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Sample records for receptor scanning update

  1. The scanning model for translation: an update

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The small (40S) subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes is believed to bind initially at the capped 5'-end of messenger RNA and then migrate, stopping at the first AUG codon in a favorable context for initiating translation. The first-AUG rule is not absolute, but there are rules for breaking the rule. Some anomalous observations that seemed to contradict the scanning mechanism now appear to be artifacts. A few genuine anomalies remain unexplained. PMID:2645293

  2. Architectures and Algorithms for Parallel Updates of Raster Scan Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    the scan-line organization which allows several pixels along the length of a scan-line to be 7 updated together. This thesis advocates the symmetric...Introduction 3 1.1. Raster scan displays 3 1.2. Background 5 1.3. Thesis outline 7 2. Display Memory Organization 11 2.1. Scan-line Organization 12 2.2...Image Processing 125 8.1. Neighbor transformations 126 8.1.1. Translation 126 8.1.2. Scaling 130 8.1.3. Rotation 134 8.2. Convolution 137 8.3. Conclusion

  3. An Update on GABAρ Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Delgado, Gustavo; Estrada-Mondragón, Argel; Miledi, Ricardo; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo

    2010-01-01

    The present review discusses the functional and molecular diversity of GABAρ receptors. These receptors were originally described in the mammalian retina, and their functional role in the visual pathway has been recently elucidated; however new studies on their distribution in the brain and spinal cord have revealed that they are more spread than originally thought, and thus it will be important to determine their physiological contribution to the GABAergic transmission in other areas of the central nervous system. In addition, molecular modeling has revealed peculiar traits of these receptors that have impacted on the interpretations of the latest pharmacolgical and biophysical findings. Finally, sequencing of several vertebrate genomes has permitted a comparative analysis of the organization of the GABAρ genes. PMID:21629448

  4. Update on MEMS-based scanned beam imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Richard; Gibson, Greg; Metting, Frank; Davis, Wyatt; Drabe, Christian

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, Microvision presented "Scanned Beam Medical Imager" as an introduction to our MEMS-based, full color scanned beam imaging system. This presentation will provide an update of the technological advancements since this initial work from 2004. This recent work includes the development of functional prototypes that are much smaller than previous prototypes using a design architecture that is easily scalable. Performance has been significantly improved by increasing the optical field of views and video refresh rate. Real-time image processing capabilities have been developed to enhance the image quality and functionality over a wide range of operating conditions. Actual images of various objects will be presented.

  5. Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning for Automated Map Updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula

    2016-06-01

    During the last 20 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS), often combined with multispectral information from aerial images, has shown its high feasibility for automated mapping processes. Recently, the first multispectral airborne laser scanners have been launched, and multispectral information is for the first time directly available for 3D ALS point clouds. This article discusses the potential of this new single-sensor technology in map updating, especially in automated object detection and change detection. For our study, Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a suburban area in Finland were acquired. Results from a random forests analysis suggest that the multispectral intensity information is useful for land cover classification, also when considering ground surface objects and classes, such as roads. An out-of-bag estimate for classification error was about 3% for separating classes asphalt, gravel, rocky areas and low vegetation from each other. For buildings and trees, it was under 1%. According to feature importance analyses, multispectral features based on several channels were more useful that those based on one channel. Automatic change detection utilizing the new multispectral ALS data, an old digital surface model (DSM) and old building vectors was also demonstrated. Overall, our first analyses suggest that the new data are very promising for further increasing the automation level in mapping. The multispectral ALS technology is independent of external illumination conditions, and intensity images produced from the data do not include shadows. These are significant advantages when the development of automated classification and change detection procedures is considered.

  6. Membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors: an update

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, David L.; Chrisman, Ted D.; Wiegn, Phi; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Albanesi, Joseph P.; Bielinski, Vincent; Barylko, Barbara; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated key roles for several membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors in the regulation of cell hyperplasia, hypertrophy, migration and extracellular matrix production, all of which having an impact on clinically relevant diseases, including tissue remodeling after injury. Additionally, cell differentiation, and even tumor progression, can be profoundly influenced by one or more of these receptors. Some of these receptors also mediate important communication between the heart and intestine, and the kidney to regulate blood volume and Na+ balance. PMID:16815030

  7. Novel NMDA Receptor Modulators: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Rose M.; Acker, Timothy M.; Zimmerman, Sommer S.; Katzman, Brooke M.; Strong, Katie L.; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Liotta, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction The NMDA receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel that plays a critical role in higher level brain processes and has been implicated in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Although initial studies for the use of NMDA receptor antagonists in neuroprotection were unsuccessful, more recently, NMDA receptor antagonists have shown clinical promise in other indications such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, pain and depression. Based on the clinical observations and more recent insights into receptor pharmacology, new modulatory approaches are beginning to emerge, with potential therapeutic benefit. Areas Covered The article covers the known pharmacology and important features regarding NMDA receptors and their function. A discussion of pre-clinical and clinical relevance is included, as well. The subsequent patent literature review highlights the current state of the art targeting the receptor since the last review in 2010. Expert Opinion The complex nature of the NMDA receptor structure and function is becoming better understood. As knowledge about this receptor increases, it opens up new opportunities for targeting the receptor for many therapeutic indications. New strategies and advances in older technologies will need to be further developed before clinical success can be achieved. First-in-class potentiators and subunit-selective agents form the basis for most new strategies, complemented by efforts to limit off-target liability and fine-tune on-target properties. PMID:23009122

  8. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Merino, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it. PMID:27175057

  9. P2 receptors activated by uracil nucleotides--an update.

    PubMed

    Brunschweiger, Andreas; Müller, Christa E

    2006-01-01

    Pyrimidine nucleotides, including UTP, UDP and UDP-glucose, are important signaling molecules which activate G protein-coupled membrane receptors (GPCRs) of the P2Y family. Four distinct pyrimidine nucleotide-sensitive P2Y receptor subtypes have been cloned, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6 and P2Y14. P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors are activated by UTP (the P2Y2, and the rat but not the human P2Y4 receptor are also activated by ATP), the P2Y6 receptor is activated by UDP, and the P2Y14 receptor by UDP-glucose. Furthermore, non-P2Y GPCRs, the cysteinylleukotriene receptors (CysLT1R and CysLT2R) have been described to be activated by UDP in addition to activation by cysteinylleukotrienes. While P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 receptor activation results in stimulation of phospholipase C, the P2Y14 receptor is coupled to inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Derivatives and analogs of the physiological nucleotides UTP, UDP and ATP have been synthesized and evaluated in order to obtain enzymatically stable, subtype-selective agonists. The P2Y2 receptor agonists diuridine tetraphosphate (diquafosol) and the uracil-cytosine dinucleotide denufosol are currently undergoing clinical trials for dry eye disease, retinal detachment disease, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and cystic fibrosis, respectively. The first antagonists for P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors that appear to be selective versus other P2Y receptor subtypes have recently been described. Selective antagonists for P2Y4 and P2Y14 receptors are still lacking. Uracil nucleotide-sensitive P2Y receptor subtypes may constitute future targets for the treatment of certain cancer types, vascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, and immunomodulatory intervention. They have also been proposed to play a role in neurodegenerative diseases. This article is an updated version of "P2-Pyrimidinergic Receptors and Their Ligands" by C. E. Müller published in Curr. Pharm. Des. 2002, 8, 2353-2369.

  10. Ligand-Receptor Binding Measured by Laser-Scanning Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuck, Paul; Lao, Zhege; Skwish, Stephen; Fraser Glickman, J.; Yang, Ke; Burbaum, Jonathan; Inglese, James

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the integration of laser-scanning fluorometric cytometry and nonseparation ligand-binding techniques to provide new assay methods adaptable to miniaturization and high-throughput screening. Receptor-bound, cyanine dye-labeled ligands, [Cy]ligands, were discriminated from those free in solution by measuring the accumulated fluorescence associated with a receptor-containing particle. To illustrate the various binding formats accommodated by this technique, saturation- and competition-binding analyses were performed with [Cy]ligands and their cognate receptors expressed in CHO cells or as fusion proteins coated on polystyrene microspheres. We have successfully applied this technique to the analysis of G protein-coupled receptors, cytokine receptors, and SH2 domains. Multiparameter readouts from ligands labeled separately with Cy5 and Cy5.5 demonstrate the simultaneous analysis of two target receptors in a single well. In addition, laser-scanning cytometry has been used to assay enzymes such as phosphatases and in the development of single-step fluorescent immunoassays.

  11. Update of the androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1999-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 309 to 374 during the past year. We have expanded the database by adding information on AR-interacting proteins; and we have improved the database by identifying those mutation entries that have been updated. Mutations of unknown significance have now been reported in both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the AR gene, and in individuals who are somatic mosaics constitutionally. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms, including silent mutations, have been discovered in normal individuals and in individuals with male infertility. A mutation hotspot associated with prostatic cancer has been identified in exon 5. The database is available on the internet (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  12. NMDA receptor modulators: an updated patent review (2013 – 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Katie L; Jing, Yao; Prosser, Anthony R; Traynelis, Stephen F; Liotta, Dennis C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The NMDA receptor mediates a slow component of excitatory synaptic transmission, and NMDA receptor dysfunction has been implicated in numerous neurological disorders. Thus, interest in developing modulators that are able to regulate the channel continues to be strong. Recent research has led to the discovery of a number of compounds that hold therapeutic and clinical value. Deeper insight into the NMDA inter-subunit interactions and structural motifs gleaned from the recently solved crystal structures of the NMDA receptor should facilitate a deeper understanding of how these compounds modulate the receptor. Areas covered This article discusses the known pharmacology of NMDA receptors. A discussion of the patent literature since 2012 is also included, with an emphasis on those that claimed new chemical entities as regulators of the NMDA receptor. Expert Opinion The number of patents involving novel NMDA receptor modulators suggests a renewed interest in the NMDA receptor as a therapeutic target. Subunit-selective modulators continue to show promise, and the development of new subunit-selective NMDA receptor modulators appears poised for continued growth. Although a modest number of channel blocker patents were published, successful clinical outcomes involving ketamine have led to a resurgent interest in low-affinity channel blockers as therapeutics. PMID:25351527

  13. Cognitive enhancers (Nootropics). Part 1: drugs interacting with receptors. Update 2014.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Muhs, Andreas; Pfeifer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the fields of Alzheimer's disease and, in particular, cognitive enhancers are very productive. The review "Cognitive enhancers (nootropics): drugs interacting with receptors" was accepted for publication in July 2012. Since then, new targets for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified. This update describes drugs interacting with 42 receptors versus 32 receptors in the first paper. Some compounds progressed in their development, while many others were discontinued. The present review covers the evolution of research in this field through March 2014.

  14. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  15. Renin, (pro)renin and receptor: an update.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Genevieve

    2011-03-01

    PRR [(pro)renin receptor] was named after its biological characteristics, namely the binding of renin and of its inactive precursor prorenin, that triggers intracellular signalling involving ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) 1/2. However the gene encoding for PRR is named ATP6ap2 (ATPase 6 accessory protein 2) because PRR was initially found as a truncated form co-purifying with V-ATPase (vacuolar H+-ATPase). There are now data showing that this interaction is not only physical, but also functional in the kidney and the heart. However, the newest and most fascinating development of PRR is its involvement in both the canonical Wnt/β-catenin and non-canonical Wnt/PCP (planar cell polarity) pathways, which are essential for adult and embryonic stem cell biology, embryonic development and disease, including cancer. In the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, it has been shown that PRR acts as an adaptor between the Wnt receptor LRP5/6 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6) and Fz (frizzled) and that the proton gradient generated by the V-ATPase in endosomes is necessary for LRP5/6 phosphorylation and β-catenin activation. In the Wnt/PCP pathway, PRR binds to Fz and controls its asymetrical subcellular distribution and therefore the polarization of the cells in a plane of a tissue. These essential cellular functions of PRR are independent of renin and open new avenues on the pathophysiological role of PRR. The present review will summarize our knowledge of (pro)renin-dependent functions of PRR and will discuss the newly recognized functions of PRR related to the V-ATPase and to Wnt signalling.

  16. Update on leukotriene receptor antagonists in preschool children wheezing disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in young children. About 40% of all preschool children regularly wheeze during common cold infections. The heterogeneity of wheezing phenotypes early in life and various anatomical and emotional factors unique to young children present significant challenges in the clinical management of this problem. Anti-inflammatory therapy, mainly consisting of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), is the cornerstone of asthma management. Since Leukotrienes (LTs) are chemical mediators of airway inflammation in asthma, the leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are traditionally used as potent anti-inflammatory drugs in the long-term treatment of asthma in adults, adolescents, and school-age children. In particular, montelukast decreases airway inflammation, and has also a bronchoprotective effect. The main guidelines on asthma management have confirmed the clinical utility of LTRAs in children older than five years. In the present review we describe the most recent advances on the use of LTRAs in the treatment of preschool wheezing disorders. LTRAs are effective in young children with virus-induced wheeze and with multiple-trigger disease. Conflicting data do not allow to reach definitive conclusions on LTRAs efficacy in bronchiolitis or post-bronchiolitis wheeze, and in acute asthma. The excellent safety profile of montelukast and the possibility of oral administration, that entails better compliance from young children, represent the main strengths of its use in preschool children. Montelukast is a valid alternative to ICS especially in poorly compliant preschool children, or in subjects who show adverse effects related to long-term steroid therapy. PMID:22734451

  17. Robust temporal resolution of MSCT cardiac scan by rotation-time update scheme based on analysis of patient ECG database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasberg, S.; Farjon, D.; Ankry, M.; Eisenbach, S.; Shnapp, M.; Altman, A.

    2007-03-01

    We have analyzed 144 ECG wave-forms that were taken during cardiac CT exams to determine in retrospect the optimized timing for updating the gantry rotation-time. A score was defined, according to the number of heart beats during X-ray on, which fulfill the temporal resolution (tR)condition, tR<100mSec. The temporal resolution calculation was based on dual-cycle π/2 sector segmentation, where the data required for any image is collected during two heart cycle. The results yield a significant improvement of the tR score with the rotation-time update method relative to using a fixed minimal rotation-time of the gantry. The analysis suggest that full heart scan with better than 100mSec temporal resolution per slice can routinely be achieved in 128 slices MSCT scanner by performing gantry rotation-time -update after patient starts its breath hold. At these conditions the required breath-hold time is expected to be less than 15 seconds.

  18. A Review of the Updated Pharmacophore for the Alpha 5 GABA(A) Benzodiazepine Receptor Model

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Terry; Poe, Michael M.; Rallapalli, Sundari; Biawat, Poonam; Savić, Miroslav M.; Rowlett, James K.; Gallos, George; Emala, Charles W.; Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Stafford, Douglas C.; Arnold, Leggy A.; Cook, James M.

    2015-01-01

    An updated model of the GABA(A) benzodiazepine receptor pharmacophore of the α5-BzR/GABA(A) subtype has been constructed prompted by the synthesis of subtype selective ligands in light of the recent developments in both ligand synthesis, behavioral studies, and molecular modeling studies of the binding site itself. A number of BzR/GABA(A) α5 subtype selective compounds were synthesized, notably α5-subtype selective inverse agonist PWZ-029 (1) which is active in enhancing cognition in both rodents and primates. In addition, a chiral positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SH-053-2′F-R-CH3 (2), has been shown to reverse the deleterious effects in the MAM-model of schizophrenia as well as alleviate constriction in airway smooth muscle. Presented here is an updated model of the pharmacophore for α5β2γ2 Bz/GABA(A) receptors, including a rendering of PWZ-029 docked within the α5-binding pocket showing specific interactions of the molecule with the receptor. Differences in the included volume as compared to α1β2γ2, α2β2γ2, and α3β2γ2 will be illustrated for clarity. These new models enhance the ability to understand structural characteristics of ligands which act as agonists, antagonists, or inverse agonists at the Bz BS of GABA(A) receptors. PMID:26682068

  19. An Environmental Scan Update, 1992-93. 2020: Perfect Vision for the Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, J. N., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A key component to Eastern Iowa Community College District's (EICCD) strategic planning process, called "2020 Vision: A Perfect Vision for the Future," was the publication of the report "An Environmental Scan" in 1989, which summarized major trends occurring in the external environment which may impact the community college,…

  20. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32-56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy of tegument-free sensory receptor of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Price, Z; Voge, M

    1983-01-01

    Immersion of adult Schistosoma mansoni in buffered trypsin for a short time removed the sponge-like tegument to the level of the basal lamina, effectively uncovering the basal lamina and intact sensory receptors. Stripping the tegument from the cilium and sensory bulb exposed the crown of the bulb and its axon-like process. A cilium protrudes from the bulbs through a collar-like supporting structure that resembles the rim and spokes of a wheel. The exposed axon-like process of some bulbs penetrated the basal lamina without ramifying and disappeared into the musculature; the ramifying process of others remained on the upper surface of the lamina for some distance. Identical micromorphology of the sensory receptor by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) (Silk and Spence, 1969; Hockley, 1973), and the similar appearance of the surface of the bulb and cilia and the ciliary supporting structure by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) suggests that all of the receptors probably perform the same sensory function.

  2. Ibalizumab-human CD4 receptor interaction: computational alanine scanning molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Antibody drugs are used in the treatment of many chronic diseases. Recently, however, patients and doctors have encountered problems with drug resistance, and improving the affinity of antibody drugs has therefore become a pressing issue. Ibalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human CD4, the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study, we sought to identify the key residues of the complementaritydetermining regions (CDRs) of ibalizumab. Virtual alanine mutations (complementarity-determining regions of ibalizumab) were also studied using solvated interaction energies derived from molecular dynamics and the explicit water model. Using 1,000 nanosecond molecular dynamic simulations, we identified six residues: Tyr50 [HCDR2], Tyr53 [HCDR3], Asp58 [HCDR2], Glu95 [HCDR2], and Arg95 [LCDR3]. The Robetta alanine-scanning mutagenesis method and crystallographic information were used to verify our simulations. Our simulated binding affinity of -17.33 kcal/mol is close to the experimentally determined value of -16.48 kcal/mol. Our findings may be useful for protein engineering the structure of the ibalizumab-human CD4 receptor complex. Moreover, the six residues that we identified may play a significant role in the development of bioactive antibody analogues.

  3. A new method for ligand docking to flexible receptors by dual alanine scanning and refinement (SCARE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottegoni, Giovanni; Kufareva, Irina; Totrov, Maxim; Abagyan, Ruben

    2008-05-01

    Protein binding sites undergo ligand specific conformational changes upon ligand binding. However, most docking protocols rely on a fixed conformation of the receptor, or on the prior knowledge of multiple conformations representing the variation of the pocket, or on a known bounding box for the ligand. Here we described a general induced fit docking protocol that requires only one initial pocket conformation and identifies most of the correct ligand positions as the lowest score. We expanded a previously used diverse "cross-docking" benchmark to thirty ligand-protein pairs extracted from different crystal structures. The algorithm systematically scans pairs of neighbouring side chains, replaces them by alanines, and docks the ligand to each `gapped' version of the pocket. All docked positions are scored, refined with original side chains and flexible backbone and re-scored. In the optimal version of the protocol pairs of residues were replaced by alanines and only one best scoring conformation was selected from each `gapped' pocket for refinement. The optimal SCARE (SCan Alanines and REfine) protocol identifies a near native conformation (under 2 Å RMSD) as the lowest rank for 80% of pairs if the docking bounding box is defined by the predicted pocket envelope, and for as many as 90% of the pairs if the bounding box is derived from the known answer with ˜5 Å margin as used in most previous publications. The presented fully automated algorithm takes about 2 h per pose of a single processor time, requires only one pocket structure and no prior knowledge about the binding site location. Furthermore, the results for conformationally conserved pockets do not deteriorate due to substantial increase of the pocket variability.

  4. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. [corrected]. LXXXIX. Update on the extended family of chemokine receptors and introducing a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors.

    PubMed

    Bachelerie, Francoise; Ben-Baruch, Adit; Burkhardt, Amanda M; Combadiere, Christophe; Farber, Joshua M; Graham, Gerard J; Horuk, Richard; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Locati, Massimo; Luster, Andrew D; Mantovani, Alberto; Matsushima, Kouji; Murphy, Philip M; Nibbs, Robert; Nomiyama, Hisayuki; Power, Christine A; Proudfoot, Amanda E I; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Rot, Antal; Sozzani, Silvano; Thelen, Marcus; Yoshie, Osamu; Zlotnik, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was announced in Pharmacological Reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, and Power CA (2000) Pharmacol Rev 52:145-176]. Since then, several new receptors have been discovered, and major advances have been made for the others in many areas, including structural biology, signal transduction mechanisms, biology, and pharmacology. New and diverse roles have been identified in infection, immunity, inflammation, development, cancer, and other areas. The first two drugs acting at chemokine receptors have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), maraviroc targeting CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and plerixafor targeting CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization for transplantation in cancer, and other candidates are now undergoing pivotal clinical trials for diverse disease indications. In addition, a subfamily of atypical chemokine receptors has emerged that may signal through arrestins instead of G proteins to act as chemokine scavengers, and many microbial and invertebrate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and soluble chemokine-binding proteins have been described. Here, we review this extended family of chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins at the basic, translational, and clinical levels, including an update on drug development. We also introduce a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors with the stem ACKR (atypical chemokine receptor) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology and the Human Genome

  5. International Union of Pharmacology. LXXXIX. Update on the Extended Family of Chemokine Receptors and Introducing a New Nomenclature for Atypical Chemokine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bachelerie, Francoise; Ben-Baruch, Adit; Burkhardt, Amanda M.; Combadiere, Christophe; Farber, Joshua M.; Graham, Gerard J.; Horuk, Richard; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Locati, Massimo; Luster, Andrew D.; Mantovani, Alberto; Matsushima, Kouji; Nibbs, Robert; Nomiyama, Hisayuki; Power, Christine A.; Proudfoot, Amanda E. I.; Rosenkilde, Mette M.; Rot, Antal; Sozzani, Silvano; Thelen, Marcus; Yoshie, Osamu; Zlotnik, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was announced in Pharmacological Reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, and Power CA (2000) Pharmacol Rev 52:145–176]. Since then, several new receptors have been discovered, and major advances have been made for the others in many areas, including structural biology, signal transduction mechanisms, biology, and pharmacology. New and diverse roles have been identified in infection, immunity, inflammation, development, cancer, and other areas. The first two drugs acting at chemokine receptors have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), maraviroc targeting CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and plerixafor targeting CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization for transplantation in cancer, and other candidates are now undergoing pivotal clinical trials for diverse disease indications. In addition, a subfamily of atypical chemokine receptors has emerged that may signal through arrestins instead of G proteins to act as chemokine scavengers, and many microbial and invertebrate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and soluble chemokine-binding proteins have been described. Here, we review this extended family of chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins at the basic, translational, and clinical levels, including an update on drug development. We also introduce a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors with the stem ACKR (atypical chemokine receptor) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology and the Human

  6. Rapid and Adaptable Measurement of Protein Thermal Stability by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry: Updating a Common Biochemical Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Jeremy; Savas, Christopher J.; Kartje, Zachary; Hoops, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of protein denaturation and protein folding is a common laboratory technique used in undergraduate biochemistry laboratories. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) provides a rapid, sensitive, and general method for measuring protein thermal stability in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory. In this method, the thermal…

  7. The Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor in Brain Functions: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Marie-Odile; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the main active product of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), mediating its action via two major receptors, namely, the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor and the type 2 (AT2) receptor. Recent results also implicate several other members of the renin-angiotensin system in various aspects of brain functions. The first aim of this paper is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the properties and signaling of the AT2 receptor, its expression in the brain, and its well-established effects. Secondly, we will highlight the potential role of the AT2 receptor in cognitive function, neurological disorders and in the regulation of appetite and the possible link with development of metabolic disorders. The potential utility of novel nonpeptide selective AT2 receptor ligands in clarifying potential roles of this receptor in physiology will also be discussed. If confirmed, these new pharmacological tools should help to improve impaired cognitive performance, not only through its action on brain microcirculation and inflammation, but also through more specific effects on neurons. However, the overall physiological relevance of the AT2 receptor in the brain must also consider the Ang IV/AT4 receptor. PMID:23320146

  8. Selective agonists and antagonists of formylpeptide receptors: duplex flow cytometry and mixture-based positional scanning libraries.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Clemencia; Edwards, Bruce S; Appel, Jon R; Yates-Gibbins, Tina; Giulianotti, Marc A; Medina-Franco, Jose L; Young, Susan M; Santos, Radleigh G; Sklar, Larry A; Houghten, Richard A

    2013-09-01

    The formylpeptide receptor (FPR1) and formylpeptide-like 1 receptor (FPR2) are G protein-coupled receptors that are linked to acute inflammatory responses, malignant glioma stem cell metastasis, and chronic inflammation. Although several N-formyl peptides are known to bind to these receptors, more selective small-molecule, high-affinity ligands are needed for a better understanding of the physiologic roles played by these receptors. High-throughput assays using mixture-based combinatorial libraries represent a unique, highly efficient approach for rapid data acquisition and ligand identification. We report the superiority of this approach in the context of the simultaneous screening of a diverse set of mixture-based small-molecule libraries. We used a single cross-reactive peptide ligand for a duplex flow cytometric screen of FPR1 and FPR2 in color-coded cell lines. Screening 37 different mixture-based combinatorial libraries totaling more than five million small molecules (contained in 5,261 mixture samples) resulted in seven libraries that significantly inhibited activity at the receptors. Using positional scanning deconvolution, selective high-affinity (low nM K(i)) individual compounds were identified from two separate libraries, namely, pyrrolidine bis-diketopiperazine and polyphenyl urea. The most active individual compounds were characterized for their functional activities as agonists or antagonists with the most potent FPR1 agonist and FPR2 antagonist identified to date with an EC₅₀ of 131 nM (4 nM K(i)) and an IC₅₀ of 81 nM (1 nM K(i)), respectively, in intracellular Ca²⁺ response determinations. Comparative analyses of other previous screening approaches clearly illustrate the efficiency of identifying receptor selective, individual compounds from mixture-based combinatorial libraries.

  9. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...

  10. Detection of circulating tumor cells using GeneScan analysis for antigen receptor gene rearrangements in canine lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    HIYOSHI-KANEMOTO, Saaya; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; KANEMOTO, Hideyuki; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; FUJINO, Yasuhito; OHNO, Koichi; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) serves as a prognostic marker and indicator of disease relapse, as well as a means of evaluating treatment efficacy in human and canine lymphoma patients. As an extension of our previous study for the construction of clinically useful GeneScan system, we utilized the GeneScan system for detecting CTCs in canine lymphoma patients. Samples from the primary lesion and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 32 dogs with lymphoma at initial diagnosis. All samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor gene rearrangements (PARR) followed by GeneScan analysis. Common clonal rearrangements with identical amplified fragments were detected in both the primary lesion and PBMCs in 19 of the 32 dogs (59.4%). However, the detection rate of CTCs varied among the anatomical classification of lymphoma studied. GeneScan analysis following PARR would facilitate studies on determining the clinical significance of CTCs in canine lymphoma patients. PMID:26888583

  11. An update on the role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine6 receptor in cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Fone, Kevin C F

    2008-11-01

    As the 5-hydroxytryptamine(6) (5-HT(6)) receptor is almost exclusively expressed in the CNS, particularly in areas associated with learning and memory, many studies have examined its role in cognitive function in the rodent, as reviewed herein. Most studies, in healthy adult rats, report that 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists enhance retention of spatial learning in the Morris water maze, improve consolidation in autoshaping tasks and reverse natural forgetting in object recognition. Antagonists appear to facilitate both cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, reversing scopolamine- and NMDA receptor antagonist-induced memory impairments. Recent reports show that the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist, PRX-07034, restores the impairment of novel object recognition produced in rats reared in social isolation, a neurodevelopmental model producing behavioural changes similar to several core symptoms seen in schizophrenia. The 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist, Ro 04-6790, modestly improved reversal learning in isolation reared but not group-housed controls in the water maze. Ro 04-6790 also improved novel object discrimination both in adult rats that received chronic intermittent phencyclidine and drug-naïve 18-month-old rats. However, more information on their effect in animal models of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease is required. Several selective high-affinity 5-HT(6) receptor agonists developed recently also improve object discrimination and extra-dimensional set-shifting behaviour. Thus both 5-HT(6) receptor agonist and antagonist compounds show promise as pro-cognitive agents in pre-clinical studies but the explanation for their paradoxical analogous effect is currently unclear, and is discussed in this article.

  12. An Update on PYRIN Domain-Containing Pattern Recognition Receptors: From Immunity to Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ratsimandresy, Rojo A.; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sense a wide range of endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns as well as exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In particular, Nod-like receptors containing a pyrin domain (PYD), called NLRPs, and AIM2-like receptors (ALRs) have been shown to play a critical role in host defense by facilitating clearance of pathogens and maintaining a healthy gut microflora. NLRPs and ALRs both encode a PYD, which is crucial for relaying signals that result in an efficient innate immune response through activation of several key innate immune signaling pathways. However, mutations in these PRRs have been linked to the development of auto-inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In addition, they have been implicated in metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of PYD-containing NLRPs and ALRs and address their contribution to innate immunity, host defense, and immune-linked diseases. PMID:24367371

  13. An update on non-peptide angiotensin receptor antagonists and related RAAS modulators.

    PubMed

    Aulakh, G K; Sodhi, R K; Singh, M

    2007-08-02

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) is an important regulator of blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte homeostasis. RAAS has been implicated in pathogenesis of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and chronic renal failure. Aliskiren is the first non-peptide orally active renin inhibitor approved by FDA. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors are associated with frequent side effects such as cough and angio-oedema. Recently, the role of ACE2 and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) in the formation of an important active metabolite/mediator of RAAS, ang 1-7, has initiated attempts towards development of ACE2 inhibitors and combined ACE/NEP inhibitors. Furukawa and colleagues developed a series of low molecular weight nonpeptide imidazole analogues that possess weak but selective, competitive AT1 receptor blocking property. Till date, many compounds have exhibited promising AT1 blocking activity which cause a more complete RAAS blockade than ACE inhibitors. Many have reached the market for alternative treatment of hypertension, heart failure and diabetic nephropathy in ACE inhibitor intolerant patients and still more are waiting in the queue. But, the hallmark of this area of drug research is marked by a progress in understanding molecular interaction of these blockers at the AT1 receptor and unraveling the enigmatic influence of AT2 receptors on growth/anti-growth, differentiation and the regeneration of neuronal tissue. Different modeling strategies are underway to develop tailor made molecules with the best of properties like Dual Action (Angiotensin And Endothelin) Receptor Antagonists (DARA), ACE/NEP inhibitors, triple inhibitors, AT2 agonists, AT1/TxA2 antagonists, balanced AT1/AT2 antagonists, and nonpeptide renin inhibitors. This abstract gives an overview of these various angiotensin receptor antagonists.

  14. Dopamine D3 receptor ligands for drug addiction treatment: update on recent findings.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Bernard; Collo, Ginetta; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Boileau, Isabelle; Merlo Pich, Emilio; Sokoloff, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor is located in the limbic area and apparently mediates selective effects on motivation to take drugs and drug-seeking behaviors, so that there has been considerable interest on the possible use of D3 receptor ligands to treat drug addiction. However, only recently selective tools allowing studying this receptor have been developed. This chapter presents an overview of findings that were presented at a symposium on the conference Dopamine 2013 in Sardinia in May 2013. Novel neurobiological findings indicate that drugs of abuse can lead to significant structural plasticity in rodent brain and that this is dependent on the availability of functional dopamine D3 autoreceptor, whose activation increased phosphorylation in the ERK pathway and in the Akt/mTORC1 pathway indicating the parallel engagement of a series of intracellular signaling pathways all involved in cell growth and survival. Preclinical findings using animal models of drug-seeking behaviors confirm that D3 antagonists have a promising profile to treat drug addiction across drugs of abuse type. Imaging the D3 is now feasible in human subjects. Notably, the development of (+)-4-propyl-9-hydroxynaphthoxazine ligand used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans allows to measure D3 and D2 receptors based on the area of the brain under study. This PET ligand has been used to confirm up-regulation of D3 sites in psychostimulant users and to reveal that tobacco smoking produces elevation of dopamine at the level of D3 sites. There are now novel antagonists being developed, but also old drugs such as buspirone, that are available to test the D3 hypothesis in humans. The first results of clinical investigations are now being provided. Overall, those recent findings support further exploration of D3 ligands to treat drug addiction.

  15. Active conformation of the erythropoietin receptor: random and cysteine-scanning mutagenesis of the extracellular juxtamembrane and transmembrane domains.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaohui; Gross, Alec W; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-03-17

    In the absence of erythropoietin (Epo) cell surface Epo receptors (EpoR) are dimeric; dimerization is mediated mainly by the transmembrane domain. Binding of Epo changes the orientation of the two receptor subunits. This conformational change is transmitted through the juxtamembrane and transmembrane domains, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase and induction of proliferation and survival signals. To define the active EpoR conformation(s) we screened libraries of EpoRs with random mutations in the transmembrane domain and identified several point mutations that activate the EpoR in the absence of ligand, including changes of either of the first two transmembrane domain residues (Leu(226) and Ile(227)) to cysteine. Following this discovery, we performed cysteine-scanning mutagenesis in the EpoR juxtamembrane and transmembrane domains. Many mutants formed disulfide-linked receptor dimers, but only EpoR dimers linked by cysteines at positions 223, 226, or 227 activated EpoR signal transduction pathways and supported proliferation of Ba/F3 cells in the absence of cytokines. These data suggest that activation of dimeric EpoR by Epo binding is achieved by reorienting the EpoR transmembrane and the connected cytosolic domains and that certain disulfide-bonded dimers represent the activated dimeric conformation of the EpoR, constitutively activating downstream signaling. Based on our data and the previously determined structure of Epo bound to a dimer of the EpoR extracellular domain, we present a model of the active and inactive conformations of the Epo receptor.

