Science.gov

Sample records for receptor-deficient rat hepatoma

  1. ALTERED OROSENSORY SENSITIVITY TO OILS IN CCK-1 RECEPTOR DEFICIENT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, T.D.; Hajnal, A.; Covasa, M.

    2009-01-01

    CCK-1 receptor deficient Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats are hyperphagic, which leads to subsequent obesity and diabetes. Additionally, they have increased sham intake and enhanced preference for sucrose solutions relative to control, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. To determine the effects of oil on ingestion, we first measured real feeding of various concentrations of oil emulsions (12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100%) in rats that were fed ad libitum. Secondly, to isolate the orosensory compontent of oils from post-ingestive consequences, as well as determine the contribution of energy status, we measured sham-feeding in OLETF and LETO rats using one-bottle acceptance tests while non-deprived and overnight food deprived. Finally, to assess the orosensory effects of nutritive and non-nutritive oils, we used two-bottle preference tests in sham fed OLETF and LETO rats. We found that real feeding resulted in increased intake of high oil concentrations for OLETF rats relative to LETO rats. Similarly, OLETF rats consumed significantly more of higher concentration corn oils than LETO while non-deprived sham feeding. Conversely, OLETF rats overconsumed low concentration corn oil compared to LETO during overnight deprived sham feeding tests. In 2-bottle sham feeding preference tests, both non-deprived OLETF and LETO rats preferred corn to mineral oil. Collectively, these results show that increased oil intake in OLETF rats is driven by both peripheral deficits to satiation and altered orosensory sensitivity. PMID:19887078

  2. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. IV. Lack of adrenergic activation of phosphorylase in rat ascites hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Yanaoka, T; Sanae, F; Wakusawa, S; Koshiura, R

    1986-10-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase a activity in 7 rat ascites hepatoma cell lines treated with adrenergic agents, phenylephrine, epinephrine and isoproterenol, was investigated as compared with that in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Basal phosphorylase activities in hepatoma cells except AH7974 cells were lower than that in hepatocytes. Phosphorylase in hepatoma cells was not activated by any of the agents, while the enzyme activity in hepatocytes was clearly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Phosphorylase in hepatocytes was sensitive to glucagon, but it was found to be insensitive to glucagon in all hepatoma cells. The present results suggest that rat ascites hepatoma cells may escape the glycogenolytic regulation by catecholamines and glucagon.

  3. ETA receptor blockade attenuates hypertension and decreases reactive oxygen species in ETB receptor-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Elmarakby, Ahmed A; Dabbs Loomis, E; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M

    2004-11-01

    We hypothesize that endothelin-A receptor stimulation contributes to the elevated blood pressure and superoxide production in endothelin-B receptor-deficient rats on a high salt diet. Experiments were conducted on homozygous endothelin-B-deficient (sl/sl) and wild-type rats (wt) fed a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 3 weeks. Separate groups were given normal drinking water or water containing the endothelin-A receptor antagonist, ABT-627 (5 mg/kg per day; n = 8-9 in all groups). On a normal salt diet, (sl/sl) rats had a significantly elevated systolic blood pressure compared with wt (138 +/- 3 vs 117 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). High salt diet caused a significant increase in systolic blood pressure in (sl/sl) rats compared with wt (158 +/- 2 vs 138 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). Endothelin-A receptor blockade decreased systolic blood pressure in (sl/sl) rats on high salt (125 +/- 5 mmHg; P < 0.05 vs without antagonist) without affecting the systolic blood pressure in wt (119 +/- 4 mmHg). Aortic superoxide production (lucigenin chemiluminescence) and plasma 8-isoprostane were elevated in sl/sl rats and were significantly reduced by endothelin-A receptor blockade in sl/sl, but not in wt rats. These findings suggest that endothelin-1, through the endothelin-A receptor, contributes to salt-induced hypertension and vascular superoxide production in endothelin-B-deficient rats.

  4. Superoxide-dependent hypertension in male and female endothelin B receptor-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jennifer C; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M

    2006-06-01

    Evidence for endothelin (ET) involvement in the control of fluid volume balance and arterial pressure has been derived in part from the observations that rats lacking the ET(B) receptor develop hypertension when placed on a high-salt (HS) diet. The present study was designed to determine the effect of superoxide on salt-induced hypertension in male and female ET(B)-deficient (sl/sl) and wild-type control (wt) rats. After 14 days on a HS (8% NaCl) diet, female sl/sl rats had significantly elevated arterial pressure (183 +/- 2 mm Hg, tail cuff) compared with female wt rats (134 +/- 2 mm Hg). The response to a HS diet was lower in male sl/sl rats (166 +/- 6 mm Hg) yet was significantly greater than that in male wt controls (135 +/- 3 mm Hg). Separate groups of male and female sl/sl and wt rats were given tempol (1 mM in drinking water) during HS treatment. Arterial pressures were 149 +/- 5 mm Hg in male and 143 +/- 3 mm Hg in female sl/sl rats treated with tempol, values that were similar to those of controls on a normal salt diet. After 14 days, however, male and female sl/ sl rats recovered from the blood pressure-lowering effects of tempol. On Day 15, arterial pressures in female sl/sl rats on a HS diet were 160 +/- 6 mm Hg and 177 +/- 6 mm Hg in tempol-treated and untreated groups, respectively. In male sl/sl rats, arterial pressures were 155 +/- 3 mm Hg and 165 +/- 5 mm Hg in tempol-treated and untreated groups, respectively. On Day 15, no differences among groups with or without tempol were observed in plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentrations or in urinary excretion of TBARS. Plasma ET-1 concentrations were significantly higher in female vs. male sl/sl rats. These results indicate that the early stages of salt-dependent hypertension produced by ET(B) receptor deficiency are dependent on superoxide and that the elevated pressure in the female rats may be due to elevated circulating levels of ET-1.

  5. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. VI. Characteristics of adrenoceptors and adenylate cyclase response in rat ascites hepatoma cells and human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Kohei, K; Nomura, M; Miyamoto, K

    1992-06-01

    Alpha 1, alpha 2- and beta-Adrenoceptor densities and catecholamine responsiveness in established hepatoma cells, rat ascites hepatoma AH13, AH66, AH66F, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974 cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma HLF and HepG2 cells, were compared with those in normal rat hepatocytes and Chang liver cells. Alpha 1-Adrenoceptor densities measured by [3H]prazosin bindings were not detected in all hepatoma cell lines. Alpha 2-Adrenoceptor densities measured by [3H]clonidine bindings were also barely detected in hepatoma cell lines except for AH130 cells and HepG2 cells. Regarding beta-adrenoceptor, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974 cells had much more [125I]iodocyanopindolol binding sites than normal rat hepatocytes, although we could not detect the binding in HepG2 cells. Adenylate cyclase of normal rat hepatocyte and Chang liver cells were stimulated by beta 2-adrenergic agonist salbutamol, while the cyclase in hepatoma cells had no beta 2-adrenergic response but a beta 1-type response. These findings indicate that the characteristics of adrenergic response in hepatoma cell lines is very different from that in normal hepatocytes, suggesting a participation in the hepatocarcinogenesis and/or the autonomous proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  6. Energy substrate utilization in a poorly differentiated rat hepatoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mares-Perlman, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolism of energy substrates in a transplantable, poorly differentiated rat hepatoma and the effect of high fat total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on growth of this neoplasms and host were studied. Although high-fat TPN better maintained host weight and nitrogen balance than oral feeding and did not increase tumor growth, adverse consequences of high-fat TPN were found. These included liver lipid infiltration and indications of the possible development of insulin resistance. A method for isolating fresh hepatoma cells was designed to study the metabolism of energy substrates by this neoplasms. The metabolic viability of cells obtained by this procedure in sustained incubations was demonstrated by observations of linear rates of leucine and uridine incorporation into acid-insoluble material, retention of cellular ATP and ADP content and stable rates of oxygen consumption. Cells isolated by this procedure were used to determine whether this hepatoma was capable of oxidizing fatty acids and ketones and to estimate the contribution oxidation of these substrates made to ATP production relative to glucose and glutamine. Incorporation of radiolabel from both palmitate and ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate carbon into CO/sub 2/ was observed.

  7. Effects of Melanocortin 3 and 4 Receptor Deficiency on Energy Homeostasis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    You, Panpan; Hu, Handan; Chen, Yuting; Zhao, Yongliang; Yang, Yiqing; Wang, Tongtong; Xing, Roumei; Shao, Yanjiao; Zhang, Wen; Li, Dali; Chen, Huaqing; Liu, Mingyao

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin-3 and 4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R) can regulate energy homeostasis, but their respective roles especially the functions of MC3R need more exploration. Here Mc3r and Mc4r single and double knockout (DKO) rats were generated using CRISPR-Cas9 system. Metabolic phenotypes were examined and data were compared systematically. Mc3r KO rats displayed hypophagia and decreased body weight, while Mc4r KO and DKO exhibited hyperphagia and increased body weight. All three mutants showed increased white adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size. Interestingly, although Mc3r KO did not show a significant elevation in lipids as seen in Mc4r KO, DKO displayed even higher lipid levels than Mc4r KO. DKO also showed more severe glucose intolerance and hyperglycaemia than Mc4r KO. These data demonstrated MC3R deficiency caused a reduction of food intake and body weight, whereas at the same time exhibited additive effects on top of MC4R deficiency on lipid and glucose metabolism. This is the first phenotypic analysis and systematic comparison of Mc3r KO, Mc4r KO and DKO rats on a homogenous genetic background. These mutant rats will be important in defining the complicated signalling pathways of MC3R and MC4R. Both Mc4r KO and DKO are good models for obesity and diabetes research. PMID:27713523

  8. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. II. Comparison of beta-adrenergic responsiveness of rat ascites hepatoma cells with cultured normal rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Matsunaga, T; Takemoto, N; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R

    1985-05-01

    The pharmacological properties of beta-adrenoceptors in rat ascites hepatoma cells were compared with those in normal rat liver cells which were cultured for 24 hr after collagenase digestion. Adenylate cyclases in the homogenates of cultured normal rat liver cells and rat ascites hepatoma cells, AH44, AH66, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974, were all activated by isoproterenol or NaF to different degrees. The enzyme in rat liver cells was activated by several beta 2-agonists but those in all hepatoma cells hardly responded. Furthermore, salbutamol, a beta 2-partial agonist, antagonized the cyclase activation by isoproterenol in AH130 cells. The Kact value of isoproterenol for the activation of adenylate cyclase in AH130 cells was smaller than that in rat liver cells. A comparison of the Ki values of beta-antagonists for the inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated cyclase activity shows that while the Ki values of propranolol and butoxamine in AH130 cells were similar to those in rat liver cells, a significant difference was observed in the values for beta 1-selective antagonists between AH130 cells and rat liver cells. The Ki values of metoprolol and atenolol for AH130 cells were 137- and 90-fold lower, respectively, than for normal rat liver cells. From these findings, it is strongly suggested that beta-adrenoceptors in rat ascites hepatoma cells including AH130 cells have similar properties to the mammalian beta 1-receptor.

  9. Comparison of cell-surface glycoproteins of rat hepatomas and embryonic rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, W. P.; Emmelot, P.; Homburg, C.

    1977-01-01

    Cell-surface glycoprotein of 3 rat hepatoma strains and late-embryonic liver was metabolically labelled in vivo with [3H]- or [14C]-fucose. Trypsinization of the cells and exhaustive pronase digestion of combined hepatoma-liver trypsinates followed by gel filtration over Sephadex-Biogel mixtures, yielded elution profiles that contained more early-eluting (high-mol.-wt.) glycopeptides for hepatomas than for liver. At least 3 factors were identified which acted to augment the fraction of early-eluting tumour glycopeptides: (a) increase of neuraminidase-sensitive sialic acid, (b) increase of neuraminidase-insensitive sialic acid that was sensitive to mild HCl hydrolysis, and (c) presence of sugar sulphate groups contributing to a restricted extent, relative to possible unknown factor(s). Whether (a), (b) or (c) operated depended on the hepatoma strain or its mode of growth. Notwithstanding these differences in the nature of the increase in early-eluting glycopeptides, the increase itself appears not to be due to growth per se, nor to an embryonic expression, but rather may serve as a marker of tumourigenicity. PMID:199223

  10. Inhibitory effect of coffee on hepatoma proliferation and invasion in culture and on tumor growth, metastasis and abnormal lipoprotein profiles in hepatoma-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yutaka; Ono, Kanako; Okauchi, Rieko; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2004-02-01

    We have already reported that instant coffee powder (ICP) and ICP-loaded rat sera could suppress proliferation and invasion of rat ascites hepatoma cell line of AH109A in vitro. In this report, we examined the mechanisms for suppression of tumor cell proliferation and invasion by ICP, and the effect of ICP on in vivo tumor growth, metastasis and abnormal lipoprotein profiles in hepatoma-bearing rats. ICP, when directly added to the culture media, induced cell cycle arrest (elongation of S phase) at a lower concentration (0.3 mg/mL) and apoptosis at a higher concentration (0.6-1.2 mg/mL). ICP and ICP-loaded rat sera showed reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging property and canceled the enhancement of invasive activity of hepatoma cells induced by ROS in vitro. These results suggest that ICP suppresses the proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and the invasion by scavenging ROS and that ICP could retain these properties after their gastrointestinal absorption. The hepatoma-bearing rats were fed with a 20% casein diet (20C) or 20C supplemented with 0.1%, ICP for 14 d. Dietary ICP significantly reduced solid tumor growth and tended to reduce hepatoma metastases to lung and lymphatic nodes, suggesting that ICP could suppress tumor cell proliferation and invasion in vivo. In addition, dietary ICP significantly increased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and tended to reduce very low-density and low-density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL)-cholesterol, resulting in amelioration of abnormal lipoprotein profiles occurred in hepatoma-bearing rats. In conclusion, ICP has the ability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in hepatoma cells and to suppress tumor cell invasion by reducing oxidative stresses in vitro, and it could also exhibit these effects in vivo, leading to the inhibition of tumor growth and metastases.

  11. Expression of rat class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alloantigens and hepatocytes and hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.M.; Desai, P.A.; Chakraborty, S.

    1986-03-05

    Altered expression of Class I MHC alloantigens has been reported for murine tumors, and may be associated with the tumorigenic phenotype of tumor cells. To characterize MHC Class I alloantigen expression on a chemically-induced transplantable rat hepatoma cell line, 17X, derived from a (WF x F344) F/sub 1/ rat, polyvalent anti-F344 and anti-WF rat alloantisera were first used to immunoprecipitate the rat RT1.A Class I MHC alloantigens expressed on primary (WF x F344) F/sub 1/ hepatocyptes in short-term monolayer cultures. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE of immunoprecipitates from /sup 35/S-methionine-labeled (WF x F344) F/sub 1/ hepatocytes clearly resolved the RT1.A/sup u/ (WF) and RT1.A/sup LvI/ (F344) parental alloantigens. Identical radiolabeling and immunoprecipitation failed to detect either parental alloantigen on the 17X hepatoma cells. However, indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses demonstrated the presence of parental alloantigens on the 17X cells. Immunization of F344 rats but not of WF rats with 17X cells resulted in antibodies cytotoxic for normal (WF X F344) F/sub 1/ spleen cells in the presence of complement. These findings indicate that a combination of detection techniques will be necessary to characterize altered alloantigen expression on rat hepatoma cells.

  12. Structure and properties of an under-sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycan synthesized by a rat hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A rat hepatoma cell line was shown to synthesize heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Unlike cultured hepatocytes, the hepatoma cells did not deposit these proteoglycans into an extracellular matrix, and most of the newly synthesized heparan sulfate proteoglycans were secreted into the culture medium. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans were also found associated with the cell surface. These proteoglycans could be solubilized by mild trypsin or detergent treatment of the cells but could not be displaced from the cells by incubation with heparin. The detergent-solubilized heparan sulfate proteoglycan had a hydrophobic segment that enabled it to bind to octyl- Sepharose. This segment could conceivably anchor the molecule in the lipid interior of the plasma membrane. The size of the hepatoma heparan sulfate proteoglycans was similar to that of proteoglycans isolated from rat liver microsomes or from primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel indicated that the hepatoma heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a lower average charge density than the rat liver heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The lower charge density of the hepatoma heparan sulfate can be largely attributed to a reduced number of N-sulfated glucosamine units in the polysaccharide chain compared with that of rat liver heparan sulfate. Hepatoma heparan sulfate proteoglycans purified from the culture medium had a considerably lower affinity for fibronectin-Sepharose compared with that of rat liver heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Furthermore, the hepatoma proteoglycan did not bind to the neoplastic cells, whereas heparan sulfate from normal rat liver bound to the hepatoma cells in a time-dependent reaction. The possible consequences of the reduced sulfation of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan produced by the hepatoma cells are discussed in terms of the postulated roles of heparan sulfate in the regulation of cell growth and extracellular matrix formation. PMID

  13. Effect of dietary soy protein on tumor necrosis factor productivity in macrophages from nephritic and hepatoma-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Wataru; Nagata, Junko; Kaneko, Masaharu; Yamada, Tatsuhiko; Moriya, Daisuke; Miura, Yutaka; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2008-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary soy protein isolate (SPI) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) productivity in peritoneal macrophages from nephritic and hepatoma-bearing rats. Dietary SPI significantly inhibited the elevated production of TNF by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages in nephritic and hepatoma-bearing rats compared with dietary casein, while it exerted no influence on the TNF productivity in normal rats. Removal of the minor components contained in SPI by ethanol extraction could significantly or partially restore the reduced TNF production caused by SPI in nephritic and hepatoma-bearing rats, respectively. These results suggest that dietary SPI could suppress the enhanced productivity of TNF associated with the progression of nephritis and hepatoma, and some factors existing in the ethanol extract of SPI are suggested to be involved in suppressing TNF productivity by macrophages.

  14. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, and Defense of Body Weight in Melanocortin 4 Receptor-Deficient Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Almundarij, Tariq I.; Smyers, Mark E.; Spriggs, Addison; Heemstra, Lydia A.; Beltz, Lisa; Dyne, Eric; Ridenour, Caitlyn; Novak, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) variants contribute to human obesity, and rats lacking functional MC4R (Mc4rK314X/K314X) are obese. We investigated the hypothesis that low energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity contribute to this obese phenotype in male rats, and determined whether lack of functional MC4R conferred protection from weight loss during 50% calorie restriction. Though Mc4rK314X/K314X rats showed low brown adipose Ucp1 expression and were less physically active than rats heterozygous for the mutation (Mc4r+/K314X) or wild-type (Mc4r+/+) rats, we found no evidence of lowered EE in Mc4rK314X/K314X rats once body weight was taken into account using covariance. Mc4rK314X/K314X rats had a significantly higher respiratory exchange ratio. Compared to Mc4r+/+ rats, Mc4rK314X/K314X and Mc4r+/K314X rats lost less lean mass during calorie restriction, and less body mass when baseline weight was accounted for. Limited regional overexpression of Mc3r was found in the hypothalamus. Although lower physical activity levels in rats with nonfunctional MC4R did not result in lower total EE during free-fed conditions, rats lacking one or two functional copies of Mc4r showed conservation of mass, particularly lean mass, during energy restriction. This suggests that variants affecting MC4R function may contribute to individual differences in the metabolic response to food restriction. PMID:27886210

  15. Effects of feeding fish oil on mesenteric lymph node cytokine responses in obese leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Ruth, M R; Proctor, S D; Field, C J

    2009-01-01

    berrant immune responses have been identified in obesity; however, immune cells of lymph nodes residing in the inflammatory environment of visceral adipose tissue have been largely overlooked. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce inflammation and modify T-cell function and therefore may improve immune function in obesity. Thus, we determined the effects of feeding fish oil (FO) containing EPA and DHA on mesenteric lymph node (MLN) immune cell function. In this study, 14-week-old obese, leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats (cp/cp) (n=10 per group) were randomized to one of three nutritionally adequate diets for 3 weeks: control (ctl, 0% EPA+DHA), low FO (LFO, 0.8% w/w EPA+DHA) or high FO (HFO, 1.4% w/w EPA+DHA). Lean JCR:LA-cp (Cp/cp or Cp/Cp) rats (n=5) were fed ctl diet. MLN cell phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition, phenotypes and cytokine production were measured. Obese ctl rats produced more IL-1beta, IL-4 and IL-10, despite a higher proportion of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and a lower (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio in MLN PL compared with lean ctl rats (P<0.05). Concanavalin A-stimulated IL-2 production did not differ from lean rats even though obese ctl rats had a lower proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells (P<0.05). Feeding FO to obese rats increased the incorporation of (n-3) PUFA into MLN PL and normalized production of IL-1beta (HFO only), IL-4 and IL-10 to the levels similar to lean ctl rats (P<0.05). We demonstrate for the first time that obese JCR:LA-cp rats have impaired responses of MLN immune cells to mitogen stimulation and altered PL fatty acid composition. Feeding FO lowered the ex vivo inflammatory response (HFO only) and production of Th2 cytokines, without changing IL-2 production from ConA-stimulated splenocytes, which may occur independent of leptin signalling.

  16. Beta/sub 1/-adrenoceptors in rat hepatoma, desensitization by isoproterenol and phorbol-myristate-acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Sainz, J.A.; Alcantara, R.; Hernandez-Sotomayor, S.M.T.; Mas-Oliva, J.

    1989-01-01

    The beta-adrenergic responsiveness of hepatocytes obtained from hypothyroid rats and of a transplantable hepatoma cell line (AS-30D) were studied by measuring the accumulation of cyclic AMP. The potency order for agonists in hepatocytes was: isoproterenol > epinephrine >> norepinephrine whereas in the hepatoma cells the potency order was: isoproterenol > norepinephrine /equivalent to/ epinephrine. The effect of isoproterenol was antagonized in hepatocytes by low concentrations of ICI 118551 and only partially by concentrations of atenolol as high as 100 ..mu..M. In hepatome cells the effect of isoproterenol was inhibited by both antagonists with the potency order atenolol > ICI 118551. These data indicate that in hepatocytes the effect is mediated by beta/sub 2/-adrenoceptors whereas in hepatoma cells it is through beta/sub 1/-adrenoceptors. Preincubation of hepatoma cells with isoproterenol or phorbol-myristate-acetate diminished the subsequent beta-adrenergic responsiveness of the cells. Interestingly, when both isoproterenol and phorbol-myristate-acetate were present during the preincubation the beta-adrenergic desensitization observed was bigger than that induced by any of these agents alone.

  17. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide immunoreactivity in the brain of the CCK-1 receptor deficient obese OLETF rat.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Hajnalka; Covasa, Mihai; Hajnal, Andras

    2009-07-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in brain areas involved in homeostatic regulation and reward. CART has been shown to reduce food intake, but the underlying mechanisms and the relevance of this effect on obesity yet remain unknown. Therefore, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of CART peptide in various brain regions of the obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats lacking the CCK-1 receptor. Analysis revealed that whereas the distribution of CART-peptide immunoreactive neurons and axonal networks was identical in OLETF rats and lean controls, the intensity of CART immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in the rostral part of the nucleus accumbens (p < 0.01), the basolateral complex of the amygdala (p < 0.05) and the rostro-medial nucleus of the solitary tract (p < 0.001) of the OLETF rats. These areas are involved in reward and integration of taste and viscerosensory information and have been previously associated with altered functions in this strain. The findings suggest that in addition to previously described deficits in peripheral satiety signals and augmented orexigenic regulation, the anorectic effect of CART peptide may also be diminished in OLETF rats.

  18. Rat hepatoproliferin revealed the status of a complete hepatomitogen in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, M M J; Ndaba, N; Myburgh, J A

    2005-01-01

    Hepatoproliferin (HPF), a liver regeneration factor isolated from rat hepatocytes, was assessed for its mitogenic status in the human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF-5. HPF was able to enhance hepatoma cell growth on its own without the aid of the established complete mitogens EGF and TGF-alpha or the hepato-priming factor TNF-alpha. HPF therefore acted as a complete hepatomitogen and had no co-mitogenic properties since it did not augment proliferation when combined with EGF or TGF-alpha but showed only an additive effect in the presence of TGF-alpha. Rat HPF was phylogenetically unrestricted, because it was found active in human cells. When each of the established growth factors (GFs) was used alone, the hepatoma cells responded with the same kind of response profile, namely a bi-phasic bell-shaped dose-dependent response due to stimulation at low levels and inhibition at higher levels. However, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was an exception since it did not induce a growth response in hepatoma cells. On the contrary HPF, on its own, showed a progressive enhanced linear dose response at the levels used for the GFs (ie 1.0-15 ng/5 x 10(5) cells). The comparative potency (CP) (dpm x 10(3)/microg DNA/ng GF) of HPF (CP = 13) was in the same range as for the complete hepatomitogens EGF (CP = 12) and TGF-alpha (CP = 14), revealing that HPF has indeed the status of a complete mitogen.

  19. Osmoregulated taurine transport in H4IIE hepatoma cells and perfused rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Warskulat, U; Wettstein, M; Häussinger, D

    1997-01-01

    The effects of aniso-osmotic exposure on taurine transport were studied in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Hyperosmotic (405 mosmol/l) exposure of H4IIE cells stimulated Na+-dependent taurine uptake and led to an increase in taurine transporter (TAUT) mRNA levels, whereas hypo-osmotic (205 mosmol/l) exposure diminished both taurine uptake and TAUT mRNA levels when compared with normo-osmotic (305 mosmol/l) control incubations. Taurine uptake increased 30-40-fold upon raising the ambient osmolarity from 205 to 405 mosmol/l. When H4IIE cells and perfused livers were preloaded with taurine, hypo-osmotic cell swelling led to a rapid release of taurine from the cells. The taurine efflux, but not taurine uptake, was sensitive to 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), suggestive of an involvement of DIDS-sensitive channels in mediating volume-regulatory taurine efflux. Whereas in both H4IIE rat hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes TAUT mRNA levels were strongly dependent upon ambient osmolarity, mRNAs for other osmolyte transporters, i.e. the betaine transporter BGT-1 and the Na+/myo-inositol transporter SMIT, were not detectable. In line with this, myo-inositol uptake by H4IIE hepatoma cells was low and was not stimulated by hyperosmolarity. However, despite the absence of BGT-1 mRNA, a slight osmosensitive uptake of betaine was observed, but the rate was less than 10% of that of taurine transport. This study identifies a constitutively expressed and osmosensitive TAUT in H4IIE cells and the use of taurine as a main osmolyte, whereas betaine and myo-inositol play little or no role in the osmolyte strategy in these cells. This is in contrast with rat liver macrophages, in which betaine has been shown to be a major osmolyte. PMID:9032454

  20. Mitochondria as an important target in heavy metal toxicity in rat hepatoma AS-30D cells.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, Elena A; Dymkowska, Dorota; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Wojtczak, Lech

    2008-08-15

    The mechanisms of toxic effects of divalent cations of three heavy metals Hg, Cd and Cu in rat ascites hepatoma AS-30D cells cultivated in vitro were compared. It was found that the toxicity of these ions, applied in the micromolar range (10-500 microM), decreased from Hg(2+) (most toxic) to Cu(2+) (least toxic). Hg(2+) and Cd(2+) produced a high percentage of cell death by both necrosis and apoptosis, whereas Cu(2+) at concentrations up to 500 microM was weakly effective. Hg(2+) at concentration of 10 microM appeared slightly uncoupling (i.e., stimulated resting state respiration and decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential), whereas it exerted a strong inhibitory effect on the respiratory chain and rapid dissipation of the membrane potential at higher concentrations. Cu(2+) had inhibitory effect on cell respiration only at 500 microM concentration and after incubation of 48 h but produced a significant uncoupling effect at lower concentrations. Cu(2+) induced an early and sharp increase of intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The action of Hg(2+) and Cd(2+) on ROS generation was biphasic. They stimulated ROS generation within the cells at low concentrations and at short incubation times but decreased ROS generation at higher concentrations and at longer incubation. It is concluded that mitochondria are an important target for toxic effects of Hg(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) in AS-30D rat hepatoma cells.

  1. Isolation and characterization of cAMP-resistant mutants of the H-4 rat hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, A.Y.; Lin, Z.

    1987-05-01

    H-4 rat hepatoma cells were mutagenized with ethyl methane-sulfonate and the frequency of emergence of cAMP resistant mutant cells were evaluated by cloning the EMS-treated cells in a semi-solid agar medium that contained either 1-3 mM 8-bromo-cAMP plus 1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine or 5 ..mu..g/ml cholera toxin plus 1 mM IBMX. cAMP resistant mutants emerged at a frequency of 8 x 10/sup -5/. 15 colonies were isolated, recloned, grown in mass culture, and cell extracts were prepared. Analysis of cAMP-dependent protein kinase demonstrated that: (1) the type II enzyme is the only cAMP-dependent protein kinase detected in extracts of the hepatoma cells; (2) of the 15 cAMP resistant clonal cell lines examined, only one (H/sub 4/M/sub 18/) was found to be devoid of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. In another cell line (H/sub 4/M/sub 10/) the activity was 30% of that of the parental H-4 cells; (3) there was an increase (130-300%) in cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in 13/15 of the mutant cell lines over that of the parental H-4 cells. Analysis of cAMP-phosphodiesterase demonstrated significant increases (150-370%) in the enzyme activity in extracts of the mutants over that of the H-4 parental line. Their results suggest that while a deficiency in cAMP-dependent protein kinase may confer resistance to the hepatoma cells against the cytostatic effects of 8-bromo-cAMP and cholera toxin, other events such as overexpression of phosphodiesterase may contribute to this phenotype.

  2. [Aitongxiao recipe regulated survivin and Bcl- 2 in rats' transplanted hepatoma carcinoma cell].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-jie; Wei, Ai-ling; Zhang, Yong-qin

    2012-12-01

    To study the main mechanisms of Aitongxiao Recipe (ATXR) for anti-tumor at the molecular level, and to clarify different efficient drugs' roles in anti-tumor, thus in-depth explaining the objectivity and substance of "cancer toxic" theory. Walker-256 tumor strain was used for Wistar rat transplanted liver cancer modeling. After successful modeling rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, i. e., the ATXP group, the qi regulating and blood circulating group (as the assembled I group), the heat clearing and detoxification group (as the assembled II group), the body resistance strengthening and cultivating group (as the assembled III group), and the model group, 10 in each group. Corresponding medication was given to rats in each group for 14 successive days. Finally rats were sacrificed and the tumor mass was taken out. The apoptosis rate and the cell cycle of tumor cells were detected by flow cytometry Annexin V/PI. The protein and mRNA expressions of Bcl-2 and survivin were detected using immunohistochemistry and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. (1) The apoptosis of hepatoma carcinoma cells could be obviously promoted in the ATXP group. The cell cycle could also be affected, making major cells arrest at G0/G1 phase. The proliferation of hepatoma carcinoma cells was effectively prevented. The efficacy in the assembled II group was in line with that in the ATXP group with no statistical difference (P>0.05). It was also effective in the assembled III group, but its efficacy was not as good as that in the former two groups, showing statistical difference (P<0.01). (2) ATXP could obviously down-regulate the protein and mRNA expressions of Bcl-2 and survivin in hepatoma carcinoma cells. Drugs for heat clearing and detoxification showed significant effects on down-regulating the protein and mRNA expressions of Bcl-2 and survivin in hepatoma carcinoma cells. Their effects were similar to that of ATXP (P>0.05). The effects of drugs for body resistance strengthening

  3. Molecular cloning of cDNA for rat argininosuccinate lyase and its expression in rat hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, M A; Simard, L R; Ray, P N; McInnes, R R

    1986-01-01

    Using antibody and plaque hybridization screening, we isolated rat argininosuccinate lyase (AS lyase) cDNA clones from a liver cDNA library prepared in the phage expression vector lambda gt11. Five overlapping cDNAs covering 1.7 kilobases of the estimated 2.0-kilobase AS lyase mRNA were characterized and confirmed as AS lyase sequences by hybrid selection. We examined the differential expression of AS lyase in rat liver and four rat hepatoma cell lines (7800C1, H4, HTC, and MH1C1). These cells exhibited a 60-fold range of AS lyase enzyme activity, with a direct correlation between activity, amount of AS lyase immunoreactive protein, and quantity of specific AS lyase mRNA. These observations suggest that the differences in AS lyase expression between rat liver and the hepatoma cell lines result from variations in AS lyase transcriptional activity or alterations in nuclear processing of AS lyase RNA. Images PMID:3785176

  4. [Partial purification and certain properties of gamma-glutamyltransferase from rat liver and hepatoma].

    PubMed

    Loginov, V A; Chernov, N N; Berezov, T T

    1980-07-01

    gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT) from the liver and transplantable hepatoma of rats was purified 130- and 170-fold, respectively. The properties of the enzymatic preparations obtained were studied. The optimum pH for the transferase reaction between L-gamma-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (5 mM) and glycyl-glycine (50 mM) was 8.0--8.2, while that for the auto-transferase reaction (without glycyl-glycine) amounted to 9.3--9.5. The isoelectric points of GGT from the liver correlated with the pH 3.9, 4.2 and 4.4 whereas those of hepatoma enzyme with the pH 5.7, 6.0 and 7.0 GGT obtained from both sources were equally specific for various acceptors at the pH 8.1 and 7.0. It has been shown that metotrexate (0.9 mM) and folic acid (3.5 mM) inhibited both enzymes by 50%.

