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Sample records for receptor scanning update

  1. The scanning model for translation: an update

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The small (40S) subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes is believed to bind initially at the capped 5'-end of messenger RNA and then migrate, stopping at the first AUG codon in a favorable context for initiating translation. The first-AUG rule is not absolute, but there are rules for breaking the rule. Some anomalous observations that seemed to contradict the scanning mechanism now appear to be artifacts. A few genuine anomalies remain unexplained. PMID:2645293

  2. Estrogen receptors and human disease: an update

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    A myriad of physiological processes in mammals are influenced by estrogens and the estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ. As we reviewed previously, given the widespread role for estrogen in normal human physiology, it is not surprising that estrogen is implicated in the development or progression of a number of diseases. In this review, we are giving a 5-year update of the literature regarding the influence of estrogens on a number of human cancers (breast, ovarian, colorectal, prostate, and endometrial), endometriosis, fibroids, and cardiovascular disease. A large number of sophisticated experimental studies have provided insights into human disease, but for this review, the literature citations were limited to articles published after our previous review (Deroo and Korach in J Clin Invest 116(3):561–570, 2006) and will focus in most cases on human data and clinical trials. We will describe the influence in which estrogen’s action, through one of or both of the ERs, mediates the aforementioned human disease states. PMID:22648069

  3. Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning for Automated Map Updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula

    2016-06-01

    During the last 20 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS), often combined with multispectral information from aerial images, has shown its high feasibility for automated mapping processes. Recently, the first multispectral airborne laser scanners have been launched, and multispectral information is for the first time directly available for 3D ALS point clouds. This article discusses the potential of this new single-sensor technology in map updating, especially in automated object detection and change detection. For our study, Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a suburban area in Finland were acquired. Results from a random forests analysis suggest that the multispectral intensity information is useful for land cover classification, also when considering ground surface objects and classes, such as roads. An out-of-bag estimate for classification error was about 3% for separating classes asphalt, gravel, rocky areas and low vegetation from each other. For buildings and trees, it was under 1%. According to feature importance analyses, multispectral features based on several channels were more useful that those based on one channel. Automatic change detection utilizing the new multispectral ALS data, an old digital surface model (DSM) and old building vectors was also demonstrated. Overall, our first analyses suggest that the new data are very promising for further increasing the automation level in mapping. The multispectral ALS technology is independent of external illumination conditions, and intensity images produced from the data do not include shadows. These are significant advantages when the development of automated classification and change detection procedures is considered.

  4. Membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors: an update

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, David L.; Chrisman, Ted D.; Wiegn, Phi; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Albanesi, Joseph P.; Bielinski, Vincent; Barylko, Barbara; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated key roles for several membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors in the regulation of cell hyperplasia, hypertrophy, migration and extracellular matrix production, all of which having an impact on clinically relevant diseases, including tissue remodeling after injury. Additionally, cell differentiation, and even tumor progression, can be profoundly influenced by one or more of these receptors. Some of these receptors also mediate important communication between the heart and intestine, and the kidney to regulate blood volume and Na+ balance. PMID:16815030

  5. Laser Scanning Cytometry: Principles and Applications—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Pozarowski, Piotr; Holden, Elena; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning cytometer (LSC) is the microscope-based cytofluorometer that offers a plethora of unique analytical capabilities, not provided by flow cytometry (FCM). This review describes attributes of LSC and covers its numerous applications derived from plentitude of the parameters that can be measured. Among many LSC applications the following are emphasized: (a) assessment of chromatin condensation to identify mitotic, apoptotic cells, or senescent cells; (b) detection of nuclear or mitochondrial translocation of critical factors such as NF-κB, p53, or Bax; (c) semi-automatic scoring of micronuclei in mutagenicity assays; (d) analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and use of the FISH analysis attribute to measure other punctuate fluorescence patterns such as γH2AX foci or receptor clustering; (e) enumeration and morphometry of nucleoli and other cell organelles; (f) analysis of progeny of individual cells in clonogenicity assay; (g) cell immunophenotyping; (h) imaging, visual examination, or sequential analysis using different probes of the same cells upon their relocation; (i) in situ enzyme kinetics, drug uptake, and other time-resolved processes; (j) analysis of tissue section architecture using fluorescent and chromogenic probes; (k) application for hypocellular samples (needle aspirate, spinal fluid, etc.); and (l) other clinical applications. Advantages and limitations of LSC are discussed and compared with FCM. PMID:23027005

  6. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update.

    PubMed

    Merino, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it.

  7. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Merino, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it. PMID:27175057

  8. Update of the androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1999-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 309 to 374 during the past year. We have expanded the database by adding information on AR-interacting proteins; and we have improved the database by identifying those mutation entries that have been updated. Mutations of unknown significance have now been reported in both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the AR gene, and in individuals who are somatic mosaics constitutionally. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms, including silent mutations, have been discovered in normal individuals and in individuals with male infertility. A mutation hotspot associated with prostatic cancer has been identified in exon 5. The database is available on the internet (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  9. Update on leukotriene, lipoxin and oxoeicosanoid receptors: IUPHAR Review 7

    PubMed Central

    Bäck, Magnus; Powell, William S; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Drazen, Jeffrey M; Evans, Jilly F; Serhan, Charles N; Shimizu, Takao; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Rovati, G Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous ligands for the LT, lipoxin (LX) and oxoeicosanoid receptors are bioactive products produced by the action of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes. The LT receptors BLT1 and BLT2, are activated by LTB4 and the CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors are activated by the cysteinyl-LTs, whereas oxoeicosanoids exert their action through the OXE receptor. In contrast to these pro-inflammatory mediators, LXA4 transduces responses associated with the resolution of inflammation through the receptor FPR2/ALX (ALX/FPR2). The aim of the present review is to give a state of the field on these receptors, with focus on recent important findings. For example, BLT1 receptor signalling in cancer and the dual role of the BLT2 receptor in pro- and anti-inflammatory actions have added more complexity to lipid mediator signalling. Furthermore, a cross-talk between the CysLT and P2Y receptor systems has been described, and also the presence of novel receptors for cysteinyl-LTs, such as GPR17 and GPR99. Finally, lipoxygenase metabolites derived from ω-3 essential polyunsaturated acids, the resolvins, activate the receptors GPR32 and ChemR23. In conclusion, the receptors for the lipoxygenase products make up a sophisticated and tightly controlled system of endogenous pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling in physiology and pathology. PMID:24588652

  10. An update of 'basic light and scanning electron microscopic methods for taxonomic studies of ciliated protozoa'.

    PubMed

    Foissner, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    This is an update of the review by Foissner (1991). Since then, I have improved some methods considerably. The following methods are described in detail: live observation, supravital staining with methyl green-pyronin, dry silver nitrate impregnation, wet silver nitrate impregnation, silver carbonate impregnation, protargol impregnation (three procedures), scanning electron microscopy, and deciliation. Familiarity with these methods (or modifications) is a prerequisite for successful taxonomic work. No staining method is equally appropriate to all kinds of ciliates. A table is provided which indicates those procedures which work best for certain groups of ciliates. A second table relates to the structures revealed by the procedures. Good descriptions usually demand at least live observation, silver nitrate and protargol or silver carbonate impregnation. Some instructions are provided for distinguishing mono- and dikinetids as well as ciliated and non-ciliated basal bodies in silvered ciliates. Furthermore, I added a section on 'Deposition and Labeling of Preparations'. All methods work not only with ciliates but also with many other heterotrophic and autotrophic flagellated and amoeboid protists. The brilliancy of silver preparations has tempted some taxonomists to neglect live observation. However, many important species characteristics cannot be seen or are changed in silvered specimens. I thus consider all species descriptions based exclusively on silver slides as incomplete and of doubtful value for both α-taxonomists and ecologists.

  11. Cognitive enhancers (Nootropics). Part 1: drugs interacting with receptors. Update 2014.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Muhs, Andreas; Pfeifer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the fields of Alzheimer's disease and, in particular, cognitive enhancers are very productive. The review "Cognitive enhancers (nootropics): drugs interacting with receptors" was accepted for publication in July 2012. Since then, new targets for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified. This update describes drugs interacting with 42 receptors versus 32 receptors in the first paper. Some compounds progressed in their development, while many others were discontinued. The present review covers the evolution of research in this field through March 2014.

  12. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  13. The peripheral cannabinoid receptor knockout mice: an update

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, N E

    2007-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the CB2 receptor (CB2R) knockout (CB2R−/−) mice phenotype and the work that has been carried out using this mutant mouse. Using the CB2R−/− mice, investigators have discovered the involvement of CB2R on immune cell function and development, infection, embryonic development, bone loss, liver disorders, pain, autoimmune inflammation, allergic dermatitis, atherosclerosis, apoptosis and chemotaxis. Using the CB2R−/− mice, investigators have also found that this receptor is not involved in cannabinoid-induced hypotension. In addition, the CB2R−/− mice have been used to determine specific tissue CB2R expression. The specificity of synthetic cannabinoid agonists, antagonists and anti-CB2R antibodies has been screened using tissues from CB2R−/− mice. Thus, the use of this mouse model has greatly helped reveal the diverse events involving the CB2R, and has aided in drug and antibody screening. PMID:17965741

  14. SCAN+

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determinemore » the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  15. Biochemical pharmacology of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1. An update.

    PubMed

    Cortright, Daniel N; Szallasi, Arpad

    2004-05-01

    There is mounting evidence that the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor; transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), is subjected to multiple interacting levels of control. The first level is by reversible phosphorylation catalyzed by intrinsic kinases (e.g. protein kinase A and C) and phosphatases (e.g. calcineurin), which plays a pivotal role in receptor sensitization vs. tachyphylaxis. In addition, this mechanism links TRPV1 to intracellular signaling by various important endogenous as well as exogenous substances such as bradykinin, ethanol, nicotin and insulin. It is not clear, however, whether phosphorylation per se is sufficient to liberate TRPV1 under the inhibitory control of phosphatydylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. The second level of control is by forming TRPV1 heteromers and their association with putative regulatory proteins. The next level of regulation is by subcellular compartmentalization. The membrane form of TRPV1 functions as a nonselective cation channel. On the endoplasmic reticulum, TRPV1 is present in two differentially regulated forms, one of which is inositol triphosphate-dependent whereas the other is not. These three TRPV1 compartments provide a versatile regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Last, there is a complex and poorly understood regulation of TRPV1 activity via control of gene expression. Factors that downregulate TRPV1 expression include vanilloid treatment and growth factor (notably, nerve growth factor) deprivation. By contrast, TRPV1 appears to be upregulated during inflammatory conditions. Interestingly, following experimental nerve injury and in animal models of diabetic neuropathy TRPV1 is present on neurons that do not normally express TRPV1. Combined, these findings imply an important role for aberrant TRPV1 expression in the development of neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia. In humans, disease-related changes in TRPV1 expression have already been described (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease

  16. A Review of the Updated Pharmacophore for the Alpha 5 GABA(A) Benzodiazepine Receptor Model

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Terry; Poe, Michael M.; Rallapalli, Sundari; Biawat, Poonam; Savić, Miroslav M.; Rowlett, James K.; Gallos, George; Emala, Charles W.; Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Stafford, Douglas C.; Arnold, Leggy A.; Cook, James M.

    2015-01-01

    An updated model of the GABA(A) benzodiazepine receptor pharmacophore of the α5-BzR/GABA(A) subtype has been constructed prompted by the synthesis of subtype selective ligands in light of the recent developments in both ligand synthesis, behavioral studies, and molecular modeling studies of the binding site itself. A number of BzR/GABA(A) α5 subtype selective compounds were synthesized, notably α5-subtype selective inverse agonist PWZ-029 (1) which is active in enhancing cognition in both rodents and primates. In addition, a chiral positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SH-053-2′F-R-CH3 (2), has been shown to reverse the deleterious effects in the MAM-model of schizophrenia as well as alleviate constriction in airway smooth muscle. Presented here is an updated model of the pharmacophore for α5β2γ2 Bz/GABA(A) receptors, including a rendering of PWZ-029 docked within the α5-binding pocket showing specific interactions of the molecule with the receptor. Differences in the included volume as compared to α1β2γ2, α2β2γ2, and α3β2γ2 will be illustrated for clarity. These new models enhance the ability to understand structural characteristics of ligands which act as agonists, antagonists, or inverse agonists at the Bz BS of GABA(A) receptors. PMID:26682068

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peckys, Diana B.; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32–56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general. PMID:24022088

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32-56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general.

  19. An Environmental Scan Update, 1992-93. 2020: Perfect Vision for the Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, J. N., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A key component to Eastern Iowa Community College District's (EICCD) strategic planning process, called "2020 Vision: A Perfect Vision for the Future," was the publication of the report "An Environmental Scan" in 1989, which summarized major trends occurring in the external environment which may impact the community college, the industries and…

  20. Functioning of the dimeric GABA(B) receptor extracellular domain revealed by glycan wedge scanning.

    PubMed

    Rondard, Philippe; Huang, Siluo; Monnier, Carine; Tu, Haijun; Blanchard, Bertrand; Oueslati, Nadia; Malhaire, Fanny; Li, Ying; Trinquet, Eric; Labesse, Gilles; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Liu, Jianfeng

    2008-05-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by the neurotransmitter GABA is made up of two subunits, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2). GABA(B1) binds agonists, whereas GABA(B2) is required for trafficking GABA(B1) to the cell surface, increasing agonist affinity to GABA(B1), and activating associated G proteins. These subunits each comprise two domains, a Venus flytrap domain (VFT) and a heptahelical transmembrane domain (7TM). How agonist binding to the GABA(B1) VFT leads to GABA(B2) 7TM activation remains unknown. Here, we used a glycan wedge scanning approach to investigate how the GABA(B) VFT dimer controls receptor activity. We first identified the dimerization interface using a bioinformatics approach and then showed that introducing an N-glycan at this interface prevents the association of the two subunits and abolishes all activities of GABA(B2), including agonist activation of the G protein. We also identified a second region in the VFT where insertion of an N-glycan does not prevent dimerization, but blocks agonist activation of the receptor. These data provide new insight into the function of this prototypical GPCR and demonstrate that a change in the dimerization interface is required for receptor activation.

  1. Co-receptor scanning by the T-cell receptor provides a mechanism for T cell tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Stepanek, Ondrej; Prabhakar, Arvind S.; Osswald, Celine; King, Carolyn G.; Bulek, Anna; Naeher, Dieter; Beaufils-Hugot, Marina; Abanto, Michael L.; Galati, Virginie; Hausmann, Barbara; Lang, Rosemarie; Cole, David K.; Huseby, Eric S.; Sewell, Andrew K.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Palmer, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the thymus, high affinity, self-reactive thymocytes are eliminated from the pool of developing T cells, generating central tolerance. Here, we investigate how developing T cells measure self-antigen affinity. We show that very few CD4 or CD8 coreceptor molecules are coupled with the signal-initiating kinase, Lck. To initiate signaling, an antigen engaged T cell receptor (TCR) scans multiple coreceptor molecules to find one that is coupled to Lck. Coreceptor scanning is the first and rate-limiting step in a kinetic proofreading chain of events that eventually leads to TCR triggering and negative selection. MHCII-restricted TCRs require a shorter antigen dwell time (~0.2s) to initiate negative selection compared to MHCI restricted TCRs (~0.9s) because more CD4 coreceptors are Lck-loaded compared to CD8. Based on experimental data and mathematical analysis, we generated a model (Lck come&stay/signal duration) that accurately predicts the experimentally observed differences in antigen dwell-time thresholds used by MHCI- and MHCII-restricted thymocytes to initiate negative selection and generate self-tolerance. PMID:25284152

  2. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. [corrected]. LXXXIX. Update on the extended family of chemokine receptors and introducing a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors.

    PubMed

    Bachelerie, Francoise; Ben-Baruch, Adit; Burkhardt, Amanda M; Combadiere, Christophe; Farber, Joshua M; Graham, Gerard J; Horuk, Richard; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Locati, Massimo; Luster, Andrew D; Mantovani, Alberto; Matsushima, Kouji; Murphy, Philip M; Nibbs, Robert; Nomiyama, Hisayuki; Power, Christine A; Proudfoot, Amanda E I; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Rot, Antal; Sozzani, Silvano; Thelen, Marcus; Yoshie, Osamu; Zlotnik, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was announced in Pharmacological Reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, and Power CA (2000) Pharmacol Rev 52:145-176]. Since then, several new receptors have been discovered, and major advances have been made for the others in many areas, including structural biology, signal transduction mechanisms, biology, and pharmacology. New and diverse roles have been identified in infection, immunity, inflammation, development, cancer, and other areas. The first two drugs acting at chemokine receptors have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), maraviroc targeting CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and plerixafor targeting CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization for transplantation in cancer, and other candidates are now undergoing pivotal clinical trials for diverse disease indications. In addition, a subfamily of atypical chemokine receptors has emerged that may signal through arrestins instead of G proteins to act as chemokine scavengers, and many microbial and invertebrate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and soluble chemokine-binding proteins have been described. Here, we review this extended family of chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins at the basic, translational, and clinical levels, including an update on drug development. We also introduce a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors with the stem ACKR (atypical chemokine receptor) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology and the Human Genome

  3. International Union of Pharmacology. LXXXIX. Update on the Extended Family of Chemokine Receptors and Introducing a New Nomenclature for Atypical Chemokine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bachelerie, Francoise; Ben-Baruch, Adit; Burkhardt, Amanda M.; Combadiere, Christophe; Farber, Joshua M.; Graham, Gerard J.; Horuk, Richard; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Locati, Massimo; Luster, Andrew D.; Mantovani, Alberto; Matsushima, Kouji; Nibbs, Robert; Nomiyama, Hisayuki; Power, Christine A.; Proudfoot, Amanda E. I.; Rosenkilde, Mette M.; Rot, Antal; Sozzani, Silvano; Thelen, Marcus; Yoshie, Osamu; Zlotnik, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was announced in Pharmacological Reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, and Power CA (2000) Pharmacol Rev 52:145–176]. Since then, several new receptors have been discovered, and major advances have been made for the others in many areas, including structural biology, signal transduction mechanisms, biology, and pharmacology. New and diverse roles have been identified in infection, immunity, inflammation, development, cancer, and other areas. The first two drugs acting at chemokine receptors have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), maraviroc targeting CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and plerixafor targeting CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization for transplantation in cancer, and other candidates are now undergoing pivotal clinical trials for diverse disease indications. In addition, a subfamily of atypical chemokine receptors has emerged that may signal through arrestins instead of G proteins to act as chemokine scavengers, and many microbial and invertebrate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and soluble chemokine-binding proteins have been described. Here, we review this extended family of chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins at the basic, translational, and clinical levels, including an update on drug development. We also introduce a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors with the stem ACKR (atypical chemokine receptor) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology and the Human

  4. SDP1 is a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 co-activator that binds through its SCAN domain.

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Robert; Bowen, Benjamin R

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and energy homoeostasis. In a yeast two-hybrid experiment using the zinc-finger transcription factor ZNF202 as bait, we previously identified the SCAN-domain-containing protein SDP1. SDP1 shares a high degree of amino acid sequence identity with PGC-2, a previously identified PPAR gamma 2 co-activator from the mouse. Here we show that SDP1 and PGC-2 interact with PPAR gamma 2 through their SCAN domains, even though PPAR gamma 2 does not contain a SCAN domain. Similar to PGC-2, SDP1 enhanced PPAR gamma 2-dependent gene transcription in transiently transfected cells but did not alter the affinity of PPAR gamma 2 for agonists. Although the SCAN domain was necessary for binding to PPAR gamma 2, it was not sufficient for co-activation in cells, suggesting that other features of SDP1 are responsible for transcriptional co-activation. The ability of SDP1 to interact with two different transcription factors that regulate genes involved in lipid metabolism, ZNF202 and PPAR gamma 2, suggests that SDP1 may be an important co-regulator of such genes. PMID:12444922

  5. Selective Agonists and Antagonists of Formylpeptide Receptors: Duplex Flow Cytometry and Mixture-Based Positional Scanning Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla, Clemencia; Edwards, Bruce S.; Appel, Jon R.; Yates-Gibbins, Tina; Giulianotti, Marc A.; Medina-Franco, Jose L.; Young, Susan M.; Santos, Radleigh G.

    2013-01-01

    The formylpeptide receptor (FPR1) and formylpeptide-like 1 receptor (FPR2) are G protein–coupled receptors that are linked to acute inflammatory responses, malignant glioma stem cell metastasis, and chronic inflammation. Although several N-formyl peptides are known to bind to these receptors, more selective small-molecule, high-affinity ligands are needed for a better understanding of the physiologic roles played by these receptors. High-throughput assays using mixture-based combinatorial libraries represent a unique, highly efficient approach for rapid data acquisition and ligand identification. We report the superiority of this approach in the context of the simultaneous screening of a diverse set of mixture-based small-molecule libraries. We used a single cross-reactive peptide ligand for a duplex flow cytometric screen of FPR1 and FPR2 in color-coded cell lines. Screening 37 different mixture-based combinatorial libraries totaling more than five million small molecules (contained in 5,261 mixture samples) resulted in seven libraries that significantly inhibited activity at the receptors. Using positional scanning deconvolution, selective high-affinity (low nM Ki) individual compounds were identified from two separate libraries, namely, pyrrolidine bis-diketopiperazine and polyphenyl urea. The most active individual compounds were characterized for their functional activities as agonists or antagonists with the most potent FPR1 agonist and FPR2 antagonist identified to date with an EC50 of 131 nM (4 nM Ki) and an IC50 of 81 nM (1 nM Ki), respectively, in intracellular Ca2+ response determinations. Comparative analyses of other previous screening approaches clearly illustrate the efficiency of identifying receptor selective, individual compounds from mixture-based combinatorial libraries. PMID:23788657

  6. The Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor in Brain Functions: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Marie-Odile; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the main active product of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), mediating its action via two major receptors, namely, the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor and the type 2 (AT2) receptor. Recent results also implicate several other members of the renin-angiotensin system in various aspects of brain functions. The first aim of this paper is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the properties and signaling of the AT2 receptor, its expression in the brain, and its well-established effects. Secondly, we will highlight the potential role of the AT2 receptor in cognitive function, neurological disorders and in the regulation of appetite and the possible link with development of metabolic disorders. The potential utility of novel nonpeptide selective AT2 receptor ligands in clarifying potential roles of this receptor in physiology will also be discussed. If confirmed, these new pharmacological tools should help to improve impaired cognitive performance, not only through its action on brain microcirculation and inflammation, but also through more specific effects on neurons. However, the overall physiological relevance of the AT2 receptor in the brain must also consider the Ang IV/AT4 receptor. PMID:23320146

  7. Rapid and Adaptable Measurement of Protein Thermal Stability by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry: Updating a Common Biochemical Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Jeremy; Savas, Christopher J.; Kartje, Zachary; Hoops, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of protein denaturation and protein folding is a common laboratory technique used in undergraduate biochemistry laboratories. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) provides a rapid, sensitive, and general method for measuring protein thermal stability in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory. In this method, the thermal…

  8. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...

  9. Active conformation of the erythropoietin receptor: random and cysteine-scanning mutagenesis of the extracellular juxtamembrane and transmembrane domains.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaohui; Gross, Alec W; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-03-17

    In the absence of erythropoietin (Epo) cell surface Epo receptors (EpoR) are dimeric; dimerization is mediated mainly by the transmembrane domain. Binding of Epo changes the orientation of the two receptor subunits. This conformational change is transmitted through the juxtamembrane and transmembrane domains, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase and induction of proliferation and survival signals. To define the active EpoR conformation(s) we screened libraries of EpoRs with random mutations in the transmembrane domain and identified several point mutations that activate the EpoR in the absence of ligand, including changes of either of the first two transmembrane domain residues (Leu(226) and Ile(227)) to cysteine. Following this discovery, we performed cysteine-scanning mutagenesis in the EpoR juxtamembrane and transmembrane domains. Many mutants formed disulfide-linked receptor dimers, but only EpoR dimers linked by cysteines at positions 223, 226, or 227 activated EpoR signal transduction pathways and supported proliferation of Ba/F3 cells in the absence of cytokines. These data suggest that activation of dimeric EpoR by Epo binding is achieved by reorienting the EpoR transmembrane and the connected cytosolic domains and that certain disulfide-bonded dimers represent the activated dimeric conformation of the EpoR, constitutively activating downstream signaling. Based on our data and the previously determined structure of Epo bound to a dimer of the EpoR extracellular domain, we present a model of the active and inactive conformations of the Epo receptor.

  10. Mutation scan of the D1 dopamine receptor gene in 22 cases of bipolar I disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Coon, H.; Holik, J.; Hoff, M.

    1995-04-24

    In a previous study we found suggestive evidence of linkage between manic-depressive illness (MDI) in eight multiplex pedigrees and D5S62, a DNA marker mapping to the telomeric region of 5q. As the D1 dopamine receptor gene (DRDI) maps to this region and as alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission have been indirectly implicated in the pathogenesis of MDI, we directly searched for mutations in the coding region of the DRDI gene in 22 unrelated cases of bipolar I (BPI) disorder derived from multiplex families. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, we did not observe any abnormal SSCP variants in the BPI cases that differed from controls. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Role of leukotriene receptor antagonists in the management of pediatric asthma: an update.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Catalina; Chan, Susan M H; Turcanu, Victor

    2012-10-01

    At present, the main indications for leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) in pediatric asthma are as add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and as initial controller therapy in children with mild asthma, especially those who cannot or will not use ICS. LTRA are also useful for patients who have concomitant rhinitis, and patients with viral-induced wheeze and exercise-induced asthma. It should be noted that the benefits of LTRA therapy have been demonstrated in children as young as 6 months of age and recent clinical trials have further proven the benefits of LTRA in acute asthma exacerbations. However, considering the important pro-inflammatory effects that leukotrienes (LT) have in experimental models of asthma, it may seem surprising that LTRA treatment outcomes are not better and that in some clinical trials only a minority of patients could be classified as full responders. This could be explained by potential additional LT receptors that are not affected by LTRA. Such receptors could represent new therapeutic targets in asthma. Furthermore, progress in differentiating between asthma phenotypes that result from different pathogenic mechanisms, some of which may involve LT to a lesser degree, should lead to an improved, personalized use of LTRA for treating asthma. PMID:22897162

  12. Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) modulation by synthetic and natural compounds: an update

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Francesco; Calabrese, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), together with MD-2, binds bacterial endotoxins (E) with high affinity, triggering formation of the activated homodimer (E-MD-2-TLR4)2. Activated TLR4 induces intracellular signaling leading to activation of transcription factors that result in cytokine and chemokine production and initiation of inflammatory and immune responses. TLR4 also responds to endogenous ligands called danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Increased sensitivity to infection and a variety of immune pathologies have been associated with either too little or too much TLR4 activation. We review here the molecular mechanisms of TLR4 activation (agonism) or inhibition (antagonism) by small organic molecules of both natural and synthetic origin. The role of co-receptors MD-2 and CD14 in the TLR4 modulation process is also discussed. Recent achievements in the field of chemical TLR4 modulation are reviewed, with special focus on non-classical TLR4 ligands with a chemical structure different from lipid A. PMID:24188011

  13. Ethanol and corticotropin releasing factor receptor modulation of central amygdala neurocircuitry: An update and future directions.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2015-05-01

    The central amygdala is a critical brain region for many aspects of alcohol dependence. Much of the work examining the mechanisms by which the central amygdala mediates the development of alcohol dependence has focused on the interaction of acute and chronic ethanol with central amygdala corticotropin releasing factor signaling. This work has led to a great deal of success in furthering the general understanding of central amygdala neurocircuitry and its role in alcohol dependence. Much of this work has primarily focused on the hypothesis that ethanol utilizes endogenous corticotropin releasing factor signaling to upregulate inhibitory GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala. Work that is more recent suggests that corticotropin releasing factor also plays an important role in mediating anxiety-like behaviors via the enhancement of central amygdala glutamatergic transmission, implying that ethanol/corticotropin releasing factor interactions may modulate excitatory neurotransmission in this brain region. In addition, a number of studies utilizing optogenetic strategies or transgenic mouse lines have begun to examine specific central amygdala neurocircuit dynamics and neuronal subpopulations to better understand overall central amygdala neurocircuitry and the role of neuronal subtypes in mediating anxiety-like behaviors. This review will provide a brief update on this literature and describe some potential future directions that may be important for the development of better treatments for alcohol addiction.

  14. Alanine scan of α-conotoxin RegIIA reveals a selective α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kompella, Shiva N; Hung, Andrew; Clark, Richard J; Marí, Frank; Adams, David J

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of various conditions, including development and progression of lung cancer and in nicotine addiction. As selective α3β4 nAChR antagonists, α-conotoxins are valuable tools to evaluate the functional roles of this receptor subtype. We previously reported the discovery of a new α4/7-conotoxin, RegIIA. RegIIA was isolated from Conus regius and inhibits acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents mediated by α3β4, α3β2, and α7 nAChR subtypes. The current study used alanine scanning mutagenesis to understand the selectivity profile of RegIIA at the α3β4 nAChR subtype. [N11A] and [N12A] RegIIA analogs exhibited 3-fold more selectivity for the α3β4 than the α3β2 nAChR subtype. We also report synthesis of [N11A,N12A]RegIIA, a selective α3β4 nAChR antagonist (IC50 of 370 nM) that could potentially be used in the treatment of lung cancer and nicotine addiction. Molecular dynamics simulations of RegIIA and [N11A,N12A]RegIIA bound to α3β4 and α3β2 suggest that destabilization of toxin contacts with residues at the principal and complementary faces of α3β2 (α3-Tyr(92), Ser(149), Tyr(189), Cys(192), and Tyr(196); β2-Trp(57), Arg(81), and Phe(119)) may form the molecular basis for the selectivity shift.

  15. Alanine scan of α-conotoxin RegIIA reveals a selective α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kompella, Shiva N; Hung, Andrew; Clark, Richard J; Marí, Frank; Adams, David J

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of various conditions, including development and progression of lung cancer and in nicotine addiction. As selective α3β4 nAChR antagonists, α-conotoxins are valuable tools to evaluate the functional roles of this receptor subtype. We previously reported the discovery of a new α4/7-conotoxin, RegIIA. RegIIA was isolated from Conus regius and inhibits acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents mediated by α3β4, α3β2, and α7 nAChR subtypes. The current study used alanine scanning mutagenesis to understand the selectivity profile of RegIIA at the α3β4 nAChR subtype. [N11A] and [N12A] RegIIA analogs exhibited 3-fold more selectivity for the α3β4 than the α3β2 nAChR subtype. We also report synthesis of [N11A,N12A]RegIIA, a selective α3β4 nAChR antagonist (IC50 of 370 nM) that could potentially be used in the treatment of lung cancer and nicotine addiction. Molecular dynamics simulations of RegIIA and [N11A,N12A]RegIIA bound to α3β4 and α3β2 suggest that destabilization of toxin contacts with residues at the principal and complementary faces of α3β2 (α3-Tyr(92), Ser(149), Tyr(189), Cys(192), and Tyr(196); β2-Trp(57), Arg(81), and Phe(119)) may form the molecular basis for the selectivity shift. PMID:25411242

  16. Update on the neuroprotective effect of estrogen receptor alpha against Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yu-Long; Zhao, Jie; Li, Shao

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss and disordered cognition. Women have a higher AD incidence than men, indicating that the declining estrogen levels during menopause may influence AD pathogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying estrogen's neuroprotective effect is not fully clarified and is complicated by the presence of several distinct estrogen receptor (ER) types and the identification of a growing number of ER splice variants. Thus, a deeper analysis of ERs could elucidate the role of estrogen in age-related cognitive changes. Intracellular calcium signaling cascades play a pivotal role in ERα neuroprotection against AD. The ERα-mediated inhibition of Death domain-associated protein (Daxx) translocation and the combination of membrane ERα and caveolin in caveolae may protect against AD. Moreover, the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)/ERα association may be important for maintaining channel inactivation and may be relevant in neuronal preservation against Aβ injury. Additionally, ERα may prevent glutamate excitotoxic injury by Aβ through estrogen signaling mechanisms. ERα and IGF-IR co-activation may mediate neuroprotection, and many other growth factors and intracellular signaling responses triggered by ERα may also play important roles in this process. Furthermore, details regarding the genes and mRNA variants of ERα that are expressed in different parts of the human organs have been clarified recently. Therefore, here we review the literature to clarify the neuroprotective role of ERα. This review focuses on the potential mechanisms mediated by ERα in the intracellular signaling events in nervous system cells, thereby clarifying ERα-mediated protection against AD.

  17. External sense receptors in microdrile oligochaetes (Annelida, Clitellata) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy: Typology and patterns of distribution in the main taxonomic groups.