  16. Ethanol and corticotropin releasing factor receptor modulation of central amygdala neurocircuitry: An update and future directions.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2015-05-01

    The central amygdala is a critical brain region for many aspects of alcohol dependence. Much of the work examining the mechanisms by which the central amygdala mediates the development of alcohol dependence has focused on the interaction of acute and chronic ethanol with central amygdala corticotropin releasing factor signaling. This work has led to a great deal of success in furthering the general understanding of central amygdala neurocircuitry and its role in alcohol dependence. Much of this work has primarily focused on the hypothesis that ethanol utilizes endogenous corticotropin releasing factor signaling to upregulate inhibitory GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala. Work that is more recent suggests that corticotropin releasing factor also plays an important role in mediating anxiety-like behaviors via the enhancement of central amygdala glutamatergic transmission, implying that ethanol/corticotropin releasing factor interactions may modulate excitatory neurotransmission in this brain region. In addition, a number of studies utilizing optogenetic strategies or transgenic mouse lines have begun to examine specific central amygdala neurocircuit dynamics and neuronal subpopulations to better understand overall central amygdala neurocircuitry and the role of neuronal subtypes in mediating anxiety-like behaviors. This review will provide a brief update on this literature and describe some potential future directions that may be important for the development of better treatments for alcohol addiction.

  17. Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) modulation by synthetic and natural compounds: an update

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Francesco; Calabrese, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), together with MD-2, binds bacterial endotoxins (E) with high affinity, triggering formation of the activated homodimer (E-MD-2-TLR4)2. Activated TLR4 induces intracellular signaling leading to activation of transcription factors that result in cytokine and chemokine production and initiation of inflammatory and immune responses. TLR4 also responds to endogenous ligands called danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Increased sensitivity to infection and a variety of immune pathologies have been associated with either too little or too much TLR4 activation. We review here the molecular mechanisms of TLR4 activation (agonism) or inhibition (antagonism) by small organic molecules of both natural and synthetic origin. The role of co-receptors MD-2 and CD14 in the TLR4 modulation process is also discussed. Recent achievements in the field of chemical TLR4 modulation are reviewed, with special focus on non-classical TLR4 ligands with a chemical structure different from lipid A. PMID:24188011

  18. Update on the urotensinergic system: new trends in receptor localization, activation, and drug design

    PubMed Central

    Chatenet, David; Nguyen, Thi-Tuyet M.; Létourneau, Myriam; Fournier, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The urotensinergic system plays central roles in the physiological regulation of major mammalian organ systems, including the cardiovascular system. As a matter of fact, this system has been linked to numerous pathophysiological states including atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes as well as psychological, and neurological disorders. The delineation of the (patho)physiological roles of the urotensinergic system has been hampered by the absence of potent and selective antagonists for the urotensin II-receptor (UT). Thus, a more precise definition of the molecular functioning of the urotensinergic system, in normal conditions as well as in a pathological state is still critically needed. The recent discovery of nuclear UT within cardiomyocytes has highlighted the cellular complexity of this system and suggested that UT-associated biological responses are not only initiated at the cell surface but may result from the integration of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways. Thus, such nuclear-localized receptors, regulating distinct signaling pathways, may represent new therapeutic targets. With the recent observation that urotensin II (UII) and urotensin II-related peptide (URP) exert different biological effects and the postulate that they could also have distinct pathophysiological roles in hypertension, it appears crucial to reassess the recognition process involving UII and URP with UT, and to push forward the development of new analogs of the UT system aimed at discriminating UII- and URP-mediated biological activities. The recent development of such compounds, i.e. urocontrin A and rUII(1–7), is certainly useful to decipher the specific roles of UII and URP in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, these studies, which provide important information regarding the pharmacology of the urotensinergic system and the conformational requirements for binding and activation, will ultimately lead to the development of potent and selective drugs

  19. Mutation scan of the D1 dopamine receptor gene in 22 cases of bipolar I disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Coon, H.; Holik, J.; Hoff, M.

    1995-04-24

    In a previous study we found suggestive evidence of linkage between manic-depressive illness (MDI) in eight multiplex pedigrees and D5S62, a DNA marker mapping to the telomeric region of 5q. As the D1 dopamine receptor gene (DRDI) maps to this region and as alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission have been indirectly implicated in the pathogenesis of MDI, we directly searched for mutations in the coding region of the DRDI gene in 22 unrelated cases of bipolar I (BPI) disorder derived from multiplex families. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, we did not observe any abnormal SSCP variants in the BPI cases that differed from controls. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia: an update on the role of the dopaminergic receptors D2 partial agonist aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; Fornaro, Michele; Serroni, Nicola; Marini, Stefano; Piersanti, Monica; Cavuto, Marilde; Valchera, Alessandro; Mazza, Monica; Girinelli, Gabriella; Iasevoli, Felice; Perna, Giampaolo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is an unwanted adverse effect present in several typical and atypical antipsychotics. Aripiprazole is a drug with partial agonist activity at the level of dopamine receptors D2, which may be effective for antipsychotic- induced hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, we analyzed the literature concerning the treatment of antipsychoticinduced hyperprolactinemia with aripiprazole by updating a previous paper written on the same topic. More recent studies were reviewed. They showed that there are two options for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia with aripiprazole. The safest strategy may require the addition of aripiprazole to ongoing treatments, in the case patients had previously responded to antipsychotic drugs and then developed hyperprolactinemia. However, it is advisable to monitor the patients in case relapses and/or side effect, although rare, might occur. Switching drugs should be considered when a patient does not appear to be responding to the previous antipsychotic, thus developing hyperprolactinemia. A cross-taper switch should always be considered, but the risk of a relapse in the disorder may occur more frequently and the patients should be closely monitored. However, limitations must be considered and further studies are needed to definitely elucidate this important issue. Some relevant patents are also described in this review.

  1. [18F]fallypride dopamine D2 receptor studies using delayed microPET scans and a modified Logan plot

    PubMed Central

    Tantawy, Mohammed N.; Jones, Carrie K.; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Ansari, M. Sib; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Kessler, Robert M.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2009-01-01

    [18F]fallypride PET studies can be used to estimate the non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) in vivo of dopamine D2/D3 receptor-rich regions of the brain. These studies often take considerable time, up to two or more hours, limiting the throughput. In this work, we investigated whether limited-duration scans performed subsequent to tracer administration yielded stable BPND estimates. In particular, we applied a modified version of the Logan plot method on the last 60 min of 120 min data and compared the results to those from analysis of the full data set. Methods Fourteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with [18F]fallypride intravenously while under isoflurane anesthesia and dynamic data were acquired on the microPET Focus 220 for 120 min. The distribution volume ratio (DVR = BPND + 1) was calculated from a Logan plot using 120 min of data and from a modified version using only the last 60 min. Three of these rats were imaged again on a second day to test the reproducibility. A two-tissue compartment model also was used to fit the time activity curves (TACs) of the 120 min scans to estimate the parameters K1, k2, kon, k4, and Bmax. These parameters then were used to simulate similar TACs while changing kon to reflect changes in the dopaminergic system. The simulated TACs were used as a means for exploring the differences in DVR estimates between the last 60 min only and the full 120 min of simulated data. Results The average DVR from the full 120 min scans was 13.8 ± 0.9 whereas the average distribution volume ratio estimated from only the last 60 min of data (DVR′) was 16.3 ± 1.0. The distribution volume ratio estimates showed good reproducibility in the three rats (mean DVR = 13.8 ± 1.5 on Day 1 and DVR = 13.8 ± 0.9 on Day 2). The simulations showed that the relationship between DVR′ and DVR estimates follows a semi-linear form with varying kon. Conclusion Although the BPND estimates are slightly overestimated in a delayed scan mode (i.e. no

  2. Alanine scan of α-conotoxin RegIIA reveals a selective α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kompella, Shiva N; Hung, Andrew; Clark, Richard J; Marí, Frank; Adams, David J

    2015-01-09

    Activation of the α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of various conditions, including development and progression of lung cancer and in nicotine addiction. As selective α3β4 nAChR antagonists, α-conotoxins are valuable tools to evaluate the functional roles of this receptor subtype. We previously reported the discovery of a new α4/7-conotoxin, RegIIA. RegIIA was isolated from Conus regius and inhibits acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents mediated by α3β4, α3β2, and α7 nAChR subtypes. The current study used alanine scanning mutagenesis to understand the selectivity profile of RegIIA at the α3β4 nAChR subtype. [N11A] and [N12A] RegIIA analogs exhibited 3-fold more selectivity for the α3β4 than the α3β2 nAChR subtype. We also report synthesis of [N11A,N12A]RegIIA, a selective α3β4 nAChR antagonist (IC50 of 370 nM) that could potentially be used in the treatment of lung cancer and nicotine addiction. Molecular dynamics simulations of RegIIA and [N11A,N12A]RegIIA bound to α3β4 and α3β2 suggest that destabilization of toxin contacts with residues at the principal and complementary faces of α3β2 (α3-Tyr(92), Ser(149), Tyr(189), Cys(192), and Tyr(196); β2-Trp(57), Arg(81), and Phe(119)) may form the molecular basis for the selectivity shift.

  3. Deep mutational scanning of an antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor using mammalian cell display and massively parallel pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Charles M; Juan, Veronica; Akamatsu, Yoshiko; DuBridge, Robert B; Doan, Minhtam; Ivanov, Alexander V; Ma, Zhiyuan; Polakoff, Dixie; Razo, Jennifer; Wilson, Keith; Powers, David B

    2013-01-01

    We developed a method for deep mutational scanning of antibody complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) that can determine in parallel the effect of every possible single amino acid CDR substitution on antigen binding. The method uses libraries of full length IgGs containing more than 1000 CDR point mutations displayed on mammalian cells, sorted by flow cytometry into subpopulations based on antigen affinity and analyzed by massively parallel pyrosequencing. Higher, lower and neutral affinity mutations are identified by their enrichment or depletion in the FACS subpopulations. We applied this method to a humanized version of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab, generated a near comprehensive data set for 1060 point mutations that recapitulates previously determined structural and mutational data for these CDRs and identified 67 point mutations that increase affinity. The large-scale, comprehensive sequence-function data sets generated by this method should have broad utility for engineering properties such as antibody affinity and specificity and may advance theoretical understanding of antibody-antigen recognition.

  4. An update on the development of drugs for neuropsychiatric disorders: focusing on the sigma 1 receptor ligand.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The sigma1 receptor is an intracellular molecule that shares no homology with any mammalian proteins. sigma1 receptors normally localize at the endoplasmic reticulum and regulate a variety of signal transductions including intracellular Ca2+ dynamics and neurotrophic factor signaling. In the brain, sigma1 receptors are known to regulate the activity of diverse ion channels via protein-protein interactions. Accumulated evidences strongly indicate that the activation/upregulation of sigma1 receptors promotes the neuronal differentiation as well as a robust antiapoptotic action. In animals, sigma1 receptor agonists exhibit an antidepressant-like action. Furthermore, the agonists enhanced neuronal survival eventhough they were administered several hours after a brain ischemia. Thus, primary clinical targets of sigma1 receptor ligands are proposed to include stroke, neurodegenerative disorders and depression. Ligands for the sigma1 receptor may constitute a new class of therapeutic drugs targeting an endoplasmic reticular protein.

  5. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist in Animal Models of Stroke: an Update.

    PubMed

    McCann, Sarah K; Cramond, Fala; Macleod, Malcolm R; Sena, Emily S

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA) is an anti-inflammatory protein used clinically to treat rheumatoid arthritis and is considered a promising candidate therapy for stroke. Here, we sought to update the existing systematic review and meta-analysis of IL-1 RA in models of ischaemic stroke, published in 2009, to assess efficacy, the range of circumstances in which efficacy has been tested and whether the data appear to be confounded due to reported study quality and publication bias. We included 25 sources of data, 11 of which were additional to the original review. Overall, IL-1 RA reduced infarct volume by 36.2 % (95 % confidence interval 31.6-40.7, n = 76 comparisons from 1283 animals). Assessments for publication bias suggest 30 theoretically missing studies which reduce efficacy to 21.9 % (17.3-26.4). Efficacy was higher where IL-1 RA was administered directly into the ventricles rather than peripherally, and studies not reporting allocation concealment during the induction of ischaemia reported larger treatment effects. The preclinical data supporting IL-1 RA as a candidate therapy for ischaemic stroke have improved. The reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias has improved substantially in this update, and studies now include the use of animals with relevant co-morbidities.

  6. A single photon emission computed tomography scan study of striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding with 123I-epidepride in patients with schizophrenia and controls.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbo, P; Silverstone, P H; McEwan, A J; Scott, J; Joshua, A; Golberg, K

    1997-01-01

    The usefulness of 123I-epidepride as a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan D2 receptor ligand was examined in vivo in 13 medicated patients with schizophrenia and age- and sex-matched normal controls. To establish the effect of endogenous dopamine on 123I-epidepride binding, 4 of the 13 controls also received 20 mg D-amphetamine. The results showed that 123I-epidepride had high specific binding to the striatum in both patients with schizophrenia and normal controls. There was a trend for the total striatal binding of medicated patients with schizophrenia, as measured by total basal ganglia: frontal cortex (TBG:FC) ratios, to be less than the binding of controls (P = 0.053). This trend confirms previous work showing that antipsychotic medication decreases the number of D2 receptors available for binding to the radioligand. Interestingly, there was also a significant relationship between 123I-epidepride binding ratios and global functioning scales (Global Assessment of Functioning scale [GAF]) for schizophrenia (r = 0.56, P = 0.045), although there was no such relationship with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). In addition, our results showed that amphetamine-induced dopamine release did not alter 123I-epidepride binding, confirming the high specific binding of 123I-epidepride to the D2 receptor. We conclude that 123I-epidepride appears to be a very useful SPECT ligand for imaging the D2 receptor. PMID:9002391

  7. PET-Scan Shows Peripherally Increased Neurokinin 1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow: Visualizing Neurogenic Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Magnus; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Aarnio, Mikko; Gordh, Torsten; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1 specific radioligand [11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ PMID:24155873

  8. Analysis of transmembrane domains 1 and 4 of the human angiotensin II AT1 receptor by cysteine-scanning mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liping; Holleran, Brian J; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Guillemette, Gaétan; Leduc, Richard

    2010-01-22

    The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II (AngII) exerts a wide variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the AT(1) receptor, which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Like other G protein-coupled receptors, the AT(1) receptor possesses seven transmembrane domains that provide structural support for the formation of the ligand-binding pocket. Here, we investigated the role of the first and fourth transmembrane domains (TMDs) in the formation of the binding pocket of the human AT(1) receptor using the substituted-cysteine accessibility method. Each residue within the Phe-28((1.32))-Ile-53((1.57)) fragment of TMD1 and Leu-143((4.40))-Phe-170((4.67)) fragment of TMD4 was mutated, one at a time, to a cysteine. The resulting mutant receptors were expressed in COS-7 cells, which were subsequently treated with the charged sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agent methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium (MTSEA). This treatment led to a significant reduction in the binding affinity of TMD1 mutants M30C((1.34))-AT(1) and T33C((1.37))-AT(1) and TMD4 mutant V169C((4.66))-AT(1). Although this reduction in binding of the TMD1 mutants was maintained when examined in a constitutively active receptor (N111G-AT(1)) background, we found that V169C((4.66))-AT(1) remained unaffected when treated with MTSEA compared with untreated in this context. Moreover, the complete loss of binding observed for R167C((4.64))-AT(1) was restored upon treatment with MTSEA. Our results suggest that the extracellular portion of TMD1, particularly residues Met-30((1.34)) and Thr-33((1.37)), as well as residues Arg-167((4.64)) and Val-169((4.66)) at the junction of TMD4 and the second extracellular loop, are important binding determinants within the AT(1) receptor binding pocket but that these TMDs undergo very little movement, if at all, during the activation process.

  9. Versatility or promiscuity: the estrogen receptors, control of ligand selectivity and an update on subtype selective ligands.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hui Wen; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2014-08-26

    The estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of versatile receptors. They regulate an enormity of processes starting in early life and continuing through sexual reproduction, development, and end of life. This review provides a background and structural perspective for the ERs as part of the nuclear receptor superfamily and discusses the ER versatility and promiscuity. The wide repertoire of ER actions is mediated mostly through ligand-activated transcription factors and many DNA response elements in most tissues and organs. Their versatility, however, comes with the drawback of promiscuous interactions with structurally diverse exogenous chemicals with potential for a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Even when interacting with endogenous hormones, ER actions can have adverse effects in disease progression. Finally, how nature controls ER specificity and how the subtle differences in receptor subtypes are exploited in pharmaceutical design to achieve binding specificity and subtype selectivity for desired biological response are discussed. The intent of this review is to complement the large body of literature with emphasis on most recent developments in selective ER ligands.

  10. Construction of a multicolor GeneScan analytical system to detect clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes in canine lymphoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Sato, Masahiko; Nakashima, Ko; Hiyoshi, Saaya; Fujiwara-Igarashi, Aki; Maeda, Shingo; Nakamura, Kenji; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2015-05-15

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification to detect immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T cell receptor γ-chain (TCRγ) gene rearrangements has recently become widely used as part of the diagnostic strategy for lymphoid tumors in dogs. In this study, we constructed a multicolor GeneScan analytical system to improve the sensitivity and resolution of the clonality analysis of antigen receptor gene rearrangements in dogs. We used 7 reactions per sample, with 2 PCR conditions, to amplify IgH/TCRγ and control genes. By using multicolor-labeled primers, these 7 PCR products could be combined into 3 tubes before capillary electrophoresis. Clonal rearrangement of the IgH/TCRγ genes was detected in 93.3% of dogs with multicentric lymphoma and 84.6% of dogs with gastrointestinal lymphoma. Detection sensitivity of the clonally expanded cells in the background of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 1-10%. The multicolor GeneScan analytical system developed here may prove to be helpful for the diagnosis of lymphoid tumors in dogs.

  11. Cognitive enhancers (Nootropics). Part 3: drugs interacting with targets other than receptors or enzymes. Disease-modifying drugs. Update 2014.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the field of Alzheimer's disease and, in particular, cognitive enhancers, are very productive. The review "Drugs interacting with Targets other than Receptors or Enzymes. Disease-modifying Drugs" was accepted in October 2012. In the last 20 months, new targets for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified. Enormous progress was realized in the pharmacological characterization of natural products with cognitive enhancing properties. This review covers the evolution of research in this field through May 2014.

  12. Binding site characterization of G protein-coupled receptor by alanine-scanning mutagenesis using molecular dynamics and binding free energy approach: application to C-C chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2).

    PubMed

    Chavan, Swapnil; Pawar, Shirishkumar; Singh, Rajesh; Sobhia, M Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    The C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) was proved as a multidrug target in many diseases like diabetes, inflammation and AIDS, but rational drug design on this target is still lagging behind as the information on the exact binding site and the crystal structure is not yet available. Therefore, for a successful structure-based drug design, an accurate receptor model in ligand-bound state is necessary. In this study, binding-site residues of CCR2 was determined using in silico alanine scanning mutagenesis and the interactions between TAK-779 and the developed homology model of CCR2. Molecular dynamic simulation and Molecular Mechanics-Generalized Born Solvent Area method was applied to calculate binding free energy difference between the template and mutated protein. Upon mutating 29 amino acids of template protein and comparison of binding free energy with wild type, six residues were identified as putative hot spots of CCR2.

  13. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the second extracellular loop of type 1 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor revealed residues critical for peptide binding.

    PubMed

    Gkountelias, Kostas; Tselios, Theodoros; Venihaki, Maria; Deraos, George; Lazaridis, Iakovos; Rassouli, Olga; Gravanis, Achille; Liapakis, George

    2009-04-01

    Upon binding of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) analog sauvagine to the type 1 CRF receptor (CRF(1)), the amino-terminal portion of the peptide has been shown to lie near Lys257 in the receptor's second extracellular loop (EL2). To test the hypothesis that EL2 residues play a role in the binding of sauvagine to CRF(1) we carried out an alanine-scanning mutagenesis study to determine the functional role of EL2 residues (Leu251 to Val266). Only the W259A, F260A, and W259A/F260A mutations reduced the binding affinity and potency of sauvagine. In contrast, these mutations did not seem to significantly alter the overall receptor conformation, in that they left unchanged the affinities of the ligands astressin and antalarmin that have been suggested to bind to different regions of CRF(1). The W259A, F260A, and W259A/F260A mutations also decreased the affinity of the endogenous ligand, CRF, implying that these residues may play a common important role in the binding of different peptides belonging to CRF family. Parallel amino acid deletions of the two peptides produced ligands with various affinities for wild-type CRF(1) compared with the W259A, F260A, and W259A/F260A mutants, supporting the interaction between the amino-terminal residues 8 to 10 of sauvagine and the corresponding region in CRF with EL2 of CRF(1). This is the first time that a specific region of CRF(1) has been implicated in detailed interactions between the receptor and the amino-terminal portion of peptides belonging to the CRF family.

  14. Cell-surface receptors and proteins on platelet membranes imaged by scanning force microscopy using immunogold contrast enhancement.

    PubMed Central

    Eppell, S J; Simmons, S R; Albrecht, R M; Marchant, R E

    1995-01-01

    High resolution scanning force microscope (SFM) images of fibrinogen-exposed platelet membranes are presented. Using ultrasharp carbon tips, we are able to obtain submolecular scale resolution of membrane surface features. Corroboration of SFM results is achieved using low voltage, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (LVHRSEM) to image the same protein molecule that is seen in the SFM. We obtain accurate height dimensions by SFM complemented by accurate lateral dimensions obtained by LVHRSEM. The use of 14- and 5-nm gold labels to identify specific membrane-bound biomolecules and to provide contrast enhancement with the SFM is explored as a useful adjunct to observation of unlabeled material. It is shown that the labels are useful for locating specific protein molecules on platelet membrane surfaces and for assessing the distribution of these molecules using the SFM. Fourteen nm labels are shown to be visible over the membrane corrugation, whereas 5-nm labels appear difficult to resolve using the present SFM instrumental configuration. When using the 5-nm labels, collateral use of LVHRSEM allows one to examine SFM images at submolecular resolution and associate function with the structures imaged after the SFM experiment is completed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:7696518

  15. Molecular scanning for mutations in the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) gene in Turkish with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Orkunoglu Suer, Funda E; Mergen, Hatice; Bolu, Erol; Ozata, Metin

    2005-10-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is an endogenous substrate for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, which plays a key role in insulin signaling. Recent studies have identified several polymorphisms in the human IRS-1 gene (Irs-1) that are increased in prevalence among type 2 diabetic patients. To determine whether variation in the Irs-1 contributes to genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Turkish people, PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing method were utilized to analyze the coding region of Irs-1 in 70 subject and 116 control patients. Three missense mutations were detected (Gly972Arg, Ala512Pro, Ser892Gly). There was no significant association found with any of these variants and diabetes. The Gly972Arg mutation, however, was relatively more common in with 10/70 diabetic patients and 15/116 non-diabetic controls being heterozygous and 1/70 being and 0/116 non-diabetic controls being homozygous for this variant. As a conclusion, Ala512Pro, Ser892Gly mutations were rare and Met613Val, Ser1043Tyr and Cys1095Tyr mutations were not found in the populations studied. Gly972Arg is more common than other known mutations in our population but may not be a major determinant in genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes.

  16. Blue News Update: BODIPY-GTP Binds to the Blue-Light Receptor YtvA While GTP Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Schmieder, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Light is an important environmental factor for almost all organisms. It is mainly used as an energy source but it is also a key factor for the regulation of multiple cellular functions. Light as the extracellular stimulus is thereby converted into an intracellular signal by photoreceptors that act as signal transducers. The blue-light receptor YtvA, a bacterial counterpart of plant phototropins, is involved in the stress response of Bacillus subtilis. The mechanism behind its activation, however, remains unknown. It was suggested based on fluorescence spectroscopic studies that YtvA function involves GTP binding and that this interaction is altered by absorption of light. We have investigated this interaction by several biophysical methods and show here using fluorescence spectroscopy, ITC titrations, and three NMR spectroscopic assays that while YtvA interacts with BODIPY-GTP as a fluorescent GTP analogue originally used for the detection of GTP binding, it does not bind GTP. PMID:22247770

  17. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for Type 2 Diabetes:A Clinical Update of Safety and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Drab, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Introduction Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are increasingly being used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but consideration of benefits and potential adverse events is required. This review examines the state of glycemic control, weight loss, blood pressure, and tolerability, as well as the current debate about the safety of GLP-1 RAs, including risk of pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and thyroid cancer. Methods A MEDLINE search (2010-2015) identified publications that discussed longer-acting GLP-1 RAs. Search terms included GLP-1 receptor agonists, liraglutide, exenatide, lixisenatide, semaglutide, dulaglutide, albiglutide, efficacy, safety, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and thyroid cancer. Abstracts from the American Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists from 2010 to 2015 were also searched. Efficacy and safety studies, pooled analyses, and meta-analyses were prioritized. Results Research has confirmed that GLP-1 RAs provide robust glycemic control, weight loss, and blood pressure re-duction. Current studies do not prove increased risk of pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, or thyroid cancer but more trials are needed since publications that indicate safety or suggest increased risk have methodological flaws that prevent firm conclusions to be drawn about these rare, long-term events. Conclusion GLP-1 RA therapy in the context of individualized, patient-centered care continues to be supported by current literature. GLP-1 RA therapy provides robust glycemic control, blood pressure reduction, and weight loss, but studies are still needed to address concerns about tolerability and safety, including pancreatitis and cancer. PMID:26694823

  18. Update on the Mechanism of Action of Aripiprazole: Translational Insights into Antipsychotic Strategies Beyond Dopamine Receptor Antagonism.

    PubMed

    de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Tomasetti, Carmine; Iasevoli, Felice

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine partial agonism and functional selectivity have been innovative strategies in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia and mood disorders and have shifted the concept of dopamine modulation beyond the established approach of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) antagonism. Despite the fact that aripiprazole was introduced in therapy more than 12 years ago, many questions are still unresolved regarding the complexity of the effects of this agent on signal transduction and intracellular pathways, in part linked to its pleiotropic receptor profile. The complexity of the mechanism of action has progressively shifted the conceptualization of this agent from partial agonism to functional selectivity. From the induction of early genes to modulation of scaffolding proteins and activation of transcription factors, aripiprazole has been shown to affect multiple cellular pathways and several cortical and subcortical neurotransmitter circuitries. Growing evidence shows that, beyond the consequences of D2R occupancy, aripiprazole has a unique neurobiology among available antipsychotics. The effect of chronic administration of aripiprazole on D2R affinity state and number has been especially highlighted, with relevant translational implications for long-term treatment of psychosis. The hypothesized effects of aripiprazole on cell-protective mechanisms and neurite growth, as well as the differential effects on intracellular pathways [i.e. extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)] compared with full D2R antagonists, suggest further exploration of these targets by novel and future biased ligand compounds. This review aims to recapitulate the main neurobiological effects of aripiprazole and discuss the potential implications for upcoming improvements in schizophrenia therapy based on dopamine modulation beyond D2R antagonism.

  19. Vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms and the urolithiasis risk: an updated meta-analysis based on 20 case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wentao; Chen, Minfeng; Li, Mengjun; Ma, Hong; Tong, Shiyu; Lei, Ye; Qi, Lin

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) plays a key role in calcium metabolism, and is closely related to urinary stone formation (urolithiasis). Previous studies have investigated the associations between VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (polymorphisms at BsmI, ApaI, FokI, or TaqI cutting sites) and urolithiasis in different populations. However, the results remain inconsistent and controversial. Therefore, meta-analysis was performed to evaluate these associations. Twenty studies that investigated the associations between VDR SNPs and urolithiasis were retrieved. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated under the most appropriate genetic model. The TaqI polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of urolithiasis (tt + Tt vs. TT: OR = 1.253; 95% CI = 1.033-1.520, p = 0.022, I(2) = 0), whereas the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms were not. Stratifying for ethnicity, a slightly increased risk was found among Asians as compared to Whites (OR 1.263, 1.232, respectively, p < 0.01). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was the major source of heterogeneity. In summary, this updated meta-analysis suggests the TaqI polymorphism is associated with urolithiasis risk, whereas BsmI, ApaI, and FokI polymorphisms are not.

  20. Single-Tube Mutation Scanning of The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Using Multiplex LATE-PCR and Lights-On/Lights-Off Probes

    PubMed Central

    Tetrault, Shana M.; Rice, John E.; Wangh, Lawrence J.; Sanchez, J. Aquiles

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous mutations in exons 18-21 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene determine the response of many patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) to anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This paper describes a single closed-tube assay for simultaneous mutational scanning of EGFR exons 18-21. Methods The assay first co-amplifies all four exons as separate single-stranded DNA products using Linear-After-The-Exponential (LATE)-PCR. The amplicons are then interrogated at endpoint along their length using sets of Lights-On/Lights-Off probes of a different color for each exon. The four resulting fluorescent signatures are unique for each underlying DNA sequence. Every mutation in a target potentially alters its unique fluorescent signature thereby revealing the presence of the mutation. Results The assay readily detects mutations which cause sensitivity or resistance to TKIs and can distinguish these clinically important genetic changes from silent mutations which have no impact on protein function. The assay identifies as little as 5% mutant sequences in mixtures of normal DNA and mutant DNA prepared from cancer cell lines. Proof-of-principle experiments demonstrate mutation identification in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded NSCLC biopsies. Conclusion The LATE-PCR EGFR assay described here represents a new type of highly informative, single-tube diagnostic test for mutational scanning of multiple gene coding regions and/or multiple gene targets for personalized cancer therapies. PMID:25411647

  1. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Lung VQ Scan Related Topics Arrhythmia Cough Deep Vein Thrombosis Pulmonary Embolism Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... this topic. Related reading Chest X Ray Cough Deep Vein Thrombosis Pulmonary Embolism Rate This Content: Updated: December 9, 2016 Twitter ...

  2. Update on pruritic mechanisms of hypertrophic scars in postburn patients: the potential role of opioids and their receptors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Biao; Liu, Hong-Wei; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2011-01-01

    Although itching (or pruritus) in a scar is a very common and distressing symptom and is increasingly being recognized as a significant obstacle in burn rehabilitation, the exact mechanisms underlying this symptom have not been elucidated; hence, a reliable therapy has not been established. Recent findings have suggested that itching caused by inflammatory dermatosis can be reduced by antihistamines, but histamine antagonists cannot block all types of pruritus (eg, neuropathic itch). This indicates the presence of a histamine-independent pathway for itch. Itch or pruritus may also be evoked by direct activation of opioid receptors, which have recently been identified in the skin. This article aims to assess the current state of knowledge regarding the role of opioids in the generation of itch in hypertrophic scars in postburn patients. To this end, the authors have reviewed the relevant literature and present some clinical data. The authors hope that this review will form the basis for future research to elucidate the mechanism and treatment of itch.

  3. An update in incretin-based therapy: a focus on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Krystal L; Stapleton, Megan; Weis, Jessica; Irons, Brian K

    2012-10-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, exenatide and liraglutide, offer a unique mechanism in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as part of the incretin system. Their mechanism of action is to increase insulin secretion, decrease glucagon release, reduce food intake, and slow gastric emptying. They target postprandial blood glucose values and have some effect on fasting levels as well. In addition, they promote weight loss and may help to preserve β-cell function, both major problems in T2DM patients. Changes in hemoglobin A1c are similar to those produced by other T2DM agents, including thiazolidinediones, low-dose metformin, and sulfonylureas, and better than those caused by α-reductase inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. These agents have been safely studied in combination with metformin, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones, and insulin therapy. Overall, data are limited for head-to-head comparisons, but it appears that liraglutide may have better efficacy and tolerability compared with exenatide; however, more studies are needed. They are overall well tolerated, with the main adverse events being similar to those with metformin (gastrointestinal intolerances that are transient and dose dependent). However, patients must be monitored for pancreatitis as a rare but possible side effect. For T2DM patients willing to use an injectable agent, exenatide and liraglutide offer another therapeutic option to control hyperglycemia with the potential for weight loss and may be combined with other agents safely.