  5. Reverse relationship between malignancy and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Yoshida rat ascites hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Nakamura, S; Nomura, M; Yamamoto, H; Sanae, F; Hidaka, H

    1993-08-31

    Rat ascites hepatoma (AH) cells (10(6) cells/head) inoculated intraperitoneally into rats had host-killing ability (malignancy) in the order AH66F > AH44 > AH13 > AH7974 > AH109A > AH66 > AH130. The life span of the rats after inoculation closely correlated with the activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) in the tumor cells but not the activity of Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). N-[2-[N-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-2-propenyl]amino]ethyl]-5- isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H-87), a potent, selective inhibitor of protein kinase A, inhibited in vitro growth of these hepatoma cells with a similar potency and, intraperitoneally injected, prolonged the lives of rats bearing less malignant AH66 cells (with high protein kinase A activity) but did not affect the life span of rats bearing highly malignant AH66F cells (with low protein kinase A activity). On the other hand N-(2-methylpiperazyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-7), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, inhibited AH66F cells more than AH66 cells, but did not influence the life span of rats bearing either hepatoma. From these results it is deduced that protein kinase A may be important in the regulation of malignancy and in vivo proliferation of AH cells.

  6. A comparison of adrenergic receptors of rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells with those of normal rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R

    1988-04-01

    The pharmacological specificity of adrenergic receptors in the plasma membrane of rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells was compared with that in normal rat hepatocytes. The number of [125I]iodocyanopindolol-binding sites was much greater in AH130 cells than in the hepatocytes. We characterized the alpha-adrenergic receptor subtypes using the alpha 1-selective ligand [3H]prazosin and the alpha 2-selective ligand [3H]clonidine. AH130 cells had fewer prazosin-binding sites than the hepatocytes and about 8 times as many clonidine-binding sites of high affinity. The results showed that the adrenergic receptors in AH130 cells have pharmacological properties that are very different from those of the receptors in normal rat hepatocytes.

  7. S-adenosylmethionine: DNA-cytosine 5-methyltransferase from a Novikoff rat hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, T W; Teague, W M; Rogachevsky, L M

    1975-01-01

    Partial purification of DNA methylase from Novikoff rat hepatoma cells is described. Contamination with other proteins persists although the enzyme preparation has a high specific activity and is purified 980-fold over homogenate activity. Evidence suggests, but does not prove, that there may be more than one species of DNA methylase in these cells. The enzyme has two broad pH optima at pH 7.0 and 7.5 and most readily methylates heterologous denatured DNAs although complex reaction kinetics indicate that native DNAs may eventually be methylated to an equal or greater level. The preparation of undermethylated DNA from Novikoff cells is also described. Undermethylated homologous DNA is an 85-fold greater acceptor of methyl groups than fully methylated Novikoff cell DNA. In contrast to other DNA substrates, the enzyme preparation methylates native undermethylated homologous DNA at a 3.5-fold greater than denatured undermethylated homologous DNA. Images PMID:171625

  8. Combination antitumor effect with central nervous system depressants on rat ascites hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Koshiura, R; Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F

    1980-02-01

    Combined effect of twenty-one central nervous system depressants with several antitumor agents was studied in the in vitro and in vivo experimental systems, using rat ascites hepatoma call lines, AH13 and AH44, sensitive and insensitive to alkylating agents, respectively. Reserpine remarkably enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 1-(gamma-chloropropyl)-2-chloromethylpiperidine hydrobromide (CAP-2) both on AH13 and AH44 cells. In the in vivo combined experiments, reserpine also synergistically enhanced the life-prolonging effect of CAP-2 on AH13-bearing rats and, although CAP-2 was not potent on the prolongation of life span of AH44-bearing rats and reserpine was also ineffective at the doses examined, the life span of tumor-bearing rats receiving the combined administration was apparently prolonged compared with control groups. Thus, there was a parallelism between in vitro and in vivo experiments. These findings suggested that the antitumor-enhancing effect of reserpine might be due to the direct action on the tumor cells, and a possible mechanism that reserpine inhibited the DNA damage-repairing activity of the cells was contradictory. Other mechanisms are also discussed.

  9. Mitochondria as an important target in heavy metal toxicity in rat hepatoma AS-30D cells

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaeva, Elena A. Dymkowska, Dorota; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Wojtczak, Lech

    2008-08-15

    The mechanisms of toxic effects of divalent cations of three heavy metals Hg, Cd and Cu in rat ascites hepatoma AS-30D cells cultivated in vitro were compared. It was found that the toxicity of these ions, applied in the micromolar range (10-500 {mu}M), decreased from Hg{sup 2+} (most toxic) to Cu{sup 2+} (least toxic). Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} produced a high percentage of cell death by both necrosis and apoptosis, whereas Cu{sup 2+} at concentrations up to 500 {mu}M was weakly effective. Hg{sup 2+} at concentration of 10 {mu}M appeared slightly uncoupling (i.e., stimulated resting state respiration and decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential), whereas it exerted a strong inhibitory effect on the respiratory chain and rapid dissipation of the membrane potential at higher concentrations. Cu{sup 2+} had inhibitory effect on cell respiration only at 500 {mu}M concentration and after incubation of 48 h but produced a significant uncoupling effect at lower concentrations. Cu{sup 2+} induced an early and sharp increase of intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The action of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} on ROS generation was biphasic. They stimulated ROS generation within the cells at low concentrations and at short incubation times but decreased ROS generation at higher concentrations and at longer incubation. It is concluded that mitochondria are an important target for toxic effects of Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} in AS-30D rat hepatoma cells.

  10. Induction of aldose reductase gene expression in LEC rats during the development of the hereditary hepatitis and hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Hoshi, A; Fujii, J; Miyoshi, E; Kasahara, T; Suzuki, K; Aozasa, K; Taniguchi, N

    1996-04-01

    We examined age-related changes in the protein and the mRNA expression of aldose reductase in livers of Long-Evans with a cinnamon-like color (LEC) rats, which develop hereditary hepatitis and hepatoma with aging, using Long-Evans with an agouti color rats as controls. The levels of the protein and mRNA of aldose reductase increased after 20 weeks, at the stage of acute hepatitis, and were maintained at 60 weeks of age, while those of aldehyde reductase seemed to be constant at all ages. The expression of aldose reductase was marked in cancerous lesions in hepatoma-bearing LEC rat liver compared to uninvolved surrounding tissues. These results indicated that elevation of aldose reductase accompanied hepatocarcinogenesis and may be related to the acquisition of immortality of the cancer cells through detoxifying cytotoxic aldehyde compounds.

  11. The phytoestrogen daidzein affects the antioxidant enzyme system of rat hepatoma H4IIE cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrdanz, Elke; Ohler, Sandra; Tran-Thi, Quynh-Hoa; Kahl, Regine

    2002-03-01

    Phytoestrogens such as the soy isoflavonoid daidzein have potential health benefits. The antioxidant properties of phytoestrogens are considered to be responsible in part for their protective effects. The antioxidant enzyme (AOE) system plays an important role in the defense of cells against oxidative insults. To determine whether flavonoids can exert antioxidative effects not only directly but also indirectly by modulating the AOE system, we investigated the influence of the flavonoid daidzein on the expression of different AOE. Daidzein treatment of hepatoma H4IIE cells increased catalase mRNA expression two- to threefold. Expression levels of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) were not affected by exposure to daidzein. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA expression levels decreased slightly and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels increased slightly after daidzein exposure. Changes in AOE mRNA expression levels were significant at 300 micromol/L daidzein. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the strong increase in catalase mRNA, transfection experiments were performed. Transient transfection of hepatoma cells with reporter plasmids containing different parts of the upstream region of the catalase gene showed a significant one- to threefold increase in reporter gene activity after daidzein exposure. This indicates that daidzein can directly activate the rat catalase promoter region. Despite the increase in catalase mRNA, daidzein pretreatment of cells did not protect against oxidative stress resulting from H(2)O(2) exposure. On the contrary, daidzein itself exerted a mild oxidative stress. In conclusion, the changes in the AOE system provoked by daidzein affected the oxidant rather than the antioxidant properties of daidzein.

  12. Troglitazone-induced intracellular oxidative stress in rat hepatoma cells: a flow cytometric assessment.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Padma Kumar; Hart, Timothy; Elcock, Fiona; Zhang, Cindy; Hahn, Laura; McFarland, David; Schwartz, Lester; Morgan, D Gwyn; Bugelski, Peter

    2003-03-01

    Troglitazone (TRO), a thiazolidinedione (TZD) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, was recently withdrawn from the market because of rare but serious hepatotoxicity. Previous studies investigating the cytotoxicity of TRO in cultured rat hepatocytes have conjectured about the role of oxidative stress in TRO-induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, we investigated whether TRO induces oxidative stress and, if so, the portion of the TRO molecule responsible for the induction of oxidative stress. Novikoff rat hepatoma (N1S1) cells were incubated with TRO, troglitazone quinone (TQ), thiazolidinedione-phenoxyacetic acid (TD-PAA) or rosiglitazone (RSG). Membrane peroxidation, intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, and cellular viability were monitored simultaneously by multiparameter flow cytometry. TRO and TQ increased membrane peroxidation, decreased intracellular GSH, and decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, TD-PAA and RSG neither increased membrane peroxidation nor induced loss of cell viability. In addition, TRO caused a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular superoxide generation accompanied by a collapse in mitochondrial membrane potential. Multiparameter flow cytometric evaluation of N1S1 cells indicated that the chromane ring of TRO, rather than the TZD moiety, may be responsible for oxidative stress and suggested that a direct effect on mitochondrial physiology may play a role in TRO-mediated hepatotoxicity. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Feeding long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to obese leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA- cp rats modifies immune function and lipid-raft fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-05-01

    Dietary EPA and DHA modulate immunity and thereby may improve the aberrant immune function in obese states. To determine the effects of feeding fish oil (FO) containing EPA and DHA on splenocyte phospholipid (PL) and lipid-raft fatty acid composition, phenotypes and cytokine production, 14-week-old obese, leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats (cp/cp; n 10) were randomised to one of three nutritionally adequate diets for 3 weeks: control (Ctl, 0 % EPA+DHA); low FO (LFO, 0.8 % (w/w) EPA+DHA); high FO (HFO, 1.4 % (w/w) EPA+DHA). Lean JCR:LA-cp (+/ - or +/+) rats (n 5) were fed the Ctl diet. Obese Ctl rats had a higher proportion of n-3 PUFA in splenocyte PL than lean rats fed the same diet (P < 0.05). The lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of splenocyte PL was consistent with the lower mitogen-stimulated interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-1beta production by cells from obese rats (P < 0.05). Obese rats fed the FO diet had lower mitogen-stimulated Th1 (IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokine responses, but IL-2 production (concanavalin A; ConA) did not differ (P < 0.05). The HFO diet was more effective in lowering IL-1beta and increasing IL-10 production (ConA, P < 0.05). This lower IL-1beta production was accompanied by a lower proportion of major histocompatability complex class II-positive cells and a higher incorporation of DHA into lipid rafts. This is the first study to demonstrate impaired responses to mitogen stimulation and altered fatty acid incorporation into the membrane PL of JCR:LA-cp rats. Feeding FO lowered the ex vivo inflammatory response, without altering IL-2 production from ConA-stimulated splenocytes which may occur independent of leptin signalling.

  14. Glucocorticoid regulation of amino acid transport in anucleate rat hepatoma (HTC) cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The transport of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) by rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells is rapidly and reversibly inhibited by dexamethasone and other glucocorticoids. To investigate the role of the nucleus in the regulation of transport and to determine whether steroid hormones or steroid-receptor complexes may have direct effects on cytoplasmic or membrane functions, we have examined the regulation of transport by dexamethasone in anucleate HTC cells. Cytoplasts prepared from suspension cultures of HTC cells fully retain active transport of AIB with the same kinetic properties as intact cells. However, the uptake of AIB is not inhibited by dexamethasone or other corticosteroids. Neither is the inhibited rate of transport, manifested by cytoplasts prepared from dexamethasone-treated cells, restored to normal upon removal of the hormone. Anucleate cells exhibit specific, saturable binding of [3H]dexamethasone; however, the binding is reduced compared with that of intact cells. The nucleus is thus required for the glucocorticoid regulation of amino acid transport in HTC cells. PMID:7217203

  15. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of forskolin on adenylate cyclase in rat normal hepatocytes and hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R; Matsunaga, T; Takagi, K; Satake, T; Hasegawa, T

    1989-02-01

    Forskolin synergistically potentiated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate formation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in rat normal hepatocytes freshly prepared by collagenase digestion and rat ascites hepatoma AH66 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation by PGE1 in AH66F cells. Forskolin activated adenylate cyclase in a dose-dependent manner in homogenates of all cell lines. In normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, simultaneous addition of forskolin and other adenylate cyclase activators [isoproterenol (IPN), PGE1, guanosine 5'-triphosphate sodium salt (GTP), 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate sodium salt (Gpp (NH)p), NaF, cholera toxin, islet activating protein and MnCl2] gave greater than additive responses. On the other hand, in AH66F cells, the effect of forskolin on adenylate cyclase was hardly influenced by GTP, but forskolin diminished the activities induced by high concentrations of GTP to that by the diterpene alone. Forskolin also significantly inhibited the PGE1-stimulated and the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein-stimulated activities. Because AH66F cells were insensitive to IPN, the combination with forskolin and IPN gave similar activity to that obtained with the diterpene alone. The effect of forskolin on the activation by manganese ion was neither synergistic nor inhibitory but was additive in AH66F cells. These results suggest that forskolin promotes the interaction between the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein and the catalytic unit in normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, but in AH66F cells forskolin interferes with the coupling of the two components of adenylate cyclase.

  16. Altered adrenergic response and specificity of the receptors in rat ascites hepatoma AH130.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R

    1989-11-15

    Adenylate cyclase activation through adrenergic receptors in rat ascites hepatoma (AH) 130 cells in response to adrenergic drugs was studied, and receptor binding and displacement were compared with those of normal rat hepatocytes. Epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) activated AH130 adenylate cyclase about half as much as isoproterenol (IPN) but equaled IPN after treatment with the alpha-antagonist phentolamine or islet-activating protein (IAP). The three catecholamines in hepatocytes were similar regardless of phentolamine or IAP. These catecholamines activated adenylate cyclase in order of IPN greater than NE greater than Epi in AH130 cells but IPN greater than Epi greater than NE in hepatocytes. We then used the alpha 1-selective ligand [3H]prazosin, the alpha 2-selective ligand [3H]clonidine, and the beta-ligand [125I]iodocyanopindolol [( 125I]ICYP), and found that AH130 cells had few prazosin-binding sites, about eight times as many clonidine-binding sites with high affinity, and many more ICYP-binding sites than in hepatocytes. The dissociation constant (Ki) of the beta 1-selective drug metoprolol by Hofstee plots for AH130 cells was lower than that for hepatocytes. The inhibition of specific ICYP binding by the beta 2-selective agonist salbutamol for AH130 cells gave only one Ki value which was much higher than both high and low Ki values of the drug for hepatocytes. These findings indicate that the alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in hepatocytes are predominantly alpha 1-type and beta 2-type, but that those in AH130 cells are predominantly alpha 2-type and beta 1-type, and the low adrenergic response of AH130 cells is due to the dominant appearance of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, linked with the inhibitory guanine-nucleotide binding regulatory protein, instead of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, and beta 1-adrenergic receptors with low affinity for the hormone.

  17. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition reduces food intake and weight gain and improves glucose tolerance in melanocortin-4 receptor deficient female rats.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C; Begg, Denovan P

    2013-09-10

    Functional loss of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activity leads to hyperphagia and an obese, glucose intolerant phenotype. We have previously established that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) reduces food intake, body weight and glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity. The current study assessed the effect of ACE inhibitor treatment in MC4R-deficient female rats on body weight, adiposity and glucose tolerance. Rats homozygous (HOM) for a loss of function Mc4r mutation had an obese phenotype relative to their wildtype (WT) littermates. Inhibition of ACE for 8weeks produced reductions in body weight gain in both HOM and WT rats; however, food intake was only reduced in HOM rats. Weight loss following ACE inhibitor treatment was specific to fat mass while lean mass was unaffected. HOM rats were severely glucose intolerant and insensitive to exogenous insulin injection, and treatment with an ACE inhibitor improved both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in HOM rats although not fully to that of the level of WT rats. The current study indicates that HOM rats are sensitive to the anorectic effects of ACE inhibition, unlike their WT littermates. This resulted in a more rapid reduction in body weight gain and a more substantial loss of adipose mass in HOM animals, relative to WT animals, treated with an ACE inhibitor. Overall, these data demonstrate that MC4R signaling is not required for weight loss following treatment with an ACE inhibitor.

  18. [Features of the immune proteasome expression in ascite Zajdela hepatoma after implantation into Brattleboro rats with the hereditary defect of arginine-vasopressin synthesis].

    PubMed

    Mel'nikova, V I; Khegaĭ, I I; Popova, N A; Lifantseva, N V; Ivanova, L N; Zaharova, L A

    2014-01-01

    The expression of the total proteasome pool, immune proteasome subunits LMP2 and LMP7, TAP1 and TAP2 transporters, as well as RT1A molecule of MHC class I was investigated in the ascite Zajdela hepatoma at the 10th day after implantation into Brattleboro rats with the hereditary defect of hypothalamic arginine-vasopressin synthesis (AVP) and into WAG rats with normal AVP expression. In Zajdela hepatoma cells implanted into Brattleboro rats the 3-fold increase of the total proteasome pool and LMP2 level and 8-fold increase of the LMP7 level was detected by Western blotting as compared to those in WAG rats. Differences in the LMP2 and LMP7 expression suggest variations in their functions, namely the important role of LMP7 in anti-tumor immunity. The growth of Zajdela hepatoma in WAG rats was accompanied by the decreased level of total proteasome pool as well as immune proteasome expression as compared to those in Brattleboro rats during the regression of tumor. The analysis of TAP1 and TAP2 revealed the pronounced expression of these peptide transporters in Zajdela hepatoma cells implanted into Brattleboro and WAG rats. The expression level of RT1A molecule of MHC class I was increased 3 times in Zajdela hepatoma cells implanted into Brattleboro rats as compared to WAG rats. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis of CD4- and CD8-lymphocytes number in the spleen of Brattleboro and WAG rats was performed at the 10th day after implantation of Zajdela hepatoma. The increased number of CD4- and CD8-lymphocytes was observed in the spleen of Brattleboro as compared to WAG. The increased subpopulations of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and T-helpers might promote the tumor regression in Brattleboro rats. The reduced populations of CD4- and CD8-lymphocytes in the spleen of WAG rats were accompanied by the splenomegaly and tumor progression. The data obtained suggest that AVP deficiency in Brattleboro rats leads to the increase of the immune proteasome and MHC class I expression in

  19. Differential body weight, blood pressure and placental inflammatory responses to normal versus high-fat diet in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Spradley, Frank T.; Palei, Ana C.; Granger, Joey P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although obesity increases the risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, the mechanisms remain unclear. Neural melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) deficiency causes hyperphagia and obesity. Effects of MC4R deficiency on body weight, blood pressure (BP) and placental inflammatory responses to high-fat diet (HFD) are unknown. We tested two hypotheses: MC4R deficiency results in higher body weight, BP and placental inflammation under normal-fat diet (NFD) conditions and HFD exaggerates these responses in MC4R-deficient pregnant rats. Methods MC4R+/+ and MC4R+/− rats were maintained on NFD (13% kcal fat) or HFD (40% kcal fat) for ~15 weeks, then measurements made on gestational day 19. Results MC4R+/− pregnant rats had greater body mass and total body fat and visceral adipose tissue weights along with greater circulating total cholesterol (TC) and leptin levels than MC4R+/+ rats regardless of diet. On NFD, circulating adiponectin levels were lower and placental TNFα levels and BP (conscious with carotid catheter) were higher in these heavier rats. Circulating adiponectin levels were lower and placental TNFα levels and BP were higher in MC4R+/+ rats compared with NFD controls. These parameters were not affected by HFD in the already heavier and hypertensive MC4R+/− pregnant rats. Conclusion Obesity in MC4R deficiency and HFD in MC4R+/+ rats result in higher BP and placental inflammation during pregnancy. However, HFD did not exaggerate these responses in already obese MC4R+/− pregnant rats. These data suggest that obesity and HFD are independently related to hypertension and placental inflammation in pregnancy. PMID:27467764

  20. Differential body weight, blood pressure and placental inflammatory responses to normal versus high-fat diet in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Palei, Ana C; Granger, Joey P

    2016-10-01

    Although obesity increases the risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, the mechanisms remain unclear. Neural melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) deficiency causes hyperphagia and obesity. Effects of MC4R deficiency on body weight, blood pressure (BP) and placental inflammatory responses to high-fat diet (HFD) are unknown. We tested two hypotheses: MC4R deficiency results in higher body weight, BP and placental inflammation under normal-fat diet (NFD) conditions and HFD exaggerates these responses in MC4R-deficient pregnant rats. MC4R and MC4R rats were maintained on NFD (13% kcal fat) or HFD (40% kcal fat) for ∼15 weeks, then measurements made on gestational day 19. MC4R pregnant rats had greater body mass and total body fat and visceral adipose tissue weights along with greater circulating total cholesterol (TC) and leptin levels than MC4R rats regardless of diet. On NFD, circulating adiponectin levels were lower and placental TNFα levels and BP (conscious with carotid catheter) were higher in these heavier rats. Circulating adiponectin levels were lower and placental TNFα levels and BP were higher in MC4R rats compared with NFD controls. These parameters were not affected by HFD in the already heavier and hypertensive MC4R pregnant rats. Obesity in MC4R deficiency and HFD in MC4R rats result in higher BP and placental inflammation during pregnancy. However, HFD did not exaggerate these responses in already obese MC4R pregnant rats. These data suggest that obesity and HFD are independently related to hypertension and placental inflammation in pregnancy.

  1. Thyromimetic actions of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in steatotic FaO rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Grasselli, E; Cortese, K; Fabbri, R; Smerilli, A; Vergani, L; Voci, A; Gallo, G; Canesi, L

    2014-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (2,2-bis(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl propane-TBBPA) is the most produced brominated flame retardant, detected in the environment and in biological samples. TBBPA shares structural similarities with thyroid hormones (THs), and it has been shown to interfere with different aspects of TH physiology, this raising concern on its possible effects as an endocrine disruptor in humans and wildlife. THs play a major role in lipid metabolism, with the liver representing one of their main target tissues. At the cellular level, THs act through interactions with TH receptors (TRs), as well as through TR-independent mechanisms. Rat hepatoma FaO cells (a liver cell line defective for functional TRs) overloaded with lipids have been utilized as a model to investigate the anti-steatotic effects of THs in the hepatocyte. In this work, the possible effects of TBBPA in steatotic FaO cells were investigated. Exposure to TBBPA for 24 h reduced triglyceride (TAG) content and the size of lipid droplets (LDs); similar effects were obtained with equimolar doses (10(-6) M) of T3 (3,3',5-L-triiodothyronine). TBBPA and T3 showed common effects on transcription of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. In particular, TBBPA mainly up-regulated mRNA levels for LD-associated oxidative tissue-enriched PAT protein (OXPAT), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoform β/δ, and the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). The results demonstrate that TBBPA can decrease lipid accumulation in steatotic cells through stimulation of oxidative pathways. These data identify novel thyromimetic actions of TBBPA at the cellular level.

  2. A domain of methylation change at the albumin locus in rat hepatoma cell variants.

    PubMed Central

    Orlofsky, A; Chasin, L A

    1985-01-01

    A well-differentiated rat hepatoma cell line, Fu5-5, yields variant clones whose rate of secretion of serum albumin ranges from 40 to less than 0.08 micrograms of albumin/mg of cell protein per 48 h. Clones were classified as high producers (10 to 40 micrograms/mg per 48 h), intermediate producers (1 to 10 micrograms/mg per 48 h), low producers (0.1 to 1.0 micrograms/mg per 48 h), and null variants (less than 0.1 micrograms/mg per 48 h). Albumin synthetic rates are proportional to secretion rates and range from 0.9 to less than 0.002% of total protein synthesis as measured by pulse-labeling. Steady-state albumin mRNA levels were measured by filter hybridization of fragmented, end-labeled mRNA and by Northern blotting. Message levels are proportional to albumin synthetic rates except for a high producer in which albumin mRNA is less elevated than the synthetic rate. The extent of methylation was quantitated at each of 24 CpG-containing sites or site clusters at the albumin locus. These sites span a region that contains the albumin gene as well as 10 kilobases of the 5' flank and 1 kilobase of the 3' flank. An 8-kilobase region is described, with boundaries in the 5' flank and in the middle of the gene, within which all 11 sites examined showed a correlation of undermethylation with the high-producer phenotype. In contrast, 12 of 13 sites outside of this region showed no phenotype correlation. Null variants derived from a high producer underwent de novo methylation of this domain. Six independent hybrid clones derived from the cross of a high producer with a null variant showed extinction of albumin production and hypermethylation of the domain. Apparently these cells retain the capacity for the de novo methylation of these specific sites. Images PMID:2984551

  3. Forskolin inhibits the Gs-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat ascites hepatoma AH66F cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R; Matsunaga, T; Hasegawa, T; Takagi, K; Satake, T

    1989-09-01

    Forskolin increased intracellular cyclic AMP and augmented cyclic AMP formation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in normal rat hepatocytes and ascites hepatoma AH66 cells. However, in AH66F cells which were derived from the AH66 cell line, the diterpene only slightly increased the cyclic AMP level, and dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation caused by PGE1. Forskolin dose-dependently activated adenylate cyclase in these membranes, and the magnitude of activation by forskolin was largest in the following order: hepatocytes, AH66 cells, and AH66F cells. This difference may be based on the number of forskolin-binding sites. The binding affinity of forskolin for each cell membrane was similar. The number and affinity of forskolin-binding sites in these cells were not influenced by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p]. In hepatocytes and AH66 cells, forskolin and other adenylate cyclase activators such as PGE1, GTP, Gpp(NH)p, F-, and Mn2+ synergistically increased the enzyme activity. In AH66F cells, the forskolin-stimulated activity was hardly influenced by the GTP analog, and forskolin diminished the activities induced by the GTP analog in a manner similar to that of diterpene alone. Forskolin (10 microM) also significantly inhibited the activities induced by PGE1, GTP, and F-. The effect of forskolin with Mn2+ was additive in AH66F cells. The data suggest that forskolin promotes the interaction between the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and the catalytic unit in the membrane of normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, but it interferes with the coupling in AH66F cells.

  4. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunoreactivity in the brain of the CCK-1 receptor deficient obese OLETF rat

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Hajnalka; Covasa, Mihai; Hajnal, Andras

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in brain areas involved in homeostatic regulation and reward. CART has been shown to reduce food intake but the underlying mechanisms and the relevance of this effect to obesity yet remain unknown. Therefore, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate expression of CART peptide in various brain regions of the obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats lacking the CCK-1 receptor. Analysis revealed that whereas the distribution of CART peptide-immunoreactive neurons and axonal networks was identical in OLETF rats and lean controls, intensity of CART immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in the rostral part of the nucleus accumbens (p<0.01), the basolateral complex of the amygdala (p<0.05), and the rostro-medial nucleus of solitary tract (p<0.001) of the OLETF rats. These areas are involved in reward and integration of taste and viscerosensory information and have been previously associated with altered functions in this strain. The findings suggest that in addition to previously described deficits in peripheral satiety signals and augmented orexigenic regulation, the anorectic effect of CART peptide may also be diminished in OLETF rats. PMID:19533109

  5. Functional ET(A)-ET(B) Receptor Cross-talk in Basilar Artery In Situ From ET(B) Receptor Deficient Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, SeongHun; Gariepy, Cheryl E; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Zuccarello, Mario; Rapoport, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    The role of endothelin (ET)(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk in limiting the ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition of ET-1 constriction is revealed by the partial or complete dependency of the ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition on functional removal of the ET(B) receptor. Although functional removal of the ET(B) receptor is generally accomplished with ET(B) receptor antagonist, a novel approach using rats containing a naturally occurring deletion mutation in the ET(B) receptor [rescued "spotting lethal" (sl) rats; ET(B)(sl/sl)] demonstrated increased ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition of ET-1 constriction in vena cava. We investigated whether this deletion mutation was also sufficient to remove the ET(B) receptor dependency of the ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition of ET-1 constriction in the basilar artery. Consistent with previous reports, ET-1 plasma levels were elevated in ET(B)(sl/sl) as compared with ET(B)(+/+) rats. ET(B) receptor antagonist failed to relax the ET-1 constricted basilar artery from ET(B)(+/+) and ET(B)(sl/sl) rats. Relaxation to combined ET(A) and ET(B) receptor antagonist was greater than relaxation to ET(A) receptor antagonist in the basilar artery from ET(B)(+/+) and, unexpectedly, ET(B)(sl/sl) rats. These findings confirm the presence of ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk in the basilar artery. We speculate that mutant ET(B) receptor expression produced by alternative splicing may be sufficient to allow cross-talk.

  6. Activation of the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in skeletal muscle of cachectic rats bearing a hepatoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baracos, V. E.; DeVivo, C.; Hoyle, D. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Rats implanted with Yoshida ascites hepatoma (YAH) show a rapid and selective loss of muscle protein due mainly to a marked increase (63-95%) in the rate of protein degradation (compared with rates in muscles of pair-fed controls). To define which proteolytic pathways contribute to this increase, epitrochlearis muscles from YAH-bearing and control rats were incubated under conditions that modify different proteolytic systems. Overall proteolysis in either group of rats was not affected by removal of Ca2+ or by blocking the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic system. Inhibition of lysosomal function with methylamine reduced proteolysis (-12%) in muscles from YAH-bearing rats, but not in muscles of pair-fed rats. When ATP production was also inhibited, the remaining accelerated proteolysis in muscles of tumor-bearing rats fell to control levels. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and a 27-kDa proteasome subunit in Western blot analysis. Levels of mRNA encoding components of proteolytic systems were quantitated using Northern hybridization analysis. Although their total RNA content decreased 20-38%, pale muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin mRNA (590-880%) and mRNA for multiple subunits of the proteasome (100-215%). Liver, kidney, heart, and brain showed no weight loss and no change in these mRNA species. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats also showed small increases (30-40%) in mRNA for cathepsins B and D, but not for calpain I or heat shock protein 70. Our findings suggest that accelerated muscle proteolysis and muscle wasting in tumor-bearing rats result primarily from activation of the ATP-dependent pathway involving ubiquitin and the proteasome.

  7. Activation of the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in skeletal muscle of cachectic rats bearing a hepatoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baracos, V. E.; DeVivo, C.; Hoyle, D. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Rats implanted with Yoshida ascites hepatoma (YAH) show a rapid and selective loss of muscle protein due mainly to a marked increase (63-95%) in the rate of protein degradation (compared with rates in muscles of pair-fed controls). To define which proteolytic pathways contribute to this increase, epitrochlearis muscles from YAH-bearing and control rats were incubated under conditions that modify different proteolytic systems. Overall proteolysis in either group of rats was not affected by removal of Ca2+ or by blocking the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic system. Inhibition of lysosomal function with methylamine reduced proteolysis (-12%) in muscles from YAH-bearing rats, but not in muscles of pair-fed rats. When ATP production was also inhibited, the remaining accelerated proteolysis in muscles of tumor-bearing rats fell to control levels. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and a 27-kDa proteasome subunit in Western blot analysis. Levels of mRNA encoding components of proteolytic systems were quantitated using Northern hybridization analysis. Although their total RNA content decreased 20-38%, pale muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin mRNA (590-880%) and mRNA for multiple subunits of the proteasome (100-215%). Liver, kidney, heart, and brain showed no weight loss and no change in these mRNA species. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats also showed small increases (30-40%) in mRNA for cathepsins B and D, but not for calpain I or heat shock protein 70. Our findings suggest that accelerated muscle proteolysis and muscle wasting in tumor-bearing rats result primarily from activation of the ATP-dependent pathway involving ubiquitin and the proteasome.

  8. Neutral red uptake inhibition in adhered and adhering rat hepatoma-derived Fa32 cells to predict human toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, Paul J; Scheers, Ellen M

    2002-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of the MEIC (Multicentre Evaluation of In vitro Cytotoxicity) reference chemicals was investigated by measuring the neutral red uptake inhibition in adhered and adhering rat hepatoma-derived Fa32 cells. The adhered cells were seeded and then treated and the adhering cells were treated simultaneously upon seeding. Five of the 44 test chemicals were twofold more toxic in adhering cells; ethylene glycol was 28-fold more toxic and mercuric chloride was 5.2-fold more toxic than in adhered cells. The cytotoxicity of dithiothreitol was altered in the same way as that of ethylene glycol, probably by interacting with calcium. When the neutral red uptake inhibition was compared with human toxicity, the correlation coefficient for adhering cells was almost identical to that obtained previously in human hepatoma-derived Hep G2 cells and slightly higher for adhered cells. The Hep G2 assay was the best acute in vitro assay for the prediction of human toxicity within the MEIC study. An obviously better correlation was obtained when the strong intoxicant mercuric chloride was withdrawn from the comparison, both for the adhered and the adhering cells. Altogether, the results can be integrated very well with the basal cytotoxicity concept.