    PubMed

    Caramelo, Carlos; Martínez-Ansemil, Enrique

    2010-12-01

    This work summarizes the observations on 30 species of microdriles belonging to the families Naididae (Rhyacodrilinae, Pristininae, Naidinae, Phallodrilinae, and Tubificinae), Phreodrilidae, Lumbriculidae, and Enchytraeidae using scanning electron microscopy. The lumbricid Eiseniella tetraedra, a megadrile species common in typical microdrile habitats, was used for comparison. Microdriles display external ciliate sense structures along the entire body; even at the clitellum and in budding and regeneration zones. According to the shape of the cilia, these sense structures can be divided into receptors of blunt cilia, receptors of sharp cilia, and composed receptors. Sense receptors can be morphologically unconspicuous or clearly defined on sensory buds or papillae. All microdriles studied have receptors of blunt cilia. Enchytraeids have characteristic receptors of short cilia. Pristina (Pristininae), Chaetogaster, Ophidonais, and Stylaria (Naidinae) have receptors of long blunt cilia. Composed receptors were found only in some microdriles and E. tetraedra. Receptors of sharp cilia have been found in most microdriles. Enchytraeids might be the only exception, but sharp cilia are probably present in the amphibiotic Cognettia sphagnetorum. Sensory cells with long sharp cilia might play a rheoreceptor role, and their presence in E. tetraedra and C. sphagnetorum would imply the reappearing of an ancient character that was probably lost with the transit from aquatic to terrestrial habitats. Some lumbriculids have ciliated fields. Anatomically, these structures appear as intermediate between the typical isolate sensory structures of microdriles and the sensillae of the hirudineans. The general pattern in microdriles is that uniciliate receptors and multiciliate receptors are separated, which supports the presumed aquatic origin of the clitellates. PMID:20886570

  18. Vitamin D Receptor Gene FokI Polymorphism Contributes to Increasing the Risk of Tuberculosis: An Update Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liling; Liu, Cunxu; Liao, Guangfu; Yang, Xiaobing; Tang, Xiuwen; Chen, Jingjie

    2015-12-01

    The association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI polymorphism and tuberculosis (TB) risk remains a matter of debate. Potential selection bias exists in most studies using HIV-positive TB patients.An update meta-analysis was carried out to derive a more reliable assessment of the association between FokI polymorphisms and TB risk, especially in HIV-negative TB patients. All major databases from inception to June 2015 were searched for all publications that studied the association between FokI polymorphism and TB risk. The odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated according to the frequencies of genotypes.In total, 32 studies with 4894 cases and 5319 controls were included in this meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, the estimated OR was 1.34 (95% CI=1.091-1.646, P = 0.005) in the best genetic model (recessive model, ff vs fF+FF) with moderate heterogeneity (I = 32.2%, P = 0.043). In the subgroup analysis stratified by HIV status, significant associations were found only in the HIV-negative TB group (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.180-2.077, P = 0.002; I = 29.5%, and P = 0.141 for heterogeneity). In the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, significant associations were found in the Asian group (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.205-2.261, P = 0.002; I = 43.9%, and P = 0.024 for heterogeneity), but not in the Caucasian group (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.762-1.547, P = 0.649; I = 0.0%, and P = 0.740 for heterogeneity) and African group (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.726-1.341, P = 0.934; I = 43.9%, and P = 0.024 for heterogeneity).This meta-analysis confirms that VDR FokI polymorphism contributes to the risk of TB, especially in HIV-negative TB patients and in the Asian group. Further studies are required to clarify the role of the FokI polymorphism in HIV-positive TB and in other ethnic groups. PMID:26705207

  19. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXIII: classification of prostanoid receptors, updating 15 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Woodward, D F; Jones, R L; Narumiya, S

    2011-09-01

    It is now more than 15 years since the molecular structures of the major prostanoid receptors were elucidated. Since then, substantial progress has been achieved with respect to distribution and function, signal transduction mechanisms, and the design of agonists and antagonists (http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/FamilyIntroductionForward?familyId=58). This review systematically details these advances. More recent developments in prostanoid receptor research are included. The DP(2) receptor, also termed CRTH2, has little structural resemblance to DP(1) and other receptors described in the original prostanoid receptor classification. DP(2) receptors are more closely related to chemoattractant receptors. Prostanoid receptors have also been found to heterodimerize with other prostanoid receptor subtypes and nonprostanoids. This may extend signal transduction pathways and create new ligand recognition sites: prostacyclin/thromboxane A(2) heterodimeric receptors for 8-epi-prostaglandin E(2), wild-type/alternative (alt4) heterodimers for the prostaglandin FP receptor for bimatoprost and the prostamides. It is anticipated that the 15 years of research progress described herein will lead to novel therapeutic entities. PMID:21752876

  20. Dual-color dual-focus line-scanning FCS for quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand interactions in living specimens

    PubMed Central

    Dörlich, René M.; Chen, Qing; Niklas Hedde, Per; Schuster, Vittoria; Hippler, Marc; Wesslowski, Janine; Davidson, Gary; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Cellular communication in multi-cellular organisms is mediated to a large extent by a multitude of cell-surface receptors that bind specific ligands. An in-depth understanding of cell signaling networks requires quantitative information on ligand-receptor interactions within living systems. In principle, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) based methods can provide such data, but live-cell applications have proven extremely challenging. Here, we have developed an integrated dual-color dual-focus line-scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (2c2f lsFCS) technique that greatly facilitates live-cell and tissue experiments. Absolute ligand and receptor concentrations and their diffusion coefficients within the cell membrane can be quantified without the need to perform additional calibration experiments. We also determine the concentration of ligands diffusing in the medium outside the cell within the same experiment by using a raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) based analysis. We have applied this robust technique to study the interactions of two Wnt antagonists, Dickkopf1 and Dickkopf2 (Dkk1/2), to their cognate receptor, low-density-lipoprotein-receptor related protein 6 (LRP6), in the plasma membrane of living HEK293T cells. We obtained significantly lower affinities than previously reported using in vitro studies, underscoring the need to measure such data on living cells or tissues. PMID:25951521

  1. An Update on Adenosine A2A-Dopamine D2 receptor interactions. Implications for the Function of G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, S.; Quiroz, C.; Woods, A. S.; Cunha, R.; Popoli, P.; Ciruela, F.; Lluis, C.; Franco, R.; Azdad, K.; Schiffmann, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor interactions play a very important role in striatal function. A2A-D2 receptor interactions provide an example of the capabilities of information processing by just two different G protein-coupled receptors. Thus, there is evidence for the coexistence of two reciprocal antagonistic interactions between A2A and D2 receptors in the same neurons, the GABAergic enkephalinergic nens. An antagonistic A2A-D2 intramembrane receptor interaction, which depends on A2A-D2 receptor heteromerization and Gq/11-PLC signaling, modulates neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. On the other hand, an antagonistic A2A-D2 receptor interaction at the adenylyl-cyclase level, which depends on Gs/olf- and Gi/o- type V adenylyl-cyclase signaling, modulates protein phosphorylation and gene expression. Finally, under conditions of upregulation of an activator of G protein signaling (AGS3), such as during chronic treatment with addictive drugs, a synergistic A2A-D2 receptor interaction can also be demonstrated. AGS3 facilitates a synergistic interaction between Gs/olf- and Gi/o- coupled receptors on the activation of types II/IV adenylyl cyclase, leading to a paradoxical increase in protein phosphorylation and gene expression upon co-activation of A2A and D2 receptors. The analysis of A2-D2 receptor interactions will have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of basal ganglia disorders and drug addiction. PMID:18537670

  2. PET-Scan Shows Peripherally Increased Neurokinin 1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow: Visualizing Neurogenic Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Magnus; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Aarnio, Mikko; Gordh, Torsten; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1 specific radioligand [11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ PMID:24155873

  3. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist in Animal Models of Stroke: an Update.

    PubMed

    McCann, Sarah K; Cramond, Fala; Macleod, Malcolm R; Sena, Emily S

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA) is an anti-inflammatory protein used clinically to treat rheumatoid arthritis and is considered a promising candidate therapy for stroke. Here, we sought to update the existing systematic review and meta-analysis of IL-1 RA in models of ischaemic stroke, published in 2009, to assess efficacy, the range of circumstances in which efficacy has been tested and whether the data appear to be confounded due to reported study quality and publication bias. We included 25 sources of data, 11 of which were additional to the original review. Overall, IL-1 RA reduced infarct volume by 36.2 % (95 % confidence interval 31.6-40.7, n = 76 comparisons from 1283 animals). Assessments for publication bias suggest 30 theoretically missing studies which reduce efficacy to 21.9 % (17.3-26.4). Efficacy was higher where IL-1 RA was administered directly into the ventricles rather than peripherally, and studies not reporting allocation concealment during the induction of ischaemia reported larger treatment effects. The preclinical data supporting IL-1 RA as a candidate therapy for ischaemic stroke have improved. The reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias has improved substantially in this update, and studies now include the use of animals with relevant co-morbidities. PMID:27526101

  4. A systematic scan of interactions with tyrosine motifs in the erythropoietin receptor using a mammalian 2-hybrid approach.

    PubMed

    Montoye, Tony; Lemmens, Irma; Catteeuw, Dominiek; Eyckerman, Sven; Tavernier, Jan

    2005-06-01

    Signaling via the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) depends on the interaction of several proteins with phosphorylated tyrosine-containing motifs in its cytosolic domain. Detailed mapping of these interactions is required for an accurate insight into Epo signaling. We recently developed a mammalian protein-protein interaction trap (MAPPIT), a cytokine receptor-based 2-hybrid method that operates in intact Hek293-T mammalian cells. As baits, we used intracellular segments of the EpoR containing 1 or 2 tyrosines. Several known signaling molecules, including cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS), suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 (SOCS2), phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-K), phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) were used as prey. We also extended the MAPPIT method to enable interaction analysis with wild-type EpoR. In this relay MAPPIT approach, instead of using isolated EpoR fragments as bait, we used the full-length EpoR itself as a "receptor bait." Finally, we introduced MAPPIT in the erythroleukemic TF-1 cell line, which is a more natural setting of the EpoR. With these strategies several known interactions with the EpoR were analyzed and evidence for new interactions was obtained. PMID:15644415

  5. An Update of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 and PGE2 Receptors in Cardiovascular Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), especially cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors, are among the most widely used drugs to treat pain and inflammation. However, clinical trials have revealed that these inhibitors predisposed patients to a significantly increased cardiovascular risk, consisting of thrombosis, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Thus, microsomal prostaglandin E (PGE) synthase-1 (mPGES-1), the key terminal enzyme involved in the synthesis of inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and the four PGE2 receptors (EP1–4) have gained much attention as alternative targets for the development of novel analgesics. The cardiovascular consequences of targeting mPGES-1 and the PGE2 receptors are substantially studied. Inhibition of mPGES-1 has displayed a relatively innocuous or preferable cardiovascular profile. The modulation of the four EP receptors in cardiovascular system is diversely reported as well. In this review, we highlight the most recent advances from our and other studies on the regulation of PGE2, particularly mPGES-1 and the four PGE2 receptors, in cardiovascular function, with a particular emphasis on blood pressure regulation, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. This might lead to new avenues to improve cardiovascular disease management strategies and to seek optimized anti-inflammatory therapeutic options.

  6. An Update of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 and PGE2 Receptors in Cardiovascular Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), especially cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors, are among the most widely used drugs to treat pain and inflammation. However, clinical trials have revealed that these inhibitors predisposed patients to a significantly increased cardiovascular risk, consisting of thrombosis, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Thus, microsomal prostaglandin E (PGE) synthase-1 (mPGES-1), the key terminal enzyme involved in the synthesis of inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and the four PGE2 receptors (EP1–4) have gained much attention as alternative targets for the development of novel analgesics. The cardiovascular consequences of targeting mPGES-1 and the PGE2 receptors are substantially studied. Inhibition of mPGES-1 has displayed a relatively innocuous or preferable cardiovascular profile. The modulation of the four EP receptors in cardiovascular system is diversely reported as well. In this review, we highlight the most recent advances from our and other studies on the regulation of PGE2, particularly mPGES-1 and the four PGE2 receptors, in cardiovascular function, with a particular emphasis on blood pressure regulation, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. This might lead to new avenues to improve cardiovascular disease management strategies and to seek optimized anti-inflammatory therapeutic options. PMID:27594972

  7. An Update of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 and PGE2 Receptors in Cardiovascular Health and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangrui; Chen, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), especially cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors, are among the most widely used drugs to treat pain and inflammation. However, clinical trials have revealed that these inhibitors predisposed patients to a significantly increased cardiovascular risk, consisting of thrombosis, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Thus, microsomal prostaglandin E (PGE) synthase-1 (mPGES-1), the key terminal enzyme involved in the synthesis of inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and the four PGE2 receptors (EP1-4) have gained much attention as alternative targets for the development of novel analgesics. The cardiovascular consequences of targeting mPGES-1 and the PGE2 receptors are substantially studied. Inhibition of mPGES-1 has displayed a relatively innocuous or preferable cardiovascular profile. The modulation of the four EP receptors in cardiovascular system is diversely reported as well. In this review, we highlight the most recent advances from our and other studies on the regulation of PGE2, particularly mPGES-1 and the four PGE2 receptors, in cardiovascular function, with a particular emphasis on blood pressure regulation, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. This might lead to new avenues to improve cardiovascular disease management strategies and to seek optimized anti-inflammatory therapeutic options. PMID:27594972

  8. Cognitive enhancers (Nootropics). Part 3: drugs interacting with targets other than receptors or enzymes. Disease-modifying drugs. Update 2014.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the field of Alzheimer's disease and, in particular, cognitive enhancers, are very productive. The review "Drugs interacting with Targets other than Receptors or Enzymes. Disease-modifying Drugs" was accepted in October 2012. In the last 20 months, new targets for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified. Enormous progress was realized in the pharmacological characterization of natural products with cognitive enhancing properties. This review covers the evolution of research in this field through May 2014.

  9. Update on D-ala-peptide T-amide (DAPTA): a viral entry inhibitor that blocks CCR5 chemokine receptors.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Michael R; Polianova, Maria; Yang, Quan-en; Leoung, Gifford S; Ruscetti, Francis W; Pert, Candace B

    2003-01-01

    Peptide T, named for its high threonine content (ASTTTNYT), was derived by a database search which assumed that a relevant receptor binding epitope within env (gp120) would have sequence homology to a known signaling peptide. Binding of radiolabeled gp120 to brain membranes was displaced by peptide T and three octapeptide analogs (including "DAPTA", Dala1-peptide T-amide, the protease-resistant analog now in Phase II clinical trials) with the same potency that these four octapeptides blocked infectivity of an early passage patient isolate. This 1986 report was controversial due to a number of laboratories' failure to find peptide T antiviral effects; we now know that peptide T is a potent HIV entry inhibitor selectively targeting CCR5 receptors with minimal effects on the X4 tropic lab adapted virus exclusively in use at that time. Early clinical trials, which demonstrated lack of toxicity and focused on neurological and neurocognitive benefits, are reviewed and data from a small ongoing Phase II trial--the first to assess peptide T's antiviral effects--are presented. Studies using infectivity, receptor binding, chemotaxis, and blockade of gp120-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo are reviewed, discussed and presented here. Peptide T and analogs of its core pentapeptide, present near the V2 stem of numerous gp120 isolates, are potent ligands for CCR5. Clinical data showing peptide T's immunomodulation of plasma cytokine levels and increases in the percentage of IFNgamma secreting CD8+ T cells in patients with HIV disease are presented and suggests additional therapeutic mechanisms via regulation of specific immunity.

  10. Update on the Mechanism of Action of Aripiprazole: Translational Insights into Antipsychotic Strategies Beyond Dopamine Receptor Antagonism.

    PubMed

    de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Tomasetti, Carmine; Iasevoli, Felice

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine partial agonism and functional selectivity have been innovative strategies in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia and mood disorders and have shifted the concept of dopamine modulation beyond the established approach of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) antagonism. Despite the fact that aripiprazole was introduced in therapy more than 12 years ago, many questions are still unresolved regarding the complexity of the effects of this agent on signal transduction and intracellular pathways, in part linked to its pleiotropic receptor profile. The complexity of the mechanism of action has progressively shifted the conceptualization of this agent from partial agonism to functional selectivity. From the induction of early genes to modulation of scaffolding proteins and activation of transcription factors, aripiprazole has been shown to affect multiple cellular pathways and several cortical and subcortical neurotransmitter circuitries. Growing evidence shows that, beyond the consequences of D2R occupancy, aripiprazole has a unique neurobiology among available antipsychotics. The effect of chronic administration of aripiprazole on D2R affinity state and number has been especially highlighted, with relevant translational implications for long-term treatment of psychosis. The hypothesized effects of aripiprazole on cell-protective mechanisms and neurite growth, as well as the differential effects on intracellular pathways [i.e. extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)] compared with full D2R antagonists, suggest further exploration of these targets by novel and future biased ligand compounds. This review aims to recapitulate the main neurobiological effects of aripiprazole and discuss the potential implications for upcoming improvements in schizophrenia therapy based on dopamine modulation beyond D2R antagonism.

  11. Bombesin receptors and transplanted stem cells in rat brain: High-resolution scan with 99mTc BN1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopinaro, F.; Paschali, E.; Di Santo, G.; Antonellis, T.; Massari, R.; Trotta, C.; Gourni, H.; Bouziotis, P.; David, V.; Soluri, A.; Varvarigou, A. D.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work is to detect the presence of transplanted stem cells (TSC) in rat brain with high-resolution (HR) scintigraphy and labelled bombesin (BN). BN is a morphogen for Central Nervous System (CNS) as well as for other organs: CNS-oriented TSC over-express BN Receptors (BNR). BN is also a neurotransmitter and modulates several functions of CNS. 99mTc labelled BN-like peptide scan of CNS is the ideal method to detect growing TSC once knowing normal distribution of BNRs in CNS. HR Planar and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images of rat brain were performed with new HR detectors (Li-tech, Italy). Pertechnetate, 99mTc HMPAO and the new 99mTc BN1.1 (patented) were i.v. administered in five rats. HR SPECT of 99mTc BN1.1 detected olfactory tract, fronto-lateral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and amygdale. Results of SPECT were confirmed by bio-distribution study performed after autopsy of three of the five rats. The remaining two rats underwent cerebral lesions followed by transplant of TSC. Three months later, HR scintigraphy was repeated and showed images completely different from previous basal study, with hot spot of 99mTc BN1.1 corresponding to the site of TSC transplant. Immuno-histochemistry confirmed the presence of viable TSC. Not only 99mTc BN1.1 HR scan showed viability of transplanted TSC but also the "background brain" was the still now unknown map of BNR in mammalian brain.

  12. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.

  13. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  14. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    Liver gallium scan; Bony gallium scan ... You will get a radioactive material called gallium injected into your vein. The gallium travels through the bloodstream and collects in the bones and certain organs. Your health care provider will ...

  15. Bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L D; Bennett, L R

    1975-03-01

    Scanning is based on the uptake of a nuclide by the crystal lattice of bone and is related to bone blood flow. Cancer cells do not take up the tracer. Normally, the scan visualizes the highly vascular bones. Scans are useful and are indicated in metastatic bone disease, primary bone tumors, hematologic malignancies and some non-neoplastic diseases. The scan is more sensitive than x-ray in the detection of malignant diseases of the skeleton. PMID:1054210

  16. Identification of key residues for the binding of glucagon to the N-terminal domain of its receptor: an alanine scan and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Prévost, M; Vertongen, P; Waelbroeck, M

    2012-10-01

    Glucagon plays an essential role in the glycemia maintenance during fasting, but also aggravates hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. A series of analogues of glucagon were synthesized replacing each amino acid of the C-terminal region (residues 15-29) with alanine. The residues affecting the binding to the glucagon receptor are found to be located on one face of the glucagon helix. Several 3-dimensional models of the N-terminal domain of the glucagon receptor in complex with its ligand peptide were built and used to analyze the peptide-receptor interface in terms of the nature of the peptide residues and the interactions they form with the receptor. The models suggest that glucagon keeps its native helical structure upon binding, and that a large part of the interface formed with the receptor is hydrophobic. We find that in the C-terminal region, F22, V23, M27, and D15 are the most important residues for peptide binding. They bury a large portion of their solvent accessible surface area and make numerous interactions with the receptor mainly of the hydrophobic type.

  17. Legislative update.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    Updates are presented from nine States on HIV-related legislation. Legislative topics include HIV case surveillance, testing, corrections, safety of health-care workers, HIV status notification, the definition of disability, viatical settlements, and confidentiality breaches. PMID:11366638

  18. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  19. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte scan ... will be taken from one of your veins. White blood cells are separated from the rest of the blood ... 111. These cells are considered tagged. The tagged white blood cells are injected back into your body through a ...

  20. Update '98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    Updates cases and issues previously discussed in this regular column on human rights in Canada, including racism and anti-Semitism, laws on hate crimes, hate sites on the World Wide Web, the use of the "free speech" defense by hate groups, and legal challenges to antiracist groups by individuals criticized by them. (DSK)

  1. Update on the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2-Angiotensin (1–7)-Mas Receptor Axis: Fetal Programing, Sex Differences, and Intracellular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Mark C.; Marshall, Allyson C.; Alzayadneh, Ebaa M.; Shaltout, Hossam A.; Diz, Debra I.

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) constitutes an important hormonal system in the physiological regulation of blood pressure. Indeed, dysregulation of the RAS may lead to the development of cardiovascular pathologies including kidney injury. Moreover, the blockade of this system by the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or antagonism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) constitutes an effective therapeutic regimen. It is now apparent with the identification of multiple components of the RAS that the system is comprised of different angiotensin peptides with diverse biological actions mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. The classic RAS can be defined as the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis that promotes vasoconstriction, sodium retention, and other mechanisms to maintain blood pressure, as well as increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, cellular growth, and inflammation in pathological conditions. In contrast, the non-classical RAS composed of the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis generally opposes the actions of a stimulated Ang II-AT1R axis through an increase in nitric oxide and prostaglandins and mediates vasodilation, natriuresis, diuresis, and oxidative stress. Thus, a reduced tone of the Ang-(1–7) system may contribute to these pathologies as well. Moreover, the non-classical RAS components may contribute to the effects of therapeutic blockade of the classical system to reduce blood pressure and attenuate various indices of renal injury. The review considers recent studies on the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis regarding the precursor for Ang-(1–7), the intracellular expression and sex differences of this system, as well as an emerging role of the Ang1-(1–7) pathway in fetal programing events and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:24409169

  2. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancers: an update for recent advances in therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Clement

    2016-06-01

    The presence of activating gene mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor of non-small cell lung cancer patients is predictive (improved progression-free survival and improved response rate) when treated with small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. The two most common mutations that account for greater than 85% of all EGFR gene mutations are in-frame deletions in exon 19 (LREA deletions) and substitution in exon 21 (L858R). Exon 18 mutations occur much less frequently at about 4% of all EGFR gene mutations. Together, exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R gene substitution are present in about 10% of Caucasian patients and 20-40% of Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. T790M gene mutation at exon 20 is associated with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early studies showed that activating EGFR gene mutations are most common in patients with adenocarcinoma histology, women, never smokers and those of Asian ethnicity. A recent multi-center phase III trial suggested that frontline epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy with afatinib is associated with improved progression-free survival compared to chemotherapy regardless of race. Moreover, guidelines now suggest EGFR gene mutation testing should be conducted in all patients with lung adenocarcinoma or mixed lung cancers with an adenocarcinoma component, regardless of characteristics such as smoking status, gender or race. The success of targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer patients has changed the treatment paradigm in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, despite a durable response of greater than a year, resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors inevitably occurs. This mini-review describes the clinically relevant EGFR gene mutations and the efficacy/toxicity of small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase

  3. Perineal scanning.

    PubMed

    Jeanty, P; d'Alton, M; Romero, R; Hobbins, J C

    1986-10-01

    Although various techniques have been described to aid in the ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa and incompetent cervix, these maneuvers depend on the precise identification of the internal cervical os, a feat which is notoriously difficult to accomplish consistently. In an attempt to get a closer view of the cervix we tried another approach. This simple technique of perineal scanning has the potential to help considerably with these problems. PMID:3530265

  4. Kinetics of T-cell receptor-dependent antigen recognition determined in vivo by multi-spectral normalized epifluorescence laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favicchio, Rosy; Zacharakis, Giannis; Oikonomaki, Katerina; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Mamalaki, Clio; Ripoll, Jorge

    2012-07-01

    Detection of multiple fluorophores in conditions of low signal represents a limiting factor for the application of in vivo optical imaging techniques in immunology where fluorescent labels report for different functional characteristics. A noninvasive in vivo Multi-Spectral Normalized Epifluorescence Laser scanning (M-SNELS) method was developed for the simultaneous and quantitative detection of multiple fluorophores in low signal to noise ratios and used to follow T-cell activation and clonal expansion. Colocalized DsRed- and GFP-labeled T cells were followed in tandem during the mounting of an immune response. Spectral unmixing was used to distinguish the overlapping fluorescent emissions representative of the two distinct cell populations and longitudinal data reported the discrete pattern of antigen-driven proliferation. Retrieved values were validated both in vitro and in vivo with flow cytometry and significant correlation between all methodologies was achieved. Noninvasive M-SNELS successfully quantified two colocalized fluorescent populations and provides a valid alternative imaging approach to traditional invasive methods for detecting T cell dynamics.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) rs1801282 C>G polymorphism is associated with cancer susceptibility in asians: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Heping; Tang, Weifeng; Kang, Mingqiang; Liu, Tianyun; Guo, Zengqing; Ma, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is related to inflammation and plays an important role in the development of cancer. PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism might influence the risk of cancer by regulating production of PPARG gene. Hence, a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to explore the association of PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism with cancer susceptibility. An extensive search of PubMed and Embase databases for all relevant publications was carried out. A total of 38 publications with 16,844 cancer cases and 23,736 controls for PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism were recruited in our study. Our results indicated that PPARG rs1801282 C>G variants were associated with an increased cancer risk in Asian populations and gastric cancer. In summary, the findings suggest that PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism may play a crucial role in malignant transformation and the development of cancer. PMID:26550180

  6. Colloid update.

    PubMed

    Argalious, Maged Y

    2012-01-01

    This update aims to provide an evidence based review of natural and synthetic colloids with a special emphasis on the various generations of the synthetic colloid hydroxyethyl starch. The effect of 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation hetastarches on bleeding, coagulopathy, acute kidney injury and mortality will be discussed. The results of randomised controlled trials addressing morbidity and mortality outcomes of colloid versus crystalloid resuscitation in critically ill patients will be described. In addition, the rationale and evidence behind early goal directed fluid therapy (EGDFT) including a practical approach to assessment of dynamic measures of fluid responsiveness will be presented.

  7. Rhabdomyolysis updated

    PubMed Central

    Efstratiadis, G; Voulgaridou, A; Nikiforou, D; Kyventidis, A; Kourkouni, E; Vergoulas, G

    2007-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis constitutes a common cause of acute renal failure and presents paramount interest. A large variety of causes with different pathogenetic mechanisms can involve skeletal muscles resulting in rhabdomyolysis with or without acute renal failure. Crush syndrome, one of the most common causes of rhabdomyolysis presents increased clinical interest, particularly in areas often involved by earthquakes, such as Greece and Turkey. Drug abusers are another sensitive group of young patients prone to rhabdomyolysis, which attracts the clinical interest of a variety of medical specialties. We herein review the evidence extracted from updated literature concerning the data related to pathogenetic mechanisms and pathophysiology as well as the management of this interesting syndrome. PMID:19582207

  8. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  9. Impact of the polymorphism in vitamin D receptor gene BsmI and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiping; Niu, Guodong; Lin, Yong; Chen, Xiaoqing; Lin, Ling

    2016-04-01

    The etiology of system lupus erythematosus (SLE) still remains unclear, and vitamin D is associated with immune response. Although a few studies are conducted to investigate the association between polymorphism in vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and SLE risk, their results are conflicting. Following the guideline of PRISMA, we conducted a systematic search and meta-analysis of the BsmI polymorphism rs1544410 and the risk of SLE. The pooled odds ratios (OR) and its 95 % confidential interval (CI) were calculated by using Stata Version 10 with dominant and recessive model and allele analyses. Nine studies were included in our meta-analysis with a total of 1247 SLE cases and 1687 controls. No significant association was found in both models in the overall population. Only Bb + BB genotypes showed a significantly elevated SLE risk in Asian subgroup with an OR of 3.26 (95 % CI = 1.30-8.17) while no significance was observed in Caucasian population. Notably, B allele significantly increased the SLE risk among Asian population with an OR of 2.29 (95 % CI = 1.14-4.61). No positive findings were reported in Caucasian population and in the overall analysis. In Asian population, Bb + BB genotype and B allele can significantly increase the SLE risk.

  10. Impact of the polymorphism in vitamin D receptor gene BsmI and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiping; Niu, Guodong; Lin, Yong; Chen, Xiaoqing; Lin, Ling

    2016-04-01

    The etiology of system lupus erythematosus (SLE) still remains unclear, and vitamin D is associated with immune response. Although a few studies are conducted to investigate the association between polymorphism in vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and SLE risk, their results are conflicting. Following the guideline of PRISMA, we conducted a systematic search and meta-analysis of the BsmI polymorphism rs1544410 and the risk of SLE. The pooled odds ratios (OR) and its 95 % confidential interval (CI) were calculated by using Stata Version 10 with dominant and recessive model and allele analyses. Nine studies were included in our meta-analysis with a total of 1247 SLE cases and 1687 controls. No significant association was found in both models in the overall population. Only Bb + BB genotypes showed a significantly elevated SLE risk in Asian subgroup with an OR of 3.26 (95 % CI = 1.30-8.17) while no significance was observed in Caucasian population. Notably, B allele significantly increased the SLE risk among Asian population with an OR of 2.29 (95 % CI = 1.14-4.61). No positive findings were reported in Caucasian population and in the overall analysis. In Asian population, Bb + BB genotype and B allele can significantly increase the SLE risk. PMID:26712498

  11. Document Update and Compare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, C. F.; Caldwell, D. C.; Caldwell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Document Update and Compare programs provide simple computerized documentmaintenance system on Data General NOVA 840 computer. Document Update program allows user to update document either by batch or terminal input. Documents are modified and lists of modifications printed out.

  12. [Pharmacovigilance update].

    PubMed

    Diezi, Léonore; Renard, Delphine; Rothuizen, Laura E; Livio, Françoise

    2014-01-15

    The main pharmacovigilance updates in 2013 are reviewed. Nitrofurantoin: lower efficacy and an increased risk of adverse events when creatinine clearance is below 60 ml/min. Dabigatran: contraindicated in patients with mechanical heart valves. Azithromycin: QT prolongation and increased risk of death. Zolpidem: towards a lower dosage. Roflumilast: avoid in patients known or at risk for mood disorders. Retigabine: indication restricted to last-line use and new monitoring requirements after reports of pigment changes in retina and other tissues. Telaprevir and rituximab: severe mucocutaneous reactions. Fingolimod: rare cases of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. Tolvaptan: potential for hepatotoxicity. Nicotinic acid/laropiprant: suspension of marketing authorization as benefits no longer outweigh risks. PMID:24558915

  13. Pelvic CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... creates detailed pictures of the body, including the pelvis and areas near the pelvis. The test may ...

  14. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... on film. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the leg can be created by adding the slices together. ...

  15. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    Radioactive abscess scan; Abscess scan; Indium Scan; Indium-labelled white blood cell scan ... the white blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance called indium. The cells are then injected ...

  16. The Cassini Live Update Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Ray, Trina; Wallis, Brad; Roumeliotis, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter is an international science mission to the Saturnian system with 12 science instruments onboard. The Cassini spacecraft lacks a scan platform, which means the entire spacecraft must be rotated to control pointing of any one instrument's boresight. The resulting complex sequences of commands are built beginning many months before execution onboard. Late ephemeris updates from improved navigation data (i.e. after an orbital trim maneuver) often result in pointing commands in the sequence no longer being accurate enough to obtain the desired science observation. This paper will provide an overview of how Cassini uses live updates to address this potential loss of data, including the software developed for this process.

  17. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy: HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... small amount of morphine. This can help the radionuclide get into the gallbladder. The morphine may cause ...

  18. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  19. Update in Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    López-Jiménez, Francisco; Brito, Máximo; Aude, Y. Wady; Scheinberg, Phillip; Kaplan, Mariana; Dixon, Denise A.; Schneiderman, Neil; Trejo, Jorge F.; López-Salazar, Luis Humberto; Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Kalil, Roberto; Ortiz, Carmen; Goyos, José; Buenaño, Alvaro; Kottiech, Samer; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 new medical articles are published every year and available time to keep updated is scarcer every day. Nowadays, the task of selecting useful, consistent, and relevant information for clinicians is a priority in many major medical journals. This review has the aim of gathering the results of the most important findings in clinical medicine in the last few years. It is focused on results from randomized clinical trials and well-designed observational research. Findings were included preferentially if they showed solid results, and we avoided as much as possible including only preliminary data, or results that included only non-clinical outcomes. Some of the most relevant findings reported here include the significant benefit of statins in patients with coronary artery disease even with mean cholesterol level. It also provides a substantial review of the most significant trials assessing the effectiveness of IIb/IIIa receptor blockers. In gastroenterology many advances have been made in the H. pylori eradication, and the finding that the cure of H. pylori infection may be followed by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Some new antivirals have shown encouraging results in patients with chronic hepatitis. In the infectious disease arena, the late breaking trials in anti-retroviral disease are discussed, as well as the new trends regarding antibiotic resistance. This review approaches also the role of leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of asthma and discusses the benefit of using methylprednisolone in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome, among many other advances in internal medicine. PMID:11068074

  20. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. METHODS Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. RESULTS Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. DISCUSSION Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery. PMID:26005249

  1. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  2. Safety in the scanning electron microscopy laboratory--1984 update.

    PubMed

    Barber, V C

    1984-01-01

    Recent information on hazards as they relate to safety in the SEM laboratory has been compiled. The paper concentrates on recent information on formaldehyde, embeddants, and a reminder of the possible hazards of photographic chemicals. A review of formaldehyde does not substantiate it as a human carcinogen or mutagen. However, the other hazards associated with it suggest that formaldehyde needs to be handled with care. The recent substantiation of epoxy resins as mutagens suggests that all operations involving embeddants should be undertaken in an effective fume hood. Other precautions are also important. The hazards of photographic chemicals need to be reiterated. It should also be pointed out that adequate ventilation of dark rooms would do a lot to reduce this hazard. PMID:6529456

  3. Integrin traffic – the update

    PubMed Central

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Hamidi, Hellyeh; Alanko, Jonna; Sahgal, Pranshu; Ivaska, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Integrins are a family of transmembrane cell surface molecules that constitute the principal adhesion receptors for the extracellular matrix (ECM) and are indispensable for the existence of multicellular organisms. In vertebrates, 24 different integrin heterodimers exist with differing substrate specificity and tissue expression. Integrin–extracellular-ligand interaction provides a physical anchor for the cell and triggers a vast array of intracellular signalling events that determine cell fate. Dynamic remodelling of adhesions, through rapid endocytic and exocytic trafficking of integrin receptors, is an important mechanism employed by cells to regulate integrin–ECM interactions, and thus cellular signalling, during processes such as cell migration, invasion and cytokinesis. The initial concept of integrin traffic as a means to translocate adhesion receptors within the cell has now been expanded with the growing appreciation that traffic is intimately linked to the cell signalling apparatus. Furthermore, endosomal pathways are emerging as crucial regulators of integrin stability and expression in cells. Thus, integrin traffic is relevant in a number of pathological conditions, especially in cancer. Nearly a decade ago we wrote a Commentary in Journal of Cell Science entitled ‘Integrin traffic’. With the advances in the field, we felt it would be appropriate to provide the growing number of researchers interested in integrin traffic with an update. PMID:25663697

  4. ISS Update: Suitport

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Lynnette Madison interviews Mallory Jennings, Suitport Human Testing Lead, about making spacewalks easier and more efficient with the Suitport. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @...

  5. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  6. Vasopressin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the principal hormone involved in regulating the tonicity of body fluids. Less appreciated is the role that AVP plays in a variety of other physiologic functions including glucose metabolism, cardiovascular homeostasis, bone metabolism, and cognitive behavior. AVP receptor antagonists are now available and currently approved to treat hyponatremia. There is a great deal of interest in exploring the potential benefits that these drugs may play in blocking AVP-mediated effects in other organ systems. The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the expanding role of AVP receptor antagonists and what disease states these drugs may eventually be used for.

  7. Vasopressin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the principal hormone involved in regulating the tonicity of body fluids. Less appreciated is the role that AVP plays in a variety of other physiologic functions including glucose metabolism, cardiovascular homeostasis, bone metabolism, and cognitive behavior. AVP receptor antagonists are now available and currently approved to treat hyponatremia. There is a great deal of interest in exploring the potential benefits that these drugs may play in blocking AVP-mediated effects in other organ systems. The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the expanding role of AVP receptor antagonists and what disease states these drugs may eventually be used for. PMID:25604388

  8. Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

  9. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  10. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a health care ...

  11. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  12. Genomics and Health Impact Update

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genomics in Practice Newborn Screening Pharmacogenomics Reproductive Health Tools and Databases About the Genomics & Health Impact Update The Office of Public Health Genomics provides updated and credible ...

  13. Large energy-spread beam diagnostics through quadrupole scans

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, Joel; Adli, Erik; Hogan, Mark; Raubenheimer, Tor

    2012-12-21

    The Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) is a new user facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, servicing next-generation accelerator experiments. The 1.5% RMS energy spread of the FACET beam causes large chromatic aberrations in optics. These aberrations necessitate updated quadrupole scan fits to remain accurate.