  4. Bombesin receptors and transplanted stem cells in rat brain: High-resolution scan with 99mTc BN1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopinaro, F.; Paschali, E.; Di Santo, G.; Antonellis, T.; Massari, R.; Trotta, C.; Gourni, H.; Bouziotis, P.; David, V.; Soluri, A.; Varvarigou, A. D.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work is to detect the presence of transplanted stem cells (TSC) in rat brain with high-resolution (HR) scintigraphy and labelled bombesin (BN). BN is a morphogen for Central Nervous System (CNS) as well as for other organs: CNS-oriented TSC over-express BN Receptors (BNR). BN is also a neurotransmitter and modulates several functions of CNS. 99mTc labelled BN-like peptide scan of CNS is the ideal method to detect growing TSC once knowing normal distribution of BNRs in CNS. HR Planar and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images of rat brain were performed with new HR detectors (Li-tech, Italy). Pertechnetate, 99mTc HMPAO and the new 99mTc BN1.1 (patented) were i.v. administered in five rats. HR SPECT of 99mTc BN1.1 detected olfactory tract, fronto-lateral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and amygdale. Results of SPECT were confirmed by bio-distribution study performed after autopsy of three of the five rats. The remaining two rats underwent cerebral lesions followed by transplant of TSC. Three months later, HR scintigraphy was repeated and showed images completely different from previous basal study, with hot spot of 99mTc BN1.1 corresponding to the site of TSC transplant. Immuno-histochemistry confirmed the presence of viable TSC. Not only 99mTc BN1.1 HR scan showed viability of transplanted TSC but also the "background brain" was the still now unknown map of BNR in mammalian brain.

  5. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  6. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body. It is a type of nuclear scan . How the Test is Performed Blood will ... radiation. Due to the slight radiation exposure, most nuclear scans (including WBC scan) are not recommended for ...

  7. Liver scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nuclear scan - technetium; Nuclear scan - liver or spleen Images Liver scan References Lidofsky S. Jaundice. In: Feldman M, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  8. PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have an allergic reaction to the tracer material. Some people have pain, redness, or swelling at ... with diabetes. Most PET scans are now performed along with a CT scan. This combination scan ...

  9. Bone Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mayo Clinic Staff A bone scan is a nuclear imaging test that helps diagnose and track several ... you're nursing. A bone scan is a nuclear imaging procedure. In nuclear imaging, tiny amounts of ...

  10. CT Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...

  11. International Union of Pharmacology LVIII: update on the P2Y G protein-coupled nucleotide receptors: from molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology to therapy.

    PubMed

    Abbracchio, Maria P; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Barnard, Eric A; Boyer, José L; Kennedy, Charles; Knight, Gillian E; Fumagalli, Marta; Gachet, Christian; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Weisman, Gary A

    2006-09-01

    There have been many advances in our knowledge about different aspects of P2Y receptor signaling since the last review published by our International Union of Pharmacology subcommittee. More receptor subtypes have been cloned and characterized and most orphan receptors de-orphanized, so that it is now possible to provide a basis for a future subdivision of P2Y receptor subtypes. More is known about the functional elements of the P2Y receptor molecules and the signaling pathways involved, including interactions with ion channels. There have been substantial developments in the design of selective agonists and antagonists to some of the P2Y receptor subtypes. There are new findings about the mechanisms underlying nucleotide release and ectoenzymatic nucleotide breakdown. Interactions between P2Y receptors and receptors to other signaling molecules have been explored as well as P2Y-mediated control of gene transcription. The distribution and roles of P2Y receptor subtypes in many different cell types are better understood and P2Y receptor-related compounds are being explored for therapeutic purposes. These and other advances are discussed in the present review.

  12. Update '98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    Updates cases and issues previously discussed in this regular column on human rights in Canada, including racism and anti-Semitism, laws on hate crimes, hate sites on the World Wide Web, the use of the "free speech" defense by hate groups, and legal challenges to antiracist groups by individuals criticized by them. (DSK)

  13. Renal scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... and urinate often to help remove the radioactive material from the body. How to Prepare for the Test Tell your health care provider if you take ... drink additional fluids before the scan. How the Test will ... into the vein. However, you will not feel the radioactive material. The scanning table may be hard and cold. ...

  14. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan ... Brown ML, Forstrom LA, et al. Society of nuclear medicine procedure guideline for gallium scintigraphy in inflammation. ...

  15. CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposing your baby to radiation. Reactions to contrast material In certain cases, your doctor may recommend you ... for a few hours before your scan Contrast material A special dye called a contrast material is ...

  16. RESRAD update

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Zielen, A.J.; Jones, L.G.; LePoire, D.J.; Wang, Y.Y. ); Yuan, Y.C. ); Loureiro, C.O. . Escola de Engenharia); Wallo, A. III; Peterson, H. . Offic

    1993-01-01

    A microcomputer program called RESRAD, which implements a pathway analysis method for radiological risk assessment, was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1989. This program is used to derive allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and to predict effective dose equivalents and excess cancer incidence risks incurred by an individual exposed to radioactive materials. Since its development, the RESRAD code has been adopted by DOE in Order 5400.5 for the derivation of soil cleanup criteria and dose calculations, and it has been used widely by DOE, other agencies, and their contractors. The original models used by ANL to develop RESRAD were initially developed as part of a DOE effort that began in the early 1980s and involved most of the national laboratories and DOE program offices. The RESRAD code is continuously improved and updated to incorporate comments from users and new features that ease the interaction with users and increase the code's capability and flexibility. The DOE Offices of Environmental Guidance and Environmental Restoration also provide periodic guidance regarding any significant changes to the code. The RESRAD update, Version 5.0, has substantial improvements in many aspects compared with the last version released in 1989.

  17. RESRAD update

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Zielen, A.J.; Jones, L.G.; LePoire, D.J.; Wang, Y.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.; Loureiro, C.O.; Wallo, A. III; Peterson, H.; H Williams, W.A.

    1993-05-01

    A microcomputer program called RESRAD, which implements a pathway analysis method for radiological risk assessment, was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1989. This program is used to derive allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and to predict effective dose equivalents and excess cancer incidence risks incurred by an individual exposed to radioactive materials. Since its development, the RESRAD code has been adopted by DOE in Order 5400.5 for the derivation of soil cleanup criteria and dose calculations, and it has been used widely by DOE, other agencies, and their contractors. The original models used by ANL to develop RESRAD were initially developed as part of a DOE effort that began in the early 1980s and involved most of the national laboratories and DOE program offices. The RESRAD code is continuously improved and updated to incorporate comments from users and new features that ease the interaction with users and increase the code`s capability and flexibility. The DOE Offices of Environmental Guidance and Environmental Restoration also provide periodic guidance regarding any significant changes to the code. The RESRAD update, Version 5.0, has substantial improvements in many aspects compared with the last version released in 1989.

  18. Update on the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2-Angiotensin (1–7)-Mas Receptor Axis: Fetal Programing, Sex Differences, and Intracellular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Mark C.; Marshall, Allyson C.; Alzayadneh, Ebaa M.; Shaltout, Hossam A.; Diz, Debra I.

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) constitutes an important hormonal system in the physiological regulation of blood pressure. Indeed, dysregulation of the RAS may lead to the development of cardiovascular pathologies including kidney injury. Moreover, the blockade of this system by the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or antagonism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) constitutes an effective therapeutic regimen. It is now apparent with the identification of multiple components of the RAS that the system is comprised of different angiotensin peptides with diverse biological actions mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. The classic RAS can be defined as the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis that promotes vasoconstriction, sodium retention, and other mechanisms to maintain blood pressure, as well as increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, cellular growth, and inflammation in pathological conditions. In contrast, the non-classical RAS composed of the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis generally opposes the actions of a stimulated Ang II-AT1R axis through an increase in nitric oxide and prostaglandins and mediates vasodilation, natriuresis, diuresis, and oxidative stress. Thus, a reduced tone of the Ang-(1–7) system may contribute to these pathologies as well. Moreover, the non-classical RAS components may contribute to the effects of therapeutic blockade of the classical system to reduce blood pressure and attenuate various indices of renal injury. The review considers recent studies on the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis regarding the precursor for Ang-(1–7), the intracellular expression and sex differences of this system, as well as an emerging role of the Ang1-(1–7) pathway in fetal programing events and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:24409169

  19. Document Update and Compare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, C. F.; Caldwell, D. C.; Caldwell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Document Update and Compare programs provide simple computerized documentmaintenance system on Data General NOVA 840 computer. Document Update program allows user to update document either by batch or terminal input. Documents are modified and lists of modifications printed out.

  20. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancers: an update for recent advances in therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Clement

    2016-06-01

    The presence of activating gene mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor of non-small cell lung cancer patients is predictive (improved progression-free survival and improved response rate) when treated with small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. The two most common mutations that account for greater than 85% of all EGFR gene mutations are in-frame deletions in exon 19 (LREA deletions) and substitution in exon 21 (L858R). Exon 18 mutations occur much less frequently at about 4% of all EGFR gene mutations. Together, exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R gene substitution are present in about 10% of Caucasian patients and 20-40% of Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. T790M gene mutation at exon 20 is associated with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early studies showed that activating EGFR gene mutations are most common in patients with adenocarcinoma histology, women, never smokers and those of Asian ethnicity. A recent multi-center phase III trial suggested that frontline epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy with afatinib is associated with improved progression-free survival compared to chemotherapy regardless of race. Moreover, guidelines now suggest EGFR gene mutation testing should be conducted in all patients with lung adenocarcinoma or mixed lung cancers with an adenocarcinoma component, regardless of characteristics such as smoking status, gender or race. The success of targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer patients has changed the treatment paradigm in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, despite a durable response of greater than a year, resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors inevitably occurs. This mini-review describes the clinically relevant EGFR gene mutations and the efficacy/toxicity of small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase

  1. Exploration Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Delores Beasley, NASA Public Affairs, introduces the panel who consist of: Scott "Doc" Horowitz, Associate Administrator of Exploration Systems from NASA Headquarters; Jeff Henley, Constellation Program Manager from NASA Johnson Space Flight Center; and Steve Cook, Manager Exploration Launch Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Scott Horowitz presents a short video entitled, "Ares Launching the Future". He further explains how NASA personnel came up with the name of Ares and where the name Ares was derived. Jeff Henley, updates the Constellation program and Steve Cook presents two slide presentations detailing the Ares l crew launch vehicle and Ares 5 cargo launch vehicle. A short question and answer period from the news media follows.

  2. Detection of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus with the updated Trek-Sensititre System and the MicroScan System. Comparison with results from the conventional Etest and CLSI standardized MIC methods.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Rohan; Post, Linda R; Liu, Catherine; Miller, Steven A; Sahm, Daniel F; Brooks, Geo F

    2010-06-01

    Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) organisms have minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 4 to 8 microg/mL and are often associated with vancomycin treatment failure. Detection of VISA has remained problematic. A comparison of 4 methods to detect VISA was done. Of the 20 VISA isolates, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method yielded susceptible end points of 2 microg/mL for 7, MicroScan (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, West Sacramento, CA) for 2, Trek Sensititre (Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) for 1, and Etest (AB Biodisk North America, Piscataway, NJ) for none. Comparison with the CLSI method showed essential agreement for 95% or more for the Etest, MicroScan, and Trek methods; categorical agreement was as follows: Etest, 60%; MicroScan, 65%; and Trek, 60%. Reliance on a single automated method for determining vancomycin MICs could lead to misclassification of some VISA isolates as vancomycin susceptible. At least 2 methods, including the Etest, should be used when confirming VISA because of slight differences in results from different methods around the end points of 2 and 4 microg/mL .

  3. Positional scanning mutagenesis of α-conotoxin PeIA identifies critical residues that confer potency and selectivity for α6/α3β2β3 and α3β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hone, Arik J; Ruiz, Miguel; Scadden, Mick'l; Christensen, Sean; Gajewiak, Joanna; Azam, Layla; McIntosh, J Michael

    2013-08-30

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype α6β2* (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) has been identified as an important molecular target for the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson disease and nicotine dependence. The α6 subunit is closely related to the α3 subunit, and this presents a problem in designing ligands that discriminate between α6β2* and α3β2* nAChRs. We used positional scanning mutagenesis of α-conotoxin PeIA, which targets both α6β2* and α3β2*, in combination with mutagenesis of the α6 and α3 subunits, to gain molecular insights into the interaction of PeIA with heterologously expressed α6/α3β2β3 and α3β2 receptors. Mutagenesis of PeIA revealed that Asn(11) was located in an important position that interacts with the α6 and α3 subunits. Substitution of Asn(11) with a positively charged amino acid essentially abolished the activity of PeIA for α3β2 but not for α6/α3β2β3 receptors. These results were used to synthesize a PeIA analog that was >15,000-fold more potent on α6/α3β2β3 than α3β2 receptors. Analogs with an N11R substitution were then used to show a critical interaction between the 11th position of PeIA and Glu(152) of the α6 subunit and Lys(152) of the α3 subunit. The results of these studies provide molecular insights into designing ligands that selectively target α6β2* nAChRs.

  4. Editorial update on emerging treatments of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peck Y

    2012-06-01

    Various new agents are in the research pipeline for atopic dermatitis. These include IL-4 receptor antagonist, cis-urocanic acid, κ-opiod receptor agonist, neurokinin receptor antagonist and antimicrobial peptide. The current review updates the status of these clinical trials and provides insight into other potential molecular targets including IL-22 and TLR-2.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) rs1801282 C>G polymorphism is associated with cancer susceptibility in asians: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Heping; Tang, Weifeng; Kang, Mingqiang; Liu, Tianyun; Guo, Zengqing; Ma, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is related to inflammation and plays an important role in the development of cancer. PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism might influence the risk of cancer by regulating production of PPARG gene. Hence, a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to explore the association of PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism with cancer susceptibility. An extensive search of PubMed and Embase databases for all relevant publications was carried out. A total of 38 publications with 16,844 cancer cases and 23,736 controls for PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism were recruited in our study. Our results indicated that PPARG rs1801282 C>G variants were associated with an increased cancer risk in Asian populations and gastric cancer. In summary, the findings suggest that PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism may play a crucial role in malignant transformation and the development of cancer. PMID:26550180

  6. Analysis by substituted cysteine scanning mutagenesis of the fourth transmembrane domain of the CXCR4 receptor in its inactive and active state.

    PubMed

    Boulais, Philip E; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard

    2013-02-15

    The chemokine SDF-1 (CXCL12) selectively binds to CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. In this study, we used the substituted-cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) to identify specific residues of the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) that contribute to the formation of the binding pocket of CXCR4 in its inactive and active state. We successively substituted each residue from E179((4.68)) to K154((4.43)) with cysteine and expressed the mutants in COS-7 cells. Mutant receptors were then alkylated with methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA), and binding inhibition was monitored using the CXCR4 antagonist FC131 [cyclo(-D-Tyr(1)-Arg(2)-Arg(3)-Nal(4)-Gly(5)-)], which displays anti-HIV activity. MTSEA treatment resulted in a significant reduction of FC131 binding to D171C((4.60)) and P170C((4.59)). To assess TM4 accessibility in an active state of CXCR4, TM4 cysteine mutants were transposed within the constitutively active mutant N119S((3.35)). MTSEA treatment of TM4 mutants N119S-S178C((4.67)), N119S-V177C((4.66)) and N119S-I173C((4.62)) resulted in a significant reduction in FC131 binding. Protection assays using FC131 prior to MTSEA treatment significantly reduced the alkylation of all MTSEA-sensitive mutants. The accessibility of the D171C((4.60)) and P170C((4.59)) residues suggests that they are oriented towards a water-accessible area of the binding pocket of CXCR4. S178C((4.67)), V177C((4.66)) and I173C((4.62)) showed binding inhibition only in an N119S((3.35)) background. Taken together our results suggest that TM4 and ECL2 undergo conformational changes during CXCR4 activation and also demonstrate how TM4 is an important feature for the binding of anti-HIV compounds.

  7. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  8. Kinetics of T-cell receptor-dependent antigen recognition determined in vivo by multi-spectral normalized epifluorescence laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favicchio, Rosy; Zacharakis, Giannis; Oikonomaki, Katerina; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Mamalaki, Clio; Ripoll, Jorge

    2012-07-01

    Detection of multiple fluorophores in conditions of low signal represents a limiting factor for the application of in vivo optical imaging techniques in immunology where fluorescent labels report for different functional characteristics. A noninvasive in vivo Multi-Spectral Normalized Epifluorescence Laser scanning (M-SNELS) method was developed for the simultaneous and quantitative detection of multiple fluorophores in low signal to noise ratios and used to follow T-cell activation and clonal expansion. Colocalized DsRed- and GFP-labeled T cells were followed in tandem during the mounting of an immune response. Spectral unmixing was used to distinguish the overlapping fluorescent emissions representative of the two distinct cell populations and longitudinal data reported the discrete pattern of antigen-driven proliferation. Retrieved values were validated both in vitro and in vivo with flow cytometry and significant correlation between all methodologies was achieved. Noninvasive M-SNELS successfully quantified two colocalized fluorescent populations and provides a valid alternative imaging approach to traditional invasive methods for detecting T cell dynamics.

  9. Update on recent preclinical and clinical studies of T790M mutant-specific irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bin-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lee, Jih-Hsiang; Yang, James Chih-Hsin

    2016-12-03

    The first- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1/2G EGFR-TKIs) gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib have all been approved as standard first-line treatments for advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer. The third-generation (3G) EGFR-TKIs have been developed to overcome the EGFR T790M mutation, which is the most common mechanism of acquired resistance to 1/2G EGFR-TKI treatment. This resistance mutation develops in half of the patients who respond to 1/2G EGFR-TKI therapy. The structures of the novel 3G EGFR-TKIs are different from those of 1/2G EGFR-TKIs. Particularly, 3G EGFR-TKIs have lower affinity to wild-type EGFR, and are therefore associated with lower rates of skin and gastrointestinal toxicities. However, many of the adverse events (AEs) that are observed in patients receiving 3G EGFR-TKIs have not been observed in patients receiving 1/2G EGFR-TKIs. Although preclinical studies have revealed many possible mechanisms for these AEs, the causes of some AEs remain unknown. Many mechanisms of resistance to 3G EGFR-TKI therapy have also been reported. Here, we have reviewed the recent clinical and preclinical developments related to novel 3G EGFR-TKIs, including osimertinib, rociletinib, olmutinib, EGF816, and ASP8273.

  10. Chromatin immunoprecipitation scanning identifies glucocorticoid receptor binding regions in the proximal promoter of a ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid target gene in brain.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Siem; Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Van Batenburg, Marcel F; Lachize, Servane B; Li, Hualing; Dijkmans, Thomas F; Vreugdenhil, Erno; de Kloet, E Ron; Meijer, Onno C

    2008-09-01

    While the actions of glucocorticoids on brain functions have been comprehensively studied, the underlying genomic mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we show that glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) mRNA is strongly and ubiquitously induced in rat brain. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying these genomic effects, it is of interest to identify the regulatory sites in the promoter region. Alignment of the rat GILZ promoter with the well-characterized human promoter resulted in poor sequence homology. Consequently, we analyzed the rat 5' flanking sequence by Matrix REDUCE and identified two high-affinity glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) located 2 kb upstream of the transcription start site. These findings were corroborated using the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expressing Ns-1 PC12 rat cell-line. In these cells, dexamethasone treatment leads to a progressive increase of GILZ mRNA expression levels via a GR-dependent mechanism. Subsequently, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we show that the two high-affinity GREs are located within the GR-binding regions. Lastly, we demonstrate using multiple tissue in situ hybridization a marked increase in mRNA expression levels in spleen, thymus, heart, lung, liver, muscle, testis, kidney, colon, ileum, as well as in brain and conclude that the GILZ gene can be used to study glucocorticoid effects in many additional rodent tissues.

  11. Updating Situation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Madden, Carol J.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined how situation models are updated during text comprehension. If comprehenders keep track of the evolving situation, they should update their models such that the most current information, the here and now, is more available than outdated information. Contrary to this updating hypothesis, E. J. O'Brien, M. L. Rizzella, J. E.…

  12. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the body area, called ...

  13. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ...

  14. Update in Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    López-Jiménez, Francisco; Brito, Máximo; Aude, Y. Wady; Scheinberg, Phillip; Kaplan, Mariana; Dixon, Denise A.; Schneiderman, Neil; Trejo, Jorge F.; López-Salazar, Luis Humberto; Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Kalil, Roberto; Ortiz, Carmen; Goyos, José; Buenaño, Alvaro; Kottiech, Samer; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 new medical articles are published every year and available time to keep updated is scarcer every day. Nowadays, the task of selecting useful, consistent, and relevant information for clinicians is a priority in many major medical journals. This review has the aim of gathering the results of the most important findings in clinical medicine in the last few years. It is focused on results from randomized clinical trials and well-designed observational research. Findings were included preferentially if they showed solid results, and we avoided as much as possible including only preliminary data, or results that included only non-clinical outcomes. Some of the most relevant findings reported here include the significant benefit of statins in patients with coronary artery disease even with mean cholesterol level. It also provides a substantial review of the most significant trials assessing the effectiveness of IIb/IIIa receptor blockers. In gastroenterology many advances have been made in the H. pylori eradication, and the finding that the cure of H. pylori infection may be followed by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Some new antivirals have shown encouraging results in patients with chronic hepatitis. In the infectious disease arena, the late breaking trials in anti-retroviral disease are discussed, as well as the new trends regarding antibiotic resistance. This review approaches also the role of leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of asthma and discusses the benefit of using methylprednisolone in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome, among many other advances in internal medicine. PMID:11068074

  15. Diesel Engine Technology Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-87-20 54 83-021-DET DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY UPDATE Kaupert, Andrew W., Lt. Col. USAFR Air Force Reserves Detroit Detachment 2 Ann Arbor, MI...nn AFR OH 45433-6563 63723F 3139 1 01 01 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY UPDATE 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kaupert...methodology for technology prediction. The objective of the present report is to update the technology transfer/ 0 development status of diesel engine

  16. ISS Update: Suitport

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Lynnette Madison interviews Mallory Jennings, Suitport Human Testing Lead, about making spacewalks easier and more efficient with the Suitport. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @...

  17. Knee CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - knee; Computed axial tomography scan - knee; Computed tomography scan - knee ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer makes several images of the body area. These ...

  18. HIDA Scan (Cholescintigraphy)

    MedlinePlus

    HIDA scan Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A hepatobiliary (HIDA) scan is an imaging procedure used to diagnose ... the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts. For a HIDA scan, also known as cholescintigraphy and hepatobiliary scintigraphy, ...

  19. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the spine area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  20. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Electrocardiogram Heart Attack Send a link to NHLBI ... calcium, or calcifications, are a sign of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, or coronary microvascular disease. A coronary calcium scan ...

  1. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  2. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2017-03-11

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  3. ISS Update: NEEMO 16

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Josh Byerly interviews astronaut Stan Love about the NEEMO 16 mission from Aquarius Base. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For ...

  4. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-04-05

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  5. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  6. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-08-02

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  7. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  8. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-09-06

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK, and on other relevant issues.

  9. Red Hill Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  10. ISS Update: Suitport Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Lynnette Madison interviews Joel Maganza, Test Director, about thermal vacuum chambers and unmanned and human-testing with the Suitport. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Jo...

  11. Breast PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Date 8/31/2014 Updated by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...

  12. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  13. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  14. Bone density scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone the higher the risk of fractures. A bone scan, along with a patient's medical history, is a ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and exposing ...

  15. Cardiac CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... CT Scan Related Topics Aneurysm Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Pulmonary Embolism Send a link to ... imaging test can help doctors detect or evaluate coronary heart disease, calcium buildup in the coronary arteries, problems with ...

  16. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  17. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

  18. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  19. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  20. Spatial updating in human parietal cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Elisha P.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Colby, Carol L.

    2003-01-01

    Single neurons in monkey parietal cortex update visual information in conjunction with eye movements. This remapping of stimulus representations is thought to contribute to spatial constancy. We hypothesized that a similar process occurs in human parietal cortex and that we could visualize it with functional MRI. We scanned subjects during a task that involved remapping of visual signals across hemifields. We observed an initial response in the hemisphere contralateral to the visual stimulus, followed by a remapped response in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulus. We ruled out the possibility that this remapped response resulted from either eye movements or visual stimuli alone. Our results demonstrate that updating of visual information occurs in human parietal cortex.

  1. Large energy-spread beam diagnostics through quadrupole scans

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, Joel; Adli, Erik; Hogan, Mark; Raubenheimer, Tor

    2012-12-21

    The Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) is a new user facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, servicing next-generation accelerator experiments. The 1.5% RMS energy spread of the FACET beam causes large chromatic aberrations in optics. These aberrations necessitate updated quadrupole scan fits to remain accurate.

  2. Large energy-spread beam diagnostics through quadrupole scans

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, Joel; Adli, Erik; Hogan, Mark; Raubenheimer, Tor

    2013-01-01

    The Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) is a new user facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, servicing next-generation accelerator experiments. The 1.5% RMS energy spread of the FACET beam causes large chromatic aberrations in optics. These aberrations necessitate updated quadrupole scan fits to remain accurate.

  3. Multiple Sclerosis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Faguy, Kathryn

    2016-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurologic condition in young adults and imposes high financial and quality of life costs on patients, their families, and society. Yet, developments in the battle against MS include new treatments to slow its progression and updated diagnostic criteria that can accelerate diagnosis and effective treatment. This article offers a review and update on the disease, focusing on risk factors and possible causes, symptoms, forms of MS, diagnostic criteria and tools, and the expanding array of approved treatments. It also reports on the skyrocketing cost of MS drugs, misdiagnosis, and special patient populations with MS.

  4. Radionucleotide scanning in osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, W.; Kanat, I.O.

    1986-07-01

    Radionucleotide bone scanning can be an excellent adjunct to the standard radiograph and clinical findings in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scans have the ability to detect osteomyelitis far in advance of the standard radiograph. The sequential use of technetium and gallium has been useful in differentiating cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Serial scanning with technetium and gallium may be used to monitor the response of osteomyelitis to antibiotic therapy.

  5. SEI: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, Lewis L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An update on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the key prerequisites of human exploration, project planning, Mars and lunar explorations, supporting technologies, near-term strategies for SEI, human support elements, and Space Station Freedom SEI accommodations.

  6. Cultural practices updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practice updates from 2013 included the effects of shredding in spring, residue management, periodic flooding, no-till fertilizer applications, and billet planting on cane tonnage and sugar yield. Shredding, whether high or low, had little impacts in 2013. However, burning following shreddi...

  7. Accountability Update, March 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This report provides the Washington State legislature, the Governor, and other interested parties with an update on the accountability performance of each of the state's public baccalaureate institutions (Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Evergreen State College, Washington State University, Western Washington…

  8. COPPER RESEARCH UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an update and overview of new research results and remaining research needs with respect to copper corrosion control issues. The topics to be covered include: occurrence of elevated copper release in systems that meet the Action Level; impact of water c...

  9. Community Update, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of nine issues (covering January through December 1999) of the newsletter "Community Update," containing articles on community and family involvement in education. Article topics include: new programs to help students prepare for college early; Vice President Al Gore announced the first-ever national Hispanic Education…

  10. Year 2000 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Frances M.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an update on the Year 2000 objectives for the nation that establish targets in 22 priority areas. The article offers information from a study on exercise by the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, reviews Healthy People 2000 data, and lists Year 2000 physical activity and fitness objectives. (SM)

  11. Southern Horticultural Lab Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication is a new quarterly update for members of the Mississippi Nursery and Landscape Association that is published quarterly in their association newsletter. Two other versions of this newsletter are being submitted to the Louisiana Nursery and Landscape Association (LALNLA) and the Alaba...

  12. Updating Older Fume Hoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on updating older fume hoods. Areas addressed include: (1) adjustment of the hood's back baffle; (2) hood air leakage; (3) light level; (4) hood location in relation to room traffic and room air; and (5) establishing and maintaining hood performance. (JN)

  13. Updating: Learning versus Supposing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jiaying; Crupi, Vincenzo; Tentori, Katya; Fitelson, Branden; Osherson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian orthodoxy posits a tight relationship between conditional probability and updating. Namely, the probability of an event "A" after learning "B" should equal the conditional probability of "A" given "B" prior to learning "B". We examine whether ordinary judgment conforms to the orthodox view. In three experiments we found substantial…

  14. Special Education Law Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1989-01-01

    Due to an error made in printing Professor Zirkel's "Special Education Law; Recent Developments" in Volume 48 (October 13, 1988), these updates to the article are printed. Citations are organized under the following major sections: (1) diagnosis and placement; (2) treatment issues; (3) financial issues; and (4) gifted students. (MLF)

  15. Supreme Court Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    "Chief Justice Flubs Oath." "Justice Ginsburg Has Cancer Surgery." At the start of this year, those were the news headlines about the U.S. Supreme Court. But January 2009 also brought news about key education cases--one resolved and two others on the docket--of which school administrators should take particular note. The Supreme Court updates on…

  16. Community Update, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of 10 issues (covering January through December 2000) of the newsletter, "Community Update," which features articles on community and family involvement in education. In addition to the articles, each issue (except the Special Issue) includes a preview of the month's Satellite Town Meeting; events and information…

  17. Bone scanning in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Noyek, A M

    1979-09-01

    Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described.

  18. Myasthenia gravis: a clinical-immunological update.

    PubMed

    Binks, Sophie; Vincent, Angela; Palace, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the archetypic disorder of both the neuromuscular junction and autoantibody-mediated disease. In most patients, IgG1-dominant antibodies to acetylcholine receptors cause fatigable weakness of skeletal muscles. In the rest, a variable proportion possesses antibodies to muscle-specific tyrosine kinase while the remainder of seronegative MG is being explained through cell-based assays using a receptor-clustering technique and, to a lesser extent, proposed new antigenic targets. The incidence and prevalence of MG are increasing, particularly in the elderly. New treatments are being developed, and results from the randomised controlled trial of thymectomy in non-thymomatous MG, due for release in early 2016, will be of particular clinical value. To help navigate an evidence base of varying quality, practising clinicians may consult new MG guidelines in the fields of pregnancy, ocular and generalised MG (GMG). This review focuses on updates in epidemiology, immunology, therapeutic and clinical aspects of GMG in adults.

  19. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  20. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yu K; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  1. Resonant scanning mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John; Newman, Mike; Gutierrez, Homero; Hoffman, Charlie; Quakenbush, Tim; Waldeck, Dan; Leone, Christopher; Ostaszewski, Miro

    2014-10-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. developed a Resonant Scanning Mechanism (RSM) capable of combining a 250- Hz resonant scan about one axis with a two-hertz triangular scan about the orthogonal axis. The RSM enables a rapid, high-density scan over a significant field of regard (FOR) while minimizing size, weight, and power requirements. The azimuth scan axis is bearing mounted allowing for 30° of mechanical travel, while the resonant elevation axis is flexure and spring mounted with five degrees of mechanical travel. Pointing-knowledge error during quiescent static pointing at room temperature across the full range is better than 100 μrad RMS per axis. The compact design of the RSM, roughly the size of a soda can, makes it an ideal mechanism for use on low-altitude aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Unique aspects of the opto-mechanical design include i) resonant springs which allow for a high-frequency scan axis with low power consumption; and ii) an independent lower-frequency scan axis allowing for a wide FOR. The pointing control system operates each axis independently and employs i) a position loop for the azimuth axis; and ii) a unique combination of parallel frequency and amplitude control loops for the elevation axis. All control and pointing algorithms are hosted on a 200-MHz microcontroller with 516 KB of RAM on a compact 3"×4" digital controller, also of Ball design.

  2. N-Methyl and peptoid scans of an autoinducing peptide reveal new structural features required for inhibition and activation of AgrC quorum sensing receptors in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tal-Gan, Yftah; Stacy, Danielle M; Blackwell, Helen E

    2014-03-21

    We report the first N-methyl and peptoid residue scans of a full-length autoinducing peptide (AIP), AIP-III, used by Staphylococcus aureus for quorum sensing (QS). Biological evaluation of these AIP-III analogues uncovered new features of the AIP-III scaffold that can be tuned to develop chemical probes of QS in all four groups of S. aureus (I-IV).

  3. SIM-Lite Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Discussion focus on: SIM-Lite Instrument Update - 6m baseline, 50cm, approximately 900M cost; Technology Update - Systematic errors and floor; SIM-Lite terrestrial planet discovery capability; Double blind multiple planet study summary; and the changing landscape of exoplanet science and the role of SIM-Lite. Slides include technology to flight component engineering; instrumental systematic errors; ultra deep search for Earth clones; double blind test, astrometric detection of Earths in multiplanet systems; the current era of exoplanet science and where SIM-Lite fits in; the next frontier and where SIM-Lite fits in, why SIM is unique in discovering Earths; imaging planet status is uncertain without masses and ages; SIM role in establishing how planetary systems form and evolve; and SIM probes of broad planet mass range around young stars.

  4. NXE pellicle: development update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouns, Derk; Bendiksen, Aage; Broman, Par; Casimiri, Eric; Colsters, Paul; de Graaf, Dennis; Harrold, Hilary; Hennus, Piet; Janssen, Paul; Kramer, Ronald; Kruizinga, Matthias; Kuntzel, Henk; Lafarre, Raymond; Mancuso, Andrea; Ockwell, David; Smith, Daniel; van de Weg, David; Wiley, Jim

    2016-09-01

    ASML introduced the NXE pellicle concept, a removable pellicle solution that is compatible with current and future patterned mask inspection methods. We will present results of how we have taken the idea from concept to a demonstrated solution enabling the use of EUV pellicle by the industry for high volume manufacturing. We will update on the development of the next generation of pellicle films with higher power capability. Further, we will provide an update on top level requirements for pellicles and external interface requirements needed to support NXE pellicle adoption at a mask shop. Finally, we will present ASML's pellicle handling equipment to enable pellicle use at mask shops and our NXE pellicle roadmap outlining future improvements.

