolactin-receptor antagonist or shRNA, human transferrin in cells was declined (1,886 ± 113 vs. 1,233 ± 85 pg/ml or 1,114 ± 75 pg/ml, respectively). An inverse correlation was found between the dosage of prolactin-receptor antagonist and expression level of human transferrin. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis showed that the relative level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (STAT5a) transcript in transfected cells correlated with expression levels of human transferrin in the supernatant of the same cells. Bovine prolactin thus improved the expression of human transferrin through such a possible mechanism that bovine prolactin activated STAT5a transcription expression via combined with prolactin-receptor and suggest a potential utility of the bovine prolactin for efficient expression of valuable pharmaceutical proteins in mammary glands of transgenic animals.

  20. Molecular links between cellular senescence, longevity and age-related diseases - a systems biology perspective.

    PubMed

    Tacutu, Robi; Budovsky, Arie; Yanai, Hagai; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2011-12-01

    The role of cellular senescence (CS) in age-related diseases (ARDs) is a quickly emerging topic in aging research. Our comprehensive data mining revealed over 250 genes tightly associated with CS. Using systems biology tools, we found that CS is closely interconnected with aging, longevity and ARDs, either by sharing common genes and regulators or by protein-protein interactions and eventually by common signaling pathways. The most enriched pathways across CS, ARDs and aging-associated conditions (oxidative stress and chronic inflammation) are growth-promoting pathways and the pathways responsible for cell-extracellular matrix interactions and stress response. Of note, the patterns of evolutionary conservation of CS and cancer genes showed a high degree of similarity, suggesting the co-evolution of these two phenomena. Moreover, cancer genes and microRNAs seem to stand at the crossroad between CS and ARDs. Our analysis also provides the basis for new predictions: the genes common to both cancer and other ARD(s) are highly likely candidates to be involved in CS and vice versa. Altogether, this study shows that there are multiple links between CS, aging, longevity and ARDs, suggesting a common molecular basis for all these conditions. Modulating CS may represent a potential pro-longevity and anti-ARDs therapeutic strategy. PMID:22184282

  1. Cell cycle controls stress response and longevity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Dottermusch, Matthias; Lakner, Theresa; Peyman, Tobias; Klein, Marinella; Walz, Gerd; Neumann-Haefelin, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a variety of genes and mechanisms that influence the rate of aging progression. In this study, we identified cell cycle factors as potent regulators of health and longevity in C. elegans. Focusing on the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk-2) and cyclin E (cye-1), we show that inhibition of cell cycle genes leads to tolerance towards enviro