  14. Pharmacodynamics of Memantine: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Rammes, G; Danysz, W; Parsons, C.G

    2008-01-01

    Memantine received marketing authorization from the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) for the treatment of moderately severe to severe Alzheimer´s disease (AD) in Europe on 17th May 2002 and shortly thereafter was also approved by the FDA for use in the same indication in the USA. Memantine is a moderate affinity, uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with strong voltage-dependency and fast kinetics. Due to this mechanism of action (MOA), there is a wealth of other possible therapeutic indications for memantine and numerous preclinical data in animal models support this assumption. This review is intended to provide an update on preclinical studies on the pharmacodynamics of memantine, with an additional focus on animal models of diseases aside from the approved indication. For most studies prior to 1999, the reader is referred to a previous review [196]. In general, since 1999, considerable additional preclinical evidence has accumulated supporting the use of memantine in AD (both symptomatic and neuroprotective). In addition, there has been further confirmation of the MOA of memantine as an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist and essentially no data contradicting our understanding of the benign side effect profile of memantine. PMID:19305788

  15. ISS Update: Suitport Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Lynnette Madison interviews Joel Maganza, Test Director, about thermal vacuum chambers and unmanned and human-testing with the Suitport. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Jo...

  16. ISS Update: NEEMO 16

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Josh Byerly interviews astronaut Stan Love about the NEEMO 16 mission from Aquarius Base. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For ...

  17. ACS Updates Environmental Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes a new publication of a report prepared by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Environmental Improvement. This is a new version that updates a 1969 report and contains additional material and expanded recommendations. (GA)

  18. Environmental regulatory update table

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.J.; Langston, M.E.; Tucker, C.S.; Reed, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  19. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  20. Optical Scanning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hans

    The successful use of optical scanning at the University of the Pacific (UOP) indicates that such techniques can simplify a number of administrative data processing tasks. Optical scanning is regularly used at UOP to assist with data processing in the areas of admissions, registration and grade reporting and also has applications for other tasks…

  1. Multiline radar scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, S.

    1977-01-01

    Scanning scheme is more efficient than conventional scanning. Originally designed for optical radar in space vehicles, scheme may also find uses in site-surveillance security systems and in other industrial applications. It should be particularly useful when system must run on battery energy, as would be case in power outages.

  2. Spatial updating in human parietal cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Elisha P.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Colby, Carol L.

    2003-01-01

    Single neurons in monkey parietal cortex update visual information in conjunction with eye movements. This remapping of stimulus representations is thought to contribute to spatial constancy. We hypothesized that a similar process occurs in human parietal cortex and that we could visualize it with functional MRI. We scanned subjects during a task that involved remapping of visual signals across hemifields. We observed an initial response in the hemisphere contralateral to the visual stimulus, followed by a remapped response in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulus. We ruled out the possibility that this remapped response resulted from either eye movements or visual stimuli alone. Our results demonstrate that updating of visual information occurs in human parietal cortex.

  3. Virtual slit scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fiolka, Reto; Stemmer, Andreas; Belyaev, Yury

    2007-12-01

    We present a novel slit scanning confocal microscope with a CCD camera image sensor and a virtual slit aperture for descanning that can be adjusted during post-processing. A very efficient data structure and mathematical criteria for aligning the virtual aperture guarantee the ease of use. We further introduce a method to reduce the anisotropic lateral resolution of slit scanning microscopes. System performance is evaluated against a spinning disk confocal microscope on identical specimens. The virtual slit scanning microscope works as the spinning disk type and outperforms on thick specimens. PMID:17891411

  4. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  5. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  6. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  7. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  8. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  9. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) and computed tomography ( CT ) scans only reveal the structure of the ... a PET/CT. Alternative Names ... PT, Rijntjes M, Weiller C. Neuroimaging: Functional neuroimaging. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic ...

  10. The conical scan radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosch, T.; Hennings, D.

    1982-07-01

    A satellite-borne conical scan radiometer (CSR) is proposed, offering multiangular and multispectral measurements of Earth radiation fields, including the total radiances, which are not available from conventional radiometers. Advantages of the CSR for meteorological studies are discussed. In comparison to conventional cross track scanning instruments, the CSR is unique with respect to the selected picture element size which is kept constant by means of a specially shaped detector matrix at all scan angles. The conical scan mode offers the chance to improve angular sampling. Angular sampling gaps of previous satellite-borne radiometers can be interpolated and complemented by CSR data. Radiances are measured through 10 radiometric channels which are selected to study cloudiness, water vapor, ozone, surface albedo, ground and mean stratospheric temperature, and aerosols.

  11. Imaging dopamine receptors in the human brain by position tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wong, D.F.; Langstrom, B.; Duelfer, T.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.T.; Links, J.M.; Rosenbloom, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors may be involved in a number of neuropsychiatric disease states. The ligand 3-N-(/sup 11/C)methylspiperone, which preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, was used to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and in humans. This technique holds promise for noninvasive clinical studies of dopamine receptors in humans.

  12. Scanning Mueller polarimetric microscopy.

    PubMed

    Le Gratiet, Aymeric; Dubreuil, Matthieu; Rivet, Sylvain; Le Grand, Yann

    2016-09-15

    A full Mueller polarimeter was implemented on a commercial laser-scanning microscope. The new polarimetric microscope is based on high-speed polarization modulation by spectral coding using a wavelength-swept laser as a source. Calibration as well as estimation of the measurement errors of the device are reported. The acquisition of Mueller images at the speed of a scanning microscope is demonstrated for the first time. Mueller images of mineral and biological samples illustrate this new polarimetric microscopy. PMID:27628391

  13. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  14. [Laser scanning in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Jean, B; Frohn, A; Thiel, H J

    1990-01-01

    The current state of the art for the major laser scanning methods, laser scanning ophthalmoscopy (LSO) and laser tomographic scanning (LTS) is discussed and the function principles are described. Experience with a prototype of each instrument from Rodenstock (LSO) and Heidelberg Instruments (LTS) is reported. LSO imaging of the cornea, vitreous, retina, and optic disc, as well as on-line processing is demonstrated with examples (nerve fibre colour coding and histograms). Measurement of the cornea, optic disc and retinal topography with LTS is also demonstrated with examples. An example of polarization optical imaging of the cornea's assumed interferometric "tension patterns" is shown. The current status and future possibilities of laser scanning, its expanded diagnostic potential with microperimetry, IR scanning angiography and polarization optic imaging and measurement (eg. nerve fibre thickness) is discussed extensively. The safety aspects of laser light exposure of the macula are also mentioned. Laser scanners as imaging and measuring sensors of unknown accuracy open a new area of possibly revolutionary diagnostic possibilities.

  15. Updating: Learning versus Supposing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jiaying; Crupi, Vincenzo; Tentori, Katya; Fitelson, Branden; Osherson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian orthodoxy posits a tight relationship between conditional probability and updating. Namely, the probability of an event "A" after learning "B" should equal the conditional probability of "A" given "B" prior to learning "B". We examine whether ordinary judgment conforms to the orthodox view. In three experiments we found substantial…

  16. ''Smart Gun'' Technology Update

    SciTech Connect

    WIRSBINSKI, JOHN W.

    2001-11-01

    This report is an update to previous ''smart gun'' work and the corresponding report that were completed in 1996. It incorporates some new terminology and expanded definitions. This effort is the product of an open source look at what has happened to the ''smart gun'' technology landscape since the 1996 report was published.

  17. Updated opal opacities

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, C.A.; Rogers, F.J.

    1996-06-01

    The reexamination of astrophysical opacities has eliminated gross discrepancies between a variety of observations and theoretical calculations; thus allowing for more detailed tests of stellar models. A number of such studies indicate that model results are sensitive to modest changes in the opacity. Consequently, it is desirable to update available opacity databases with recent improvements in physics, refinements of element abundance, and other such factors affecting the results. Updated OPAL Rosseland mean opacities are presented. The new results have incorporated improvements in the physics and numerical procedures as well as corrections. The main opacity changes are increases of as much as 20{percent} for Population I stars due to the explicit inclusion of 19 metals (compared to 12 metals in the earlier calculations) with the other modifications introducing opacity changes smaller than 10{percent}. In addition, the temperature and density range covered by the updated opacity tables has been extended. As before, the tables allow accurate interpolation in density and temperature as well as hydrogen, helium, carbon, oxygen, and metal mass fractions. Although a specific metal composition is emphasized, opacity tables for different metal distributions can be made readily available. The updated opacities are compared to other work. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  18. SEI: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, Lewis L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An update on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the key prerequisites of human exploration, project planning, Mars and lunar explorations, supporting technologies, near-term strategies for SEI, human support elements, and Space Station Freedom SEI accommodations.

  19. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27365238

  20. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-06-11

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27288166

  1. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27493045

  2. Supreme Court Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    "Chief Justice Flubs Oath." "Justice Ginsburg Has Cancer Surgery." At the start of this year, those were the news headlines about the U.S. Supreme Court. But January 2009 also brought news about key education cases--one resolved and two others on the docket--of which school administrators should take particular note. The Supreme Court updates on…

  3. Community Update, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of 10 issues (covering January through December 2000) of the newsletter, "Community Update," which features articles on community and family involvement in education. In addition to the articles, each issue (except the Special Issue) includes a preview of the month's Satellite Town Meeting; events and information discussed…

  4. Updating Older Fume Hoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on updating older fume hoods. Areas addressed include: (1) adjustment of the hood's back baffle; (2) hood air leakage; (3) light level; (4) hood location in relation to room traffic and room air; and (5) establishing and maintaining hood performance. (JN)

  5. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-09-10

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27609956

  6. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27687269

  7. Update: Biological Nitrogen Fixation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Updates knowledge on nitrogen fixation, indicating that investigation of free-living nitrogen-fixing organisms is proving useful in understanding bacterial partners and is expected to lead to development of more effective symbioses. Specific areas considered include biochemistry/genetics, synthesis control, proteins and enzymes, symbiotic systems,…

  8. Technology Update-87

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The five papers in this issue of Technology Update reflect improvements in equipment reliability, inspection techniques, data storage techniques, and production technology - all aimed at reducing process variations. Each paper represents an achievement by our technical staff that allows Mound to make more effective use of our resources. A separate abstract has been prepared for one of the papers.

  9. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  10. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  11. Vector generator scan converter

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes high printing speeds for graphics data that are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  12. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  13. Tomographic scanning imager.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Harald

    2009-07-01

    In tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imaging, light from a scene is focused onto a reticle mask using conical scan optics, and collected on a single element detector. Alternatively, one or several detectors replace the reticle. Tomographic processing techniques are then applied to the one-dimensional signal to reproduce a two-dimensional image. The TOSCA technique is presented in detail, including its mathematical foundations and some of its limitations. It is shown how TOSCA imaging can be used in a multispectral configuration, and compares well with more conventional alternatives both in simplicity and performance. Examples of image reconstruction using TOSCA techniques are shown. PMID:19582052

  14. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOEpatents

    George, John S.

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  15. Pharmacological Profiles of Oligomerized μ-Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cynthia Wei-Sheng; Ho, Ing-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are widely prescribed pain relievers with multiple side effects and potential complications. They produce analgesia via G-protein-protein coupled receptors: μ-, δ-, κ-opioid and opioid receptor-like 1 receptors. Bivalent ligands targeted to the oligomerized opioid receptors might be the key to developing analgesics without undesired side effects and obtaining effective treatment for opioid addicts. In this review we will update the biological effects of μ-opioids on homo- or hetero-oligomerized μ-opioid receptor and discuss potential mechanisms through which bivalent ligands exert beneficial effects, including adenylate cyclase regulation and receptor-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:24709876

  16. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  17. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  18. Environmental Scanning Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    In response to the change in the provincial economy from natural-resource-based industries to service-oriented industries, Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia (BC) conducted an environmental scan of the social and economic trends in the college's service region that will most likely affect prospective students' educational and…

  19. THE 2016 ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Gene

    2015-09-01

    Every year, the American Hospital Association compiles the Environmental Scan to provide hospital leaders with insight and information about market forces that are likely to affect the health care field. One common theme this year is the pace of change. PMID:26495611

  20. Teaching the SCANS Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

    SCANS (the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) provides definitions of the knowledge students and workers need for workplace success and methods for applying these principles in communities throughout the United States. This document contains six articles that give education and training practitioners practical suggestions for…

  1. Scaling up multiphoton neural scanning: the SSA algorithm.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Renaud; Annecchino, Luca A; Schultz, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    In order to reverse-engineer the information processing capabilities of the cortical circuit, we need to densely sample neural circuit; it may be necessary to sample the activity of thousands of neurons simultaneously. Frame scanning techniques do not scale well in this regard, due to the time "wasted" scanning extracellular space. For scanners in which inertia can be neglected, path length minimization strategies enable large populations to be imaged at relatively high sampling rates. However, in a standard multiphoton microscope, the scanners responsible for beam deflection are inertial, indicating that an optimal solution should take rotor and mirror momentum into account. We therefore characterized the galvanometric scanners of a commercial multiphoton microscope, in order to develop and validate a MATLAB model of microscope scanning dynamics. We tested the model by simulating scan paths across pseudo-randomly positioned neuronal populations of differing neuronal density and field of view. This model motivated the development of a novel scanning algorithm, Adaptive Spiral Scanning (SSA), in which the radius of a circular trajectory is constantly updated such that it follows a spiral trajectory scanning all the cells. Due to the kinematic efficiency of near-circular trajectories, this algorithm achieves higher sampling rates than shortest path approaches, while retaining a relatively efficient coverage fraction in comparison to raster or resonance based frame-scanning approaches. PMID:25570582

  2. Sequence History Update Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  3. Sensors, Update 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  4. Sensors, Update 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, while Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors, and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be invaluable to scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  5. Sensors, Update 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  6. Sensors, Update 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-03-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field, presenting the current highlights of sensor and related microelectromechanical systems technology. Coverage includes most recent developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles based on micro- and nanotechnology. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update is of must-have value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  7. Sensors, Update 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-12-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Treatments include current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides an overview of suppliers and market trends for a particular section, and Sensor Standards, reviews recent legislation and requirements for sensors. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  8. Sensors, Update 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2002-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  9. Sensors, Update 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  10. SIM-Lite Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Discussion focus on: SIM-Lite Instrument Update - 6m baseline, 50cm, approximately 900M cost; Technology Update - Systematic errors and floor; SIM-Lite terrestrial planet discovery capability; Double blind multiple planet study summary; and the changing landscape of exoplanet science and the role of SIM-Lite. Slides include technology to flight component engineering; instrumental systematic errors; ultra deep search for Earth clones; double blind test, astrometric detection of Earths in multiplanet systems; the current era of exoplanet science and where SIM-Lite fits in; the next frontier and where SIM-Lite fits in, why SIM is unique in discovering Earths; imaging planet status is uncertain without masses and ages; SIM role in establishing how planetary systems form and evolve; and SIM probes of broad planet mass range around young stars.

  11. DSS command software update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinnett, W. G.

    1980-01-01

    The modifications, additions, and testing results for a version of the Deep Space Station command software, generated for support of the Voyager Saturn encounter, are discussed. The software update requirements included efforts to: (1) recode portions of the software to permit recovery of approximately 2000 words of memory; (2) correct five Voyager Ground data System liens; (3) provide capability to automatically turn off the command processor assembly local printer during periods of low activity; and (4) correct anomalies existing in the software.

  12. SLC classification: an update.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, A; Yee, S W; Sali, A; Giacomini, K M

    2013-07-01

    The 386 human SLC superfamily members are diverse in sequence, structure, and function. Using sequence similarity, we previously classified the SLC superfamily members and identified relationships among families. With the recent determination of new SLC structures and identification of previously unknown human SLC families, an update of our previous classification is timely. Here, we comprehensively compare the SLC sequences and structures and discuss the applicability of structure-based ligand discovery to key SLC members.

  13. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan? A lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or VQ scan, is a ... that measures air and blood flow in your lungs. A VQ scan most often is used to ...

  14. How Documentalists Update SIMBAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buga, M.; Bot, C.; Brouty, M.; Bruneau, C.; Brunet, C.; Cambresy, L.; Eisele, A.; Genova, F.; Lesteven, S.; Loup, C.; Neuville, M.; Oberto, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Perret, E.; Siebert, A.; Son, E.; Vannier, P.; Vollmer, B.; Vonflie, P.; Wenger, M.; Woelfel, F.

    2015-04-01

    The Strasbourg astronomical Data Center (CDS) was created in 1972 and has had a major role in astronomy for more than forty years. CDS develops a service called SIMBAD that provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography, and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. It brings to the scientific community an added value to content which is updated daily by a team of documentalists working together in close collaboration with astronomers and IT specialists. We explain how the CDS staff updates SIMBAD with object citations in the main astronomical journals, as well as with astronomical data and measurements. We also explain how the identification is made between the objects found in the literature and those already existing in SIMBAD. We show the steps followed by the documentalist team to update the database using different tools developed at CDS, like the sky visualizer Aladin, and the large catalogues and survey database VizieR. As a direct result of this teamwork, SIMBAD integrates almost 10.000 bibliographic references per year. The service receives more than 400.000 queries per day.

  15. Scanning thermal plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

  16. Fly-scan ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems. PMID:25766519

  17. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, Warren C.; Blau, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  18. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  19. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  20. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  1. Scanning holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

  2. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  3. Descreening of scanned images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilin, Ilya V.; Safonov, Ilia V.; Lee, HoKeun; Kim, Sang Ho

    2010-01-01

    Screen or halftone pattern appears on the majority of images printed on electrophotographic and ink-jet printers as well as offset machines. When such halftoned image is scanned, a noisy effect called a Moiré pattern often appears on the image. There are plenty of methods proposed for descreening of images. Common way is adaptive smoothing of scanned images. However the descreening techniques face the following dilemma: deep screen reduction and restoration of contone images leads to blurring of sharp edges of text and other graphics primitives, on the other hand insufficient smoothing keeps screen in halftoned areas. We propose novel descreening algorithm that is primarily intended for preservation of sharpness and contrast of text edges and for restoration contone images from halftone ones accurately. Proposed technique for descreening of scanned images comprises five steps. The first step is decrease of edge transition slope length via local tone mapping with ordering; it is carried out before adaptive smoothing, and it allows better preservation of edges. Adaptive low-pass filter applies simplified idea of Non-Local Means filter for area classification; similarity is calculated between central block of window and different adjacent block that is selected randomly. If similarity is high then current pixel relates to flat region, otherwise pixel relates to edge region. For prevention of edges blurring, flat regions are smoothed stronger than edge regions. By random selection of blocks we avoid the computational overhead related to excessive directional edge detection. Final three stages include additional decrease of edge transition slope length using local tone mapping, increase of local contrast via modified unsharp mask filter, that uses bilateral filter with special edge-stop function for modest smoothing of edges, and global contrast stretching. These stages are intended to compensate decreasing of sharpness and contrast due to low-pass filtering, it allows

  4. Prostate cancer biomarkers: an update.

    PubMed

    Romero Otero, Javier; Garcia Gomez, Borja; Campos Juanatey, Felix; Touijer, Karim A

    2014-04-01

    Many aspects of prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment could be greatly advanced with new, effective biomarkers. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has multiple weaknesses as a biomarker, such as not distinguishing well between cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia or between indolent and aggressive cancers, thus leading to overtreatment, especially unnecessary biopsies. PSA also often fails to indicate accurately which patients are responding to a given treatment. Yet PSA is the only prostate cancer biomarker routinely used by urologists. Here, we provide updated information on the most relevant of the other biomarkers currently in use or in development for prostate cancer. Recent research shows improvement over using PSA alone by comparing total PSA (tPSA) or free PSA (fPSA) with new, related markers, such as prostate cancer antigen (PCA) 3, the individual molecular forms of PSA (proPSA, benign PSA, and intact PSA), and kallikreins other than PSA. Promising results have also been seen with the use of the fusion gene TMPRSS2:ERG and with various forms of the urokinase plasminogen activation receptor. Initially, there were high hopes for early PCA, but those data were not reproducible and thus research on early PCA has been abandoned. Much work remains to be done before any of these biomarkers are fully validated and accepted. Currently, the only markers discussed in this paper with Food and Drug Administration-approved tests are PCA 3 and an isoform of proPSA, [-2]proPSA. Assays are in development for most of the other biomarkers described in this paper. While the biomarker validation process can be long and filled with obstacles, the rewards will be great-in terms of both patient care and costs to the health care system.

  5. Updated Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    16-page report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, the Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction Price Book for preparing conceptual, budget, funding, cost-estimating, and preliminary cost-engineering reports. Updated annually from 1974 through 1985 with actual bid prices and government estimates. Includes labor and material quantities and prices with contractor and subcontractor markups for buildings, facilities, and systems at Kennedy Space Center. While data pertains to aerospace facilities, format and cost-estimating techniques guide estimation of costs in other construction applications.

  6. [Update Chagas disease].

    PubMed

    Molina, Israel; Salvador, Fernando; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián

    2016-02-01

    The constant migration flows have favored the presence of people with Chagas disease in regions traditionally regarded as non-endemic, such as North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania. This has forced both health authorities and professionals to be updated in order to respond to such a demand for assistance. Recent years have led to significant progress in the field of diagnosis and treatment of Chagas disease, one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Recent clinical trials are providing new evidence that makes the management of these patients, a constant challenge for the professionals involved. Innovative diagnostic tools and therapeutic regimens, allow us to face the future of Chagas disease with optimism.

  7. Updates in pediatric endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Manmohan K

    2013-04-01

    There are rapid advances being made in the field of medicine! New research continues to investigate etiopathogenic mechanisms underlying many endocrine disorders, new tests to facilitate diagnosis, and newer treatment options. The discussion in this article focuses on a few of the important concerns in adolescent endocrinology and highlights some recent concepts that are important for the physicians taking care of these adolescents. This article also includes a brief update on diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome; new thoughts and controversies about vitamin D and current management of the common thyroid disorders; adrenal insufficiency; and concerns with disorders of puberty in adolescents.

  8. Fuel Cell Handbook update

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.R.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Engleman, R.R. Jr.; Stauffer, D.B.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of this work was to update the 1988 version of DOE`s Fuel Cell Handbook. Significant developments in the various fuel cell technologies required revisions to reflect state-of-the-art configurations and performance. The theoretical presentation was refined in order to make the handbook more useful to both the casual reader and fuel cell or systems analyst. In order to further emphasize the practical application of fuel cell technologies, the system integration information was expanded. In addition, practical elements, such as suggestions and guidelines to approximate fuel cell performance, were provided.

  9. SCROD: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.; Musienko, Y.; McCauley, T.; Paul, T.; Reucroft, S.; Swain, J.

    We give an update on the most recent design of the "School Cosmic Ray Outreach Detector'' (SCROD) using pixellated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes and scintillating tiles with wavelength shifting fibers as detectors. This technology offers very high levels of robustness at low cost. Voltages and currents are also so low as to reduce shock hazard to zero, and there are no fragile glass or vacuum-containing components. Plans are underway to make a very large-scale deployment of such detectors as part of a major outreach project.

  10. Free motion scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner system and method for the imaging of a part system, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface of the part including at least two tracking signals for emitting radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of the waves to be reflected from the part, at least one detector for receiving the radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive the radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzer for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals based on the emitted radiation, a differential converter for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a device such as a computer for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.

  11. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, D.A. |

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  12. A-Scan Echoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    White, D. Naldrett

    1966-01-01

    The technique of A-scan echoencephalography is criticized in so far as it lacks objectivity and reproducibility. In the author's laboratory, the M-echo, being of higher amplitude than other intracranial echoes, is distinguished from other echoes by an averaging technique—a time exposure. Double transmission pulses indicate the theoretical position of echoes from the true mid-line and superimposition of far-side echoes ensures that the transducers are correctly aligned. The very considerable difficulties in identifying the anatomical structures giving rise to other echoes seen within the skull are outlined. They are largely due to variations in the reflected energy, depending upon the shape and orientation and position of the various interfaces with respect to the ultrasonic beam. Despite these difficulties and limitations, A-scan echoencephalography appears to have an important part to play as a simple, safe and quick form of neurological examination, if the technique can be made truly objective. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:5901162

  13. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations, will analyze the images and send a ... the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique ...

  14. Working Memory Updating Latency Reflects the Cost of Switching between Maintenance and Updating Modes of Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Updating and maintenance of information are 2 conflicting demands on working memory (WM). We examined the time required to update WM (updating latency) as a function of the sequence of updated and not-updated items within a list. Participants held a list of items in WM and updated a variable subset of them in each trial. Four experiments that vary…

  15. GABAB receptors modulate NMDA receptor calcium signals in dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Chalifoux, Jason R; Carter, Adam G

    2010-04-15

    Metabotropic GABA(B) receptors play a fundamental role in modulating the excitability of neurons and circuits throughout the brain. These receptors influence synaptic transmission by inhibiting presynaptic release or activating postsynaptic potassium channels. However, their ability to directly influence different types of postsynaptic glutamate receptors remains unresolved. Here we examine GABA(B) receptor modulation in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons from the mouse prefrontal cortex. We use two-photon laser-scanning microscopy to study synaptic modulation at individual dendritic spines. Using two-photon optical quantal analysis, we first demonstrate robust presynaptic modulation of multivesicular release at single synapses. Using two-photon glutamate uncaging, we then reveal that GABA(B) receptors strongly inhibit NMDA receptor calcium signals. This postsynaptic modulation occurs via the PKA pathway and does not affect synaptic currents mediated by AMPA or NMDA receptors. This form of GABA(B) receptor modulation has widespread implications for the control of calcium-dependent neuronal function.

  16. Quadrature wavelength scanning interferometry.

    PubMed

    Moschetti, Giuseppe; Forbes, Alistair; Leach, Richard K; Jiang, Xiang; O'Connor, Daniel

    2016-07-10

    A novel method to double the measurement range of wavelength scanning interferometery (WSI) is described. In WSI the measured optical path difference (OPD) is affected by a sign ambiguity, that is, from an interference signal it is not possible to distinguish whether the OPD is positive or negative. The sign ambiguity can be resolved by measuring an interference signal in quadrature. A method to obtain a quadrature interference signal for WSI is described, and a theoretical analysis of the advantages is reported. Simulations of the advantages of the technique and of signal errors due to nonideal quadrature are discussed. The analysis and simulation are supported by experimental measurements to show the improved performances. PMID:27409307

  17. Scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Shigeru; Bard, Allen J; Fan, Fu-Ren F; Mirkin, Michael V; Unwin, Patrick R

    2008-01-01

    This review describes work done in scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) since 2000 with an emphasis on new applications and important trends, such as nanometer-sized tips. SECM has been adapted to investigate charge transport across liquid/liquid interfaces and to probe charge transport in thin films and membranes. It has been used in biological systems like single cells to study ion transport in channels, as well as cellular and enzyme activity. It is also a powerful and useful tool for the evaluation of the electrocatalytic activities of different materials for useful reactions, such as oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation. SECM has also been used as an electrochemical tool for studies of the local properties and reactivity of a wide variety of materials, including metals, insulators, and semiconductors. Finally, SECM has been combined with several other nonelectrochemical techniques, such as atomic force microscopy, to enhance and complement the information available from SECM alone.

  18. Scanning quantum decoherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Jared H.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2009-12-01

    The use of qubits as sensitive nanoscale magnetometers has been studied theoretically and recently demonstrated experimentally. In this paper we propose a new concept, in which a scanning two-state quantum system is used to probe a sample through the subtle effects of decoherence. Mapping both the Hamiltonian and decoherence properties of a qubit simultaneously provides a unique image of the magnetic (or electric) field properties at the nanoscale. The resulting images are sensitive to the temporal as well as spatial variation in the fields created by the sample. As examples we theoretically study two applications; one from condensed matter physics, the other biophysics. The individual components required to realize the simplest version of this device (characterization and measurement of qubits, nanoscale positioning) have already been demonstrated experimentally.

  19. A scanning cavity microscope.

    PubMed

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1 nm(2); we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  20. Memory Updating and Mental Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cheng-Ching; Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM) as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc) could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults. PMID:26869971

  1. Updates Technologies of Media Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Whether as status notifications in news feeds or interactive prompts in online video services, updates punctuate the background routines of media by bringing a variety of changes to the attention of users. In this dissertation I argue that updates rationalize media change by making previously obscure actions of users and movements of technologies…

  2. Memory Updating and Mental Arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Han, Cheng-Ching; Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM) as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc) could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults. PMID:26869971

  3. Metrological scanning probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhovets, N.; Hausotte, T.; Manske, E.; Jäger, G.; Hofmann, N.

    2006-04-01

    Today's technological progress calls for metrologically accurate object measurement, positioning and scanning with nanometre precision and over large measuring ranges. In order to meet that requirement a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPM machine) was developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the Technische Universitaet Ilmenau. This device is capable of highly exact long-range positioning and measurement of objects with a resolution of less than 0.1 nm. Due to the structure of the machine many different probe systems can be installed, including scanning probe microscopes (SPMs). A few SPMs have outstanding metrological characteristics and many commercial microscopes only perform as image acquisition tools. Commercial SPMs use piezoelectric actuators in order to move either the sample or the probe. The position measurement sometimes results from the applied voltage to the piezoelectric actuators or from the strain gauge or capacitive displacement sensor data. This means that they suffer from hysteresis, creep, nonlinear characteristics and Abbe offsets. For an accurate measurement the position of the cantilever must be measured in addition to the torsion and bending. The best solution is a combined detection system with a single laser beam. This system has been realized with a special interferometer system, in which the measuring beam is focused on the cantilever backside using a lens. The reflected beam is split with a part being detected by a quadrant photo-diode and the other part being fed back into the interferometer for position measurement. The quadrant photo-diode is used to detect the cantilever torsion and bending.

  4. Rapid scanning mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Leckey, J.H.; Boeckmann, M.D.

    1996-11-25

    Mass spectrometers and residual gas analyzers (RGA) are used in a variety of applications for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile materials. Analysis is performed by detecting fragments of gas molecules, based on their mass to charge ratio, which are generated in the mass spectrometer. When used as a detector for a gas chromatograph, they function as a means to quantitatively identify isolated volatile species which have been separated from other species via the gas chromatograph. Vacuum Technology, Inc., (VTI) produces a magnetic sector mass spectrometer/RGA which is used in many industrial and laboratory environments. In order to increase the utility of this instrument, it is desirable to increase the mass scanning speed, thereby increasing the number of applications for which it is suited. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will replace. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AEROVAC mass spectrometer. (3) The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

  5. Scan mirrors relay for high resolution laser scanning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David

    2014-09-01

    Two dimensional beam deflection is often required in medical laser scanning systems such as OCT or confocal microscopy. Commonly two linear galvo mirrors are used for performance in terms of their large apertures and scan angles. The galvo mirrors are placed at the vicinity of entrance pupil of the scan lens with a "displacement distance" separating them. This distance limits the scan fields and/or reduces the effective aperture of the scan lens. Another option is to use a beam or pupil relay, and image one galvo mirror onto the other. However, beam (or pupil) relays are notoriously complicated, expensive and can add significant aberrations. This paper discusses a simple, all reflective, diffraction limited, color corrected, beam relay, capable of large scan angles and large deflecting mirrors. The design is based on a unique combination of an Offner configuration with a Schmidt aspheric corrector. The design is highly corrected up to large scan mirrors and large scan angles down to milliwaves of aberrations. It allows significantly larger scan field and or scan lenses with higher numerical aperture as compared with scanners using galvos separated by the displacement distance. While this relay is of exceptionally high performance, it has one element located where the beam is focused which may present a problem for high power lasers. Thus modifications of the above design are introduced where the beam is focused in mid air thus making it usable for high power systems such including laser marking and fabrication systems.

  6. Perinatal neuroprotection update

    PubMed Central

    Jelin, Angie C.; Salmeen, Kirsten; Gano, Dawn; Burd, Irina; Thiet, Mari-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Antepartum, intrapartum, and neonatal events can result in a spectrum of long-term neurological sequelae, including cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders [1]. Advances in obstetrical and neonatal care have led to survival at earlier gestational ages and consequently increasing numbers of periviable infants who are at significant risk for long-term neurological deficits. Therefore, efforts to decrease and prevent cerebral insults attempt not only to decrease preterm delivery but also to improve neurological outcomes in infants delivered preterm. We recently published a comprehensive review addressing the impacts of magnesium sulfate, therapeutic hypothermia, delayed cord clamping, infections, and prevention of preterm delivery on the modification of neurological risk [2]. In this review, we will briefly provide updates to the aforementioned topics as well as an expansion on avoidance of toxin and infections, specifically the Zika virus. PMID:27606053

  7. ILRS Website Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Torrence, Mark H.; Pollack, Nathan H.; Tyahla, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    The ILRS website, http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov, is the central source of information for all aspects of the service. The website provides information on the organization and operation of the ILRS and descriptions of ILRS components data, and products. Furthermore, the website provides an entry point to the archive of these data products available through the data centers. Links are provided to extensive information on the ILRS network stations including performance assesments and data quality evaluations. Descriptions of suported satellite missions (current, future, and past) are provided to aid in station acquisition and data analysis. The website was reently redesigned. Content was reviewed during the update process, ensuring information is current and useful. This poster will provide specific examples of key sections, applicaitons, and webpages.

  8. Updating the Read Codes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David; Comp, Dip; Schulz, Erich; Brown, Philip; Price, Colin

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The Read Codes are a hierarchically-arranged controlled clinical vocabulary introduced in the early 1980s and now consisting of three maintained versions of differing complexity. The code sets are dynamic, and are updated quarterly in response to requests from users including clinicians in both primary and secondary care, software suppliers, and advice from a network of specialist healthcare professionals. The codes' continual evolution of content, both across and within versions, highlights tensions between different users and uses of coded clinical data. Internal processes, external interactions and new structural features implemented by the NHS Centre for Coding and Classification (NHSCCC) for user interactive maintenance of the Read Codes are described, and over 2000 items of user feedback episodes received over a 15-month period are analysed. PMID:9391934

  9. Macrofouling control technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L.; Armor, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    Macrofouling of condenser systems with debris, fish, clams, barnacles, mussels, algae, and other marine organisms can significantly affect power plant availability and performance. Typical difficulties include increased condenser back pressure due to reduced cooling-water flow, malfunctioning of on-line tube-cleaning equipment, and accelerated corrosion and erosion of tubing. In some severe cases, condenser back pressure increased to a point that the turbine had to be tripped. In 1981 EPRI initiated a research project to develop utility industry guidelines for reducing macrofouling problems. In 1987 EPRI published the Guidelines on Macrofouling Control Technology. Since then significant progress has been made by EPRI, utility members, equipment manufacturers, and others. The purpose of this paper is to update the macrofouling control technology. Control technology covered will include thermal treatment, mechanical removal devices, antifouling coatings, and chemical treatment.

  10. Perinatal neuroprotection update

    PubMed Central

    Jelin, Angie C.; Salmeen, Kirsten; Gano, Dawn; Burd, Irina; Thiet, Mari-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Antepartum, intrapartum, and neonatal events can result in a spectrum of long-term neurological sequelae, including cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders [1]. Advances in obstetrical and neonatal care have led to survival at earlier gestational ages and consequently increasing numbers of periviable infants who are at significant risk for long-term neurological deficits. Therefore, efforts to decrease and prevent cerebral insults attempt not only to decrease preterm delivery but also to improve neurological outcomes in infants delivered preterm. We recently published a comprehensive review addressing the impacts of magnesium sulfate, therapeutic hypothermia, delayed cord clamping, infections, and prevention of preterm delivery on the modification of neurological risk [2]. In this review, we will briefly provide updates to the aforementioned topics as well as an expansion on avoidance of toxin and infections, specifically the Zika virus.