  5. Sensors, Update 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  6. Sensors, Update 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  7. Sensors, Update 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2002-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  8. Sensors, Update 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-12-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Treatments include current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides an overview of suppliers and market trends for a particular section, and Sensor Standards, reviews recent legislation and requirements for sensors. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  9. Sensors, Update 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  10. Sensors, Update 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, while Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors, and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be invaluable to scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  11. Sequence History Update Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  12. Endodontic diagnostic terminology update.

    PubMed

    McClannahan, Scott B; Baisden, Michael K; Bowles, Walter R

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the etiology of the patient's chief complaint and a correct diagnosis are paramount prior to a recommendation of endodontic therapy. Reproduction of the patient's chief complaint is critical. If the chief complaint cannot be reproduced, consider consultation with or referral to an endodontist or orofacial pain specialist. The diagnostic terminology presented in this update provides for a more accurate description and communication of the health or pathological conditions of both pulpal and apical tissues. This information is summarized in Table I.

  13. How Documentalists Update SIMBAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buga, M.; Bot, C.; Brouty, M.; Bruneau, C.; Brunet, C.; Cambresy, L.; Eisele, A.; Genova, F.; Lesteven, S.; Loup, C.; Neuville, M.; Oberto, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Perret, E.; Siebert, A.; Son, E.; Vannier, P.; Vollmer, B.; Vonflie, P.; Wenger, M.; Woelfel, F.

    2015-04-01

    The Strasbourg astronomical Data Center (CDS) was created in 1972 and has had a major role in astronomy for more than forty years. CDS develops a service called SIMBAD that provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography, and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. It brings to the scientific community an added value to content which is updated daily by a team of documentalists working together in close collaboration with astronomers and IT specialists. We explain how the CDS staff updates SIMBAD with object citations in the main astronomical journals, as well as with astronomical data and measurements. We also explain how the identification is made between the objects found in the literature and those already existing in SIMBAD. We show the steps followed by the documentalist team to update the database using different tools developed at CDS, like the sky visualizer Aladin, and the large catalogues and survey database VizieR. As a direct result of this teamwork, SIMBAD integrates almost 10.000 bibliographic references per year. The service receives more than 400.000 queries per day.

  14. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your blood and travels to your heart. Nuclear heart scans use single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to detect the energy from the tracer to make pictures of your ...

  15. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  16. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane; Stolz, Christopher J.; Wu, Zhouling; Huber, Robert; Weinzapfel, Carolyn

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  17. Thoracic spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Narrowing of the spine ( spinal stenosis ) Scoliosis Tumor Risks Risks of CT scans include: Exposure to radiation ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  18. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tell the difference between Parkinson disease and other movement disorders Several PET scans may be taken to determine ... identify where the seizures start in your brain Movement disorders (such as Parkinson disease )

  19. Cervical MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  20. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  1. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  3. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  4. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  5. Multiple Reflector Scanning Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bing

    Narrow beamwidth antenna systems are important to remote sensing applications and point-to-point communication systems. In many applications the main beam of the antenna radiation pattern must be scannable over a region of space. Scanning by mechanically skewing the entire antenna assembly is difficult and in many situations is unacceptable. Performance during scan is, of course, also very important. Traditional reflector systems employing the well-focused paraboloidal -shaped main reflector accomplish scan by motion of a few feeds, or by phase steering a focal plane feed array. Such scanning systems can experience significant gain loss. Traditional reflecting systems with a spherical main reflector have low aperture efficiency and poor side lobe and cross polarization performance. This dissertation introduces a new approach to the design of scanning spherical reflector systems, in which the performance weaknesses of high cross polarization and high side lobe levels are avoided. Moreover, the low aperture utilization common in spherical reflectors is overcome. As an improvement to this new spherical main reflector configuration, a flat mirror reflector is introduced to minimize the mechanical difficulties to scan the main beam. In addition to the reflector system design, reflector antenna performance evaluation is also important. The temperature resolution issue important for earth observation radiometer antennas is studied, and a new method to evaluate and optimize such temperature resolution is introduced.

  6. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  7. Bone scan alterations in aromatase inhibitor-treated patients.

    PubMed

    De Geeter, Frank; Van den Bruel, Annick; De Cuypere, Eveline; Langlois, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We report bone scan changes in 3 patients receiving aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Compared with bone scans before treatment, repeated scans after at least 10 months of aromatase inhibitor treatment showed increased activity in the peripheral skeleton and the skull. In 2 patients, these alterations could be correlated with increased markers of bone turnover. They probably result from high bone turnover induced by estrogen depletion caused by aromatase inhibitors. This effect should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a bone scan pattern suggestive of hyperparathyroidism, which was ruled out.

  8. The time window of MRI of murine atherosclerotic plaques after administration of CB2 receptor targeted micelles: inter-scan variability and relation between plaque signal intensity increase and gadolinium content of inversion recovery prepared versus non-prepared fast spin echo.

    PubMed

    te Boekhorst, B C M; Bovens, S M; van de Kolk, C W A; Cramer, M J M; Doevendans, P A F M; ten Hove, M; van der Weerd, L; Poelmann, R; Strijkers, G J; Pasterkamp, G; van Echteld, C J A

    2010-10-01

    Single fast spin echo scans covering limited time frames are mostly used for contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaque biomarkers. Knowledge on inter-scan variability of the normalized enhancement ratio of plaque (NER(plaque)) and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for inversion-recovery fast spin echo is limited. Study aims were: evaluation of (1) timing of MRI after intravenous injection of cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2-R) (expressed by human and mouse plaque macrophages) targeted micelles; (2) inter-scan variability of inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo; (3) relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo. Inversion-recovery fast spin echo/fast spin echo imaging was performed before and every 15 min up to 48 h after injection of CB2-R targeted or control micelles using several groups of mice measured in an interleaved fashion. NER(plaque) (determined on inversion-recovery fast spin echo images) remained high (∼2) until 48 h after injection of CB2-R targeted micelles, whereas NER(plaque) decreased after 36 h in the control group. The inter-scan variability and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium (assessed with inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry) were compared between inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo. Inter-scan variability was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo. Although gadolinium and NER(plaque) correlated well for both techniques, the NER of plaque was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo. In mice injected with CB2-R targeted micelles, NER(plaque) can be best evaluated at 36-48 h post-injection. Because NER(plaque) was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo, but with high inter-scan variability, repeated inversion-recovery fast spin echo imaging and averaging of the obtained NER(plaque) values is recommended.

  9. Fuel Cell Handbook update

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.R.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Engleman, R.R. Jr.; Stauffer, D.B.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of this work was to update the 1988 version of DOE`s Fuel Cell Handbook. Significant developments in the various fuel cell technologies required revisions to reflect state-of-the-art configurations and performance. The theoretical presentation was refined in order to make the handbook more useful to both the casual reader and fuel cell or systems analyst. In order to further emphasize the practical application of fuel cell technologies, the system integration information was expanded. In addition, practical elements, such as suggestions and guidelines to approximate fuel cell performance, were provided.

  10. Update on equine allergies.

    PubMed

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed.

  11. Updating: learning versus supposing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiaying; Crupi, Vincenzo; Tentori, Katya; Fitelson, Branden; Osherson, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    Bayesian orthodoxy posits a tight relationship between conditional probability and updating. Namely, the probability of an event A after learning B should equal the conditional probability of A given B prior to learning B. We examine whether ordinary judgment conforms to the orthodox view. In three experiments we found substantial differences between the conditional probability of an event A supposing an event B compared to the probability of A after having learned B. Specifically, supposing B appears to have less impact on the credibility of A than learning that B is true.

  12. Update on blepharospasm

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, Mark; Evinger, Craig; Jankovic, Joseph; Stacy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This review updates understanding and research on blepharospasm, a subtype of focal dystonia. Topics covered include clinical aspects, pathology, pathophysiology, animal models, dry eye, photophobia, epidemiology, genetics, and treatment. Blepharospasm should be differentiated from apraxia of eyelid opening. New insights into pathology and pathophysiology are derived from different types of imaging, including magnetic resonance studies. Physiologic studies indicate increased plasticity and trigeminal sensitization. While botulinum neurotoxin injections are the mainstay of therapy, other therapies are on the horizon. GLOSSARY BFMDRS = Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale; BoNT = botulinum neurotoxin; DBS = deep brain stimulation; DTI = diffusion tensor imaging; FDG = 18fluorodeoxyglucose; VBM = voxel-based morphometry. PMID:18852443

  13. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  14. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  15. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  16. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases.

  17. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  18. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably.

  19. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOEpatents

    George, John S.

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  20. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  1. Teaching the SCANS Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

    SCANS (the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) provides definitions of the knowledge students and workers need for workplace success and methods for applying these principles in communities throughout the United States. This document contains six articles that give education and training practitioners practical suggestions for…

  2. SCANS: The Missing Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price-Machado, Donna

    Three specific classroom techniques for teaching vocational English as a Second Language to adults are discussed. They are three items on the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) list of "easy things" to do to integrate workplace basics into the classroom, designed to encourage a student-focused classroom. They…

  3. The Organizational Scan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald; Jackson, Stephanie D.

    1997-01-01

    Performance technologists like quick, cheap analysis that is rigorous and comprehensive. This article presents the organization scan model which makes successful compromises between the technologist's obligation to be rigorous and comprehensive and the sponsor's obligation to save money and time. Includes "Societal Bottom Line: Measurable…

  4. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gallbladder radionuclide scan is a test that uses radioactive material to check gallbladder function. It is also used ... for bile duct blockage or leak. How the Test is Performed ... called a gamma emitting tracer into a vein. This material collects mostly in the liver. It will then ...

  5. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  6. Working Memory Updating Latency Reflects the Cost of Switching between Maintenance and Updating Modes of Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Updating and maintenance of information are 2 conflicting demands on working memory (WM). We examined the time required to update WM (updating latency) as a function of the sequence of updated and not-updated items within a list. Participants held a list of items in WM and updated a variable subset of them in each trial. Four experiments that vary…

  7. Memory Updating and Mental Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cheng-Ching; Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM) as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc) could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults. PMID:26869971

  8. Updates Technologies of Media Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Whether as status notifications in news feeds or interactive prompts in online video services, updates punctuate the background routines of media by bringing a variety of changes to the attention of users. In this dissertation I argue that updates rationalize media change by making previously obscure actions of users and movements of technologies…

  9. Examination of the active secondary structure of the peptide 101.10, an allosteric modulator of the interleukin-1 receptor, by positional scanning using β-amino γ-lactams.

    PubMed

    Boutard, Nicolas; Turcotte, Stéphane; Beauregard, Kim; Quiniou, Christiane; Chemtob, Sylvain; Lubell, William D

    2011-04-01

    The relationship between the conformation and biological activity of the peptide allosteric modulator of the interleukin-1 receptor 101.10 (D-Arg-D-Tyr-D-Thr-D-Val-D-Glu-D-Leu-D-Ala-NH₂) has been studied using (R)- and (S)-Bgl residues. Twelve Bgl peptides were synthesized using (R)- and (S)-cyclic sulfamidate reagents derived from L- and D-aspartic acid in an optimized Fmoc-compatible protocol for efficient lactam installment onto the supported peptide resin. Examination of these (R)- and (S)-Bgl 101.10 analogs for their potential to inhibit IL-1β-induced thymocyte cell proliferation using a novel fluorescence assay revealed that certain analogs exhibited retained and improved potency relative to the parent peptide 101.10. In light of previous reports that Bgl residues may stabilize type II'β-turn-like conformations in peptides, CD spectroscopy was performed on selected compounds to identify secondary structure necessary for peptide biological activity. Results indicate that the presence of a fold about the central residues of the parent peptide may be important for activity.

  10. Macrofouling control technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L.; Armor, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    Macrofouling of condenser systems with debris, fish, clams, barnacles, mussels, algae, and other marine organisms can significantly affect power plant availability and performance. Typical difficulties include increased condenser back pressure due to reduced cooling-water flow, malfunctioning of on-line tube-cleaning equipment, and accelerated corrosion and erosion of tubing. In some severe cases, condenser back pressure increased to a point that the turbine had to be tripped. In 1981 EPRI initiated a research project to develop utility industry guidelines for reducing macrofouling problems. In 1987 EPRI published the Guidelines on Macrofouling Control Technology. Since then significant progress has been made by EPRI, utility members, equipment manufacturers, and others. The purpose of this paper is to update the macrofouling control technology. Control technology covered will include thermal treatment, mechanical removal devices, antifouling coatings, and chemical treatment.

  11. Toxoplasmosis – An update

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Veena; Ichhpujani, R L

    2011-01-01

    Toxplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease affects one-third of the total world population. Transmission of the disease is mainly by ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts. Congenital toxoplasmosis occurs from the transplacental passage of the parasite from mother to fetus. In most adults it does not cause serious illness, but it can cause blindness and mental retardation in congenitally infected children, and it is a devastating disease in immunocompromised individuals. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis can be established by the direct detection of the parasite or by serological methods. The most commonly used and effective therapeutic regimen is the combination of pyrimethamine with sulfadiazine and folinic acid. This article provides an overview and update on transmission, diagnosis, management, and prevention of toxoplasmosis. PMID:23508064

  12. ILRS Website Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Torrence, Mark H.; Pollack, Nathan H.; Tyahla, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    The ILRS website, http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov, is the central source of information for all aspects of the service. The website provides information on the organization and operation of the ILRS and descriptions of ILRS components data, and products. Furthermore, the website provides an entry point to the archive of these data products available through the data centers. Links are provided to extensive information on the ILRS network stations including performance assesments and data quality evaluations. Descriptions of suported satellite missions (current, future, and past) are provided to aid in station acquisition and data analysis. The website was reently redesigned. Content was reviewed during the update process, ensuring information is current and useful. This poster will provide specific examples of key sections, applicaitons, and webpages.

  13. Perinatal neuroprotection update

    PubMed Central

    Jelin, Angie C.; Salmeen, Kirsten; Gano, Dawn; Burd, Irina; Thiet, Mari-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Antepartum, intrapartum, and neonatal events can result in a spectrum of long-term neurological sequelae, including cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders [1]. Advances in obstetrical and neonatal care have led to survival at earlier gestational ages and consequently increasing numbers of periviable infants who are at significant risk for long-term neurological deficits. Therefore, efforts to decrease and prevent cerebral insults attempt not only to decrease preterm delivery but also to improve neurological outcomes in infants delivered preterm. We recently published a comprehensive review addressing the impacts of magnesium sulfate, therapeutic hypothermia, delayed cord clamping, infections, and prevention of preterm delivery on the modification of neurological risk [2]. In this review, we will briefly provide updates to the aforementioned topics as well as an expansion on avoidance of toxin and infections, specifically the Zika virus. PMID:27606053

  14. Update in urethral stents.

    PubMed

    Bahouth, Z; Meyer, G; Yildiz, G; Nativ, O; Moskovitz, B

    2016-10-01

    Urethral stents were first introduced in 1988, and since then, they have undergone significant improvements. However, they did not gain a wide popularity and their use is limited to a small number of centers around the world. Urethral stents can be used in the entire urethra and for various and diverse indications. In the anterior urethra, it can be used to treat urethral strictures. In the prostatic urethra, they can be used for the treatment of prostatic obstruction, including benign, malignant and iatrogenic prostatic obstruction. Moreover, although not widely used, it can be also applied for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture, usually resulting in urinary incontinence and the need for subsequent procedures. Our main experience are with Allium urethral stents, and as such, we provide the latest updates in urethral stents with special emphasis on the various types of Allium urethral stents: bulbar, prostatic and bladder neck stents.

  15. Update: nail unit dermatopathology.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Campbell L; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-01-01

    Nail unit dermatopathology is a growing field filled with many challenges. Many advances in this field have been made in the last 5 years. This review article provides an update on new information and studies published in that period of time. We divided these works into different sections, including clinical and pathologic challenges in diagnosis and treatment of nail disorders, nail unit biopsy and processing techniques, normal nail unit histology, nail plate structural and growth pathology, metabolic disease, inflammatory conditions, onychomycosis, benign growths, malignant growths, and dyschromias. Specific highlights include advances in the marking and orientation of nail unit biopsies for improved histologic interpretation, improved nail plate softening techniques, new methods for histologic evaluation of onychomycosis, descriptions of newly described benign growths unique to the nail unit, and the morphologic and immunohistochemical distinction between benign and malignant pigmented lesions of the nail unit.

  16. Bone scanning in clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelman, I. )

    1987-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

  17. Imaging dopamine receptors in the human brain by position tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wong, D.F.; Langstrom, B.; Duelfer, T.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.T.; Links, J.M.; Rosenbloom, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors may be involved in a number of neuropsychiatric disease states. The ligand 3-N-(/sup 11/C)methylspiperone, which preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, was used to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and in humans. This technique holds promise for noninvasive clinical studies of dopamine receptors in humans.

  18. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  19. Optical scanning holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; Doh, Kyu B.; Schilling, Bradley W.; Wu, Ming H.; Shinoda, Kazunori K.; Suzuki, Yoshiji

    1995-03-01

    We first review a newly developed 3D imaging technique called optical scanning holography (OSH), and discuss recording and reconstruction of a point object using the principle of OSH. We then derive 3D holographic magnification, using three points configured as a 3D object. Finally, we demonstrated 3D imaging capability of OSH by holographically recording two planar objects at different depths and reconstructing the hologram digitally.

  20. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; ...

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  1. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, Warren C.; Blau, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  2. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  3. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  4. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  5. Update on management of midgut neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mehrvarz Sarshekeh, Amir; Halperin, Daniel M; Dasari, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Midgut neuroendocrine tumors are typically indolent but can be fatal when advanced. They can also cause significant morbidity due to the characteristic carcinoid syndrome. Somatostatin analogs continue to be the mainstay of treatment given their antiproliferative properties, as well as inhibitory effects on hormones that cause carcinoid syndrome. There have been several recent advances in the systemic therapy of these tumors including consolidation of somatostatin analogs as the cornerstone of therapy, completion of pivotal trials with mTOR inhibitors, and the establishment of novel approaches including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and oral inhibitors of peripheral tryptophan hydroxylase in tumor and symptom control, respectively. In this review article, the recent advances are summarized and an updated approach to management is proposed. PMID:27347369

  6. Denosumab: recent update in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Inês; Branco, Jaime C

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a major concern to public health. Fractures are the major clinical consequence of osteoporosis and are associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Bone strength determinants such as bone mineral density and bone quality parameters are determined by life-long remodeling of skeletal tissue. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) is a cytokine essential for osteoclast differentiation, activation and survival. Denosumab (Prolia®) is a fully human monoclonal antibody for RANKL, which selectively inhibits osteoclastogenesis, being recently approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women at a high or increased risk of fracture by the FDA in the United States and by the European Medicines Agency in Europe since June 2010. FREEDOM, DECIDE and STAND are the phase 3 trials comparing denosumab with placebo and alendronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The authors aim to update denosumab role in postmenopausal osteoporosis with a physiopathological review.

  7. ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon Launch Update

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office commentator Pat Ryan talks with Mike Horkachuck, NASA Project Executive for SpaceX, for an update on the SpaceX Dragon's next launch attempt scheduled for Tuesday at 3:44...

  8. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  9. Controlled Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskell, Todd G.; Sarid, Dror; Workman, Richard K.; Pyle, Jason L.

    1997-03-01

    A method for real-time monitoring of the quality and quantity of silicon oxide grown on silicon using conducting-tip scanning probe lithography has been developed. The sub-picoampere tip-sample currents measured during lithography in ambient conditions are shown to be proportional to the amount of silicon oxide being grown. In addition, we have demonstrated the ability to control the composition of the grown material by altering the lithographic environment. Silicon nitride growth is shown to result from lithography on silicon samples in an environment of annhydrous ammonia.

  10. Battery scanning system

    SciTech Connect

    Dieu, L.F.

    1984-11-20

    A battery scanning system which is capable of monitoring and displaying the voltage of each cell in a battery or upon command provides the cell voltage distribution by displaying the cell number and voltage value of highest and lowest cell. The system has a digital logic system, display, input switches for operator generated variables, an alarm, relays, relay selection gates, an optically coupled isolation amplifier, power source and an analog-digital converter. The optically coupled analog amplifier electrically isolates the system from the battery so that large voltage offsets will not adversely affect the automatic measuring of the cells.

  11. Scanning Quantum Dot Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Green, Matthew F. B.; Leinen, Philipp; Deilmann, Thorsten; Krüger, Peter; Rohlfing, Michael; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a scanning probe technique that enables three-dimensional imaging of local electrostatic potential fields with subnanometer resolution. Registering single electron charging events of a molecular quantum dot attached to the tip of an atomic force microscope operated at 5 K, equipped with a qPlus tuning fork, we image the quadrupole field of a single molecule. To demonstrate quantitative measurements, we investigate the dipole field of a single metal adatom adsorbed on a metal surface. We show that because of its high sensitivity the technique can probe electrostatic potentials at large distances from their sources, which should allow for the imaging of samples with increased surface roughness.

  12. Real Scan Evolution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Computer Image Generation Visual Simulation Computer Graphics Al gortthm Geometric Model tng 1%ABSTRACT (C.tla. -mm. .00n ad N ue-e""V ONd Ofmi* OF 61"knsee...envtronments. modeled as a single valued el evatYo fnction of horizontal location. The objecttve of the development was to analyze the feasibility of a real...generator capable of creating complex Imagery .in real time? Is the solution amenable to efficient off-lne modeling of complex environments? The Real Scan

  13. Tetraplegia Management Update.

    PubMed

    Fridén, Jan; Gohritz, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Tetraplegia is a profound impairment of mobility manifesting as a paralysis of all 4 extremities owing to cervical spinal cord injury. The purpose of this article is to provide an update and analyze current management, treatment options, and outcomes of surgical reconstruction of arm and hand function. Surgical restoration of elbow and wrist extension or handgrip has tremendous potential to improve autonomy, mobility, and critical abilities, for example, eating, personal care, and self-catheterization and productive work in at least 70% of tetraplegic patients. Tendon and nerve transfers, tenodeses, and joint stabilizations reliably enable improved arm and hand usability, reduce muscle imbalance and pain in spasticity, and prevent joint contractures. One-stage combined procedures have proven considerable advantages over traditional multistage approaches. Immediate activation of transferred muscles reduces the risk of adhesions, facilitates relearning, avoids adverse effects of immobilization, and enhances functional recovery. Transfer of axillary, musculocutaneous, and radial nerve fascicles from above the spinal cord injury are effective and promising options to enhance motor outcome and sensory protection, especially in groups with limited resources. Improved communication between medical disciplines, therapists, patients, and their relatives should help that more individuals can benefit from these advances and could empower many thousands tetraplegic individuals "to take life into their own hands" and live more independently.

  14. Clinical update: hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tram T

    2007-07-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a global health problem, with disproportionately high prevalence rates approaching 10-15% in the Asian population worldwide and in Asian immigrants in the United States. Chronic infection complications, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, occur in 1 5-40% of infected individuals, and important recent data from the REVEAL study have suggested that, independent of other factors, high viral replication may impact long-term disease outcomes. More recent recognition of parameters for defining normal transaminases may also affect decision-making for therapy initiation. Recently, new treatment options have been effective at viral suppression, with lower rates of viral resistance compared to lamivudine. Currently, therapies for hepatitis B treatment include interferon, lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, and telbivudine. Treatment considerations need to take into account therapy duration and risks, specifically the development of viral resistance. Recently updated guidelines and algorithms use viral replication, alanine aminotransferase levels, and severity of histologic disease as the determining factors for treatment. Therapy length is dependent on hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. In patients with the precore/basal core promoter HBeAg-negative CHB, the treatment goal is continued viral suppression. Future options, including new oral agents, therapeutic vaccines, and combination therapies, require further study.

  15. Dali server update

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Liisa; Laakso, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    The Dali server (http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/dali) is a network service for comparing protein structures in 3D. In favourable cases, comparing 3D structures may reveal biologically interesting similarities that are not detectable by comparing sequences. The Dali server has been running in various places for over 20 years and is used routinely by crystallographers on newly solved structures. The latest update of the server provides enhanced analytics for the study of sequence and structure conservation. The server performs three types of structure comparisons: (i) Protein Data Bank (PDB) search compares one query structure against those in the PDB and returns a list of similar structures; (ii) pairwise comparison compares one query structure against a list of structures specified by the user; and (iii) all against all structure comparison returns a structural similarity matrix, a dendrogram and a multidimensional scaling projection of a set of structures specified by the user. Structural superimpositions are visualized using the Java-free WebGL viewer PV. The structural alignment view is enhanced by sequence similarity searches against Uniprot. The combined structure-sequence alignment information is compressed to a stack of aligned sequence logos. In the stack, each structure is structurally aligned to the query protein and represented by a sequence logo. PMID:27131377

  16. Dali server update.

    PubMed

    Holm, Liisa; Laakso, Laura M

    2016-07-08

    The Dali server (http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/dali) is a network service for comparing protein structures in 3D. In favourable cases, comparing 3D structures may reveal biologically interesting similarities that are not detectable by comparing sequences. The Dali server has been running in various places for over 20 years and is used routinely by crystallographers on newly solved structures. The latest update of the server provides enhanced analytics for the study of sequence and structure conservation. The server performs three types of structure comparisons: (i) Protein Data Bank (PDB) search compares one query structure against those in the PDB and returns a list of similar structures; (ii) pairwise comparison compares one query structure against a list of structures specified by the user; and (iii) all against all structure comparison returns a structural similarity matrix, a dendrogram and a multidimensional scaling projection of a set of structures specified by the user. Structural superimpositions are visualized using the Java-free WebGL viewer PV. The structural alignment view is enhanced by sequence similarity searches against Uniprot. The combined structure-sequence alignment information is compressed to a stack of aligned sequence logos. In the stack, each structure is structurally aligned to the query protein and represented by a sequence logo.

  17. Updated Principle of Corresponding States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Amotz, Dor; Gift, Alan D.; Levine, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    The rule of corresponding states, which shows the connection between the thermodynamic properties of various liquids is re-examined. The overall likeness is observed by using an updated scaling technique of Lennard-Jones corresponding states (LJ-CS).

  18. ISS Update: Transit of Venus

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Brandi Dean interviews Mario Runco, NASA astronaut, about Venus's transit across the sun on June 5, 2012. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #...

  19. Email Updates: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... unsubscribe. Prevent MedlinePlus emails from being marked as "spam" or "junk" To ensure that MedlinePlus email updates ... com to your email address book, adjust your spam settings, or follow the instructions from your email ...

  20. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; Glinsky, C.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  1. The X-33 Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Charlie

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the X-33 program update, including details on program objectives and plans, the X-33 configuration, technologies used, and X-33 assembly and test status.

  2. Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Update `92

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.; Balka, L.; Chojnacki, E.; Gai, W.; Ho, C.; Konecny, R.; Power, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.

    1992-09-01

    The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) is an experiment designed to test various ideas related to wakefield technology. Construction is now underway for a 100 nC electron beam in December of 1992. This report updates this progress.

  3. Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Update '92

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.; Balka, L.; Chojnacki, E.; Gai, W.; Ho, C.; Konecny, R.; Power, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) is an experiment designed to test various ideas related to wakefield technology. Construction is now underway for a 100 nC electron beam in December of 1992. This report updates this progress.

  4. Scans Solo: A One-Person Environmental Scanning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    An effective environmental scan will improve the quality of community college planning and decision making by alerting institutional leaders to the challenges and opportunities in the environment. Scanning can be done in three ways: (1) establishing a scanning committee to gather and synthesize information to guide planning; (2) sponsoring a…

  5. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will update... to update part 55 accordingly. (c) Consistency reviews triggered by receipt of an NOI. Upon...

  6. 77 FR 13198 - Product List Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...] Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is... adopted in a recent Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are... these updates. DATES: Effective Date: March 6, 2012. Applicability Dates: February 23, 2012...

  7. Free motion scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner system and method for the imaging of a part system, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface of the part including at least two tracking signals for emitting radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of the waves to be reflected from the part, at least one detector for receiving the radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive the radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzer for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals based on the emitted radiation, a differential converter for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a device such as a computer for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.

  8. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, D.A. |

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  9. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan involves two nuclear scan tests to measure breathing (ventilation) and circulation ( ... In: Mettler FA, Guiberteau MJ, eds. Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  10. Rotational scanning atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ulčinas, A; Vaitekonis, Š

    2017-03-10

    A non-raster scanning technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging which combines rotational and translational motion is presented. The use of rotational motion for the fast scan axis allows us to significantly increase the scanning speed while imaging a large area (diameter > 30 μm). An image reconstruction algorithm and the factors influencing the resolution of the technique are discussed. The experimental results show the potential of the rotational scanning technique for high-throughput large area AFM investigation.

  11. Rotational scanning atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulčinas, A.; Vaitekonis, Š.

    2017-03-01

    A non-raster scanning technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging which combines rotational and translational motion is presented. The use of rotational motion for the fast scan axis allows us to significantly increase the scanning speed while imaging a large area (diameter > 30 μm). An image reconstruction algorithm and the factors influencing the resolution of the technique are discussed. The experimental results show the potential of the rotational scanning technique for high-throughput large area AFM investigation.

  12. The Scanning Process: Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, William L.; Morrison, James L.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning the external environment will become more essential to colleges in the coming decade. Developing an environmental scanning system can identify important emerging issues that may constitute either threats or opportunities. The organizational features of a mature scanning process are described. (MLW)

  13. Update in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fassnacht, Martin; Kroiss, Matthias; Allolio, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an orphan malignancy that has attracted increasing attention during the last decade. Here we provide an update on advances in the field since our last review published in this journal in 2006. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway and IGF-2 signaling have been confirmed as frequently altered signaling pathways in ACC, but recent data suggest that they are probably not sufficient for malignant transformation. Thus, major players in the pathogenesis are still unknown. For diagnostic workup, comprehensive hormonal assessment and detailed imaging are required because in most ACCs, evidence for autonomous steroid secretion can be found and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (if necessary, combined with functional imaging) can differentiate benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors. Surgery is potentially curative in localized tumors. Thus, we recommend a complete resection including lymphadenectomy by an expert surgeon. The pathology report should demonstrate the adrenocortical origin of the lesion (eg, by steroidogenic factor 1 staining) and provide Weiss score, resection status, and quantitation of the proliferation marker Ki67 to guide further treatment. Even after complete surgery, recurrence is frequent and adjuvant mitotane treatment improves outcome, but uncertainty exists as to whether all patients benefit from this therapy. In advanced ACC, mitotane is still the standard of care. Based on the FIRM-ACT trial, mitotane plus etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin is now the established first-line cytotoxic therapy. However, most patients will experience progress and require salvage therapies. Thus, new treatment concepts are urgently needed. The ongoing international efforts including comprehensive "-omic approaches" and next-generation sequencing will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and hopefully lead to better therapies.

  14. A scanning cavity microscope

    PubMed Central

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1 nm2; we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  15. Fetal cardiac scanning today.

    PubMed

    Allan, Lindsey

    2010-07-01

    The ability to examine the structure of the fetal heart in real-time started over 30 years ago now. The field has seen very great advances since then, both in terms of technical improvements in ultrasound equipment and in dissemination of operator skills. A great deal has been learnt about normal cardiac function in the human fetus throughout gestation and how it is affected by pathologies of pregnancy. There is increasing recognition of abnormal heart structure during routine obstetric scanning, allowing referral for specialist diagnosis and counselling. It is now possible to make accurate diagnosis of cardiac malformations as early as 12 weeks of gestation. Early diagnosis of a major cardiac malformation in the fetus can provide the parents with a comprehensive prognosis, enabling them to make the most informed choice about the management of the pregnancy.

  16. Telescopic horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan

    2014-12-20

    The problem of "distortionless" viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems (mainly "binoculars") remains problematic. The so called "globe effect" is only partially counteracted in modern designs. Theories addressing the phenomenon have never reached definitive closure. In this paper, we show that exact distortionless viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems is not possible in general, but that it is in principle possible in-very frequent in battle field and marine applications-the case of horizon scanning. However, this involves cylindrical optical elements. For opto-electronic systems, a full solution is more readily feasible. The solution involves a novel interpretation of the relevant constraints and objectives. For final design decisions, it is not necessary to rely on a corpus of psychophysical (or ergonomic) data, although one has to decide whether the instrument is intended as an extension of the eye or as a "pictorial" device.

  17. Autoimmune encephalitis update

    PubMed Central

    Dalmau, Josep; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-associated immune-mediated disorders of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group. These disorders include the classic paraneoplastic neurologic disorders and the more recently described autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to neuronal cell-surface or synaptic receptors that occur with and without a cancer association. Autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes that can be severe and prolonged. In contrast to the classic paraneoplastic disorders that are poorly responsive to tumor treatment and immunotherapy, autoimmune encephalitis often responds to these treatments, and patients can have full or marked recoveries. As early treatment speeds recovery, reduces disability, and decreases relapses that can occur in about 20% of cases, it is important that the immune pathogenesis of these disorders is recognized. PMID:24637228

  18. Updated neurophysiology of itch.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    The unique physiological features of histamine-sensitive C-fibers and spinothalamic tract neurons support the hypothesis of itch specific pathway, whereas subsequent studies on cowhage-induced itch have provided evidence against it, suggesting the presence of multiple neural pathways for itch. Not only peripheral pruritogens but also spinal neural receptors are involved in the control of itch, and will be the target of treatment. Itch sensitization in chronic pruritus is another crucial factor that needs to be considered in the treatment. Neuropathic itch is the type of itch that occurs when nerve fibers are damaged or injured and spontaneous firing of nerves takes place, and plays a major role in itch accompanying some pathological conditions such as herpes zoster. The complexity of itch is due to the broad range of mediators involved and the large variety of neural mechanisms behind.