  9. A study of chromosomal changes associated with amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes in rat hepatoma cells and their dedifferentiated variants

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the karyological consequences of dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification in a series of six rat hepatoma cell lines, all derived from the same clone. Cells of three of these lines express a series of liver-specific functions whereas those of three others fail to express these functions. Cells of each line have been subjected to stepwise selection for methotrexate resistance and, in most cases, resistance is associated with a 40-50-fold amplification of sequences hybridizing to a dihydrofolate reductase cDNA probe. In one line no modified chromosome is observed, whereas in two others the amplified genes are associated with an expanded chromosomal region. R- banding analysis of these karyotypes showed that few changes have occurred. These observations apply to two of the well-differentiated lines, and to a variant able to revert to the differentiated state. In contrast, in the two stably dedifferentiated hepatoma cell lines, amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes are found on large chromosomes of variable size, on ring chromosomes, and on chromosomes containing terminal, median, or multiple centromeres. We conclude that the nature of the chromosomal changes associated with dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification are the result of differences in cell lines rather than in the protocols employed for selection. PMID:6746737

  10. Oleoylethanolamide, a natural ligand for PPAR-alpha, inhibits insulin receptor signalling in HTC rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Ubago, María; García-Oya, Inmaculada; Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Quintana-Portillo, Rocio; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; González-Yanes, Carmen; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2009-08-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a lipid mediator belonging to the fatty acid ethanolamides family. It is produced by intestine and adipose tissue. It inhibits food intake and body weight gain, and has hypolipemiant action in vivo, as well as a lipolytic effect in vitro. OEA is a PPAR-alpha agonist, and recently it has been found that OEA is an endogenous ligand of an orphan receptor. Previously, we have shown that OEA inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes, and produces glucose intolerance in rats. In the present work, we have studied another insulin target cell, the hepatocyte using a rat hepatoma cell line (HTC), and we have studied the cross-talk of OEA signalling with metabolic and mitotic signal transduction of insulin receptor. OEA dose-dependently activates JNK and p38 MAPK, and inhibits insulin receptor phosphorylation. OEA inhibits insulin receptor activation, blunting insulin signalling in the downstream PI3K pathway, decreasing phosphorylation of PKB and its target GSK-3. OEA also inhibits insulin-dependent MAPK pathway, as assessed by immunoblot of phosphorylated MEK and MAPK. These effects were reversed by blocking JNK or p38 MAPK using pharmacological inhibitors (SP 600125, and SB 203580). Since OEA is an endogenous PPAR-alpha agonist, we investigated whether a pharmacologic agonist (WY 14643) may mimic the OEA effect on insulin receptor signalling. Activation of PPAR-alpha by the pharmacological agonist WY14643 in HTC hepatoma cells is sufficient to inhibit insulin signalling and this effect is also dependent on p38 MAPK but not JNK kinase. In summary, OEA inhibits insulin metabolic and mitogenic signalling by activation of JNK and p38 MAPK via PPAR-alpha.

  11. Modulated expression of a nuclear-associated glycoprotein during normal rat liver development and in various hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Francine; Napa, Ioana Diana; Solomon, Luc; Morin, Odette; Islam, Nazrul

    2006-01-01

    Liver plays a major role in systemic detoxification and drug metabolism. NF-164, a protein of 164 kDa predominantly localized in hepatocyte nuclei, was found to be present in increasing amounts during liver maturation. In addition, fetal rat hepatocytes had ten times, and neonatal five times less of this protein than adult hepatocytes. It was also detected in an albumin producing hepatoma cell line, but not in three other lines that have lost several differentiated functions. These data suggest that NF-164 expression is development-dependent and that it may be a marker for both normal and malignant hepatocyte differentiation. NF-164 seems to be liver-specific, since it was not detected in rat brain, spleen, kidney, lung and bovine thymus. It was purified from adult rat hepatocyte nuclei. Its estimated pI is 6.8. Its total amino acid composition and partial amino acid sequence is also being reported. Despite major differences between their respective contents in amino acids, partial sequences showed homologies with carbamyl phosphate synthetase I (CPSI). These observations may suggest that NF-164 also shares some functional features with this enzyme.

  12. Isolation of Peroxisomes from Rat Liver and Cultured Hepatoma Cells by Density Gradient Centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Manner, Andreas; Islinger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Subcellular fractionation is still a valuable technique to unravel organelle-specific proteomes, validate the location of uncharacterized proteins, or to functionally analyze import and metabolism in individual subcellular compartments. In this respect, density gradient centrifugation still represents a very classic, indispensable technique to isolate and analyze peroxisomes. Here, we present two independent protocols for the purification of peroxisomes from either liver tissue or the HepG2 hepatoma cell line. While the former permits the isolation of highly pure peroxisomes suitable for, e.g., subcellular proteomics experiments, the latter protocol yields peroxisomal fractions from considerably less purity but allows to easily modify metabolic conditions in the culture medium or to genetically manipulate the peroxisomal compartment. In this respect, both purification methods represent alternative tools to be applied in experiments investigating peroxisome physiology.

  13. Glucocorticoid-regulated and constitutive trafficking of proteolytically processed cell surface-associated glycoproteins in wild type and variant rat hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amacher, S.L.; Goodman, L.J.; Bravo, D.A.; Wong, K.Y.; Goldfine, I.D.; Hawley, D.M.; Firestone, G.L. )

    1989-10-01

    Glucocorticoids regulate the trafficking of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) glycoproteins to the cell surface in the rat hepatoma cell line M1.54, but not in the immunoselected sorting variant CR4. To compare the localization of MMTV glycoproteins to another proteolytically processed glycoprotein, both wild type M1.54 cells and variant CR4 cells were transfected with a human insulin receptor (hIR) expression vector, pRSVhIR. The production of cell surface hIR was monitored in dexamethasone-treated and -untreated wild type M1.54 and variant CR4 cells by indirect immunofluorescence, direct plasma membrane immunoprecipitation, and by (125I) insulin binding. In both wild type and variant rat hepatoma cells, hIR were localized at the cell surface in the presence or in the absence of 1 microM dexamethasone. In contrast, the glucocorticoid-regulated trafficking of cell surface MMTV glycoproteins occurred only in wild type M1.54 cells. We conclude that the hIR, which undergoes posttranslational processing reactions similar to MMTV glycoproteins, does not require glucocorticoids to be transported to the plasma membrane and is representative of a subset of cell surface glycoproteins whose trafficking is constitutive in rat hepatoma cells. Thus, MMTV glycoproteins and hIR provide specific cell surface markers to characterize the glucocorticoid-regulated and constitutive sorting pathways.

  14. RhoC is essential for TGF-{beta}1-induced invasive capacity of rat ascites hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, M.; Endo, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Tatsuta, M.; Togawa, A.; Nakamura, H.; Inoue, M. . E-mail: inoue-ma2@mc.pref.osaka.jp

    2006-07-21

    Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) is a multifunctional growth factor that plays a role in cell proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix production, apoptosis, and cell motility. We show here that TGF-{beta}1 increased the invasiveness of MM1 cells, which are a highly invasive clone of rat ascites hepatoma cells. Both mRNA and protein levels of RhoC but not RhoA in TGF-{beta}1-treated MM1 cells increased. In parallel with this increase in expression, RhoC activity was induced by TGF-{beta}1 treatment. When RhoC was overexpressed in MM1 cells, the invasive capacity increased. The RhoC-overexpressing cells formed more nodules than did mock cells when injected into rat peritoneum. Furthermore, when RhoC expression was reduced by transfection with shRNA/RhoC, the invasiveness of MM1 cells decreased with concomitant suppression of RhoC expression. Thus, the induced expression of RhoC by TGF-{beta}1 in MM1 cells plays a critical role in TGF-{beta}1-induced cell migration.

  15. S-adenosylmethionine and methylthioadenosine are antiapoptotic in cultured rat hepatocytes but proapoptotic in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, Eduardo; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Martínez-Chantar, Maria L; Huang, Zong-Zhi; Chen, Lixin; Mato, José M; Iraburu, Maria; Lu, Shelly C; Avila, Matías A

    2002-02-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is an essential compound in cellular transmethylation reactions and a precursor of polyamine and glutathione synthesis in the liver. In liver injury, the synthesis of AdoMet is impaired and its availability limited. AdoMet administration attenuates experimental liver damage, improves survival of alcoholic patients with cirrhosis, and prevents experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Apoptosis contributes to different liver injuries, many of which are protected by AdoMet. The mechanism of AdoMet's hepatoprotective and chemopreventive effects are largely unknown. The effect of AdoMet on okadaic acid (OA)-induced apoptosis was evaluated using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines. AdoMet protected rat hepatocytes from OA-induced apoptosis dose dependently. It attenuated mitochondrial cytochrome c release, caspase 3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. These effects were independent from AdoMet-dependent glutathione synthesis, and mimicked by 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which is derived from AdoMet. Interestingly, AdoMet and MTA did not protect HuH7 cells from OA-induced apoptosis; conversely both compounds behaved as proapoptotic agents. AdoMet's proapoptotic effect was dose dependent and observed also in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, AdoMet exerts opposing effects on apoptosis in normal versus transformed hepatocytes that could be mediated through its conversion to MTA. These effects may participate in the hepatoprotective and chemopreventive properties of this safe and well-tolerated drug.

  16. CD18/ICAM-1-dependent oxidative NF-kappaB activation leading to nitric oxide production in rat Kupffer cells cocultured with syngeneic hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kurose, I; Saito, H; Miura, S; Ebinuma, H; Higuchi, H; Watanabe, N; Zeki, S; Nakamura, T; Takaishi, M; Ishii, H

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that nitric oxide (NO) released from Kupffer cells modulates biological viability of cocultured hepatoma cells. This study was designed to evaluate the mechanisms by which Kupffer cells synthesize and release NO in reponse to cocultured hepatoma cells. Kupffer cells isolated from male Wistar rats were cocultured with rat hepatoma cell line, AH70 cells. The sum of nitrite and nitrate levels increased in the culture medium of Kupffer cells with AH70 cells as compared with those of Kupffer cells or AH70 cells alone. Increased expressions of iNOS and iNOS mRNA in Kupffer cells cocultured with AH70 cells were detected by an immunofluorescence staining and a fluorescence in situ hybridization study, respectively. A fluorescence in situ DNA-protein binding assay revealed that NF-kappaB activation occurs in Kupffer cells and activated NF-kappaB moved into the nuclei preceding to an increased production of NO. Oxidative stress indicated by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence was observed in Kupffer cells cocultured with AH70 cells. An increased calcium mobilization indicated as increased fluo-3-associated fluorescence was also induced in Kupffer cells after coculture with AH70 cells. Monoclonal antibodies directed against rat CD18 and ICAM-1, as well as TMB-8, a calcium inhibitor, prevented the calcium mobilization, active oxygen production, and NF-kappaB activation in addition to the increased production of NO. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of oxidative NF-kappaB activation, diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, and quinacrine, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, significantly attenuated the increase in dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, NF-kappaB activation, and NO production. Therefore, this study suggests that CD18/ICAM-1-dependent cell-to-cell interaction with hepatoma cells causes calcium mobilization and oxidative activation of NF-kappaB, which may lead to the increased production of NO in Kupffer cells. PMID:9062344

  17. A high expression of heme oxygenase-1 in the liver of LEC rats at the stage of hepatoma: the possible implication of induction in uninvolved tissue.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, A; Hanayama, R; Nakamura, M; Suzuki, K; Fujii, J; Tatsumi, H; Taniguchi, N

    1998-04-01

    We have examined changes in the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible isoform and HO-2, a constitutive isoform, in the liver of Long-Evans with a Cinnamon-like color (LEC) rat, a mutant strain which spontaneously develops acute hepatitis and hepatoma. HO-1 expression was highly enhanced in the LEC rat livers with jaundice, and then decreased slightly, but overall remained at a higher level than in the Long-Evans with Agouti color (LEA) control rats, as judged by Northern blotting analysis of the whole liver extract. The high expression of HO-1 in the LEC rat liver was, however, not due to the actual cancer lesion but, rather, due to the surrounding uninvolved tissues including hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis also supported this conclusion. Among normal tissues, the expression of HO-1 but not HO-2 was high in only the spleen of both LEC and LEA rats. The high expression observed in the stage of acute hepatitis and hepatoma stages in the LEC rat is probably due to the oxidative stress caused by the accumulation of free copper and free iron levels which has been reported earlier by our group (Suzuki et al., Carcinogenesis, 1993, 14, 1881-1884 and Koizumi et al., Free Radical Research, in press) as well as by free heme levels. The inflammatory cytokines produced by the surrounding tissue at the hepatoma stage would also be expected to play a role in the induction mechanism. The physiological relevance of HO-1 induction might be an adaptive response to oxidative stress and vasodilatory effect of carbon monoxide on sinusoidal circulation.

  18. Differential expression of five protein kinase C isoenzymes in FAO and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines compared with normal rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ducher, L; Croquet, F; Gil, S; Davy, J; Féger, J; Bréhier, A

    1995-12-14

    We analyzed the expression of five protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in cytosolic and membrane fractions from normal rat hepatocytes compared with those of two tumorigenic cell lines FAO and HepG2. Western blots with PKC-specific isoenzymes polyclonal antibodies provide evidences for the presence of the five isoforms alpha, beta II, delta, epsilon and zeta in normal rat hepatocytes. In hepatoma cells, we show differences in the level of expression, the molecular sizes and the responses to Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).

  19. Stimulation of NADH oxidase activity from rat liver plasma membranes by growth factors and hormones is decreased or absent with hepatoma plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, M; Brightman, A O; Lawrence, J; Werderitsh, D; Morré, D M; Morre, D J

    1992-01-01

    Plasma membranes of rat liver isolated by aqueous two-phase partition exhibited basal levels of NADH oxidase activity that were increased approx. 2-fold by addition of hormones and growth factors to which liver cells were known to respond. In contrast, hepatoma plasma membranes demonstrated an intrinsically increased level of NADH oxidase, which was not stimulated further by addition of growth factors. The results suggest that the NADH oxidase of the hepatoma plasma membrane is no longer correctly coupled to hormone and growth-factor receptors. This biochemical defect may parallel the loss of growth control that is characteristic of neoplastic transformation in hepatocarcinogenesis and other transformation systems. Images Fig. 3. PMID:1622384

  20. Selection of rat hepatoma cells defective in hormone-regulated production of mouse mammary tumor virus RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Grove, J R; Ringold, G M

    1981-01-01

    We have been studying the mechanism of glucocorticoid hormone action by using mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-infected rat hepatoma cells as a model system. J2.17, a clonal cell line that contains one MMTV provirus, induces tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrATase; L-tyrosine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.5), viral RNA, and the cell surface viral glycoprotein gp52 in response to dexamethasone. Using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter and a rabbit antiserum directed against gp52, we selected a cell population that displays a reduced hormone-mediated increase in cell surface gp52. Fourteen clones of this population were assayed for induction of viral gp52 and RNA and of cellular TyrATase. The results of these assays revealed that the clones display a variety of responses to hormone. One clone has retained wild-type responses of both TyrATase and gp52. Six clones exhibit coordinately reduced or abolished responses of both markers. Seven clones show normal induction of TyrATase but reduced or undetectable induction of gp52. These latter clones exhibit reduced production of MMTV RNA and thus may represent a unique class of variants defective in the regulation of MMTV gene expression. Images PMID:6117075

  1. Spheroid organization kinetics of H35 rat hepatoma model cell system on elastin-like polypeptide-polyethyleneimine copolymer substrates.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul A; Weeks, C Andrew; McMurphy, Austin J; Janorkar, Amol V

    2014-03-01

    Though two-dimensional systems have yielded some success in deriving morphological and functional markers of hepatocyte culture, they largely fail to capture the three-dimensional organization, long-term viability, and functionality of the hepatic tissue. We have engineered a system for inducing self-assembly of model H35 rat hepatoma spheroids using a copolymer comprised of biocompatible elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) chemically conjugated to positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI). We have achieved a conjugation ratio of 30 mol %, though our studies analyzing spheroid organization kinetics indicate conjugate ratios of 5 mol % and greater to be optimal for cell culture based on least variability in spheroid sizes and minimum incidence of overgrown aggregates. Furthermore, our ELP-PEI system indicated the potential for influencing ultimate spheroid dimensions, with spheroid size inversely related to polyelectrolyte conjugation. Overall, this study provides a good starting point to investigate functional correlations between spheroid size and functional markers and their future use as an in vitro diagnostic or tissue engineering tool.

  2. Growth Characteristics and Imaging Properties of the Morris Hepatoma 3924A in ACI Rats: A Suitable Model for Transarterial Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Truebenbach, Jochen; Graepler, Florian; Pereira, Philippe L.; Ruck, Peter; Lauer, Ulrich; Gregor, Michael; Claussen, Claus-D.; Huppert, Peter E.

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: For experimental studies investigating modalities and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) an animal model resembling the human situation as closely as possible would be appropriate. Specifically, reproducible tumor growth characteristics with the capability for appropriate in vivo imaging to monitor treatment efficacy are required.Methods: Morris hepatoma 3924A was implanted into the liver of 30 ACI rats. Tumor growth was followed by angiography (n = 10), ultrasound (US, n = 30), native computed tomography (CT, n = 16), and native magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, n = 30) between day 8 and day 36 after implantation. The radiological morphological characteristics were compared with the macroscopic and microscopic histological findings of the explanted tumors.Results: In all 30 animals a solitary liver tumor was found and macroscopically no signs of metastases, ascites, or peritoneal tumor were visible. On histopathological examination tumor sizes ranged between 27 {+-} 3 mm{sup 3} (day 8) and 3468 {+-} 79 mm{sup 3} (day 36). The first signs of tumor necrosis occurred at day 16. US allowed tumor visualization from day 8, MRI from day 8, angiography from day 10, and CT from day 14.Conclusions: The tumor model has the potential to be used for the visualization of tumor growth by MRI and US. The potential for monitoring therapeutic effects of TACE needs to be investigated.

  3. Comparison of polysomal and nuclear poly(A)-containing RNA populations from normal rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma.

    PubMed Central

    Capetanaki, Y G; Alonso, A

    1980-01-01

    Polysomal and nuclear poly(A)-containing RNA of normal rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma cells have been compared by cDNA.RNA hybridization kinetics. Homologous hybridization reactions revealed at total kinetic complexity of about 1.6 X 10(10) and 1.38 X 10(10) daltons for liver and Novikoff mRNA respectively. The high abundance component present in liver cannot be detected in Novikoff. It was found from heterologous reactions that about 30% by weight of mRNA sequences are specific to liver. Determination of the nuclear poly(A)-containing RNA complexities revealed that about 5.5% and 4% of the haploid genome is expressed in the liver and Novikoff respectively. In a heterologous reaction, up to 30% of the liver cDNA failed to form hybrids with Novikoff nuclear RNA. Cross hybridizations have further revealed abundance shifts in both nuclear and polysomal RNA populations. Some sequences abundant in liver are less abundant in Novikoff and some rare liver sequences are relatively abundant in Novikoff. PMID:6160467

  4. Effect of vitamin E and human placenta cysteine peptidase inhibitor on expression of cathepsins B and L in implanted hepatoma Morris 5123 tumor model in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sebzda, Tadeusz; Hanczyc, Piotr; Saleh, Yousif; Akinpelumi, Bernice F; Siewinski, Maciej; Rudnicki, Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effectiveness of human placental inhibitors, by injecting vitamin E to rats with transplanted Morris-5123 hepatoma, on the expression of cathepsins B and L in tumor, liver, lung and blood sera after transplantation of Morris 5123 hepatoma. METHODS: Animals were divided into 10 groups receiving three different concentrations of vitamin E and inhibitors along or in combination and compared with negative control (healthy rats) and positive control (tumor rats). Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated with regard to survival time, tumor response and determination of the activities of proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors using flurogenic substrates. RESULTS: Cathepsins B and L activities were elevated by 16-fold in comparison with negative control tissues, and their endogenous inhibitor activity decreased by 1.2-fold before treatment. In several cases, tumors completely disappeared following vitamin E plus human placental cyteine protease inhibitor (CPI) compared with controls. The number of complete tumor responses was higher when 20 m/kg vitamin E plus 400 μg of CPI was used, i.e., 7/10 rats survived more than two mo. Cathepsins B and L were expressed significantly in tumor, liver, lung tissues and sera in parallel to the increasing of the endogenous inhibitor activity compared with the controls after treatment (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The data indicate formation of metastasis significantly reduced in treated rats, which might provide a therapeutic basis for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:15641152

  5. Resveratrol induces apoptotic cell death in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells but necrosis in C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Michels, G; Wätjen, W; Weber, N; Niering, P; Chovolou, Y; Kampkötter, A; Proksch, P; Kahl, R

    2006-08-15

    Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4',-trihydroxystilbene) is assumed to possess cancer-preventive and cancer-therapeutic properties. The aim of this project was to analyze cellular effects of resveratrol in metabolically active H4IIE rat hepatoma cells in comparison to metabolically poorly active C6 rat glioma cells. Resveratrol is rapidly taken up by both cell types and acts as a potent intracellular antioxidant. On the other hand, resveratrol in higher concentrations is relatively toxic to both cell lines as measured by the neutral red accumulation assay. In H4IIE cells, resveratrol concentrations rapidly decline to very low levels during the first hours of incubation due to formation of resveratrol glucuronides. The first resveratrol effect found at 3h after the start of resveratrol treatment was the induction of mild DNA damage as detected by the comet assay. Cell death was caused via induction of apoptosis as detected by caspase activation, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation and formation of apoptotic nuclei. Following DNA damage, resveratrol led to an activation of caspases 2 and 8/10 at 6h and consequently of caspase 3 at 12h, but failed to activate caspase 9. In contrast to H4IIE cells, resveratrol is not metabolised in C6 glioma cells and accumulates to concentrations which are assumed to drive the cell into necrosis. This suggests that the mode of cell death caused by resveratrol and the usefulness of resveratrol for cancer prevention and treatment critically depends on the metabolic capacity of the tumor cell to be eradicated.

  6. Improved targeting of 5-[125I/131I]iodo-2‧-deoxyuridine to rat hepatoma by using lipiodol emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hung-Man; Yeh, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Tien-Kui; Huang, Kuang-Liang; Chuang, Kuo-Tang; Liu, Ren-Shen; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Chen, Fu-Du; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Chen, Chin-Hsiung; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2006-12-01

    This study aims to assess whether emulsion of [ 125/131I]IUdR and lipiodol (IUdR/LP) can improve delivery of IUdR into hepatoma. MethodsIn vitro release profile of IUdR from IUdR/LP to serum was performed. IUdR/LP was injected into N1-S1 hepatoma-bearing SD rat via hepatic artery and IUdR/normal saline (IUdR/NS) was used for comparison. Biodistribution, autoradiography, imaging and tumor DNA incorporation assay were performed. The radioactive metabolites in plasma and urine were analyzed. Radiation doses to tumor and organs were estimated. ResultsIUdR released from lipiodol into serum was fast. There were longer retention, more DNA incorporation and higher radiation dose of IUdR in the tumor by using IUdR/LP. IUdR/LP deposited deep in the hepatomas. Only free iodide was found in the plasma and urine after injection of IUdR/LP. ConclusionsHepatic artery injection of IUdR/LP emulsion could definitely enhance the tumor cell uptake and incorporation to DNA of *IUdR, prolong the tumor retention time and increase radiation dose to tumor. IUdR/LP may be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatic tumors.

  7. Selective expression and induction of cytochrome P450PB and P450MC during the development of hereditary hepatitis and hepatoma of LEC rats.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, T; Suzuki, K; Ookawara, T; Kurosawa, T; Taniguchi, N

    1989-11-01

    The Long-Evans rat with a cinnamon-like coat color (LEC rat) is a mutant strain displaying hereditary hepatitis with severe jaundice. The age related difference in microsomal dealkylation of pentoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin was examined. The enzyme activity levels of pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase in LEC rats were decreased to 25% of the levels in control [Long-Evans rats with an agouti coat color (LEA rats)]. In contrast, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase exhibited a much less marked difference between the strains. In parallel with these strain differences in enzyme activities, a decrease in phenobarbital (PB) inducible P450 isozymes, mainly P450b and P450e, was observed by Western blot analysis. The level of P450PB in LEC rats was more markedly depressed than in the LEA strain. On the other hand, microsomes from uninduced LEC rat liver had more 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) inducible P450MC, mainly P450c and P450d, than microsomes from LEA rat liver and these isozymes in the LEC were markedly induced by 3-methylcholanthrene treatment. The great difference in cytochrome P450PB content of the liver microsomes between LEC and LEA rats and the maintained constitutive levels of hepatic cytochrome P450MC in the LEC rats suggest a possible role of these cytochrome isozymes in the onset of spontaneous hepatitis and hepatoma.

  8. P2X4 Activation Modulates Volume-sensitive Outwardly Rectifying Chloride Channels in Rat Hepatoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Diego; Penna, Antonello; Simon, Felipe; Eguiguren, Ana Luisa; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Cerda, Oscar; Sala, Francisco; Stutzin, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl− channels are critical for the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response triggered upon cell swelling. Recent evidence indicates that H2O2 plays an essential role in the activation of these channels and that H2O2 per se activates the channels under isotonic isovolumic conditions. However, a significant difference in the time course for current onset between H2O2-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl− activation is observed. In several cell types, cell swelling induced by hypotonic challenges triggers the release of ATP to the extracellular medium, which in turn, activates purinergic receptors and modulates cell volume regulation. In this study, we have addressed the effect of purinergic receptor activation on H2O2-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl− current activation. Here we show that rat hepatoma cells (HTC) exposed to a 33% hypotonic solution responded by rapidly activating VSOR Cl− current and releasing ATP to the extracellular medium. In contrast, cells exposed to 200 μm H2O2 VSOR Cl− current onset was significantly slower, and ATP release was not detected. In cells exposed to either 11% hypotonicity or 200 μm H2O2, exogenous addition of ATP in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ resulted in a decrease in the half-time for VSOR Cl− current onset. Conversely, in cells that overexpress a dominant-negative mutant of the ionotropic receptor P2X4 challenged with a 33% hypotonic solution, the half-time for VSOR Cl− current onset was significantly slowed down. Our results indicate that, at high hypotonic imbalances, swelling-induced ATP release activates the purinergic receptor P2X4, which in turn modulates the time course of VSOR Cl− current onset in a extracellular Ca2+-dependent manner. PMID:20056605

  9. Analysis of the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of Malathion on the Allium cepa cells and rat hepatoma tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Mantovani, Mario Sérgio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-10-01

    Based on the concentration of Malathion used in the field, we evaluated the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of this insecticide on meristematic and F1 cells of Allium cepa and on rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells). In the A. cepa, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MN), and mitotic index (MI) were evaluated by exposing the cells at 1.5, 0.75, 0.37, and 0.18mg/mL of Malathion for 24 and 48hr of exposure and 48hr of recovery time. The results showed that all concentrations were genotoxic to A. cepa cells. However, the analysis of the MI has showed non-relevant effects. Chromosomal bridges were the CA more frequently induced, indicating the clastogenic action of Malathion. After the recovery period, the higher concentrations continued to induce genotoxic effects, unlike the observed for the lowest concentrations tested. In HTC cells, the genotoxicity of Malathion was evaluated by the MN test and the comet assay by exposing the cells at 0.09, 0.009, and 0.0009mg/5mL culture medium, for 24hr of exposure. In the comet assay, all the concentrations induced genotoxicity in the HTC cells. In the MN test, no significant induction of MN was observed. The genotoxicity induced by the low concentrations of Malathion presented in this work highlights the importance of studying the effects of low concentrations of this pesticide and demonstrates the efficiency of these two test systems for the detection of genetic damage promoted by Malathion.

  10. Glucocorticoid-regulated localization of cell surface glycoproteins in rat hepatoma cells is mediated within the Golgi complex

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones regulate the post-translational maturation and sorting of cell surface and extracellular mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) glycoproteins in M1.54 cells, a stably infected rat hepatoma cell line. Exposure to monensin significantly reduced the proteolytic maturation and externalization of viral glycoproteins resulting in a stable cellular accumulation of a single 70,000-Mr glycosylated polyprotein (designated gp70). Cell surface- and intracellular-specific immunoprecipitations of monensin-treated cells revealed that gp70 can be localized to the cell surface only in the presence of 1 microM dexamethasone, while in uninduced cells gp70 is irreversibly sequestered in an intracellular compartment. Analysis of oligosaccharide processing kinetics demonstrated that gp70 acquired resistance to endoglycosidase H with a half-time of 65 min in the presence or absence of hormone. In contrast, gp70 was inefficiently galactosylated after a 60-min lag in uninduced cells while rapidly acquiring this carbohydrate modification in the presence of dexamethasone. Furthermore, in the absence or presence of monensin, MMTV glycoproteins failed to be galactosylated in hormone-induced CR4 cells, a complement-selected sorting variant defective in the glucocorticoid-regulated compartmentalization of viral glycoproteins to the cell surface. Since dexamethasone had no apparent global effects on organelle morphology or production of total cell surface-galactosylated species, we conclude that glucocorticoids induce the localization of cell surface MMTV glycoproteins by regulating a highly selective step within the Golgi apparatus after the acquisition of endoglycosidase H- resistant oligosaccharide side chains but before or at the site of galactose attachment. PMID:2836430

  11. Selective protection of normal hepatocytes by indocyanine green in photodynamic therapy for the hepatoma of rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Li, Junheng; Guo, Zhong-He

    1993-03-01

    Using hepatocarcinoma transplanted rats, the present study made consecutive observation for the color change and indocyanine green (ICG) absorption peak of the normal liver and tumor tissues after intravenous injection of ICG. The normal liver tissue of the rat was found to turn violet-green soon after ICG injection and the optic density (OD) of ICG-characteristic spectral peak of the tissue homogenate reached its maximum value at 35 minutes post-injection, while neither color change nor OD value increase was noticed in the tissue of transplanted hepatocarcinoma, suggesting that there is a specific absorption of ICG by the normal liver tissue. Chemiluminescentoassay revealed inhibited luminal chemiluminescence by ICG, indicating the depression of singlet oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidation during HPD photosensitization by ICG. In PDT of the hepatocarcinoma, the irradiated area was examined under microscope and auto-microimage analysis system after ICG administration. For tumor-free tissue, the photosensitization induced necrotic area was found smaller in those with than those without ICG administration, whereas the tumor killing effect was almost the same of the two. It is suggested that ICG may offer selective protection for healthy hepatocytes without diminishing the destruction of tumor cells. The protection of healthy hepatocytes by ICG is thought to be in accordance with the amount of ICG in the cell and the distribution of light energy.

  12. Rat hepatitis E virus derived from wild rats (Rattus rattus) propagates efficiently in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jirintai, Suljid; Tanggis; Mulyanto; Suparyatmo, Joseph Benedictus; Takahashi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nagashima, Shigeo; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2014-06-24

    Although rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in wild rats, no cell culture systems for this virus have been established. A recent report suggesting the presence of antibodies against rat HEV in human sera encouraged us to cultivate rat HEV in human cells. When liver homogenates obtained from wild rats (Rattus rattus) in Indonesia were inoculated onto human hepatocarcinoma cells, the rat HEV replicated efficiently in PLC/PRF/5, HuH-7 and HepG2 cells, irrespective of its genetic group (G1-G3). The rat HEV particles released from cultured cells harbored lipid-associated membranes on their surface that were depleted by treatment with detergent and protease, with the buoyant density in sucrose shifting from 1.15-1.16 g/ml to 1.27-1.28 g/ml. A Northern blotting analysis revealed genomic RNA of 7.0 kb and subgenomic RNA of 2.0 kb in the infected cells. The subgenomic RNA of G1-G3 each possessed the extreme 5'-end sequence of GUAGC (nt 4933-4937), downstream of the highly conserved sequence of GAAUAACA (nt 4916-4923). The establishment of culture systems for rat HEV would allow for extended studies of the mechanisms of viral replication and functional roles of HEV proteins. Further investigation is required to clarify the zoonotic potential of rat HEV.

  13. Sulfasalazine reduces bile acid induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells and perfused rat livers

    PubMed Central

    Rust, C; Bauchmuller, K; Bernt, C; Vennegeerts, T; Fickert, P; Fuchsbichler, A; Beuers, U

    2006-01-01

    Background Bile acid induced apoptosis in hepatocytes can be antagonised by nuclear factor κB (NFκB) dependent survival pathways. Sulfasalazine modulates NFκB in different cell types. We aimed to determine the effects of sulfasalazine and its metabolites sulfapyridine and 5‐aminosalicylic acid (5‐ASA) on bile acid induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Methods Apoptosis was determined by caspase assays and immunoblotting, NFκB activation by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and reporter gene assays, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) fluorometrically, bile secretion gravimetrically, and bile acid uptake radiochemically and by gas chromatography in HepG2‐Ntcp cells and isolated perfused rat livers. Results Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA 75 µmol/l) induced apoptosis was reduced by sulfasalazine dose dependently (1–1000 µmol/l) in HepG2‐Ntcp cells whereas its metabolites 5‐ASA and sulfapyridine had no effect. Sulfasalazine significantly reduced GCDCA induced activation of caspases 9 and 3. In addition, sulfasalazine activated NFκB and decreased GCDCA induced generation of ROS. Bile acid uptake was competitively inhibited by sulfasalazine. In perfused rat livers, GCDCA (25 µmol/l) induced liver injury and extensive hepatocyte apoptosis were significantly reduced by simultaneous administration of 100 µmol/l sulfasalazine: lactate dehydrogenase and glutamate‐pyruvate transaminase activities were reduced by 82% and 87%, respectively, and apoptotic hepatocytes were observed only occasionally. GCDCA uptake was reduced by 45 (5)% when sulfasalazine was coadministered. However, when 50% of GCDCA (12.5 µmol/l) was administered alone, marked hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury were again observed, questioning the impact of reduced GCDCA uptake for the antiapoptotic effect of sulfasalazine. Conclusion Sulfasalazine is a potent inhibitor of GCDCA induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro and in the intact liver. PMID:16322111

  14. Metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal by the rat hepatoma cell line MH1C1.

    PubMed

    Ferro, M; Marinari, U M; Poli, G; Dianzani, M U; Fauler, G; Zollner, H; Esterbauer, H

    1988-10-01

    The metabolism of the toxic lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal was investigated in the well-differentiated rat heptoma cell line MH1C1. When exposed to 0.1 mM 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), MH1C1 cells consumed it in a time-dependent manner. There was a linear relationship between the amount of aldehyde consumed and cell number in the range 0.5 - 4 X 10(6) cells ml-1. This process was unaffected by pyrazole, suggesting that alcohol dehydrogenase is not involved. The whole homogenate of MH1C1 cells consumed added HNE at a rate similar to that in intact cells. Fractionation of the homogenate showed that the highest HNE-metabolizing activity is in the cytosol. The dialysed cytosol had almost no capacity to metabolize HNE, but this was restored by supplementation with NAD, NADH, NADP and NADPH. The metabolism of HNE in MH1C1 cells is thus different from that in hepatocytes, which were shown to utilize cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase for this process. Both reductive and oxidative pathways could be implicated in the metabolic activity of MH1C1 cells towards HNE as well as binding by glutathione.