  11. Perinatal neuroprotection update.

    PubMed

    Jelin, Angie C; Salmeen, Kirsten; Gano, Dawn; Burd, Irina; Thiet, Mari-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Antepartum, intrapartum, and neonatal events can result in a spectrum of long-term neurological sequelae, including cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders [1]. Advances in obstetrical and neonatal care have led to survival at earlier gestational ages and consequently increasing numbers of periviable infants who are at significant risk for long-term neurological deficits. Therefore, efforts to decrease and prevent cerebral insults attempt not only to decrease preterm delivery but also to improve neurological outcomes in infants delivered preterm. We recently published a comprehensive review addressing the impacts of magnesium sulfate, therapeutic hypothermia, delayed cord clamping, infections, and prevention of preterm delivery on the modification of neurological risk [2]. In this review, we will briefly provide updates to the aforementioned topics as well as an expansion on avoidance of toxin and infections, specifically the Zika virus. PMID:27606053

  12. Neurocritical care update.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring is an essential tool for detecting nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neurocritical care, including advanced hemodynamic monitoring, is a fundamental approach for delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We must be mindful of the high percentage of ICU patients who may develop sepsis-associated brain dysfunction. PMID:27239312

  13. Dengue: an update.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, María G; Kourí, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    This review is an update of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) based on international and Cuban experience. We describe the virus characteristics and risk factors for dengue and DHF, and compare incidence and the case fatality rates in endemic regions (southeast Asia, western Pacific, and the Americas). The clinical picture and the pathogenesis of the severe disease are explained. We also discuss the viral, individual, and environmental factors that determine severe disease. Much more research is necessary to clarify these mechanisms. Also reviewed are methods for viral isolation and the serological, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods applied in the diagnosis of the disease. We describe the status of vaccine development and emphasise that the only alternative that we have today to control the disease is through control of its vector Aedes aegypti.

  14. [Coronary intervention. 2012 update].

    PubMed

    Rittger, H; Arnold, M; Schmid, M; Zimmermann, S; Daniel, W G

    2012-03-01

    In-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis are still the main topics of any update on coronary intervention. One of the challenging issues in the past year lay in answering the question of whether the data on first-generation drug-eluting stents are still relevant in the light of newer stent designs and drugs. Other issues include new strategies in antiplatelet therapy, treatment of in-stent restenosis, particularly drug-eluting stent restenosis, treatment of multivessel and left-main disease, as well as the latest developments in bioresorbable polymers and "scaffolds". In the light of demographic changes, the main challenge for the interventional community is to build an evidence base for the adequate treatment of elderly patients in order to resolve uncertainties in the treatment of this challenging patient group. PMID:22382138

  15. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  16. Earth observing scanning polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Climate forcing by tropospheric aerosols is receiving increased attention because of the realization that the climate effects may be large, while our knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and temporal changes is very poor. Tropospheric aerosols cause a direct radiative forcing due simply to their scattering and absorption of solar radiation, as well as an indirect effect as cloud condensation nuclei which can modify the shortwave reflectivity of clouds. Sulfate aerosols tend to increase planetary albedo through both the direct and indirect effects; a cooling due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols has been estimated of order 1 W/sq m, noting that this is similar in magnitude to the present anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming. Other aerosols, including those from biomass burning and wind-blown desert dust are also of potential climatic importance. At present, the only global monitoring of tropospheric aerosols is a NOAA operational product, aerosol optical thickness, obtained using channel-1 (0.58-0.68 mu m) radiances from the AVHRR. With this single channel radiance data, one must use an approach which is based on the inferred excess of reflected radiance owing to scattering by the aerosols over that expected from theoretical calculations. This approach is suited only for situations where the surface has a low albedo that is well known a priori. Thus, the NOAA operational product is restricted to coverage over the ocean at AVHRR scan angles well away from sun glint, and aerosol changes are subject to confusion with changes caused by either optically thin or subpixel clouds. Because optically thin aerosols have only a small effect on the radiance, accurate measurements for optical thickness less than 0.1 (which is a typical background level) are precluded. Moreover, some of the largest and most important aerosol changes are expected over land. The Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument, based upon design heritage and analysis techniques

  17. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Nels W.

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  18. GPR scan assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Abbas M.; Salah, Hany; Massoud, Usama; Fouad, Mona; Abdel-Hafez, Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD). The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m) with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  19. Laser Scanning Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Pozarowski, Piotr; Holden, Elena; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Summary The laser scanning cytometer (LSC) is the microscope-based cytofluorometer that offers a plethora of analytical capabilities. Multilaser-excited fluorescence emitted from individual cells is measured at several wavelength ranges, rapidly (up to 5000 cells/min), with high sensitivity and accuracy. The following applications of LSC are reviewed: (1) identification of cells that differ in degree of chromatin condensation (e.g., mitotic or apoptotic cells or lymphocytes vs granulocytes vs monocytes); (2) detection of translocation between cytoplasm vs nucleus or nucleoplasm vs nucleolus of regulatory molecules such as NF- κB, p53, or Bax; (3) semiautomatic scoring of micronuclei in mutagenicity assays; (4) analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization; (5) enumeration and morphometry of nucleoli; (6) analysis of phenotype of progeny of individual cells in clonogenicity assay; (7) cell immunophenotyping; (8) visual examination, imaging, or sequential analysis of the cells measured earlier upon their relocation, using different probes; (9) in situ enzyme kinetics and other time-resolved processes; (10) analysis of tissue section architecture; (11) application for hypocellular samples (needle aspirate, spinal fluid, etc.); (12) other clinical applications. Advantages and limitations of LSC are discussed and compared with flow cytometry. PMID:16719355

  20. ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon Launch Update

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office commentator Pat Ryan talks with Mike Horkachuck, NASA Project Executive for SpaceX, for an update on the SpaceX Dragon's next launch attempt scheduled for Tuesday at 3:44...

  1. Radioisotope scanning in osseous sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-labeled pyrophosphate or diphosphonate compounds and gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) are two radionuclide scanning agents that are in widespread use in clinical practice. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate is used extensively for bone scanning to detect metastatic bone disease, benign bone tumors, osteomyelitis, benign hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, and Paget's disease. Only two reports describe abnormal /sup 99m/Tc/ pyrophosphate bone scans in four patients with osseous sarcoidosis. Gallium-67 scans are used primarily to localize neoplastic or inflammatory lesions anywhere in the body. In recent years /sup 67/Ga scans have also been used to detect the presence of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, but there are no reports describing abnormal uptake of gallium in patients with osseous sarcoidosis. This report describes experience with radioisotope scanning in two patients with osseous sarcoidosis.

  2. Stochastic scanning multiphoton multifocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jureller, Justin E; Kim, Hee Y; Scherer, Norbert F

    2006-04-17

    Multiparticle tracking with scanning confocal and multiphoton fluorescence imaging is increasingly important for elucidating biological function, as in the transport of intracellular cargo-carrying vesicles. We demonstrate a simple rapid-sampling stochastic scanning multifocal multiphoton microscopy (SS-MMM) fluorescence imaging technique that enables multiparticle tracking without specialized hardware at rates 1,000 times greater than conventional single point raster scanning. Stochastic scanning of a diffractive optic generated 10x10 hexagonal array of foci with a white noise driven galvanometer yields a scan pattern that is random yet space-filling. SS-MMM creates a more uniformly sampled image with fewer spatio-temporal artifacts than obtained by conventional or multibeam raster scanning. SS-MMM is verified by simulation and experimentally demonstrated by tracking microsphere diffusion in solution. PMID:19516485

  3. Update on clinically isolated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thouvenot, Éric

    2015-04-01

    Optic neuritis, myelitis and brainstem syndrome accompanied by a symptomatic MRI T2 or FLAIR hyperintensity and T1 hypointensity are highly suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) in young adults. They are called "clinically isolated syndrome" (CIS) and correspond to the typical first multiple sclerosis (MS) episode, especially when associated with other asymptomatic demyelinating lesions, without clinical, radiological and immunological sign of differential diagnosis. After a CIS, the delay of apparition of a relapse, which corresponds to the conversion to clinically definite MS (CDMS), varies from several months to more than 10 years (10-15% of cases, generally called benign RRMS). This delay is generally associated with the number and location of demyelinating lesions of the brain and spinal cord and the results of CSF analysis. Several studies comparing different MRI criteria for dissemination in space and dissemination in time of demyelinating lesions, two hallmarks of MS, provided enough substantial data to update diagnostic criteria for MS after a CIS. In the last revision of the McDonald's criteria in 2010, diagnostic criteria were simplified and now the diagnosis can be made by a single initial scan that proves the presence of active asymptomatic lesions (with gadolinium enhancement) and of unenhanced lesions. However, time to conversion remains highly unpredictable for a given patient and CIS can remain isolated, especially for idiopathic unilateral optic neuritis or myelitis. Univariate analyses of clinical, radiological, biological or electrophysiological characteristics of CIS patients in small series identified numerous risk factors of rapid conversion to MS. However, large series of CIS patients analyzing several characteristics of CIS patients and the influence of disease modifying therapies brought important information about the risk of CDMS or RRMS over up to 20 years of follow-up. They confirmed the importance of the initial MRI pattern of

  4. The bone scan.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Arnold I; Koshy, June; Morey, Jose; Lin, Cheryl; DiPoce, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Bone imaging continues to be the second greatest-volume nuclear imaging procedure, offering the advantage of total body examination, low cost, and high sensitivity. Its power rests in the physiological uptake and pathophysiologic behavior of 99m technetium (99m-Tc) diphosphonates. The diagnostic utility, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of 99m-Tc bone imaging for benign conditions and tumors was established when only planar imaging was available. Currently, nearly all bone scans are performed as a planar study (whole-body, 3-phase, or regional), with the radiologist often adding single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Here we review many current indications for planar bone imaging, highlighting indications in which the planar data are often diagnostically sufficient, although diagnosis may be enhanced by SPECT. (18)F sodium fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) is also re-emerging as a bone agent, and had been considered interchangeable with 99m-Tc diphosphonates in the past. In addition to SPECT, new imaging modalities, including (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose, PET/CT, CT, magnetic resonance, and SPECT/CT, have been developed and can aid in evaluating benign and malignant bone disease. Because (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose is taken up by tumor cells and Tc diphosphonates are taken up in osteoblastic activity or osteoblastic healing reaction, both modalities are complementary. CT and magnetic resonance may supplement, but do not replace, bone imaging, which often detects pathology before anatomic changes are appreciated. We also stress the importance of dose reduction by reducing the dose of 99m-Tc diphosphonates and avoiding unnecessary CT acquisitions. In addition, we describe an approach to image interpretation that emphasizes communication with referring colleagues and correlation with appropriate history to significantly improve our impact on patient care.

  5. Updated Integrated Mission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, Vincent A., Sr.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated Mission Program (IMP) is a computer program for simulating spacecraft missions around the Earth, Moon, Mars, and/or other large bodies. IMP solves the differential equations of motion by use of a Runge-Kutta numerical-integration algorithm. Users control missions through selection from a large menu of events and maneuvers. Mission profiles, time lines, propellant requirements, feasibility analyses, and perturbation analyses can be computed quickly and accurately. A prior version of IMP, written in FORTRAN 77, was reported in Program Simulates Spacecraft Missions (MFS-28606), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 17, No. 4 (April 1993), page 60. The present version, written in double-precision Lahey FORTRAN 90, incorporates a number of improvements over the prior version. Some of the improvements modernize the code to take advantage of today's greater central-processing-unit speeds. Other improvements render the code more modular; provide additional input, output, and debugging capabilities; and add to the variety of maneuvers, events, and means of propulsion that can be simulated. The IMP user manuals (of which there are now ten, each addressing a different aspect of the code and its use) have been updated accordingly.

  6. Advanced Stirling Convertor Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Matejczyk, Dan; Penswick, L. B.; Soendker, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the 88 We Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) currently being developed under Phase II of a NASA NRA program for possible use in advanced high specific power radioisotope space power systems. An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) which was built and tested in Phase I demonstrated 36% efficiency. The ASC-1 currently being developed under Phase II, uses a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C and is expected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (based on AC electrical out) at a temperature ratio of 3.1. The final lightweight ASC-2 convertor to be developed in Phase III is expected to have a mass of approximately 1 kg. The implementation of the ASC would allow for much higher specific power radioisotope power systems, requiring significantly less radioisotope fuel than current systems. The first run of the ASC-1 occurred in September 2005, and full temperature operation was achieved in early October 2005. Presented is an update on progress on the ASC program as well as the plans for future development. Also presented are efforts being performed to ensure the ASC has the required long life already demonstrated in free-piston Stirling cryocoolers.

  7. Update on PISCES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Don; Hamm, Dustin; Kubena, Brian; Weaver, Jonathan K.

    2010-01-01

    An updated version of the Platform Independent Software Components for the Exploration of Space (PISCES) software library is available. A previous version was reported in Library for Developing Spacecraft-Mission-Planning Software (MSC-22983), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 7 (July 2001), page 52. To recapitulate: This software provides for Web-based, collaborative development of computer programs for planning trajectories and trajectory- related aspects of spacecraft-mission design. The library was built using state-of-the-art object-oriented concepts and software-development methodologies. The components of PISCES include Java-language application programs arranged in a hierarchy of classes that facilitates the reuse of the components. As its full name suggests, the PISCES library affords platform-independence: The Java language makes it possible to use the classes and application programs with a Java virtual machine, which is available in most Web-browser programs. Another advantage is expandability: Object orientation facilitates expansion of the library through creation of a new class. Improvements in the library since the previous version include development of orbital-maneuver- planning and rendezvous-launch-window application programs, enhancement of capabilities for propagation of orbits, and development of a desktop user interface.

  8. [Emergency departments--2016 update].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M; Brokmann, J C; Gräff, I; Kumle, B; Wilke, P; Gries, A

    2016-04-01

    Acute medical care in hospital emergency departments has experienced rapid development in recent years and gained increasing importance not only from a professional medical point of view but also from an economic and health policy perspective. The present article therefore provides an update on the situation of emergency departments in Germany. Care in emergency departments is provided with an increasing tendency to patients of all ages presenting with varying primary symptoms, complaints, illnesses and injury patterns. In the process, patients reach the emergency department by various routes and structural provision. Cross-sectional communication and cooperation, prioritization and organization of emergency management and especially medical staff qualifications increasingly play a decisive role in this process. The range of necessary knowledge and skills far exceeds the scope of prehospital medical emergency care and the working environment differs substantially. In addition to existing structural and economic problems, the latest developments, as well as future proposals for the design of in-hospital emergency medical care in interdisciplinary emergency departments are described.

  9. Dali server update

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Liisa; Laakso, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    The Dali server (http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/dali) is a network service for comparing protein structures in 3D. In favourable cases, comparing 3D structures may reveal biologically interesting similarities that are not detectable by comparing sequences. The Dali server has been running in various places for over 20 years and is used routinely by crystallographers on newly solved structures. The latest update of the server provides enhanced analytics for the study of sequence and structure conservation. The server performs three types of structure comparisons: (i) Protein Data Bank (PDB) search compares one query structure against those in the PDB and returns a list of similar structures; (ii) pairwise comparison compares one query structure against a list of structures specified by the user; and (iii) all against all structure comparison returns a structural similarity matrix, a dendrogram and a multidimensional scaling projection of a set of structures specified by the user. Structural superimpositions are visualized using the Java-free WebGL viewer PV. The structural alignment view is enhanced by sequence similarity searches against Uniprot. The combined structure-sequence alignment information is compressed to a stack of aligned sequence logos. In the stack, each structure is structurally aligned to the query protein and represented by a sequence logo. PMID:27131377

  10. Dali server update.

    PubMed

    Holm, Liisa; Laakso, Laura M

    2016-07-01

    The Dali server (http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/dali) is a network service for comparing protein structures in 3D. In favourable cases, comparing 3D structures may reveal biologically interesting similarities that are not detectable by comparing sequences. The Dali server has been running in various places for over 20 years and is used routinely by crystallographers on newly solved structures. The latest update of the server provides enhanced analytics for the study of sequence and structure conservation. The server performs three types of structure comparisons: (i) Protein Data Bank (PDB) search compares one query structure against those in the PDB and returns a list of similar structures; (ii) pairwise comparison compares one query structure against a list of structures specified by the user; and (iii) all against all structure comparison returns a structural similarity matrix, a dendrogram and a multidimensional scaling projection of a set of structures specified by the user. Structural superimpositions are visualized using the Java-free WebGL viewer PV. The structural alignment view is enhanced by sequence similarity searches against Uniprot. The combined structure-sequence alignment information is compressed to a stack of aligned sequence logos. In the stack, each structure is structurally aligned to the query protein and represented by a sequence logo.

  11. Atypical parkinsonism: an update

    PubMed Central

    Stamelou, Maria; Hoeglinger, Guenter U.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This update discusses novel aspects on genetics, diagnosis, and treatments of atypical parkinsonism published over the past 2 years. Recent findings A genome-wide association study identified new genetic risk factors for progressive supranuclear palsy and new genetic conditions presenting with atypical parkinsonism have been described. The clinical criteria for diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration have been revised, and for progressive supranuclear palsy are under revision. Novel molecular techniques to identify possible biomarkers, as in other neurodegenerative disorders, have started being studied on atypical parkinsonian conditions, and although preliminary results seem promising, further studies are urgently warranted. Therapeutic trials based on disease-specific targets have shown no clinical improvement. Summary The knowledge obtained recently on atypical parkinsonian conditions points out the major deficits in this field. With the expanding phenotypical spectrum of atypical parkinsonian conditions, the early identification of patients has become difficult. The inability of conventional methods to identify these disorders earlier and better than clinicians, and the recent failure of promising therapeutic compounds, highlight the fact that the lack of biomarkers is probably the greatest limitation for developing treatments for these disorders. Thus, current and future research in this direction will be crucial. PMID:23812308

  12. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: update 2012].

    PubMed

    Jo, Yunju

    2012-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) with adults, as a new disease emerging during the last decade, is a clinicopathologic disorder of the esophagus characterized by a dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration and typical esophageal symptoms. As numerous studies about EoE had been reported during last several years, updated consensus of EoE was reported in July 2011. The conceptual definition of EoE is coming. EoE is defined as a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominat inflammation. Other important addition is genotyping feature that implicates thymic stromal lymphopoietin genes or filagrrin as EoE susceptibility genes. The majority of patients has the concurrent allergic disease, especially food or aeroallergen sensitization. Main therapeutic options include topical steroids and dietary modification. Recent issues of EoE include a new concept for proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia that it should be excluded to diagnose EoE.

  13. Respiratory Conditions Update: Asthma.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Timothy A

    2016-09-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation and variable expiratory airflow limitation. Related clinical features include wheezing, dyspnea, chest tightness, and cough that worsens at night or in the early morning, and that varies over time and in intensity. A finding of variable expiratory airflow limitation on spirometry confirms the diagnosis. A forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity ratio less than the level predicted for the patient's age is suggestive of airflow limitation. Variability also must be confirmed. Updated guidelines recommend control-based management administered in a stepwise manner, with goals of achieving symptom control and minimizing the risks of exacerbations, future fixed airway limitation, and adverse effects of therapy. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of asthma education and self-management plans. Short-acting bronchodilators should be used as needed for symptom relief, with the addition of an inhaled corticosteroid early as maintenance therapy if symptoms are not well controlled. If asthma remains uncontrolled despite therapy, patients should be referred for more specialized treatment. Biomarkers, biologic drugs, and endoscopic treatments are being studied in the management of severe asthma, and ongoing research may determine which patients might benefit most from these emerging therapies. PMID:27576231

  14. The X-33 Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Charlie

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the X-33 program update, including details on program objectives and plans, the X-33 configuration, technologies used, and X-33 assembly and test status.

  15. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  16. ISS Update: Transit of Venus

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Brandi Dean interviews Mario Runco, NASA astronaut, about Venus's transit across the sun on June 5, 2012. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #...

  17. Email Updates: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/listserv.html Email Updates To use the sharing features on this ... view your email history or unsubscribe. Prevent MedlinePlus emails from being marked as "spam" or "junk" To ...

  18. Updated Principle of Corresponding States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Amotz, Dor; Gift, Alan D.; Levine, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    The rule of corresponding states, which shows the connection between the thermodynamic properties of various liquids is re-examined. The overall likeness is observed by using an updated scaling technique of Lennard-Jones corresponding states (LJ-CS).

  19. Incorporation of surface-based deformations for updating images intraoperatively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miga, Michael I.; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Galloway, Robert L., Jr.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2001-05-01

    Patient-to-image misalignment becomes exacerbated by common surgical events such as brain sag, drug interactions, retraction, and resection. One strategy to remedy this mis- registration is to employ computational models in conjunction with low-cost intraoperatively-acquired data (e.g. surface tracking, and co-registered ultrasound) to deform preoperative imaging data to account for OR actions. In this paper, we present preliminary data from a cortical surface scanning system and study the impact of surface- based information on model-updates. Preliminary data is presented using a 3D laser scanning technology in conjunction with an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm to register and track phantom and ex vivo data. Simulations are presented to analyze the direct use of displacement data versus modeling the underlying physical load in a clinical example of gravity-induced deformation. Results demonstrate dramatic differences in subsurface deformation fields highlighting that the nature of the surgical load (i.e. surface or body force) must be thoughtfully discriminated to accurately update images. Furthermore, the results suggest that the application of surface displacements to update image volumes must be consistent with the physical origin of deformation rather than applied in a direct interpolative sense.

  20. Somatostatin receptors.

    PubMed

    Srikant, C B; Patel, Y C

    1985-01-01

    It is now well established that the biological actions of tetradecapeptide somatostatin (somatostatin-14, S-14) are receptor-mediated. These receptors were first quantified in GH4C pituitary tumor cells using [125I-Tyr1] S-14 as radioligand which was found to exhibit high non-specific binding to membrane receptor preparations from normal tissues. Our studies have shown that [125I-Tyr11] S-14 in which the radiolabel is situated away from the N-terminus exhibits significantly lower non-specific binding and therefore is more suitable for S-14 receptor studies. In the CNS, highest concentration of S-14 receptors was found in the cerebral cortex, followed by thalamus, hypothalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus while medulla-pons, cerebellum and spinal cord exhibited negligible binding. Outside the CNS membrane receptors for S-14 have been characterized in pituitary, adrenal cortex and pancreatic acini. In all these tissues a single class of high affinity binding sites for S-14 were present, the receptors in pancreatic acinar cells exhibiting significantly greater affinity for binding S-14 than in other tissues.

  1. Nuclear Medicine Scans for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the possible complications? For the most part, nuclear scans are safe tests. The doses of radiation are very small, and the radionuclides have a ... else should I know about these tests? The radiation exposure from a nuclear scan comes from the radionuclides used – the scanner ...

  2. CREME96 Update/Replacement Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Jim H.

    2007-01-01

    This talk concerns the plans to update the CREME96 model that is currently available on the WWW. The talk states the reasons for updating C REME. It describes the updates that are planned, including the single event prediction paradigm, the method of radiation transport through the spacecraft to the electronic component of interest and the planned updates to models for the space radiation environment. It also revi ews user suggestions received do date for the update.

  3. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  4. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K. PMID:25173276

  5. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  6. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  7. Somatostatin receptors.

    PubMed

    Patel, Y C; Srikant, C B

    1997-12-01

    The diverse biological effects of somatostatin (SRIF) are mediated by a family of G protein-coupled receptors (termed sst) that are encoded by five nonallelic genes located on separate chromosomes. The receptors can be further divided into two subfamilies: sst(2,3,5) react with octapeptide and hexapeptide SRIF analogues and belong to one subclass; sst(1,4) react poorly with these compounds and fall into another subclass. This review focuses on the molecular pharmacology and function of these receptors, with particular emphasis on the ligand-binding domain, subtype-selective analogues, agonist-dependent receptor regulation and desensitization responses, subtype-specific effector coupling, and signal transduction pathways responsible for inhibiting cell secretion and cell growth or induction of apoptosis.

  8. Lipoxin receptors.

    PubMed

    Romano, Mario; Recchia, Irene; Recchiuti, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Lipoxins (LXs) represent a class of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites that carry potent immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, LXA4 and LXB4 being the main components of this series. LXs are generated by cooperation between 5-lipoxygenase (LO) and 12- or 15-LO during cell-cell interactions or by single cell types. LX epimers at carbon 15, the 15-epi-LXs, are formed by aspirin-acetylated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in cooperation with 5-LO. 15-epi-LXA4 is also termed aspirin-triggered LX (ATL). In vivo studies with stable LX and ATL analogs have established that these eicosanoids possess potent anti-inflammatory activities. A LXA4 receptor has been cloned. It belongs to the family of chemotactic receptors and clusters with formyl peptide receptors on chromosome 19. Therefore, it was initially denominated formyl peptide receptor like 1 (FPRL1). This receptor binds with high affinity and stereoselectivity LXA4 and ATL. It also recognizes a variety of peptides, synthetic, endogenously generated, or disease associated, but with lower affinity compared to LXA4. For this reason, this receptor has been renamed ALX. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ALX expression, signaling, and potential pathophysiological role. The involvement of additional recognition sites in LX bioactions is also discussed. PMID:17767357

  9. Revision and update of the EGIB land-use database using the airborne laser scanning point cloud - the case study of Tuklecz village in 'wietokrzyskie voivodeship. (Polish Title: Weryfikacja i aktualizacja bazy klaso-użytków EGIB w oparciu o analizy chmury punktów z lotniczego skanowania laserowego na przykładzie wsi Tuklęcz w województwie świętokrzyskim)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wężyk, P.; Gęca, T.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic economic and social changes taking place for the past 20 years in Poland, effects often of such loss of extensive agriculture and abandonment of agricultural activities particularly on small and narrow plots , usually on the soils of poor grading. Even before the Polish accession to the EU, set - aside and fallow areas cover approx. 2.3 million ha (in 2002), but in subsequent years the area drastically decreased from 1.3 million ha (in 2004) , by 1.0 million ha ( 2 005 ) to 0.4 million hectares (2011). As a result of cessation of mowing meadows, grazing pastures and agricultural measures , we can observed the phenomenon of secondary forest succession ( plant communities of a forest properties ) leading to changes in land use and land cover classes structure . Recording changes in the agro - forestry space, update reference registers of the land and building (EGiB) and control granted to farmers subsidies ( direct EU payments) requires an efficient and automated technology acquisition, processing and analysis of spatial data. In addition to the used by ARiMR (in the LPIS system) vector data and aerial orthophotomaps , there is still a need to strengthen the decision - making process such as update of current ranges of land - use cla sses. One of the GI technologies that could be a real breakthrough is the Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) . The study area cover 137.17 ha in the village Tuklęcz (commune Rytwiany, Staszów County , ?więtokrzyskie Voivodeship ). The EGiB geo data came from PODGiK in Staszów. They were two ALS point cloud data sets: one provided by the RZGW in Krakow (from airborne campaign Nov. 2009; density ~ 2 pts / m2) and the second from ISOK project (Nov. 2012; density ~ 4 pts / m2 ). The Terrasolid and FUSION (USDA Forest Service) and ArcGIS Esri software were used in the study . Detection of vegetation was carried out in 4 variants differ in the "height above ground" of the class "succession" (thresholds: from 0.4m , 1m, 2m and 3m ). The

  10. SPECIAL TOPIC: ITER H mode confinement database update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, K.; Campbell, D. J.; Cordey, J. G.; Kardaun, O. J. W. F.; Ryter, F.; Stroth, U.; Kus, A.; DeBoo, J. C.; Schissel, D. P.; Miura, Y.; Suzuki, N.; Mori, M.; Matsuda, T.; Tamai, H.; Takizuka, T.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.; Kaye, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an update of the H mode confinement database that has been assembled for the ITER project. Data were collected from six machines of different sizes and shapes: ASDEX, DIII-D, JET, JFT-2M, PBX-M and PDX. The updated database contains better estimates of fast ion energy content and thermal energy confinement times, discharges with RF heating, data using boronization, beryllium and pellets, more systematic parameter scans, and other features. The list of variables in the database has been expanded, and the selection criteria for the standard dataset have been modified. We also present simple scalings of the total and thermal energy confinement time to the new dataset

  11. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Krempasky, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-23

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a 'master' controlling the undulator 'slave' energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  12. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  13. Updated Electronic Testbed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Kevin L.

    2001-01-01

    updated Electronic Testbed System.

  14. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Brown, G.

    2015-10-01

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation when arc scans are used for wind resource assessment.

  15. Parasomnias: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Parasomnias are abnormal behaviors emanating from or associated with sleep. Sleepwalking and related disorders result from an incomplete dissociation of wakefulness from nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Conditions that provoke repeated cortical arousals, or promote sleep inertia lead to NREM parasomnias by impairing normal arousal mechanisms. Changes in the cyclic alternating pattern, a biomarker of arousal instability in NREM sleep, are noted in sleepwalking disorders. Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by a disruption of the nocturnal fast with episodes of feeding after an arousal from sleep. SRED is often associated with the use of sedative-hypnotic medications; in particular, the widely prescribed benzodiazepine receptor agonists. Recently, compelling evidence suggests that nocturnal eating may in some cases be a nonmotor manifestation of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). rapid eye movement (REM) Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is characterized by a loss of REM paralysis leading to potentially injurious dream enactment. The loss of atonia in RBD often predates the development of Parkinson's disease and other disorders of synuclein pathology. Parasomnia behaviors are related to an activation (in NREM parasomnias) or a disinhibition (in RBD) of central pattern generators (CPGs). Initial management should focus on decreasing the potential for sleep-related injury followed by treating comorbid sleep disorders. Clonazepam and melatonin appear to be effective therapies in RBD, whereas paroxetine has been reported effective in some cases of sleep terrors. At this point, pharmacotherapy for other parasomnias is less certain, and further investigations are necessary. PMID:22965264

  16. Experimental tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovland, H.

    2014-06-01

    The tomographic scanner (TOSCA) detects signals using line detectors scanning a scene at regularly distributed angles. These line scan signals are then processed to reconstruct 2-dimensional images. In the simplest form, a 1-axis rotating conical scan optics scans across a simple patterned reticle, the signal collection being done with a single pixel detector. Experimental mono- and multispectral cameras using this approach are demonstrated under varying illumination conditions. Of particular interest is the TOSCA system's ability to handle and compensate for light sources modulated with a frequency higher than that of the frame rate. We also demonstrate for the first time a TOSCA imager operating in the infrared region. The device is put together using 3D-printed key parts and low cost optical components, leading to a very economical infrared camera.

  17. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  18. Scans as primitive parallel operations

    SciTech Connect

    Blelloch, G.E. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1989-11-01

    In most parallel random access machine (PRAM) models, memory references are assumed to take unit time. In practice, and in theory, certain scan operations, also known as prefix computations, can execute in no more time than these parallel memory references. This paper outlines an extensive study of the effect of including, in the PRAM models, such scan operations as unit-time primitives. The study concludes that the primitives improve the asymptotic running time of many algorithms by an O(log n) factor greatly simplify the description of many algorithms, and are significantly easier to implement than memory references. The authors argue that the algorithm designer should feel free to use these operations as if they were as cheap as a memory reference. This paper describes five algorithms that clearly illustrate how the scan primitives can be used in algorithm design. These all run on an EREW PRAM with the addition of two scan primitives.

  19. Eddy current scanning at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C.; Bauer, P.; Foley, M.; Brinkmann, A.; Ozelis, J.; /Jefferson Lab

    2005-07-01

    In the framework of SRF cavity development, Fermilab is creating the infrastructure needed for the characterization of the material used in the cavity fabrication. An important step in the characterization of ''as received'' niobium sheets is the eddy current scanning. Eddy current scanning is a non-destructive technique first adopted and further developed by DESY with the purpose of checking the cavity material for sub-surface defects and inclusions. Fermilab has received and further upgraded a commercial eddy current scanner previously used for the SNS project. The upgrading process included developing new filtering software. This scanner is now used daily to scan the niobium sheets for the Fermilab third harmonic and transverse deflecting cavities. This paper gives a status report on the scanning results obtained so far, including a discussion of the typology of signals being detected. We also report on the efforts to calibrate this scanner, a work conducted in collaboration with DESY.

  20. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  1. Update on local allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Oktemer, Tugba; Ipci, Kagan; Birdane, Leman; Aricigil, Mitat; Senturk, Mehmet; Bafaqeeh, Sameer Ali; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-08-01

    We here provide an update on the literature regarding local allergic rhinitis (LAR). In reviewing LAR, we have included an updated definition, classifications, mechanisms, comorbidities, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for LAR, as well as the defined research areas for future evidence-based studies. LAR is a localised nasal allergic response in the absence of systemic atopy characterised by local production of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies, a TH2 pattern of mucosal cell infiltration during natural exposure to aeroallergens, and a positive nasal allergen provocation test response, with the release of inflammatory mediators. The localised allergic response of LAR is an important topic for the study of allergies. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of LAR. PMID:27368453

  2. HITRAN2008 and Current Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, Laurence; Gordon, Iouli

    2010-05-01

    The current edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database1 appeared in 2008. In the intervening period to the present, there have been several important updates. The archived database, as described in the HITRAN paper, is available at a public ftp site, while critical updates are posted in the HITRAN website (www.cfa.harvard.edu/hitran/updates.html). An international committee meets at least once per year and discusses the many issues involved in improving the database. These issues encompass not only acquisition of new data (both experimental and theoretical), but validation, new directions, etc. In this presentation, we review highlight some of the successes of the current edition of HITRAN. We also discuss new directions. This effort has been supported by the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program, under the grant NAG5-13534.

  3. Hepatopulmonary syndrome: an update.

    PubMed

    Macêdo, Liana Gonçalves de; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida

    2009-07-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a clinical threesome composed of liver disease, intrapulmonary vascular dilatation (IPVD) and arterial gas abnormalities. Its occurrence has been described in up to 32% of cirrhotic candidates for liver transplantation. It also affects non-cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension. Its pathogenesis is not well defined, but an association of factors such as imbalance in the endothelin receptor response, pulmonary microvascular remodeling and genetic predisposition is thought to lead to IPVD. Diagnosis is based on imaging methods that identify these dilatations, such as contrast echocardiography or perfusion scintigraphy with 99mTc, as well as analysis of arterial gases to identify elevated alveolar-arterial differences in O2 or hypoxemia. There is no effective pharmacological treatment and complete resolution only occurs through liver transplantation. The importance of diagnosing HPS lies in prioritizing transplant candidates, since presence of HPS is associated with worse prognosis. The aim of this paper was to review the pathogenetic theories and current diagnostic criteria regarding HPS, and to critically analyze the prioritization of patients with HPS on the liver transplant waiting list. Searches were carried out in the Medline (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) via PubMed, Cochrane Library and Lilacs (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) databases for articles published between January 2002 and December 2007 involving adults and written either in English or in Portuguese, using the term hepatopulmonary syndrome. The studies of greatest relevance were included in the review, along with text books and articles cited in references that were obtained through the review.

  4. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings.

  5. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  6. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update].

    PubMed

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery.