  19. Scanning the periphery.

    PubMed

    Day, George S; Schoemaker, Paul J H

    2005-11-01

    Companies often face new rivals, technologies, regulations, and other environmental changes that seem to come out of left field. How can they see these changes sooner and capitalize on them? Such changes often begin as weak signals on what the authors call the periphery, or the blurry zone at the edge of an organization's vision. As with human peripheral vision, these signals are difficult to see and interpret but can be vital to success or survival. Unfortunately, most companies lack a systematic method for determining where on the periphery they should be looking, how to interpret the weak signals they see, and how to allocate limited scanning resources. This article provides such a method-a question-based framework for helping companies scan the periphery more efficiently and effectively. The framework divides questions into three categories: learning from the past (What have been our past blind spots? What instructive analogies do other industries offer? Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them?); evaluating the present (What important signals are we rationalizing away? What are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking?); and envisioning the future (What future surprises could really hurt or help us? What emerging technologies could change the game? Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business?). Answering these questions is a good first step toward anticipating problems or opportunities that may appear on the business horizon. The article concludes with a self-test that companies can use to assess their need and capability for peripheral vision.

  20. Updated Electronic Testbed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Kevin L.

    2001-01-01

    updated Electronic Testbed System.

  1. VIIP 2017 Clinical Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: NASA's Space Medicine community knowledge regarding the "Vision Impairment Intracranial Pressure", or VIIP.has been evolving over time.. Various measures of occupational health related to this condition had to be determined and then plans/processes put into place. The most robust of these processes were inititated in 2010. This presentation will provide a clinic update of the astronaut occupational health data related to VIIP. METHODS: NASA and its international partners require its astronauts to undergo routine health measures deemed important to monitoring VIIP. The concern is that the spaceflight environment aboard ISS could cause some astronauts to have physiologic changes detrimental to either ongoing mission operations or long-term health related to the ocular system and possibly the CNS. Specific medical tests include but are not limited to brain/orbit MRI (NASA unique protocol), OCT, fundoscopy and ocular ultrasound. Measures are taken prior to spaceflight, in-flight and post-flight. Measures to be reported include incidence of disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, ONSD and change in refractive error. RESULTS: 73 ISS astronauts have been evaluated at least partially for VIIP related measures. Of these individuals, approximately 1 in 7 have experienced disc edema. The prevalence of the other findings is more complicated as the medical testing has changed over time. Overall, 26 separate individuals have experienced at least one of the findings NASA has associated with VIIP Another confounding factor is most of the astronauts have prior spaceflight experience at the time of the "pre-flight" testing. DISCUSSION: In 2010 NASA and its US operating segment (USOS) partners (CSA, ESA and JAXA) began routine occupational monitoring and data collection for most VIIP related changes. Interpretation of that data is extremely challenging for several reasons. For example, the determination of disc edema is the most complete finding as we have had

  2. Earth observing scanning polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Climate forcing by tropospheric aerosols is receiving increased attention because of the realization that the climate effects may be large, while our knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and temporal changes is very poor. Tropospheric aerosols cause a direct radiative forcing due simply to their scattering and absorption of solar radiation, as well as an indirect effect as cloud condensation nuclei which can modify the shortwave reflectivity of clouds. Sulfate aerosols tend to increase planetary albedo through both the direct and indirect effects; a cooling due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols has been estimated of order 1 W/sq m, noting that this is similar in magnitude to the present anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming. Other aerosols, including those from biomass burning and wind-blown desert dust are also of potential climatic importance. At present, the only global monitoring of tropospheric aerosols is a NOAA operational product, aerosol optical thickness, obtained using channel-1 (0.58-0.68 mu m) radiances from the AVHRR. With this single channel radiance data, one must use an approach which is based on the inferred excess of reflected radiance owing to scattering by the aerosols over that expected from theoretical calculations. This approach is suited only for situations where the surface has a low albedo that is well known a priori. Thus, the NOAA operational product is restricted to coverage over the ocean at AVHRR scan angles well away from sun glint, and aerosol changes are subject to confusion with changes caused by either optically thin or subpixel clouds. Because optically thin aerosols have only a small effect on the radiance, accurate measurements for optical thickness less than 0.1 (which is a typical background level) are precluded. Moreover, some of the largest and most important aerosol changes are expected over land. The Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument, based upon design heritage and analysis techniques

  3. MUSTANG/PTCS Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B.; Hunter, T. R.

    2007-07-01

    The GBT achieved first light at 3 mm in a fall 2006 engineering run with MUSTANG, a 64-pixel TES-bolometer array developed by Mark Devlin's group at the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with NASA-GSFC and NRAO. At the time, the two principal obstacles to doing first-class science with MUSTANG on the GBT were the telescope's aperture efficiency (about ten percent), and a mysterious source of excess noise in the receiver itself. In spring 2007, extensive laboratory investigations by Simon Dicker (UPenn) and Phil Korngut (NRAO/UPenn) showed that the excess noise was a strange form of microphonic vibration, uncorrelated between individual bolometers, and excited by the pulse tube cooler. The pulse tube was vibrationally isolated from the focal plane, dramatically improving the sensitivity of the receiver. The PTCS team has also been investigating prospects for improving the GBT surface efficiency, with encouraging results to date. Measurements of the faint sidelobes of the telescope, conducted by performing 2 degree scans across the moon with the Q-Band (43 GHz) receiver, have been interpreted within the framework of a realistic mathematical model of surface errors. The results suggest that corner-setting error does not dominate over actuator error as a contributor to the small-scale surface errors. This is good news since actuator errors are much easier to correct than corner-setting errors.

  4. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Nels W.

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  5. Differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Spink, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has emerged as a powerful experimental technique for determining thermodynamic properties of biomacromolecules. The ability to monitor unfolding or phase transitions in proteins, polynucleotides, and lipid assemblies has not only provided data on thermodynamic stability for these important molecules, but also made it possible to examine the details of unfolding processes and to analyze the characteristics of intermediate states involved in the melting of biopolymers. The recent improvements in DSC instrumentation and software have generated new opportunities for the study of the effects of structure and changes in environment on the behavior of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. This review presents some of the details of application of DSC to the examination of the unfolding of biomolecules. After a brief introduction to DSC instrumentation used for the study of thermal transitions, the methods for obtaining basic thermodynamic information from the DSC curve are presented. Then, using DNA unfolding as an example, methods for the analysis of the melting transition are presented that allow deconvolution of the DSC curves to determine more subtle characteristics of the intermediate states involved in unfolding. Two types of transitions are presented for analysis, the first example being the unfolding of two large synthetic polynucleotides, which display high cooperativity in the melting process. The second example shows the application of DSC for the study of the unfolding of a simple hairpin oligonucleotide. Details of the data analysis are presented in a simple spreadsheet format.

  6. GPR scan assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Abbas M.; Salah, Hany; Massoud, Usama; Fouad, Mona; Abdel-Hafez, Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD). The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m) with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  7. Parasomnias: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Parasomnias are abnormal behaviors emanating from or associated with sleep. Sleepwalking and related disorders result from an incomplete dissociation of wakefulness from nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Conditions that provoke repeated cortical arousals, or promote sleep inertia lead to NREM parasomnias by impairing normal arousal mechanisms. Changes in the cyclic alternating pattern, a biomarker of arousal instability in NREM sleep, are noted in sleepwalking disorders. Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by a disruption of the nocturnal fast with episodes of feeding after an arousal from sleep. SRED is often associated with the use of sedative-hypnotic medications; in particular, the widely prescribed benzodiazepine receptor agonists. Recently, compelling evidence suggests that nocturnal eating may in some cases be a nonmotor manifestation of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). rapid eye movement (REM) Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is characterized by a loss of REM paralysis leading to potentially injurious dream enactment. The loss of atonia in RBD often predates the development of Parkinson's disease and other disorders of synuclein pathology. Parasomnia behaviors are related to an activation (in NREM parasomnias) or a disinhibition (in RBD) of central pattern generators (CPGs). Initial management should focus on decreasing the potential for sleep-related injury followed by treating comorbid sleep disorders. Clonazepam and melatonin appear to be effective therapies in RBD, whereas paroxetine has been reported effective in some cases of sleep terrors. At this point, pharmacotherapy for other parasomnias is less certain, and further investigations are necessary.

  8. Rett Syndrome -- an update.

    PubMed

    Jellinger, K A

    2003-06-01

    Rett syndrome is a progressive, usually sporadic and rarely familial, disabling neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in early childhood presenting clinically with mental retardation, behavioral changes, late movement disturbances, loss of speech and hand skills, ataxia, apraxia, irregular breathing with hyperventilation while awake, and frequent seizures. It occurs almost exclusively in females with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 10-22000 births and is considered a manifestation of defective brain maturation caused by dominant mutation of the MeCP2 gene encoding the transcriptional repressor methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 related to the Xq28 locus. Although many different mutations of this protein are being studied in humans and in mice, the molecular pathogenesis of this disorder remains unclear. Electroencephalography is abnormal in the final stages of the syndrome. Neuroimaging showing brain atrophy may be required for differential diagnosis that includes neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. Neuropathology shows decreased brain growth and reduced size of individual neurons, with thinned dendrites in some cortical layers and abnormalities in substantia nigra (decreased neuromelanin content), suggestive of deficient synaptogenic development, probably starting before birth. Neurometabolic changes include reduced levels of dopamine, serotonin, noradrenalin, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), nerve growth factors, endorphines, glutamate, and other amino acids and their receptor levels in brain. Current treatment includes symptomatic, anticonvulsive and physiotherapy.

  9. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update].

    PubMed

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery.

  10. Ferrium S53 LG Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Ferrium S53 LG Update Charles J. Kuehmann Surface Finishing and Repair Issues for Sustaining New Military Aircraft Tempe, AZ February 26-28, 2008...2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ferrium S53 LG Update 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT... Ferrium S53 : A Nanostructured UHS Corrosion-Resistant Steel Accidents by Aircraft System Commercial Jet Transport Aircraft 1958-1993 456 192 185 100 85 49

  11. Revision and update of the EGIB land-use database using the airborne laser scanning point cloud - the case study of Tuklecz village in 'wietokrzyskie voivodeship. (Polish Title: Weryfikacja i aktualizacja bazy klaso-użytków EGIB w oparciu o analizy chmury punktów z lotniczego skanowania laserowego na przykładzie wsi Tuklęcz w województwie świętokrzyskim)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wężyk, P.; Gęca, T.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic economic and social changes taking place for the past 20 years in Poland, effects often of such loss of extensive agriculture and abandonment of agricultural activities particularly on small and narrow plots , usually on the soils of poor grading. Even before the Polish accession to the EU, set - aside and fallow areas cover approx. 2.3 million ha (in 2002), but in subsequent years the area drastically decreased from 1.3 million ha (in 2004) , by 1.0 million ha ( 2 005 ) to 0.4 million hectares (2011). As a result of cessation of mowing meadows, grazing pastures and agricultural measures , we can observed the phenomenon of secondary forest succession ( plant communities of a forest properties ) leading to changes in land use and land cover classes structure . Recording changes in the agro - forestry space, update reference registers of the land and building (EGiB) and control granted to farmers subsidies ( direct EU payments) requires an efficient and automated technology acquisition, processing and analysis of spatial data. In addition to the used by ARiMR (in the LPIS system) vector data and aerial orthophotomaps , there is still a need to strengthen the decision - making process such as update of current ranges of land - use cla sses. One of the GI technologies that could be a real breakthrough is the Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) . The study area cover 137.17 ha in the village Tuklęcz (commune Rytwiany, Staszów County , ?więtokrzyskie Voivodeship ). The EGiB geo data came from PODGiK in Staszów. They were two ALS point cloud data sets: one provided by the RZGW in Krakow (from airborne campaign Nov. 2009; density ~ 2 pts / m2) and the second from ISOK project (Nov. 2012; density ~ 4 pts / m2 ). The Terrasolid and FUSION (USDA Forest Service) and ArcGIS Esri software were used in the study . Detection of vegetation was carried out in 4 variants differ in the "height above ground" of the class "succession" (thresholds: from 0.4m , 1m, 2m and 3m ). The

  12. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-10-15

    We outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. The impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  13. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross J.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. Furthermore, the impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  14. CT angiography in the abdomen: a pictorial review and update.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peter S; Platt, Joel F

    2014-02-01

    The development of multidetector CT technology and helical scanning techniques has revolutionized the use of CT for primary diagnostic evaluation of the abdominal vasculature, particularly the arterial system. CT angiography has numerous benefits relative to conventional catheter angiography, and has largely replaced catheter-based techniques in many clinical algorithms. This pictorial review and update will cover important technical principles related to modern CT angiography (including contrast delivery and dose considerations), discuss relevant anatomy and variants, and illustrate numerous arterial conditions related to the abdominal aorta and branch vessels.

  15. FGS1r LOS and Transfer Scan Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelan, Edmund

    2012-10-01

    This proposal uses the new "MLOS" scan capability to obtain the data needed to support the full two-dimensional calibration of FGS Transfer mode observations. The well isolated verified point source star HD209458 is used for the F583W calibration, while the well isolated bright point source star HD 132058 {Beta Lupi} is used for the F5ND calibration. In addition to the MLOS observations, each visit will include TRANS mode exposures to obtain updated S-curves for these two filters.

  16. The current status of PET scanning with respect to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sedvall, G

    1992-08-01

    PET scan studies of regional brain energy metabolism in schizophrenia have hitherto not been consistent in demonstrating any specific perturbation in heterogenous groups of patients. In some studies there was a tendency to reduced metabolic values in several regions in chronic patients. The variance of metabolic rates also tended to be greater in the group of schizophrenic subjects, but rates for most patients overlapped with those of the controls. Studies of regional brain energy metabolism also failed to disclose consistent effects of clinical antipsychotic drug treatment in schizophrenic patients. PET measurements of dopamine receptor functions in the major basal ganglia using different radioligands for D2 dopamine receptors also gave inconsistent results. One group reporting elevated densities of D2 dopamine receptors in the major basal ganglia of drug-naive schizophrenic patients could not be confirmed. PET measurements of dopamine receptor binding demonstrated profound and selective effects of clinical antipsychotic drug treatment on D2 and D1 dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients. All chemically different categories of antipsychotic drugs induced a substantial occupancy of D2 dopamine receptors in relation to clinical treatment. This effect has been shown to be dose dependent and fully reversible. It appears much earlier than the antipsychotic effect and it is also present in neuroleptic-resistant patients. Accordingly, neuroleptic resistance is not related to individual pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic factors. Drug resistance is in all probability related to heterogeneity of biologic factors causing schizophrenia. Some, but not all, of the antipsychotic drugs also induce a significant D1 dopamine receptor occupancy. This effect was most marked for the unconventional drug clozapine, which showed about the same degree of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor blockade when given in conventional clinical doses. Further refinements of the resolution of

  17. Program Updates - San Antonio River Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page will house updates for this urban waters partnership location. As projects progress, status updates can be posted here to reflect the ongoing work by partners in San Antonio working on the San Antonio River Basin.

  18. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  19. Task Group 9 Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation is a brief update of IEC TC82 QA Task Force, Group 9. Presented is an outline of the recently submitted New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) for a Comparative Thermal Cycling Test for CPV Modules to Differentiate Thermal Fatigue Durability.

  20. NUHOMS{reg_sign} update

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, N.

    1995-12-31

    NUHOMS{reg_sign} is the dry spent fuel storage and transportation technology selected to date by the majority of commercial nuclear utilities. The author first gives a system overview of the NUHOMS{reg_sign}. Next she discusses the project status and licensing status. She closes with an update of the multi-purpose canister.

  1. Updating the Behavior Engineering Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Considers Thomas Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model as a tool for systematically identifying barriers to individual and organizational performance. Includes a detailed case study and a performance aid that incorporates gap analysis, cause analysis, and force field analysis to update the original model. (Author/LRW)

  2. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    ScienceCinema

    Cody, Tom

    2016-07-12

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  3. Early Childhood Update, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmerly, Lynn, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter provides a periodic update on the activities of the Early Childhood Research Working Group (ECRWG), organized in early 1995 by the U.S. Department of Education and other federal government departments and agencies to promote interagency cooperation and public-private partnerships in early childhood research. This edition contains…

  4. National Drug Control Strategy. Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The first National Drug Control Strategy set ambitious two and five-year performance based goals: (1) to lower the rate of drug use by 10 percent over 2 years among both youth and adults; and (2) to lower the rate by 25 percent over 5 years. The chapters in this updated version are keyed to the strategies three priorities: (1) Stopping Use Before…

  5. One-dimensional model update

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Penner, J.E.; Tarp, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Changes were made in the reaction kinetics constants for the atmospheric chemistry model. The CH/sub 3/CCl/sub 3/ emission rate was changed to 10/sup 9/ lb/y. Values for the solar flux vs wavelength were updated. Solar variability is discussed. Effects of clouds on photolysis rates are considered. (DLC)

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    PubMed

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  7. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Arai, Koji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-26

    NACRE, the 'nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Universite Libre de Brussels (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  8. Vitamin E: Textbooks Require Updating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzi, Angelo; Zingg, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin E was discovered in 1922, but in more than 60 years many new findings have added to the early one. However, its description in many textbooks has not been proportionally updated. The result is an inaccurate, incomplete, and often incorrect description of the function of this vitamin. In some other textbooks, vitamin E is absolutely…

  9. Energy Education Materials Bibliography - Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    Presented is an updated version of a previous bibliography prepared by the Minnesota State Energy Agency. The materials included in this document are indexed according to grade level and according to whether they are background materials or classroom activities. Each of the items listed were evaluated and included into either the "A"…

  10. Wind turbine reliability database update.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.

  11. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  12. Austin Community College Benchmarking Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Community Coll., TX. Office of Institutional Effectiveness.

    Austin Community College contracted with MGT of America, Inc. in spring 1999 to develop a peer and benchmark (best) practices analysis on key indicators. These indicators were updated in spring 2002 using data from eight Texas community colleges and four non-Texas institutions that represent large, comprehensive, urban community colleges, similar…

  13. Deductive Updating Is Not Bayesian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-01-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based theories such as mental model theory and probabilistic theories. This study looks at conclusion updating after the addition of statistical information to examine the hypothesis that deductive reasoning cannot be explained by probabilistic…

  14. Legal Update of Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2016-01-01

    This update of the legislation/regulations and case law specific to pre-K-12 gifted students since a cluster of publications in 2004-2005 primarily focuses on the "gifted alone" category, with only secondary attention to twice-exceptional and other students in the "gifted plus" category. For the gifted-alone category, the…

  15. A Mathematics Software Database Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, R. S.; Smith, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Contains an update of an earlier listing of software for mathematics instruction at the college level. Topics are: advanced mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, equation solving, general mathematics, geometry, linear and matrix algebra, logic, statistics and probability, and trigonometry. (PK)

  16. Community Update, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of ten issues of the newsletter "Community Update," containing articles on community and family involvement in education. Article topics include: a college education is necessary and possible; math and science study points out problems and positive solutions; the "America Reads Challenge"; meeting the…

  17. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  18. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E.; Freeman, Ginger L.; Jacobs, James; Parkin, Don M.

    1997-01-01

    This document contains a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 96, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico on October 27-30, 1996. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  19. 75 FR 70124 - Product List Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... 30 CFR Part 3020 Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are identified in the body of this document. The product lists, which are re-published in their entirety, include these...

  20. 77 FR 75377 - Product List Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... 39 CFR Part 3020 Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are identified in the body of this document. The product lists, which are re-published in their entirety, include these...

  1. 40 CFR 68.190 - Updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Updates. 68.190 Section 68.190... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.190 Updates. (a) The owner or operator shall review and update the RMP as specified in paragraph (b) of this section and submit it in the method...

  2. 76 FR 1357 - Product List Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... 30 CFR Part 3020 Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are identified in the body of this document. The product lists, which are re-published in their entirety, include these...

  3. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  4. The value of brain scanning

    PubMed Central

    Riddoch, D.; Drolc, Z.

    1972-01-01

    Over a 3-year period, 667 brain scans were performed, of which the results in 632 have been analysed. Positive scans were found in 68% of 204 cerebral tumours. There was a high rate of detection of meningiomas and malignant gliomas. Scanning was less helpful in visualizing slowly growing gliomas, and those tumours situated in the mid-line or posterior fossa. Metastases occupied an intermediate position. Positive scans occurred in a proportion of patients following acute cerebro-vascular accidents, and in a few other miscellaneous disorders. Virtually all patients with transient cerebral ischaemia, migraine, epilepsy and presenile dementia had normal brain scans. The value and limitations of this investigation have been discussed. PMID:5076491

  5. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Krempasky, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-23

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a 'master' controlling the undulator 'slave' energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  6. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krempaský, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-01

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a "master" controlling the undulator "slave" energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  7. Understanding retinopathy of prematurity: update on pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rivera, José Carlos; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Duhamel, François; Shao, Zhuo; Sitaras, Nicholas; Picard, Emilie; Zhou, Ellen; Lachapelle, Pierre; Chemtob, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), an ocular disease characterized by the onset of vascular abnormalities in the developing retina, is the major cause of visual impairment and blindness in premature neonates. ROP is a complex condition in which various factors participate at different stages of the disease leading to microvascular degeneration followed by neovascularization, which in turn predisposes to retinal detachment. Current ablative therapies (cryotherapy and laser photocoagulation) used in the clinic for the treatment of ROP have limitations and patients can still have long-term effects even after successful treatment. New treatment modalities are still emerging. The most promising are the therapies directed against VEGF; more recently the use of preventive dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid may also be promising. Other than pharmacologic and nutritional approaches, cell-based strategies for vascular repair are likely to arise from advances in regenerative medicine using stem cells. In addition to all of these, a greater understanding of other factors involved in regulating pathologic retinal angiogenesis continues to emerge, suggesting potential targets for therapeutic approaches. This review summarizes an update on the current state of knowledge on ROP from our and other laboratories, with particular focus on the role of nitro-oxidative stress and notably trans-arachidonic acids in microvascular degeneration, semaphorin 3 operating as vasorepulsive molecules in the avascular hypoxic retina and in turn impairing revascularization, succinate and its receptor GPR91 in neuron-mediated retinal neovascularization, and ω-3 lipids as modulators of preretinal neovascularization.

  8. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Giulia M.R.; Breedijk, Ronald M.P.; Brandt, Rick A.J.; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H.C.; de Jong, Babette E.; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A.; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required. PMID:24298422

  9. Filtering method for 3D laser scanning point cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Da; Wang, Li; Hao, Yuncai; Zhang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of the hardware and software of the three-dimensional model acquisition, three-dimensional laser scanning technology is utilized in various aspects, especially in space exploration. The point cloud filter is very important before using the data. In the paper, considering both the processing quality and computing speed, an improved mean-shift point cloud filter method is proposed. Firstly, by analyze the relevance of the normal vector between the upcoming processing point and the near points, the iterative neighborhood of the mean-shift is selected dynamically, then the high frequency noise is constrained. Secondly, considering the normal vector of the processing point, the normal vector is updated. Finally, updated position is calculated for each point, then each point is moved in the normal vector according to the updated position. The experimental results show that the large features are retained, at the same time, the small sharp features are also existed for different size and shape of objects, so the target feature information is protected precisely. The computational complexity of the proposed method is not high, it can bring high precision results with fast speed, so it is very suitable for space application. It can also be utilized in civil, such as large object measurement, industrial measurement, car navigation etc. In the future, filter with the help of point strength will be further exploited.

  10. Source Update Capture in Information Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen; Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present strategies for successfully capturing updates at Web sources. Web-based information agents provide integrated access to autonomous Web sources that can get updated. For many information agent applications we are interested in knowing when a Web source to which the application provides access, has been updated. We may also be interested in capturing all the updates at a Web source over a period of time i.e., detecting the updates and, for each update retrieving and storing the new version of data. Previous work on update and change detection by polling does not adequately address this problem. We present strategies for intelligently polling a Web source for efficiently capturing changes at the source.

  11. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  12. Circular Scan Streak Tube Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1980-01-01

    A streak tube having circular scan was designed, built and tested. Continuous circular scan, easily derived from out of phase sine waves applied to the conventional deflection plates, permits the timing of pulses traveling long baselines. At the tube's output a circular array of 720 elements is scanned to provide 30 to 40 picosecond resolution. Initial difficulties with electron bombarded silicon arrays were circumvented by using microchannel plates within the streak tube to provide the needed electronic amplification and digital sensitivity and coupling the 720 element arrays to the electron beam by means of a phosphor on a fiber optics. Two ceramic body tubes with S-20 photocathodes were tested and delivered.

  13. Environmental Chemistry Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    the Great Lakes may contain more than 600,000 kg of the herbicide and that its residence time there is in years. Atrazine concentrations in rivers that flow into these lakes can exceed 20,000 ppt (i.e., 20 ppb) (9). There are about 600 basic ingredients in the 34,000 pesticides registered with the U.S. EPA. Approximately 75% of all U.S. cropland and 70% of livestock are treated with pesticides. In 1991, 495 million pounds of herbicides, 175 million pounds of insecticides, 75 million pounds of fungicides, and 72 million pounds of other pesticides were used; this accounted for three-quarters of all pesticide use in the United States (10). Environmental EstrogensDDT and its metabolite DDE, as well as methoxychlor, dieldrin, kepone, and some PCB's are thought to be environmental estrogens. These synthetic compounds are found in the environment and mimic the action of the sex hormone estrogen because they can bind to the estrogen receptor in cells. Some scientists are worried that they can disrupt the hormone balance in human eggs and fetuses, thus causing reproductive abnormalities. Examples of reproductive problems caused by such chemicals have already been observed in wildlife, such as alligators in Florida. They may also play a role in inducing cancer in humans (11). The U.S. EPA has issued a 2000-page draft of its reassessment of the health risks of dioxins. The report reaffirms their 1985 conclusion that it is a probable cause of cancer in humans. Even trace amounts of dioxins may also disrupt regulatory hormones, produce reproductive and immune-system disorders, and lead to abnormal fetal development. Although waste combustion produces 95% of all known dioxin emissions in the United States, about half its source is unknown. Dioxin levels in the environment were small until about 1930, peaked about 1970, and have declined since then. Human body burdens of dioxins may also have declined. The Toxic Equivalent intake of dioxins and furans of Americans is currently about

  14. WFGD system materials cost update

    SciTech Connect

    Milobowski, M.G.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is an update of the report ``Economic Comparison of Materials of Construction of Wet FGD Absorbers and Internals`` which was presented at the 1991 EPRI/EPA/DOE SO{sub 2} Control symposium. An economic comparison of the materials standardly used for fabrication of wet FGD spray towers will be presented in this paper. Costs for various materials of construction for such absorber components as spray headers, moisture separators, and gas distribution devices will also be addressed,

  15. Update on Internet2 Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, T. Charles

    [14 Feb 2003] I propose an overview talk/update on several Internet2 activities that might be of interest to the e-VLBI community including: End-to-End performance project (PiPES); national (American) fiber infrastructure (a.k.a. National Light Rail, FiberCo, etc.); request for interest in short-term, dedicated, test-labmdas (inside the US only at this point).

  16. GPS Modernization and Program Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-02

    2 March 2011 Colonel Bernie Gruber Director Global Positioning Systems Directorate 2011 03 03 Munich Summit v8 GPS Modernization and Program Update...Munich Summit v8 Global Positioning Systems Directorate Mission: Deliver sustained, reliable GPS capabilities to America’s warfighters, our allies...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Space Command,Space & Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning

  17. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm to an athlete or give one an unfair competitive advantage. Evidence Acquisition: Published websites for the WADA, USADA, and NCAA were investigated. These governing bodies update and publish their lists annually. Results: The WADA, USADA, and NCAA monitor anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. Some substances may be used by athletes but require formal exemption. The WADA has also recently created a category of nonapproved substances that have yet to be identified to curb athletes from experimenting with new doping agents. Conclusion: The lists of banned substances and practices per the WADA, USADA, and NCAA are in place to ensure the integrity of sports and maintain safe competition. Health care providers who work with athletes under the jurisdiction of these organizations should review updated lists of banned substances when prescribing medications. PMID:24427415

  18. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  19. Studies in Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    refereed journals, as well as two books titled Scanning Force Microscopy, With Applications to Electric, Magnetic, and Atomic Forces published by Oxford University Press in 1991 and a revised edition in 1994.

  20. Retinal locus for scanning text.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, George T; Sharma, Manoj K; Grose, Susan A; Maino, Joseph H

    2006-01-01

    A method of mapping the retinal location of text during reading is described in which text position is plotted cumulatively on scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal images. Retinal locations that contain text most often are the brightest in the cumulative plot, and locations that contain text least often are the darkest. In this way, the retinal area that most often contains text is determined. Text maps were plotted for eight control subjects without vision loss and eight subjects with central scotomas from macular degeneration. Control subjects' text maps showed that the fovea contained text most often. Text maps of five of the subjects with scotomas showed that they used the same peripheral retinal area to scan text and fixate. Text maps of the other three subjects with scotomas showed that they used separate areas to scan text and fixate. Retinal text maps may help evaluate rehabilitative strategies for training individuals with central scotomas to use a particular retinal area to scan text.

  1. Liver echinococcus - CT scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This upper abdominal CT scan shows multiple cysts in the liver, caused by dog tapeworm (echinococcus). Note the large circular cyst (seen on the left side of the screen) and multiple smaller cysts throughout ...

  2. Scanned Laser Illuminator/Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    illustrate parallel development of the PIN diode /CCD sensor hybrid and the 100W laser . Al- though a detailed cost analysis for procurement of this large...pmww^^W .m^n.m .,** ■ —ssa^ AFAL-TR-76-184 \\ SCANNED LASER ILLUMINATOR/RECEIVER ^ R. A. Honzik and F. B. Warren ^•Martin Marietta...NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Sublille) SCANNED LASER ILLUMINATOR/RECEIVER 5, TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Final Technical Report Dec 75

  3. Low Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Microscopy List of Keywords ,Scanning electron microscopy SEM X -ray .Micoranalysis EDX/EDS -%Low voltage , High resolution -Ceramic surfaces Supported...energy component normal to the surface). (a) Applications to x -ray microanalysis The essential problem leading to the specification of a LVSEM is...illustrated (Fig.l), for a conventional microprobe operated with 20nA probe current, by the contrast of the alumunium (K) x -ray signal as the probe is scanned

  4. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-01

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.

  5. Deconvolution of sinusoidal rapid EPR scans.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-02-01

    In rapid scan EPR the magnetic field is scanned through the signal in a time that is short relative to electron spin relaxation times. Previously it was shown that the slow-scan lineshape could be recovered from triangular rapid scans by Fourier deconvolution. In this paper a general Fourier deconvolution method is described and demonstrated to recover the slow-scan lineshape from sinusoidal rapid scans. Since an analytical expression for the Fourier transform of the driving function for a sinusoidal scan was not readily apparent, a numerical method was developed to do the deconvolution. The slow scan EPR lineshapes recovered from rapid triangular and sinusoidal scans are in excellent agreement for lithium phthalocyanine, a trityl radical, and the nitroxyl radical, tempone. The availability of a method to deconvolute sinusoidal rapid scans makes it possible to scan faster than is feasible for triangular scans because of hardware limitations on triangular scans.

  6. Immersion ultrasonography: simultaneous A-scan and B-scan.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D J; Dallow, R L; Smith, M E

    1979-01-01

    In eyes with opaque media, ophthalmic ultrasound provides a unique source of information that can dramatically affect the course of patient management. In addition, when an ocular abnormality can be visualized, ultrasonography provides information that supplements and complements other diagnostic testing. It provides documentation and differentiation of abnormal states, such as vitreous hemorrhage and intraocular tumor, as well as differentiation of orbital tumors from inflammatory causes of exophthalmos. Additional capabilities of ultrasound are biometric determinations for calculation of intraocular lens implant powers and drug-effectiveness studies. Maximal information is derived from ultrasonography when A-scan and B-scan techniques are employed simultaneously. Flexibility of electronics, variable-frequency transducers, and the use of several different manual scanning patterns aid in detection and interpretation of results. The immersion system of ultrasonography provides these features optimally.