  15. Increase of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase and N3-methyladenine glycosylase RNA transcripts in rat hepatoma cells treated with DNA-damaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Laval, F. )

    1991-05-15

    A variety of DNA-damaging agents increase the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (transferase) and the N3-methyladenine (3-meAde)-DNA-glycosylase activities in a rat hepatoma cell line (H4 cells). Using two cDNA expressing either the rat 3-meAde-DNA-glycosylase or the transferase, the level of mRNA transcripts was measured by hybridization in H4 cells treated with three different inducing agents, gamma-rays, cis-dichlorodiammine platinum II or N-methyl-9-hydroxy ellipticinium. The two mRNA increased 24 hours after the cell treatments but this enhanced transcription was a transient phenomenon, as it was no longer observed after 96 hours. No significant DNA amplification was detectable in the treated cells.

  16. Differential action of 13-HPODE on PPARalpha downstream genes in rat Fao and human HepG2 hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    König, Bettina; Eder, Klaus

    2006-06-01

    In rats, oxidized fats activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), leading to reduced triglyceride concentrations in liver, plasma and very low density lipoproteins. Oxidation products of linoleic acid constitute an important portion of oxidized dietary fats. This study was conducted to check whether the primary lipid peroxidation product of linoleic acid, 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), might be involved in the PPARalpha-activating effect of oxidized fats. Therefore, we examined the effect of 13-HPODE on the expression of PPARalpha target genes in the rat Fao and the human HepG2 hepatoma cell lines. In Fao cells, 13-HPODE increased the mRNA concentration of the PPARalpha target genes acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), cytochrome P450 4A1 and carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A). Furthermore, the concentration of cellular and secreted triglycerides was reduced in Fao cells treated with 13-HPODE. Because PPARalpha mRNA was not influenced, we conclude that these effects are due to an activation of PPARalpha by 13-HPODE. In contrast, HepG2 cells seemed to be resistant to PPARalpha activation by 13-HPODE because no remarkable induction of the PPARalpha target genes ACO, CPT1A, mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and delta9-desaturase was observed. Consequently, cellular and secreted triglyceride levels were not changed after incubation of HepG2 cells with 13-HPODE. In conclusion, this study shows that 13-HPODE activates PPARalpha in rat Fao but not in human HepG2 hepatoma cells.

  17. Troglitazone but not rosiglitazone induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human and rat hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bae, Myung-Ae; Rhee, Herman; Song, Byoung J

    2003-03-20

    Rosiglitazone (RSG), an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), induces minor toxicity in humans relative to another PPARgamma agonist, troglitazone (TRO). In contrast, recent reports suggest that RSG causes growth arrest and apoptosis of normal and cancerous cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relative toxicities of TRO and RSG on three different hepatoma cell lines, and observed that TRO, but not RSG, was cytotoxic. Additionally, we studied the mechanism by which TRO induced damage to HepG2 hepatoma cells. Our results indicated that TRO increased the levels of p53, p27, and p21, while it reduced the levels of cyclin D1 and phospho-Rb in a time-dependent manner. Increased p27 and p21 levels coincided with reduced activities of cell cycle dependent kinases (cdk) such as cdk2- and cyclin A-protein kinases 24 h after TRO treatment. These results demonstrate that TRO, but not RSG, causes G1 arrest of hepatoma cells, most likely through changing the levels of cell cycle regulators. Furthermore, because RSG did not affect the levels of cell cycle regulators, TRO-mediated growth inhibition appears independent of PPARgamma activation.

  18. Leptin- and Leptin Receptor-Deficient Rodent Models: Relevance for Human Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingxuan; P., Charukeshi Chandrasekera; Pippin, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most widely used animal models in obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) research are the congenital leptin- and leptin receptor-deficient rodent models. These include the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and the leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, Zucker fatty rats, Zucker diabetic fatty rats, SHR/N-cp rats, and JCR:LA-cp rats. After decades of mechanistic and therapeutic research schemes with these animal models, many species differences have been uncovered, but researchers continue to overlook these differences, leading to untranslatable research. The purpose of this review is to analyze and comprehensively recapitulate the most common leptin/leptin receptor-based animal models with respect to their relevance and translatability to human T2DM. Our analysis revealed that, although these rodents develop obesity due to hyperphagia caused by abnormal leptin/leptin receptor signaling with the subsequent appearance of T2DM-like manifestations, these are in fact secondary to genetic mutations that do not reflect disease etiology in humans, for whom leptin or leptin receptor deficiency is not an important contributor to T2DM. A detailed comparison of the roles of genetic susceptibility, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and diabetic complications as well as leptin expression, signaling, and other factors that confound translation are presented here. There are substantial differences between these animal models and human T2DM that limit reliable, reproducible, and translatable insight into human T2DM. Therefore, it is imperative that researchers recognize and acknowledge the limitations of the leptin/leptin receptor-based rodent models and invest in research methods that would be directly and reliably applicable to humans in order to advance T2DM management. PMID:24809394

  19. Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulates H{sub 4}II rat hepatoma cell proliferation: Dominant role of PI-3'K/Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Alexia, Catherine; Fourmatgeat, Pascal; Delautier, Daniele; Groyer, Andre . E-mail: groyer@bichat.inserm.fr

    2006-04-15

    Although hepatocytes are the primary source of endocrine IGF-I and -II in mammals, their autocrine/paracrine role in the dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during hepatocarcinogenesis and in hepatocarcinomas (HCC) remains to be elucidated. Indeed, IGF-II and type-I IGF receptors are overexpressed in HCC cells, and IGF-I is synthesized in adjacent non-tumoral liver tissue. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of type-I IGF receptor signaling on H{sub 4}II rat hepatoma cell proliferation, as estimated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into DNA. IGF-I stimulated the rate of DNA synthesis of serum-deprived H{sub 4}II cells, stimulation being maximal 3 h after the onset of IGF-I treatment and remaining elevated until at least 6 h. The IGF-I-induced increase in DNA replication was abolished by LY294002 and only partially inhibited by PD98059, suggesting that phosphoinositol-3' kinase (PI-3'K) and to a lesser extent MEK/Erk signaling were involved. Furthermore, the 3- to 19-fold activation of the Erks in the presence of LY294002 suggested a down-regulation of the MEK/Erk cascade by PI-3'K signaling. Finally, the effect of IGF-I on DNA replication was almost completely abolished in clones of H{sub 4}II cells expressing a dominant-negative form of Akt but was unaltered by rapamycin treatment of wild-type H{sub 4}II cells. Altogether, these data support the notion that the stimulation of H{sub 4}II rat hepatoma cell proliferation by IGF-I is especially dependent on Akt activation but independent on the Akt/mTOR signal0009i.

  20. Molecular mechanism of extinction of liver-specific functions in mouse hepatoma x rat fibroblast hybrids: extinction of the albumin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Papaconstantinou, J.; Wong, E.; Ratrie, H.; Szpirer, C.; Szpirer, J.

    1982-01-01

    Hybrids formed by the fusion of mouse hepatoma (BWTG3) and rat fibroblast (JF1) cells exhibit the extinction of mouse albumin and ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein synthesis. Karyotype analyses suggest that all parental chromosomes are present in the hybrids. The extinction, therefore, of mouse hepatocyte genes is attributed to the inhibitory action of the rat genome. In these studies, we show that these hybrids possess and express the mouse ..beta..-glucyronidase gene (which is encoded on the same chromosome as the mouse albumin and ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein gene), and we present data of Southern blot analysis which demonstrate that such hybrids have indeed retained both mouse and rat albumin DNA sequences. In addition, using mouse albumin cDNA, we have shown by cDNA-RNA reassociation kinetics that albumin mRNA is virtually absent in these hybrids. We conclude from these studies that the extinction of albumin synthesis involves a mechanism which results in the loss of cytoplasmic albumin mRNA.

  1. Dioxin-like activity of brominated dioxins as individual compounds or mixtures in in vitro reporter gene assays with rat and mouse hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, G; Nakamura, M; Michinaka, C; Tue, N M; Handa, H; Takigami, H

    2017-10-01

    In vitro reporter gene assays detecting dioxin-like compounds have been developed and validated since the middle 1990's, and applied to the determination of dioxin-like activities in various samples for their risk management. Data on characterizing the potency of individual brominated dioxins and their activity in mixture with chlorinated dioxins are still limited on the cell-based assay. This study characterized the dioxin-like activities of the 32 brominated dioxins, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs), coplanar polybrominated biphenyls, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDFs), as a sole component or in a mixture by DR-CALUX (dioxin-responsive chemically activated luciferase expression) using the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line and XDS-CALUX (xenobiotic detection systems-chemically activated luciferase expression) assays using the mouse hepatoma H1L6.1 cell line. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD-relative potencies (REPs) of most of the brominated dioxins were within a factor of 10 of the WHO toxicity equivalency factor (WHO-TEF) for the chlorinated analogues. The REPs of a few PXDFs were an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding WHO-TEFs, indicating their toxicological importance. Results with reconstituted mixtures suggest that the activity of brominated and chlorinated dioxins in both CALUX assays was dose-additive. Thus, obtained results indicated the applicability of the CALUX assays as screening tools of brominated dioxins together with their chlorinated analogues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation on the lipid metabolism in hepatoma-bearing rats with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Miura, Yutaka; Funabiki, Ryuhei; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    The effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid (L-methionine and L-cystine) supplementation on serum lipid concentrations and various parameters related to the lipid metabolism were studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with an ascites hepatoma cell line, AH109A. A diet containing 10% fish oil was found to reduce serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, (very-low-density lipoprotein plus low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, phospholipid and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in these animals, and dietary supplementation of 1.2% L-methionine and L-cystine also suppressed these serum lipid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid synthesis and the availability of serum NEFA were decreased, and epididymal adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was elevated by dietary fish oil, while LPL activity in various tissues and hepatic fatty acid oxidation were increased by dietary sulfur amino acids, resulting in a reduction in the serum triglyceride concentration by dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acids, respectively. Dietary fish oil suppressed the hepatoma-induced increase in cholesterogenesis in the host liver, and dietary methionine and cystine enhanced bile acid excretion into feces, which were the causes of the hypocholesterolemic effect. In these serum lipid concentrations, there were significant effects of fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation, but no significant interaction between these two factors was seen. These results indicate that dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acid, L-methionine and L-cystine, have hypolipidemic effects in cancer-related hyperlipidemia, and that the effects of these two factors on the decrease in these serum lipid concentrations are additive; these two factors may affect the lipid metabolism via different pathways and mechanisms.

  3. Species-specific differences in peroxisome proliferation, catalase, and SOD2 upregulation as well as toxicity in human, mouse, and rat hepatoma cells induced by the explosive and environmental pollutant 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Ekaterina Anatolevna; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2017-03-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used as an explosive substance and its toxicity is still of interest as it persisted in polluted areas. TNT is metabolized in hepatocytes which are prone to its toxicity. Since analysis of the human liver or hepatocytes is restricted due to ethical reasons, we investigated the effects of TNT on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, peroxisome proliferation, and antioxidative enzymes in human (HepG2), mouse (Hepa 1-6), and rat (H4IIEC3) hepatoma cell lines. Under control conditions, hepatoma cells of all three species were highly comparable exhibiting identical proliferation rates and distribution of their cell cycle phases. However, we found strong differences in TNT toxicity with the lowest IC50 values (highest cell death rate) for rat cells, whereas human and mouse cells were three to sevenfold less sensitive. Moreover, a strong decrease in cellular dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay) and increased ROS levels were noted. TNT caused peroxisome proliferation with rat hepatoma cells being most responsive followed by those from mouse and human. Under control conditions, rat cells contained fivefold higher peroxisomal catalase and mitochondrial SOD2 activities and a twofold higher capacity to reduce MTT than human and mouse cells. TNT treatment caused an increase in catalase and SOD2 mRNA and protein levels in human and mouse, but not in rat cells. Similarly, human and mouse cells upregulated SOD2 activity, whereas rat cells failed therein. We conclude that TNT induced oxidative stress, peroxisome proliferation and mitochondrial damage which are highest in rat cells rendering them most susceptible toward TNT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 989-1006, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anorexia‐cachexia syndrome in hepatoma tumour‐bearing rats requires the area postrema but not vagal afferents and is paralleled by increased MIC‐1/GDF15

    PubMed Central

    Borner, Tito; Arnold, Myrtha; Ruud, Johan; Breit, Samuel N.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Lutz, Thomas A.; Blomqvist, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The cancer‐anorexia‐cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively affects survival and therapy success in cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators and tumour‐derived factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of CACS. However, the central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to CACS are insufficiently understood. The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarii are two important brainstem centres for the control of eating during acute sickness conditions. Recently, the tumour‐derived macrophage inhibitory cytokine‐1 (MIC‐1) emerged as a possible mediator of cancer anorexia because lesions of these brainstem areas attenuated the anorectic effect of exogenous MIC‐1 in mice. Methods Using a rat hepatoma tumour model, we examined the roles of the AP and of vagal afferents in the mediation of CACS. Specifically, we investigated whether a lesion of the AP (APX) or subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) attenuate anorexia, body weight, muscle, and fat loss. Moreover, we analysed MIC‐1 levels in this tumour model and their correlation with tumour size and the severity of the anorectic response. Results In tumour‐bearing sham‐operated animals mean daily food intake significantly decreased. The anorectic response was paralleled by a significant loss of body weight and muscle mass. APX rats were protected against anorexia, body weight loss, and muscle atrophy after tumour induction. In contrast, subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation did not attenuate cancer‐induced anorexia or body weight loss. Tumour‐bearing rats had substantially increased MIC‐1 levels, which positively correlated with tumour size and cancer progression and negatively correlated with food intake. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the importance of the AP in the mediation of cancer‐dependent anorexia and body weight loss and support a pathological role of MIC‐1 as a tumour‐derived factor mediating CACS, possibly via an AP

  5. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy is effective in two genetic mouse models of glucagon-like Peptide 1 receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Pérez, Hilary E; Chambers, Adam P; Ryan, Karen K; Li, Bailing; Sandoval, Darleen A; Stoffers, Doris; Drucker, Daniel J; Pérez-Tilve, Diego; Seeley, Randy J

    2013-07-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a peptide hormone that is released from the gut in response to nutrient ingestion and that has a range of metabolic effects, including enhancing insulin secretion and decreasing food intake. Postprandial GLP-1 secretion is greatly enhanced in rats and humans after some bariatric procedures, including vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), and has been widely hypothesized to contribute to reduced intake, weight loss, and the improvements in glucose homeostasis after VSG. We tested this hypothesis using two separate models of GLP-1 receptor deficiency. We found that VSG-operated GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice responded similarly to wild-type controls in terms of body weight and body fat loss, improved glucose tolerance, food intake reduction, and altered food selection. These data demonstrate that GLP-1 receptor activity is not necessary for the metabolic improvements induced by VSG surgery.

  6. FoxO3a mediates transforming growth factor-beta1-induced apoptosis in FaO rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Chul

    2008-10-31

    FoxO3a is a member of the forkhead box class O (FoxO) transcription factor family and an important regulator of apoptosis. This work aimed to elucidate the involvement of FoxO3a in transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-induced apoptosis in FaO rat hepatoma cells. TGF-beta1 caused a time-dependent activation of FoxO3a and a subsequent increase in FoxO response-element-containing luciferase reporter activity, which was Akt-sensitive. The FaO cells stably transfected with a wild type FoxO3a were more susceptible to the formation of apoptotic bodies, populations of sub-G1 apoptotic cells, and collapse of the mitochondrial-membrane potential triggered by TGF-beta1. In contrast, transfection with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotide specific for FoxO3a significantly inhibited caspase activation in FaO cells treated with TGF-beta1. It thus appears that FoxO3a plays a crucial mediatory role in the TGF-beta1 signaling pathway leading to apoptosis.

  7. Enhancement of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea resistance by gamma-irradiation or drug pretreatment in rat hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Habraken, Y.; Laval, F. )

    1991-02-15

    Treatment of rat hepatoma cells (H4 cells) with various DNA-damaging agents increases the number of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (transferase) molecules per cell. Because the cellular resistance to chloroethylnitrosoureas depends on the number of transferase molecules, we studied the influence of pretreatment with gamma-irradiation, cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II), or 2-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium on the sensitivity of H4 cells to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). The BCNU resistance depends on the gamma-ray dose and increases with time after irradiation: it is maximum when the drug is added 48 h after irradiation, which corresponds to the maximum enhancement of the transferase activity in the cells. Pretreatment with a single dose of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) or 2-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium also increases the cellular resistance to BCNU. This resistance is not due to a modification of the alkylation of the cellular DNA in the pretreated cells but is related to the increased transferase activity, as it is no longer observed when this activity is depleted by incubating the pretreated cells with the free base O6-methylguanine before BCNU treatment. These results suggest that tumor cells surviving after gamma-irradiation or drug treatment may become resistant to chemotherapy with chloroethylnitrosoureas.

  8. Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miccadei, Stefania; Di Venere, Donato; Cardinali, Angela; Romano, Ferdinando; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Fraioli, Rocco; Mobarhan, Sohrab; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (AE). The hepatocytes were exposed to H2O2generated in situ by glucose oxidase and were treated with either AE, or pure chlorogenic acid (ChA) or with the well known antioxidant, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenilenediamine (DPPD). Addition of glucose oxidase to the culture medium caused depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cultures, as a lipid peroxidation indicator, and cell death. These results demonstrated that AE protected cells from the oxidative stress caused by glucose oxidase, comparable to DPPD. Furthermore, AE, as well as ChA, prevented the loss of total GSH and the accumulation of MDA. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with AE reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, however, ChA had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, AE rather than ChA induced apoptosis, measured by flow cytometric analysis of annexin and by activation of caspase-3, in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that AE had a marked antioxidative potential that protects hepatocytes from an oxidative stress. Furthermore, AE reduced cell viability and had an apoptotic activity on a human liver cancer cell line.

  9. Perturbations of triglycerides but not of cholesterol metabolism are prevented by anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment in rats bearing an ascites hepatoma (Yoshida AH-130).

    PubMed Central

    Dessì, S.; Batetta, B.; Spano, O.; Bagby, G. J.; Tessitore, L.; Costelli, P.; Baccino, F. M.; Pani, P.; Argilès, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Rats transplanted with the ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 developed a severely progressive cachexia, characterised by marked alterations in protein and lipid metabolism. In particular, high levels of serum triglycerides and free fatty acids were associated with altered levels and distribution of plasma cholesterol, with increased total and very low-density lipoprotein-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL) cholesterol and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The tumour cells showed high rates of cholesterol synthesis and elevated content of free and esterified cholesterol, whereas total cholesterol synthesis was reduced in the host liver. To determine whether these perturbations could be related to the elevation of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) previously shown in the AH-130 bearers (Tessitore L, Costelli P, Baccino FM 1993, Br J Cancer, 67, 15-23), either anti-TNF polyclonal antibodies or non-immune IgGs were injected daily after tumour transplantation. The anti-TNF treatment neither affected tumour growth nor prevented the serum cholesterol changes, while attenuating the hypertriglyceridaemia and the elevated serum free fatty acid levels. These data indicate that TNF does not appear to be directly involved in the altered cholesterol metabolism in AH-130 hosts, thus supporting the view that cholesterol metabolism and lipid metabolism are regulated differently during tumour growth. PMID:7577459

  10. Single-channel currents of the permeability transition pore from the inner mitochondrial membrane of rat liver and of a human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Loupatatzis, Christos; Seitz, Gordon; Schönfeld, Peter; Lang, Florian; Siemen, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Single-channel currents were recorded from inner mitochondrial membranes of HepG2 hepatoma cells and of normal rat liver cells by means of patch-clamp techniques. The current events showed variable amplitudes of up to 1.1 +/- 0.2 nS (n = 35) at room temperature (24 degrees C) and of up to 1.5 +/- 0.2 nS (n = 10) at 34 degrees C including large numbers of subconductance states. Voltages of -40 mV and below closed the channels usually with a delay of about 2 min. Increasing Ca(2+) concentrations activated the channels, whereas cyclosporin A (100 nM) blocked. The concentration-response relation for the Ca(2+)-effect could be fitted best using an EC(50) of 10 microM and a Hill coefficient of 1.5. Taken together the results indicate that we recorded from the permeability transition pore (PTP). As PTP activity may be related to apoptosis we tested if lysate from differently treated T-lymphocytes (Jurkat cells) was able to induce PTP activity in HepG2 cells. Lysate of untreated cells completely abolished the activity at a Ca(2+) concentration of 18 nM (buffered by EGTA), i.e. three orders of magnitude below the EC(50). Under these conditions the lysate is not likely to contain stable factors that could open the PTP. Preliminary experiments show PTP activity in CD95-activated lysate.

  11. Non-receptor-mediated actions are responsible for the lipid-lowering effects of iodothyronines in FaO rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Grasselli, Elena; Voci, Adriana; Canesi, Laura; Goglia, Fernando; Ravera, Silvia; Panfoli, Isabella; Gallo, Gabriella; Vergani, Laura

    2011-07-01

    Iodothyronines influence lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. Previous studies demonstrated that 3,5-l-diiodothyronine (T(2)), as well as 3,3',5-L-triiodothyronine (T(3)), was able to both prevent and reverse hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high-fat diet, and this effect depends on a direct action of iodothyronines on the hepatocyte. However, the involvement of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in mediating the lipid-lowering effect of iodothyronines was not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the ability of T(2) and T(3) to reduce the lipid overloading using the rat hepatoma FaO cells defective for functional TRs. The absence of constitutive mRNA expression of both TRα1 and TRβ1 in FaO cells was verified by RT-qPCR. To mimic the fatty liver condition, FaO cells were treated with a fatty acid mixture and then exposed to pharmacological doses of T(2) or T(3) for 24 h. Lipid accumulation, mRNA expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α, -γ, -δ) the acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX), and the stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD1), as well as fuel-stimulated O(2) consumption in intact cells, were evaluated. Lipid accumulation was associated with an increase in triacylglycerol content, PPARγ mRNA expression, and a decrease in PPARδ and SCD1 mRNA expression. The addition of T(2) or T(3) to lipid-overloaded cells resulted in i) reduction in lipid content; ii) downregulation of PPARα, PPARγ, and AOX expression; iii) increase in PPARδ expression; and iv) stimulation of mitochondrial uncoupling. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that in the hepatocyte, the lipid-lowering actions of both T(2) and T(3) are not mediated by TRs.

  12. Carboxyl ester lipase overexpression in rat hepatoma cells and CEL deficiency in mice have no impact on hepatic uptake or metabolism of chylomicron-retinyl ester.

    PubMed

    van Bennekum, A M; Li, L; Piantedosi, R; Shamir, R; Vogel, S; Fisher, E A; Blaner, W S; Harrison, E H

    1999-03-30

    To study the role of carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) in hepatic retinoid (vitamin A) metabolism, we investigated uptake and hydrolysis of chylomicron (CM)-retinyl esters (RE) by rat hepatoma (McArdle-RH7777) cells stably transfected with a rat CEL cDNA. We also studied tissue uptake of CM-RE in CEL-deficient mice generated by targeted disruption of the CEL gene. CEL-transfected cells secreted active enzyme into the medium. However, both control and CEL-transfected cells accumulated exogenously added CM-RE or CM remnant (CMR)-derived RE in equal amounts. Serum clearance of intravenously injected CM-RE and cholesteryl ester were not different between wild-type and CEL-deficient mice. Also, the uptake of the two compounds by the liver and other tissues did not differ. These data indicate that the lack of CEL expression does not affect the uptake of dietary CM-RE by the liver or other tissues. Moreover, the percentage of retinol formed in the liver after CM-RE uptake, the levels of retinol and retinol-binding protein in serum, and retinoid levels in various tissues did not differ, indicating that CEL deficiency does not affect hepatic retinoid metabolism and retinoid distribution throughout the body. Surprisingly, in both pancreas and liver of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous CEL-deficient mice, the levels of bile salt-dependent retinyl ester hydrolase (REH) activity were similar. This indicates that in the mouse pancreas and liver an REH enzyme activity, active in the presence of bile salt and distinct from CEL, is present, compatible with the results from our accompanying paper that the intestinal processing and absorption of RE were unimpaired in CEL-deficient mice.

  13. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p110γ Contributes to Bile Salt-Induced Apoptosis in Primary Rat Hepatocytes and Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hohenester, Simon; Gates, Anna; Wimmer, Ralf; Beuers, Ulrich; Anwer, M. Sawkat; Rust, Christian; Webster, Cynthia R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) and taurolithocholate (TLC) are hepatotoxic and cholestatic bile salts, whereas tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) is cytoprotective and anticholestatic. Yet they all act, in part, through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3K)-dependent mechanisms (“PI3K-paradox”). Hepatocytes express three catalytic PI3K Class I isoforms (p110α/β/γ), specific functions of which, in liver, are unclear. In other cell types, p110γ is associated with detrimental effects. To shed light on the PI3K enigma, we determined whether hydrophobic and hydrophilic bile salts differentially activate distinct p110 isoforms in hepatocytes, and whether p110γ mediates bile salt-induced hepatocyte cell death. Methods Isoform-specific PI3K activity assays were established to determine isoform activation by bile salts in rat hepatocytes. Activation of Akt and JNK were determined by immunoblotting. Following stimulation with hydrophobic bile salts, hepatocellular apoptosis was determined morphologically after Hoechst staining and by analysis of caspase-3/-7 activity or caspase-3 cleavage. Activity or expression of PI3K p110γ was inhibited pharmacologically (AS604850) or by knockdown using specific siRNA. Results All bile salts tested activated p110β, while p110α was activated by TUDC and GCDC. Intriguingly, only hydrophobic bile salts activated p110γ. Inhibition of p110γ attenuated GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation, but did not alter TUDC- or cAMP-induced Akt signaling in rat hepatocytes. Inhibition or knockdown of p110γ markedly attenuated hydrophobic bile salt-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines but did not alter Fas-, tumor necrosis factor α- and etoposide-induced apoptosis. Depletion of Ca++ prevented GCDC-induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes but did not affect GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation. Conclusions PI3K p110γ is activated by hydrophobic, but not hydrophilic bile salts. Bile salt-induced hepatocyte

  14. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p110γ contributes to bile salt-induced apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hohenester, Simon; Gates, Anna; Wimmer, Ralf; Beuers, Ulrich; Anwer, M Sawkat; Rust, Christian; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2010-11-01

    Glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) and taurolithocholate (TLC) are hepatotoxic and cholestatic bile salts, whereas tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) is cytoprotective and anticholestatic. Yet they all act, in part, through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3K)-dependent mechanisms ("PI3K-paradox"). Hepatocytes express three catalytic PI3K Class I isoforms (p110α/β/γ), specific functions of which, in liver, are unclear. In other cell types, p110γ is associated with detrimental effects. To shed light on the PI3K enigma, we determined whether hydrophobic and hydrophilic bile salts differentially activate distinct p110 isoforms in hepatocytes, and whether p110γ mediates bile salt-induced hepatocyte cell death. Isoform-specific PI3K activity assays were established to determine isoform activation by bile salts in rat hepatocytes. Activation of Akt and JNK was determined by immunoblotting. Following stimulation with hydrophobic bile salts, hepatocellular apoptosis was determined morphologically after Hoechst staining and by analysis of caspase-3/-7 activity or caspase-3 cleavage. Activity or expression of PI3K p110γ was inhibited pharmacologically (AS604850) or by knock-down using specific siRNA. All bile salts tested activated p110β, while p110α was activated by TUDC and GCDC. Intriguingly, only hydrophobic bile salts activated p110γ. Inhibition of p110γ attenuated GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation, but did not alter TUDC- or cAMP-induced Akt-signaling in rat hepatocytes. Inhibition or knock-down of p110γ markedly attenuated hydrophobic bile salt-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines but did not alter Fas-, tumor necrosis factor α- and etoposide-induced apoptosis. Depletion of Ca(++) prevented GCDC-induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes but did not affect GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation. PI3K p110γ is activated by hydrophobic, but not hydrophilic bile salts. Bile salt-induced hepatocyte apoptosis is partly mediated via a PI3K p110

  15. Effects of oolong tea on gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the mouse liver and in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kensuke; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Tababe, Hiroki; Ishigami, Yoko; Fukutomi, Ryuuta; Imai, Shinjiro; Isemura, Mamoru

    2011-09-01

    Tea has many beneficial effects. We have previously reported that green tea and a catechin-rich green tea beverage modulated the gene expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the normal murine liver. In the present study, we examined the effects of oral administration of oolong tea on the hepatic expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes in the mouse. The intake of oolong tea for 4 weeks reduced the hepatic expression of G6Pase and PEPCK together with that of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. When rat hepatoma H4IIE cells were incubated in the presence of oolong tea, the expression of these genes was repressed in accordance with the findings in vivo. The reduced protein expression of PEPCK and HNF4α was also demonstrated. We then fractionated oolong tea by sequential extraction with three organic solvents to give three fractions and the residual fraction (Fraction IV). In addition to organic fractions, Fraction IV, which was devoid of low-molecular-weight catechins such as (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), had effects similar to those of oolong tea on H4IIE cells. Fraction IV repressed the gene expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, as insulin did. This activity was different from that of EGCG. The present findings suggest that drinking oolong tea may help to prevent diabetes and that oolong tea contains a component or components with insulin-like activity distinguishable from EGCG. Identification of such component(s) may open the way to developing a new drug for diabetes.

  16. Choline metabolism and membrane formation in rat hepatoma cells grown in suspension culture. II. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis during growth cycle and fluctuation of mitochondrial density.

    PubMed

    Plagemann, P G

    1969-09-01

    The incorporation of methyl-labeled choline into phosphorylcholine and phosphatidylcholine of cellular membranes by Novikoff rat hepatoma cells (line N1S1-67) during growth in suspension culture was investigated. Upon initiation of a fresh culture at 10(5) cells/ml, the rate of synthesis of phosphorylcholine by the cells was four to five times greater than that of the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. While the rate of synthesis of the latter remained relatively constant, the rate of phosphorylation of choline decreased progressively during the course of the growth cycle of the culture to 10-20% of the initial rate when the culture reached stationary phase at 3 x 10(6) cells/ml. The decrease in phosphorylcholine synthesis during the growth cycle was not due to depletion of choline in the medium or a decrease in its concentration, but was correlated with a decrease in choline kinase activity of the cells as measured in cell-free extracts. Newly synthesized phosphatidylcholine was detectable in cells only as an integral part of cellular membranes. Its distribution among various cytoplasmic membrane structures separated by isopycnic centrifugation in sucrose density gradients remained relatively constant during the growth cycle. About 50% was associated with the mitochondria, and the remainder with plasma membrane fragments and other membranous structures with mean densities of about 1.15 and 1.13 g/cm(3), respectively. However, the density of the mitochondria increased from about 1.167 g/cm(3) in early exponential phase cells to about 1.190 g/cm(3) in stationary phase cells. The finding that the density of the entire propulation of mitochondria changed simultaneously and progressively is in agreement with the view that mitochondria grow by addition of phospholipids and structural proteins and increase in number by division.