  7. Calcium-sensing receptor 20 years later

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Tariq I.; Saleh, Ahmad M. A.; Houillier, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has played an important role as a target in the treatment of a variety of disease states over the past 20 plus years. In this review, we give an overview of the receptor at the cellular level and then provide details as to how this receptor has been targeted to modulate cellular ion transport mechanisms. As a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, it has a high degree of homology with a variety of other members in this class, which could explain why this receptor has been identified in so many different tissues throughout the body. This diversity of locations sets it apart from other members of the family and may explain how the receptor interacts with so many different organ systems in the body to modulate the physiology and pathophysiology. The receptor is unique in that it has two large exofacial lobes that sit in the extracellular environment and sense changes in a wide variety of environmental cues including salinity, pH, amino acid concentration, and polyamines to name just a few. It is for this reason that there has been a great deal of research associated with normal receptor physiology over the past 20 years. With the ongoing research, in more recent years a focus on the pathophysiology has emerged and the effects of receptor mutations on cellular and organ physiology have been identified. We hope that this review will enhance and update the knowledge about the importance of this receptor and stimulate future potential investigations focused around this receptor in cellular, organ, and systemic physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:24871857

  8. UPDATE: Applications of Research in Music Education. UPDATE Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Fall 2004 and Spring 2005 issues of "UPDATE: Applications of Research in Music Education," in one print volume, presents hard facts and statistical data in a style that can be easily understood and appreciated by music researchers, teachers, graduates, and undergraduates alike. Includes advice to first-year music teachers, instrument…

  9. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-01

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.

  10. A Machine-Portable CDC UPDATE Emulator.

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS,; HAILL, A.

    1987-09-01

    Version 01 UPEML is a machine-portable CDC UPDATE emulation program. It is capable of emulating a significant subset of the standard CDC UPDATE functions, including program library creation and subsequent modification.

  11. 75 FR 70124 - Product List Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... publication of the product lists in the Federal Register on August 31, 2010 (75 FR 53216), the following... Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are identified in the body...

  12. CDC Updates Zika Guidelines for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160052.html CDC Updates Zika Guidelines for Pregnant Women Any sex partner, male ... News) -- U.S. health officials on Monday updated their Zika virus guidelines, saying that pregnant women could contract ...

  13. Environmental Scanning and the Information Manager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, James; McInerney, Claire

    1990-01-01

    Discusses nine components of an environmental scanning model: selecting the scanning team; selecting resources to scan; choosing criteria for scanning; scanning the resources; identifying signals of new issues; selecting key events/issues; monitoring and analyzing events/issues; disseminating information; and deciding on appropriate organizational…

  14. Electronic scanning of 2-channel monopulse patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1970-01-01

    Scanning method involves separation of scanning capability into two independent degrees of freedom. One degree of freedom corresponds to azimuthal scanning and other to elevation scanning on spiral coordinate axes. Scanning of both prime-feed and mirrored patterns is accomplished with reduction of mechanical vibration damage to large antennas.

  15. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  16. Community Update, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of 10 issues of the newsletter "Community Update," containing articles on community and family involvement in education. Article topics include: preparing America's future teachers; reports on satellite town meetings; E-rate (education rate) discounts for telecommunications services in schools and libraries; President…

  17. A Mathematics Software Database Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, R. S.; Smith, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Contains an update of an earlier listing of software for mathematics instruction at the college level. Topics are: advanced mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, equation solving, general mathematics, geometry, linear and matrix algebra, logic, statistics and probability, and trigonometry. (PK)

  18. NUHOMS{reg_sign} update

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, N.

    1995-12-31

    NUHOMS{reg_sign} is the dry spent fuel storage and transportation technology selected to date by the majority of commercial nuclear utilities. The author first gives a system overview of the NUHOMS{reg_sign}. Next she discusses the project status and licensing status. She closes with an update of the multi-purpose canister.

  19. Task Group 9 Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation is a brief update of IEC TC82 QA Task Force, Group 9. Presented is an outline of the recently submitted New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) for a Comparative Thermal Cycling Test for CPV Modules to Differentiate Thermal Fatigue Durability.

  20. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  1. Updating the Behavior Engineering Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Considers Thomas Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model as a tool for systematically identifying barriers to individual and organizational performance. Includes a detailed case study and a performance aid that incorporates gap analysis, cause analysis, and force field analysis to update the original model. (Author/LRW)

  2. Energy Education Materials Bibliography - Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    Presented is an updated version of a previous bibliography prepared by the Minnesota State Energy Agency. The materials included in this document are indexed according to grade level and according to whether they are background materials or classroom activities. Each of the items listed were evaluated and included into either the "A" list or the…

  3. Teacher Testing--An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    1988-01-01

    State directors of teacher certification and testing provided updated data (reports, press clippings, manuals, legislative hearings, and validity studies) in April 1987 describing their testing programs and the latest passing rates. Twenty-seven states have admissions testing programs, and 44 have certification testing programs. It is unclear…

  4. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arai, Koji; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-01

    NACRE, the `nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  5. Early Childhood Update, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmerly, Lynn, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter provides a periodic update on the activities of the Early Childhood Research Working Group (ECRWG), organized in early 1995 by the U.S. Department of Education and other federal government departments and agencies to promote interagency cooperation and public-private partnerships in early childhood research. This edition contains…

  6. Censorship in Massachusetts: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, L. B.; O'Brien, Jane E.

    This report updates a 1979 article from the Bay State Librarian about censorship in Massachusetts libraries from 1966 through 1975. Compiled using data from the American Library Association's Office of Intellectual Freedom (OIF), the report provides information about censorship attempts and actions between 1976 and 1982. The definition of…

  7. Community Update, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of ten issues of the newsletter "Community Update," containing articles on community and family involvement in education. Article topics include: a college education is necessary and possible; math and science study points out problems and positive solutions; the "America Reads Challenge"; meeting the Department of…

  8. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E.; Freeman, Ginger L.; Jacobs, James; Parkin, Don M.

    1997-01-01

    This document contains a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 96, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico on October 27-30, 1996. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  9. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    ScienceCinema

    Cody, Tom

    2016-07-12

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    PubMed

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques. PMID:27517015

  11. Vitamin E: Textbooks Require Updating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzi, Angelo; Zingg, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin E was discovered in 1922, but in more than 60 years many new findings have added to the early one. However, its description in many textbooks has not been proportionally updated. The result is an inaccurate, incomplete, and often incorrect description of the function of this vitamin. In some other textbooks, vitamin E is absolutely…

  12. National Drug Control Strategy. Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The first National Drug Control Strategy set ambitious two and five-year performance based goals: (1) to lower the rate of drug use by 10 percent over 2 years among both youth and adults; and (2) to lower the rate by 25 percent over 5 years. The chapters in this updated version are keyed to the strategies three priorities: (1) Stopping Use Before…

  13. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Arai, Koji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-26

    NACRE, the 'nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Universite Libre de Brussels (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  14. Wind turbine reliability database update.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.

  15. Deductive Updating Is Not Bayesian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-01-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based theories such as mental model theory and probabilistic theories. This study looks at conclusion updating after the addition of statistical information to examine the hypothesis that deductive reasoning cannot be explained by probabilistic…

  16. Austin Community College Benchmarking Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Community Coll., TX. Office of Institutional Effectiveness.

    Austin Community College contracted with MGT of America, Inc. in spring 1999 to develop a peer and benchmark (best) practices analysis on key indicators. These indicators were updated in spring 2002 using data from eight Texas community colleges and four non-Texas institutions that represent large, comprehensive, urban community colleges, similar…

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    PubMed

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  18. Capital update factor: a new era approaches.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, P L

    1993-02-01

    The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) has constructed a preliminary model of a new capital update method which is consistent with the framework being developed to refine the update method for PPS operating costs. HCFA's eventual goal is to develop a single update framework for operating and capital costs. Initial results suggest that adopting the new capital update method would reduce capital payments substantially, which might intensify creditor's concerns about extending loans to hospitals.

  19. Dopamine receptors – IUPHAR Review 13

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  20. GPIHBP1 and lipolysis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Beigneux, Anne P.; Weinstein, Michael M.; Davies, Brandon S.J.; Gin, Peter; Bensadoun, André; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will provide an update on the structure of GPIHBP1, a 28-kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein, and its role in the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Recent findings Gpihbp1 knockout mice on a chow diet have milky plasma and plasma triglyceride levels of more than 3000 mg/dl. GPIHBP1 is located on the luminal surface of endothelial cells in tissues where lipolysis occurs: heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. The pattern of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) release into the plasma after an intravenous injection of heparin is abnormal in Gpihbp1-deficient mice, suggesting that GPIHBP1 plays a direct role in binding LPL within the tissues of mice. Transfection of CHO cells with a GPIHBP1 expression vector confers on cells the ability to bind both LPL and chylomicrons. Two regions of GPIHBP1 are required for the binding of LPL – an amino-terminal acidic domain and the cysteine-rich Ly6 domain. GPIHBP1 expression in mice changes with fasting and refeeding and is regulated in part by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Summary GPIHBP1, an endothelial cell-surface glycoprotein, binds LPL and is required for the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. PMID:19369870

  1. Scanning laser polarimetry - a review.

    PubMed

    Da Pozzo, Stefano; Marchesan, Roberta; Ravalico, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Retinal ganglion cells and their axons represent the selective target of the disease. When visual function is still intact on standard automated perimetry and optic disc appearance is suspicious, an early diagnosis may be supported by the identification of a retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) defect in the peripapillary area. At present days, computer-based, real-time imaging of the peripapillary RNFL is available through instruments of easy use and with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. Scanning laser polarimetry is performed by a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with an integrated polarimeter (GDx-VCC). There is a considerable amount of scientific evidence about the role of this imaging technique for glaucoma diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe the principles of operation, the examination procedure, the clinical role, the results of main diagnostic studies and the future development of the software for the scanning laser polarimetry. PMID:19138311

  2. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  3. Spiral scan peripheral nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    King, K F; Schaefer, D J

    2000-07-01

    Time-varying magnetic fields induce electric fields that can cause physiological stimulation. Stimulation has been empirically characterized as a function of dB/dt and duration based on experiments using trapezoidal and sinusoidal gradient waveforms with constant ramp time, amplitude, and direction. For two-dimensional (2D) spiral scans, the readout gradient waveforms are frequency- and amplitude-modulated sinusoids on two orthogonal axes in quadrature. The readout gradient waveform therefore rotates with amplitude and angular velocity that are generally not constant. It does not automatically follow that spiral stimulation thresholds can be predicted using available stimulation models. We scanned 18 normal volunteers with a 2D spiral scan and measured global thresholds for axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. We concluded that the stimulation model evaluated accurately predicts slew rate-limited spiral mean stimulation thresholds, if the effective ramp time is chosen to be the half-period at the end of the spiral readout.

  4. A novel digital scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Hong-Chou; Yu, Hsing-Cheng; Cheng, Kuen-Chiuan; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Ju, Jau-Jiu

    2011-06-01

    A novel digital scanning microscope (DSM) for observing cellular fluorescent micro-images is proposed and manufactured in this study. DSM applied in the biomedical field has been designed based on a concept of fast access time of an optical pick-up head (PUH) in optical disc devices; hence, DSM has been developed based on a blue-ray PUH module with a triaxial scanning actuator (TSA) system. High-resolution and high-speed scanning is effectively realized by TSA system instead of utilizing high-precision transpose stage mechanism. In consequent, a PUH module can work with a time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) module and serve as DSM for detecting fluorescent signals on samples.

  5. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...

  6. Dual energy CT with one full scan and a second sparse-view scan using structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tonghe; Zhu, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Conventional dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstruction requires two full-size projection datasets with two different energy spectra. In this study, we propose an iterative algorithm to enable a new data acquisition scheme which requires one full scan and a second sparse-view scan for potential reduction in imaging dose and engineering cost of DECT. A bilateral filter is calculated as a similarity matrix from the first full-scan CT image to quantify the similarity between any two pixels, which is assumed unchanged on a second CT image since DECT scans are performed on the same object. The second CT image from reduced projections is reconstructed by an iterative algorithm which updates the image by minimizing the total variation of the difference between the image and its filtered image by the similarity matrix under data fidelity constraint. As the redundant structural information of the two CT images is contained in the similarity matrix for CT reconstruction, we refer to the algorithm as structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR). The proposed method is evaluated on both digital and physical phantoms, and is compared with the filtered-backprojection (FBP) method, the conventional total-variation-regularization-based algorithm (TVR) and prior-image-constrained-compressed-sensing (PICCS). SPIR with a second 10-view scan reduces the image noise STD by a factor of one order of magnitude with same spatial resolution as full-view FBP image. SPIR substantially improves over TVR on the reconstruction accuracy of a 10-view scan by decreasing the reconstruction error from 6.18% to 1.33%, and outperforms TVR at 50 and 20-view scans on spatial resolution with a higher frequency at the modulation transfer function value of 10% by an average factor of 4. Compared with the 20-view scan PICCS result, the SPIR image has 7 times lower noise STD with similar spatial resolution. The electron density map obtained from the SPIR-based DECT images with a second 10-view scan has an

  7. Spin scan imaging at Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    The general feasibility of spin scan imaging from spinning platforms in outer planet orbiters was investigated. The study was limited to consideration of a typical orbiter mission to Jupiter with an orbit designed to provide repetitive close approaches to the Galilean satellites. Discussed are: (1) data requirements for imaging experiments at Jupiter and its satellites; (2) spin scan camera and baseline camera selection; and (3) operational considerations bearing on imager performance. A physical camera model including relationships identifying the supporting requirements was developed and used to determine the characteristics of the baseline camera.

  8. Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Poorya; Sung, Yongjin; Choi, Youngwoon; Lue, Niyom; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an interferometric optical microscope that provides three-dimensional refractive index map of a specimen by scanning the color of three illumination beams. Our design of the interferometer allows for simultaneous measurement of the scattered fields (both amplitude and phase) of such a complex input beam. By obviating the need for mechanical scanning of the illumination beam or detection objective lens; the proposed method can increase the speed of the optical tomography by orders of magnitude. We demonstrate our method using polystyrene beads of known refractive index value and live cells. PMID:26367632

  9. Conically scanned holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical scanning device utilizing a source of optical energy such as laser light backscattered from the earth's atmosphere or transmitted outward as in a lidar, a rotating holographic optical element having an axis of rotation perpendicular to the plane of its substrate, and having a stationary focus which may or may not be located on its axis of rotation, with the holographic optical element diffracting the source of optical energy at an angle to its rotation axis enabling a conical scanning area and a motor for supporting and rotating the rotating holographic optical element, is described.

  10. Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Poorya; Sung, Yongjin; Choi, Youngwoon; Lue, Niyom; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter

    2015-07-27

    We have developed an interferometric optical microscope that provides three-dimensional refractive index map of a specimen by scanning the color of three illumination beams. Our design of the interferometer allows for simultaneous measurement of the scattered fields (both amplitude and phase) of such a complex input beam. By obviating the need for mechanical scanning of the illumination beam or detection objective lens; the proposed method can increase the speed of the optical tomography by orders of magnitude. We demonstrate our method using polystyrene beads of known refractive index value and live cells. PMID:26367632

  11. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-13

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annualmore » energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.« less

  12. Ticagrelor: Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacogenetic Profile: An Update.

    PubMed

    Teng, Renli

    2015-11-01

    Despite advancements in treatments for acute coronary syndromes over the last 10 years, they continue to be life-threatening disorders. Currently, the standard of treatment includes dual antiplatelet therapy consisting of aspirin plus a P2Y12 receptor antagonist. The thienopyridine class of P2Y12 receptor antagonists, clopidogrel and prasugrel, have demonstrated efficacy. However, their use is associated with several limitations, including the need for metabolic activation and irreversible P2Y12 receptor binding causing prolonged recovery of platelet function. In addition, response to clopidogrel is variable and efficacy is reduced in patients with certain genotypes. Although prasugrel is a more consistent inhibitor of platelet aggregation than clopidogrel, it is associated with an increased risk of life-threatening and fatal bleeding. Ticagrelor is an oral antiplatelet agent of the cyclopentyltriazolopyrimidine class and also acts through the P2Y12 receptor. In contrast to clopidogrel and prasugrel, ticagrelor does not require metabolic activation and binds rapidly and reversibly to the P2Y12 receptor. In light of new data, this review provides an update on the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic profiles of ticagrelor in different study populations. Recent studies report that no dose adjustment for ticagrelor is required on the basis of age, gender, ethnicity, severe renal impairment or mild hepatic impairment. The non-P2Y12 actions of ticagrelor are reviewed, showing indirect positive effects on cellular adenosine concentration and biological activity, by inhibition of equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 independently of the P2Y12 receptor. CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genotypes do not appear to influence ticagrelor pharmacodynamics. A summary of drug interactions is also presented. PMID:26063049

  13. Infrared Scanning For Electrical Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbath, Steven E.

    1983-03-01

    Given the technological age that we have now entered, the purpose of this paper is to relate how infrared scanning can be used for an electrical preventative maintenance program. An infrared scanner is able to produce an image because objects give off infrared radiation in relationship to their temperature. Most electrical problems will show up as an increase in temperature, thereby making the infrared scanner a useful preventative maintenance tool. Because of the sensitivity of most of the scanners, .1 to .2 of a degree, virtually all electrical problems can be pinpointed long before they become a costly failure. One of the early uses of infrared scanning was to check the power company's electrical distribution system. Most of this was performed via aircraft or truck mounted scanning devices which necessitated its semi-permanent mounting. With the advent of small hand held infrared imagers, along with more portability of the larger systems, infrared scanning has gained more popularity in checking electrical distribution systems. But the distribution systems are now a scaled down model, mainly the in-plant electrical systems. By in-plant, I mean any distribution of electricity; once it leaves the power company's grid. This can be in a hospital, retail outlet, warehouse or manufacturing facility.

  14. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  15. Technical aspects of CT scanning.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, K R; Pastel, M S

    1978-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography (CT) has initiated a technological revolution which continues to the present time. A brief review of basic principles of CT scanning is presented, and the evolution of modern CT scanner systems is traced. Some early indications of future trends are also presented.

  16. Environmental Scanning, Vancouver Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    This 1994 environmental scanning report from Vancouver Community College (VCC) reviews the expected effects of the separation of VCC into a new Vancouver Community College and Langara College (LC). The report examines the projected service area student-intake capacity; student characteristics; population growth trends; other postsecondary…

  17. Improvement of CAT scanned images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Digital enhancement procedure improves definition of images. Tomogram is generated from large number of X-ray beams. Beams are collimated and small in diameter. Scanning device passes beams sequentially through human subject at many different angles. Battery of transducers opposite subject senses attenuated signals. Signals are transmitted to computer where they are used in construction of image on transverse plane through body.

  18. Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Ustun, Teoman E.; Bigelow, Chad E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Webb, Robert H.

    2006-07-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is a powerful imaging tool with specialized applications limited to research and ophthalmology clinics due in part to instrument size, cost, and complexity. Conversely, low-cost retinal imaging devices have limited capabilities in screening, detection, and diagnosis of diseases. To fill the niche between these two, a hand-held, nonmydriatic line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO) is designed, constructed, and tested on normal human subjects. The LSLO has only one moving part and uses a novel optical approach to produce wide-field confocal fundus images. Imaging modes include multiwavelength illumination and live stereoscopic imaging with a split aperture. Image processing and display functions are controlled with two stacked prototype compact printed circuit boards. With near shot-noise limited performance, the digital LSLO camera requires low illumination power (<500 µW) at near-infrared wavelengths. The line-scanning principle of operation is examined in comparison to SLO and other imaging modes. The line-scanning approach produces high-contrast confocal images with nearly the same performance as a flying-spot SLO. The LSLO may significantly enhance SLO utility for routine use by ophthalmologists, optometrists, general practitioners, and also emergency medical personnel and technicians in the field for retinal disease detection and other diverse applications.

  19. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  20. Source Update Capture in Information Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen; Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present strategies for successfully capturing updates at Web sources. Web-based information agents provide integrated access to autonomous Web sources that can get updated. For many information agent applications we are interested in knowing when a Web source to which the application provides access, has been updated. We may also be interested in capturing all the updates at a Web source over a period of time i.e., detecting the updates and, for each update retrieving and storing the new version of data. Previous work on update and change detection by polling does not adequately address this problem. We present strategies for intelligently polling a Web source for efficiently capturing changes at the source.

  1. Environmental Chemistry Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    the Great Lakes may contain more than 600,000 kg of the herbicide and that its residence time there is in years. Atrazine concentrations in rivers that flow into these lakes can exceed 20,000 ppt (i.e., 20 ppb) (9). There are about 600 basic ingredients in the 34,000 pesticides registered with the U.S. EPA. Approximately 75% of all U.S. cropland and 70% of livestock are treated with pesticides. In 1991, 495 million pounds of herbicides, 175 million pounds of insecticides, 75 million pounds of fungicides, and 72 million pounds of other pesticides were used; this accounted for three-quarters of all pesticide use in the United States (10). Environmental EstrogensDDT and its metabolite DDE, as well as methoxychlor, dieldrin, kepone, and some PCB's are thought to be environmental estrogens. These synthetic compounds are found in the environment and mimic the action of the sex hormone estrogen because they can bind to the estrogen receptor in cells. Some scientists are worried that they can disrupt the hormone balance in human eggs and fetuses, thus causing reproductive abnormalities. Examples of reproductive problems caused by such chemicals have already been observed in wildlife, such as alligators in Florida. They may also play a role in inducing cancer in humans (11). The U.S. EPA has issued a 2000-page draft of its reassessment of the health risks of dioxins. The report reaffirms their 1985 conclusion that it is a probable cause of cancer in humans. Even trace amounts of dioxins may also disrupt regulatory hormones, produce reproductive and immune-system disorders, and lead to abnormal fetal development. Although waste combustion produces 95% of all known dioxin emissions in the United States, about half its source is unknown. Dioxin levels in the environment were small until about 1930, peaked about 1970, and have declined since then. Human body burdens of dioxins may also have declined. The Toxic Equivalent intake of dioxins and furans of Americans is currently about

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor signaling in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kadmiel, Mahita; Cidlowski, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones regulated in a circadian and stres-associated manner to maintain various metabolic and homeostatic functions that are necessary for life. Synthetic glucocorticoids are widely prescribed drugs for many conditions including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and inflammatory disorders of the eye. Research in the last few years has begun to unravel the profound complexity of glucocorticoid signaling and has contributed remarkably to improved therapeutic strategies. Glucocorticoids signal through the glucocorticoid receptor, a member of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, in both genomic and non-genomic ways in almost every tissue in the human body. In this review, we will provide an update on glucocorticoid receptor signaling and highlight the role of GR signaling in physiological and pathophysiological conditions in the major organ systems in the human body. PMID:23953592

  3. NUREBASE: database of nuclear hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Jorge; Perrière, Guy; Laudet, Vincent; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors are an abundant class of ligand activated transcriptional regulators, found in varying numbers in all animals. Based on our experience of managing the official nomenclature of nuclear receptors, we have developed NUREBASE, a database containing protein and DNA sequences, reviewed protein alignments and phylogenies, taxonomy and annotations for all nuclear receptors. The reviewed NUREBASE is completed by NUREBASE_DAILY, automatically updated every 24 h. Both databases are organized under a client/server architecture, with a client written in Java which runs on any platform. This client, named FamFetch, integrates a graphical interface allowing selection of families, and manipulation of phylogenies and alignments. NUREBASE sequence data is also accessible through a World Wide Web server, allowing complex queries. All information on accessing and installing NUREBASE may be found at http://www.ens-lyon.fr/LBMC/laudet/nurebase.html.

  4. Updated Overview of STIS Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Michael A.; Proffitt, C. R.; Aloisi, A.; Dixon, W. V.; Goudfrooij, P.; Lennon, D.; Osten, R.; Bohlin, R. C.; Niemi, S.; Bostroem, A.; Gull, T.; Lindler, D.; Woodgate, B. E.; Zheng, W.; Pascucci, I.; York, B.

    2010-05-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph was installed during Hubble Servicing Mission 2 in 1997 and operated until a malfunction in 2004. It was repaired during Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) in 2009, and has successfully operated since then. Many of the characteristics of the instrument have changed over time, and we present here an update on its current performance based on the latest Cycle 17 calibration observations. Of special note is the continuing slow decline of the NUV MAMA dark current, which had been found to be unexpectedly high after SM4. We will also discuss changes in the echelle blaze function, provide updates on the sensitivity of all STIS modes, and discuss changes in the CCD detector's dark current, hot pixels, flat fields, and other performance characteristics.

  5. An Update on AGU Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilst, Rob; Hanson, Brooks

    2013-07-01

    In the past year, AGU publishing has undergone substantial change, and we realize that this has caused some anxiety and concern among you, our members. As the start of a regular Eos series on issues in scientific publishing in general and AGU's content in particular, we provide here an overview and update of recent developments, with an emphasis on the partnership between AGU and Wiley. Topical entries, for instance on open access, will be published later.

  6. MEMS Stirling Cooler Development Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Wesolek, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provides an update on the effort to build and test a prototype unit of the patented MEMS Stirling cooler concept. A micro-scale regenerator has been fabricated by Polar Thermal Technologies and is currently being integrated into a Stirling cycle simulator at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. A discussion of the analysis, design, assembly, and test plans for the prototype will be presented.

  7. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm to an athlete or give one an unfair competitive advantage. Evidence Acquisition: Published websites for the WADA, USADA, and NCAA were investigated. These governing bodies update and publish their lists annually. Results: The WADA, USADA, and NCAA monitor anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. Some substances may be used by athletes but require formal exemption. The WADA has also recently created a category of nonapproved substances that have yet to be identified to curb athletes from experimenting with new doping agents. Conclusion: The lists of banned substances and practices per the WADA, USADA, and NCAA are in place to ensure the integrity of sports and maintain safe competition. Health care providers who work with athletes under the jurisdiction of these organizations should review updated lists of banned substances when prescribing medications. PMID:24427415

  8. Differential involvement of glutamatergic and catecholaminergic activity within the amygdala during taste aversion retrieval on memory expression and updating.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Osorio-Gómez; Kioko, Guzmán-Ramos; Federico, Bermúdez-Rattoni

    2016-07-01

    During memory retrieval, consolidated memories are expressed and destabilized in order to maintain or update information through a memory reconsolidation process. Despite the key role of the amygdala during memory acquistion and consolidation, the participation of neurotransmitter signals in memory retrieval is poorly understood. Hence, we used conditioned taste aversion and in vivo microdialysis to evaluate changes in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations within the amygdala during memory retrieval. We observed that exposure to an aversive-conditioned stimulus induced an augmentation in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine levels within the amygdala, while exposure to a familiar and safe stimulus did not induce changes in these neurotransmitters levels. Also, we evaluated the amygdalar blockade of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), β-adrenergic and dopamine D1 receptors in memory retrieval and updating. Results showed that during retrieval, behavioural expression was impaired by intra-amygdalar blockade of AMPA and β-adrenergic receptors, whereas NMDA, D1 and β-adrenergic receptors blockade hindered memory updating. In summary, during conditioned taste aversion retrieval there was an increase in the extracellular levels of glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine within the amygdala, and their receptors activity were differentially involved in the behavioural expression and memory updating during retrieval. PMID:27018173

  9. Differential involvement of glutamatergic and catecholaminergic activity within the amygdala during taste aversion retrieval on memory expression and updating.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Osorio-Gómez; Kioko, Guzmán-Ramos; Federico, Bermúdez-Rattoni

    2016-07-01

    During memory retrieval, consolidated memories are expressed and destabilized in order to maintain or update information through a memory reconsolidation process. Despite the key role of the amygdala during memory acquistion and consolidation, the participation of neurotransmitter signals in memory retrieval is poorly understood. Hence, we used conditioned taste aversion and in vivo microdialysis to evaluate changes in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations within the amygdala during memory retrieval. We observed that exposure to an aversive-conditioned stimulus induced an augmentation in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine levels within the amygdala, while exposure to a familiar and safe stimulus did not induce changes in these neurotransmitters levels. Also, we evaluated the amygdalar blockade of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), β-adrenergic and dopamine D1 receptors in memory retrieval and updating. Results showed that during retrieval, behavioural expression was impaired by intra-amygdalar blockade of AMPA and β-adrenergic receptors, whereas NMDA, D1 and β-adrenergic receptors blockade hindered memory updating. In summary, during conditioned taste aversion retrieval there was an increase in the extracellular levels of glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine within the amygdala, and their receptors activity were differentially involved in the behavioural expression and memory updating during retrieval.

  10. Children, CT Scan and Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Bajoghli, Morteza; Bajoghli, Farshad; Tayari, Nazila; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. Computerized tomography (CT) consists of 25 % of all medical imaging. It was estimated that more than 2% of all carcinomas in the USA are due to CT scans. There is an ongoing focus on the reduction of CT scan radiation dose. Awareness about risk-benefits of CT has increased. Reduction of radiological exam is an important issue because the accumulation effects of radiation can be hazardous. In addition, proper protocol should be followed for diagnostic procedures of ionization radiation and computerized tomography. Effective radiation dose should range from 0.8 to 10.5 millisievert. The same protocol should be followed in different hospitals as well. Basic principles of radiation protection should be monitored. As much as possible, both technician and radiologist must be present during computerized tomography for children, and MRI and ultrasound should be replaced if possible. PMID:21566776

  11. Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

  12. The 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure Management Guidelines Focus Update: anemia, biomarkers, and recent therapeutic trial implications.

    PubMed

    Moe, Gordon W; Ezekowitz, Justin A; O'Meara, Eileen; Lepage, Serge; Howlett, Jonathan G; Fremes, Steve; Al-Hesayen, Abdul; Heckman, George A; Abrams, Howard; Ducharme, Anique; Estrella-Holder, Estrellita; Grzeslo, Adam; Harkness, Karen; Koshman, Sheri L; McDonald, Michael; McKelvie, Robert; Rajda, Miroslaw; Rao, Vivek; Swiggum, Elizabeth; Virani, Sean; Zieroth, Shelley; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Ashton, Tom; D'Astous, Michel; Chan, Michael; De, Sabe; Dorian, Paul; Giannetti, Nadia; Haddad, Haissam; Isaac, Debra L; Kouz, Simon; Leblanc, Marie-Hélène; Liu, Peter; Ross, Heather J; Sussex, Bruce; White, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure Management Guidelines Update provides discussion on the management recommendations on 3 focused areas: (1) anemia; (2) biomarkers, especially natriuretic peptides; and (3) clinical trials that might change practice in the management of patients with heart failure. First, all patients with heart failure and anemia should be investigated for reversible causes of anemia. Second, patients with chronic stable heart failure should undergo natriuretic peptide testing. Third, considerations should be given to treat selected patients with heart failure and preserved systolic function with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist and to treat patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with an angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor, when the drug is approved. As with updates in previous years, the topics were chosen in response to stakeholder feedback. The 2014 Update includes recommendations, values and preferences, and practical tips to assist the clinicians and health care workers to best manage patients with heart failure.

  13. Neutrophils scan for activated platelets to initiate inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramkumar, Vinatha; Adrover, José M.; Ballesteros, Ivan; Cuartero, Maria Isabel; Rossaint, Jan; Bilbao, Izaskun; Nácher, Maria; Pitaval, Christophe; Radovanovic, Irena; Fukui, Yoshinori; McEver, Rodger P.; Filippi, Marie-Dominique; Lizasoain, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Zarbock, Alexander; Moro, María A.; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Immune and inflammatory responses require leukocytes to migrate within and through the vasculature, a process that is facilitated by their capacity to switch to a polarized morphology with asymmetric distribution of receptors. We report that neutrophil polarization within activated venules served to organize a protruding domain that engaged activated platelets present in the bloodstream. The selectin ligand PSGL-1 transduced signals emanating from these interactions, resulting in redistribution of receptors that drive neutrophil migration. Consequently, neutrophils unable to polarize or to transduce signals through PSGL-1 displayed aberrant crawling, and blockade of this domain protected mice against thrombo-inflammatory injury. These results reveal that recruited neutrophils scan for activated platelets, and suggest that their bipolarity allows integration of signals present at both the endothelium and the circulation before inflammation proceeds. PMID:25477463

  14. Scanning phononic lattices with ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, R.E.; Wolfe, J.P.; Every, A.V.

    1999-11-01

    A method for probing the elastic properties of newly developed periodic structures using acoustic waves is introduced. Highly anisotropic transmission of surface acoustic waves is observed by continuously scanning the wave vector angle. Preliminary models of wave propagation through multilayers and two-dimensional lattices explain some of the experimental features, while other features can be attributed to the resonant excitation of interface waves. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Cloud Top Scanning radiometer (CTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A scanning radiometer to be used for measuring cloud radiances in each of three spectral regions is described. Significant features incorporated in the Cloud Top Scanner design are: (1) flexibility and growth potential through use of easily replaceable modular detectors and filters; (2) full aperture, multilevel inflight calibration; (3) inherent channel registration through employment of a single shared field stop; and (4) radiometric sensitivity margin in a compact optical design through use of Honeywell developed (Hg,Cd)Te detectors and preamplifiers.

  16. Differential scanning calorimetry of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, P. I.

    1978-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry studies performed during the first year of this project demonstrated the occurrence of exothermic reactions associated with the production of volatile matter in or near the plastic region. The temperature and magnitude of the exothermic peak were observed to be strongly affected by the heating rate, sample mass and, to a lesser extent, by sample particle size. Thermal properties also were found to be influenced by oxidation of the coal sample due to weathering effects.

  17. Mechanically scanned deployable antenna study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-03-01

    The conceptual design of a Mechanically Scanned Deployable Antenna which is launched by the STS (Space Shuttle) to provide radiometric brightness temperature maps of the Earth and oceans at selected frequency bands in the frequency range of 1.4 GHz to 11 GHz is presented. Unlike previous scanning radiometric systems, multiple radiometers for each frequency are required in order to fill in the resolution cells across the swath created by the 15 meter diameter spin stabilized system. This multiple beam radiometric system is sometimes designated as a ""whiskbroom'' system in that it combines the techniques of the scanning and ""pushbroom'' type systems. The definition of the feed system including possible feed elements and location, determination of the fundamental reflector feed offset geometry including offset angles and f/D ratio, preliminary estimates of the beam efficiency of the feed reflector system, a summary of reflector mesh losses at the proposed radiometric frequency bands, an overall conceptual configuration design and preliminary structural and thermal analyses are included.

  18. Mechanically scanned deployable antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Mechanically Scanned Deployable Antenna which is launched by the STS (Space Shuttle) to provide radiometric brightness temperature maps of the Earth and oceans at selected frequency bands in the frequency range of 1.4 GHz to 11 GHz is presented. Unlike previous scanning radiometric systems, multiple radiometers for each frequency are required in order to fill in the resolution cells across the swath created by the 15 meter diameter spin stabilized system. This multiple beam radiometric system is sometimes designated as a ""whiskbroom'' system in that it combines the techniques of the scanning and ""pushbroom'' type systems. The definition of the feed system including possible feed elements and location, determination of the fundamental reflector feed offset geometry including offset angles and f/D ratio, preliminary estimates of the beam efficiency of the feed reflector system, a summary of reflector mesh losses at the proposed radiometric frequency bands, an overall conceptual configuration design and preliminary structural and thermal analyses are included.