  7. Dual energy CT with one full scan and a second sparse-view scan using structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tonghe; Zhu, Lei

    2016-09-21

    Conventional dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstruction requires two full-size projection datasets with two different energy spectra. In this study, we propose an iterative algorithm to enable a new data acquisition scheme which requires one full scan and a second sparse-view scan for potential reduction in imaging dose and engineering cost of DECT. A bilateral filter is calculated as a similarity matrix from the first full-scan CT image to quantify the similarity between any two pixels, which is assumed unchanged on a second CT image since DECT scans are performed on the same object. The second CT image from reduced projections is reconstructed by an iterative algorithm which updates the image by minimizing the total variation of the difference between the image and its filtered image by the similarity matrix under data fidelity constraint. As the redundant structural information of the two CT images is contained in the similarity matrix for CT reconstruction, we refer to the algorithm as structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR). The proposed method is evaluated on both digital and physical phantoms, and is compared with the filtered-backprojection (FBP) method, the conventional total-variation-regularization-based algorithm (TVR) and prior-image-constrained-compressed-sensing (PICCS). SPIR with a second 10-view scan reduces the image noise STD by a factor of one order of magnitude with same spatial resolution as full-view FBP image. SPIR substantially improves over TVR on the reconstruction accuracy of a 10-view scan by decreasing the reconstruction error from 6.18% to 1.33%, and outperforms TVR at 50 and 20-view scans on spatial resolution with a higher frequency at the modulation transfer function value of 10% by an average factor of 4. Compared with the 20-view scan PICCS result, the SPIR image has 7 times lower noise STD with similar spatial resolution. The electron density map obtained from the SPIR-based DECT images with a second 10-view scan has an

  8. Dual energy CT with one full scan and a second sparse-view scan using structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tonghe; Zhu, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Conventional dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstruction requires two full-size projection datasets with two different energy spectra. In this study, we propose an iterative algorithm to enable a new data acquisition scheme which requires one full scan and a second sparse-view scan for potential reduction in imaging dose and engineering cost of DECT. A bilateral filter is calculated as a similarity matrix from the first full-scan CT image to quantify the similarity between any two pixels, which is assumed unchanged on a second CT image since DECT scans are performed on the same object. The second CT image from reduced projections is reconstructed by an iterative algorithm which updates the image by minimizing the total variation of the difference between the image and its filtered image by the similarity matrix under data fidelity constraint. As the redundant structural information of the two CT images is contained in the similarity matrix for CT reconstruction, we refer to the algorithm as structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR). The proposed method is evaluated on both digital and physical phantoms, and is compared with the filtered-backprojection (FBP) method, the conventional total-variation-regularization-based algorithm (TVR) and prior-image-constrained-compressed-sensing (PICCS). SPIR with a second 10-view scan reduces the image noise STD by a factor of one order of magnitude with same spatial resolution as full-view FBP image. SPIR substantially improves over TVR on the reconstruction accuracy of a 10-view scan by decreasing the reconstruction error from 6.18% to 1.33%, and outperforms TVR at 50 and 20-view scans on spatial resolution with a higher frequency at the modulation transfer function value of 10% by an average factor of 4. Compared with the 20-view scan PICCS result, the SPIR image has 7 times lower noise STD with similar spatial resolution. The electron density map obtained from the SPIR-based DECT images with a second 10-view scan has an

  9. Air-quality-model update

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1982-01-15

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality Model (LIRAQ) has been updated and improved. This report describes the changes that have been made in chemistry, species treatment, and boundary conditions. The results of smog chamber simulations that were used to verify the chemistry as well as simulations of the entire air quality model for two prototype days in the Bay Area are reported. The results for the prototype day simulations are preliminary due to the need for improvement in meteorology fields, but they show the dependence and sensitivity of high hour ozone to changes in selected boundary and initial conditions.

  10. An update on chemistry analyzers.

    PubMed

    Vap, L M; Mitzner, B

    1996-09-01

    This update of six chemistry analyzers available to the clinician discusses several points that should be considered prior to the purchase of equipment. General topics include how to best match an instrument to clinic needs and the indirect costs associated with instrument operation. Quality assurance recommendations are discussed and common terms are defined. Specific instrument features, principles of operation, performance, and costs are presented. The information provided offers potential purchasers an objective approach to the evaluation of a chemistry analyzer for the veterinary clinic.

  11. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Nidhi; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist’s skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient. How to cite this article: Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal K, Chopra R. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):109-118. PMID:25356010

  12. Update of Thyroid Developmental Genes.

    PubMed

    Stoupa, Athanasia; Kariyawasam, Dulanjalee; Carré, Aurore; Polak, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism in iodine-sufficient regions and includes a spectrum of developmental anomalies. The genetic components of TD are complex. Although a sporadic disease, advances in developmental biology have revealed monogenetic forms of TD. Inheritance is not based on a simple Mendelian pattern and additional genetic elements might contribute to the phenotypic spectrum. This article summarizes the key steps of normal thyroid development and provides an update on responsible genes and underlying mechanisms of TD. Up-to-date technologies in genetics and biology will allow us to advance in our knowledge of TD.

  13. Macrophage Cryptococcus interactions: an update

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Michael K.; Reedy, Jennifer L.; Tam, Jenny M.; Vyas, Jatin M.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus species are fungal pathogens that are a leading cause of mortality. Initial inoculation is through the pulmonary route and, if disseminated, results in severe invasive infection including meningoencephalitis. Macrophages are the dominant phagocytic cell that interacts with Cryptococcus. Emerging theories suggest that Cryptococcus microevolution in macrophages is linked to survival and virulence within the host. In addition, Cryptococcus elaborates virulence factors as well as usurps host machinery to establish macrophage activation states that are permissive to intracellular survival and replication. In this review, we provide an update of the recent findings pertaining to macrophage interaction with Cryptococcus and focus on new avenues for biomedical research. PMID:24660045

  14. The hyperactive child: an update.

    PubMed

    Myers, D A; Claman, L; Oldham, D G; Waller, D A; Crumley, F E; Hebeler, J R; Pearson, G T; Shadid, L G

    1989-03-01

    The physician is uniquely qualified to manage the multiple facets of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This clinically oriented update reviews the current state of the art regarding diagnosis and management of hyperactive children. Three case reports emphasize the wide variation of clinical problems presented by this frequently occurring disorder of childhood. Epidemiology, differential diagnosis, associated features, neurobiologic mechanisms, treatment, long-term outcome, and attention-deficit disorder in adults are addressed. Although medication is an important tool in the treatment of this condition, follow-up studies confirm the importance of a multimodal treatment approach.

  15. The Scout Launcher - An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.

    1981-05-01

    An update is given for the Scout launches since April 1978. Scout is a four-stage solid-propellant launcher with its motors divided by transition sections carrying electronics and attitude motors, topped by a payload and its shroud. The payloads have carried a wide range of experiments, including Explorer atmospheric, Navy navigation satellites, and all of Britain's Ariels. Since launch 98 in April 1978, Scout has been employed three times more in 1979, and when the program is phased out in 1985, well over 110 Scouts will have been launched. This last phase from launch 102 onward, will involve exclusively military missions.

  16. [Vaccinations in dentistry. An update].

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this current paper is to give a simple update and overview about vaccinations for dental health care workers considering the new guidelines published in February 2014 by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. It is recommended to have at least a valid protection against hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, varicella, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and pertussis. Dental health care workers are highly exposed and high risk carriers for inoculable diseases, therefore regular refreshment of vaccinations is necessary for public health and their own health.

  17. Big bang nucleosynthesis: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.

    2013-07-23

    An update on the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is presented. With the value of the baryon-tophoton ratio determined to high precision by WMAP, standard BBN is a parameter-free theory. In this context, the theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, {sup 4}He, and {sup 7}Li is discussed and compared to their observational determination. While concordance for D and {sup 4}He is satisfactory, the prediction for {sup 7}Li exceeds the observational determination by a factor of about four. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed.

  18. Studies in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror

    1995-06-01

    The following is a final report on our work in the field of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM), which has been funded by the AFOSR under Contract #F49620-92-J-0164. The AFOSR funding was instrumental in the establishment of a multi-lab facility at the Optical Sciences Center, which performs research in SPM using two ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) STM facilities, and several Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) facilities. The fabrication and characterization work performed in the SPM Laboratory is supplemented by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), available in other departments on campus. The report covers the following areas: (1) GaAs and CdSe Structures, (2) Optical Interactions on a nm and nsec Scales, (3) Fullerenes on Gold, (4) Fullerenes on MoS2, (5) Fullerenes on Si, (6) SiC, (7) Nanotubes, (8) Scanning Force Microscopy, and (9) Biology.

  19. Scanning laser polarimetry - a review.

    PubMed

    Da Pozzo, Stefano; Marchesan, Roberta; Ravalico, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Retinal ganglion cells and their axons represent the selective target of the disease. When visual function is still intact on standard automated perimetry and optic disc appearance is suspicious, an early diagnosis may be supported by the identification of a retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) defect in the peripapillary area. At present days, computer-based, real-time imaging of the peripapillary RNFL is available through instruments of easy use and with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. Scanning laser polarimetry is performed by a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with an integrated polarimeter (GDx-VCC). There is a considerable amount of scientific evidence about the role of this imaging technique for glaucoma diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe the principles of operation, the examination procedure, the clinical role, the results of main diagnostic studies and the future development of the software for the scanning laser polarimetry.

  20. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  1. ISS Update: Burning and Suppression of Solids

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Paul Ferkul, Principal Investigator for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment, about performing combustion experiments in microgravity. ...

  2. Research With Scanning Tip Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    08ro P noiwe bae?041Le Research With Scanning Tip Microscopy AFOSR-89-0498 V AUTHOS)i Professor Dror Sarid 7. PFOUImNG 00ANIZATION NAMEIS) AND...forces and (b) surfaces. UNCLASS UNCLASS UNCLASS UL FINAL REPORT TO THE AFOSR ൱-, to J4ti. r Aat io Research in Scanning Tip Microscopy Dror Sarid Dtst...microscopy have been used to investigate (a) forces and (b) surfaces. a. Forces 1. Dror Sarid , Douglas lams, Volker Weissenberger, and L. Stephen Bell

  3. Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Poorya; Sung, Yongjin; Choi, Youngwoon; Lue, Niyom; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an interferometric optical microscope that provides three-dimensional refractive index map of a specimen by scanning the color of three illumination beams. Our design of the interferometer allows for simultaneous measurement of the scattered fields (both amplitude and phase) of such a complex input beam. By obviating the need for mechanical scanning of the illumination beam or detection objective lens; the proposed method can increase the speed of the optical tomography by orders of magnitude. We demonstrate our method using polystyrene beads of known refractive index value and live cells. PMID:26367632

  4. Digital laser scanning fundus camera.

    PubMed

    Plesch, A; Klingbeil, U; Bille, J

    1987-04-15

    Imaging and documentation of the human retina for clinical diagnostics are conventionally achieved by classical optical methods. We designed a digital laser scanning fundus camera. The optoelectronical instrument is based on scanning laser illumination of the retina and a modified video imaging procedure. It is coupled to a digital image buffer and a microcomputer for image storage and processing. Aside from its high sensitivity the LSF incorporates new ophthalmic imaging methods like polarization differential contrast. We give design considerations as well as a description of the instrument and its performance.

  5. Conically scanned holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical scanning device utilizing a source of optical energy such as laser light backscattered from the earth's atmosphere or transmitted outward as in a lidar, a rotating holographic optical element having an axis of rotation perpendicular to the plane of its substrate, and having a stationary focus which may or may not be located on its axis of rotation, with the holographic optical element diffracting the source of optical energy at an angle to its rotation axis enabling a conical scanning area and a motor for supporting and rotating the rotating holographic optical element, is described.

  6. High precision prism scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Torales, G.; Flores, J. L.; Muñoz, Roberto X.

    2007-03-01

    Risley prisms are commonly used in continuous scanning manner. Each prism is capable of rotating separately about a common axis at different speeds. Scanning patterns are determined by the ratios of the wedge angles, the speed and direction of rotation of both prisms. The use of this system is conceptually simple. However, mechanical action in most applications becomes a challenge often solved by the design of complex control algorithms. We propose an electronic servomotor system that controls incremental and continuous rotations of the prisms wedges by means of an auto-tuning PID control using a Adaline Neural Network Algorithm, NNA.

  7. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; ...

    2016-04-13

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annualmore » energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.« less

  8. Diuretics for Hypertension: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Roush, George C; Sica, Domenic A

    2016-10-01

    This review and update focuses on the clinical features of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), the thiazide-like agents chlorthalidone (CTDN) and indapamide (INDAP), potassium-sparing ENaC inhibitors and aldosterone receptor antagonists, and loop diuretics. Diuretics are the second most commonly prescribed class of antihypertensive medication, and thiazide-related diuretics have increased at a rate greater than that of antihypertensive medications as a whole. The latest hypertension guidelines have underscored the importance of diuretics for all patients, but particularly for those with salt-sensitive and resistant hypertension. HCTZ is 4.2-6.2 systolic mm Hg less potent than CTDN, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers by 24-hour measurements and 5.1mm Hg systolic less potent than INDAP by office measurements. For reducing cardiovascular events (CVEs), HCTZ is less effective than enalapril and amlodipine in randomized trials, and, in network analysis of trials, it is less effective than CTDN and HCTZ-amiloride. Combined with thiazide-type diuretics, potassium-sparing agents decrease ventricular ectopy and reduce the risk for sudden cardiac death relative to thiazide-type diuretics used alone. A recent synthesis of 44 trials has shown that the relative potencies in milligrams among spironolactone (SPIR), amiloride, and eplerenone (EPLER) are approximately from 25 to 10 to 100, respectively, which may be important when SPIR is poorly tolerated. SPIR reduces proteinuria beyond that provided by other renin angiotensin aldosterone inhibitors. EPLER also reduces proteinuria and has beneficial effects on endothelial function. While guidelines often do not differentiate among specific diuretics, this review demonstrates that these distinctions are important for managing hypertension.

  9. Updated emissions from ocean shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, James J.; Koehler, Horst W.

    2003-10-01

    Marine vessel inventories demonstrate that ship emissions cannot be neglected in assessing environmental impacts of air pollution, although significant uncertainty in these inventories remains. We address this uncertainty by employing a bottom-up estimate of fuel consumption and vessel activity for internationally registered fleets, including cargo vessels, other commercial vessels, and military vessels. We identify model bias in previous work, which assumed internationally registered ships primarily consume international marine fuels. Updated results suggest fuel consumption is ˜289 million metric tons per year, more than twice the quantity reported as international fuel. According to our analysis, fuel used by internationally registered fleets is apparently allocated to both international and domestic fuel statistics; this implies either that ships operate along domestic routes much of the time or that marine fuel sales to these ships may be misassigned. If the former is true, then allocation of emissions to international shipping routes may underestimate near-coastal emissions from ships. Our updated inventories increases previous ship emissions inventories for all pollutants; for example, global NOx emissions (˜6.87 Tg N) are more than doubled. This work also produces detailed sensitivity analyses of inputs to these estimates, identifying uncertainty in vessel duty-cycle as critical to overall emissions estimates. We discuss implications for assessing ship emissions impacts.

  10. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  11. Perforated peptic ulcer - an update

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kin Tong; Shelat, Vishalkumar G

    2017-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) affects 4 million people worldwide annually. The incidence of PUD has been estimated at around 1.5% to 3%. Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a serious complication of PUD and patients with PPU often present with acute abdomen that carries high risk for morbidity and mortality. The lifetime prevalence of perforation in patients with PUD is about 5%. PPU carries a mortality ranging from 1.3% to 20%. Thirty-day mortality rate reaching 20% and 90-d mortality rate of up to 30% have been reported. In this review we have summarized the current evidence on PPU to update readers. This literature review includes the most updated information such as common causes, clinical features, diagnostic methods, non-operative and operative management, post-operative complications and different scoring systems of PPU. With the advancement of medical technology, PUD can now be treated with medications instead of elective surgery. The classic triad of sudden onset of abdominal pain, tachycardia and abdominal rigidity is the hallmark of PPU. Erect chest radiograph may miss 15% of cases with air under the diaphragm in patients with bowel perforation. Early diagnosis, prompt resuscitation and urgent surgical intervention are essential to improve outcomes. Exploratory laparotomy and omental patch repair remains the gold standard. Laparoscopic surgery should be considered when expertise is available. Gastrectomy is recommended in patients with large or malignant ulcer. PMID:28138363

  12. Differential involvement of glutamatergic and catecholaminergic activity within the amygdala during taste aversion retrieval on memory expression and updating.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Osorio-Gómez; Kioko, Guzmán-Ramos; Federico, Bermúdez-Rattoni

    2016-07-01

    During memory retrieval, consolidated memories are expressed and destabilized in order to maintain or update information through a memory reconsolidation process. Despite the key role of the amygdala during memory acquistion and consolidation, the participation of neurotransmitter signals in memory retrieval is poorly understood. Hence, we used conditioned taste aversion and in vivo microdialysis to evaluate changes in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations within the amygdala during memory retrieval. We observed that exposure to an aversive-conditioned stimulus induced an augmentation in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine levels within the amygdala, while exposure to a familiar and safe stimulus did not induce changes in these neurotransmitters levels. Also, we evaluated the amygdalar blockade of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), β-adrenergic and dopamine D1 receptors in memory retrieval and updating. Results showed that during retrieval, behavioural expression was impaired by intra-amygdalar blockade of AMPA and β-adrenergic receptors, whereas NMDA, D1 and β-adrenergic receptors blockade hindered memory updating. In summary, during conditioned taste aversion retrieval there was an increase in the extracellular levels of glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine within the amygdala, and their receptors activity were differentially involved in the behavioural expression and memory updating during retrieval.

  13. Phase multiplying electronic scanning array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaton, A. F.

    1969-01-01

    Scanning array was designed with properties of low RF loss and phase control. The array consists of a series of special waveguides, hybrids made up of two variable reactance branch arms for input signals, an edge slot for the difference port, and a sum arm for the unradiated signal.

  14. Environmental Scanning, Vancouver Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    This 1994 environmental scanning report from Vancouver Community College (VCC) reviews the expected effects of the separation of VCC into a new Vancouver Community College and Langara College (LC). The report examines the projected service area student-intake capacity; student characteristics; population growth trends; other postsecondary…

  15. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  16. Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Ustun, Teoman E.; Bigelow, Chad E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Webb, Robert H.

    2006-07-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is a powerful imaging tool with specialized applications limited to research and ophthalmology clinics due in part to instrument size, cost, and complexity. Conversely, low-cost retinal imaging devices have limited capabilities in screening, detection, and diagnosis of diseases. To fill the niche between these two, a hand-held, nonmydriatic line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO) is designed, constructed, and tested on normal human subjects. The LSLO has only one moving part and uses a novel optical approach to produce wide-field confocal fundus images. Imaging modes include multiwavelength illumination and live stereoscopic imaging with a split aperture. Image processing and display functions are controlled with two stacked prototype compact printed circuit boards. With near shot-noise limited performance, the digital LSLO camera requires low illumination power (<500 µW) at near-infrared wavelengths. The line-scanning principle of operation is examined in comparison to SLO and other imaging modes. The line-scanning approach produces high-contrast confocal images with nearly the same performance as a flying-spot SLO. The LSLO may significantly enhance SLO utility for routine use by ophthalmologists, optometrists, general practitioners, and also emergency medical personnel and technicians in the field for retinal disease detection and other diverse applications.

  17. Infrared Scanning For Electrical Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbath, Steven E.

    1983-03-01

    Given the technological age that we have now entered, the purpose of this paper is to relate how infrared scanning can be used for an electrical preventative maintenance program. An infrared scanner is able to produce an image because objects give off infrared radiation in relationship to their temperature. Most electrical problems will show up as an increase in temperature, thereby making the infrared scanner a useful preventative maintenance tool. Because of the sensitivity of most of the scanners, .1 to .2 of a degree, virtually all electrical problems can be pinpointed long before they become a costly failure. One of the early uses of infrared scanning was to check the power company's electrical distribution system. Most of this was performed via aircraft or truck mounted scanning devices which necessitated its semi-permanent mounting. With the advent of small hand held infrared imagers, along with more portability of the larger systems, infrared scanning has gained more popularity in checking electrical distribution systems. But the distribution systems are now a scaled down model, mainly the in-plant electrical systems. By in-plant, I mean any distribution of electricity; once it leaves the power company's grid. This can be in a hospital, retail outlet, warehouse or manufacturing facility.

  18. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  19. Improvement of CAT scanned images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Digital enhancement procedure improves definition of images. Tomogram is generated from large number of X-ray beams. Beams are collimated and small in diameter. Scanning device passes beams sequentially through human subject at many different angles. Battery of transducers opposite subject senses attenuated signals. Signals are transmitted to computer where they are used in construction of image on transverse plane through body.

  20. Phytocannabinoids for Cancer Therapeutics: Recent Updates and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Patil, K R; Goyal, S N; Sharma, C; Patil, C R; Ojha, S

    2015-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids (pCBs) are lipid-soluble phytochemicals present in the plant, Cannabis sativa L. and non-cannabis plants which have a long history in recreation and traditional medicine. The plant and the constituents isolated were central in the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), the most new target for drug discovery. The ECS includes two G-protein-coupled receptors; the cannabinoid receptors-1 and -2 (CB1 and CB2) for marijuana's psychoactive principle Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), their endogenous small lipid ligands; namely anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), also known as endocannabinoids and the enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis and degradation such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The ECS has been suggested as a pro-homeostatic and pleiotropic signaling system activated in a time- and tissue-specific way during pathological conditions including cancer. Targeting the CB1 receptors becomes a concern because of adverse psychotropic reactions. Hence, targeting the CB2 receptors or the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes by pCBs obtained from plants lacking psychotropic adverse reactions has garnered interest in drug discovery. These pCBs derived from plants appear safe and effective with a wider access and availability. In the recent years, several pCBs derived other than non-cannabinoid plants have been reported to bind to and functionally interact with cannabinoid receptors and appear promising candidate for drug development including cancer therapeutics. Several of them also targets the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes that control endocannabinoid levels. In this article, we summarize and critically discuss the updates and future prospects of the pCBs as novel and promising candidates for cancer therapeutics.

  1. Better Plants Progress Update Fall 2013

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-23

    This Progress Update summarizes the significant energy saving achievements and cumulative cost savings made by these industry leaders from 2010-2012. The update also shares the plans and priorities over the next year for the Better Plants Program to continue to advance energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  2. 1 CFR 8.3 - Periodic updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic updating. 8.3 Section 8.3 General... the intent and purpose of the Administrative Committee as stated in § 8.1. (b) Staggered publication... before the “As of” date. Thus, each title updated as of July 1 each year will reflect all...

  3. 1 CFR 8.3 - Periodic updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Periodic updating. 8.3 Section 8.3 General... the intent and purpose of the Administrative Committee as stated in § 8.1. (b) Staggered publication... before the “As of” date. Thus, each title updated as of July 1 each year will reflect all...

  4. Part C Updates. 11th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Joan; Goode, Sue; Lazara, Alex

    2010-01-01

    "Part C Updates" is a compilation of information on various aspects of the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (Part C) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This is the eleventh volume in a series of compilations, which included two editions of Part H Updates, the former name of the…

  5. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will...

  6. Part C Updates. 10th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Sue; Lazara, Alex; Danaher, Joan

    2008-01-01

    "Part C Updates" is a compilation of information on various aspects of the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (Part C) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This is the tenth volume in a series of compilations, which included two editions of Part H Updates, the former name of the…

  7. Census in Schools Educator Update, June 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census; (2)…

  8. Census in Schools Educator Update, May 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census: The…

  9. 75 FR 39629 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment of FOIA Fee Schedule. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board is publishing its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to 10 CFR 1703.107(b)(6) of the Board's regulations....

  10. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment of FOIA Fee Schedule. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board is publishing its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to the Board's...

  11. 76 FR 43819 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment of FOIA Fee Schedule. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board is publishing its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to the Board's...

  12. Census in Schools Educator Update, November 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) New Web Site for the…

  13. Census in Schools Educator Update, February 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census Video: A…

  14. Census in Schools Educator Update, October 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) Census in Schools…

  15. Census in Schools Educator Update, September 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) Census in Schools is…

  16. Census in Schools Educator Update, January 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census; (2)…

  17. Census in Schools Educator Update, February 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter includes the following items: (1) Have You Seen the Census…

  18. Census in Schools Educator Update, April 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census; (2)…

  19. Census in Schools Educator Update, March 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1)…

  20. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  1. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  2. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  3. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  4. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  5. 75 FR 17641 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Parts 17 and 59 RIN 2900-AN57 Updating Fire Safety Standards AGENCY: Department of Veterans..., including standards for fire safety and heating and cooling systems. The proposed amendments would help.... Comments should indicate that they are submitted in response to ``RIN 2900-AN57--Updating Fire...

  6. 76 FR 10246 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Parts 17 and 59 RIN 2900-AN57 Updating Fire Safety Standards AGENCY: Department of Veterans... for VA approval of such facilities, including standards for fire safety and heating and cooling.... Comments should indicate that they are submitted in response to ``RIN 2900-AN57--Updating Fire...

  7. Control of Interference during Working Memory Updating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szmalec, Arnaud; Verbruggen, Frederick; Vandierendonck, Andre; Kemps, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the nature of the processes underlying working memory updating. In 4 experiments using the n-back paradigm, the authors demonstrate that continuous updating of items in working memory prevents strong binding of those items to their contexts in working memory, and hence leads to an increased susceptibility to proactive…

  8. MODEL UPDATING: TRANSITION FROM RESEARCH TO PRACTICE?

    SciTech Connect

    D. C. ZIMMERMAN; F. M. HEMEZ

    2000-10-01

    This session offers an open forum to discuss issues associated with the transition of nearly two decades of engineering research into computational guided model updating into industry state-of-the-practice. Related technical issues are the model updating technology, model reduction, test-analysis correlation and optimization strategies. The session is organized as follows. Technical presentations review the state-of-the-art in finite element model updating and present examples of industrial applications. The results of a recent survey on the potential and usefulness of the model updating technology are discussed. Panel discussions and interaction with the audience discuss industrial needs, future trends and challenges and why negative model updating results are never discussed within the structural dynamics community.

  9. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route.

  10. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  11. Update in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mejía Chew, C R; Alcolea Batres, S; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2016-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare and progressive disease that mainly affects the pulmonary arterioles (precapillary), regardless of the triggering aetiology. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension in Spain is estimated at 19.2 and 16 cases per million inhabitants, respectively. The diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension is based on haemodynamic criteria (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25mmHg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance >3 Wood units) and therefore requires the implementation of right cardiac catheterisation. Sequential therapy with a single drug has been used in clinical practice. However, recent European guidelines recommend combined initial therapy in some situations. This review conducts a critical update of our knowledge of this disease according to the latest guidelines and recommendations.

  12. [An update on Lassa virus].

    PubMed

    Leparc-Goffart, I; Emonet, S F

    2011-12-01

    Lassa virus, the etiologic agent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever, infects 100,000 to 300,000 people every year in West Africa with an overall mortality rate ranging from 1 to 2%. It was discovered in 1969 and remains a significant public health risk in endemic areas. Because airborne transmission is possible and mortality can be high under certain conditions, Lassa virus has been classified as a category A bioterrorism agent. Early diagnosis is difficult due to insidious non-specific onset and to the great genetic divergence of the virus that makes RT-PCR assays unreliable. The lack of proper diagnostic tools promotes nosocomial infection and diminishes the efficacy of treatment. Recently, numerous advances have been made in the development of both diagnostic and vaccination techniques. The purpose of this review is to present an update on that research as well as the current epidemiology of Lassa virus.

  13. The AGTSR consortium: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Fant, D.B.; Golan, L.P.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research program is a nationwide consortium dedicated to advancing land-based gas turbine systems for improving future power generation capability. It directly supports the technology-research arm of the ATS program and targets industry- defined research needs in the areas of combustion, heat transfer, materials, aerodynamics, controls, alternative fuels, and advanced cycles. It is organized to enhance U.S. competitiveness through close collaboration with universities, government, and industry at the R&D level. AGTSR is just finishing its third year of operation; it is scheduled to continue past the year 2000. This update reviews the AGTSR triad, which consists of university/industry R&D activities, technology transfer programs, and trial student programs.

  14. Update on CO2 emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedingstein, P.; Houghton, R.A.; Marland, Gregg; Hackler, J.; Boden, Thomas A; Conway, T.J.; Canadell, J.G.; Raupach, Mike; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quere, Corrine

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of CO2 are the main contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Here we present updated information on their present and near-future estimates. We calculate that global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning decreased by 1.3% in 2009 owing to the global financial and economic crisis that started in 2008; this is half the decrease anticipated a year ago1. If economic growth proceeds as expected2, emissions are projected to increase by more than 3% in 2010, approaching the high emissions growth rates that were observed from 2000 to 20081, 3, 4. We estimate that recent CO2 emissions from deforestation and other land-use changes (LUCs) have declined compared with the 1990s, primarily because of reduced rates of deforestation in the tropics5 and a smaller contribution owing to forest regrowth elsewhere.

  15. [Antiphospholipid syndrome diagnosis: an update].

    PubMed

    Visseaux, Benoit; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Darnige, Luc

    2011-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in association with the persistent presence of autoantibodies called antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs). APAs are a heterogeneous group of circulating autoantibodies that can be detected either by phospholipid-dependent coagulation test for lupus anticoagulant (LA) or ELISA test for anticardiolipin and anti-β2GPI antibodies. In 2006, the revised criteria for the diagnosis of APS introduce the anti-β2GPI antibodies as a new biological criterion and highlight the necessity to increase the interval between two positive APA test from 6 to 12 weeks. However, despite these updated criteria, the diagnosis of APS remains challenging and we proposed here to make an overview of the latest evolution in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  16. Sepsis: An update in management.

    PubMed

    Galen, Benjamin T; Sankey, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Hospitalists are a critical link in providing evidence-based care for patients with sepsis across the disease spectrum, from early recognition to recovery. The past decade of sepsis research has led to significant findings that will change clinical practice for hospital medicine practitioners. Although the incidence of severe sepsis in the United States has continued to rise, in-hospital mortality has declined. Management of the spectrum of sepsis disorders is no longer restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This review article will provide an update in the management of sepsis for hospitalists based on recently published pivotal studies. The expanding evidence base in sepsis includes early goal-directed therapy/clinical endpoints/sepsis bundles, antibiotics and source control, volume resuscitation, ICU considerations (including the use of insulin and corticosteroids), mortality/complications, and the newly recognized condition of "sepsis survivorship".

  17. Updates in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, A Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes has become one of the largest global health-care problems of the 21 (st) century. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the population prevalence of diabetes in the US is approaching 10% and is increasing by 5% each year. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication associated with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes causes a broad spectrum of neuropathic complications, including acute and chronic forms affecting each level of the peripheral nerve, from the root to the distal axon. This review will focus on the most common form, distal symmetric diabetic polyneuropathy. There has been an evolution in our understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of diabetic polyneuropathy over the past decade. We highlight these new perspectives and provide updates from the past decade of research.

  18. Updating Martin's global extinction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Australia has been cited as a weak link in anthropogenic models of megafauna extinction, but recent work suggests instead that the evidence for rapid extinction shortly after human arrival is robust. The global model is revisited, based on the contention that late Pleistocene megafauna extinctions took place rapidly on islands, and some islands (such as Australia and the Americas) are much larger than others. Modern dating methods are increasingly able to refine chronologies, and careful scrutiny suggests that hundreds of dates should be deleted from archives. An updated summary of results from New Zealand, North America and Australia is presented, with a brief discussion on why temperate refugia offering protection from climate change ultimately did not work, strongly supporting the global extinction hypothesis pioneered by Paul Martin.

  19. Updates in diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, A. Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes has become one of the largest global health-care problems of the 21 st century. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the population prevalence of diabetes in the US is approaching 10% and is increasing by 5% each year. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication associated with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes causes a broad spectrum of neuropathic complications, including acute and chronic forms affecting each level of the peripheral nerve, from the root to the distal axon. This review will focus on the most common form, distal symmetric diabetic polyneuropathy. There has been an evolution in our understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of diabetic polyneuropathy over the past decade. We highlight these new perspectives and provide updates from the past decade of research. PMID:27158461

  20. Research Results and Information Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Research Results Monsoon behavior balanced by glaciers Research Discovers Frequent Mutations of Chromatin Significant Progress in Water Photochemistry Research Structural signature in amorphous alloy formation and plastic deformation The neural basis of Drosophila larval light/darkness preference Important roles of brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide metabolism in leptin hypothalamic control of feeding Integrin activation and internalization on soft ECM as a mechanism of induction of stem cell differentiation by ECM elasticity Determination of electron pairing symmetry of iron-based superconductor FeSe Long-Range Topological Order in Metallic Glass Information Update List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and CNRS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and ESRC in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RSE in 2011 Funding of Major Program Projects in 2010 Funding of Key Program Projects in 2010

  1. Updated Starshade Technology Gap List

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crill, Brendan P.; Siegler, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) guides the development of technology that enables the direct imaging and characterization of exo-Earths in the habitable zone of their stars, for future space observatories. Here we present the Starshade portion of the 2017 ExEP Enabling Technology Gap List, an annual update to ExEP's list of of technology to be advanced in the next 1-5 years. A Starshade is an external occulter on an independent spacecraft, allowing a space telescope to achieve exo-Earth imaging contrast requirements by blocking starlight before it enters the telescope. Building and operating a Starshade requires new technology: the occulter is a structure tens of meters in diameter that must be positioned precisely at a distance of tens of thousands of kilometers from the telescope. We review the current state-of-the-art performance and the performance level that must be achieved for a Starshade.

  2. Differential Multiphoton Laser Scanning Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Jeffrey J.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Chandler, Eric V.; Hoover, Erich E.; Young, Michael D.; Ding, Shi-you; Sylvester, Anne W.; Kleinfeld, David; Squier, Jeff A.

    2012-01-01

    Multifocal multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (mfMPLSM) in the biological and medical sciences has the potential to become a ubiquitous tool for obtaining high-resolution images at video rates. While current implementations of mfMPLSM achieve very high frame rates, they are limited in their applicability to essentially those biological samples that exhibit little or no scattering. In this paper, we report on a method for mfMPLSM in which whole-field detection with a single detector, rather than detection with a matrix of detectors, such as a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, is implemented. This advance makes mfMPLSM fully compatible for use in imaging through scattering media. Further, we demonstrate that this method makes it possible to simultaneously obtain multiple images and view differences in excitation parameters in a single scan of the specimen.