  17. The role of protein glycosylation in the compartmentalization and processing of mouse mammary tumor virus glycoproteins in mouse mammary tumor virus-infected rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Firestone, G L

    1983-05-25

    The relationship of protein glycosylation to compartmentalization and processing of mouse mammary tumor virus (MTV) glycoproteins has been examined in M1.54, a cloned line of MTV-infected rat hepatoma tissue culture cells. Previous work established that full maturation of MTV glycoproteins in this cell line requires dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid (Firestone, G. L., Payvar, F., and Yamamoto, K. R. (1982) Nature (Lond.) 300, 221-225). The ability to regulate production of the full complement of five mature membrane-associated and secreted viral glycoproteins from one initially synthesized precursor has been used to advantage in the present work. At concentrations of tunicamycin that specifically inhibit N-linked protein glycosylation, incorporation of [35S]methionine into total cellular and secreted protein is not detectably affected, MTV-specific mRNAs are produced normally, and the nonglycosylated form of the glycosylated viral precursor polyprotein accumulates within the cells. However, tunicamycin inhibits the site-specific cleavage of the glycosylated polyprotein and distribution of MTV polypeptides to the cell surface and extracellular fractions. Thus, when tunicamycin-treated cultures of M1.54 are exposed to dexamethasone and [35S]methionine, no labeled viral antigens are detected in the culture medium. Similarly, tunicamycin prevents the appearance of membrane-associated viral antigens that can be labeled externally by lactoperoxidase-mediated iodination and it protects the cells against the cytolytic effects of MTV-specific antiserum and complement. Taken together, these results are consistent with the view that while glycosylation of some proteins may be unessential for their compartmentalization and processing, it does appear to be correlated with proper maturation of others. The hormone-dependent maturation of MTV glycoproteins in M1.54 may be particularly useful for study of this latter class since glycosylation is stringently associated with

  18. CRF1 receptor-deficiency increases cocaine reward.

    PubMed

    Contarino, Angelo; Kitchener, Pierre; Vallée, Monique; Papaleo, Francesco; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    Stimulant drugs produce reward but also activate stress-responsive systems. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-responsive systems are activated by stimulant drugs. However, their role in stimulant drug-induced reward remains poorly understood. Herein, we report that CRF1 receptor-deficient (CRF1-/-), but not wild-type, mice show conditioned place preference (CPP) responses to a relatively low cocaine dose (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, wild-type, but not CRF1-/-, mice display CPP responses to a relatively high cocaine dose (20 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating that CRF1 receptor-deficiency alters the rewarding effects of cocaine. Acute pharmacological antagonism of the CRF1 receptor by antalarmin also eliminates cocaine reward. Nevertheless, CRF1-/- mice display higher stereotypy responses to cocaine than wild-type mice. Despite the very low plasma corticosterone concentration, CRF1-/- mice show higher nuclear glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in the brain region of the hippocampus than wild-type mice. Full rescue of wild-type-like corticosterone and GR circadian rhythm and level in CRF1-/- mice by exogenous corticosterone does not affect CRF1 receptor-dependent cocaine reward but induces stereotypy responses to cocaine. These results indicate a critical role for the CRF1 receptor in cocaine reward, independently of the closely related HPA axis activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale) has Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Ethionine-Induced Hepatoma Rats

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Shafina Hanim Mohd; Makpol, Suzana; Hamid, Noor Aini Abdul; Das, Srijit; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of ginger extract on the expression of NFκB and TNF-α in liver cancer-induced rats. METHODS Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups based on diet: i) control (given normal rat chow), ii) olive oil, iii) ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight), iv) choline-deficient diet + 0.1% ethionine to induce liver cancer and v) choline-deficient diet + ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight). Tissue samples obtained at eight weeks were fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin wax, followed by immunohistochemistry staining for NFκB and TNF-α. RESULTS The expression of NFκB was detected in the choline-deficient diet group, with 88.3 ± 1.83% of samples showing positive staining, while in the choline-deficient diet supplemented with ginger group, the expression of NFκB was significantly reduced, to 32.35 ± 1.34% (p<0.05). In the choline-deficient diet group, 83.3 ± 4.52% of samples showed positive staining of TNF-α, which was significantly reduced to 7.94 ± 1.32% (p<0.05) when treated with ginger. There was a significant correlation demonstrated between NFκB and TNF-α in the choline-deficient diet group but not in the choline-deficient diet treated with ginger extract group. CONCLUSION In conclusion, ginger extract significantly reduced the elevated expression of NFκB and TNF-α in rats with liver cancer. Ginger may act as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent by inactivating NFκB through the suppression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α. PMID:19061005

  20. Glucocorticoids locally disrupt an array of positioned nucleosomes on the rat tyrosine aminotransferase promoter in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, K D; Richard-Foy, H

    1990-01-01

    Transcriptional activation by steroid hormones is often associated with the appearance of a DNase I hypersensitive site resulting from a local alteration of the nucleoprotein structure of the promoter. For the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat, a viral promoter under glucocorticoid control, a model has been proposed: the appearance of the hormonodependent DNase I hypersensitive site reflects the displacement of a single precisely positioned nucleosome associated with the glucocorticoid responsive elements. To determine if such a mechanism is of general relevance in transcriptional activation by steroid hormones, we have investigated the nucleosomal organization of the rat tyrosine aminotransferase promoter over a 1-kilobase region that contains the glucocorticoid regulatory target. This region displays a hormonodependent DNase I hypersensitive site. In the absence of hormone, micrococcal nuclease digestion of nuclei demonstrates the presence of positioned nucleosomes, with cutting sites centered around positions -3080, -2900, -2700, -2800, -2255, and -2040. Treatment of the cells with dexamethasone induces a disruption of the chromatin structure over a relatively short stretch of DNA (approximately positions -2400 to -2650) that overlaps two nucleosomes. These observations suggest a strong similarity in the role of chromatin structure in glucocorticoid-dependent transcriptional activation of mouse mammary tumor virus and tyrosine aminotransferase promoters. Images PMID:1979170

  1. The antitumour agent 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno) imidazole-4-carboxamide (DTIC) inhibits rat liver cAMP phosphodiesterase and amplifies hormone effects in hepatocytes and hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, P. G.; Haffner, F.; Brłnstad, G. O.; Christoffersen, T.

    1979-01-01

    The antitumour agent 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide (DTIC) was found to inhibit competitively the low-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity in an ammonium-sulphate-precipitable fraction of the 2,000g supernatant of rat liver. With substrate concentration at 0.25 microM, I50 was 790 microM for DTIC and 350 microM for theophylline. DTIC at 2 mM more than doubled the cAMP response to glucagon in hepatocytes and to adrenaline in MH1C1 hepatoma cells, indicating that it also exerts its inhibitory effect on the phosphodiesterase in intact cells. The possible contribution of the phosphodiesterase inhibition to the growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of DTIC is discussed. PMID:228692

  2. Pu-erh tea supplementation suppresses fatty acid synthase expression in the rat liver through downregulating Akt and JNK signalings as demonstrated in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chun-Te; Weng, Meng-Shih; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn; Kuo, Kuan-Li; Tsai, Yao-Jen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a key enzyme of lipogenesis. Overexpression of FAS is dominant in cancer cells and proliferative tissues. The expression of FAS in the livers of rats fed pu-erh tea leaves was significantly suppressed. The gains in body weight, levels of triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol were also suppressed in the tea-treated rats. FAS expression in hepatoma HepG2 cells was suppressed by the extracts of pu-erh tea at both the protein and mRNA levels. FAS expression in HepG2 cells was strongly inhibited by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and JNK inhibitor II and slightly inhibited by p38 inhibitor SB203580 and MEK inhibitor PD98059, separately. Based on these findings, we suggest that the suppression of FAS in the livers of rats fed pu-erh tea leaves may occur through downregulation of the PI3K/AKt and JNK signaling pathways. The major components of tea that have been demonstrated to be responsible for the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects are catechins, caffeine, and theanine. The compositions of catechins, caffeine, and theanine varied dramatically in pu-erh, black, oolong, and green teas. The active principles and molecular mechanisms that exerted these biological effects in pu-erh tea deserve future exploration.

  3. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2 cell membrane chromatographic analysis system for charactering anti-hepatoma components from rat serum after oral administration of Radix scutellariae: A strategy for rapid screening active compounds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dan; Chen, Xiaofei; Cao, Yan; Wu, Xunxun; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Chuan; Chai, Yifeng; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2016-01-25

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a bioaffinity chromatography technique for characterizing interactions between drugs and membrane receptors and has been widely used to screen active components from complex samples such as herbal medicines (HMs). However, it has never been applied in vivo due to its relatively high limit of detection (LOD) and the matrix interferences. In this study, a novel on-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2/CMC/enrich columns/high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry system was developed to rapidly screen potential anti-hepatoma components from drug-containing serum of rats after oral administration of Radix scutellariae. A matrix interference deduction method with a home-written program in MATLAB was developed, which could successfully eliminate the interference of endogenous substances in serum. Baicalein, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, neobaicalein and rivularin from Radix scutellariae extraction were significantly retained in the HepG2/CMC column. Three potential active components, wogonin, oroxylin A and neobaicalein were firstly screened from the drug-containing serum as well. The cell counting kit-8 assay demonstrated that wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin showed high inhibitory activities in a dose-dependent manner on HepG2 cells at the concentration of 12.5-200 μM (p<0.05) and the IC50 values were 69.83, 16.66 and 51.6 μM, respectively. Wogonin and oroxylin A, which were screened both from Radix scutellariae extraction and the drug-containing serum, could be selected as lead compounds to obtain good anti-hepatoma effects. The proposed comprehensive 2D CMC system and matrix interference elimination strategy have significant advantages for in vivo screening of active components from complex biological samples and could be applied to other biochromatography models.

  4. Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy Is Effective in Two Genetic Mouse Models of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Pérez, Hilary E.; Chambers, Adam P.; Ryan, Karen K.; Li, Bailing; Sandoval, Darleen A.; Stoffers, Doris; Drucker, Daniel J.; Pérez-Tilve, Diego; Seeley, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a peptide hormone that is released from the gut in response to nutrient ingestion and that has a range of metabolic effects, including enhancing insulin secretion and decreasing food intake. Postprandial GLP-1 secretion is greatly enhanced in rats and humans after some bariatric procedures, including vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), and has been widely hypothesized to contribute to reduced intake, weight loss, and the improvements in glucose homeostasis after VSG. We tested this hypothesis using two separate models of GLP-1 receptor deficiency. We found that VSG-operated GLP-1 receptor–deficient mice responded similarly to wild-type controls in terms of body weight and body fat loss, improved glucose tolerance, food intake reduction, and altered food selection. These data demonstrate that GLP-1 receptor activity is not necessary for the metabolic improvements induced by VSG surgery. PMID:23434938

  5. Human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2) and rat hepatoma cells are defective in important enzyme activities in the oxidation of the C27 steroid side chain in bile acid formation.

    PubMed

    Farrants, A K; Nilsson, A; Pedersen, J I

    1993-12-01

    We have examined the ability of HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells and 7800 C1 Morris rat hepatoma cells to convert 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (THCA) and 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (DHCA) to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, respectively. Cell extracts from both these cell lines could neither form cholic acid from THCA nor from the activated form, THCA-CoA. This suggests that both cell lines are defective in two enzyme activities involved in the pathway, the microsomal THCA-CoA ligase and the peroxisomal THCA-CoA oxidase. Furthermore, we show that the subsequent enzymes are active in the conversion to bile acids, because the product of the THCA-CoA oxidase, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoyl-coenzyme A (delta 24-THCA-CoA) or delta 24-THCA in the presence of THCA-CoA ligase, are converted to cholic acid by both cell lines. HepG2 cells were able to slowly form chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid from 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha-diol and 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol, respectively, in 24- and 96-h incubations. The rate of cholic acid formation was lower than the rate for chenodeoxycholic acid and there was a clear accumulation of THCA. 7800 C1 Morris cells had no ability to form cholic acid or chenodeoxycholic acid after 96 h incubation. We conclude that these two cell lines have defects in two enzyme activities involved in the peroxisomal oxidation in bile acid formation, the microsomal THCA-CoA ligase and the peroxisomal THCA-CoA oxidase.

  6. Ethanol-induced developmental neurodegeneration in secretin receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dong-Woo; Givens, Bennet; Nishijima, Ichiko

    2009-05-06

    Alcohol exposure during brain development induces neuronal cell death in the brain. Several neuroactive peptides have been shown to protect against alcohol-induced cell death. Secretin is a peptide hormone, and the secretin receptor is expressed in the gut and the brain. To explore a potential role of secretin signal against ethanol neurotoxicity during brain development, secretin receptor-deficient mice were exposed to ethanol on postnatal day 4. We identified significant ethanol-induced apoptosis in the external granular layer of the secretin receptor-deficient cerebellum and in the striatum after ethanol treatment. During the early postnatal period, there is a proliferation of granular cell progenitors that reside in the external granular layer. The results suggest that secretin signal plays a neuroprotective role of neuronal progenitor cells against the neurotoxicity of ethanol.

  7. Celecoxib suppresses hepatoma stemness and progression by up-regulating PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsiao-Mei; Liu, Li-Fen; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Kung, Mei-Lang; Lin, Shih-Wei; Wang, E-Ming; Ma, Yi-Ling; Cheng, Kwan-Hung; Lai, Kwok Hung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Hsu, Ping-I; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, can prevent several types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we show that celecoxib suppressed the self-renewal and drug-pumping functions in HCC cells. Besides, celecoxib depleted CD44 + /CD133 + hepatic cancer stem cells (hCSC). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and CD133 overexpression did not reverse the celecoxib-induced depletion of hCSC. Also, celecoxib inhibited progression of rat Novikoff hepatoma. Moreover, a 60-day celecoxib program increased the survival rate of rats with hepatoma. Histological analysis revealed that celecoxib therapy reduced the abundance of CD44 + /CD133 + hCSCs in hepatoma tissues. Besides, the hCSCs depletion was associated with elevated apoptosis and blunted proliferation and angiogenesis in hepatoma. Celecoxib therapy activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and up-regulated PTEN, thereby inhibiting Akt and disrupting hCSC expansion. PTEN gene delivery by adenovirus reduced CD44/CD133 expression in vitro and hepatoma formation in vivo. This study suggests that celecoxib suppresses cancer stemness and progression of HCC via activation of PPARγ/PTEN signaling. PMID:24721996

  8. Effects of cumene hydroperoxide on the Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ efflux from mitochondria and on the viability of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Teplova, V V; Kudin, A P; Evtodienko YuV

    1998-01-01

    Effects of cumene hydroperoxide on the Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ efflux from mitochondria isolated from rat liver and Zaidelja hepatoma were compared. Cumene hydroperoxide at micromolar concentrations (0.3-10 microM) prevented the closing of the permeability transition pore in the inner mitochondrial membrane and, therefore, potentiated the Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ efflux. This response was 10-100 times greater in hepatoma mitochondria than in rat liver mitochondria. Micromolar concentrations of cumene hydroperoxide induced the death of the hepatoma cells in vitro.

  9. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. III. Difference between the receptor-adenylate cyclase regulating systems in AH130 cells and cultured normal rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Matsunaga, T; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R

    1986-10-01

    The responsiveness to three beta-adrenergic agonists, isoproterenol (IPN), epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) in AH13O cells was examined compared with that in normal rat liver cells which were cultured for 24 hr after collagenase digestion. As regards to the activation of adenylate cyclase in the cell homogenates, the relative affinity of the three agonists was in order of IPN greater than NE greater than Epi in AH130 cells and IPN greater than Epi greater than NE in cultured normal liver cells. While the efficacies of the three agonists were similar in cultured liver cells, those of NE and Epi were markedly lower than that of IPN in AH13O cells and were increased to the similar level of IPN by pretreatment with phentolamine, but not with prazosin. Clonidine inhibited the activation of adenylate cyclase by IPN in AH13O cells. When cells were preincubated with islet-activating protein (IAP), the activity of adenylate cyclase in the presence or absence of agonist in both cell lines increased. In IAP-treated AH13O cells, the efficacies of NE and Epi became close to that of IPN. Adenylate cyclase in IAP-treated AH13O cells was activated by GTP in a dose-dependent manner, but that in IAP-treated cultured liver cells was not. In the presence of IPN, biphasic (activatory and inhibitory) effects of GTP on the cyclase were observed, and the inhibitory phase was eliminated by the IAP-treatment in both cell lines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Methionine adenosyltransferase II beta subunit gene expression provides a proliferative advantage in human hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Chantar, Maria L; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Latasa, M Ujue; Martín-Duce, Antonio; Fortes, Puri; Caballería, Juan; Avila, Matías A; Mato, José M

    2003-04-01

    Of the 2 genes (MAT1A, MAT2A) encoding methionine adenosyltransferase, the enzyme that synthesizes S-adenosylmethionine, MAT1A, is expressed in liver, whereas MAT2A is expressed in extrahepatic tissues. In liver, MAT2A expression associates with growth, dedifferentiation, and cancer. Here, we identified the beta subunit as a regulator of proliferation in human hepatoma cell lines. The beta subunit has been cloned and shown to lower the K(m) of methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha2 (the MAT2A product) for methionine and to render the enzyme more susceptible to S-adenosylmethionine inhibition. Methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha2 and beta subunit expression was analyzed in human and rat liver and hepatoma cell lines and their interaction studied in HuH7 cells. beta Subunit expression was up- and down-regulated in human hepatoma cell lines and the effect on DNA synthesis determined. We found that beta subunit is expressed in rat extrahepatic tissues but not in normal liver. In human liver, beta subunit expression associates with cirrhosis and hepatoma. beta Subunit is expressed in most (HepG2, PLC, and Hep3B) but not all (HuH7) hepatoma cell lines. Transfection of beta subunit reduced S-adenosylmethionine content and stimulated DNA synthesis in HuH7 cells, whereas down-regulation of beta subunit expression diminished DNA synthesis in HepG2. The interaction between methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha2 and beta subunit was demonstrated in HuH7 cells. Our findings indicate that beta subunit associates with cirrhosis and cancer providing a proliferative advantage in hepatoma cells through its interaction with methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha2 and down-regulation of S-adenosylmethionine levels.

  11. [Antineoplastic effect of hydrogel prospidin on Seidel ascites hepatoma used as a model].

    PubMed

    Bychkovskiĭ, P M; Iurkshtovich, T L; Kladiev, A A; Revtovich, M Iu

    2012-01-01

    Antineoplastic effect of hydrogel dextran phosphate, hydrogel prospidin, and prospidin in an injectable preparation has been assessed using Seidel ascites hepatoma as a model. Injectable and hydrogel prospidin in doses from 250, 500 to 1000 mg/kg and hydrogel phosphate dextran in doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg were administered to rats intraperitoneally in a single dose in a volume of 1 or 2 ml per each 100 g of animal body weight. The study has shown that irrespective of rats with Seidel ascites hepatoma and significantly increase in the dosage of prospidin preparations and hydrogel dextran phosphate results in a longer average life expectancy of rats Compared with its injectable variant, hydrogel prospidin appears to produce more than twice as high antineoplastic effect, and is found to provide prolonged therapeutic effects, as well as cure of animals in more than 60 % of cases.

  12. Lethal tuberculosis in a previously healthy adult with IL-12 receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tabarsi, Payam; Marjani, Majid; Mansouri, Nahal; Farnia, Parisa; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; Abel, Laurent; Adimi, Parisa; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Mansouri, Davood

    2011-08-01

    A 33-year-old man was admitted in hospital due to fever, generalized lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. He had a history of anti-tuberculosis treatment in the previous 3 years. Despite normal chest radiograph, a sputum sample was smear-positive for acid-fast bacilli, and polymerase chain reaction was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Drug susceptibility test revealed resistance to isoniazid and rifampin. Evaluation of the patient's immune system revealed IL-12Rβ1 deficiency. The patient died of disseminated tuberculosis (TB), despite appropriate antibiotic treatment. This is the first IL-12 receptor-deficient patient presenting with disseminated TB in adulthood, without any previous relevant medical history. This diagnosis should be considered in selected adult patients with unexplained, overwhelming TB. IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is a genetic etiology of severe TB in adults and should be considered in adult patients with disseminated TB.

  13. Host response of platelet-activating factor receptor-deficient mice during pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Weijer, Sebastiaan; Leemans, Jaklien C; Florquin, Sandrine; Shimizu, Takao; Ishii, Satoshi; van der Poll, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid with potent, diverse actions, which has been implicated as an important mediator in host defence against several intracellular pathogens. To determine the role of PAF in host defence in pulmonary tuberculosis, PAF receptor-deficient (PAFR−/−) and wild-type (PAFR+/+) mice were infected intranasally with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterial outgrowth in lungs and liver did not differ significantly between PAFR−/− and PAFR+/+ mice at 2 or 6 weeks postinfection. After 28 weeks, 86% of PAFR−/− mice and 79% of PAFR+/+ mice had died (non-significant). In addition, both mouse strains were indistinguishable with respect to histopathology, the recruitment and activation of lymphocytes, and cytokine concentrations in the lung. These data suggest that PAF is not involved in the protective immune response to tuberculosis. PMID:12871222

  14. Magnesium fortification of drinking water suppresses atherogenesis in male LDL-receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sherer, Y; Shaish, A; Levkovitz, H; Keren, P; Janackovic, Z; Shoenfeld, Y; Harats, D

    1999-01-01

    Magnesium, an important cofactor of more than 300 enzymes, has previously been found to modulate blood lipid levels, atherogenesis and atherosclerosis in rabbits, when added to their diet. The aim of this study was to examine whether magnesium fortification of drinking water, without a change in diet content, can affect atherogenesis. The study included six groups of LDL-receptor-deficient mice. The mice received either distilled water or water containing 50 g of magnesium sulfate per liter. In the first (12 weeks) and second (6 weeks) stages of the experiment, the mice received low- and high-cholesterol diets, respectively. At the end of each stage, blood was drawn for the determination of plasma magnesium, calcium and lipid levels. In addition, the extent of atherosclerosis was determined at the aortic sinus. In both males and females, magnesium fortification was associated with higher levels of plasma magnesium (50 and 37% increase, respectively), without any differences in plasma calcium content. The extent of atherosclerosis at the aortic sinus in the male mice that received high levels of magnesium was a third of that of the male mice that received distilled water. However, these differences were not found in the female groups. Surprisingly, the female mice that received water fortified with magnesium had higher levels of cholesterol after stage 2, whereas no differences regarding plasma lipid levels were found among the male mice. These results confirm that magnesium fortification of drinking water is capable of inhibiting atherogenesis in male LDL-receptor-deficient mice. The mechanisms of action are yet to be discovered, and are probably not related to diminished lipid excretion, but possibly to the prevention of calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells, elevated antioxidative capacity, or other yet undetermined mechanisms.

  15. Conditioned taste aversion learning in leptin-receptor-deficient db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Rie; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Sasamoto, Kazushige; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2003-09-01

    The db/db mouse has defective leptin receptors. The defects lead to impairments of leptin regulation of food intake and body weight, and result in the expression of diabetic symptoms such as hyperinsulinemia, hyperglicemia, and extreme obesity. Recent studies have proposed that leptin may also affect memory and learning processes. To examine this possibility, we compared the ability of leptin-receptor-deficient db/db mice and their normal lean litter mates to form and extinguish a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) for saccharin. We used a short-term (10 s) lick test and a long-term (48 h) two bottle preference test for measurement of consumption of test solutions. On the first day after conditioning to avoid saccharin, the db/db mice showed preference scores for saccharin as low, and aversion thresholds for sucrose lower than that of the lean mice. During the extinction test trials beginning from the second up to the 30th day after conditioning, numbers of licks and preference scores for aversive saccharin and sucrose appeared to be larger, and recovered faster to the control levels in db/db mice. These results indicate that db/db mice with leptin-receptor-deficiency may show equal capacity to form CTAs for saccharin, greater generalization from saccharin to sucrose, and a faster rate of extinction. This suggests that disruption of leptin signalling does not inhibit acquisition of CTA learning, but impairs its extinction. This differential contribution of the leptin system on CTA processes may be due to differential distribution of leptin receptors in the CTA-related brain areas.

  16. Heart remodeling and ischemia-reperfusion arrhythmias linked to myocardial vitamin d receptors deficiency in obstructive nephropathy are reversed by paricalcitol.

    PubMed

    Diez, Emiliano Raúl; Altamirano, Liliana Berta; García, Isabel Mercedes; Mazzei, Luciana; Prado, Natalia Jorgelina; Fornes, Miguel Walter; Carrión, Fernando Darío Cuello; Zumino, Amira Zulma Ponce; Ferder, León; Manucha, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is often associated with chronic kidney disease and vice versa; myocardial vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are among the probable links between the 2 disorders. The vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol protects against some renal and cardiovascular complications. However, the structural and electrophysiological effects of myocardial vitamin D receptor modification and its impact on the response to ischemia-reperfusion are currently unknown. This work attempted to determine whether obstructive nephropathy induced myocardial changes (in rats) linked to vitamin D receptor deficiency and to ventricular arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused hearts. Unilateral ureteral-obstructed and Sham-operated rats were treated with either paricalcitol (30 ng/kg/d intraperitoneal) or vehicle for 15 days. In 5 hearts from each group, we found that obstructed rats showed a reduction in VDRs and an increase in angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression (messenger RNA and protein), suffered fibrosis (determined by Masson trichrome stain) and myofibril reduction with an increase in mitochondrial size, and had dilated crests (determined by electron microscopy). These changes were reversed by paricalcitol. In 8 additional hearts per group, we found that obstructed rats showed a higher incidence of ventricular fibrillation during reperfusion (after 10 minutes of regional ischemia) than did those treated with paricalcitol. The action potential duration was prolonged throughout the experiment in paricalcitol-treated rats. We conclude that the reduction in myocardial vitamin D receptor expression in obstructed rats might be related to myocardial remodeling associated with an increase in arrhythmogenesis and that paricalcitol protects against these changes by restoring myocardial vitamin D receptor levels and prolonging action potentials.

  17. Transgenic expression of CYP7A1 in LDL receptor-deficient mice blocks diet-induced hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Eric P; Gutierrez, Alejandra; Davis, Roger A

    2006-07-01

    Constitutive expression of a cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) transgene in LDL receptor-deficient mice blocked the ability of a cholesterol-enriched diet to increase plasma levels of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. LDL receptor-deficient mice expressing the CYP7A1 transgene exhibited complete resistance to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and to the accumulation of cholesterol in the liver. Hepatic mRNA expression of liver X receptor-inducible ABCG5 and ABCG8 was decreased in CYP7A1 transgenic, LDL receptor-deficient mice fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. Thus, increased biliary cholesterol excretion could not account for the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. CYP7A1 transgenic, LDL receptor-deficient mice fed the cholesterol-enriched diet exhibited decreased jejunal Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 protein (NPC1L1) mRNA expression, an important mediator of intestinal cholesterol absorption. A taurocholate-enriched diet also decreased NPC1L1 mRNA expression in a farnesoid X receptor-independent manner. Reduced expression of NPC1L1 mRNA was associated with decreased cholesterol absorption ( approximately 20%; P < 0.05) exhibited by CYP7A1 transgenic LDL receptor-deficient mice fed the cholesterol-enriched diet. The combined data show that enhanced expression of CYP7A1 is an effective means to prevent the accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and of atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in plasma.

  18. Brain Structure and Function Associated with Younger Adults in Growth Hormone Receptor-Deficient Humans.

    PubMed

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Guevara-Aguirre, Jaime; Braskie, Meredith N; Hafzalla, George W; Velasco, Rico; Balasubramanian, Priya; Wei, Min; Thompson, Paul M; Mather, Mara; Nelson, Marvin D; Guevara, Alexandra; Teran, Enrique; Longo, Valter D

    2017-02-15

    Growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD) results in short stature, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Previous studies in mice and humans suggested that GHRD has protective effects against age-related diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Whereas GHRD mice show improved age-dependent cognitive performance, the effect of GHRD on human cognition remains unknown. Using MRI, we compared brain structure, function, and connectivity between 13 people with GHRD and 12 unaffected relatives. We assessed differences in white matter microstructural integrity, hippocampal volume, subregional volumes, and cortical thickness and surface area of selected regions. We also evaluated brain activity at rest and during a hippocampal-dependent pattern separation task. The GHRD group had larger surface areas in several frontal and cingulate regions and showed trends toward larger dentate gyrus and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. They had lower mean diffusivity in the genu of the corpus callosum and the anterior thalamic tracts. The GHRD group showed enhanced cognitive performance and greater task-related activation in frontal, parietal, and hippocampal regions compared with controls. Furthermore, they had greater functional synchronicity of activity between the precuneus and the rest of the default mode network at rest. The results suggest that, compared with controls, GHRD subjects have brain structure and function that are more consistent with those observed in younger adults reported in previous studies. Further investigation may lead to improved understanding of underlying mechanisms and could contribute to the identification of treatments for age-related cognitive deficits.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT People and mice with growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD or Laron syndrome) are protected against age-related diseases including cancer and diabetes. However, in humans, it is unknown whether cognitive

  19. Brain Structure and Function Associated with Younger Adults in Growth Hormone Receptor-Deficient Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Braskie, Meredith N.; Velasco, Rico; Balasubramanian, Priya; Wei, Min; Thompson, Paul M.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Guevara, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD) results in short stature, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Previous studies in mice and humans suggested that GHRD has protective effects against age-related diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Whereas GHRD mice show improved age-dependent cognitive performance, the effect of GHRD on human cognition remains unknown. Using MRI, we compared brain structure, function, and connectivity between 13 people with GHRD and 12 unaffected relatives. We assessed differences in white matter microstructural integrity, hippocampal volume, subregional volumes, and cortical thickness and surface area of selected regions. We also evaluated brain activity at rest and during a hippocampal-dependent pattern separation task. The GHRD group had larger surface areas in several frontal and cingulate regions and showed trends toward larger dentate gyrus and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. They had lower mean diffusivity in the genu of the corpus callosum and the anterior thalamic tracts. The GHRD group showed enhanced cognitive performance and greater task-related activation in frontal, parietal, and hippocampal regions compared with controls. Furthermore, they had greater functional synchronicity of activity between the precuneus and the rest of the default mode network at rest. The results suggest that, compared with controls, GHRD subjects have brain structure and function that are more consistent with those observed in younger adults reported in previous studies. Further investigation may lead to improved understanding of underlying mechanisms and could contribute to the identification of treatments for age-related cognitive deficits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT People and mice with growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD or Laron syndrome) are protected against age-related diseases including cancer and diabetes. However, in humans, it is unknown whether cognitive

  20. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  1. Stabilization of advanced atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice by aspirin.

    PubMed

    Cyrus, Tillmann; Yao, Yuemang; Tung, Liun X; Praticò, Domenico

    2006-01-01

    COX-1-dependent eicosanoid formation accelerates atherogenesis, and low-dose aspirin reduces early atherosclerosis. However, the role of aspirin in modulating progression of vascular atherosclerotic lesions once established is less investigated. We wished to determine the effect of low-dose aspirin on vascular inflammation, plaque composition, and progression of established atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (LDLR(-/-)) were fed a high-fat diet for 3 months. At this time, one group of mice underwent baseline analysis. Two additional groups, while continuing the high-fat diet, were randomized to receive placebo or aspirin for additional 3 months. At the end of the study, LDLR(-/-) mice that had received aspirin had suppressed biosynthesis of thromboxane B2, the major products of COX-1 activity, reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels compared with controls. Compared with baseline, the placebo group had significant progression of atherosclerosis. In contrast, aspirin treated mice showed a significant reduction in progression of atherosclerosis, and a significant decrease in foam cell content. These results suggest that in murine atherosclerosis, low-dose aspirin retards progression of established and advanced vascular atherosclerotic lesions by suppressing the formation of bioactive lipids and vascular inflammation.

  2. Macrophage-specific overexpression of interleukin-5 attenuates atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W; Lei, T; Li, H; Sun, D; Mo, X; Wang, Z; Zhang, K; Ou, H

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin-5 (IL-5) increases the secretion of natural T15/EO6 IgM antibodies that inhibit the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by macrophages. This study aimed to determine whether macrophage-specific expression of IL-5 in LDL receptor-deficient mice (Ldlr(-/-)) could improve cholesterol metabolism and reduce atherosclerosis. To induce macrophage-specific IL-5 expression, the pLVCD68-IL5 lentivirus was delivered into Ldlr(-/-) mice via bone marrow transplantation. The recipient mice were fed a Western-type diet for 12 weeks to induce lesion formation. We found that IL-5 was efficiently and specifically overexpressed in macrophages in recipients of pLVCD68-IL5-transduced bone marrow cells (BMC). Plasma titers of T15/EO6 IgM antibodies were significantly elevated by 58% compared with control mice transplanted with pLVCD68 lacking the IL-5 coding sequence. Plaque areas of aortas in IL-5-overexpressing mice were reduced by 43% and associated with a 2.4-fold decrease in lesion size at the aortic roots when compared with mice receiving pLVCD68-transduced BMCs. The study showed that macrophage-specific overexpression of IL-5 inhibited the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. These findings suggest that modulation of IL-5 cytokine expression represents a potential strategy for intervention of familial hypercholesterolemia and other cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Hematopoietic Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Lyase Deficiency Decreases Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in LDL-Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Martine; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Johnson, Jason; Nijstad, Niels; Van Santbrink, Peter J.; Westra, Marijke M.; Van Der Hoeven, Gerd; Gijbels, Marion J.; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Varga, Georg; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kuiper, Johan; Van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2013-01-01

    Aims Altered sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) homeostasis and signaling is implicated in various inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. As S1P levels are tightly controlled by S1P lyase, we investigated the impact of hematopoietic S1P lyase (Sgpl1−/−) deficiency on leukocyte subsets relevant to atherosclerosis. Methods and Results LDL receptor deficient mice that were transplanted with Sgpl1−/− bone marrow showed disrupted S1P gradients translating into lymphopenia and abrogated lymphocyte mitogenic and cytokine response as compared to controls. Remarkably however, Sgpl1−/− chimeras displayed mild monocytosis, due to impeded stromal retention and myelopoiesis, and plasma cytokine and macrophage expression patterns, that were largely compatible with classical macrophage activation. Collectively these two phenotypic features of Sgpl1 deficiency culminated in diminished atherogenic response. Conclusions Here we not only firmly establish the critical role of hematopoietic S1P lyase in controlling S1P levels and T cell trafficking in blood and lymphoid tissue, but also identify leukocyte Sgpl1 as critical factor in monocyte macrophage differentiation and function. Its, partly counterbalancing, pro- and anti-inflammatory activity spectrum imply that intervention in S1P lyase function in inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis should be considered with caution. PMID:23700419

  4. Enhanced acetylcholine release in the hippocampus of cannabinoid CB1 receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Kathmann, Markus; Weber, Bernd; Zimmer, Andreas; Schlicker, Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    We examined whether acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and striatum and noradrenaline release in the hippocampus is altered in CB1 receptor-deficient mice. The electrically evoked tritium overflow from hippocampal slices preincubated with [3H]-choline was increased by about 100% in CB1−/− compared to CB1+/+ mice whereas the electrically evoked tritium overflow from striatal slices preincubated with [3H]-choline and from hippocampal slices preincubated with [3H]-noradrenaline did not differ. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, inhibited, and the CB1 receptor antagonist, SR 141716, facilitated, the evoked tritium overflow from hippocampal slices (preincubated with [3H]-choline) from CB1+/+ as opposed to CB1−/− mice. Both drugs did not affect the evoked tritium overflow from striatal slices (preincubated with [3H]-choline) and from hippocampal slices (preincubated with [3H]-noradrenaline) from CB1+/+ and CB1−/− mice. The selective increase in acetylcholine release in CB1−/− mice may indicate that the presynaptic CB1 receptors on the cholinergic neurones of the mouse hippocampus are tonically activated and/or constitutively active in vivo. PMID:11250865

  5. Airway bacteria drive a progressive COPD-like phenotype in mice with polymeric immunoglobulin receptor deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Bradley W.; Brucker, Robert M.; Han, Wei; Du, Rui-Hong; Zhang, Yongqin; Cheng, Dong-Sheng; Gleaves, Linda; Abdolrasulnia, Rasul; Polosukhina, Dina; Clark, Peter E.; Bordenstein, Seth R.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms driving persistent airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are incompletely understood. As secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) deficiency in small airways has been reported in COPD patients, we hypothesized that immunobarrier dysfunction resulting from reduced SIgA contributes to chronic airway inflammation and disease progression. Here we show that polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-deficient (pIgR−/−) mice, which lack SIgA, spontaneously develop COPD-like pathology as they age. Progressive airway wall remodelling and emphysema in pIgR−/− mice are associated with an altered lung microbiome, bacterial invasion of the airway epithelium, NF-κB activation, leukocyte infiltration and increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-12 and neutrophil elastase. Re-derivation of pIgR−/− mice in germ-free conditions or treatment with the anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast prevents COPD-like lung inflammation and remodelling. These findings show that pIgR/SIgA deficiency in the airways leads to persistent activation of innate immune responses to resident lung microbiota, driving progressive small airway remodelling and emphysema. PMID:27046438

  6. Airway bacteria drive a progressive COPD-like phenotype in mice with polymeric immunoglobulin receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Bradley W; Brucker, Robert M; Han, Wei; Du, Rui-Hong; Zhang, Yongqin; Cheng, Dong-Sheng; Gleaves, Linda; Abdolrasulnia, Rasul; Polosukhina, Dina; Clark, Peter E; Bordenstein, Seth R; Blackwell, Timothy S; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V

    2016-04-05

    Mechanisms driving persistent airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are incompletely understood. As secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) deficiency in small airways has been reported in COPD patients, we hypothesized that immunobarrier dysfunction resulting from reduced SIgA contributes to chronic airway inflammation and disease progression. Here we show that polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-deficient (pIgR(-/-)) mice, which lack SIgA, spontaneously develop COPD-like pathology as they age. Progressive airway wall remodelling and emphysema in pIgR(-/-) mice are associated with an altered lung microbiome, bacterial invasion of the airway epithelium, NF-κB activation, leukocyte infiltration and increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-12 and neutrophil elastase. Re-derivation of pIgR(-/-) mice in germ-free conditions or treatment with the anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast prevents COPD-like lung inflammation and remodelling. These findings show that pIgR/SIgA deficiency in the airways leads to persistent activation of innate immune responses to resident lung microbiota, driving progressive small airway remodelling and emphysema.