  19. Phytocannabinoids for Cancer Therapeutics: Recent Updates and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Patil, K R; Goyal, S N; Sharma, C; Patil, C R; Ojha, S

    2015-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids (pCBs) are lipid-soluble phytochemicals present in the plant, Cannabis sativa L. and non-cannabis plants which have a long history in recreation and traditional medicine. The plant and the constituents isolated were central in the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), the most new target for drug discovery. The ECS includes two G-protein-coupled receptors; the cannabinoid receptors-1 and -2 (CB1 and CB2) for marijuana's psychoactive principle Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), their endogenous small lipid ligands; namely anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), also known as endocannabinoids and the enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis and degradation such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The ECS has been suggested as a pro-homeostatic and pleiotropic signaling system activated in a time- and tissue-specific way during pathological conditions including cancer. Targeting the CB1 receptors becomes a concern because of adverse psychotropic reactions. Hence, targeting the CB2 receptors or the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes by pCBs obtained from plants lacking psychotropic adverse reactions has garnered interest in drug discovery. These pCBs derived from plants appear safe and effective with a wider access and availability. In the recent years, several pCBs derived other than non-cannabinoid plants have been reported to bind to and functionally interact with cannabinoid receptors and appear promising candidate for drug development including cancer therapeutics. Several of them also targets the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes that control endocannabinoid levels. In this article, we summarize and critically discuss the updates and future prospects of the pCBs as novel and promising candidates for cancer therapeutics. PMID:26179998

  20. Updating knowledge bases with disjunctive information

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yan; Foo, Norman Y.

    1996-12-31

    It is well known that the minimal change principle was widely used in knowledge base updates. However, recent research has shown that conventional minimal change methods, eg. the PMA, are generally problematic for updating knowledge bases with disjunctive information. In this paper, we propose two different approaches to deal with this problem - one is called the minimal change with exceptions (MCE), the other is called the minimal change with maximal disjunctive inclusions (MCD). The first method is syntax-based, while the second is model-theoretic. We show that these two approaches are equivalent for propositional knowledge base updates, and the second method is also appropriate for first order knowledge base updates. We then prove that our new update approaches still satisfy the standard Katsuno and Mendelzon`s update postulates.

  1. Experimental model updating using frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yu; Liu, Xi; Dong, Xinjun; Wang, Yang; Pu, Qianhui

    2016-04-01

    In order to obtain a finite element (FE) model that can more accurately describe structural behaviors, experimental data measured from the actual structure can be used to update the FE model. The process is known as FE model updating. In this paper, a frequency response function (FRF)-based model updating approach is presented. The approach attempts to minimize the difference between analytical and experimental FRFs, while the experimental FRFs are calculated using simultaneously measured dynamic excitation and corresponding structural responses. In this study, the FRF-based model updating method is validated through laboratory experiments on a four-story shear-frame structure. To obtain the experimental FRFs, shake table tests and impact hammer tests are performed. The FRF-based model updating method is shown to successfully update the stiffness, mass and damping parameters of the four-story structure, so that the analytical and experimental FRFs match well with each other.

  2. Diuretics for Hypertension: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Roush, George C; Sica, Domenic A

    2016-10-01

    This review and update focuses on the clinical features of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), the thiazide-like agents chlorthalidone (CTDN) and indapamide (INDAP), potassium-sparing ENaC inhibitors and aldosterone receptor antagonists, and loop diuretics. Diuretics are the second most commonly prescribed class of antihypertensive medication, and thiazide-related diuretics have increased at a rate greater than that of antihypertensive medications as a whole. The latest hypertension guidelines have underscored the importance of diuretics for all patients, but particularly for those with salt-sensitive and resistant hypertension. HCTZ is 4.2-6.2 systolic mm Hg less potent than CTDN, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers by 24-hour measurements and 5.1mm Hg systolic less potent than INDAP by office measurements. For reducing cardiovascular events (CVEs), HCTZ is less effective than enalapril and amlodipine in randomized trials, and, in network analysis of trials, it is less effective than CTDN and HCTZ-amiloride. Combined with thiazide-type diuretics, potassium-sparing agents decrease ventricular ectopy and reduce the risk for sudden cardiac death relative to thiazide-type diuretics used alone. A recent synthesis of 44 trials has shown that the relative potencies in milligrams among spironolactone (SPIR), amiloride, and eplerenone (EPLER) are approximately from 25 to 10 to 100, respectively, which may be important when SPIR is poorly tolerated. SPIR reduces proteinuria beyond that provided by other renin angiotensin aldosterone inhibitors. EPLER also reduces proteinuria and has beneficial effects on endothelial function. While guidelines often do not differentiate among specific diuretics, this review demonstrates that these distinctions are important for managing hypertension. PMID:27048970

  3. Diuretics for Hypertension: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Roush, George C; Sica, Domenic A

    2016-10-01

    This review and update focuses on the clinical features of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), the thiazide-like agents chlorthalidone (CTDN) and indapamide (INDAP), potassium-sparing ENaC inhibitors and aldosterone receptor antagonists, and loop diuretics. Diuretics are the second most commonly prescribed class of antihypertensive medication, and thiazide-related diuretics have increased at a rate greater than that of antihypertensive medications as a whole. The latest hypertension guidelines have underscored the importance of diuretics for all patients, but particularly for those with salt-sensitive and resistant hypertension. HCTZ is 4.2-6.2 systolic mm Hg less potent than CTDN, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers by 24-hour measurements and 5.1mm Hg systolic less potent than INDAP by office measurements. For reducing cardiovascular events (CVEs), HCTZ is less effective than enalapril and amlodipine in randomized trials, and, in network analysis of trials, it is less effective than CTDN and HCTZ-amiloride. Combined with thiazide-type diuretics, potassium-sparing agents decrease ventricular ectopy and reduce the risk for sudden cardiac death relative to thiazide-type diuretics used alone. A recent synthesis of 44 trials has shown that the relative potencies in milligrams among spironolactone (SPIR), amiloride, and eplerenone (EPLER) are approximately from 25 to 10 to 100, respectively, which may be important when SPIR is poorly tolerated. SPIR reduces proteinuria beyond that provided by other renin angiotensin aldosterone inhibitors. EPLER also reduces proteinuria and has beneficial effects on endothelial function. While guidelines often do not differentiate among specific diuretics, this review demonstrates that these distinctions are important for managing hypertension.

  4. IUPHAR-DB: updated database content and new features.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Joanna L; Benson, Helen E; Pawson, Adam J; Lukito, Veny; Mpamhanga, Chidochangu P; Bombail, Vincent; Davenport, Anthony P; Peters, John A; Spedding, Michael; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) database, IUPHAR-DB (http://www.iuphar-db.org) is an open access, online database providing detailed, expert-driven annotation of the primary literature on human and rodent receptors and other drug targets, together with the substances that act on them. The present release includes information on the products of 646 genes from four major protein classes (G protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels) and ∼3180 bioactive molecules (endogenous ligands, licensed drugs and key pharmacological tools) that interact with them. We have described previously the classification and curation of data for small molecule ligands in the database; in this update we have annotated 366 endogenous peptide ligands with their amino acid sequences, post-translational modifications, links to precursor genes, species differences and relationships with other molecules in the database (e.g. those derived from the same precursor). We have also matched targets with their endogenous ligands (peptides and small molecules), with particular attention paid to identifying bioactive peptide ligands generated by post-translational modification of precursor proteins. Other improvements to the database include enhanced information on the clinical relevance of targets and ligands in the database, more extensive links to other databases and a pilot project for the curation of enzymes as drug targets.

  5. IUPHAR-DB: updated database content and new features

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Joanna L.; Benson, Helen E.; Pawson, Adam J.; Lukito, Veny; Mpamhanga, Chidochangu P.; Bombail, Vincent; Davenport, Anthony P.; Peters, John A.; Spedding, Michael; Harmar, Anthony J.; NC-IUPHAR

    2013-01-01

    The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) database, IUPHAR-DB (http://www.iuphar-db.org) is an open access, online database providing detailed, expert-driven annotation of the primary literature on human and rodent receptors and other drug targets, together with the substances that act on them. The present release includes information on the products of 646 genes from four major protein classes (G protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels) and ∼3180 bioactive molecules (endogenous ligands, licensed drugs and key pharmacological tools) that interact with them. We have described previously the classification and curation of data for small molecule ligands in the database; in this update we have annotated 366 endogenous peptide ligands with their amino acid sequences, post-translational modifications, links to precursor genes, species differences and relationships with other molecules in the database (e.g. those derived from the same precursor). We have also matched targets with their endogenous ligands (peptides and small molecules), with particular attention paid to identifying bioactive peptide ligands generated by post-translational modification of precursor proteins. Other improvements to the database include enhanced information on the clinical relevance of targets and ligands in the database, more extensive links to other databases and a pilot project for the curation of enzymes as drug targets. PMID:23087376

  6. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-05-15

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive.

  7. Scanning tunneling and scanning transmission electron microscopy of biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmer, A.; Reichelt, R.; Engel, A.; Rosenbusch, J. P.; Ringger, M.; Hidber, H. R.; Güntherodt, H. J.

    1987-03-01

    The feasibility of imaging porin membrane, which is a reconstituted biological membrane consisting of phospholipid and protein, was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Due to detailed knowledge of its composition from biochemical and its three-dimensional (3D) structure from electron microscopical analysis, porin vesicles seem to be a suitable model specimen for exploring the application of STM in biology. Unstained vesicles adsorbed onto a thin amorphous carbon film supported by a finder grid were localized using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) at low irradiation doses ( < 100 {e -}/{nm 2}). Suitable areas of the sample were then positioned in the STM by a light optical telescope. STM images taken under ambient pressure from empty amorphous carbon films exhibited corrugations in the range of ⩽ 1 nm, whereas steps having a height of 5 nm were reproducibly observed on grids with porin vesicles. Since this value is in good agreement with that obtained from air-dried metal shadowed vesicles, we interpret these steps as the edges of porin membranes.

  8. Updated Opacity Project radiative accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, M. J.

    2007-11-01

    Updated data for the calculation of radiative accelerations, grad, referred to as OP 2005, have been made generally available on the Web. They differ from the earlier 1997 OP data mainly in the inclusion of contributions from inner-shell processes. The frequency resolution used for OP 2005 is shown to be satisfactory except for extreme cases of low concentrations and low densities. The 2005 data are in reasonably good agreement with results from OPAL, given by Richer et al. in graphical form, for a model with Teff = 104 and log (R) = -3. They are in less good agreement with OPAL results of Turcotte et al. for the solar radiative interior.

  9. Big bang nucleosynthesis: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.

    2013-07-23

    An update on the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is presented. With the value of the baryon-tophoton ratio determined to high precision by WMAP, standard BBN is a parameter-free theory. In this context, the theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, {sup 4}He, and {sup 7}Li is discussed and compared to their observational determination. While concordance for D and {sup 4}He is satisfactory, the prediction for {sup 7}Li exceeds the observational determination by a factor of about four. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed.

  10. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Nidhi; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist’s skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient. How to cite this article: Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal K, Chopra R. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):109-118. PMID:25356010

  11. Air-quality-model update

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1982-01-15

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality Model (LIRAQ) has been updated and improved. This report describes the changes that have been made in chemistry, species treatment, and boundary conditions. The results of smog chamber simulations that were used to verify the chemistry as well as simulations of the entire air quality model for two prototype days in the Bay Area are reported. The results for the prototype day simulations are preliminary due to the need for improvement in meteorology fields, but they show the dependence and sensitivity of high hour ozone to changes in selected boundary and initial conditions.

  12. Current Updates on Choanal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Kelvin M.

    2015-01-01

    Choanal atresia (CA) is a relatively uncommon but well-recognized condition characterized by the anatomical closure of the posterior choanae in the nasal cavity. Since the original description back in the early eighteenth century, there have been controversies regarding its exact pathogenesis, the optimal surgical approach, and the use of adjunct treatments such as post-surgical stenting and anti-neoplastic agents, despite of abundant literature available. The emergence and development of new technologies play a significant role in the management of this condition. This review provides a comprehensive clinical update on CA and identifies areas for future study based on the existing available literature. PMID:26106591

  13. ISS Update: Burning and Suppression of Solids

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Paul Ferkul, Principal Investigator for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment, about performing combustion experiments in microgravity. ...

  14. The LDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life. PMID:19299327

  15. Aperture scanning Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is implemented through aperture scanning by an LCOS spatial light modulator at the back focal plane of the objective lens. This FPM configuration enables the capturing of the complex scattered field for a 3D sample both in the transmissive mode and the reflective mode. We further show that by combining with the compressive sensing theory, the reconstructed 2D complex scattered field can be used to recover the 3D sample scattering density. This implementation expands the scope of application for FPM and can be beneficial for areas such as tissue imaging and wafer inspection. PMID:27570705

  16. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  17. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  18. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  19. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Natural History Museum (NHM) is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN) as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL). This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities. PMID:22943137

  20. Breast ultrasound scans - surgeons' expectations.

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Piotr; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Chrapowicki, Eryk; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dynamic development of mammary gland imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A challenge related to these studies is the increase in the precision of the anatomical assessment of breast, particularly for early detection of subclinical lesions, performance of ultrasound- guided biopsy procedures, and accurate preoperative location of pathological lesions so as to optimize the surgical treatment. Ultrasound imaging is a primary and baseline diagnostic procedure the patient with suspected pathological lesions within breast is referred to by the surgeon. Lesions visualized in ultrasound scans are classified according to the BI-RADS US assessment categories. The successive categories (2 through 6) encompass individual pathological lesions, estimating the risk of malignancy and provide guidelines for further diagnostic and therapeutic management. This article described the important aspects of ultrasonographic imaging of focal lesions within the breasts as significant from the standpoint of surgical treatment of patients falling within BI-RADS US categories 3, 4, 5, and 6. Attention is drawn to the importance of ultrasound scans in the assessment of axillary fossa lymph nodes before the decision regarding the surgical treatment.

  1. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Mainster, M A; Timberlake, G T; Webb, R H; Hughes, G W

    1982-07-01

    The scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) provides a high-quality television image of the retina using less than 1/1000 of the light required for conventional indirect ophthalmoscopy. The SLO employs a new ophthalmoscopic principle in which a dim laser beam scans across the fundus, and light is collected only from one retinal point at a time. Since the instrument is highly light efficient, illumination levels are comfortable for the patient, and fluorescein angiography can be performed with one tenth of the usual fluorescein dose. Since a continuous, large depth of field view is displayed on the SLO screen and stored on video tape, repeated dynamic inspection of the vitreous, retina and vitreoretinal interface is afforded. In addition, any graphical material that can be displayed on a microcomputer monitor (such as text of video games) can also be impressed on the retinal pattern formed by the sweeping laser beam. The graphical material is thus observed directly by the patient and on the patient's retina by the clinician. Since the exact retinal locus of each point in the graphical material is viewed directly, it is possible to perform perimetry directly on the retina, to measure acuity at arbitrary retinal loci, to study how patients with macular disease use residual functional retina for reading, and to perform distortometry with a retinal (Amsler-type) grid.

  2. Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R. Rox; Webb, Robert H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    1999-01-01

    A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.

  3. Electronically-Scanned Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Instrument efficient, lightweight, and stable. Fourier-transform spectrometer configuration uses electronic, instead of mechanical, scanning. Configuration insensitive to vibration-induced sampling errors introduced into mechanically scanned systems.

  4. Census in Schools Educator Update, May 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census: The…

  5. 40 CFR 68.190 - Updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Updates. 68.190 Section 68.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.190 Updates. (a) The owner or operator...

  6. 40 CFR 68.190 - Updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Updates. 68.190 Section 68.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.190 Updates. (a) The owner or operator...

  7. 40 CFR 68.190 - Updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Updates. 68.190 Section 68.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.190 Updates. (a) The owner or operator...

  8. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will...

  9. Better Plants Progress Update Fall 2013

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-23

    This Progress Update summarizes the significant energy saving achievements and cumulative cost savings made by these industry leaders from 2010-2012. The update also shares the plans and priorities over the next year for the Better Plants Program to continue to advance energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  10. Census in Schools Educator Update, February 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter includes the following items: (1) Have You Seen the Census…

  11. 75 FR 17641 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Parts 17 and 59 RIN 2900-AN57 Updating Fire Safety Standards AGENCY: Department of Veterans..., including standards for fire safety and heating and cooling systems. The proposed amendments would help.... Comments should indicate that they are submitted in response to ``RIN 2900-AN57--Updating Fire...

  12. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Proposed FOIA Fee Schedule, 77 FR 32433. No comments were received in response to that notice, and the... Schedule Update went into effect on July 29, 2011. 76 FR 43819. Board Action Accordingly, the Board issues... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  13. Part C Updates. 11th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Joan; Goode, Sue; Lazara, Alex

    2010-01-01

    "Part C Updates" is a compilation of information on various aspects of the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (Part C) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This is the eleventh volume in a series of compilations, which included two editions of Part H Updates, the former name of the program.…

  14. Part C Updates: 9th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Joan; Goode, Sue; Lazara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    "Part C Updates" is a compilation of information on various aspects of the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (Part C) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This is the ninth volume in a series of compilations, which included two editions of Part H Updates, the former name of the program.…

  15. 40 CFR 68.190 - Updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Updates. 68.190 Section 68.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.190 Updates. (a) The owner or operator...

  16. 1 CFR 8.3 - Periodic updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Periodic updating. 8.3 Section 8.3 General... the intent and purpose of the Administrative Committee as stated in § 8.1. (b) Staggered publication... before the “As of” date. Thus, each title updated as of July 1 each year will reflect all...

  17. 1 CFR 8.3 - Periodic updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Periodic updating. 8.3 Section 8.3 General... the intent and purpose of the Administrative Committee as stated in § 8.1. (b) Staggered publication... before the “As of” date. Thus, each title updated as of July 1 each year will reflect all...

  18. 1 CFR 8.3 - Periodic updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Periodic updating. 8.3 Section 8.3 General... the intent and purpose of the Administrative Committee as stated in § 8.1. (b) Staggered publication... before the “As of” date. Thus, each title updated as of July 1 each year will reflect all...

  19. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  20. Census in Schools Educator Update, June 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census; (2)…

  1. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  2. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  3. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  4. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  5. 1 CFR 8.3 - Periodic updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Periodic updating. 8.3 Section 8.3 General... the intent and purpose of the Administrative Committee as stated in § 8.1. (b) Staggered publication... before the “As of” date. Thus, each title updated as of July 1 each year will reflect all...

  6. 1 CFR 8.3 - Periodic updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic updating. 8.3 Section 8.3 General... the intent and purpose of the Administrative Committee as stated in § 8.1. (b) Staggered publication... before the “As of” date. Thus, each title updated as of July 1 each year will reflect all...

  7. Evolving role of adiponectin in cancer-controversies and update

    PubMed Central

    Katira, Arnav; Tan, Peng H.

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine produced by adipocytes, has been shown to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated malignancies. Through its receptor interactions, APN may exert its anti-carcinogenic effects including regulating cell survival, apoptosis and metastasis via a plethora of signalling pathways. Despite the strong evidence supporting this notion, some work may indicate otherwise. Our review addresses all controversies critically. On the whole, hypoadiponectinaemia is associated with increased risk of several malignancies and poor prognosis. In addition, various genetic polymorphisms may predispose individuals to increased risk of obesity-associated malignancies. We also provide an updated summary on therapeutic interventions to increase APN levels that are of key interest in this field. To date efforts to manipulate APN levels have been promising, but much work remains to be done. PMID:27144066

  8. The mechanisms of action of St. John's wort: an update.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mathias; Butterweck, Veronika

    2015-06-01

    Pharmacological research confirms and supports the clinically observed antidepressant efficacy of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L., SJW). This contribution is an update of a former review by the authors in 2007. Positive evidence of antidepressant effects has been found with SJW preparations, extract fractions, and single constituents. The efficacy of SJW is obviously defined by a range of parallel mechanisms of action, triggered by different constituents. In vitro research showed, among other tests, positive effects in neurotransmitter regulation (in beta adrenergic systems and glutamate receptors) and ion channel conductance. Antidepressant effects were confirmed in typical in vivo models such as the forced swimming test, the open field test, the tail suspension test, or a model of stress-impaired memory. The overall effect cannot be attributed to a single constituent or fraction. SJW is therefore an outstanding example of the total extract being defined as the active constituent of herbal medicines.

  9. Vitamin D and systemic lupus erythematosus: an update.

    PubMed

    Mok, Chi Chiu

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that, in addition to its actions on calcium and bone metabolism, exhibits a plethora of regulatory effects on growth, proliferation, apoptosis and function of the cells of the immune system that are relevant to the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in SLE as a result of avoidance of sunshine, photoprotection, renal insufficiency and the use of medications such as glucocorticoids, anticonvulsants, antimalarials and the calcineurin inhibitors, which alter the metabolism of vitamin D or downregulate the functions of the vitamin D receptor. Low levels of vitamin D correlate with disease activity, and is associated with osteoporosis, fatigue and certain cardiovascular risk factors in SLE patients. This review updates the recent evidence on the relationship between vitamin D status and the onset, activity and complications of SLE, and summarizes the recommendations for vitamin D supplementation.

  10. Laser scanning by rotating polarization gratings.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Fan, Dapeng; Fan, Shixun; Chen, Ying; Liu, Guangcan

    2016-07-01

    Laser beam scanning can be realized using two independently rotating, inline polarization gratings, termed Risley gratings, in a fashion similar to Risley prisms. The analytical formulas of pointing position as well as their inverse solutions are described. On this basis, the beam scanning is investigated and the performance of scanning imaging is evaluated. It is shown that the scanning function in 1D scanning evolves from a sinusoidal to triangular scan and the duty cycle increases rapidly as the ratio of grating period to wavelength is reduced toward 2. The scan pattern in 2D scanning is determined by the ratio k of the gratings' rotatory frequency. In imaging applications, when k tends toward 1 or -1, the scan pattern becomes dense and is inclined to be spiral or rose-like, respectively, which is desirable for the purpose of enhancing spatial resolution. There is a direct trade-off between spatial resolution and frame rate. The spiral and rose scanning enable multiresolution imaging, providing a preview of the scanned area in a fraction of the overall scan time, which is extremely useful for fast, real-time imaging applications. PMID:27409203

  11. Improving cranial ultrasound scanning strategy in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Cranial ultrasound scans are undertaken in this tertiary neonatal intensive care unit by the doctors within the department. A quality improvement project was undertaken by means of two PDSA cycles to determine adherence to neonatal cranial ultrasound scanning schedule, assess the quality of scan reporting, and formulate a comprehensive guideline outlining best practice. The baseline measurements assessed 93 scans of preterm infants and 9 of term infants. The results of this prompted intradepartmental education (PDSA cycle 1) then creation and implementation of a documentation template, a local guideline, and education via presentations, posters, and email (PDSA cycle 2). These encompassed 77 preterm and 5 term scans. In our baseline measurements, 52% of preterm infant scans and 44% of term infant scans were performed to schedule. Of premature baby scan reports, 75% had the time documented and 92% the name of the scanning doctor. After implementing changes PDSA cycle 2 data showed that 74% of preterm infant scans and all term infant scans were performed according to schedule, with 100% having the doctor's name and time of scan documented. We successfully introduced a guideline and documentation template, improving performance to schedule and documentation in most areas. It remains an ongoing challenge to adhere to basic standards of documentation; a template can assist in achieving this. Rotating trainees may offer insight into areas that could benefit from quality improvement. This enthusiasm can be successfully harnessed to implement changes to improve quality of patient care. PMID:27096095

  12. MODEL UPDATING: TRANSITION FROM RESEARCH TO PRACTICE?

    SciTech Connect

    D. C. ZIMMERMAN; F. M. HEMEZ

    2000-10-01

    This session offers an open forum to discuss issues associated with the transition of nearly two decades of engineering research into computational guided model updating into industry state-of-the-practice. Related technical issues are the model updating technology, model reduction, test-analysis correlation and optimization strategies. The session is organized as follows. Technical presentations review the state-of-the-art in finite element model updating and present examples of industrial applications. The results of a recent survey on the potential and usefulness of the model updating technology are discussed. Panel discussions and interaction with the audience discuss industrial needs, future trends and challenges and why negative model updating results are never discussed within the structural dynamics community.

  13. Insulin Pumps and Remote Software Updates

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Noel E.; Parks, Linda J.; Verhoef, Erik T.; Morgan, Corey A.; Stal, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the future direction of insulin pump technology and its relationship to the software update process. A user needs analysis revealed that respondents wanted an insulin pump software update process to function much in the same way as smartphone updates. Users of insulin pumps have the same expectations as with other ubiquitous technology such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops. The development of a software update system within a regulated environment that meets the needs of insulin pump users by allowing optional software updates that provide access to pump improvements, feature additions, or access to algorithms that provide therapy-changing technologies is a new way forward for the management of a complicated disease that affects more than 450,000 people using insulin pumps in the United States. PMID:26385400

  14. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far. PMID:25494244

  15. UAVSAR Active Electronically Scanned Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory, A.; Chamberlain, Neil F.; Zawadzki, Mark S.; Brown, Kyle M.; Fisher, Charles D.; Figueroa, Harry S.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Vorperian, Vatche; Grando, Maurio B.

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a pod-based, L-band (1.26 GHz), repeatpass, interferometric, synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) used for Earth science applications. Repeat-pass interferometric radar measurements from an airborne platform require an antenna that can be steered to maintain the same angle with respect to the flight track over a wide range of aircraft yaw angles. In order to be able to collect repeat-pass InSAR data over a wide range of wind conditions, UAVSAR employs an active electronically scanned array (AESA). During data collection, the UAVSAR flight software continuously reads the aircraft attitude state measured by the Embedded GPS/INS system (EGI) and electronically steers the beam so that it remains perpendicular to the flight track throughout the data collection

  16. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  17. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy in Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews recent work involving the application of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to the study of individual cultured living cells, with an emphasis on topographical and functional imaging of neuronal and secretory cells of the nervous and endocrine system. The basic principles of biological SECM and associated negative amperometric-feedback and generator/collector-mode SECM imaging are discussed, and successful use of the methodology for screening soft and fragile membranous objects is outlined. The drawbacks of the constant-height mode of probe movement and the benefits of the constant-distance mode of SECM operation are described. Finally, representative examples of constant-height and constant-distance mode SECM on a variety of live cells are highlighted to demonstrate the current status of single-cell SECM in general and of SECM in neuroscience in particular.

  18. An Update on Radio Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Sramek, Richard A.; Weiler, Kurt W.; Montes, Marcos J.; Panagia, Nino

    The radio emission from supernovae (SNe) is nonthermal synchrotron radiation of high brightness temperature, with a ``turn-on'' delay at longer wavelengths, power-law decline after maximum with index beta, and spectral index alpha asymptotically decreasing with time to a final, optically thin value. Radio supernovae (RSNe) are best described by the Chevalier (1982) ``mini-shell'' model, with modifications by Weiler \\etal\\ (1990). RSNe observations provide a valuable probe of the SN circumstellar environment and constraints on progenitor masses. We present a progress report on a number of recent RSNe, as well as on new behavior from RSNe 1979C and 1980K, and on RSNe as potential distance indicators. In particular, we present updated radio light curves for SN 1993J in M81.

  19. The new mycobacteria: an update.

    PubMed

    Tortoli, Enrico

    2006-11-01

    The continuous evolution of mycobacterial taxonomy may represent a source of confusion for laboratories and clinicians. Apart from the obvious pathogenic strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans, the role of other mycobacteria may be associated with varying conditions ranging from contamination to specific disease processes. Of the more than 120 mycobacterial species recognized currently, very few have not been reported as pathogenic in humans or animals. Although the attempt to keep pace with the steadily increasing number of mycobacterial species seems hopeless, a careful review of the recent literature relevant to the newly described species may be advantageous. The aim of this present update is to provide epidemiological and clinical information along with major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the species described in the last 3 years.

  20. New contraceptive methods: update 2003.

    PubMed

    Pettinato, Andrea; Emans, S Jean

    2003-08-01

    The decline in adolescent pregnancy rates noted in the 1990s has been attributed to more teenagers choosing abstinence, the availability of long-acting contraceptive options, and the increased use of condoms. Many adolescents remain at risk of unplanned pregnancy, however, because of method failure, inconsistent or incorrect use, or discontinuation of a method without choosing another method. Practitioners who care for adolescents and young women have access to several new methods in 2003. Recent additions include a contraceptive transdermal patch, a hormone-releasing intravaginal ring, new formulations of pills, and a new intrauterine device. Additionally, the World Health Organization has updated its guidelines to provide the practitioner with evidence-based recommendations to assist in selecting the most appropriate contraceptive method for each patient.

  1. Prostate cancer markers: An update

    PubMed Central

    PENTYALA, SRINIVAS; WHYARD, TERRY; PENTYALA, SAHANA; MULLER, JOHN; PFAIL, JOHN; PARMAR, SUNJIT; HELGUERO, CARLOS G.; KHAN, SARDAR

    2016-01-01

    As the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men, prostate cancer currently accounts for 29% of all diagnosed cancers, and ranks second as the cause of cancer fatality in American men. Prostatic cancer is rarely symptomatic early in its course and therefore disease presentation often implies local extension or even metastatic disease. Thus, it is extremely critical to detect and diagnose prostate cancer in its earliest stages, often prior to the presentation of symptoms. Three of the most common techniques used to detect prostate cancer are the digital rectal exam, the transrectal ultrasound, and the use of biomarkers. This review presents an update regarding the field of prostate cancer biomarkers and comments on future biomarkers. Although there is not a lack of research in the field of prostate cancer biomarkers, the discovery of a novel biomarker that may have the advantage of being more specific and effective warrants future scientific inquiry. PMID:26998261

  2. Research Results and Information Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Research Results Monsoon behavior balanced by glaciers Research Discovers Frequent Mutations of Chromatin Significant Progress in Water Photochemistry Research Structural signature in amorphous alloy formation and plastic deformation The neural basis of Drosophila larval light/darkness preference Important roles of brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide metabolism in leptin hypothalamic control of feeding Integrin activation and internalization on soft ECM as a mechanism of induction of stem cell differentiation by ECM elasticity Determination of electron pairing symmetry of iron-based superconductor FeSe Long-Range Topological Order in Metallic Glass Information Update List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and CNRS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and ESRC in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RSE in 2011 Funding of Major Program Projects in 2010 Funding of Key Program Projects in 2010

  3. Update on CO2 emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedingstein, P.; Houghton, R.A.; Marland, Gregg; Hackler, J.; Boden, Thomas A; Conway, T.J.; Canadell, J.G.; Raupach, Mike; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quere, Corrine

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of CO2 are the main contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Here we present updated information on their present and near-future estimates. We calculate that global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning decreased by 1.3% in 2009 owing to the global financial and economic crisis that started in 2008; this is half the decrease anticipated a year ago1. If economic growth proceeds as expected2, emissions are projected to increase by more than 3% in 2010, approaching the high emissions growth rates that were observed from 2000 to 20081, 3, 4. We estimate that recent CO2 emissions from deforestation and other land-use changes (LUCs) have declined compared with the 1990s, primarily because of reduced rates of deforestation in the tropics5 and a smaller contribution owing to forest regrowth elsewhere.

  4. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Update

    PubMed Central

    Teerlink, John R; Alburikan, Khalid; Metra, Marco; Rodgers, Jo E

    2015-01-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) continues to increase in prevalence and is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity including frequent hospitalizations. The American Heart Association is predicting that more than eight million Americans will have heart failure by 2030 and that the total direct costs associated with the disease will rise from $21 billion in 2012 to $70 billion in 2030. The increase in the prevalence and cost of HF is primarily the result of shifting demographics and a growing population. Although many large, randomized, controlled clinical trials have been conducted in patients with chronic heart failure, it was not until recently that a growing number of studies began to address the management of ADHF. It is the intent of this review to update the clinician regarding the evaluation and optimal management of ADHF. PMID:24251454

  5. BCI federal legislative & regulatory update

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Several updates on recent government actions that affect the battery industry are outlined. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is requesting public comments on how to regulate electric vehicles (EV) with respect to battery electrolyte spillage and electric shock hazard during crashes or rollovers, as well as during repair or maintenance. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was mentioned in two actions: the monitoring rule regarding major sources of air pollution and the reccomendation of reasearch concerning hazardous air pollutants from small stationary sources. OSHA will develop a new standards planning process to ensure that the agency`s limited resources are used appropriately. This includes a list of fifty workplace hazards or issues that would warrant OSHA action.

  6. The AGTSR consortium: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Fant, D.B.; Golan, L.P.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research program is a nationwide consortium dedicated to advancing land-based gas turbine systems for improving future power generation capability. It directly supports the technology-research arm of the ATS program and targets industry- defined research needs in the areas of combustion, heat transfer, materials, aerodynamics, controls, alternative fuels, and advanced cycles. It is organized to enhance U.S. competitiveness through close collaboration with universities, government, and industry at the R&D level. AGTSR is just finishing its third year of operation; it is scheduled to continue past the year 2000. This update reviews the AGTSR triad, which consists of university/industry R&D activities, technology transfer programs, and trial student programs.

  7. [Update in Infectious Diseases 2016].

    PubMed

    Candel, F J; García-García, A B; Peñuelas, M; García-Alvarez, A; Chiarella, F; López-González, L; García-Salguero, C; Lejárraga, C; Rodríguez-Avial, I

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance increases it health, social and economic impact. in all areas (state, regional and local), initiatives to try to contain the problem of resistance arise. In the update of this year 2016, we study microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of multi-resistant bacteria, as well as resources for therapeutic approach, from ancient to modern drugs from therapeutic combinations to optimization Stewardship programs. In the case of fungal infection, we analyze clinical scenarios with different species in yeast or new clinical settings in filamentous fungi. Taking paediatric population, homologies and differences with adults in invasive fungal infection were compared. Finally in the field of parasitology, treatment of severe malaria imported or that resistant to antimalarial drugs were reviewed. PMID:27608304

  8. Updating Martin's global extinction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Australia has been cited as a weak link in anthropogenic models of megafauna extinction, but recent work suggests instead that the evidence for rapid extinction shortly after human arrival is robust. The global model is revisited, based on the contention that late Pleistocene megafauna extinctions took place rapidly on islands, and some islands (such as Australia and the Americas) are much larger than others. Modern dating methods are increasingly able to refine chronologies, and careful scrutiny suggests that hundreds of dates should be deleted from archives. An updated summary of results from New Zealand, North America and Australia is presented, with a brief discussion on why temperate refugia offering protection from climate change ultimately did not work, strongly supporting the global extinction hypothesis pioneered by Paul Martin.