  3. A spectrum scanning Stokes polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, T. G.; House, L. L.; Hull, H. K.

    1980-02-01

    A photoelectric polarimeter for measuring line profiles in all four Stokes parameters has been built and operates on the SPO 40 cm coronagraph in a joint project with Sacramento Peak Observatory. A description of the optical and electronic systems and the calibration scheme is presented. Performance parameters determined from observations are also given. The polarimeter package consisting of a pair of KDP's, a quarter wave plate, and a polarizing beam splitter is located at the prime focus of the coronagraph. Modulation of the KDP's encodes polarization information into intensity signals that are electronically detected. The scanning of the spectrum, accomplished by rotating the grating, permits Stokes line profiles to be recorded on magnetic tape for processing. The instrument can be used to scan any line from 3900 to 7000 A with a spectral resolution of 0.01 A. Polarizations as small as 0.001% are detectable. The polarimeter and observing system are computer controlled.

  4. Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

  5. Scanning phononic lattices with ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, R.E.; Wolfe, J.P.; Every, A.V.

    1999-11-01

    A method for probing the elastic properties of newly developed periodic structures using acoustic waves is introduced. Highly anisotropic transmission of surface acoustic waves is observed by continuously scanning the wave vector angle. Preliminary models of wave propagation through multilayers and two-dimensional lattices explain some of the experimental features, while other features can be attributed to the resonant excitation of interface waves. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Differential scanning calorimetry of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, P. I.

    1978-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry studies performed during the first year of this project demonstrated the occurrence of exothermic reactions associated with the production of volatile matter in or near the plastic region. The temperature and magnitude of the exothermic peak were observed to be strongly affected by the heating rate, sample mass and, to a lesser extent, by sample particle size. Thermal properties also were found to be influenced by oxidation of the coal sample due to weathering effects.

  7. An update on tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, G M; Pi, E H; Sramek, J J

    1986-04-01

    The authors review recent research on definition, diagnosis, neuropathophysiology, treatment, management, and factors that increase risk of tardive dyskinesia, a severe and often unremitting movement disorder associated with neuroleptic treatment. Supersensitivity of dopamine receptors is believed to be the cause of tardive dyskinesia, and treatment strategies have consisted of pharmacologic blockade of dopamine receptors, depletion of dopamine, and restoration of the balance between the dopaminergic system and the neurotransmitter systems that regulate it. Several experimental neuroleptics that do not appear to cause tardive dyskinesia may be approved for use in the United States, but for now preventive measures, such as wise prescription and gradual tapering of neuroleptics, as well as careful monitoring for symptoms of tardive dyskinesia are the clinician's best defense.

  8. Mechanically scanned deployable antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Mechanically Scanned Deployable Antenna which is launched by the STS (Space Shuttle) to provide radiometric brightness temperature maps of the Earth and oceans at selected frequency bands in the frequency range of 1.4 GHz to 11 GHz is presented. Unlike previous scanning radiometric systems, multiple radiometers for each frequency are required in order to fill in the resolution cells across the swath created by the 15 meter diameter spin stabilized system. This multiple beam radiometric system is sometimes designated as a ""whiskbroom'' system in that it combines the techniques of the scanning and ""pushbroom'' type systems. The definition of the feed system including possible feed elements and location, determination of the fundamental reflector feed offset geometry including offset angles and f/D ratio, preliminary estimates of the beam efficiency of the feed reflector system, a summary of reflector mesh losses at the proposed radiometric frequency bands, an overall conceptual configuration design and preliminary structural and thermal analyses are included.

  9. Dopamine receptors – IUPHAR Review 13

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  10. Evolving role of adiponectin in cancer-controversies and update

    PubMed Central

    Katira, Arnav; Tan, Peng H.

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine produced by adipocytes, has been shown to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated malignancies. Through its receptor interactions, APN may exert its anti-carcinogenic effects including regulating cell survival, apoptosis and metastasis via a plethora of signalling pathways. Despite the strong evidence supporting this notion, some work may indicate otherwise. Our review addresses all controversies critically. On the whole, hypoadiponectinaemia is associated with increased risk of several malignancies and poor prognosis. In addition, various genetic polymorphisms may predispose individuals to increased risk of obesity-associated malignancies. We also provide an updated summary on therapeutic interventions to increase APN levels that are of key interest in this field. To date efforts to manipulate APN levels have been promising, but much work remains to be done. PMID:27144066

  11. The mechanisms of action of St. John's wort: an update.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mathias; Butterweck, Veronika

    2015-06-01

    Pharmacological research confirms and supports the clinically observed antidepressant efficacy of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L., SJW). This contribution is an update of a former review by the authors in 2007. Positive evidence of antidepressant effects has been found with SJW preparations, extract fractions, and single constituents. The efficacy of SJW is obviously defined by a range of parallel mechanisms of action, triggered by different constituents. In vitro research showed, among other tests, positive effects in neurotransmitter regulation (in beta adrenergic systems and glutamate receptors) and ion channel conductance. Antidepressant effects were confirmed in typical in vivo models such as the forced swimming test, the open field test, the tail suspension test, or a model of stress-impaired memory. The overall effect cannot be attributed to a single constituent or fraction. SJW is therefore an outstanding example of the total extract being defined as the active constituent of herbal medicines.

  12. An Update on Tardive Dyskinesia: From Phenomenology to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Waln, Olga; Jankovic, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD), characterized by oro-buccal-lingual stereotypy, can manifest in the form of akathisia, dystonia, tics, tremor, chorea, or as a combination of different types of abnormal movements. In addition to movement disorders (including involuntary vocalizations), patients with TD may have a variety of sensory symptoms, such as urge to move (as in akathisia), paresthesias, and pain. TD is a form of tardive syndrome—a group of iatrogenic hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders caused by dopamine receptor-blocking agents. The pathophysiology of TD remains poorly understood, and treatment of this condition is often challenging. In this update, we provide the most current information on the history, nomenclature, etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, phenomenology, differential diagnosis, and treatment of TD. PMID:23858394

  13. Opioid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Stein, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are the oldest and most potent drugs for the treatment of severe pain. Their clinical application is undisputed in acute (e.g., postoperative) and cancer pain, but their long-term use in chronic pain has met increasing scrutiny. This article reviews mechanisms underlying opioid analgesia and other opioid actions. It discusses the structure, function, and plasticity of opioid receptors; the central and peripheral sites of analgesic actions and side effects; endogenous and exogenous opioid receptor ligands; and conventional and novel opioid compounds. Challenging clinical situations, such as the tension between chronic pain and addiction, are also illustrated.

  14. Hierarchical Bayesian model updating for structural identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmanesh, Iman; Moaveni, Babak; Lombaert, Geert; Papadimitriou, Costas

    2015-12-01

    A new probabilistic finite element (FE) model updating technique based on Hierarchical Bayesian modeling is proposed for identification of civil structural systems under changing ambient/environmental conditions. The performance of the proposed technique is investigated for (1) uncertainty quantification of model updating parameters, and (2) probabilistic damage identification of the structural systems. Accurate estimation of the uncertainty in modeling parameters such as mass or stiffness is a challenging task. Several Bayesian model updating frameworks have been proposed in the literature that can successfully provide the "parameter estimation uncertainty" of model parameters with the assumption that there is no underlying inherent variability in the updating parameters. However, this assumption may not be valid for civil structures where structural mass and stiffness have inherent variability due to different sources of uncertainty such as changing ambient temperature, temperature gradient, wind speed, and traffic loads. Hierarchical Bayesian model updating is capable of predicting the overall uncertainty/variability of updating parameters by assuming time-variability of the underlying linear system. A general solution based on Gibbs Sampler is proposed to estimate the joint probability distributions of the updating parameters. The performance of the proposed Hierarchical approach is evaluated numerically for uncertainty quantification and damage identification of a 3-story shear building model. Effects of modeling errors and incomplete modal data are considered in the numerical study.

  15. Neutrophils scan for activated platelets to initiate inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramkumar, Vinatha; Adrover, José M.; Ballesteros, Ivan; Cuartero, Maria Isabel; Rossaint, Jan; Bilbao, Izaskun; Nácher, Maria; Pitaval, Christophe; Radovanovic, Irena; Fukui, Yoshinori; McEver, Rodger P.; Filippi, Marie-Dominique; Lizasoain, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Zarbock, Alexander; Moro, María A.; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Immune and inflammatory responses require leukocytes to migrate within and through the vasculature, a process that is facilitated by their capacity to switch to a polarized morphology with asymmetric distribution of receptors. We report that neutrophil polarization within activated venules served to organize a protruding domain that engaged activated platelets present in the bloodstream. The selectin ligand PSGL-1 transduced signals emanating from these interactions, resulting in redistribution of receptors that drive neutrophil migration. Consequently, neutrophils unable to polarize or to transduce signals through PSGL-1 displayed aberrant crawling, and blockade of this domain protected mice against thrombo-inflammatory injury. These results reveal that recruited neutrophils scan for activated platelets, and suggest that their bipolarity allows integration of signals present at both the endothelium and the circulation before inflammation proceeds. PMID:25477463

  16. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, H.D.; Zha, H.

    1997-11-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions than the existing algorithms and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  17. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, H.; Simon, H.D.

    1999-10-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from latent semantic indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions that the existing algorithms, and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  18. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-05-15

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive.

  19. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  20. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  1. Scanning probe microscopy in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yeung, King Lun; Yao, Nan

    2004-09-01

    This review discusses the recent progress in the application of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in catalysis. SPM proves to be an invaluable technique for imaging catalytic surfaces and interfaces. Most SPM research is related to the structural and morphological transformation associated with catalyst preparation and use. Real-time SPM observation of surface dynamics including adsorption, diffusion and reaction, provides invaluable insights to the mechanism of catalysis. SPM is also used to shape and manipulate surfaces and surface processes. Fabrication of nanostructured catalysts, direct manipulation of adsorbed atoms and molecules and tip-mediated reactions are some examples of new SPM approach in catalyst research.

  2. Aperture scanning Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is implemented through aperture scanning by an LCOS spatial light modulator at the back focal plane of the objective lens. This FPM configuration enables the capturing of the complex scattered field for a 3D sample both in the transmissive mode and the reflective mode. We further show that by combining with the compressive sensing theory, the reconstructed 2D complex scattered field can be used to recover the 3D sample scattering density. This implementation expands the scope of application for FPM and can be beneficial for areas such as tissue imaging and wafer inspection. PMID:27570705

  3. CONSULTATION ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) expects to publish the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in calendar year 2005. The committee is expected to have analyzed the most recent epidemiology from the important exposed cohorts and to have factored in any changes resulting from the updated analysis of dosimetry for the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. To the extent practical, the Committee will also consider any relevant radiobiological data, including those from the Department of Energy's low dose effects research program. Based on their evaluation of relevant information, the Committee is then expected to propose a set of models for estimating risks from low-dose ionizing radiation. ORIA will review the BEIR VII report and consider revisions to the Agency's methodology for estimating cancer risks from exposure to ionizing radiation in light of this report and other relevant information. This will be the subject of the Consultation. This project supports a major risk management initiative to improve the basis on which radiation risk decisions are made. This project, funded by several Federal Agencies, reflects an attempt to characterize risks where there are substantial uncertainties. The outcome will improve our ability to assess risks well into the future and will strengthen EPAs overall capability for assessing and managing radiation risks. the BEIR VII report is funde

  4. ADVISORY ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in 2006. The Committee analyzed the most recent epidemiology from the important exposed cohorts and factored in changes resulting from the updated analysis of dosimetry for the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. To the extent practical, the Committee also considered relevant radiobiological data, including that from the Department of Energy's low dose effects research program. Based on the review of this information, the Committee proposed a set of models for estimating risks from low-dose ionizing radiation. ORIA then prepared a white paper revising the Agency's methodology for estimating cancer risks from exposure to ionizing radiation in light of this report and other relevant information. This is the first product to be developed as a result of the BEIR VII report. We requested that the SAB conduct an advisory during the development of this methodology. The second product to be prepared will be a revised version of the document,

  5. Cannabis and Psychopathology : Update 2004

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish

    2004-01-01

    The study of cannabis use and psychopathology remains an interesting area from both academic and pragmatic perspectives. This article provides an update on the progress made in this area over the past decade or so. Psychopathology and psychiatric syndromes associated with cannabis use that have received research attention in recent years include cannabis withdrawal, cannabis and psychotic disorders (especially schizophrenia), depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Status of a specific cannabis withdrawal syndrome and a specific ‘cannabis psychosis’ remains controversial. Current evidence indicates that there is a clinically significant association between cannabis use disorders and psychotic syndromes, depression, anxiety and possibly mild cognitive impairment. However, the nature of this association is often not clear. Several hypothesis related to the cannabis-schizophrenia association are examined. Cannabis use might be casually related to the later development of schizophrenia in an indirect way in a few heavy users, but more commonly, its use may precipitate disorders in persons who are vulnerable to developing psychosis and worsen the course of the disorder. PMID:21206788

  6. Updated Evaluations for Americium Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D A; Pruet, J

    2005-09-22

    Here we describe evaluations for Am isotopes that will be included in the next release of ENDL. Current ENDL99 evaluations for these isotopes are quite outdated and almost entirely undocumented. Because Am is important for several DNT applications, and because quality evaluations are either readily available or easily calculated, the effort to update ENDL seems warranted. Results from good existing evaluations are adopted whenever possible. To this end we devote the next section of this report to a consideration of the availability of evaluations The quality of different evaluations as well as comparisons against experiments are also presented and used to motivate our choice of adopted data sets. Plans for modifying and improving adopted evaluations are also discussed. For {sup 240}Am there are no existing evaluations. To fill this gap, we are providing a new Am evaluation based on calculations with the statistical model reaction codes TALYS and EMPIRE. This evaluation is described below. The ENDF/B-VI formatted file containing this evaluation is given in the appendix.

  7. Diuretics: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Roush, George C; Kaur, Ramdeep; Ernst, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Diuretics have been recommended as first-line treatment of hypertension and are also valuable in the management of hypervolemia and electrolyte disorders. This review summarizes the key features of the most commonly used diuretics. We then provide an update of clinical trials for diuretics during the past 5 years. Compared to other classes of medications, thiazide diuretics are at least as effective in reducing cardiovascular events (CVEs) in patients with hypertension and are more effective than β-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in reducing stroke. Observational cohort data and a network analysis have shown that CVEs are lowered by one-fifth from chlorthalidone when compared to the commonly used thiazide, hydrochlorothiazide. Relative to placebo, chlorthalidone increases life expectancy. In those aged 80 years and older, the diuretic, indapamide, lowers CVEs relative to placebo. The aldosterone antagonist, eplerenone, lowers total mortality in early congestive heart failure. The benefit of eplerenone following acute myocardial infarction (MI) is limited to administration within 3 to 6 days post-MI. Aldosterone antagonists have been shown to lower the incidence of sudden cardiac death and to reduce proteinuria. In the setting of heart failure, long acting loop diuretics azosemide and torasemide are more effective in improving heart failure outcomes than the far more commonly used short acting furosemide. Evening dosing of diuretics appears to lower CVEs relative to morning dosing. In conclusion, diuretics are a diverse class of drugs that remain extremely important in the management of hypertension and hypervolemic states.

  8. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Abhishek P; Smith, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42–60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%–6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery. PMID:26975488

  9. OLTARIS - Overview and Recent Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandridge, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    The On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS) is a web-based set of tools and models that allow engineers and scientists to assess the effects of space radiation in spacecraft, habitats, rovers, and spacesuits. The site is intended to be a design tool for those studying the effects of space radiation for current and future missions as well as a research tool for those developing advanced material and shielding concepts. The tools and models are built around the HZETRN radiation transport code and are currently focused on human-related responses. OLTARIS was deployed in 2008. Since that time, many improvements and additional capabilities have been added to the site. The purpose of this poster/presentation is to give an overview of the current capabilities of OLTARIS and focus on the updates to the site since the last workshop presentation in 2014. OLTARIS currently has 240 active accounts - 87 accounts are government (including NASA, ORNL, JPL, AFRL, and FAA), 76 are university professors/researchers/students, and 51 are industry (including Boeing, Space X, Lockheed-Martin, ATK, Northrup Grumman, and Bigelow Aerospace). There have been 14,000 jobs run through OLTARIS since counting began in November 2009. ITAR restrictions were recently reversed, so the site is now available to registered users worldwide.

  10. Facial transplantation: A concise update

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Pulido, Fernando; Gomez-Cia, Tomas; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Gacto-Sanchez, Purificacion; Hernandez-Guisado, Jose-Maria; Lagares-Borrego, Araceli; Narros-Gimenez, Rocio; Gonzalez-Padilla, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on “face transplantation” until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 8 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. Conclusions: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients. Key words:Face transplantation, composite tissue transplantation, face allograft, facial reconstruction, outcomes and complications of face transplantation. PMID:23229268

  11. Hypersensitivity and vaccines: an update.

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick; Deschildre, Antoine; Waton, Julie; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Tréchot, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Allergic reactions to vaccines can be classified as sensitivity to one of the vaccine components, pseudo-allergic reactions, often after hyperimmunization, and exacerbation of atopic symptoms or vasculitis. Pseudo-allergic reactions, some possibly due to hyperimmunization, are probably more common than true allergies. Atopic reactions should not be confused with the "flash" phenomenon, defined as an exacerbation of an allergic reaction due to a reduction in the allergic reactivity threshold following the vaccine injection. BCGitis occurs frequently, and for this reason, guidelines for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have been modified. The vaccine is now reserved for people at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review provides an update on the vaccination modalities for people allergic to eggs, on the assessment that should be performed when a reaction occurs due to tetanus vaccination, on the urticaria after hepatitis vaccination, on an aluminum granuloma, which is more and more frequent in young children, and vasculitis after flu vaccination and BCGitis. The side effects associated with new, recently released vaccines, such as anti-influenza A H1N1 or anti-human papilloma virus (HPV) will also be presented.

  12. Clinical update on nursing home medicine: 2013.

    PubMed

    Messinger-Rapport, Barbara J; Gammack, Julie K; Thomas, David R; Morley, John E

    2013-12-01

    This is the seventh article in the series of Clinical Updates on Nursing Home Care. The topics covered are antiresorptive drugs, hip fracture, hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, depression, undernutrition, anorexia, cachexia, sarcopenia, exercise, pain, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

  13. ISS Update: NEEMO 16 Simulates Spacewalk Underwater

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Josh Byerly interviews European Space Agency astronaut Tim Peake, NEEMO 16 crew member. Peake talks about the spacewalk techniques they are testing by simulating an asteroid ...

  14. ISS Update: After the Venus Transit

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Brandi Dean interviewed astronaut Mario Runco about the results of the Expedition 31 crew’s effort to photograph Venus transit. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  15. ISS Update: High Rate Communications System

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Diego Serna, Communications and Tracking Officer, about the High Rate Communications System. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the ha...

  16. Labor law update--Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1997-01-01

    To ensure proper actions when making managerial decisions, nurses must be aware of labor laws and the policies that apply to them. Part 1 of "Labor Law Update" discusses public policy considerations and gender, racial and pregnancy discrimination.

  17. GEMS: A Study Group to Update Dietitians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobberdiel, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses study group technique to update dietitians. Includes objectives (such as providing opportunities for sharing of information among area hospitals' dietetic departments and creating greater exposure to nutritional care philosophies/methods), subgroup responsibilities, and journals used. (JN)

  18. DOE Wind Program Update: June 4, 2006;

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    The DOE Wind Program Update provides WindPower Conference attendees with information about recent DOE events, including Assistant Secretary Karsner, a wind turbine blade test facility CRADA, and 2005 Wind Energy Award recipients.

  19. Updating the Vision for Marine Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, E. Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to update the content, philosophical stance, and pedagogy of marine education to reflect recent advances in these areas. Cites some developments in oceanography and ocean engineering. Proposes ways teachers can learn about and utilize this knowledge. (RT)

  20. News and Updates from Proctor Creek

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains news and updates from the Proctor Creek Urban Waters Partnership location. They span ongoing projects, programs, and initiatives that this Atlanta-based partnership is taking on in its work plan.

  1. NODA for EPA's Updated Ozone Transport Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA's NODA for the Updated Ozone Transport Modeling Data for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) along with the ExitExtension of Public Comment Period on CSAPR for the 2008 NAAQS.

  2. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  3. Working Memory Updating as a Predictor of Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechuga, M. Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago; Pelaez, Jose L.; Martin-Puga, M. Eva; Justicia, M. Jose

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting the importance of executive functions, and specifically working memory updating (WMU), for children's academic achievement. This study aimed to assess the specific contribution of updating to the prediction of academic performance. Two updating tasks, which included different updating components, were…

  4. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Natural History Museum (NHM) is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN) as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL). This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities. PMID:22943137

  5. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  6. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  7. Environmental regulatory update table, July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (July 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  8. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M., Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-09-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (August 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  9. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  10. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  11. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, G.T.; Houlberg, L.M.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-02-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  12. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Noghrei-Nikbakht, P.A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  13. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  14. Environmental regulatory update table, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  15. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  16. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  17. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlbert, L.M.; Langston, M.E. ); Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  18. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-05-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  19. A Probabilistic Approach to Model Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Voracek, David F.

    2001-01-01

    Finite element models are often developed for load validation, structural certification, response predictions, and to study alternate design concepts. In rare occasions, models developed with a nominal set of parameters agree with experimental data without the need to update parameter values. Today, model updating is generally heuristic and often performed by a skilled analyst with in-depth understanding of the model assumptions. Parameter uncertainties play a key role in understanding the model update problem and therefore probabilistic analysis tools, developed for reliability and risk analysis, may be used to incorporate uncertainty in the analysis. In this work, probability analysis (PA) tools are used to aid the parameter update task using experimental data and some basic knowledge of potential error sources. Discussed here is the first application of PA tools to update parameters of a finite element model for a composite wing structure. Static deflection data at six locations are used to update five parameters. It is shown that while prediction of individual response values may not be matched identically, the system response is significantly improved with moderate changes in parameter values.

  20. Indoor Spatial Updating With Impaired Vision

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Granquist, Christina; Baek, Yihwa; Gage, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Spatial updating is the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. We asked how normally sighted and visually impaired subjects compare in spatial updating and in estimating room dimensions. Methods Groups of 32 normally sighted, 16 low-vision, and 16 blind subjects estimated the dimensions of six rectangular rooms. Updating was assessed by guiding the subjects along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they estimated the distance and direction to the starting location, and to a designated target. Spatial updating was tested in five conditions ranging from free viewing to full auditory and visual deprivation. Results The normally sighted and low-vision groups did not differ in their accuracy for judging room dimensions. Correlations between estimated size and physical size were high. Accuracy of low-vision performance was not correlated with acuity, contrast sensitivity, or field status. Accuracy was lower for the blind subjects. The three groups were very similar in spatial-updating performance, and exhibited only weak dependence on the nature of the viewing conditions. Conclusions People with a wide range of low-vision conditions are able to judge room dimensions as accurately as people with normal vision. Blind subjects have difficulty in judging the dimensions of quiet rooms, but some information is available from echolocation. Vision status has little impact on performance in simple spatial updating; proprioceptive and vestibular cues are sufficient. PMID:27978556

  1. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society - update. Spleen examination.

    PubMed

    Walczyk, Joanna; Walas, Maria Krystyna

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasound scan of the spleen is an integral part of the overall abdominal examination. Due to its anatomical position, physical examination of the spleen is frequently supplemented with an ultrasound which plays a special role in the differential diagnostics of splenic diseases and facilitates the determination of further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Similarly to other types of ultrasound scans, the examiner should be familiar with all significant clinical information as well as results of examinations and tests conducted so far. This enables to narrow the scope of search for etiological factors and indicate specific disease entities in the findings as well as allows for accurate assessment of coexistent pathologies. The article presents the standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society concerning the apparatus, preparation for the examination, technique and description of the findings. The authors discuss the normal anatomy of the spleen and the most common pathologies ranging from splenomegaly to splenic traumas. The indications for the contrast-enhanced ultrasound and characteristic patterns of enhancement of individual focal lesions are presented. This article is supplemented with photographic documentation, which provides images of the discussed lesions. The ultrasound examination, if carried out in compliance with current standards, allows for accurate interpretation of detected changes. This article has been prepared on the basis of the Ultrasound Examination Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011) and updated with the current knowledge.

  2. Rapid-scan EPR of immobilized nitroxides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Tseitlin, Mark; Elajaili, Hanan; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Clouston, Laura J; Boratyński, Przemysław J; Rajca, Andrzej; Stein, Richard; Mchaourab, Hassane; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-10-01

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of immobilized nitroxides were obtained by rapid scan at 293 K. Scan widths were 155 G with 13.4 kHz scan frequency for (14)N-perdeuterated tempone and for T4 lysozyme doubly spin labeled with an iodoacetamide spirocyclohexyl nitroxide and 100 G with 20.9 kHz scan frequency for (15)N-perdeuterated tempone. These wide scans were made possible by modifications to our rapid-scan driver, scan coils made of Litz wire, and the placement of highly conducting aluminum plates on the poles of a Bruker 10″ magnet to reduce resistive losses in the magnet pole faces. For the same data acquisition time, the signal-to-noise for the rapid-scan absorption spectra was about an order of magnitude higher than for continuous wave first-derivative spectra recorded with modulation amplitudes that do not broaden the lineshapes.

  3. Rapid-Scan EPR of Immobilized Nitroxides

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Tseitlin, Mark; Elajaili, Hanan; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Clouston, Laura J.; Boratyński, Przemysław J.; Rajca, Andrzej; Stein, Richard; Mchaourab, Hassane; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-01-01

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of immobilized nitroxides were obtained by rapid scan at 293 K. Scan widths were 155 G with 13.4 kHz scan frequency for 14N-perdeuterated tempone and for T4 lysozyme doubly spin labeled with an iodoacetamide spirocyclohexyl nitroxide and 100 G with 20.9 kHz scan frequency for 15N-perdeuterated tempone. These wide scans were made possible by modifications to our rapid-scan driver, scan coils made of Litz wire, and the placement of highly conducting aluminum plates on the poles of a Bruker 10" magnet to reduce resistive losses in the magnet pole faces. For the same data acquisition time, the signal-to-noise for the rapid-scan absorption spectra was about an order of magnitude higher than for continuous wave first-derivative spectra recorded with modulation amplitudes that do not broaden the lineshapes. PMID:25240151

  4. Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R. Rox; Webb, Robert H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    1999-01-01

    A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.

  5. Optical analysis of scanning microstereolithography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Suhas P.; Dubey, Shashikant; Gandhi, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Microstereolithography (MSL) is rapidly developing technique for micro-fabrication. Vector-by-vector scanning MSL has a potential to create true 3D micro-devices as compared to mostly planar (2D-2 1/2 D) devices fabricated by conventional MEMS techniques. Previous literature shows two different scanning methods:(1) Galvanomirror scanning, (2) Photoreactor tank scanning. Galvanomirror scanning technique has higher fabrication speed but poor resolution because of defocusing of laser spot on the resin surface. Photo-reactor tank scanning has higher resolution but produces a wavy structures and limited speed of fabrication. This paper proposes and develops an offaxis lens scanning technique for MSL and carries out optical analysis to compare its performance with the existing techniques mentioned above. The comparison clearly demonstrates improved performance with the proposed offaxis lens scanning technique.

  6. Roundabout receptors.

    PubMed

    Ypsilanti, Athéna R; Chedotal, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Roundabout receptors (Robo) and their Slit ligands were discovered in the 1990s and found to be key players in axon guidance. Slit was initially described s an extracellular matrix protein that was expressed by midline glia in Drosophila. A few years later, it was shown that, in vertebrates and invertebrates, Slits acted as chemorepellents for axons crossing the midline. Robo proteins were originally discovered in Drosophila in a mutant screen for genes involved in the regulation of midline crossing. This ligand-receptor pair has since been implicated in a variety of other neuronal and non-neuronal processes ranging from cell migration to angiogenesis, tumourigenesis and even organogenesis of tissues such as kidneys, lungs and breasts.

  7. 42 CFR 495.340 - As-needed HIT PAPD update and as-needed HIT IAPD update requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false As-needed HIT PAPD update and as-needed HIT IAPD update requirements. 495.340 Section 495.340 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES...-needed HIT PAPD update and as-needed HIT IAPD update requirements. Each State must submit a HIT...

  8. Gap Assessment (FY 13 Update)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Getman, Dan

    2013-09-30

    To help guide its future data collection efforts, The DOE GTO funded a data gap analysis in FY2012 to identify high potential hydrothermal areas where critical data are needed. This analysis was updated in FY2013 and the resulting datasets are represented by this metadata. The original process was published in FY 2012 and is available here: https://pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/db/GeoConf/papers/SGW/2013/Esposito.pdf Though there are many types of data that can be used for hydrothermal exploration, five types of exploration data were targeted for this analysis. These data types were selected for their regional reconnaissance potential, and include many of the primary exploration techniques currently used by the geothermal industry. The data types include: 1. well data 2. geologic maps 3. fault maps 4. geochemistry data 5. geophysical data To determine data coverage, metadata for exploration data (including data type, data status, and coverage information) were collected and catalogued from nodes on the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). It is the intention of this analysis that the data be updated from this source in a semi-automated fashion as new datasets are added to the NGDS nodes. In addition to this upload, an online tool was developed to allow all geothermal data providers to access this assessment and to directly add metadata themselves and view the results of the analysis via maps of data coverage in Geothermal Prospector (http://maps.nrel.gov/gt_prospector). A grid of the contiguous U.S. was created with 88,000 10-km by 10-km grid cells, and each cell was populated with the status of data availability corresponding to the five data types. Using these five data coverage maps and the USGS Resource Potential Map, sites were identified for future data collection efforts. These sites signify both that the USGS has indicated high favorability of occurrence of geothermal resources and that data gaps exist. The uploaded data are contained in two data files for

  9. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  10. South Carolina Course Alignment Project: Environmental Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Policy Improvement Center (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    An "environmental scan" is designed to identify key issues of policy and practice in an area of interest so that action can be taken. By definition, an environmental scan focuses upon areas of concern. However, the results of an environmental scan are not designed to be either an indictment or endorsement of the current way of doing…

  11. Updated Guidelines for ANSS Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. R.; Hutt, C. R.; Gee, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2008 the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and cooperating universities and institutions issued USGS Open-File Report 2008-1262 (OFR) containing detailed guidelines for the performance of instrumentation to be used by the ANSS. Here we report an update underway to these guidelines to take account of lessons learned, changing technology, and expanding user desires; in a few instances, performance matters that are very hard to test in practice are either modified or removed. Instrument classes are defined in the OFR in terms of amplitude resolution and cost; because relevant technologies have advanced substantially in these six years and a number of groups have begun to explore the use of relatively inexpensive, entirely host installed and operated Class C systems, the guidelines for strong-motion sensors are being expanded to include detailed guidelines for them rather than just anticipating them. As always, Class A systems will form the state-of-the-art backbone of any network, with Class B filling in spatially and in areas otherwise not covered well. Class C systems would be an additional step in making networks denser by providing very inexpensive hardware, installation, and maintenance to fill in additionally between Class A and B sites, for example in a high-seismicity urban area, with Class A sites every 4-6 km, Class B every 2-3 km, and Class C at <1 km spacing. Class C devices would be both installed and maintained by hosts, not institutions, and therefore also would be economical for extending coverage in regions with widely spaced or rare large seismicity, such as the central and eastern U.S.

  12. Update on Pluto's Tiniest Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark; Weaver, Harold; Buie, Marc; Merline, Douglas; Mutchler, Max; Soummer, Remi; Steffl, Andrew; Stern, S. Alan; Throop, Henry; Young, Leslie

    2013-04-01

    We report on the discovery and subsequent analysis of "P5", Pluto¹s fifth known moon (officially designated S/2012 (134340) 1), and also provide an update on the latest results for "P4" (S/2012 (134340) 1). P5 was discovered in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images from June and July 2012, and has since been recovered in HST images from 2011. P4, discovered in 2011, was imaged extensively by HST in 2012, and has also been recovered from archival images as far back as 2005. Preliminary orbital elements for P5 are: semimajor axis a = 42579 km; mean motion n = 17.8560 degrees/day; eccentricity e = 0.0048; inclination i = 0.88 degrees. For P4, these values are : a = 57711 km; n = 11.1910 degrees/day; e = 0.0029; i = 0.34 degrees. These values place the moons near, but not in, the 1:3 and 1:5 mean motion resonances with Charon, just as Nix and Hydra fall near the 1:4 and 1:6 resonances. While these associations are too close to have arisen by chance, the role of the near-resonances in the orbital history of the Pluto system is unknown. Photometry indicates that P5 is half as bright as P4 and ~ 5% is bright as Nix. This implies a diameter ~ 10 km if P5's albedo is 0.35, comparable to that of Charon. Searches for additional moons have been negative so far, suggesting that Pluto has no additional moons more than half as bright as P5 orbiting exterior to Charon. However, scattered light in the HST images prevents us from setting such a strict upper limit for any unseen moons interior to Charon's orbit.