  7. Predominant neuronal B-cell loss in L5 DRG of p75 receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Dreetz Gjerstad, M; Tandrup, T; Koltzenburg, M; Jakobsen, J

    2002-01-01

    The significance of the p75 low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, for the maintenance and survival of DRG cells, was studied in p75-deficient mice. Perikarya of the L5 DRG of 12-week-old p75 receptor-deficient mice and healthy Balb C mice were compared using stereological techniques. Following systematic sampling, the optical fractionator and the planar vertical rotator were used to estimate the number and mean volume of the cell bodies of the two neuronal subpopulations. The loss of B-cells was 57% (P < 0.00001), numbers being 7300 (CV = 0.12) in controls and 3100 in p75 receptor-deficient mice (CV = 0.18). Also, A-cells showed a significant loss of 39% (P < 0.0001), numbers being 2600 (CV = 0.12) in control mice and 1500 (CV = 0.16) in p75 receptor-deficient mice. The volume of A-cells was reduced by 30% (P < 0.01), from 24.700 µm3 (CV = 0.17) perikarya in p75 knock-out mice to 15.100 µm3 (CV = 0.17) in controls. B-cell volume did not change significantly. It is concluded that the p75 receptor plays a major role in the survival of DRG cells. The predominant loss of small B-cells indicates that the effect of neurotrophins is dependent upon the presence of the p75 low-affinity receptor. PMID:11833656

  8. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of strain-specific differences in gene expression by cannabinoid type 2 receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Sims, Andrew H; Idris, Aymen I; Ralston, Stuart H

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the skeletal consequences of cannabinoid receptor deficiency differ in different strains of mice. In order to explore the mechanisms responsible, we analysed global gene expression in bone from wild-type CD1 mice and littermates with targeted inactivation of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2 (-/-)) and compared the results with those obtained from a similar analysis of wild-type and Cnr2 (-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Trabecular bone volume was increased in Cnr2 (-/-) CD1 mice compared with wild-type littermates but decreased in Cnr2 (-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Microarray analysis identified 354 genes in which substantial differences in gene expression (>1.5-fold) were observed that were specifically affected by Cnr2 deficiency. Bioinformatic analysis of data from wild-type mice of each strain revealed Cnr2-dependent differences in expression of genes clustering within the gene ontology (GO) terms immune response (p < 0.0001), positive regulation of response to stimulus (p < 0.0001), nucleotide binding (p = 0.002), and ribonucleotide binding (p = 0.003). Bioinformatic analysis of data from Cnr2 (-/-) mice of each strain revealed associations between GO terms corresponding to the extracellular region (p = 0.002), the cell surface (p = 0.02), antigen binding (p = 0.03), external side of plasma membrane (p = 0.04), and regulation of the force of heart contraction (p = 0.04). We conclude that Cnr2 deficiency affects expression of a large number of genes in different strains of mice, and that these differences are likely to be responsible in part for the differences in skeletal phenotype that we and others have observed in mice with defective cannabinoid receptor signalling in different genetic backgrounds.

  10. Excessive penile norepinephrine level underlies impaired erectile function in adenosine A1 receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chen; Qi, Lin; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Zhang, Weiru; Wang, Wei; Blackburn, Michael; Kellems, Rodney; Xia, Yang

    2012-10-01

    Penile erection is a complex neurovascular physiological event controlled by multiple factors and signaling pathways. A considerable amount of evidence indicates that adenosine plays a significant role in cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation. However, the specific role of adenosine and its receptors in erectile physiology and pathology is not fully understood. To determine the role of the adenosine A1 receptor (ADORA1) in penile erection. Adenosine A1 receptor deficient (Adora1-/-) mice and aged-matched wild-type (WT) mice were utilized. We evaluated the in vivo erectile function by measuring the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in response to cavernous nerve stimulation (CNS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the norepinephrine (NE) plasma concentration in the corpus cavernosum and systemic circulation. We also evaluated the myosin light chain phosphorylation (p-MLC) in penile tissue pre- and post-CNS. The main outcome measurement of this research was the evaluation of in vivo erectile response to CNS by measuring the ICP in Adora1-/- mice and WT mice and to identify the localization and specific neuron types of ADORA1 expression by dual immunostaining and immunofluorescence co-localization. In vivo, both the ratio of CNS-induced Maximum ICP to mean arterial pressure and CNS-induced slope in Adora1-/- mice were significantly lower than WT mice. At the cellular level in penile tissue, we determined that ADORA1 was highly abundant in neuronal cells. During penile erection, Adora1-/- mice exhibited a higher level of NE plasma concentration in the penis than WT mice. And WT mice had a significantly greater reduction in p-MLC compared to Adora1-/- mice. Our results show that ADORA1 is enriched on neuron cells where it functions to control NE release. Activation of this receptor during penile erection results in reduced NE release and reduced cavernosal smooth muscle contraction, therefore facilitating penile erection. © 2012 International Society for

  11. Oats (Avena sativa) reduce atherogenesis in LDL-receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K E; Svedberg, K A; Lindholm, M W; Oste, R; Hellstrand, P

    2010-09-01

    The cholesterol-lowering properties of oats, largely ascribed to its contents of soluble fibers, beta-glucans, are well established, whereas effects on atherogenesis are less well elucidated. Oats also contains components with reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that may affect atherogenesis. In this work we examined effects of oat bran on plasma cholesterol, markers of inflammation, eNOS expression and development of atherosclerosis in LDL-receptor-deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice. Female LDLr(-/-) mice were fed Western diet+/-oat bran. Two concentrations of oat bran (40 and 27%) were compared regarding effects on plasma lipids. There was a dose-dependent reduction of plasma cholesterol by 42 and 20% with 40 and 27% oat bran, respectively. Both concentrations also lowered plasma triglycerides (by 45 and 33%) and relative levels of plasma LDL+VLDL. The reduction of plasma lipids was accompanied by increased faecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids. Oat bran (40%) efficiently reduced atherosclerotic lesion area in the descending aorta (-77%) and aortic root (-33%). Plasma levels of fibrinogen and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were significantly lower, and immunofluorescence of aortic sections revealed a 75% lower expression of VCAM-1 in oat-fed mice. The expression of eNOS protein in the aortic wall was increased in mice fed oat bran. Oat bran supplemented to a Western diet lowers plasma cholesterol, reduces levels of some inflammatory markers, increases eNOS expression and inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development in LDLr(-/-) mice. It remains to be investigated which components in oats contribute to these effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic insulin therapy reduces adipose tissue macrophage content in LDL-receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, J; Subramanian, S; Ding, Y; Wang, S; Goodspeed, L; Sullivan, B; Kim, J; O'Brien, K D; Chait, A

    2011-05-01

    Insulin has anti-inflammatory effects in short-term experiments. However, the effects of chronic insulin administration on inflammation are unknown. We hypothesised that chronic insulin administration would beneficially alter adipose tissue inflammation and several circulating inflammatory markers. We administered two forms of long-acting insulin, insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin) and insulin detemir (B29Lys[ε-tetradecanoyl],desB30 human insulin), to LDL-receptor-deficient mice. After 8 weeks on a diet that causes obesity, hyperglycaemia, adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and atherosclerosis, the mice received subcutaneous glargine, detemir or NaCl (control) for 12 weeks. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and serum amyloid P (SAP), metabolic variables, adipose tissue macrophages and aortic atherosclerosis were evaluated. Weight gain was equivalent in all groups. The glycated haemoglobin level fell equivalently in both insulin-treated groups. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and hepatic triacylglycerol level significantly improved in the glargine compared with the detemir or control groups. Levels of mRNA expression for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and F4/80, a macrophage marker, in adipose tissue were decreased only in the glargine group (p < 0.05). Visceral adipose tissue macrophage content decreased in both insulin groups (p < 0.05), whereas atherosclerosis decreased only in the glargine group. Circulating SAA and SAP did not decrease in either insulin-treated group, but IL-6 levels fell in the glargine-treated mice. While chronic insulin administration did not decrease SAA and SAP, administration of glargine but not detemir insulin improved dyslipidaemia, IL-6 levels and atherosclerosis, and both insulins reduced macrophage accumulation in visceral adipose tissue. Thus, chronic insulin therapy has beneficial tissue effects independent of circulating inflammatory markers in this murine model of diet-induced obesity and

  13. Mas receptor deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced cerebral and systemic inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Lima, Onésia C; Pinto, Mauro C X; Duchene, Johan; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Souza, Laura L; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A S; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana

    2015-12-01

    Beyond the classical actions of the renin-angiotensin system on the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis, several studies have shown its involvement in acute and chronic inflammation. The G protein-coupled receptor Mas is a functional binding site for the angiotensin-(1-7); however, its role in the immune system has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of genetic deletion of Mas receptor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and cerebral inflammation in mice. Inflammatory response was triggered in Mas deficient (Mas(-/-)) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (8-12 weeks-old) by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Mas(-/-) mice presented more intense hypothermia compared to WT mice 24 h after LPS injection. Systemically, the bone marrow of Mas(-/-) mice contained a lower number of neutrophils and monocytes 3 h and 24 h after LPS injection, respectively. The plasma levels of inflammatory mediators KC, MCP-1 and IL-10 were higher in Mas(-/-) mice 24 h after LPS injection in comparison to WT. In the brain, Mas(-/-) animals had a significant increase in the number of adherent leukocytes to the brain microvasculature compared to WT mice, as well as, increased number of monocytes and neutrophils recruited to the pia-mater. The elevated number of adherent leukocytes on brain microvasculature in Mas(-/-) mice was associated with increased expression of CD11b - the alpha-subunit of the Mac-1 integrin - in bone marrow neutrophils 3h after LPS injection, and with increased brain levels of chemoattractants KC, MIP-2 and MCP-1, 24 h later. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Mas receptor deficiency results in exacerbated inflammation in LPS-challenged mice, which suggest a potential role for the Mas receptor as a regulator of systemic and brain inflammatory response induced by LPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. [Dynamic monitoring risk of anti-hepatoma new drug development].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Fan, Wei; Li, Hong-Fa; Man, Shu-Li; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Risk monitoring of new Chinese patent anti-hepatoma drugs is tracking recognized risks and residual risks, identifying emerging risk and ensure the implementation of the plan, estimating the process of reducing effectiveness. The paper is mainly through understanding the status of Chinese patent anti-hepatoma drugs, the content, characteristic and analysis method of dynamic risk monitoring, and then select the risk control indicators, collect risk information. Finally, puts forward the thought of anti-hepatoma drugs listed evaluation in our country, and try to establish the model of dynamic risk management of anti-hepatoma drugs.

  15. GH Receptor Deficiency in Ecuadorian Adults Is Associated With Obesity and Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L.; Balasubramanian, Priya; Teran, Enrique; Guevara-Aguirre, Marco; Guevara, Carolina; Procel, Patricio; Alfaras, Irene; De Cabo, Rafael; Di Biase, Stefano; Narvaez, Luis; Saavedra, Jannette

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ecuadorian subjects with GH receptor deficiency (GHRD) have not developed diabetes, despite obesity. Objective: We sought to determine the metabolic associations for this phenomenon. Design: Four studies were carried out: 1) glucose, lipid, adipocytokine concentrations; 2) metabolomics evaluation; 3) metabolic responses to a high-calorie meal; and 4) oral glucose tolerance tests. Setting: Clinical Research Institute in Quito, Ecuador. Subjects: Adults homozygous for the E180 splice mutation of the GH receptor (GHRD) were matched for age, gender, and body mass index with unaffected control relatives (C) as follows: study 1, 27 GHRD and 35 C; study 2, 10 GHRD and 10 C; study 3, seven GHRD and 11 C; and study 4, seven GHRD and seven C. Results: Although GHRD subjects had greater mean percentage body fat than controls, their fasting insulin, 2-hour blood glucose, and triglyceride levels were lower. The indicator of insulin sensitivity, homeostasis model of assessment 2%S, was greater (P < .0001), and the indicator of insulin resistance, homeostasis model of assessment 2-IR, was lower (P = .0025). Metabolomic differences between GHRD and control subjects were consistent with their differing insulin sensitivity, including postprandial decreases of branched-chain amino acids that were more pronounced in controls. High molecular weight and total adiponectin concentrations were greater in GHRD (P = .0004 and P = .0128, respectively), and leptin levels were lower (P = .02). Although approximately 65% the weight of controls, GHRD subjects consumed an identical high-calorie meal; nonetheless, their mean glucose concentrations were lower, with mean insulin levels one-third those of controls. Results of the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test were similar. Main Outcome Measures: Measures of insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines, and energy metabolites. Conclusions: Without GH counter-regulation, GHRD is associated with insulin efficiency and obesity. Lower leptin levels

  16. CRF2 Receptor Deficiency Eliminates the Long-Lasting Vulnerability of Motivational States Induced by Opiate Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Morisot, Nadège; Rouibi, Khalil; Contarino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability to stressful life events is a hallmark of drug dependence that may persist long after cessation of drug intake and dramatically fuel key clinical features, such as deregulated up-shifted motivational states and craving. However, to date, no effective therapy is available for reducing vulnerability to stressful events in former drug users and drug-dependent patients, mostly because of poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying it. In this study, we report that genetic inactivation of the stress-responsive corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2 (CRF2−/−) completely eliminates the reemergence of increased nonrewarded nose-pokes, reflecting up-shifted motivational states, triggered by ethological environmental stressors long after cessation of morphine administration in mice. Accordingly, CRF2 receptor deficiency completely abolishes the increase in biomarkers of synthesis of major brain motivational substrates, such as ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) and amygdala γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems, associated with the stress-induced reemergence of up-shifted motivational states long after opiate withdrawal. Nevertheless, neither CRF2 receptor deficiency nor long-term opiate withdrawal affects amygdala CRF or hypothalamus CRF expression, indicating preserved brain stress-coping systems. Moreover, CRF2 receptor deficiency does not influence the locomotor or the anxiety-like effect of long-term opiate withdrawal. Thus, the present results reveal an essential and specific role for the CRF2 receptor in the stress-induced reemergence of up-shifted motivational states and related alterations in brain motivational systems long after opiate withdrawal. These findings suggest new strategies for the treatment of the severe and long-lasting vulnerability that inexorably follows drug withdrawal and hinder drug abstinence. PMID:25672976

  17. Processing of proinsulin by transfected hepatoma (FAO) cells.

    PubMed

    Vollenweider, F; Irminger, J C; Gross, D J; Villa-Komaroff, L; Halban, P A

    1992-07-25

    Rat hepatoma (FAO) cells were stably transfected with the gene encoding either rat proinsulin II (using the DOL retroviral vector) or human proinsulin (using the RSV retroviral vector). Using the DOL vector, production of insulin immunoreactive material was stimulated up to 30-fold by dexamethasone (5 x 10(-7) M). For both proinsulins, fractional release of immunoreactive material relative to cellular content was high, in keeping with the absence of any storage compartment for secretory proteins in these cells. Pulse-chase experiments showed kinetics of release of newly synthesized products in keeping with release via the constitutive pathway. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed immunoreactivity in the medium distributed between three peaks. For rat proinsulin II, the first coeluted with intact proinsulin; the second coeluted with des-64,65 split proinsulin (the product of endoproteolytic attack between the insulin A-chain and C-peptide followed by trimming of C-terminal basic residues by carboxypeptidase); the third (and minor peak) coeluted with native (fully processed) insulin. For human proinsulin, by contrast, the second peak coeluted with des-31,32 split proinsulin (split and trimmed at the B-chain/C-peptide junction). Analysis of cellular extracts showed intact proinsulin as the major product. The generation of the putative conversion intermediates and insulin was not due to proteolysis of proinsulin after its release but rather to an intracellular event. The data suggest that proinsulin, normally processed in secretory granules and released via the regulated pathway, may also be processed, albeit less efficiently, by the constitutive pathway conversion machinery. The comparison of the sites preferentially cleaved in rat II or human proinsulin suggests cleavage by endoprotease(s) with a preference for R/KXR/KR as substrate.

  18. Hexachlorobenzene induces cell proliferation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression (AhR) in rat liver preneoplastic foci, and in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. AhR is a mediator of ERK1/2 signaling, and cell cycle regulation in HCB-treated HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    de Tomaso Portaz, Ana Clara; Caimi, Giselle Romero; Sánchez, Marcela; Chiappini, Florencia; Randi, Andrea S; Kleiman de Pisarev, Diana L; Alvarez, Laura

    2015-10-02

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread environmental pollutant, and a liver tumor promoter in rodents. Depending on the particular cell lines studied, exposure to these compounds may lead to cell proliferation, terminal differentiation, or apoptosis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. AhR can also modulate a variety of cellular and physiological processes that can affect cell proliferation and cell fate determination. The mechanisms by which AhR ligands, both exogenous and endogenous, affect these processes involve multiple interactions between AhR and other signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined the effect of HCB on cell proliferation and AhR expression, using an initiation-promotion hepatocarcinogenesis protocol in rat liver and in the human-derived hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Female Wistar rats were initiated with a single dose of 100 mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at the start of the experiment. Two weeks later, daily dosing of 100 mg/kg HCB was maintained for 10 weeks. Partial hepatectomy was performed 3 weeks after initiation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase-P (GST-P)-positive foci, in the rat liver were used as biomarkers of liver precancerous lesions. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, along with enhanced AhR protein expression in hepatocytes within GST-P-positive foci of (DEN HCB) group, when compared to DEN. In a similar manner, Western blot analysis demonstrated that HCB induced PCNA and AhR protein expression in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometry assay indicated that the cells were accumulated at S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. HCB increased cyclin D1 protein levels and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with a selective MEK1 inhibitor, prevented HCB-stimulatory effect on PCNA and cyclinD1, indicating that these effects

  19. Trout hepatoma--a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.; Yasutake, W.T.; Wolf, H.

    1961-01-01

    Fish pathology and its role in fish culture were brought into prominence in the spring of 1960 by the disclosure of a high incidence of hepatomas in hatchery-reared rainbow trout. The current problem came to light as the result of a routine inspection of live trout shipments at a California border fish-disease checking station. This service is performed by personnel of the California Department of Fish and Game to preclude the introduction or further spread of communicable fish diseases into California watersheds. Collaborative studies which followed revealed the nationwide distribution of the disease. This unusual disease soon attracted the attention of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, the Food and Drug Administration, Public Health Service, and several western State health and conservation agencies.

  20. Validity of leptin receptor-deficiency (db/db) type 2 diabetes mellitus mice as a model of secondary osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Le; You, Yong-Ke; Zhu, Tracy Y.; Zheng, Li-Zhen; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Chen, Hai-Yong; Yao, Dong; Lan, Hui-Yao; Qin, Ling

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validation of the leptin receptor-deficient mice model for secondary osteoporosis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at bone micro-architectural level. Thirty three 36-week old male mice were divided into four groups: normal control (db/m) (n = 7), leptin receptor-deficient T2DM (db/db) (n = 8), human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic normal control (crp/db/m) (n = 7), and human CRP transgenic T2DM (crp/db/db) (n = 11). Lumber vertebrae (L5) and bilateral lower limbs were scanned by micro-CT to analyze trabecular and cortical bone quality. Right femora were used for three-point bending to analyze the mechanical properties. Trabecular bone quality at L5 was better in db/db or crp/db/db group in terms of bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and separation (all p < 0.05). However the indices measured at proximal tibia showed comparable trabecular BMD and microarchitecture among the four groups. Femur length in crp/db/db group was significantly shorter than db/m group (p < 0.05) and cortices were thinner in db/db and crp/db/db groups (p > 0.05). Maximum loading and energy yield in mechanical test were similar among groups while the elastic modulus in db/db and crp/db/db significantly lower than db/m. The leptin-receptor mice is not a proper model for secondary osteoporosis associated with T2DM.

  1. Genetic background modifies the effects of type 2 cannabinoid receptor deficiency on bone mass and bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Idris, Aymen I; Ralston, Stuart H

    2014-03-01

    Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands play significant roles in regulating bone metabolism. Previous studies of type 1 cannabinoid receptor-deficient mice have shown that genetic background influences the skeletal phenotype. Here, we investigated the effects of genetic background on the skeletal phenotype of mice with type 2 cannabinoid receptor deficiency (Cnr2 (-/-)). We studied Cnr2 (-/-) mice on a CD1 background and compared the findings with those previously reported in Cnr2 (-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Young female Cnr2 (-/-) CD1 mice had low bone turnover and high trabecular bone mass compared with wild-type (WT), contrasting with the situation in Cnr2 (-/-) C57BL/6 mice where trabecular bone mass has been reported to be similar to WT. The Cnr2 (-/-) CD1 mice lost more trabecular bone at the tibia with age than WT due to reduced bone formation, and at 12 months there was no difference in trabecular bone volume between genotypes. This differs from the phenotype previously reported in C57BL/6 Cnr2 (-/-) mice, where bone turnover is increased and bone mass reduced with age. There were no substantial differences in skeletal phenotype between Cnr2 (-/-) and WT in male mice. Cortical bone phenotype was similar in Cnr2 (-/-) and WT mice of both genders. Deficiency of Cnr2 has site- and gender-specific effects on the skeleton, mainly affecting trabecular bone, which are influenced by genetic differences between mouse strains. Further evaluation of the pathways responsible might yield new insights into the mechanisms by which cannabinoid receptors regulate bone metabolism.

  2. Peroxisomal oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) by human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, P.A.; Ferrell, E.V. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Beta-oxidation of VLCFA was studied in a human hepatoma cell line (HEP-G2). These cells, disrupted by exposure to low concentrations of digitonin, oxidize (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate (C16:0) and (1-/sup 14/C)lignocerate (C24:0) to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and water-soluble products. It was recently reported that in rat liver the beta-oxidation of VLCFA takes place primarily in the peroxisome rather than the mitochondrion. The precise site of VLCFA oxidation in human tissues has not been clearly elucidated. The peroxisome has been implicated since there is impaired VLCFA oxidation in fibroblasts from Zellweger syndrome patients, in which this organelle is deficient. In order to define the subcellular localization of human VLCFA oxidation, homogenates of HEP-G2 cells were fractionated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Fractions enriched in the peroxisomal marker catalase oxidized C24:0 at significantly greater rates than fractions enriched in the mitochondrial marker succinate:cytochrome c reductase. C16:0 oxidation was catalyzed by both peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. These results suggest that the subcellular site of VLCFA oxidation in human hepatoma cells and rat liver is similar.

  3. Hepatoma cell-specific ganciclovir-mediated toxicity of a lentivirally transduced HSV-TkEGFP fusion protein gene placed under the control of rat alpha-fetoprotein gene regulatory sequences.

    PubMed

    Uch, Rathviro; Gérolami, René; Faivre, Jamila; Hardwigsen, Jean; Mathieu, Sylvie; Mannoni, Patrice; Bagnis, Claude

    2003-09-01

    Suicide gene therapy combining herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene transfer and ganciclovir administration can be envisioned as a powerful therapeutical approach in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma; however, safety issues regarding transgene expression in parenchyma cells have to be addressed. In this study, we constructed LATKW, a lentiviral vector expressing the HSV-TkEGFP gene placed under the control of the promoter elements that control the expression of the rat alpha-fetoprotein, and assayed its specific expression in vitro in hepatocarcinoma and nonhepatocarcinoma human cell lines, and in epidermal growth factor stimulated human primary hepatocytes. Using LATKW, a strong expression of the transgene was found in transduced hepatocarcinoma cells compared to a very low expression in nonhepatocarcinoma human cell lines, as assessed by Northern blot, RT-PCR, FACS analysis and ganciclovir-mediated toxicity assay, and no expression was found in lentivirally transduced normal human hepatocytes. Altogether, these results demonstrate the possibility to use a lentivirally transduced expression unit containing the rat alpha-fetoprotein promoter to restrict the HSV-TK-mediated induced GCV sensitivity to human hepatocarcinoma cells.

  4. Intracellularly Swollen Polypeptide Nanogel Assists Hepatoma Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bo; Huang, Kexin; Ding, Jianxun; Xu, Weiguo; Yang, Yu; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Lesan; Chen, Xuesi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, chemotherapy is one of the principal modes of treatment for tumor patients. However, the traditional formulations of small molecule drugs show short circulation time, low tumor selectivity, and high toxicity to normal tissues. To address these problems, a facilely prepared, and pH and reduction dual-responsive polypeptide nanogel was prepared for selectively intracellular delivery of chemotherapy drug. As a model drug, doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into the nanogel through a sequential dispersion and dialysis technique, resulting in a high drug loading efficiency (DLE) of 96.7 wt.%. The loading nanogel, defined as NG/DOX, exhibited a uniform spherical morphology with a mean hydrodynamic radius of 58.8 nm, pH and reduction dual-triggered DOX release, efficient cell uptake, and cell proliferation inhibition in vitro. Moreover, NG/DOX exhibited improved antitumor efficacy toward H22 hepatoma-bearing BALB/c mouse model compared with free DOX·HCl. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were implemented to further confirm the tumor suppression activity of NG/DOX. Furthermore, the variations of body weight, histopathological morphology, bone marrow cell micronucleus rate, and white blood cell count verified that NG/DOX showed excellent safety in vivo. With these excellent properties in vitro and in vivo, the pH and reduction dual-responsive polypeptide nanogel exhibits great potential for on-demand intracellular delivery of antitumor drug, and holds good prospect for future clinical application. PMID:28255361

  5. Lipoprotein binding to cultured human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Krempler, F; Kostner, G M; Friedl, W; Paulweber, B; Bauer, H; Sandhofer, F

    1987-01-01

    Binding of various 125I-lipoproteins to hepatic receptors was studied on cultured human hepatoma cells (Hep G2). Chylomicrons, isolated from a chylothorax, chylomicron remnants, hypertriglyceridemic very low-density lipoproteins, normotriglyceridemic very low-density lipoproteins (NTG-VLDL), their remnants, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and HDL-E (an Apo E-rich high-density lipoprotein isolated from the plasma of a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis) were bound by high-affinity receptors. Chylomicron remnants and HDL-E were bound with the highest affinity. The results, obtained from competitive binding experiments, are consistent with the existence of two distinct receptors on Hep G2 cells: (a) a remnant receptor capable of high-affinity binding of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL-E, but not of Apo E free LDL, and (b) a LDL receptor capable of high-affinity binding of LDL, NTG-VLDL, and HDL-E. Specific binding of Apo E-free LDL was completely abolished in the presence of 3 mM EDTA, indicating that binding to the LDL receptor is calcium dependent. Specific binding of chylomicron remnants was not inhibited by the presence of even 10 mM EDTA. Preincubation of the Hep G2 cells in lipoprotein-containing medium resulted in complete suppression of LDL receptors but did not affect the remnant receptors. Hep G2 cells seem to be a suitable model for the study of hepatic receptors for lipoprotein in man. Images PMID:3038957

  6. Group 1B phospholipase A₂ inactivation suppresses atherosclerosis and metabolic diseases in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hollie, Norris I; Konaniah, Eddy S; Goodin, Colleen; Hui, David Y

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that inactivation of the group 1B phospholipase A2 (Pla2g1b) suppresses diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice. A possible influence of Pla2g1b inactivation on atherosclerosis has not been addressed previously. The current study utilized LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice with plasma lipid levels and distribution similar to hyperlipidemic human subjects as a preclinical animal model to test the effectiveness of Pla2g1b inactivation on atherosclerosis. The Pla2g1b(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) and Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice were fed a low fat chow diet or a hypercaloric diet with 58.5 kcal% fat and 25 kcal% sucrose for 10 weeks. Minimal differences were observed between Pla2g1b(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) and Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice when the animals were maintained on the low fat chow diet. However, when the animals were maintained on the hypercaloric diet, the Pla2g1(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) mice showed the expected body weight gain but the Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice were resistant to diet-induced body weight gain. The Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice also displayed lower fasting glucose, insulin, and plasma lipid levels compared to the Pla2g1b(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) mice, which displayed robust hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia in response to the hypercaloric diet. Importantly, atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic roots were also reduced 7-fold in the Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice. The effectiveness of Pla2g1b inactivation to suppress diet-induced body weight gain and reduce diabetes and atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice suggests that pharmacological inhibition of Pla2g1b may be a viable strategy to decrease diet-induced obesity and the risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor deficiency in mice protects against obesity‐induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Louise E.; Morgan, David G.; Balthasar, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS‐R) signaling has been associated with growth hormone release, increases in food intake and pleiotropic cardiovascular effects. Recent data demonstrated that acute GHS‐R antagonism leads to increases in mean arterial pressure mediated by the sympathetic nervous system in rats; a highly undesirable effect if GHS‐R antagonism was to be used as a therapeutic approach to reducing food intake in an already obese, hypertensive patient population. However, our data in conscious, freely moving GHS‐R deficient mice demonstrate that chronic absence of GHS‐R signaling is protective against obesity‐induced hypertension. GHS‐R deficiency leads to reduced systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV); in response to acute high‐fat diet (HFD)‐feeding, increases in the sympathetic control of SBPV are suppressed in GHS‐R KO mice. Our data further suggest that GHS‐R signaling dampens the immediate HFD‐mediated increase in spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity. In diet‐induced obesity, absence of GHS‐R signaling leads to reductions in obesity‐mediated hypertension and tachycardia. Collectively, our findings thus suggest that chronic blockade of GHS‐R signaling may not result in adverse cardiovascular effects in obesity. PMID:24760503

  8. Type I Interferon Supports Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Murine Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes and during Experimental Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Malte; Waibler, Zoe; Pleli, Thomas; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Cytokine regulation of high-output nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is critically involved in inflammation biology and host defense. Herein, we set out to characterize the role of type I interferon (IFN) as potential regulator of hepatic iNOS in vitro and in vivo. In this regard, we identified in murine Hepa1-6 hepatoma cells a potent synergism between pro-inflammatory interleukin-β/tumor necrosis factor-α and immunoregulatory IFNβ as detected by analysis of iNOS expression and nitrite release. Upregulation of iNOS by IFNβ coincided with enhanced binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 to a regulatory region at the murine iNOS promoter known to support target gene expression in response to this signaling pathway. Synergistic iNOS induction under the influence of IFNβ was confirmed in alternate murine Hepa56.1D hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes. To assess iNOS regulation by type I IFN in vivo, murine acetaminophen (APAP)-induced sterile liver inflammation was investigated. In this model of acute liver injury, excessive necroinflammation drives iNOS expression in diverse liver cell types, among others hepatocytes. Herein, we demonstrate impaired iNOS expression in type I IFN receptor-deficient mice which associated with diminished APAP-induced liver damage. Data presented indicate a vital role of type I IFN within the inflamed liver for fine-tuning pathological processes such as overt iNOS expression.