  9. Updating the International Health Regulations.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jonathan B

    2005-01-01

    First adopted in 1951, the International Health Regulations (IHR) provide the international legal framework for efforts to prevent and control the cross-border spread of communicable diseases. In 1995, after outbreaks of emerging infections had rendered the IHR increasingly obsolete, the 192 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) requested a major updating of the regulations to adapt them to the highly mobile, globalized world of the 21st century. After negotiations in 2004 and 2005, the revised IHR text was adopted unanimously by the World Health Assembly, WHO's highest policymaking body. This article reviews the 2005 regulations and discusses their implications for the international response to natural epidemics and to incidents involving the accidental or deliberate release of biological or chemical agents or radiological materials. PMID:16366843

  10. Laser Scanning Applications in Fluvial Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alho, P.

    2014-12-01

    During recent decades, the use of high-resolution laser scanning data in fluvial studies has rapidly increased. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) can be used to extensively map riverine topography. Laser scanning data have great potential to improve the effectiveness of topographical data acquisition and the accuracy and resolution of DTMs (Digital Terrain Models) needed in fluvial geomorphology. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is applicable for mapping areas varying from reach to catchment scale and these data are, therefore, particularly suitable, especially for hydraulic modelling, mapping of flood inundation, and the detection of macro-scale fluvial geomorphology. With Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) a spatial resolution of less than 1 mm and a range accuracy of few millimetres can be achieved. Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) enables a remarkably faster survey approach compared to the conventional TLS method. One of the newest applications of MLS approaches involves a boat/cart/backpack -based mobile mapping system. This set-up includes laser scanning and imaging from a platform moving along a river course or floodplain and may be used to expand the spatial extent of terrestrial scanning. Detailed DTMs derived from laser scanning data can be used to improve the recognition of fluvial landforms, the geometric data of hydraulic modelling, and the estimation of flood inundation extents and the associated fluvial processes. Fluvial environments also offer challenges for the application of laser scanning techniques. Factors such as vegetation cover, terrain undulation, coarse surface materials and water surfaces may distort a laser scanning survey.

  11. Neuropeptides and Neuropeptide Receptors in the Drosophila melanogaster Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hewes, Randall S.; Taghert, Paul H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent genetic analyses in worms, flies, and mammals illustrate the importance of bioactive peptides in controlling numerous complex behaviors, such as feeding and circadian locomotion. To pursue a comprehensive genetic analysis of bioactive peptide signaling, we have scanned the recently completed Drosophila genome sequence for G protein-coupled receptors sensitive to bioactive peptides (peptide GPCRs). Here we describe 44 genes that represent the vast majority, and perhaps all, of the peptide GPCRs encoded in the fly genome. We also scanned for genes encoding potential ligands and describe 22 bioactive peptide precursors. At least 32 Drosophila peptide receptors appear to have evolved from common ancestors of 15 monophyletic vertebrate GPCR subgroups (e.g., the ancestral gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor). Six pairs of receptors are paralogs, representing recent gene duplications. Together, these findings shed light on the evolutionary history of peptide GPCRs, and they provide a template for physiological and genetic analyses of peptide signaling in Drosophila. PMID:11381038

  12. Bone scanning in severe external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, W.J.; Shary, J.H. 3d.; Nichols, L.T.; Lucente, F.E.

    1986-11-01

    Technetium99 Methylene Diphosphate bone scanning has been considered an early valuable tool to diagnose necrotizing progressive malignant external otitis. However, to our knowledge, no formal studies have actually compared bone scans of otherwise young, healthy patients with severe external otitis to scans of patients with clinical presentation of malignant external otitis. Twelve patients with only severe external otitis were studied with Technetium99 Diphosphate and were compared to known cases of malignant otitis. All scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists with no prior knowledge of the clinical status of the patients. Nine of the 12 patients had positive bone scans with many scans resembling those reported with malignant external otitis. Interestingly, there was no consistent correlation between the severity of clinical presentation and the amount of Technetium uptake. These findings suggest that a positive bone scan alone should not be interpreted as indicative of malignant external otitis.

  13. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Paul C M; Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R

    2010-09-15

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was derived from four PCB properties and associated Abraham solvation equations. Additionally, the influence of ortho-chlorination on PCB solvent accessible volume and surface area was investigated. The updated PCB solvation parameters were tested on partitioning between five other phase combinations. Compared to the original PCB solvation parameter set, the updated PCB solvation parameters resulted in substantially improved estimates from Abraham solvation equations for (subcooled) liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, HPLC capacity factors, and for coefficients of air-n-hexadecane, air-water, organic carbon-water, and n-octanol-water partitioning. For water to polydimethyl siloxane and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) partitioning, the updated PCB solvation parameters yielded no improvement compared to the original data set. The main difference between the updated and the original parameter set is that updated PCB McGowan specific volumes depend on the degree of ortho-chlorination, which is qualitatively confirmed by trends in the PCB solvent accessible volumes and surface areas. The use of the updated PCB solvation parameters instead of the original values is therefore recommended.

  14. Hierarchical Bayesian model updating for structural identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmanesh, Iman; Moaveni, Babak; Lombaert, Geert; Papadimitriou, Costas

    2015-12-01

    A new probabilistic finite element (FE) model updating technique based on Hierarchical Bayesian modeling is proposed for identification of civil structural systems under changing ambient/environmental conditions. The performance of the proposed technique is investigated for (1) uncertainty quantification of model updating parameters, and (2) probabilistic damage identification of the structural systems. Accurate estimation of the uncertainty in modeling parameters such as mass or stiffness is a challenging task. Several Bayesian model updating frameworks have been proposed in the literature that can successfully provide the "parameter estimation uncertainty" of model parameters with the assumption that there is no underlying inherent variability in the updating parameters. However, this assumption may not be valid for civil structures where structural mass and stiffness have inherent variability due to different sources of uncertainty such as changing ambient temperature, temperature gradient, wind speed, and traffic loads. Hierarchical Bayesian model updating is capable of predicting the overall uncertainty/variability of updating parameters by assuming time-variability of the underlying linear system. A general solution based on Gibbs Sampler is proposed to estimate the joint probability distributions of the updating parameters. The performance of the proposed Hierarchical approach is evaluated numerically for uncertainty quantification and damage identification of a 3-story shear building model. Effects of modeling errors and incomplete modal data are considered in the numerical study.

  15. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Catalytic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. Catalytic receptors are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528241

  16. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, H.; Simon, H.D.

    1999-10-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from latent semantic indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions that the existing algorithms, and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  17. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, H.D.; Zha, H.

    1997-11-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions than the existing algorithms and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  18. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope.

    PubMed

    Favreau, Peter F; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F; Rich, Thomas C; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J

    2014-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications. PMID:24727909

  19. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope

    PubMed Central

    Favreau, Peter F.; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications. PMID:24727909

  20. Striatal dopamine type 2 receptor availability in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Broft, Allegra; Slifstein, Mark; Osborne, Joseph; Kothari, Paresh; Morim, Simon; Shingleton, Rebecca; Kenney, Lindsay; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Attia, Evelyn; Martinez, Diana; Timothy Walsh, B

    2015-09-30

    The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa remains incompletely understood. Here we utilized PET imaging with the radiotracer [(11)C]raclopride to measure striatal dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor availability in patients with anorexia nervosa. 25 women with anorexia nervosa who were receiving treatment in an inpatient program participated, as well as 25 control subjects. Patients were scanned up to two times with the PET tracer [(11)C]raclopride: once while underweight, and once upon weight restoration. Control subjects underwent one PET scan. In the primary analyses, there were no significant differences between underweight patients (n=21) and control subjects (n=25) in striatal D2 receptor binding potential. Analysis of subregions (sensorimotor striatum, associative striatum, limbic striatum) did not reveal differences between groups. In patients completing both scans (n=15), there were no detectable changes in striatal D2 receptor binding potential after weight restoration. In this sample, there were no differences in striatal D2 receptor binding potential between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects. Weight restoration was not associated with a change in striatal D2 receptor binding. These findings suggest that disturbances in reward processing in this disorder are not attributable to abnormal D2 receptor characteristics, and that other reward-related neural targets may be of greater relevance.

  1. Striatal dopamine type 2 receptor availability in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Broft, Allegra; Slifstein, Mark; Osborne, Joseph; Kothari, Paresh; Morim, Simon; Shingleton, Rebecca; Kenney, Lindsay; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Attia, Evelyn; Martinez, Diana; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa remains incompletely understood. Here we utilized PET imaging with the radiotracer [11C]raclopride to measure striatal dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor availability in patients with anorexia nervosa. 25 women with anorexia nervosa who were receiving treatment in an inpatient program participated, as well as 25 control subjects. Patients were scanned up to two times with the PET tracer [11C]raclopride: once while underweight, and once upon weight restoration. Control subjects underwent one PET scan. In the primary analyses, there were no significant differences between underweight patients (n=21) and control subjects (n=25) in striatal D2 receptor binding potential. Analysis of subregions (sensorimotor striatum, associative striatum, limbic striatum) did not reveal differences between groups. In patients completing both scans (n=15), there were no detectable changes in striatal D2 receptor binding potential after weight restoration. In this sample, there were no differences in striatal D2 receptor binding potential between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects. Weight restoration was not associated with a change in striatal D2 receptor binding. These findings suggest that disturbances in reward processing in this disorder are not attributable to abnormal D2 receptor characteristics, and that other reward-related neural targets may be of greater relevance. PMID:26272038

  2. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T

    2016-03-01

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method.

  3. Correlation-steered scanning for scanning probe microscopes to overcome thermal drift for ultra-long time scanning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liansheng; Long, Qian; Liu, Yongbin; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-07-01

    The thermal effect is one of the most important factors that influence the accuracy of nanoscale measurement and the surface topography of samples in scanning probe microscopes (SPMs). We propose a method called correlation-steered scanning, which is capable of overcoming three-dimensional thermal drifts in real time for ultra-long time scanned images. The image is scanned band by band with overlapping parts between adjacent bands. The vertical drift can be considered as linear and can thus be eliminated together with the tilt of the sample by applying the flattening method. Each band is artificially divided into several blocks for conveniently calculating lateral drifts on the basis of the overlapping area of adjacent bands through digital image correlation. The calculated lateral drifts are compensated to steer the scanning of the subsequent blocks, thus ensuring that all bands are parallel to one another. Experimental results proved that images scanned by the proposed method exhibited less distortions than those obtained from the traditional raster scanning method. The nanoscale measurement results based on the image obtained by the proposed method also showed high accuracy, with an error of less than 1.5%. By scanning as many bands as needed, the correlation-steered scanning method can obtain a highly precise SPM image of an ultra-large area.

  4. Dissociable Frontal–Striatal and Frontal–Parietal Networks Involved in Updating Hierarchical Contexts in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nee, Derek Evan; Brown, Joshua W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent theories propose that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is organized in a hierarchical fashion with more abstract, higher level information represented in anterior regions and more concrete, lower level information represented in posterior regions. This hierarchical organization affords flexible adjustments of action plans based on the context. Computational models suggest that such hierarchical organization in the PFC is achieved through interactions with the basal ganglia (BG) wherein the BG gate relevant contexts into the PFC. Here, we tested this proposal using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were scanned while updating working memory (WM) with 2 levels of hierarchical contexts. Consistent with PFC abstraction proposals, higher level context updates involved anterior portions of the PFC (BA 46), whereas lower level context updates involved posterior portions of the PFC (BA 6). Computational models were only partially supported as the BG were sensitive to higher, but not lower level context updates. The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) showed the opposite pattern. Analyses examining changes in functional connectivity confirmed dissociable roles of the anterior PFC–BG during higher level context updates and posterior PFC–PPC during lower level context updates. These results suggest that hierarchical contexts are organized by distinct frontal–striatal and frontal–parietal networks. PMID:22798339

  5. The human obesity gene map: the 2001 update.

    PubMed

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Pérusse, Louis; Weisnagel, S John; Snyder, Eric E; Chagnon, Yvon C; Bouchard, Claude

    2002-03-01

    This report constitutes the eighth update of the human obesity gene map, incorporating published results up to the end of October 2001. Evidence from the rodent and human obesity cases caused by single-gene mutations, Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as a clinical feature, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) uncovered in human genome-wide scans and in crossbreeding experiments in various animal models, association and linkage studies with candidate genes and other markers is reviewed. The human cases of obesity related in some way to single-gene mutations in six different genes are incorporated. Twenty-five Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as one of their clinical manifestations have now been mapped. The number of different QTLs reported from animal models currently reaches 165. Attempts to relate DNA sequence variation in specific genes to obesity phenotypes continue to grow, with 174 studies reporting positive associations with 58 candidate genes. Finally, 59 loci have been linked to obesity indicators in genomic scans and other linkage study designs. The obesity gene map depicted in Figure 1 reveals that putative loci affecting obesity-related phenotypes can be found on all chromosomes except chromosome Y. A total of 54 new loci have been added to the map in the past 12 months, and the number of genes, markers, and chromosomal regions that have been associated or linked with human obesity phenotypes is now above 250. Likewise, the number of negative studies, which are only partially reviewed here, is also on the rise.

  6. The human obesity gene map: the 2002 update.

    PubMed

    Chagnon, Yvon C; Rankinen, Tuomo; Snyder, Eric E; Weisnagel, S John; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude

    2003-03-01

    This is the ninth update of the human obesity gene map, incorporating published results through October 2002 and continuing the previous format. Evidence from single-gene mutation obesity cases, Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as a clinical feature, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from human genome-wide scans and various animal crossbreeding experiments, and association and linkage studies with candidate genes and other markers is reviewed. For the first time, transgenic and knockout murine models exhibiting obesity as a phenotype are incorporated (N = 38). As of October 2002, 33 Mendelian syndromes relevant to human obesity have been mapped to a genomic region, and the causal genes or strong candidates have been identified for 23 of these syndromes. QTLs reported from animal models currently number 168; there are 68 human QTLs for obesity phenotypes from genome-wide scans. Additionally, significant linkage peaks with candidate genes have been identified in targeted studies. Seven genomic regions harbor QTLs replicated among two to five studies. Attempts to relate DNA sequence variation in specific genes to obesity phenotypes continue to grow, with 222 studies reporting positive associations with 71 candidate genes. Fifteen such candidate genes are supported by at least five positive studies. The obesity gene map shows putative loci on all chromosomes except Y. More than 300 genes, markers, and chromosomal regions have been associated or linked with human obesity phenotypes. The electronic version of the map with links to useful sites can be found at http://obesitygene.pbrc.edu.

  7. The human obesity gene map: the 2000 update.

    PubMed

    Pérusse, L; Chagnon, Y C; Weisnagel, S J; Rankinen, T; Snyder, E; Sands, J; Bouchard, C

    2001-02-01

    This report constitutes the seventh update of the human obesity gene map incorporating published results up to the end of October 2000. Evidence from the rodent and human obesity cases caused by single-gene mutations, Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as a clinical feature, quantitative trait loci uncovered in human genome-wide scans and in cross-breeding experiments in various animal models, and association and linkage studies with candidate genes and other markers are reviewed. Forty-seven human cases of obesity caused by single-gene mutations in six different genes have been reported in the literature to date. Twenty-four Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as one of their clinical manifestations have now been mapped. The number of different quantitative trait loci reported from animal models currently reaches 115. Attempts to relate DNA sequence variation in specific genes to obesity phenotypes continue to grow, with 130 studies reporting positive associations with 48 candidate genes. Finally, 59 loci have been linked to obesity indicators in genomic scans and other linkage study designs. The obesity gene map reveals that putative loci affecting obesity-related phenotypes can be found on all chromosomes except chromosome Y. A total of 54 new loci have been added to the map in the past 12 months and the number of genes, markers, and chromosomal regions that have been associated or linked with human obesity phenotypes is now above 250. Likewise, the number of negative studies, which are only partially reviewed here, is also on the rise.

  8. The human obesity gene map: the 2003 update.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Eric E; Walts, Brandon; Pérusse, Louis; Chagnon, Yvon C; Weisnagel, S John; Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2004-03-01

    This is the tenth update of the human obesity gene map, incorporating published results up to the end of October 2003 and continuing the previous format. Evidence from single-gene mutation obesity cases, Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as a clinical feature, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from human genome-wide scans and animal crossbreeding experiments, and association and linkage studies with candidate genes and other markers is reviewed. Transgenic and knockout murine models relevant to obesity are also incorporated (N = 55). As of October 2003, 41 Mendelian syndromes relevant to human obesity have been mapped to a genomic region, and causal genes or strong candidates have been identified for most of these syndromes. QTLs reported from animal models currently number 183. There are 208 human QTLs for obesity phenotypes from genome-wide scans and candidate regions in targeted studies. A total of 35 genomic regions harbor QTLs replicated among two to five studies. Attempts to relate DNA sequence variation in specific genes to obesity phenotypes continue to grow, with 272 studies reporting positive associations with 90 candidate genes. Fifteen such candidate genes are supported by at least five positive studies. The obesity gene map shows putative loci on all chromosomes except Y. Overall, more than 430 genes, markers, and chromosomal regions have been associated or linked with human obesity phenotypes. The electronic version of the map with links to useful sites can be found at http://obesitygene.pbrc.edu.

  9. Analytical scanning electron microscopy for solid surface.

    PubMed

    Ichinokawa, T

    1989-07-01

    A scanning electron microscope of ultra-high-vacuum (UHV-SEM) with a field emission gun (FEG) is operated at the primary electron energies of from 100 eV to 3 keV. The instrument can form the images that contain information on surface chemical composition, chemical bonding state (electronic structure), and surface crystal structure in a microscopic resolution of several hundred angstroms (A) using the techniques of scanning Auger electron microscope, scanning electron energy loss microscope, and scanning low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) microscope. A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) also has been combined with the SEM in order to obtain the atomic resolution for the solid surface. The instrumentation and examples of their applications are presented both for scanning LEED microscopy and STM.

  10. Meta-analysis: an update.

    PubMed

    Sacks, H S; Reitman, D; Pagano, D; Kupelnick, B

    1996-01-01

    A fairly new type of research, termed meta-analysis, attempts to analyze and combine the results of previous reports. In 1992 we updated our 1987 survey of 86 meta-analyses of randomized control trial reports in the english language literature with an additional 78. We evaluated the quality of these meta-analyses using a scoring method that lists 23 items in six major areas: study design, combinability, control of bias, statistical analysis, sensitivity analysis, and application of results. Of the 23 individual items, the mean number satisfactorily addressed was 7.63 +/- 2.84 (mean +/- S.D.) for 40 papers published from 1955 through 1982, 6.80 +/- 3.86 for 66 papers published from 1983 through 1986, and 11.91 +/- 4.79 for 58 papers published from 1987 through 1990 (F = 31.3, p < .001). We noted that methodology has definitely improved since our first survey of meta-analyses, but an urgent need still exists for a better search of the literature, quality evaluation of trials, and a synthesis of the results. Recently, meta-analysis has expanded to cover non-randomized studies, including evaluation of diagnostic tests and pooling of epidemiologic studies. There is growing concern for standards, and several methodologic issues remain unresolved.

  11. Cannabis and Psychopathology : Update 2004

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish

    2004-01-01

    The study of cannabis use and psychopathology remains an interesting area from both academic and pragmatic perspectives. This article provides an update on the progress made in this area over the past decade or so. Psychopathology and psychiatric syndromes associated with cannabis use that have received research attention in recent years include cannabis withdrawal, cannabis and psychotic disorders (especially schizophrenia), depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Status of a specific cannabis withdrawal syndrome and a specific ‘cannabis psychosis’ remains controversial. Current evidence indicates that there is a clinically significant association between cannabis use disorders and psychotic syndromes, depression, anxiety and possibly mild cognitive impairment. However, the nature of this association is often not clear. Several hypothesis related to the cannabis-schizophrenia association are examined. Cannabis use might be casually related to the later development of schizophrenia in an indirect way in a few heavy users, but more commonly, its use may precipitate disorders in persons who are vulnerable to developing psychosis and worsen the course of the disorder. PMID:21206788

  12. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañas, B. C.; Miranda, O. G.; Parada, A.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs), discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1 ×10-11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1 | ≤ 5.6 ×10-11μB, |Λ2 | ≤ 4.0 ×10-11μB, and |Λ3 | ≤ 3.1 ×10-11μB (90% C.L.), irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  13. Hypersensitivity and vaccines: an update.

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick; Deschildre, Antoine; Waton, Julie; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Tréchot, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Allergic reactions to vaccines can be classified as sensitivity to one of the vaccine components, pseudo-allergic reactions, often after hyperimmunization, and exacerbation of atopic symptoms or vasculitis. Pseudo-allergic reactions, some possibly due to hyperimmunization, are probably more common than true allergies. Atopic reactions should not be confused with the "flash" phenomenon, defined as an exacerbation of an allergic reaction due to a reduction in the allergic reactivity threshold following the vaccine injection. BCGitis occurs frequently, and for this reason, guidelines for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have been modified. The vaccine is now reserved for people at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review provides an update on the vaccination modalities for people allergic to eggs, on the assessment that should be performed when a reaction occurs due to tetanus vaccination, on the urticaria after hepatitis vaccination, on an aluminum granuloma, which is more and more frequent in young children, and vasculitis after flu vaccination and BCGitis. The side effects associated with new, recently released vaccines, such as anti-influenza A H1N1 or anti-human papilloma virus (HPV) will also be presented.

  14. Hypersensitivity and vaccines: an update.

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick; Deschildre, Antoine; Waton, Julie; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Tréchot, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Allergic reactions to vaccines can be classified as sensitivity to one of the vaccine components, pseudo-allergic reactions, often after hyperimmunization, and exacerbation of atopic symptoms or vasculitis. Pseudo-allergic reactions, some possibly due to hyperimmunization, are probably more common than true allergies. Atopic reactions should not be confused with the "flash" phenomenon, defined as an exacerbation of an allergic reaction due to a reduction in the allergic reactivity threshold following the vaccine injection. BCGitis occurs frequently, and for this reason, guidelines for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have been modified. The vaccine is now reserved for people at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review provides an update on the vaccination modalities for people allergic to eggs, on the assessment that should be performed when a reaction occurs due to tetanus vaccination, on the urticaria after hepatitis vaccination, on an aluminum granuloma, which is more and more frequent in young children, and vasculitis after flu vaccination and BCGitis. The side effects associated with new, recently released vaccines, such as anti-influenza A H1N1 or anti-human papilloma virus (HPV) will also be presented. PMID:23238161

  15. Congenital Chagas disease: an update

    PubMed Central

    Carlier, Yves; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Luquetti, Alejandro O; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Congenital infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is a global problem, occurring on average in 5% of children born from chronically infected mothers in endemic areas, with variations depending on the region. This presentation aims to focus on and update epidemiological data, research methods, involved factors, control strategy and possible prevention of congenital infection with T. cruzi. Considering that etiological treatment of the child is always effective if performed before one year of age, the diagnosis of infection in pregnant women and their newborns has to become the standard of care and integrated into the surveillance programs of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus. In addition to the standard tests, polymerase chain reaction performed on blood of neonates of infected mothers one month after birth might improve the diagnosis of congenital infection. Recent data bring out that its transmission can be prevented through treatment of infected women before they become pregnant. The role of parasite genotypes and host genetic factors in parasite transmission and development of infection in foetuses/neonates has to be more investigated in order to better estimate the risk factors and impact on health of congenital infection with T. cruzi. PMID:25760448

  16. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Patel, Abhishek P; Smith, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42-60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%-6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery. PMID:26975488

  17. Update on Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hewlett, Meghan; Mahalingaiah, Shruthi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Despite an incidence of one percent among women under the age of forty, primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is still poorly understood. As the variable etiology and presentation of POI complicate its management, a standard regimen for treatment remains to be established. However, emerging research has provided new insight on current mainstays of treatment as well as novel management approaches and therapeutic interventions. Recent findings Recent clinical trials in women with POI indicate that the widely-used regimen of transdermal estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate restores bone mineral density (BMD) to a level equal to women with normal ovarian function. Further research verifies that compounded bioidentical hormones and androgen supplementation are inadequate in treating POI and lowering risk for long-term sequelae. Additionally, assessing changes in bone turnover markers may be useful for monitoring BMD. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture, DHEA, and buproprion may be effective in treating the effects of estrogen deficiency at some level, but require further investigation. Summary Recent updates show promise in improving management methods and reducing risk of long-term sequelae. Additional research that expands upon the most current literature is critical in order to achieve an evidence-based standard of best practice. PMID:26512773

  18. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Abhishek P; Smith, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42–60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%–6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery. PMID:26975488

  19. Facial transplantation: A concise update

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Pulido, Fernando; Gomez-Cia, Tomas; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Gacto-Sanchez, Purificacion; Hernandez-Guisado, Jose-Maria; Lagares-Borrego, Araceli; Narros-Gimenez, Rocio; Gonzalez-Padilla, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on “face transplantation” until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 8 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. Conclusions: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients. Key words:Face transplantation, composite tissue transplantation, face allograft, facial reconstruction, outcomes and complications of face transplantation. PMID:23229268

  20. An update on local anesthetics in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Haas, Daniel A

    2002-10-01

    Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in dentistry. This article provides a brief update on the pharmacology, adverse effects and clinical applications of these drugs, as well as the role of vasoconstrictors. PMID:12366885

  1. Updating the Vision for Marine Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, E. Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to update the content, philosophical stance, and pedagogy of marine education to reflect recent advances in these areas. Cites some developments in oceanography and ocean engineering. Proposes ways teachers can learn about and utilize this knowledge. (RT)

  2. ISS Update: NEEMO 16 Simulates Spacewalk Underwater

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Josh Byerly interviews European Space Agency astronaut Tim Peake, NEEMO 16 crew member. Peake talks about the spacewalk techniques they are testing by simulating an asteroid ...

  3. ISS Update: High Rate Communications System

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Diego Serna, Communications and Tracking Officer, about the High Rate Communications System. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the ha...

  4. ISS Update: After the Venus Transit

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Brandi Dean interviewed astronaut Mario Runco about the results of the Expedition 31 crew’s effort to photograph Venus transit. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  5. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Estrogen-alone hormone therapy does not increase the risk of ...

  6. DOE Wind Program Update: June 4, 2006;

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    The DOE Wind Program Update provides WindPower Conference attendees with information about recent DOE events, including Assistant Secretary Karsner, a wind turbine blade test facility CRADA, and 2005 Wind Energy Award recipients.

  7. Data acquisition and control for gamma scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.K.; Murray, A.S.; Quintana, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    A new computer-based data acquisition and control unit has been installed in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) system for scanning irradiated reactor fuel pins. The scanning mechanism is controlled by a commercial multichannel analyzer via a CAMAC link with an intelligent crate controller. The scanning and control unit consists of three linked LSI-11 computers. The multitasking capability of the commercial operation system allows control decisions to be based upon currently acquiring data.

  8. Radiogallium scan in P. carinii pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, K.L.; Bakshi, S.P.; Bender, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    A gallium scan performed on a patient with fever of unknown origin (FUO) revealed an abnormal uptake of radiotracer in the lungs despite negative chest roentgenographic examination and other routine diagnostic studies. Subsequent lung biopsy results confirmed the presence of Pneumocystis (P.) carinii infection. A repeat gallium scan obtained following appropriate antibiotic therapy was essentially normal. The importance of radiogallium scanning in an immunosuppressed patient with FUO is emphasized.

  9. Ion Implantation with Scanning Probe Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, A.; Liddle, J.A.; Schenkel, T.; Bokor, J.; Ivanov, Tzv.; Rangelow, I.W.

    2005-07-12

    We describe a scanning probe instrument which integrates ion beams with the imaging and alignment function of a piezo-resistive scanning probe in high vacuum. The beam passes through several apertures and is finally collimated by a hole in the cantilever of the scanning probe. The ion beam spot size is limited by the size of the last aperture. Highly charged ions are used to show hits of single ions in resist, and we discuss the issues for implantation of single ions.

  10. Working Memory Updating as a Predictor of Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechuga, M. Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago; Pelaez, Jose L.; Martin-Puga, M. Eva; Justicia, M. Jose

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting the importance of executive functions, and specifically working memory updating (WMU), for children's academic achievement. This study aimed to assess the specific contribution of updating to the prediction of academic performance. Two updating tasks, which included different updating components, were…

  11. 49 CFR 1002.3 - Updating user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Updating user fees. 1002.3 Section 1002.3... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FEES § 1002.3 Updating user fees. (a) Update. Each... associated with user fee activity. Actual updating of operations overhead will be accomplished by...

  12. 49 CFR 360.5 - Updating user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Updating user fees. 360.5 Section 360.5... REGISTRATION AND INSURANCE § 360.5 Updating user fees. (a) Update. Each fee established in this part may be... associated with user fee activity. Actual updating of operations overhead will be accomplished by...

  13. Selected papers on laser scanning and recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiser, L.

    Previously published papers concerned with laser scanning and recording techniques are presented. Subjects treated include laser beam information scanning and recording, laser scanning techniques, system design considerations for laser scanning, laser noise, reliability, resolution, and dynamic range, and optical data storage systems. Consideration is given to the components and media for developing laser scanning and recording systems, in particular the laser, the optics, the scanner, and the storage media. Topics discussed include basic and operational multichannel acoustooptic operation; galvanometer and analog compensations; motor and control systems; angle measurement of scanner by interferometry, preheat-aided laser recording, creating multidimensional scan using a single rotating component, digital techniques in high resolution analog scanning and recording; laser scanning parameters and latitudes in laser xerography; optical video disc technology; focus error detection in optical data storage systems, holographic laser scanners for nonimpact printing; and techniques in optical strobe recording. Laser beam recording, techniques, film recorder systems, laser scanner applicaations, the optimization of printing speed and printout quality of laser beam printers, an internal drum laser scanning plate exposure system, and an ultra-high resolution graphic data terminal are described.

  14. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, G.T.; Houlberg, L.M.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-02-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  15. Environmental regulatory update table, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  16. Environmental regulatory update table, July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (July 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  17. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, G.T.; Houlberg, L.M.; Noghrei-Nikbakht, P.A.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  18. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, G.T.; Houlberg, L.M.; Noghrei-Nikbakht, P.A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-12-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  19. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  20. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  1. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Noghrei-Nikbakht, P.A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  2. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-05-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  3. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlbert, L.M.; Langston, M.E. ); Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  4. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M., Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-09-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (August 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  5. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  6. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  7. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  8. Influence of scanning strategies on the accuracy of digital intraoral scanning systems.

    PubMed

    Ender, A; Mehl, A

    2013-01-01

    The digital intraoral impression is a central part in today's CAD/CAM dentistry. With its possibilities, new treatment options for the patient is provided and the prosthetic workflow is accelerated. Nowadays, the major issue with intraoral scanning systems is to gain more accuracy especially for larger scan areas and to simplify clinical handling for the dentist. The aim of this study was to investigate different scanning strategies regardingtheir accuracy with full arch scans in an in-vitro study design. A reference master model was used for the digital impressions with the Lava COS, the Cerec Bluecam and a powderfree intraoral scanning system, Cadent iTero. The trueness and precision of each scanning protocol was measured. Lava COS provides the a trueness of 45.8 microm with the scanning protocol recommended from the manufacturer. A different scanning protocol shows significantly lower accuracy (trueness +/- 90.2 microm). Cerec Bluecam also benefits from an optimal scanning protocol with a trueness of +/- 23.3 microm compared to +/- 52.5 microm with a standard protocol. The powderfree impression system Cadent iTero shows also a high accurate full-arch scan with a trueness of +/- 35.0 microm and a precision of +/- 30.9 microm. With the current intraoral scanning systems, full arch dental impressions are possible with a high accuracy, if adequate scan strategies are used. The powderfree scanning system provides the same level of accuracy compared to scanning systems with surface pretreatment.

  9. Polychlorinated naphthalenes: an environmental update.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs; CNs) form a complex mixture of up to 75 congeners containing from one to eight chlorine atoms per naphthalene molecule. Chloronaphthalenes are widespread global environmental pollutants which accumulate in biota. All chloronaphthalenes are planar compounds and can contribute to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated mechanism of toxicity with a combination of various 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin like toxic responses. There are three known main sources of environmental pollution with PCNs: technical PCN formulations, technical polychlorinated biphenyl formulations, and thermal and other processes in the presence of chlorine. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the most recent data on environmental pollution, chemistry, analysis, sources, formation, persistence, toxicity and behavior of PCNs.

  10. The human obesity gene map: the 2005 update.

    PubMed

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Zuberi, Aamir; Chagnon, Yvon C; Weisnagel, S John; Argyropoulos, George; Walts, Brandon; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the 12th update of the human obesity gene map, which incorporates published results up to the end of October 2005. Evidence from single-gene mutation obesity cases, Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as a clinical feature, transgenic and knockout murine models relevant to obesity, quantitative trait loci (QTL) from animal cross-breeding experiments, association studies with candidate genes, and linkages from genome scans is reviewed. As of October 2005, 176 human obesity cases due to single-gene mutations in 11 different genes have been reported, 50 loci related to Mendelian syndromes relevant to human obesity have been mapped to a genomic region, and causal genes or strong candidates have been identified for most of these syndromes. There are 244 genes that, when mutated or expressed as transgenes in the mouse, result in phenotypes that affect body weight and adiposity. The number of QTLs reported from animal models currently reaches 408. The number of human obesity QTLs derived from genome scans continues to grow, and we now have 253 QTLs for obesity-related phenotypes from 61 genome-wide scans. A total of 52 genomic regions harbor QTLs supported by two or more studies. The number of studies reporting associations between DNA sequence variation in specific genes and obesity phenotypes has also increased considerably, with 426 findings of positive associations with 127 candidate genes. A promising observation is that 22 genes are each supported by at least five positive studies. The obesity gene map shows putative loci on all chromosomes except Y. The electronic version of the map with links to useful publications and relevant sites can be found at http://obesitygene.pbrc.edu.

  11. The human obesity gene map: the 2004 update.

    PubMed

    Pérusse, Louis; Rankinen, Tuomo; Zuberi, Aamir; Chagnon, Yvon C; Weisnagel, S John; Argyropoulos, George; Walts, Brandon; Snyder, Eric E; Bouchard, Claude

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the eleventh update of the human obesity gene map, which incorporates published results up to the end of October 2004. Evidence from single-gene mutation obesity cases, Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as a clinical feature, transgenic and knockout murine models relevant to obesity, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from animal cross-breeding experiments, association studies with candidate genes, and linkages from genome scans is reviewed. As of October 2004, 173 human obesity cases due to single-gene mutations in 10 different genes have been reported, and 49 loci related to Mendelian syndromes relevant to human obesity have been mapped to a genomic region, and causal genes or strong candidates have been identified for most of these syndromes. There are 166 genes which, when mutated or expressed as transgenes in the mouse, result in phenotypes that affect body weight and adiposity. The number of QTLs reported from animal models currently reaches 221. The number of human obesity QTLs derived from genome scans continues to grow, and we have now 204 QTLs for obesity-related phenotypes from 50 genome-wide scans. A total of 38 genomic regions harbor QTLs replicated among two to four studies. The number of studies reporting associations between DNA sequence variation in specific genes and obesity phenotypes has also increased considerably with 358 findings of positive associations with 113 candidate genes. Among them, 18 genes are supported by at least five positive studies. The obesity gene map shows putative loci on all chromosomes except Y. Overall, >600 genes, markers, and chromosomal regions have been associated or linked with human obesity phenotypes. The electronic version of the map with links to useful publications and genomic and other relevant sites can be found at http://obesitygene.pbrc.edu.