  13. Dutch Venous Ulcer guideline update.

    PubMed

    Maessen-Visch, M Birgitte; de Roos, Kees-Peter

    2014-05-01

    The revised guideline of 2013 is an update of the 2005 guideline "venous leg ulcer". In this special project four separate guidelines (venous leg ulcer, varicose veins, compression therapy and deep venous disorders) were revised and developed simultaneously. A meeting was held including representatives of any organisation involved in venous disease management including patient organizations and health insurance companies. Eighteen clinical questions where defined, and a new strategy was used to accelerate the process. This resulted in two new and two revised guidelines within one year. The guideline committee advises use of the C of the CEAP classification as well as the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and a Quality of life (QoL) score in the assessment of clinical signs. These can provide insight into the burden of disease and the effects of treatment as experienced by the patient. A duplex ultrasound should be performed in every patient to establish the underlying aetiology and to evaluate the need for treatment (which is discussed in a separate guideline). The use of the TIME model for describing venous ulcers is recommended. There is no evidence for antiseptic or antibiotic wound care products except for a Cochrane review in which some evidence is presented for cadexomer iodine. Signs of infection are the main reason for the use of oral antibiotics. When the ulcer fails to heal the use of oral aspirin and pentoxifylline can be considered as an adjunct. For the individual patient, the following aspects should be considered: the appearance of the ulcer (amount of exudate) according to the TIME model, the influence of wound care products on moisturising the wound, frequency of changing compression bandages, pain and allergies. The cost of the dressings should also be considered. Education and training of patients t improves compliance with compression therapy but does not influence wound healing rates.

  14. UAVSAR Active Electronically Scanned Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory, A.; Chamberlain, Neil F.; Zawadzki, Mark S.; Brown, Kyle M.; Fisher, Charles D.; Figueroa, Harry S.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Vorperian, Vatche; Grando, Maurio B.

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a pod-based, L-band (1.26 GHz), repeatpass, interferometric, synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) used for Earth science applications. Repeat-pass interferometric radar measurements from an airborne platform require an antenna that can be steered to maintain the same angle with respect to the flight track over a wide range of aircraft yaw angles. In order to be able to collect repeat-pass InSAR data over a wide range of wind conditions, UAVSAR employs an active electronically scanned array (AESA). During data collection, the UAVSAR flight software continuously reads the aircraft attitude state measured by the Embedded GPS/INS system (EGI) and electronically steers the beam so that it remains perpendicular to the flight track throughout the data collection

  15. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  16. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy in Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews recent work involving the application of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to the study of individual cultured living cells, with an emphasis on topographical and functional imaging of neuronal and secretory cells of the nervous and endocrine system. The basic principles of biological SECM and associated negative amperometric-feedback and generator/collector-mode SECM imaging are discussed, and successful use of the methodology for screening soft and fragile membranous objects is outlined. The drawbacks of the constant-height mode of probe movement and the benefits of the constant-distance mode of SECM operation are described. Finally, representative examples of constant-height and constant-distance mode SECM on a variety of live cells are highlighted to demonstrate the current status of single-cell SECM in general and of SECM in neuroscience in particular.

  17. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-11-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  18. [Therapeutic update in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Lequerré, T; Avenel, G; Vittecoq, O

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was revolutionized by the introduction of the biologics. Their power and their good safety profile have allowed to define new objectives and procedures to reach them; it is the "treat to target" concept. New recommendations were published by EULAR or ACR to obtain the remission as soon as possible. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, in particular the methotrexate (MTX), remain the cornerstone of RA treatment in association with symptomatic treatments. The use of corticosteroids can be necessary to control the disease activity in the waiting time of the DMARDs efficiency or to control a flare. The absence of remission after 3months after initiation of MTX should prompt the rheumatologist to intensify the treatment with biologics. The increasing number of biologics targeting different mechanisms (5 anti-tumor necrosis factor-α, antagonist of interleukine-1 [IL-1] receptor, antagonist of IL-6 receptor, anti-CD20, anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) asks the question of the strategy in their prescription. Besides, all the registers or meta-analysis plead in favor of a good safety subject to a moderate prescription and to a greater vigilance. Except the opportunist infections, it is more the comorbidities or the associated treatments such as corticoids or MTX, which would favor the infections than anti-TNFα. There is no indication that biologics may increase the risk of solid cancer compared with a population of RA patients not exposed to anti-TNFα. However, biologics could increase the risk of cutaneous cancers, including melanoma.

  19. Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Ju Bingfeng; Bai Xiaolong; Chen Jian

    2012-03-15

    The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.

  20. Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope.

    PubMed

    Ju, Bing-Feng; Bai, Xiaolong; Chen, Jian

    2012-03-01

    The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.

  1. Dissociating Working Memory Updating and Automatic Updating: The Reference-Back Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rac-Lubashevsky, Rachel; Kessler, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) updating is a controlled process through which relevant information in the environment is selected to enter the gate to WM and substitute its contents. We suggest that there is also an automatic form of updating, which influences performance in many tasks and is primarily manifested in reaction time sequential effects. The goal…

  2. a Bottom-Up Geosptial Data Update Mechanism for Spatial Data Infrastructure Updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, W.; Zhu, X.; Liu, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Currently, the top-down spatial data update mechanism has made a big progress and it is wildly applied in many SDI (spatial data infrastructure). However, this mechanism still has some issues. For example, the update schedule is limited by the professional department's project, usually which is too long for the end-user; the data form collection to public cost too much time and energy for professional department; the details of geospatial information does not provide sufficient attribute, etc. Thus, how to deal with the problems has become the effective shortcut. Emerging Internet technology, 3S technique and geographic information knowledge which is popular in the public promote the booming development of geoscience in volunteered geospatial information. Volunteered geospatial information is the current "hotspot", which attracts many researchers to study its data quality and credibility, accuracy, sustainability, social benefit, application and so on. In addition to this, a few scholars also pay attention to the value of VGI to support the SDI updating. And on that basis, this paper presents a bottom-up update mechanism form VGI to SDI, which includes the processes of match homonymous elements between VGI and SDI vector data , change data detection, SDI spatial database update and new data product publication to end-users. Then, the proposed updating cycle is deeply discussed about the feasibility of which can detect the changed elements in time and shorten the update period, provide more accurate geometry and attribute data for spatial data infrastructure and support update propagation.

  3. An Update on the CDDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey; Michael, Patrick; Dube, Maurice P.; Pollack, N.

    2012-01-01

    incoming data and product files pushed to its archive. This poster will include background information about the system and its user communities, archive contents and updates, enhancements for data discovery, new system architecture, and future plans.

  4. Epidemiology of urolithiasis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Background & Aim. Changing socio-economic conditions generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of urolithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical-physical composition of the calculi. In the latter part of the 20th century the prevalence of upper urinary tract stones was increasing in Western countries whereas endemic infantile bladder stone disease was fairly widespread in huge areas of developing countries. The aim of this paper was to update previous epidemiological reports of urolithiasis by reviewing the more recent literature. Methods. Citations were extracted using PubMed database from January 2003 through December 2007 on the basis of the key words epidemiology AND urinary calculi. Results. An increase in the prevalence and incidence of urolithiasis was described in Germany whereas data from the United States were contradictory with stone disease rates increased only for women with a change of male-to-female ratio. Prevalence figures of stone disease observed in some developing country in tropical regions were similar to rates of Western countries with incidence of renal colic particularly high in warm months. African Americans had a reduced risk of stone disease compared to other racial groups but in renal stone patients all racial groups demonstrated a similarity in the incidence of underlying metabolic abnormalities. Upper urinary tract stones in children were associated more frequently with metabolic disturbances rather than with urinary tract anomalies and infection. Endemic childhood bladder stones are still present in some developing countries. Dietary risk factors for stone disease were shown different by age and sex. In particular in younger women dietary calcium, phytate and fluid intake were associated with a reduced risk of stone formation whereas animal protein and sucrose increased the risk of stone incidence. In older adults there was no association between dietary calcium and stone formation

  5. Update on chronic viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K; Alexander, G

    2001-01-01

    Many recent and significant advances in the field of chronic viral hepatitis, including therapy, suggest that an update on chronic hepatitis is timely.
Chronic hepatitis B virus infection remains a significant worldwide cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, despite the wide availability of a long established and effective vaccine. Transmission occurs via perinatal, sexual, and parenteral routes (particularly intravenous drug abuse and although blood products still carry a risk, this is now extremely low in Western countries). Only a minority of infected adult cases develop chronic hepatitis but in children under 1 year, 90% develop chronic hepatitis. The clinical spectrum of chronic liver injury ranges from mild inflammation to end stage liver cirrhosis. Interferon alfa has been the mainstay of treatment for patients with active disease but nucleoside analogues (lamivudine and adefovir) are now available with similar efficacy. Patients with end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma can be offered transplantation but infection in the graft is commonplace. The combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin and newer antiviral drugs reduce the incidence and severity of graft infection significantly.
The hepatitis C virus epidemic of the latter half of the 20th century now affects more than 1% of populations worldwide. This RNA virus is spread parenterally and is becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. The majority of patients develop chronic hepatitis, which may be progressive, evolving to significant liver disease (cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma) in about 20% cases after decades. Treatment with the combination of interferon alfa and ribavirin is successful in up to 40% cases. Liver transplantation is a therapeutic option for some but graft infection is universal and often complicated by progressive liver fibrosis. A vaccine remains a remote prospect so that prevention is crucial.
Hepatitis D virus infection

  6. Updated NGNP Fuel Acquisition Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Tim Abram; Richard Hobbins; Jim Kendall

    2010-12-01

    A Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel acquisition strategy was first established in 2007. In that report, a detailed technical assessment of potential fuel vendors for the first core of NGNP was conducted by an independent group of international experts based on input from the three major reactor vendor teams. Part of the assessment included an evaluation of the credibility of each option, along with a cost and schedule to implement each strategy compared with the schedule and throughput needs of the NGNP project. While credible options were identified based on the conditions in place at the time, many changes in the assumptions underlying the strategy and in externalities that have occurred in the interim requiring that the options be re-evaluated. This document presents an update to that strategy based on current capabilities for fuel fabrication as well as fuel performance and qualification testing worldwide. In light of the recent Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) project closure, the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel development and qualification program needs to support both pebble and prismatic options under the NGNP project. A number of assumptions were established that formed a context for the evaluation. Of these, the most important are: • Based on logistics associated with the on-going engineering design activities, vendor teams would start preliminary design in October 2012 and complete in May 2014. A decision on reactor type will be made following preliminary design, with the decision process assumed to be completed in January 2015. Thus, no fuel decision (pebble or prismatic) will be made in the near term. • Activities necessary for both pebble and prismatic fuel qualification will be conducted in parallel until a fuel form selection is made. As such, process development, fuel fabrication, irradiation, and testing for pebble and prismatic options should not negatively influence each other during the period prior to a decision on reactor type

  7. Reporting Items for Updated Clinical Guidelines: Checklist for the Reporting of Updated Guidelines (CheckUp)

    PubMed Central

    Vernooij, Robin W. M.; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Brouwers, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Scientific knowledge is in constant development. Consequently, regular review to assure the trustworthiness of clinical guidelines is required. However, there is still a lack of preferred reporting items of the updating process in updated clinical guidelines. The present article describes the development process of the Checklist for the Reporting of Updated Guidelines (CheckUp). Methods and Findings We developed an initial list of items based on an overview of research evidence on clinical guideline updating, the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II Instrument, and the advice of the CheckUp panel (n = 33 professionals). A multistep process was used to refine this list, including an assessment of ten existing updated clinical guidelines, interviews with key informants (response rate: 54.2%; 13/24), a three-round Delphi consensus survey with the CheckUp panel (33 participants), and an external review with clinical guideline methodologists (response rate: 90%; 53/59) and users (response rate: 55.6%; 10/18). CheckUp includes 16 items that address (1) the presentation of an updated guideline, (2) editorial independence, and (3) the methodology of the updating process. In this article, we present the methodology to develop CheckUp and include as a supplementary file an explanation and elaboration document. Conclusions CheckUp can be used to evaluate the completeness of reporting in updated guidelines and as a tool to inform guideline developers about reporting requirements. Editors may request its completion from guideline authors when submitting updated guidelines for publication. Adherence to CheckUp will likely enhance the comprehensiveness and transparency of clinical guideline updating for the benefit of patients and the public, health care professionals, and other relevant stakeholders. PMID:28072838

  8. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically < 10 Hz) that the

  9. PUMA: The Positional Update and Matching Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Line, J. L. B.; Webster, R. L.; Pindor, B.; Mitchell, D. A.; Trott, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We present new software to cross-match low-frequency radio catalogues: the Positional Update and Matching Algorithm. The Positional Update and Matching Algorithm combines a positional Bayesian probabilistic approach with spectral matching criteria, allowing for confusing sources in the matching process. We go on to create a radio sky model using Positional Update and Matching Algorithm based on the Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey, and are able to automatically cross-match 98.5% of sources. Using the characteristics of this sky model, we create simple simulated mock catalogues on which to test the Positional Update and Matching Algorithm, and find that Positional Update and Matching Algorithm can reliably find the correct spectral indices of sources, along with being able to recover ionospheric offsets. Finally, we use this sky model to calibrate and remove foreground sources from simulated interferometric data, generated using OSKAR (the Oxford University visibility generator). We demonstrate that there is a substantial improvement in foreground source removal when using higher frequency and higher resolution source positions, even when correcting positions by an average of 0.3 arcmin given a synthesised beam-width of 2.3 arcmin.

  10. 42 CFR 495.344 - Approval of the State Medicaid HIT plan, the HIT PAPD and update, the HIT IAPD and update, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PAPD and update, the HIT IAPD and update, and the annual HIT IAPD. 495.344 Section 495.344 Public... and update, the HIT IAPD and update, and the annual HIT IAPD. HHS will not approve the State Medicaid HIT plan, HIT PAPD and update, HIT-IAPD and update, or annual IAPD if any of these documents do...

  11. A scene based nonuniformity correction algorithm for line scanning infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fan; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Bo; Fang, Yu; Han, Jinhui; Liu, Zhe

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a fast scene based nonuniformity correction algorithm using Landweber iteration is proposed for line scanning infrared imaging systems (LSIR). The method introduces a novel framework of nonuniformity correction for LSIR by optimization. More specifically, first a "desired" image is obtained by an 1D Guassian filter from the corrected image; then a weighted mean square error optimization function is established in each line to minimize the mean square error between the corrected value and "desired" image. Correction parameters update adaptively by Landweber iteration, and then update the desired image. A stopping rule of the framework is also proposed. The quantitative comparisons with other state-of-the-art methods demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has low complexity and is much more robust on fixed-pattern noise reduction in the static scene.

  12. Pattern recognitions receptors in immunodeficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Mortaz, Esameil; Adcock, Ian M; Tabarsi, Payam; Darazam, Ilad Alavi; Movassaghi, Masoud; Garssen, Johan; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Velayati, Aliakbar

    2017-01-14

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation and response of the immune system. Initiation of the innate immune response starts with the recognition of microbial structures called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of PAMPs is performed by germline-encoded receptors expressed mainly on immune cells termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and Nod-like receptors (NLRs). Patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) affecting TLR signaling can elucidate the importance of these proteins in the human immune system. Defects in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) lead to susceptibility to infections with bacteria, while mutations in nuclear factor-κB essential modulator (NEMO) and other downstream mediators generally induce broader susceptibility to bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In contrast, TLR3 signaling defects are associated with susceptibility to herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis. Other PIDs induce functional alterations of TLR signaling pathways, such as common variable immunodeficiency in which plasmacytoid dendritic cell defects enhance defective responses of B cells to shared TLR agonists. Altered TLR responses to TLR2 and 4 agonists are seen in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Enhanced TLR responses, meanwhile, are seen for TLRs 5 and 9 in CGD, TLRs 4, 7/8, and 9 in XLA, TLRs 2 and 4 in hyper IgE syndrome (HIES), and for most TLRs in adenosine deaminase deficiency. In this review we provide the reader with an update on the role of TLRs and downstream signaling pathways in PID disorders.

  13. Update on developments at SNIF

    SciTech Connect

    Zacks, J. Turner, I.; Day, I.; Flinders, K.; McAdams, R.; Crowley, B.

    2015-04-08

    The Small Negative Ion Facility (SNIF) at CCFE has been undergoing continuous development and enhancement to both improve operational reliability and increase diagnostic capability. SNIF uses a CW 13.56MHz, 5kW RF driven volume source with a 30kV triode accelerator. Improvement and characterisation work includes: Installation of a new “L” type RF matching unit, used to calculate the load on the RF generator. Use of the electron suppressing biased insert as a Langmuir probe under different beam extraction conditions. Measurement of the hydrogen Fulcher molecular spectrum, used to calculate gas temperature in the source. Beam optimisation through parameter scans, using copper target plate and visible cameras, with results compared with AXCEL-INP to provide beam current estimate. Modelling of the beam power density profile on the target plate using ANSYS to estimate beam power and provide another estimate of beam current. This work is described, and has allowed an estimation of the extracted beam current of approximately 6mA (4mA/cm2) at 3.5kW RF power and a source pressure of 0.6Pa.

  14. Update on developments at SNIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacks, J.; Turner, I.; Day, I.; Flinders, K.; Crowley, B.; McAdams, R.

    2015-04-01

    The Small Negative Ion Facility (SNIF) at CCFE has been undergoing continuous development and enhancement to both improve operational reliability and increase diagnostic capability. SNIF uses a CW 13.56MHz, 5kW RF driven volume source with a 30kV triode accelerator. Improvement and characterisation work includes:Installation of a new "L" type RF matching unit, used to calculate the load on the RF generator. Use of the electron suppressing biased insert as a Langmuir probe under different beam extraction conditions. Measurement of the hydrogen Fulcher molecular spectrum, used to calculate gas temperature in the source. Beam optimisation through parameter scans, using copper target plate and visible cameras, with results compared with AXCEL-INP to provide beam current estimate. Modelling of the beam power density profile on the target plate using ANSYS to estimate beam power and provide another estimate of beam current.This work is described, and has allowed an estimation of the extracted beam current of approximately 6mA (4mA/cm2) at 3.5kW RF power and a source pressure of 0.6Pa.

  15. Pediatric brain death: updated guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Jodi E

    2013-01-01

    Logan, a 5-year-old boy, was riding his bike with his 7-year-old brother when he was struck from behind by a car traveling at approximately 40 mph. The driver indicated that she did not see the riders until she hit Logan, who was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. Logan was thrown from his bike and was found at the side of the road, unresponsive and posturing. Although he was uninjured, Logan's brother witnessed the incident.Emergency medical services arrived and placed Logan on a backboard with a c-collar. Because he was not protecting his airway, he was intubated and then given sodium chloride fluids and brought to the pediatric emergency department. Upon arrival, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 5, and his right pupil was 6 mm and not reactive.Logan's initial head computed tomographic scan showed diffuse brain edema, with early downward transtentorial brain herniation. The pediatric neurosurgeon determined that no operative management was appropriate for Logan. Besides a small laceration on his forehead, Logan had no other injuries. At this time, he was taking a few spontaneous respirations and had occasional posturing of his extremities.

  16. [Adrenocortical carcinoma: Update in 2014].

    PubMed

    Libé, Rossella; Assié, Guillaume

    2014-04-01

    All adrenal masses with atypical characteristics at conventional imaging must be explored as potential adrenocortical cancer. CT scan with delayed contrast media wash-out and/or abdominal MRI including chemical shift and/or wash-out analysis and 18F-FDG PET help to characterize the adrenal mass. Open adrenalectomy is the first step in the treatment of resectables adrenocortical cancer, as potentially curative. It must be complete (R0), without tumoral dissemination. The management of the adrenocortical cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach, including the endocrinologist, oncologist, surgeons, radiologist, nuclear medicine, pathologist, and geneticians in order to guarantee to the patient the best care. At the national level, the French network COMETE (supported by the Institut National du Cancer) and the international level, the European Network for the Study of Adrenal tumors -ENS@T- (supported by ESF and FP7) contribute to improve the clinical management and the understanding of the pathogenesis of the adrenocortical cancers. Recently, a new insight on molecular markers has been done. These approaches will be soon used "in routine".

  17. A New First-Scan Method for Two-Scan Labeling Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lifeng; Chao, Yuyan; Suzuki, Kenji

    This paper proposes a new first-scan method for two-scan labeling algorithms. In the first scan, our proposed method first scans every fourth image line, and processes the scan line and its two neighbor lines. Then, it processes the remaining lines from top to bottom one by one. Our method decreases the average number of times that must be checked to process a foreground pixel will; thus, the efficiency of labeling can be improved.

  18. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope

    PubMed Central

    Favreau, Peter F.; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications. PMID:24727909

  19. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope.

    PubMed

    Favreau, Peter F; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F; Rich, Thomas C; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J

    2014-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications.

  20. Correlation-steered scanning for scanning probe microscopes to overcome thermal drift for ultra-long time scanning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liansheng; Long, Qian; Liu, Yongbin; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-07-01

    The thermal effect is one of the most important factors that influence the accuracy of nanoscale measurement and the surface topography of samples in scanning probe microscopes (SPMs). We propose a method called correlation-steered scanning, which is capable of overcoming three-dimensional thermal drifts in real time for ultra-long time scanned images. The image is scanned band by band with overlapping parts between adjacent bands. The vertical drift can be considered as linear and can thus be eliminated together with the tilt of the sample by applying the flattening method. Each band is artificially divided into several blocks for conveniently calculating lateral drifts on the basis of the overlapping area of adjacent bands through digital image correlation. The calculated lateral drifts are compensated to steer the scanning of the subsequent blocks, thus ensuring that all bands are parallel to one another. Experimental results proved that images scanned by the proposed method exhibited less distortions than those obtained from the traditional raster scanning method. The nanoscale measurement results based on the image obtained by the proposed method also showed high accuracy, with an error of less than 1.5%. By scanning as many bands as needed, the correlation-steered scanning method can obtain a highly precise SPM image of an ultra-large area.

  1. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  2. Updating stored memory requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Carrión, Ángel M

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis appears to influence hippocampal functions, such as memory formation for example. While adult hippocampal neurogenesis is known to be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and consolidation processes, the role of such immature neurons in memory reconsolidation, a process involved in the modification of stored memories, remains unclear. Here, using a novel fast X-ray ablation protocol to deplete neurogenic cells, we have found that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is required to update object recognition stored memory more than to reinforce it. Indeed, we show that immature neurons were selectively recruited to hippocampal circuits during the updating of stored information. Thus, our data demonstrate a new role for neurogenesis in cognitive processes, adult hippocampal neurogenesis being required for the updating of stored OR memories. These findings suggest that manipulating adult neurogenesis may have a therapeutic application in conditions associated with traumatic stored memory, for example. PMID:26358557

  3. Updating stored memory requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Carrión, Ángel M

    2015-09-11

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis appears to influence hippocampal functions, such as memory formation for example. While adult hippocampal neurogenesis is known to be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and consolidation processes, the role of such immature neurons in memory reconsolidation, a process involved in the modification of stored memories, remains unclear. Here, using a novel fast X-ray ablation protocol to deplete neurogenic cells, we have found that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is required to update object recognition stored memory more than to reinforce it. Indeed, we show that immature neurons were selectively recruited to hippocampal circuits during the updating of stored information. Thus, our data demonstrate a new role for neurogenesis in cognitive processes, adult hippocampal neurogenesis being required for the updating of stored OR memories. These findings suggest that manipulating adult neurogenesis may have a therapeutic application in conditions associated with traumatic stored memory, for example.

  4. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Gage, Rachel; Baek, Yihwa; Bochsler, Tiana M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms. Methods Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135) and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900) conditions, and a Narrow Field (8°) condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating. Results With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition. Discussion If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment. PMID:26943674

  5. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    possible to determinate environments and scenarios where the seismic hazard is a function of distance and magnitude and also the principal seismic sources that contribute to the seismic hazard at each site (dissagregation). This project was conducted by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (Colombian Geological Survey) and the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (National University of Colombia), with the collaboration of national and foreign experts and the National System of Prevention and Attention of Disaster (SNPAD). It is important to stand out that this new seismic hazard map was used in the updated national building code (NSR-10). A new process is ongoing in order to improve and present the Seismic Hazard Map in terms of intensity. This require new knowledge in site effects, in both local and regional scales, checking the existing and develop new acceleration to intensity relationships, in order to obtain results more understandable and useful for a wider range of users, not only in the engineering field, but also all the risk assessment and management institutions, research and general community.

  6. Brucellosis update in Libya and regional prospective.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Bennour, Emad M; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C

    2015-02-01

    Brucellosis is a global bacterial zoonosis responsible for high morbidity in humans and significant livestock economic losses. While brucellosis remains a public health concern worldwide, its global geographic distribution is variable, largely due to different management schemes; however, paucity of information renders the status of brucellosis unclear and incomplete in many countries, especially those with low income and under-developed infrastructure. This short article summarizes and discusses recent important updates on brucellosis from the North African countries, with a particular brief emphasis on the current status and recent updates in Libya.

  7. Updates to the MSFC Meteoroid Stream Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Danielle E.; Cooke, William J.

    2008-06-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Meteoroid Stream Model simulates particle ejection and subsequent evolution from comets in order to provide meteor shower forecasts to spacecraft operators for hazard mitigation and planning purposes. The model, previously detailed in Moser and Cooke (Earth Moon Planets 95, 141 (2004)), has recently been updated; the changes include the implementation of the RADAU integrator, an improved planetary treatment, and the inclusion of general relativistic effects in the force function. The results of these updates are investigated with respect to various meteoroid streams and the outcome presented.

  8. Apollo Lunar Sample Photograph Digitization Project Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    This is an update of the progress of a 4-year data restoration project effort funded by the LASER program to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images and undertaken by the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC [1]. The project is currently in its last year of funding. We also provide an update on the derived products that make use of the digitized photos including the Lunar Sample Catalog and Photo Database[2], Apollo Sample data files for GoogleMoon[3].

  9. State energy-price system: 1981 update

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report updates the State Energy Price Data System (STEPS) to include state-level energy prices by fuel and by end-use sectors for 1981. Both physical unit prices and Btu prices are presented. Basic documentation of the data base remains generally the same as in the original report: State Energy Price System; Volume 1: Overview and Technical Documentation (DOE/NBB-0029 Volume 1 of 2, November 1982). The present report documents only the changes in procedures necessitated by the update to 1981 and the corrections to the basic documentation.

  10. Update in clinical allergy and immunology.

    PubMed

    von Gunten, S; Marsland, B J; von Garnier, C; Simon, D

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, a tremendous body of studies has addressed a broad variety of distinct topics in clinical allergy and immunology. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide clinically and pathogenetically relevant insights or identify potential novel targets and strategies for therapy. The role of the microbiome in shaping allergic immune responses and molecular, as well as cellular mechanisms of disease, is discussed separately and in the context of atopic dermatitis, as an allergic model disease. Besides summarizing novel evidence, this update highlights current areas of uncertainties and debates that, as we hope, shall stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field.

  11. Update in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease 2013

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The period covered by this update can be considered as the most exciting period in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) research. It started with the identification of genetic variants that are associated with IPF in the majority of patients and continued with discovery of molecular and genetic biomarkers that predict distinct clinical presentations of patients with IPF and potential new biological mechanisms. More importantly, the period ends with the publication of two groundbreaking studies that confirmed that two drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, slowed disease progression, leading to a historic approval by the FDA. In this update, we describe these key advances, their scientific and significant clinical implications, and future directions. PMID:25635490

  12. Basis for optronic ScanSAR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchese, Linda; Bourqui, Pascal; Turgeon, Sandra; Harnish, Bernd; Suess, Martin; Châteauneuf, François; Bergeron, Alain

    2011-11-01

    ScanSAR is an important imaging mode of operation for SAR systems. It allows extended range coverage albeit at the expense of azimuth resolution. Compared to stripmap, ScanSAR is used more for large swath coverage for mapping and monitoring over a wide area. Applications are numerous and include boreal forest mapping, wetland mapping and soil moisture monitoring. The goal of the present work was thus to explore the possibility of processing ScanSAR data optronicaly. Tests were performed with artificially bursted ASAR stripmap data demonstrating that reconstruction of ScanSAR data using the optronic SAR processor is feasible. This paper describes specifically how the data control and handling of ScanSAR data is performed to make it compatible with the optronic processor that was otherwise specifically designed for stripmap processing. As well, the ScanSAR images generated optronicaly are presented.

  13. Image scanning microscopy with radially polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yun; Zhang, Yunhai; Wei, Tongda; Huang, Wei; Shi, Yaqin

    2017-03-01

    In order to improve the resolution of image scanning microscopy, we present a method based on image scanning microscopy and radially polarized light. According to the theory of image scanning microscopy, we get the effective point spread function of image scanning microscopy with the longitudinal component of radially polarized light and a 1 AU detection area, and obtain imaging results of the analyzed samples using this method. Results show that the resolution can be enhanced by 7% compared with that in image scanning microscopy with circularly polarized light, and is 1.54-fold higher than that in confocal microscopy with a pinhole of 1 AU. Additionally, the peak intensity of ISM is 1.54-fold higher than that of a confocal microscopy with a pinhole of 1 AU. In conclusion, the combination of the image scanning microscopy and the radially polarized light could improve the resolution, and it could realize high-resolution and high SNR imaging at the same time.

  14. How Do We Update Faces? Effects of Gaze Direction and Facial Expressions on Working Memory Updating

    PubMed Central

    Artuso, Caterina; Palladino, Paola; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how the biological binding between different facial dimensions, and their social and communicative relevance, may impact updating processes in working memory (WM). We focused on WM updating because it plays a key role in ongoing processing. Gaze direction and facial expression are crucial and changeable components of face processing. Direct gaze enhances the processing of approach-oriented facial emotional expressions (e.g., joy), while averted gaze enhances the processing of avoidance-oriented facial emotional expressions (e.g., fear). Thus, the way in which these two facial dimensions are combined communicates to the observer important behavioral and social information. Updating of these two facial dimensions and their bindings has not been investigated before, despite the fact that they provide a piece of social information essential for building and maintaining an internal ongoing representation of our social environment. In Experiment 1 we created a task in which the binding between gaze direction and facial expression was manipulated: high binding conditions (e.g., joy-direct gaze) were compared to low binding conditions (e.g., joy-averted gaze). Participants had to study and update continuously a number of faces, displaying different bindings between the two dimensions. In Experiment 2 we tested whether updating was affected by the social and communicative value of the facial dimension binding; to this end, we manipulated bindings between eye and hair color, two less communicative facial dimensions. Two new results emerged. First, faster response times were found in updating combinations of facial dimensions highly bound together. Second, our data showed that the ease of the ongoing updating processing varied depending on the communicative meaning of the binding that had to be updated. The results are discussed with reference to the role of WM updating in social cognition and appraisal processes. PMID:23060832

  15. CGRP and its receptors.

    PubMed

    Hay, Debbie L; Walker, Christopher S

    2017-02-24

    The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) neuropeptide system is an important but still evolving target for migraine. A fundamental consideration for all of the current drugs in clinical trials and for ongoing development in this area is the identity, expression pattern, and function of CGRP receptors because this knowledge informs safety and efficacy considerations. In recent years, only the calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) complex, known as the CGRP receptor, has generally been considered relevant. However, CGRP is capable of activating multiple receptors and could have more than one endogenous receptor. The recent identification of the CGRP-responsive calcitonin receptor/RAMP1 complex (AMY1 receptor - amylin subtype 1 receptor) in the trigeminovascular system warrants a deeper consideration of the molecular identity of CGRP receptor(s) involved in the pathophysiology, and thus potential treatment of migraine. This perspective considers some of the issues and implications.

  16. Scanning Tip Microscopy With Applications To Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; Thall, Edmond H.; Iams, Douglas A.; Ingle, Jeffery T.; Henson, Tammy D.; Lee, Y. C.; Bell, L. Stephen

    1989-06-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy, denoted here scanning tip microscopy, are two powerful novel techniques for imaging surfaces with atomic resolution. We describe the underlying principles of these two techniques with special emphasis on an instrument developed in our laboratory that uses a laser diode to detect minute deflections of a tip as it raster scans the surface of a sample. Applications of these techniques to research in biology are assessed and their relative merits discussed.

  17. Background removal procedure for rapid scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Czechowski, Tomasz; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2009-01-01

    In rapid scan EPR the changing magnetic field creates a background signal with components at the scan frequency and its harmonics. The amplitude of the background signal increases with scan width and is more significant for weak EPR signals such as are obtained in the presence of magnetic field gradients. A procedure for distinguishing this background from the EPR signal is proposed, mathematically described, and tested for various experimental conditions.

  18. Radiogallium scan in P. carinii pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, K.L.; Bakshi, S.P.; Bender, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    A gallium scan performed on a patient with fever of unknown origin (FUO) revealed an abnormal uptake of radiotracer in the lungs despite negative chest roentgenographic examination and other routine diagnostic studies. Subsequent lung biopsy results confirmed the presence of Pneumocystis (P.) carinii infection. A repeat gallium scan obtained following appropriate antibiotic therapy was essentially normal. The importance of radiogallium scanning in an immunosuppressed patient with FUO is emphasized.

  19. The LDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life.

  20. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Russell S.; Kortan, A. Refik

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * EXPERIMENTAL * X-RAY DIFFRACTION * SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY * STRUCTURE MODELLING BASED ON STM * COMPARISON WITH MODELS BASED ON BULK STUDIES * CONCLUSION * REFERENCES