  9. Blockade of Tim-1 and Tim-4 Enhances Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Foks, Amanda C.; Engelbertsen, Daniel; Kuperwaser, Felicia; Alberts-Grill, Noah; Gonen, Ayelet; Witztum, Joseph L.; Lederer, James; Jarolim, Petr; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Lichtman, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (Tim) proteins are expressed by numerous immune cells, recognize phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells and function as costimulators or coinhibitors. Tim-1 is expressed by activated T cells but is also found on dendritic cells and B cells. Tim-4, present on macrophages and dendritic cells, plays a critical role in apoptotic cell clearance, regulates the number of PS-expressing activated T cells and is genetically associated with low LDL and triglyceride levels. Since these functions of Tim-1 and Tim-4 could affect atherosclerosis, their modulation has potential therapeutic value in cardiovascular disease. Approach and Results ldlr−/− mice were fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks while being treated with control (rat IgG1) or anti-Tim-1 (3D10) or -Tim-4 (21H12) mAbs that block PS recognition and phagocytosis. Both anti-Tim-1 and anti-Tim-4 treatments enhance atherosclerosis by 45% compared with controls by impairment of efferocytosis and increasing aortic CD4+T cells. Consistently, anti-Tim-4-treated mice show increased percentages of activated T cells and 'late' apoptotic cells in the circulation. Moreover, in vitro blockade of Tim-4 inhibited efferocytosis of oxLDL-induced apoptotic macrophages. Whereas anti-Tim-4 treatment increased Th1 and Th2 responses, anti-Tim-1 induced Th2 responses but dramatically reduced the percentage of Tregs. Finally, combined blockade of Tim-1 and Tim-4 increased atherosclerotic lesion size by 59%. Conclusion Blockade of Tim-4 aggravates atherosclerosis likely by prevention of phagocytosis of PS-expressing apoptotic cells and activated T cells by Tim-4-expressing cells, whereas Tim-1-associated effects on atherosclerosis are related to changes in Th1/Th2 balance and reduced circulating Tregs. PMID:26821944

  10. Immunization with cationized BSA inhibits progression of disease in ApoBec-1/LDL receptor deficient mice with manifest atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kolbus, Daniel; Wigren, Maria; Ljungcrantz, Irena; Söderberg, Ingrid; Alm, Ragnar; Björkbacka, Harry; Nilsson, Jan; Fredrikson, Gunilla N

    2011-06-01

    Immune responses against modified self-antigens generated by hypercholesterolemia play an important role in atherosclerosis identifying the immune system as a possible novel target for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. It has recently been shown that these immune responses can be modulated by subcutaneous injection of adjuvant. In the present study we immunized 25-week old ApoBec-1/LDL receptor deficient mice with manifest atherosclerosis with adjuvant and two different concentrations of the carrier molecule cationized BSA (cBSA). Plasma levels of Th2-induced apolipoprotein B (apoB)/IgG1 immune complexes were increased in the cBSA immunized groups verifying induction of immunity against a self-antigen. Mice were sacrificed at 36 weeks of age and atherosclerosis was monitored by en face Oil red O staining of the aorta. Immunization with 100 μg cBSA inhibited plaque progression, whereas the lower dose (50 μg) did not. In addition, the higher dose induced a more stable plaque phenotype, indicated by a higher content of collagen and less macrophages and T cells in the plaques. Moreover, there was an increased ratio of Foxp3+/Foxp3⁻ T cells in the circulation suggesting activation of a regulatory T cell response. In conclusion, we show that immunization with cBSA induces an immune response against apoB as well as an activation of Treg cells. This was associated with development of a more stable plaque phenotype and reduced atherosclerosis progression.

  11. Intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia induce pulmonary artery atherosclerosis and ventricular dysfunction in low density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Robert M; Bowden, Karen; Pattison, Jennifer; Peterson, Alexander B; Juliano, Joseph; Dalton, Nancy D; Gu, Yusu; Alvarez, Erika; Imamura, Toshihiro; Peterson, Kirk L; Witztum, Joseph L; Haddad, Gabriel G; Li, Andrew C

    2013-12-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea, who experience episodic hypoxia and hypercapnia during sleep, often demonstrate increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that sleep apnea patients would be predisposed to the development of atherosclerosis. To dissect the mechanisms involved, we developed an animal model in mice whereby we expose mice to intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia (IHH) in normobaric environments. Two- to three-month-old low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 or 16 wk while being exposed to IHH for either 10 h/day or 24 h/day. Plasma lipid levels, pulmonary artery and aortic atherosclerotic lesions, and cardiac function were then assayed. Surprisingly, atherosclerosis in the aorta of IHH mice was similar compared with controls. However, in IHH mice, atherosclerosis was markedly increased in the trunk and proximal branches of the pulmonary artery of exposed mice; even though plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were lower than in controls. Hemodynamic analysis revealed that right ventricular maximum pressure and isovolumic relaxation constant were significantly increased in IHH exposed mice and left ventricular % fractional shortening was reduced. In conclusion, 1) Intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia remarkably accelerated atherosclerotic lesions in the pulmonary artery of Ldlr(-/-) mice and 2) increased lesion formation in the pulmonary artery was associated with right and left ventricular dysfunction. These findings raise the possibility that patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be susceptible to atherosclerotic disease in the pulmonary vasculature, an observation that has not been previously recognized.

  12. Influence of fatty acids in maternal diet on atherogenesis in offspring of LDL receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Cipriano Torres, Dilênia; Santos, Ana Célia Oliveira Dos; Silva, Amanda Karolina Soares E; de Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2012-01-01

    Aims The present study investigated the effect of a maternal diet rich in omega-6 (E6D) or omega-9 (E9D) on atherogenesis in the offspring of mice. Main methods LDL receptor-deficient mice were fed a diet rich in either omega-6 (E6D) or omega-9 (E9D) for 45 days prior to mating and until the birth of the offspring, evaluating the effect on the offspring aorta in comparison to a standard diet (STD), by immunohistochemical analysis, morphometric analysis and electron microscopy. Key findings Hypercholesterolemic female mice fed E6D generated offspring with high levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and CC-chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2/ MCP-1) as well as a reduction in high-density lipoprotein. The ascending aorta of these animals exhibited an increase in arterial wall thickness as well as increased expression of CCL2/MCP-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. The ultrastructural analysis revealed severe alterations in endothelial cells. The offspring from mothers fed E9D exhibited a reduction in TG and an increase in low-density lipoprotein. The ultrastructural analysis revealed a well-preserved aortic endothelium in these animals. Significance The results suggest that hypercholesterolemic mothers feed a diet rich in omega-6 predispose their offspring to endothelial dysfunction. PMID:22328949

  13. Influence of riboflavin on disturbances in trytophan metabolism and hepatoma production after a single dose of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Lemonnier, F J; Scotto, J M; Thuong-Trieu, C

    1975-11-01

    Female Wistar rats were given a single oral dose of aflatoxin B1, either alone or with a large amount of riboflavin. Biochemical and histologic studies were performed for 30 months. Nine animals of 19 in the aflatoxin-treated group and only 5 of 18 in the riboflavin-aflatoxin-treated group developed hepatomas. The number of rats was insufficient for tests of statistical significance to be fruitful. Urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites was studied in aflatoxin- and riboflavin-treated rats after an oral administration of 10 mg tryptophan/100 g rat. Riboflavin did not affect the percentage of aflatoxin-treated animals with abnormal urinary excretion patterns, but did increase the magnitude of the disturbances in elimination of kynurenic and xanthurenic acids. The hepatic tryptophan-oxygenase activity was increased only in the two groups given riboflavin, and the levels of nucleic acids were the same in all groups.

  14. Comparative Study of Light Scattering from Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wang, Rongrong; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao; Guo, Xiaoen

    2012-11-01

    Primary liver cancer is one of the highest mortality malignant tumors in the world. China is a high occurrence area of primary liver cancer. Diagnosis of liver cancer, especially early diagnosis, is essential for improving patients' survival. Light scattering and measuring method is an emerging technology developed in recent decades, which has attracted a large number of biomedical researchers due to its advantages, such as fast, simple, high accuracy, good repeatability, and non-destructive. The hypothesis of this project is that there may be some different light scattering information between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte. Combined with the advantages of the dynamic light scattering method and the biological cytology, an experimental scheme to measure the light scattering information of cells was formulated. Hepatoma cells and hepatic cells were irradiated by a semiconductor laser (532 nm). And the Brookhaven BI-200SM wide-angle light scattering device and temperature control apparatus were adopted. The light scattering information of hepatoma cells and hepatic cells in vitro within the 15°C to 30°C temperature range was processed by a BI-9000AT digital autocorrelator. The following points were found: (a) the scattering intensities of human hepatic cells and hepatoma cells are nearly not affected by the temperature factor, and the former is always greater than the latter and (b) the relaxation time of hepatoma cells is longer than that of hepatic cells, and both the relaxation time are shortened with increasing temperature from 15°C to 25°C. It can be concluded that hepatoma cells could absorb more incident light than hepatic cells. The reason may be that there exists more protein and nucleic acid in cancerous cells than normal cells. Furthermore, based on the length relaxation time, a conclusion can be inferred that the Brownian movement of cancer cells is greater.

  15. Stimulation of Hepatoma Cell Invasiveness and Metastatic Potential by Proteins Secreted From Irradiated Nonparenchymal Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Leyuan; Wang Zhiming; Gao Yabo; Wang Lingyan; Zeng Zhaochong

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether factors secreted by irradiated liver nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) may influence invasiveness and/or metastatic potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to elucidate a possible mechanism for such effect. Methods and Materials: Primary rat NPCs were cultured and divided into irradiated (10-Gy X-ray) and nonirradiated groups. Forty-eight hours after irradiation, conditioned medium from irradiated (SR) or nonirradiated (SnonR) cultures were collected and added to sublethally irradiated cultures of the hepatoma McA-RH7777 cell line. Then, hepatoma cells were continuously passaged for eight generations (RH10Gy-SR and RH10Gy-SnonR). The invasiveness and metastatic potential of McA-RH7777, RH10Gy-SnonR, and RH10Gy-SR cells were evaluated using an in vitro gelatinous protein (Matrigel) invasion and an in vivo metastasis assay. In addition, SR and SnonR were tested using rat cytokine antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In vitro gelatinous protein invasion assay indicated that the numbers of invading cells was significantly higher in RH10Gy-SR (40 {+-} 4.74) than in RH10Gy-SnonR (30.6 {+-} 3.85) cells, and lowest in McA-RH7777 (11.4 {+-} 3.56) cells. The same pattern was observed in vivo in a lung metastasis assay, as evaluated by number of metastatic lung nodules seen with RH10Gy-SR (28.83 {+-} 5.38), RH10Gy-SnonR (22.17 {+-} 4.26), and McA-RH7777 (8.3 {+-} 3.8) cells. Rat cytokine antibody arrays and ELISA demonstrated that metastasis-promoting cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6), circulating growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor), and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were upregulated in SR compared with SnonR. Conclusions: Radiation can increase invasiveness and metastatic potential of sublethally irradiated hepatoma cells, and soluble mediators released from irradiated NPCs promote this potential. Increased secretion of

  16. Novel mechanism by which probucol lowers low density lipoprotein levels demonstrated in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Naruszewicz, M.; Carew, T.E.; Pittman, R.C.; Witztum, J.L.; Steinberg, D.

    1984-11-01

    Treatment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits (WHHL rabbits) with probucol (1% w/w in a chow diet) lowered their LDL-cholesterol levels by 36%, consonant with the reported effectiveness of the drug in patients deficient in the LDL receptor. Initial studies of LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) using /sup 125/I-labeled LDL prepared from the serum of untreated WHHL rabbits showed no difference between probucol-treated WHHL rabbits and untreated WHHL rabbits. When, however, /sup 125/I-labeled LDL was prepared from donor WHHL rabbits under treatment with probucol and injected back into them, the FCR was found to be increased by about 50% above that measured simultaneously using /sup 131/I-labeled LDL prepared from untreated WHHL donors. The labeled LDL from probucol-treated donors was also metabolized more rapidly than that from untreated donors when injected into untreated WHHL rabbits or into untreated wild-type New Zealand White rabbits. Finally, it was shown that rabbit skin fibroblasts in culture degraded labeled LDL prepared from probucol-treated WHHL rabbits more rapidly than that prepared from untreated WHHL donors. This was true both for normal rabbit fibroblasts and also for WHHL skin fibroblasts, although the absolute degradation rates in the latter were, of course, much lower for both forms of LDL. The data indicate that a major mechanism by which probucol lowers LDL levels relates not to changes in the cellular mechanisms for LDL uptake or to changes in LDL production but rather to intrinsic changes in the structure and metabolism of the plasma LDL of the probucol-treated animal.

  17. Eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a novel mouse model using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Kuniha; Itoh, Michiko; Suganami, Takayoshi; Kanai, Sayaka; Nakagawa, Nobutaka; Sakai, Takeru; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Hara, Mitsuko; Kojima, Soichi; Izumi, Yuichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to find novel therapeutic strategies for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), while their clinical efficacy is unclear. We have recently reported a novel rodent model of NASH using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO) mice, which exhibit the sequence of events that comprise hepatic steatosis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma with obesity-related phenotypes. In the liver of MC4R-KO mice, there is a unique histological feature termed hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS), where macrophages interact with dead hepatocytes and fibrogenic cells, thereby accelerating inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we employed MC4R-KO mice to examine the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a clinically available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on the development of NASH. EPA treatment markedly prevented the development of hepatocyte injury, hCLS formation and liver fibrosis along with lipid accumulation. EPA treatment was also effective even after MC4R-KO mice developed NASH. Intriguingly, improvement of liver fibrosis was accompanied by the reduction of hCLS formation and plasma kallikrein-mediated transforming growth factor-β activation. Moreover, EPA treatment increased the otherwise reduced serum concentrations of adiponectin, an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Collectively, EPA treatment effectively prevents the development and progression of NASH in MC4R-KO mice along with amelioration of hepatic steatosis. This study unravels a novel anti-fibrotic mechanism of EPA, thereby suggesting a clinical implication for the treatment of NASH.

  18. Pharmaceutical stabilization of mast cells attenuates experimental atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Sjöberg, Sara; Tia, Viviane; Secco, Blandine; Chen, Han; Yang, Min; Sukhova, Galina K.; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) contribute to atherogenesis by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators to activate vascular cells and other inflammatory cells. This study examined whether MC activation or stabilization affects diet-induced atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr−/−) mice. When Ldlr−/− mice consumed an atherogenic diet for 3 or 6 months, MC activation with compound 48/80 (C48/80) increased aortic arch intima and total lesion areas, and plasma total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels, whereas MC stabilization with cromolyn reduced these parameters. There were significant differences in arch intima and total lesion areas, and plasma total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels between C48/80-treated and cromolyn-treated mice. To examine a therapeutic application of cromolyn in atherosclerosis, we fed Ldlr−/− mice an atherogenic diet for 3 months followed by giving mice cromolyn for additional 3 months. Cromolyn did not affect aortic arch intima area, but significantly reduced lipid deposition in the thoracic-abdominal aortas. In aortic arches, however, cromolyn treatment significantly reduced lesion contents of Mac-3+ macrophages, CD4+ T cells, activated MCs, and lesion cell proliferation. While plasma total cholesterol and LDL levels increased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels decreased from 3 months to 6 months of an atherogenic diet, cromolyn treatment decreased significantly plasma total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels and increased HDL levels above those of 3-month time point. These observations demonstrate that MC stabilization reduces lesion inflammation, ameliorates plasma lipid profiles, and may serve as a potential therapy for this cardiovascular disease. PMID:23880180

  19. Intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia induce pulmonary artery atherosclerosis and ventricular dysfunction in low density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Karen; Pattison, Jennifer; Peterson, Alexander B.; Juliano, Joseph; Dalton, Nancy D.; Gu, Yusu; Alvarez, Erika; Imamura, Toshihiro; Peterson, Kirk L.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Haddad, Gabriel G.; Li, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea, who experience episodic hypoxia and hypercapnia during sleep, often demonstrate increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that sleep apnea patients would be predisposed to the development of atherosclerosis. To dissect the mechanisms involved, we developed an animal model in mice whereby we expose mice to intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia (IHH) in normobaric environments. Two- to three-month-old low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (Ldlr−/−) mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 or 16 wk while being exposed to IHH for either 10 h/day or 24 h/day. Plasma lipid levels, pulmonary artery and aortic atherosclerotic lesions, and cardiac function were then assayed. Surprisingly, atherosclerosis in the aorta of IHH mice was similar compared with controls. However, in IHH mice, atherosclerosis was markedly increased in the trunk and proximal branches of the pulmonary artery of exposed mice; even though plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were lower than in controls. Hemodynamic analysis revealed that right ventricular maximum pressure and isovolumic relaxation constant were significantly increased in IHH exposed mice and left ventricular % fractional shortening was reduced. In conclusion, 1) Intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia remarkably accelerated atherosclerotic lesions in the pulmonary artery of Ldlr−/− mice and 2) increased lesion formation in the pulmonary artery was associated with right and left ventricular dysfunction. These findings raise the possibility that patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be susceptible to atherosclerotic disease in the pulmonary vasculature, an observation that has not been previously recognized. PMID:23990245

  20. TLR4 Antagonist Attenuates Atherogenesis in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice with Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongyang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Yanchun; Lopes-Virella, Maria F.; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Although a large number of studies have well documented a key role of toll-like receptor (TLR)4 in atherosclerosis, it remains undetermined if TLR4 antagonist attenuates atherogenesis in mouse model for type 2 diabetes. In this study, we induced type 2 diabetes in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR−/−) mice by high-fat diet (HFD). At 8 weeks old, 20 mice were fed HFD and 20 mice fed regular chow (RC) for 24 weeks. In the last 10 weeks, half HFD-fed mice and half RC-fed mice were treated with Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipopolysaccharide (Rs-LPS), an established TLR4 antagonist. After the treatment, atherosclerotic lesions in aortas were analyzed. Results showed that the HFD significantly increased bodyweight, glucose, lipids including total cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids, and insulin resistance, indicating that the HFD induced type 2 diabetes in LDLR−/− mice. Results also showed that Rs-LPS had no effect on HFD-increased metabolic parameters in both nondiabetic and diabetic mice. Lipid staining of aortas and histological analysis of cross-sections of aortic roots showed that diabetes increased atherosclerotic lesions, but Rs-LPS attenuated atherogenesis in diabetic mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies showed that Rs-LPS reduced infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in atherosclerotic lesions of diabetic mice. Finally, the antagonistic effect of Rs-LPS on TLR4 was demonstrated by our in vitro studies showing that Rs-LPS inhibited IL-6 secretion from macrophages and endothelial cells stimulated by LPS or LPS plus saturated fatty acid palmitate. Taken together, our study demonstrated that TLR4 antagonist was capable of attenuating vascular inflammation and atherogenesis in mice with HFD-induced type 2 diabetes. PMID:26162692

  1. Intact attentional processing but abnormal responding in M1 muscarinic receptor-deficient mice using an automated touchscreen method

    PubMed Central

    Bartko, Susan J.; Romberg, Carola; White, Benjamin; Wess, Jürgen; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic receptors have been implicated in schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. However, to better target therapeutically the appropriate receptor subsystems, we need to understand more about the functions of those subsystems. In the current series of experiments, we assessed the functional role of M1 receptors in cognition by testing M1 receptor-deficient mice (M1R−/−) on the five-choice serial reaction time test of attentional and response functions, carried out using a computer-automated touchscreen test system. In addition, we tested these mice on several tasks featuring learning, memory and perceptual challenges. An advantage of the touchscreen method is that each test in the battery is carried out in the same task setting, using the same types of stimuli, responses and feedback, thus providing a high level of control and task comparability. The surprising finding, given the predominance of the M1 receptor in cortex, was the complete lack of effect of M1 deletion on measures of attentional function per se. Moreover, M1R−/− mice performed relatively normally on tests of learning, memory and perception, although they were impaired in object recognition memory with, but not without an interposed delay interval. They did, however, show clear abnormalities on a variety of response measures: M1R−/− mice displayed fewer omissions, more premature responses, and increased perseverative responding compared to wild-types. These data suggest that M1R−/− mice display abnormal responding in the face of relatively preserved attention, learning and perception. PMID:21903112

  2. Intact attentional processing but abnormal responding in M1 muscarinic receptor-deficient mice using an automated touchscreen method.

    PubMed

    Bartko, Susan J; Romberg, Carola; White, Benjamin; Wess, Jürgen; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2011-12-01

    Cholinergic receptors have been implicated in schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. However, to better target therapeutically the appropriate receptor subsystems, we need to understand more about the functions of those subsystems. In the current series of experiments, we assessed the functional role of M(1) receptors in cognition by testing M(1) receptor-deficient mice (M1R(-/-)) on the five-choice serial reaction time test of attentional and response functions, carried out using a computer-automated touchscreen test system. In addition, we tested these mice on several tasks featuring learning, memory and perceptual challenges. An advantage of the touchscreen method is that each test in the battery is carried out in the same task setting, using the same types of stimuli, responses and feedback, thus providing a high level of control and task comparability. The surprising finding, given the predominance of the M(1) receptor in cortex, was the complete lack of effect of M(1) deletion on measures of attentional function per se. Moreover, M1R(-/-) mice performed relatively normally on tests of learning, memory and perception, although they were impaired in object recognition memory with, but not without an interposed delay interval. They did, however, show clear abnormalities on a variety of response measures: M1R(-/-) mice displayed fewer omissions, more premature responses, and increased perseverative responding compared to wild-types. These data suggest that M1R(-/-) mice display abnormal responding in the face of relatively preserved attention, learning and perception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trichloroethylene toxicity in a human hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Thevenin, E.; McMillian, J.

    1994-12-31

    The experiments conducted in this study were designed to determine the usefullness of hepatocyte cultures and a human hepatoma cell line as model systems for assessing human susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma due to exposure to trichloroethylene. The results from these studies will then be analyzed to determine if human cell lines can be used to conduct future experiments of this nature.

  4. CD8+ T Cell Response to Gammaherpesvirus Infection Mediates Inflammation and Fibrosis in Interferon Gamma Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    O’Flaherty, Brigid M.; Matar, Caline G.; Wakeman, Brian S.; Garcia, AnaPatricia; Wilke, Carol A.; Courtney, Cynthia L.; Moore, Bethany B.; Speck, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), one of the most severe interstitial lung diseases, is a progressive fibrotic disorder of unknown etiology. However, there is growing appreciation for the role of viral infection in disease induction and/or progression. A small animal model of multi-organ fibrosis, which involves murine gammaherpesvirus (MHV68) infection of interferon gamma receptor deficient (IFNγR-/-) mice, has been utilized to model the association of gammaherpesvirus infections and lung fibrosis. Notably, several MHV68 mutants which fail to induce fibrosis have been identified. Our current study aimed to better define the role of the unique MHV68 gene, M1, in development of pulmonary fibrosis. We have previously shown that the M1 gene encodes a secreted protein which possesses superantigen-like function to drive the expansion and activation of Vβ4+ CD8+ T cells. Here we show that M1-dependent fibrosis is correlated with heightened levels of inflammation in the lung. We observe an M1-dependent cellular infiltrate of innate immune cells with most striking differences at 28 days-post infection. Furthermore, in the absence of M1 protein expression we observed reduced CD8+ T cells and MHV68 epitope specific CD8+ T cells to the lungs—despite equivalent levels of viral replication between M1 null and wild type MHV68. Notably, backcrossing the IFNγR-/- onto the Balb/c background, which has previously been shown to exhibit weak MHV68-driven Vβ4+ CD8+ T cell expansion, eliminated MHV68-induced fibrosis—further implicating the activated Vβ4+ CD8+ T cell population in the induction of fibrosis. We further addressed the role that CD8+ T cells play in the induction of fibrosis by depleting CD8+ T cells, which protected the mice from fibrotic disease. Taken together these findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of Vβ4+ CD8+ T cells as mediators of fibrotic disease in IFNγR-/- mice. PMID:26317335

  5. Lethality and pathogenesis of airborne infection with filoviruses in A129 α/β -/- interferon receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lever, Mark S; Piercy, Timothy J; Steward, Jackie A; Eastaugh, Lin; Smither, Sophie J; Taylor, Christopher; Salguero, Francisco J; Phillpotts, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Normal immunocompetent mice are not susceptible to non-adapted filoviruses. There are therefore two strategies available to establish a murine model of filovirus infection: adaptation of the virus to the host or the use of genetically modified mice that are susceptible to the virus. A number of knockout (KO) strains of mice with defects in either their adaptive or innate immunity are susceptible to non-adapted filoviruses. In this study, A129 α/β -/- interferon receptor-deficient KO mice, strain A129 IFN-α/β -/-, were used to determine the lethality of a range of filoviruses, including Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV), Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV), Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) and Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus (CIEBOV), administered by using intraperitoneal (IP) or aerosol routes of infection. One hundred percent mortality was observed in all groups of KO mice that were administered with a range of challenge doses of MARV and ZEBOV by either IP or aerosol routes. Mean time to death for both routes was dose-dependent and ranged from 5.4 to 7.4 days in the IP injection challenge, and from 10.2 to 13 days in the aerosol challenge. The lethal dose (50 % tissue culture infective dose, TCID(50)) of ZEBOV for KO mice was <1 TCID(50) ml(-1) when administered by either the IP or aerosol route of infection; for MARV the lethal dose was <1 TCID(50) ml(-1) by the IP route of infection and <10 TCID(50) ml(-1) by the aerosol route. In contrast, there was no mortality after infection with SEBOV or REBOV by either IP or aerosol routes of infection; all the mice lost weight (~15 % loss of group mean body weight with SEBOV and ~7 % with REBOV) but recovered to their original weights by day 14 post-challenge. There was no mortality in mice administered with CIEBOV via the IP route of infection and no clinical signs of infection were observed. The progression of disease was faster following infection with ZEBOV than with MARV but ultimately both viruses caused

  6. Occurrence of alpha 1-2-fucosylation in membrane glycoproteins of Morris hepatoma 7777 but not in liver. Aberrant type of fucosylation in a malignant tissue.

    PubMed

    Nuck, R; Orthen, B; Reutter, W

    1992-09-15

    A comparative study was undertaken to characterize the linkages of L-fucose in N-glycans of plasma membrane glycoproteins from Morris hepatoma 7777, host liver and kidney cortex, as well as from rat serum. After in-vivo radiolabelling of rats with L-[6-3H]fucose, the asparagine-linked carbohydrate chains were released from delipidated plasma membrane glycoproteins, as well as from serum glycoproteins, by enzymic digestion with peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase from Flavobacterium meningosepticum. They were then converted to their corresponding oligosaccharide alditols by reduction with sodium borohydride. Two specific alpha-L-fucosidases from almond emulsin and from Aspergillus niger, combined with affinity HPLC on immobilized Aleuria aurantia lectin were used to study the linkage of L-fucose in the oligosaccharide chains. Fucose alpha 1-2 linked to galactose, was present only in the plasma membrane of hepatoma 7777 (18% of total L-[3H]fucose in N-glycans), but was not expressed in host liver, kidney cortex and serum. None of the investigated sources contained an appreciable amount of fucose alpha 1-3/4 linked to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. All the radioactively labelled oligosaccharides from host liver, kidney cortex and serum, but only 82% of these oligosaccharides from hepatoma, contained alpha-fucosyl residues linked at the C6 position of the proximal N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.

  7. INHIBITORY EFFECT OF CHITOSAN OLIGOSACCHARIDE ON HUMAN HEPATOMA CELLS IN VITRO.

    PubMed

    Liu, Likun; Xin, Yi; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Ershao; Li, Weiling

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide, the degradation products of chitin, was reported to have a wide range of physiological functions and biological activities. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of Chitosan oligosaccharide on human hepatoma cells. MTT assay was applied to detect cell viability of the human hepatoma cells treated with Chitosan oligosaccharide. Flow cytometric analysis was used to investigate the apoptosis of the human hepatoma cells treated with Chitosan oligosaccharide. We employed western blot to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the apoptosis. Our data indicated that chitosan oligosaccharide dose-dependently inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and induced apoptosis. On the molecular level, chitosan oligosaccharide decreased Bcl-2 and increased Caspase-3 expression which may be related to the apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Our results provide an experimental basis for the clinical development of Chitosan oligosaccharide as a novel anti-hepatoma drug.

  8. Influence of lipid environment on insulin binding in cultured hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, C; Staedel-Flaig, C; Crémel, G; Leray, C; Beck, J P; Hubert, P

    1987-05-18

    The influence of alterations of plasma membrane physico-chemical properties on insulin binding have been characterized in an insulin-sensitive rat hepatoma cell line adapted to grow for several generations in culture medium enriched with linoleic acid (18:2) or with 25-hydroxycholesterol. The cells took up 18:2 and 25-hydroxycholesterol added to the culture medium, without exhibiting any sign of intolerance or intoxication. These compounds respectively increased and decreased membrane fluidity at 37 degrees C. The cells demonstrated extensive changes in insulin binding parameters in response to experimental modifications of their membrane lipid composition. When determined at 4 degrees C, insulin receptors were present in the control cells at 136,000 sites/cell but this fell to 111,000 (P less than 0.05) in cells enriched in 18:2, and rose to 176,000 (P less than 0.001) in hydroxysterol-grown cells. According to a two-site model, the main effect of 18:2 was a significant increase of the number of high-affinity sites with a concomitant decrease of low-affinity sites. The hydroxysterol had the opposite effects on these parameters. The high-affinity insulin binding capacity of the hepatoma cells was affected by lipid supplementation in a similar way, whether it was determined at 4 degrees C or at 37 degrees C. Assuming a negative cooperativity model, 18:2 enhanced the degree of negative cooperativity among the sites, while 25-hydroxycholesterol reduced it. The time-course of insulin-induced receptor down-regulation was accelerated in the cells enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids, but reduced in cells exposed to 25-hydroxycholesterol. These insulin-binding alterations cannot be directly related to modifications of cellular growth rate, receptor internalization or membrane fluidity per se, and are discussed as being more likely due to membrane lipid composition than to overall cell metabolism modifications.

  9. Effect of dexamethasone, 2-bromopalmitate and clofibrate on L-FABP mediated hepatoma proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, G; Burczynski, F J

    2004-09-01

    Cytosolic liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is involved in many intracellular functions including cellular mitogenesis. We investigated the role of L-FABP and the plasma membrane liver fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP(pm)) in the modulation of hepatoma growth and proliferation, hypothesizing that agents that affect either the content of, or ligand binding to, L-FABP would affect hepatocellular mitogenesis. L-FABP expressing 1548-rat hepatoma cells were treated with 0.5 microM dexamethasone or 500 microM clofibrate for 4 days to downregulate and upregulate L-FABP expression, respectively. The competitive inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (BrPA, 600 microM) was used to inhibit ligand binding to L-FABP. The peripherally present plasma membrane fatty acid transporter was inactivated by treating cells with 1:50 rabbit antisera (FABP-Ab) raised against L-FABP. Western blot analysis was used to monitor L-FABP levels while [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and growth curves were used to monitor hepatocellular proliferation. [(3)H]-Palmitate clearance studies were performed using monolayer cultures. Palmitate clearance in dexamethasone-, BrPA- and FABP-Ab-treated cells was significantly reduced when compared with control (P < 0.05), while clofibrate treatment moderately increased the rate. [(3)H]-Thymidine incorporation by dexamethasone- and BrPA-treated cells was significantly lower than control (P < 0.05), suggesting that hepatocellular proliferation was inhibited. Clofibrate treatment did not statistically affect growth rate. Lowering L-FABP using dexamethasone or interfering with its activity using BrPA significantly affected hepatocellular proliferation. This may be due to the non-availability of long-chain fatty acids or other intracellular mediators that are transported by L-FABP to the nucleus.

  10. Effect of low-dose aspirin on vascular inflammation, plaque stability, and atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Cyrus, Tillmann; Sung, Syuan; Zhao, Lei; Funk, Colin D; Tang, Syun; Praticò, Domenico

    2002-09-03

    Atherosclerosis is a complex vascular inflammatory disease. Low-dose aspirin is a mainstay in the prevention of vascular complications of atherosclerosis. We wished to determine the effect of low-dose aspirin on vascular inflammation, plaque composition, and atherogenesis in LDL receptor-deficient mice fed a high fat diet. In LDL receptor-deficient mice fed a high fat diet compared with control mice, low-dose aspirin induced a significant decrease in circulating levels and vascular formation of soluble intercellular molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-12p 40, without affecting lipid levels. This was associated with significant reduction of the nuclear factor kappaB activity in the aorta. Low-dose aspirin also significantly reduced the extent of atherosclerosis. Finally, aortic vascular lesions of the aspirin-treated animals showed 57% reduction (P<0.05) in the amount of macrophage cells, 77% increase in smooth muscle cells (P<0.05), and 23% increase in collagen (P<0.05). Our results suggest that in murine atherosclerosis, low-dose aspirin suppresses vascular inflammation and increases the stability of atherosclerotic plaques, both of which, together with its antiplatelet activity, contribute to its antiatherogenic effect. We conclude that low-dose aspirin might be rationally evaluated in the progression and evolution of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  11. Biosynthesis, surface expression and function of the fibronectin receptor after rat liver cell transformation to tumorigenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Decastel, M; Doyennette-Moyne, M A; Gouet, E; Aubery, M; Codogno, P

    1993-01-01

    Zajdela hepatoma cells are poorly-adherent cells derived from an undifferentiated tumour and transplanted into rat. We compared the biosynthesis, structure and function of the fibronectin receptor in normal rat hepatocytes with that in Zajdela hepatoma cells. The rat hepatocyte fibronectin receptor has been isolated. It is composed of two subunits: alpha 5 (molecular mass 155 kDa) and beta 1 (molecular mass 115 kDa). However, its biosynthesis has not yet been described. Using polyclonal antibodies raised against each of the subunits of the receptor, we observed that the alpha 5-subunit was synthesized as a 155-kDa polypeptide in normal rat hepatocytes and Zajdela hepatoma cells. In contrast, the molecular mass of the beta 1-subunit was 130 kDa in Zajdela hepatoma cells versus 115 kDa in normal rat hepatocytes. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the apparent transition time from the 100-kDa beta 1-precursor to the 130-kDa mature form was abnormally prolonged in Zajdela hepatoma cells since the latter was not detected until 24 h, while the transition from the 100-kDa precursor to the 115-kDa mature form began within 3 h in normal rat hepatocytes. Digestion of both the normal rat hepatocytes and Zajdela hepatoma cells 100-kDa beta 1-precursors with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H and peptide N-glycosidase yielded products from 100 kDa to 84 kDa and 82 kDa, respectively, as judged by SDS/PAGE, suggesting that the same polypeptide chain is synthesized in normal rat hepatocytes and in Zajdela hepatoma cells. Incubation of the mature normal rat hepatocyte beta 1-subunit with peptide N-glycosidase reduced its molecular mass from 115 kDa to 82 kDa, as judged by SDS/PAGE, while the molecular mass of the abnormal mature Zajdela hepatoma cell beta 1-subunit decreased from 130 to 110 kDa. Thus, in addition to alterations in the Asn-linked oligosaccharide processing, 'ascitic growth' induced other post-translational modifications in the Zajdela hepatoma cell beta 1-subunit

  12. Mechanical Vibration Mitigates the Decrease of Bone Quantity and Bone Quality of Leptin Receptor-Deficient Db/Db Mice by Promoting Bone Formation and Inhibiting Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Jing, Da; Luo, Erping; Cai, Jing; Tong, Shichao; Zhai, Mingming; Shen, Guanghao; Wang, Xin; Luo, Zhuojing

    2016-09-01

    Leptin, a major hormonal product of adipocytes, is involved in regulating appetite and energy metabolism. Substantial studies have revealed the anabolic actions of leptin on skeletons and bone cells both in vivo and in vitro. Growing evidence has substantiated that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice exhibit decreased bone mass and impaired bone microstructure despite several conflicting results previously reported. We herein systematically investigated bone microarchitecture, mechanical strength, bone turnover and its potential molecular mechanisms in db/db mice. More importantly, we also explored an effective approach for increasing bone mass in leptin receptor-deficient animals in an easy and noninvasive manner. Our results show that deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture and decreases of skeletal mechanical strength-including maximum load, yield load, stiffness, energy, tissue-level modulus and hardness-in db/db mice were significantly ameliorated by 12-week, whole-body vibration (WBV) with 0.5 g, 45 Hz via micro-computed tomography (μCT), three-point bending, and nanoindentation examinations. Serum biochemical analysis shows that WBV significantly decreased serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) and CTx-1 levels and also mitigated the reduction of serum osteocalcin (OCN) in db/db mice. Bone histomorphometric analysis confirmed that decreased bone formation-lower mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone-in db/db mice were suppressed by WBV. Real-time PCR assays show that WBV mitigated the reductions of tibial alkaline phosphatase (ALP), OCN, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), type I collagen (COL1), BMP2, Wnt3a, Lrp6, and β-catenin mRNA expression, and prevented the increases of tibial sclerostin (SOST), RANK, RANKL, RANL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene levels in db/db mice. Our results show that WBV promoted bone quantity and quality in db/db mice with obvious

  13. [Experimental study on electrical impedance properties of human hepatoma cells].