  12. Gap Assessment (FY 13 Update)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Getman, Dan

    2013-09-30

    To help guide its future data collection efforts, The DOE GTO funded a data gap analysis in FY2012 to identify high potential hydrothermal areas where critical data are needed. This analysis was updated in FY2013 and the resulting datasets are represented by this metadata. The original process was published in FY 2012 and is available here: https://pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/db/GeoConf/papers/SGW/2013/Esposito.pdf Though there are many types of data that can be used for hydrothermal exploration, five types of exploration data were targeted for this analysis. These data types were selected for their regional reconnaissance potential, and include many of the primary exploration techniques currently used by the geothermal industry. The data types include: 1. well data 2. geologic maps 3. fault maps 4. geochemistry data 5. geophysical data To determine data coverage, metadata for exploration data (including data type, data status, and coverage information) were collected and catalogued from nodes on the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). It is the intention of this analysis that the data be updated from this source in a semi-automated fashion as new datasets are added to the NGDS nodes. In addition to this upload, an online tool was developed to allow all geothermal data providers to access this assessment and to directly add metadata themselves and view the results of the analysis via maps of data coverage in Geothermal Prospector (http://maps.nrel.gov/gt_prospector). A grid of the contiguous U.S. was created with 88,000 10-km by 10-km grid cells, and each cell was populated with the status of data availability corresponding to the five data types. Using these five data coverage maps and the USGS Resource Potential Map, sites were identified for future data collection efforts. These sites signify both that the USGS has indicated high favorability of occurrence of geothermal resources and that data gaps exist. The uploaded data are contained in two data files for

  13. Update on percutaneous mitral commissurotomy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Lodi-Junqueira, Lucas; Tan, Timothy C; Athayde, Guilherme Rafael Sant'Anna; Hung, Judy

    2016-04-01

    Percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) is the first-line therapy for managing rheumatic mitral stenosis. Over the past two decades, the indications of the procedure have expanded to include patients with unfavourable valve anatomy as a consequence of epidemiological changes in patient population. The procedure is increasingly being performed in patients with increased age, more deformed valves and associated comorbidities. Echocardiography plays a crucial role in patient selection and to guide a more efficient procedure. The main echocardiographic predictors of immediate results after PMC are mitral valve area, subvalvular thickening and valve calcification, especially at the commissural level. However, procedural success rate is not only dependent on valve anatomy, but a number of other factors including patient characteristics, interventional management strategies and operator expertise. Severe mitral regurgitation continues to be the most common immediate procedural complication with unchanged incidence rates over time. The long-term outcome after PMC is mainly determined by the immediate procedural results. Postprocedural parameters associated with late adverse events include mitral valve area, mitral regurgitation severity, mean gradient and pulmonary artery pressure. Mitral restenosis is an important predictor of event-free survival rates after successful PMC, and repeat procedure can be considered in cases with commissural refusion. PMC can be performed in special situations, which include high-risk patients, during pregnancy and in the presence of left atrial thrombus, especially in centres with specialised expertise. Therefore, procedural decision-making should take into account the several determinant factors of PMC outcomes. This paper provides an overview and update of PMC techniques, complications, immediate and long-term results over time, and assessment of suitability for the procedure. PMID:26743926

  14. Aluminium toxicokinetics: an updated minireview.

    PubMed

    Yokel, R A; McNamara, P J

    2001-04-01

    This MiniReview updates and expands the MiniReview of aluminium toxicokinetics by Wilhelm et al. published by this journal in 1990. The use of 26Al, analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry, now enables determination of Al toxicokinetics under physiological conditions. There is concern about aluminium in drinking water. The common sources of aluminium for man are reviewed. Oral Al bioavailability from water appears to be about 0.3%. Food is the primary common source. Al bioavailability from food has not been adequately determined. Industrial and medicinal exposure, and perhaps antiperspirant use, can significantly increase absorbed aluminium. Inhalation bioavailability of airborne soluble Al appears to be about 1.5% in the industrial environment. Al may distribute to the brain from the nasal cavity, but the significance of this exposure route is unknown. Systemic Al bioavailability after single underarm antiperspirant application may be up to 0.012%. All intramuscularly injected Al, e.g. from vaccines, may eventually be absorbed. Al distributes unequally to all tissues. Distribution and renal excretion appear to be enhanced by citrate. Brain uptake of Al may be mediated by Al transferrin and Al citrate complexes. There appears to be carrier-mediated efflux of Al citrate from the brain. Elimination half-lives of years have been reported in man, probably reflecting release from bone. Al elimination is primarily renal with < or = 2% excreted in bile. The contribution of food to absorbed Al needs to be determined to advance our understanding of the major components of Al toxicokinetics.

  15. Pattern recognition receptors as potential therapeutic targets in inflammatory rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Lisa M; Chamberlain, Giselle; Sacre, Sandra

    2015-05-15

    The pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system are part of the first line of defence against pathogens. However, they also have the ability to respond to danger signals that are frequently elevated during tissue damage and at sites of inflammation. Inadvertent activation of pattern recognition receptors has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of many conditions including inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Prolonged inflammation most often results in pain and damage to tissues. In particular, the Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-like receptors that form inflammasomes have been postulated as key contributors to the inflammation observed in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout and systemic lupus erythematosus. As such, there is increasing interest in targeting these receptors for therapeutic treatment in the clinic. Here the role of pattern recognition receptors in the pathogenesis of these diseases is discussed, with an update on the development of interventions to modulate the activity of these potential therapeutic targets.

  16. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  17. Camera Systems Rapidly Scan Large Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Needing a method to quickly scan large structures like an aircraft wing, Langley Research Center developed the line scanning thermography (LST) system. LST works in tandem with a moving infrared camera to capture how a material responds to changes in temperature. Princeton Junction, New Jersey-based MISTRAS Group Inc. now licenses the technology and uses it in power stations and industrial plants.

  18. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

    1982-08-01

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

  19. Implementing SCANS. Highlight Zone: Research @ Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Arnold C.; Brainard, Scott

    Foremost among efforts over the last decade to improve the work-related skills required of all young people to meet the demands of American's workplaces was the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills Commission (SCANS). Integral to SCANS were its three-part foundation (basic skills, thinking skills, and personal qualities) and these…

  20. Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bone Scan (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Stress Muga (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  1. Fluorescent ligands for adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Eszter; Jayasekara, P Suresh; Squarcialupi, Lucia; Paoletta, Silvia; Moro, Stefano; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    Interest is increasing in developing fluorescent ligands for characterization of adenosine receptors (ARs), which hold a promise of usefulness in the drug discovery process. The size of a strategically labeled AR ligand can be greatly increased after the attachment of a fluorophore. The choice of dye moiety (e.g. Alexa Fluor 488), attachment point and linker length can alter the selectivity and potency of the parent molecule. Fluorescent derivatives of adenosine agonists and antagonists (e.g. XAC and other heterocyclic antagonist scaffolds) have been synthesized and characterized pharmacologically. Some are useful AR probes for flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence polarization, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and scanning confocal microscopy. Thus, the approach of fluorescent labeled GPCR ligands, including those for ARs, is a growing dynamic research field.

  2. Assessment of dopamine receptor densities in the human brain with carbon-11-labeled N-methylspiperone

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wong, D.F.; Langstroem, B.; Duelfer, T.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.T.; Links, J.M.; Rosenbloom, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    We describe the use of carbon-11-labeled 3-N-methylspiperone, a ligand that preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and, for the first time, in a human. The method has now been used in 58 humans for noninvasive assessment of the state of brain dopamine receptors under normal and pathological conditions.

  3. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... 1/2015 Updated by: Daniel Kantor, MD, Kantor Neurology, Coconut Creek, FL and immediate past president of ...

  4. Means for Positioning and Repositioning Scanning Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented for positioning a scanning instrument to point toward the center of the desired scan wherein the scan is achieved by rotating unbalanced masses (RUMs) rotating about fixed axes of rotation relative to and associated with the instrument, the RUMs being supported on drive shafts spaced from the center of the mass of the instrument and rotating 180 degrees out-of-phase with each other and in planes parallel to each other to achieve the scan. The elevation and cross-elevation angles of the instrument are sensed to determine any offset and offset time rate-of-change, and the magnitude and direction are converted to a RUM cycle angular velocity component to be superimposed on the nominal velocity of the RUMs. This RUM angular velocity component modulates the RUM angular velocity to cause the speed of the RUMs to increase and decrease during each revolution to drive the instrument toward the desired center of the scan.

  5. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  6. a Bottom-Up Geosptial Data Update Mechanism for Spatial Data Infrastructure Updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, W.; Zhu, X.; Liu, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Currently, the top-down spatial data update mechanism has made a big progress and it is wildly applied in many SDI (spatial data infrastructure). However, this mechanism still has some issues. For example, the update schedule is limited by the professional department's project, usually which is too long for the end-user; the data form collection to public cost too much time and energy for professional department; the details of geospatial information does not provide sufficient attribute, etc. Thus, how to deal with the problems has become the effective shortcut. Emerging Internet technology, 3S technique and geographic information knowledge which is popular in the public promote the booming development of geoscience in volunteered geospatial information. Volunteered geospatial information is the current "hotspot", which attracts many researchers to study its data quality and credibility, accuracy, sustainability, social benefit, application and so on. In addition to this, a few scholars also pay attention to the value of VGI to support the SDI updating. And on that basis, this paper presents a bottom-up update mechanism form VGI to SDI, which includes the processes of match homonymous elements between VGI and SDI vector data , change data detection, SDI spatial database update and new data product publication to end-users. Then, the proposed updating cycle is deeply discussed about the feasibility of which can detect the changed elements in time and shorten the update period, provide more accurate geometry and attribute data for spatial data infrastructure and support update propagation.

  7. Dissociating Working Memory Updating and Automatic Updating: The Reference-Back Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rac-Lubashevsky, Rachel; Kessler, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) updating is a controlled process through which relevant information in the environment is selected to enter the gate to WM and substitute its contents. We suggest that there is also an automatic form of updating, which influences performance in many tasks and is primarily manifested in reaction time sequential effects. The goal…

  8. Historical overview of nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2016-03-01

    This review summarizes the birth of the field of nuclear receptors, from Jensen's discovery of estrogen receptor alpha, Gustafsson's discovery of the three-domain structure of the glucocorticoid receptor, the discovery of the glucocorticoid response element and the first partial cloning of the glucocorticoid receptor. Furthermore the discovery of the novel receptors called orphan receptors is described.

  9. 21 CFR 1.234 - How and when do you update your facility's registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... update. (1) To update your registration electronically, you must update at http://www.fda.gov/furls. (2... update data into the registration system and the system generates an update confirmation. (e) Update by...-ROM. (1) Registrants submitting their updates in CD-ROM format must use ISO 9660 (CD-R or CD-RW)...

  10. Laser beam scanning by rotary mirrors. I. Modeling mirror-scanning devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Katz, J

    1995-10-01

    Avector approach to tracing the path of a laser beam through an optical system containing movable plane mirrors is described, which permits a unified treatment of a number of basic mirror-scanning devices. We show that the scan field produced by the mirror-scanning system is a curved surface with a straight line as its generating element. The cross section of the scan field can be a circle, an ellipse, or a curve in the shape of an egg. Based on this understanding, some advanced topics are addressed, e.g., the relationship between the scan field and the scan pattern, the dependence of the scan pattern on the location and orientation of the observation surface, optical distortions in a scan pattern, spot-size enlargement caused by non-normal incidence of the scan beam on the observation plane, and so on. Design equations and curves are derived for the mirror-scanning devices that most frequently exist in linear and circular scan technology. Part II contains an analysis of the galvanometer-based optical scanner paddle scanner and the regular polygon. In Part III, X-Y scanning systems are studied. PMID:21060488

  11. Standardizing Scavenger Receptor Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    PrabhuDas, Mercy; Bowdish, Dawn; Drickamer, Kurt; Febbraio, Maria; Herz, Joachim; Kobzik, Lester; Krieger, Monty; Loike, John; Means, Terry K.; Moestrup, Soren K.; Post, Steven; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Silverstein, Samuel; Wang, Xiang-Yang; El Khoury, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Scavenger receptors constitute a large family of proteins that are structurally diverse and participate in a wide range of biological functions. These receptors are expressed predominantly by myeloid cells and recognize a variety of ligands, including endogenous and modified host-derived molecules and microbial pathogens. There are currently eight classes of scavenger receptors, many of which have multiple names, leading to inconsistencies and confusion in the literature. To address this problem, a workshop was organized by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health to help develop a clear definition of scavenger receptors and a standardized nomenclature based on that definition. Fifteen experts in the scavenger receptor field attended the workshop and, after extensive discussion, reached a consensus regarding the definition of scavenger receptors and a proposed scavenger receptor nomenclature. Scavenger receptors were defined as cell surface receptors that typically bind multiple ligands and promote the removal of non-self or altered-self targets. They often function by mechanisms that include endocytosis, phagocytosis, adhesion, and signaling that ultimately lead to the elimination of degraded or harmful substances. Based on this definition, nomenclature and classification of these receptors into 10 classes were proposed. The discussion and nomenclature recommendations described in this report only refer to mammalian scavenger receptors. The purpose of this article is to describe the proposed mammalian nomenclature and classification developed at the workshop and to solicit additional feedback from the broader research community. PMID:24563502

  12. Updated NGNP Fuel Acquisition Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Tim Abram; Richard Hobbins; Jim Kendall

    2010-12-01

    A Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel acquisition strategy was first established in 2007. In that report, a detailed technical assessment of potential fuel vendors for the first core of NGNP was conducted by an independent group of international experts based on input from the three major reactor vendor teams. Part of the assessment included an evaluation of the credibility of each option, along with a cost and schedule to implement each strategy compared with the schedule and throughput needs of the NGNP project. While credible options were identified based on the conditions in place at the time, many changes in the assumptions underlying the strategy and in externalities that have occurred in the interim requiring that the options be re-evaluated. This document presents an update to that strategy based on current capabilities for fuel fabrication as well as fuel performance and qualification testing worldwide. In light of the recent Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) project closure, the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel development and qualification program needs to support both pebble and prismatic options under the NGNP project. A number of assumptions were established that formed a context for the evaluation. Of these, the most important are: • Based on logistics associated with the on-going engineering design activities, vendor teams would start preliminary design in October 2012 and complete in May 2014. A decision on reactor type will be made following preliminary design, with the decision process assumed to be completed in January 2015. Thus, no fuel decision (pebble or prismatic) will be made in the near term. • Activities necessary for both pebble and prismatic fuel qualification will be conducted in parallel until a fuel form selection is made. As such, process development, fuel fabrication, irradiation, and testing for pebble and prismatic options should not negatively influence each other during the period prior to a decision on reactor type

  13. Stuttering: an update for physicians

    PubMed Central

    Costa, D; Kroll, R

    2000-01-01

    Stuttering is a disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech. Developmental stuttering (DS), with or without associated psychiatric illness, is the most common form and includes all cases with gradual onset in childhood that are not the result of acquired brain damage. Persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) is DS that has not undergone spontaneous or speech-therapy-induced remission. Organic models of DS focus on incomplete lateralization or abnormal cerebral dominance. There is also evidence that DS has a significant genetic component to its cause. Neuroimaging research data and the effectiveness of dopamine receptor antagonists in DS seem to support the theory of a hyperdopaminergic origin. Speech therapy remains the main treatment for DS; however, antidepressants can be useful in selected cases. Risperidone, a serotonin-dopamine antagonist, has been shown to be more effective than placebo in decreasing the severity of stuttering. The long-term efficacy and safety of serotonin-dopamine antagonists in DS deserve further study. PMID:10906923

  14. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing.

  15. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing. PMID:26160820

  16. Online updating of synthetic vision system databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Philippe

    In aviation, synthetic vision systems render artificial views of the world (using a database of the world and pose information) to support navigation and situational awareness in low visibility conditions. The database needs to be periodically updated to ensure its consistency with reality, since it reflects at best a nominal state of the environment. This thesis presents an approach for automatically updating the geometry of synthetic vision system databases and 3D models in general. The approach is novel in that it profits from all of the available prior information: intrinsic/extrinsic camera parameters and geometry of the world. Geometric inconsistencies (or anomalies) between the model and reality are quickly localized; this localization serves to significantly reduce the complexity of the updating problem. Given a geometric model of the world, a sample image and known camera motion, a predicted image can be generated based on a differential approach. Model locations where predictions do not match observations are assumed to be incorrect. The updating is then cast as an optimization problem where differences between observations and predictions are minimized. To cope with system uncertainties, a mechanism that automatically infers their impact on prediction validity is derived. This method not only renders the anomaly detection process robust but also prevents the overfitting of the data. The updating framework is examined at first using synthetic data and further tested in both a laboratory environment and using a helicopter in flight. Experimental results show that the algorithm is effective and robust across different operating conditions.

  17. Evaluation of scanning methodology in bimanual coordination.

    PubMed

    Maslovat, Dana; Bredin, Shannon S D; Chua, Romeo; Franks, Ian M

    2005-07-01

    A major component of a dynamical paradigm involves a "scanning" procedure in an attempt to determine an individual's intrinsic coordination tendencies before learning, as well as subsequent changes in the coordination landscape after practice. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate two methods of the scanning procedure. Scans were performed before and after 75 trials of a 90 degrees bimanual-coordination pattern and were compared with early and late acquisition trials. Four groups of participants performed scanning and acquisition trials using a combination of either concurrent visual feedback in the form of Lissajous figures, paced by an auditory metronome, or visual metronomes in the form of flashing stimuli. Analyses revealed that all groups improved performance of the 90 degrees pattern with practice. As predicted by the theory of practice specificity, scanning via the same method as acquisition appears to be valid. Scanning via Lissajous figures when the acquisition procedure was flashing squares was also found to be valid, but not the opposite condition. Reasons for this unidirectional transfer are given with these results suggesting that the sensitivity of a given scanning method might be influenced by the method of acquiring the coordination pattern.

  18. Update on developments at SNIF

    SciTech Connect

    Zacks, J. Turner, I.; Day, I.; Flinders, K.; McAdams, R.; Crowley, B.

    2015-04-08

    The Small Negative Ion Facility (SNIF) at CCFE has been undergoing continuous development and enhancement to both improve operational reliability and increase diagnostic capability. SNIF uses a CW 13.56MHz, 5kW RF driven volume source with a 30kV triode accelerator. Improvement and characterisation work includes: Installation of a new “L” type RF matching unit, used to calculate the load on the RF generator. Use of the electron suppressing biased insert as a Langmuir probe under different beam extraction conditions. Measurement of the hydrogen Fulcher molecular spectrum, used to calculate gas temperature in the source. Beam optimisation through parameter scans, using copper target plate and visible cameras, with results compared with AXCEL-INP to provide beam current estimate. Modelling of the beam power density profile on the target plate using ANSYS to estimate beam power and provide another estimate of beam current. This work is described, and has allowed an estimation of the extracted beam current of approximately 6mA (4mA/cm2) at 3.5kW RF power and a source pressure of 0.6Pa.

  19. Magnetic particle-scanning for ultrasensitive immunodetection on-chip.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, Matteo; Trouillon, Raphaël; Tekin, H Cumhur; Lehnert, Thomas; Gijs, Martin A M

    2014-08-19

    We describe the concept of magnetic particle-scanning for on-chip detection of biomolecules: a magnetic particle, carrying a low number of antigens (Ag's) (down to a single molecule), is transported by hydrodynamic forces and is subjected to successive stochastic reorientations in an engineered magnetic energy landscape. The latter consists of a pattern of substrate-bound small magnetic particles that are functionalized with antibodies (Ab's). Subsequationuent counting of the captured Ag-carrying particles provides the detection signal. The magnetic particle-scanning principle is investigated in a custom-built magneto-microfluidic chip and theoretically described by a random walk-based model, in which the trajectory of the contact point between an Ag-carrying particle and the small magnetic particle pattern is described by stochastic moves over the surface of the mobile particle, until this point coincides with the position of an Ag, resulting in the binding of the particle. This model explains the particular behavior of previously reported experimental dose-response curves obtained for two different ligand-receptor systems (biotin/streptavidin and TNF-α) over a wide range of concentrations. Our model shows that magnetic particle-scanning results in a very high probability of immunocomplex formation for very low Ag concentrations, leading to an extremely low limit of detection, down to the single molecule-per-particle level. When compared to other types of magnetic particle-based surface coverage assays, our strategy was found to offer a wider dynamic range (>8 orders of magnitude), as the system does not saturate for concentrations as high as 10(11) Ag molecules in a 5 μL drop. Furthermore, by emphasizing the importance of maximizing the encounter probability between the Ag and the Ab to improve sensitivity, our model also contributes to explaining the behavior of other particle-based heterogeneous immunoassays.

  20. Quantification of telomere length by FISH and laser scanning cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, John E.; Sahin, Ergun; Jaskelioff, Mariela; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A.; Protopopov, Alexei I.

    2008-02-01

    Telomeres play a critical role in the maintenance of chromosomal stability. Telomere erosion, coupled with loss of DNA damage checkpoint function, results in genomic instability that promotes the development of cancer. The critical role of telomere dynamics in cancer has motivated the development of technologies designed to monitor telomere reserves in a highly quantitative and high-throughput manner in humans and model organisms. To this end, we have adapted and modified two established technologies, telomere-FISH and laser scanning cytometry. Specifically, we have produced a number of enhancements to the iCys LSC (CompuCyte) package including software updates, use of 60X dry objectives, and increased spatial resolution by 0.2 um size of stage steps. In addition, the 633 nm HeNe laser was replaced with a 532 nm green diode laser to better match the viewing options. Utilization of telomere-deficient mouse cells with short dysfunctional telomeres and matched telomerase reconstituted cultures demonstrated significantly higher mean integral specific fluorescence values for mTR transfectants relative to empty vector controls: 4.485M vs. 1.362M (p<0.0001). Histograms of average telomere intensities for individual cells were obtained and demonstrated intercellular heterogeneity in telomere lengths. The validation of the approach derives from a strong correlation between iCys LSC values and Southern blotting. This validated method greatly increases our experimental throughput and objectivity.

  1. HEAO-A nominal scanning observation schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Stone, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The HEAO-A observatory, scheduled for launch in late June 1977, will spend most of its orbital lifetime in a scanning mode, spining from 0.03 to 0.1 rpm about an axis aligned with the sun. The dates of availability in the scan band are given for a list of 248 X-ray sources. Celestial maps of source locations and scan planes, and examples of the nighttime elevation of available sources are presented. This document is intended to aid ground-based observers in planning coordinated observations with HEAO-A.

  2. Scanning-Pencil-Beam Radar Scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, David G.; Freilich, Michael H.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Noon, Don E.

    1992-01-01

    SCANSCAT conceptual scanning radar scatterometer placed in nearly polar orbit around Earth at altitude of 705 km aboard Spacecraft B of NASA's Earth Observing System. Measures radar backscattering from surface of ocean. Data processed on ground into normalized radar-backscattering cross sections, then processed into velocities of winds near surface of ocean by use of empirical mathematical model of relationship between normalized backscattering cross section, wind vector at scanned spot, and angle of incidence and azimuth angle of radar beam. Accuracy and coverage exceeds those of fan-beam scatterometer. Modified versions of scanning plan useful in laser inspection of surface finishes on machined parts.

  3. Clinical applications of Genome Polymorphism Scans

    PubMed Central

    Weber, James L

    2006-01-01

    Applications of Genome Polymorphism Scans range from the relatively simple such as gender determination and confirmation of biological relationships, to the relatively complex such as determination of autozygosity and propagation of genetic information throughout pedigrees. Unlike nearly all other clinical DNA tests, the Scan is a universal test – it covers all people and all genes. In balance, I argue that the Genome Polymorphism Scan is the most powerful, affordable clinical DNA test available today. Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Scott Weiss (nominated by Neil Smalheiser), Roberta Pagon (nominated by Jerzy Jurka) and Val Sheffield (nominated by Neil Smalheiser). PMID:16756678

  4. The false-negative Meckel's scan

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, G.; Froelich, J.W.

    1982-10-01

    A case is presented of a 17-month-old girl who underwent two Meckel's scans with /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate. The initial study was interpreted as normal while a subsequent study five days later was definitely positive. Surgery immediately following the positive Meckel's scan demonstrated a Meckel's diverticulum containing gastric mucosa without evidence of active hemorrhage. This prompted a review of the literature in reference to false-negative Meckel's scans which revealed a wide variance in the reported incidence of false-negative examinations. Repeat scintigraphy in the face of a strong clinical suspicion after an initial normal study may decrease the indicence of false-negative imaging series.

  5. Scanning and georeferencing historical USGS quadrangles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Larry R.; Allord, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The USGS Historical Quadrangle Scanning Project (HQSP) is scanning all scales and all editions of approximately 250,000 topographic maps published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the inception of the topographic mapping program in 1884. This scanning will provide a comprehensive digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. This project serves the dual purpose of creating a master catalog and digital archive copies of the irreplaceable collection of topographic maps in the USGS Reston Map Library as well as making the maps available for viewing and downloading from the USGS Store and The National Map Viewer.

  6. A microprocessor controlled pressure scanning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor-based controller and data logger for pressure scanning systems is described. The microcomputer positions and manages data from as many as four 48-port electro-mechanical pressure scanners. The maximum scanning rate is 80 pressure measurements per second (20 ports per second on each of four scanners). The system features on-line calibration, position-directed data storage, and once-per-scan display in engineering units of data from a selected port. The system is designed to be interfaced to a facility computer through a shared memory. System hardware and software are described. Factors affecting measurement error in this type of system are also discussed.

  7. Morphology and deflection properties of bat wing sensory hairs: scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning vibrometry, and mechanics model.

    PubMed

    Sterbing-D'Angelo, S J; Liu, H; Yu, M; Moss, C F

    2016-01-01

    Bat wings are highly adaptive airfoils that enable demanding flight maneuvers, which are performed with astonishing robustness under turbulent conditions, and stability at slow flight velocities. The bat wing is sparsely covered with microscopically small, sensory hairs that are associated with tactile receptors. In a previous study we demonstrated that bat wing hairs are involved in sensing airflow for improved flight maneuverability. Here, we report physical measurements of these hairs and their distribution on the wing surface of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, based on scanning electron microscopy analyses. The wing hairs are strongly tapered, and are found on both the dorsal and ventral wing surfaces. Laser scanning vibrometry tests of 43 hairs from twelve locations across the wing of the big brown bat revealed that their natural frequencies inversely correlate with length and range from 3.7 to 84.5 kHz. Young's modulus of the average wing hair was calculated at 4.4 GPa, which is comparable with rat whiskers or arthropod airflow-sensing hairs. PMID:27545727

  8. Comparison of full-scan and half-scan for cone beam breast CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lingyun; Shaw, Chris C.; Lai, Chao-jen; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Wang, Tianpeng; Tu, Shu-ju; Liu, Xinming

    2006-03-01

    The half-scan cone beam technique, requiring a scan for 180° plus detector width only, can help achieve both shorter scan time as well as higher exposure in each individual projection image. This purpose of this paper is to investigate whether half-scan cone beam CT technique can provide acceptable images for clinical application. The half-scan cone beam reconstruction algorithm uses modified Parker's weighting function and reconstructs from slightly more than half of the projection views for full-scan, giving out promising results. A rotation phantom, stationary gantry bench top system was built to conduct experiments to evaluate half-scan cone beam breast CT technique. A post-mastectomy breast specimen, a stack of lunch meat slices embedded with various sizes of calcifications and a polycarbonate phantom inserted with glandular and adipose tissue equivalents are imaged and reconstructed for comparison study. A subset of full-scan projection images of a mastectomy specimen were extracted and used as the half-scan projection data for reconstruction. The results show half-scan reconstruction algorithm for cone beam breast CT images does not significantly degrade image quality when compared with the images of same or even half the radiation dose level. Our results are encouraging, emphasizing the potential advantages in the use of half-scan technique for cone beam breast imaging.

  9. The neural dynamics of updating person impressions.

    PubMed

    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Cai, Yang; Todorov, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    Person perception is a dynamic, evolving process. Because other people are an endless source of social information, people need to update their impressions of others based upon new information. We devised an fMRI study to identify brain regions involved in updating impressions. Participants saw faces paired with valenced behavioral information and were asked to form impressions of these individuals. Each face was seen five times in a row, each time with a different behavioral description. Critically, for half of the faces the behaviors were evaluatively consistent, while for the other half they were inconsistent. In line with prior work, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) was associated with forming impressions of individuals based on behavioral information. More importantly, a whole-brain analysis revealed a network of other regions associated with updating impressions of individuals who exhibited evaluatively inconsistent behaviors, including rostrolateral PFC, superior temporal sulcus, right inferior parietal lobule and posterior cingulate cortex.

  10. The neural dynamics of updating person impressions.

    PubMed

    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Cai, Yang; Todorov, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    Person perception is a dynamic, evolving process. Because other people are an endless source of social information, people need to update their impressions of others based upon new information. We devised an fMRI study to identify brain regions involved in updating impressions. Participants saw faces paired with valenced behavioral information and were asked to form impressions of these individuals. Each face was seen five times in a row, each time with a different behavioral description. Critically, for half of the faces the behaviors were evaluatively consistent, while for the other half they were inconsistent. In line with prior work, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) was associated with forming impressions of individuals based on behavioral information. More importantly, a whole-brain analysis revealed a network of other regions associated with updating impressions of individuals who exhibited evaluatively inconsistent behaviors, including rostrolateral PFC, superior temporal sulcus, right inferior parietal lobule and posterior cingulate cortex. PMID:22490923

  11. Updating stored memory requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Carrión, Ángel M

    2015-09-11

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis appears to influence hippocampal functions, such as memory formation for example. While adult hippocampal neurogenesis is known to be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and consolidation processes, the role of such immature neurons in memory reconsolidation, a process involved in the modification of stored memories, remains unclear. Here, using a novel fast X-ray ablation protocol to deplete neurogenic cells, we have found that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is required to update object recognition stored memory more than to reinforce it. Indeed, we show that immature neurons were selectively recruited to hippocampal circuits during the updating of stored information. Thus, our data demonstrate a new role for neurogenesis in cognitive processes, adult hippocampal neurogenesis being required for the updating of stored OR memories. These findings suggest that manipulating adult neurogenesis may have a therapeutic application in conditions associated with traumatic stored memory, for example.

  12. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  13. Updating stored memory requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Carrión, Ángel M

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis appears to influence hippocampal functions, such as memory formation for example. While adult hippocampal neurogenesis is known to be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and consolidation processes, the role of such immature neurons in memory reconsolidation, a process involved in the modification of stored memories, remains unclear. Here, using a novel fast X-ray ablation protocol to deplete neurogenic cells, we have found that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is required to update object recognition stored memory more than to reinforce it. Indeed, we show that immature neurons were selectively recruited to hippocampal circuits during the updating of stored information. Thus, our data demonstrate a new role for neurogenesis in cognitive processes, adult hippocampal neurogenesis being required for the updating of stored OR memories. These findings suggest that manipulating adult neurogenesis may have a therapeutic application in conditions associated with traumatic stored memory, for example. PMID:26358557

  14. Laser beam scanning by rotary mirrors. II. Conic-section scan patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Y

    1995-10-01

    Part II of this study is an application of the general theory of Part I to the following scanners: the galvanometer-based scanner, the paddle scanner, and the regular polygon. The scan field produced by these scanners is (or approximates) a circular cone. Therefore the scan pattern on the plane of observation can be one of the following curves, circle, ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, depending on the position and orientation of the plane. Special topics to be addressed are (1) the effect of input offset, (2) the locus of the instantaneous scan center and the waist of the scan field, (3) the scanning on curved surfaces, and (4) the generalization of the scan-field expression. In Part III, X-Y scanning will be studied. PMID:21060489

  15. P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    North, R Alan

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are membrane ion channels preferably permeable to sodium, potassium and calcium that open within milliseconds of the binding of ATP. In molecular architecture, they form a unique structural family. The receptor is a trimer, the binding of ATP between subunits causes them to flex together within the ectodomain and separate in the membrane-spanning region so as to open a central channel. P2X receptors have a widespread tissue distribution. On some smooth muscle cells, P2X receptors mediate the fast excitatory junction potential that leads to depolarization and contraction. In the central nervous system, activation of P2X receptors allows calcium to enter neurons and this can evoke slower neuromodulatory responses such as the trafficking of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. In primary afferent nerves, P2X receptors are critical for the initiation of action potentials when they respond to ATP released from sensory cells such as taste buds, chemoreceptors or urothelium. In immune cells, activation of P2X receptors triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β. The development of selective blockers of different P2X receptors has led to clinical trials of their effectiveness in the management of cough, pain, inflammation and certain neurodegenerative diseases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377721

  16. Model parameter updating using Bayesian networks

    SciTech Connect

    Treml, C. A.; Ross, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines a model parameter updating technique for a new method of model validation using a modified model reference adaptive control (MRAC) framework with Bayesian Networks (BNs). The model parameter updating within this method is generic in the sense that the model/simulation to be validated is treated as a black box. It must have updateable parameters to which its outputs are sensitive, and those outputs must have metrics that can be compared to that of the model reference, i.e., experimental data. Furthermore, no assumptions are made about the statistics of the model parameter uncertainty, only upper and lower bounds need to be specified. This method is designed for situations where a model is not intended to predict a complete point-by-point time domain description of the item/system behavior; rather, there are specific points, features, or events of interest that need to be predicted. These specific points are compared to the model reference derived from actual experimental data. The logic for updating the model parameters to match the model reference is formed via a BN. The nodes of this BN consist of updateable model input parameters and the specific output values or features of interest. Each time the model is executed, the input/output pairs are used to adapt the conditional probabilities of the BN. Each iteration further refines the inferred model parameters to produce the desired model output. After parameter updating is complete and model inputs are inferred, reliabilities for the model output are supplied. Finally, this method is applied to a simulation of a resonance control cooling system for a prototype coupled cavity linac. The results are compared to experimental data.

  17. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Gage, Rachel; Baek, Yihwa; Bochsler, Tiana M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms. Methods Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135) and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900) conditions, and a Narrow Field (8°) condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating. Results With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition. Discussion If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment. PMID:26943674

  18. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    possible to determinate environments and scenarios where the seismic hazard is a function of distance and magnitude and also the principal seismic sources that contribute to the seismic hazard at each site (dissagregation). This project was conducted by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (Colombian Geological Survey) and the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (National University of Colombia), with the collaboration of national and foreign experts and the National System of Prevention and Attention of Disaster (SNPAD). It is important to stand out that this new seismic hazard map was used in the updated national building code (NSR-10). A new process is ongoing in order to improve and present the Seismic Hazard Map in terms of intensity. This require new knowledge in site effects, in both local and regional scales, checking the existing and develop new acceleration to intensity relationships, in order to obtain results more understandable and useful for a wider range of users, not only in the engineering field, but also all the risk assessment and management institutions, research and general community.

  19. The Molecular Biology Database Collection: 2008 update

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y.

    2008-01-01

    The Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection is a public repository that lists more than 1000 databases described in this and previous Nucleic Acids Research annual database issues, as well as a selection of molecular biology databases described in other journals. All databases included in this Collection are freely available to the public. The 2008 update includes 1078 databases, 110 more than the previous one. The links to more than 80 databases have been updated and 25 obsolete databases have been removed from the list. The complete database list and summaries are available online at the Nucleic Acids Research web site, http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/. PMID:18025043

  20. Structural design utilizing updated, approximate sensitivity derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    A method to improve the computational efficiency of structural optimization algorithms is investigated. In this method, the calculations of 'exact' sensitivity derivatives of constraint functions are performed only at selected iterations during the optimization process. The sensitivity derivatives utilized within other iterations are approximate derivatives which are calculated using an inexpensive derivative update formula. Optimization results are presented for an analytic optimization problem (i.e., one having simple polynomial expressions for the objective and constraint functions) and for two structural optimization problems. The structural optimization results indicate that up to a factor of three improvement in computation time is possible when using the updated sensitivity derivatives.