    PubMed

    Fang, Yun; Tang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Xin; Ma, Qing

    2014-10-01

    The AC impedance of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells were measured in our laboratory by Agilent 4294A impedance analyzer in the frequency range of 0.01-100 MHz. And then the effect of hematocrit on electrical impedance characteristics of hepatoma cells was observed by electrical impedance spectroscopy, Bode diagram, Nyquist diagram and Nichols diagram. The results showed that firstly, there is a frequency dependence, i.e., the increment of real part and the imaginary part of complex electrical impedance (δZ', δZ"), the increment of the amplitude modulus of complex electrical impedance (δ[Z *]) and phase angle (δθ) were all changed with the increasing frequency. Secondly, it showed cell volume fraction (CVF) dependence, i. e. , the increment of low-frequency limit (δZ'0, δ[Z*] 0), peak (δZ"(p), δθ(p)), area and radius (Nyquist diagram, Nichols diagram) were all increased along with the electric field frequency. Thirdly, there was the presence of two characteristic frequencies: the first characteristic frequency (f(c1)) and the second characteristic frequency (f(c2)), which were originated respectively in the polarization effects of two interfaces that the cell membrane and extracellular fluid, cell membrane and cytoplasm. A conclusion can be drawn that the electrical impedance spectroscopy is able to be used to observe the electrical characteristics of human hepatoma cells, and therefore this method can be used to investigate the electrophysiological mechanisms of liver cancer cells, and provide research tools and observation parameters, and it also has important theoretical value and potential applications for screening anticancer drugs.

  14. Synthesis and targeting of hexokinase to mitochondria in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, F.; Nelson, B.D. )

    1989-10-01

    The synthesis and turnover of hexokinase has been measured in Zajdela hepatoma ascites cells labeled for short periods with ({sup 35}S)methionine. Digitonin fractionation of the labeled cells into a soluble and a membrane fraction showed that only a small part of the newly labeled hexokinase is transferred to mitochondrial binding sites. The soluble enzyme disappears, however, with a half-life of less than 2 h. Glucose had no effect on the stability of the soluble enzyme in intact cells. Our experiments suggest that Zajdela cell hexokinase is synthesized in excess of binding sites and that the excess enzyme is not stable.

  15. Synergistic inhibitory effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with sorafenib on hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hai-Shan; Liao, Ming-Bin; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Xie, Yin; Xu, Li; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Zheng, X F Steven; Wang, Hui-Yun; Chen, Yi-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in solid tumors, associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance, recurrence and metastasis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can increase tissue oxygen pressure and content to prevent the resistance, recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Presently, Sorafenib is a first-line drug, targeted for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but effective in only a small portion of patients and can induce hypoxia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of HBO in combination with sorafenib on hepatoma cells. Hepatoma cell lines (BEL-7402 and SK-Hep1) were treated with HBO at 2 atmosphere absolute pressure for 80 min per day or combined with sorafenib or cisplatin. At different time points, cells were tested for cell growth, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle and migration. Finally, miRNA from the hepatoma cells was detected by microRNA array and validated by qRT-PCR. Although HBO, sorafenib or cisplatin alone could inhibit growth of hepatoma cells, HBO combined with sorafenib or cisplatin resulted in much greater synergistic growth inhibition (cell proliferation and colony formation) in hepatoma cells. Similarly, the synergistic effect of HBO and sorafenib on induction of apoptosis was also observed in hepatoma cells. HBO induced G1 arrest in SK-Hep1 not in BEL-7402 cells, but enhanced cell cycle arrest induced by sorafenib in BEL-7402 treated cells. However, HBO had no obvious effect on the migration of hepatoma cells, and microRNA array analysis showed that hepatoma cells with HBO treatment had significantly different microRNA expression profiles from those with blank control. We show for the first time that HBO combined with sorafenib results in synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis in hepatoma cells, suggesting a potential application of HBO combined with sorafenib in HCC patients. Additionally, we also show that HBO significantly altered microRNA expression in hepatoma cells.

  16. Synergistic Inhibitory Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Combined with Sorafenib on Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hai-Shan; Liao, Ming-Bin; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Xie, Yin; Xu, Li; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Zheng, X. F. Steven; Wang, Hui-Yun; Chen, Yi-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in solid tumors, associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance, recurrence and metastasis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can increase tissue oxygen pressure and content to prevent the resistance, recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Presently, Sorafenib is a first-line drug, targeted for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but effective in only a small portion of patients and can induce hypoxia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of HBO in combination with sorafenib on hepatoma cells. Methods Hepatoma cell lines (BEL-7402 and SK-Hep1) were treated with HBO at 2 atmosphere absolute pressure for 80 min per day or combined with sorafenib or cisplatin. At different time points, cells were tested for cell growth, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle and migration. Finally, miRNA from the hepatoma cells was detected by microRNA array and validated by qRT-PCR. Results Although HBO, sorafenib or cisplatin alone could inhibit growth of hepatoma cells, HBO combined with sorafenib or cisplatin resulted in much greater synergistic growth inhibition (cell proliferation and colony formation) in hepatoma cells. Similarly, the synergistic effect of HBO and sorafenib on induction of apoptosis was also observed in hepatoma cells. HBO induced G1 arrest in SK-Hep1 not in BEL-7402 cells, but enhanced cell cycle arrest induced by sorafenib in BEL-7402 treated cells. However, HBO had no obvious effect on the migration of hepatoma cells, and microRNA array analysis showed that hepatoma cells with HBO treatment had significantly different microRNA expression profiles from those with blank control. Conclusions We show for the first time that HBO combined with sorafenib results in synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis in hepatoma cells, suggesting a potential application of HBO combined with sorafenib in HCC patients. Additionally, we also show that HBO significantly altered microRNA expression in hepatoma cells

  17. Depletion of Endothelial or Smooth Muscle Cell-Specific Angiotensin II Type 1a Receptors Does Not Influence Aortic Aneurysms or Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rateri, Debra L.; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Knight, Victoria; Balakrishnan, Anju; Howatt, Deborah A.; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background Whole body genetic deletion of AT1a receptors in mice uniformly reduces hypercholesterolemia and angiotensin II-(AngII) induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, the role of AT1a receptor stimulation of principal cell types resident in the arterial wall remains undefined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether deletion of AT1a receptors in either endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells influences the development of atherosclerosis and AAAs. Methodology/Principal Findings AT1a receptor floxed mice were developed in an LDL receptor −/− background. To generate endothelial or smooth muscle cell specific deficiency, AT1a receptor floxed mice were bred with mice expressing Cre under the control of either Tie2 or SM22, respectively. Groups of males and females were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 3 months to determine effects on atherosclerosis. Deletion of AT1a receptors in either endothelial or smooth muscle cells had no discernible effect on the size of atherosclerotic lesions. We also determined the effect of cell-specific AT1a receptor deficiency on atherosclerosis and AAAs using male mice fed a saturated fat-enriched diet and infused with AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min). Again, deletion of AT1a receptors in either endothelial or smooth muscle cells had no discernible effects on either AngII-induced atherosclerotic lesions or AAAs. Conclusions Although previous studies have demonstrated whole body AT1a receptor deficiency diminishes atherosclerosis and AAAs, depletion of AT1a receptors in either endothelial or smooth muscle cells did not affect either of these vascular pathologies. PMID:23236507

  18. Effect of hepatoma H22 on lymphatic endothelium in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hua; Zhou, Hong-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Mei; Gu, Xiao-Ming; Pan, Bo-Rong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of metastatic hepatoma cells on lymphangioma-derived endothelium, and to establish in vitro model systems for assessing metastasis-related response of lymphatic endothelium. METHODS: Benign lymphangioma, induced by intraperitoneal injection of the incomplete Freund’s adjuvant in BALB/c mice, was embedded in fibrin gel or digested and then cultured in the conditioned medium derived from hepatoma H22. Light and electron microscopy, and the transwell migration assay were used to determine the effect of H22 on tissue or cell culture. Expressions of Flt-4, c-Fos, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured cells, and content of nitric oxide in culture medium were also examined. RESULTS: The embedded lymphangioma pieces gave rise to array of capillaries, while separated cells from lymphangioma grew to a cobblestone-like monolayer. H22 activated growth and migration of the capillaries and cells, induced expressions of Flt-4, c-Fos, PCNA and iNOS in cultured cells, and significantly increased the content of NO in the culture medium. CONCLUSION: Lymphangioma-derived cells keep the differentiated phenotypes of lymphatic endothelium, and the models established in this study are feasible for in vitro study of metastasis-related response of lymphatic endothelium. PMID:15526361

  19. Abolition of the behavioral phenotype of adult netrin-1 receptor deficient mice by exposure to amphetamine during the juvenile period.

    PubMed

    Yetnikoff, Leora; Almey, Anne; Arvanitogiannis, Andreas; Flores, Cecilia

    2011-10-01

    Netrin-1 guidance cues contribute to amphetamine-induced plasticity of the adult mesocorticolimbic dopamine system in rodents. The netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), is upregulated by repeated amphetamine treatment selectively in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of adult rats and wild-type mice. Furthermore, adult dcc heterozygous mice fail to show amphetamine-induced increases in VTA DCC expression and do not develop sensitization to this drug. The effects of netrin-1 receptor signaling on mesocorticolimbic dopamine system function change across development. However, the effects of AMPH on DCC receptor regulation and behavioral sensitization before puberty have not been determined. Here we examined whether (1) repeated amphetamine treatment would also alter DCC expression in juvenile rats and wild-type mice, and (2) dcc heterozygotes treated with amphetamine during the juvenile period (PND 22-32) would develop behavioral sensitization to this drug. Repeated amphetamine downregulates DCC expression selectively in the VTA of juvenile rodents. Moreover, the behavioral phenotype of adult dcc heterozygous mice is not present before puberty and is abolished by amphetamine treatment during the juvenile period. Remarkably, adult dcc heterozygotes pretreated with amphetamine as juveniles no longer exhibit reduced DCC expression in the VTA compared to wild-type controls. Our results indicate that netrin-1 receptor signaling may be a key factor in determining individual differences in vulnerability to the behaviorally sensitizing effects of amphetamine at different ages. Moreover, they suggest that the juvenile period marks a window of vulnerability during which exposure to stimulant drugs can reverse the behavioral phenotype of adult dcc heterozygous mice.

  20. Fibronectin synthesized by a human hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Glasgow, J.E.; Colman, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    Fibronectin is a family of immunologically similar glycoproteins which mediate a variety of cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions. It is a constituent of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue and circulates in plasma. When suspension and adherent cultures of a human hepatoma cell line (SK-HEP-1) were incubated in serum-free medium, the resulting conditioned medium contained material which was specifically immunoprecipitated by antisera to human plasma fibronectin. By double immunodiffusion, a component in the conditioned culture medium was shown to form a line of identity with fibronectin in human plasma and to migrate as an alpha 2- to beta-globulin during immunoelectrophoresis. Human fibronectin was quantified in conditioned medium by electroimmunodiffusion, and was found to increase for at least three days at about 0.1 micrograms/10(6) cells/day. Adherent cultures of SK-HEP-1 cells were incubated with L-(/sup 35/S)methionine to label newly synthesized proteins. Labeled fibronectin in conditioned medium or in cell extracts comigrated with fibronectin in human plasma as shown by autoradiography following crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Fibronectin was demonstrated in the extra-cellular matrix of adherent SK-HEP-1 cultures by immunofluorescence. It was shown previously that SK-HEP-1 cells synthesize alpha 1-protease inhibitor, one of the products of normal hepatocytes. The finding that these hepatoma cells also synthesize fibronectin supports the concept that the hepatocyte may be one source of circulating fibronectin, a possibility consistent with the established role of this cell type in blood plasma protein synthesis.

  1. Membrane Glycolipids Content Variety in Gastrointestinal Tumors and Transplantable Hepatomas in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Lv, Can Qun; Wang, Bo-Liang; Mei, Ping; Xu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the variety of plasma contents of membrane glycolipids in 65 gastrointestinal tumors and 31 transplant hepatomas in mice. Material/Methods The experimental model was a transplantable murine hepatoma. Experimental mice were divided into 3 groups. Results The LSA and TSA content in the 2 groups were significantly difference (p<0.01), and were significantly lower in the therapeutic group than in the control group (p<0.01). Conclusions These results indicate that membrane glycolipids index LSA and TSA are sensitive markers in gastrointestinal tumors. In the transplanted hepatomas in mice, they may be considered as ancillary indicators for judging the therapeutic effect of hepatoma. PMID:27554918

  2. Involvement of anoikis-resistance in the metastasis of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lili; Han, Lihui; Zhang, Zhiyong; Li, Jie; Qu, Zhonghua; Du, Juan; Liang, Xiaohong; Liu, Yugang; Liu, Hua; Shi, Yongyu; Liu, Suxia; Gao, Lifen; Sun, Wensheng

    2009-04-15

    Acquisition of anoikis-resistance is a pre-requisite for cancer cell metastasis. We have demonstrated that hepatoma cells could resist anoikis by a synoikis-like survival style. In this study, we further suggest that acquisition of anoikis-resistance confer cancer cells more capacity for invasiveness, evading from cancer therapeutic agents and escaping from host immune attacks. We investigated the response of anoikis-resistant hepatoma cells to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a typical immune surveillant molecule as well as a potential anticancer agent. Our data indicated that detached hepatoma cells not only resist TRAIL-induced apoptosis, but also domesticate TRAIL to exert a stealth "tumor counterattack" effect. These results reveal that acquisition of anoikis-resistance may act as a selective pressure to superimpose on hepatoma cells more metastatic potential for the development of cancer.

  3. CD4-independent, productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of hepatoma cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y Z; Friedman-Kien, A E; Huang, Y X; Li, X L; Mirabile, M; Moudgil, T; Zucker-Franklin, D; Ho, D D

    1990-01-01

    Five hepatoma cell lines, including CZHC/8571, PLC/PRF/5, Hep3B, HepG2, and HUH7, were inoculated with three diverse isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Productive infection was noted in all hepatoma cell lines, and expression of viral p24 antigen lasted for over 3 months, but its level decreased in proportion to the number of viable cells. HIV-1 antigens were also found in the cells by immunohistochemical staining and radioimmunoprecipitation assay, as were viral RNA by in situ hybridization and HIV-1-like particles by electron microscopy. Virus yield assays were also positive on supernatant fluids collected from hepatoma cultures inoculated with HIV-1. Despite their susceptibility to infection, all five hepatoma cell lines were negative for CD4 by immunofluorescence and for CD4 mRNA by slot-blot hybridization. In addition, HIV-1 infection of hepatoma cell lines was not blocked by anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody or soluble CD4. Together, these findings clearly demonstrate that all five hepatoma cell lines were susceptible to productive infection by HIV-1 in vitro via a CD4-independent mechanism. Images PMID:2159530

  4. Toll-like Receptor 4 Deficiency Decreases Atherosclerosis but Does Not Protect against Inflammation in Obese LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yilei; Subramanian, Savitha; Montes, Vince N.; Goodspeed, Leela; Wang, Shari; Han, Chang Yeop; Teresa, Antonio Sta.; Kim, Jinkyu; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Chait, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) participates in the cross-talk between inflammation and insulin resistance, being activated by both lipopolysaccharide and saturated fatty acids. This study was undertaken to determine whether TLR4 deficiency has a protective role in inflammation, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis induced by a diabetogenic diet. Methods and Results TLR4 and LDL receptor double knockout (Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/−) mice and Ldlr−/− mice were fed either a normal chow or a diabetogenic diet for 24 weeks. Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/− mice fed a diabetogenic diet showed improved plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels but developed obesity, hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance equivalent to obese Ldlr−/− mice. Adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage accumulation and local inflammation were not attenuated in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/− mice. However, TLR4 deficiency led to markedly decreased atherosclerosis in obese Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/− mice. Compensatory up-regulation of TLR2 expression was observed both in obese TLR4 deficient mice and in palmitate-treated TLR4-silenced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusions TLR4 deficiency decreases atherosclerosis without affecting obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in LDL receptor deficient mice. Alternative pathways may be responsible for adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and insulin resistance that occurs in obesity. PMID:22580897

  5. SKI-II--a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor--exacerbates atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDL-R-/-) mice on high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Potì, Francesco; Ceglarek, Uta; Burkhardt, Ralph; Simoni, Manuela; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2015-05-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysosphingolipid associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) that contributes to their anti-atherogenic potential. We investigated whether a reduction in S1P plasma levels affects atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDL-R-/-) mice. LDL-R-/- mice on Western diet containing low (0.25% w/w) or high (1.25% w/w) cholesterol were treated for 16 weeks with SKI-II, a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor that significantly reduced plasma S1P levels. SKI-II treatment increased atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta in mice on high but not low cholesterol diet. This compound did not affect body weight, blood cell counts and plasma total and HDL cholesterol, but decreased triglycerides. In addition, mice on high cholesterol diet receiving SKI-II showed elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and endothelial adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1). Prolonged lowering of plasma S1P produces pro-atherogenic effects in LDL-R-/- mice that are evident under condition of pronounced hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fas receptor-deficient lpr mice are protected against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity due to higher glutathione synthesis and enhanced detoxification of oxidant stress.

    PubMed

    Williams, C David; McGill, Mitchell R; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a classical model of hepatocellular necrosis; however, the involvement of the Fas receptor in the pathophysiology remains controversial. Fas receptor-deficient (lpr) and C57BL/6 mice were treated with APAP to compare the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Lpr mice were partially protected against APAP hepatotoxicity as indicated by reduced plasma ALT and GDH levels and liver necrosis. Hepatic Cyp2e1 protein, adduct formation and hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion were similar, demonstrating equivalent reactive metabolite generation. There was no difference in cytokine formation or hepatic neutrophil recruitment. Interestingly, hepatic GSH recovered faster in lpr mice than in wild type animals resulting in enhanced detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Driving the increased GSH levels, mRNA induction and protein expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase (gclc) were higher in lpr mice. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein levels at 6h were significantly lower in lpr mice, which correlated with reduced nitrotyrosine staining. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA levels were substantially higher in lpr mice after APAP. Our data suggest that the faster recovery of hepatic GSH levels during oxidant stress and peroxynitrite formation, reduced iNOS expression and enhanced induction of Hsp70 attenuated the susceptibility to APAP-induced cell death in lpr mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fas Receptor-deficient lpr Mice are protected against Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity due to Higher Glutathione Synthesis and Enhanced Detoxification of Oxidant Stress

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a classical model of hepatocellular necrosis; however, the involvement of the Fas receptor in the pathophysiology remains controversial. Fas receptor-deficient (lpr) and C57BL/6 mice were treated with APAP to compare the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Lpr mice were partially protected against APAP hepatotoxicity as indicated by reduced plasma ALT and GDH levels and liver necrosis. Hepatic Cyp2e1 protein, adduct formation and hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion were similar, demonstrating equivalent reactive metabolite generation. There was no difference in cytokine formation or hepatic neutrophil recruitment. Interestingly, hepatic GSH recovered faster in lpr mice than in wild type animals resulting in enhanced detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Driving the increased GSH levels, mRNA induction and protein expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase (gclc) were higher in lpr mice. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein levels at 6h were significantly lower in lpr mice, which correlated with reduced nitrotyrosine staining. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA levels were substantially higher in lpr mice after APAP. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the faster recovery of hepatic GSH levels during oxidant stress and peroxynitrite formation, reduced iNOS expression and enhanced induction of Hsp70 attenuated the susceptibility to APAP-induced cell death in lpr mice. PMID:23628456

  8. F(ab')2 fragments of anti-oxidized LDL IgG attenuate vascular inflammation and atherogenesis in diabetic LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanchun; Lu, Zhongyang; Huang, Yan; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Virella, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Considerable evidence is available supporting the atherogenic role of immune complexes (IC) formed by modified forms of LDL and their corresponding antibodies in humans and other species. In this study, we assessed the effect of IgG F(ab')2 fragments of murine anti-mouse oxLDL, which binds oxLDL forming IC that cannot interact with Fcγ receptors, on the development of atherosclerosis in diabetic LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice. Immunohistochemical study showed that treatment with the F(ab')2 fragments for 8weeks significantly reduced the content of macrophages and interleukin 6 expression in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, histological study showed that treatment with the same F(ab')2 fragments significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic LDLR-/- mice. Taken together, this study demonstrated for the first time that F(ab')2 fragments of anti-oxLDL IgG inhibited vascular inflammation and atherogenesis in diabetic LDLR-/- mice and uncovered a possible new avenue for therapy in patients at high risk to progress to cardiovascular complications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Constitutive androstane receptor activation decreases plasma apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sberna, Anne-Laure; Assem, Mahfoud; Xiao, Rui; Ayers, Steve; Gautier, Thomas; Guiu, Boris; Deckert, Valérie; Chevriaux, Angélique; Grober, Jacques; Le Guern, Naig; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Moore, David D; Lagrost, Laurent; Masson, David

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a Western-type diet were treated weekly with the Car agonist 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) or the vehicle only for 8 weeks. In Ldlr(-/-) mice, treatment with TCPOBOP induced a decrease in plasma triglyceride and intermediate-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (≈30% decrease in both cases after 2 months, P<0.01). These mice also showed a significant reduction in the production of very-low-density lipoproteins associated with a decrease in hepatic triglyceride content and the repression of several genes involved in lipogenesis. TCPOBOP treatment also induced a marked increase in the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor in the liver, which probably contributed to the decrease in intermediate-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein levels. Atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic valves of TCPOBOP-treated Ldlr(-/-) mice were also reduced (-60%, P<0.001). In ApoE(-/-) mice, which lack the physiological apoE ligand for the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor, the effect of TCPOBOP on plasma cholesterol levels and the development of atherosclerotic lesions was markedly attenuated. CAR is a potential target in the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  10. Carvacrol and rosemary oil at higher concentrations induce apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Melušová, Martina; Jantová, Soňa; Horváthová, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Natural essential oils are volatile herbal complex compounds which manifest cytotoxic effects on living cells depending on their type and concentration but usually they are not genotoxic. Our previous studies showed that carvacrol (CA) and rosemary essential oil (RO) induced growth inhibition of both human cell lines HepG2 and BHNF-1, with hepatoma HepG2 cells being more sensitive to either compound tested. Cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO induced the formation of DNA strand breaks. Further ex vivo studies showed that extracts prepared from hepatocytes of CA- and RO-supplemented rats did not increase incision repair activity compared to extracts from liver cells of control animals. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effect of cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO on the cell cycle and the ability of both natural volatiles to induce DNA fragmentation and apoptotic death of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. These effects were measured after 24 h incubation of HepG2 cells with CA and RO using three independent methods - flow cytometry, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (electrophoresis) and micronucleus assay. Evaluation of morphological changes and formation of micronuclei in HepG2 cells showed no increase in the number of micronuclei in cells treated by CA and RO compared to control cells. On the other hand, CA and RO induced morphological changes typical for apoptosis in concentration-dependent manner. The presence of necrosis was negligible. Both natural compounds caused shrinking of cytoplasmic membrane and formation of apoptotic bodies. In addition, the highest concentrations of CA and RO induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (formation of DNA ladder) in HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed the accumulation of cells in the G1 phase, which was accompanied by a reduction in the number of cells in the S phase after 24 h exposure to the substances tested. The cell division was thus slowed down or stopped and this process resulted in cell

  11. Effects of JS-K, a novel anti-cancer nitric oxide prodrug, on gene expression in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ray; Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Huan; Liu, Zhengyun; Liu, Jie; Saavedra, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    JS-K is a novel anticancer nitric oxide (NO) prodrug effective against a variety of cancer cells, including the inhibition of AM-1 hepatoma cell growth in rats. To further evaluate anticancer effects of JS-K, human hepatoma Hep3B cells were treated with JS-K and the compound control JS-43-126 at various concentrations (0-100μM) for 24h, and cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay. The compound control JS-43-126 was not cytotoxic to Hep3B cells at concentrations up to 100μM, while the LC50 for JS-K was about 10μM. To examine the molecular mechanisms of antitumor effects of JS-K, Hep3B cells were treated with 1-10μM of JS-K for 24h, and then subjected to gene expression analysis via real time RT-PCR and protein immunostain via confocal images. JS-K is a GST-α targeting NO prodrug, and decreased immunostaining for GST-α was associated with JS-K treatment. JS-K activated apoptosis pathways in Hep3B cells, including induction of caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and immunostaining for caspase-3 was intensified. The expressions of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were increased by JS-K at both transcript and protein levels. JS-K treatment also increased the expression of differentiation-related genes CD14 and CD11b, and depressed the expression of c-myc in Hep3B cells. Thus, multiple molecular events appear to be associated with anticancer effects of JS-K in human hepatoma Hep3B cells, including activation of genes related to apoptosis and induction of genes involved in antiangiogenesis and tumor cell migration.

  12. Probing the control elements of the CYP1A1 switching module in H4IIE hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Broccardo, Carolyn J; Billings, Ruth E; Andersen, Melvin E; Hanneman, William H

    2005-11-01

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown a switch-like response to PCB 126 mediated CYP1A1 induction in primary rat hepatocytes and in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. On a single cell level, cells appear to be either "on" or "off" for CYP1A1 induction at a given dose; some cells never respond to PCB 126. These cells represent a non-responding population. Cells that are switched "on" by PCB 126 display varying levels of induction, much like the dimmer on a light switch. The goal of the present research is to begin to uncover the mechanism for this switch-like response to CYP1A1 induction in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. The AhR pathway is modulated by multiple co-activators and by phosphorylation. This research focuses on the phosphorylation cascades initiated by PCB 126 and the role they play in CYP1A1 induction. Our research reveals a likely role for protein kinase C (PKC) in this switch response. Inhibition of PKC by H-7 dramatically reduced the percent of cells that express CYP1A1 in response to PCB 126 treatment, as determined by flow cytometry. The effect of H-7 was concentration dependent, decreasing the number of cells expressing CYP1A1 rather than decreasing the level of CYP1A1 in all cells. This finding provides further evidence for the switch-like behavior of CYP1A1 induction and implicates PKC in this response to PCB126. The protein kinase inhibitor, HA-1004, had only a minor effect on CYP1A1 induction. A high-throughput immunoblot screen for 40 proteins revealed the regulation of several proteins/phosphoproteins by PCB 126. Most importantly, two proteins containing phosphoserine/phoshothreonine residues were increased by PCB126 treatment. However, PKC translocation studies and activity studies failed to verify that PCB126 activates PKC. It is possible that constitutive PKC activity is sufficient to maintain phosphorylation of critical components of the AhR pathway. Immunoblotting studies showed that MAP kinases ERK and JNK are not activated by PCB 126 in H

  13. Autophagy of metallothioneins prevents TNF-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ullio, Chiara; Brunk, Ulf T; Urani, Chiara; Melchioretto, Pasquale; Bonelli, Gabriella; Baccino, Francesco M; Autelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) induced by oxidative stress has recently emerged as a prominent mechanism behind TNF cytotoxicity. This pathway relies on diffusion of hydrogen peroxide into lysosomes containing redox-active iron, accumulated by breakdown of iron-containing proteins and subcellular organelles. Upon oxidative lysosomal damage, LMP allows relocation to the cytoplasm of low mass iron and acidic hydrolases that contribute to DNA and mitochondrial damage, resulting in death by apoptosis or necrosis. Here we investigate the role of lysosomes and free iron in death of HTC cells, a rat hepatoma line, exposed to TNF following metallothionein (MT) upregulation. Iron-binding MT does not normally occur in HTC cells in significant amounts. Intracellular iron chelation attenuates TNF and cycloheximide (CHX)-induced LMP and cell death, demonstrating the critical role of this transition metal in mediating cytokine lethality. MT upregulation, combined with starvation-activated MT autophagy almost completely suppresses TNF and CHX toxicity, while impairment of both autophagy and MT upregulation by silencing of Atg7, and Mt1a and/or Mt2a, respectively, abrogates protection. Interestingly, MT upregulation by itself has little effect, while stimulated autophagy alone depresses cytokine toxicity to some degree. These results provide evidence that intralysosomal iron-catalyzed redox reactions play a key role in TNF and CHX-induced LMP and toxicity. The finding that chelation of intralysosomal iron achieved by autophagic delivery of MT, and to some degree probably of other iron-binding proteins as well, into the lysosomal compartment is highly protective provides a putative mechanism to explain autophagy-related suppression of death by TNF and CHX. PMID:26566051

  14. Hexokinase isoenzymes from the Novikoff hepatoma. Purification, kinetic and structural characterization, with emphasis on hexokinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Radojković, J; Ureta, T

    1987-01-01

    The purification to homogeneity of hexokinases B and C from the cytosol of rat Novikoff hepatoma was achieved by a protocol using an initial chromatography on Blue 2-agarose to separate the isoenzymes from each other. After that step each hexokinase was subjected to chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and Sephacryl S-300, followed by re-chromatography on hydroxyapatite. The final preparations of hexokinases B and C had specific activities of 86 and 23.5 units/mg of protein respectively, and gave single bands on electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions or in SDS/polyacrylamide gels. Mr values of about 100,000 were found for both isoenzymes either by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography or by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Values of apparent Km for glucose and ATP of pure hexokinase B were similar to those reported for the enzyme from other sources. The apparent Km value for glucose of hexokinase C was 0.025 mM. Marked inhibition of hexokinase C by glucose concentrations above 0.2 mM was found. The effect was partially relieved by ATP concentrations above 1 mM and was independent of pH. Glucose 6-phosphate was inhibitory, but the Ki value (0.18 mM) is higher than those reported for other animal hexokinases. The amino acid composition of hexokinase C was found to be similar to those reported for hexokinases B and D. Also, an immune serum directed against hexokinase A was able, at low dilutions, to bind hexokinases B and C. An immune serum directed against hexokinase C was able, at low dilutions, to bind hexokinase B and also, but weakly, hexokinase A. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3593283

  15. Hepatoma polarization limits CD81 and hepatitis C virus dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Harris, H J; Clerte, C; Farquhar, M J; Goodall, M; Hu, K; Rassam, P; Dosset, P; Wilson, G K; Balfe, P; IJzendoorn, S C; Milhiet, P E; McKeating, J A

    2013-01-01

    Many viruses target the polarized epithelial apex during host invasion. In contrast, hepatitis C virus (HCV) engages receptors at the basal surface of hepatocytes in the polarized liver parenchyma. Hepatocyte polarization limits HCV entry by undefined mechanism(s). Given the recent reports highlighting a role for receptor mobility in pathogen entry, we studied the effect(s) of hepatocyte polarization on viral receptor and HCV pseudoparticle (HCVpp) dynamics using real-time fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and single particle tracking. Hepatoma polarization reduced CD81 and HCVpp dynamics at the basal membrane. Since cell polarization is accompanied by changes in the actin cytoskeleton and CD81 links to actin via its C-terminus, we studied the dynamics of a mutant CD81 lacking a C-terminal tail (CD81ΔC) and its effect(s) on HCVpp mobility and infection. CD81ΔC showed an increased frequency of confined trajectories and a reduction of Brownian diffusing molecules compared to wild-type protein in non-polarized cells. However, these changes were notobserved in polarized cells. HCVpp showed a significant reduction in Brownian diffusion and infection of CD81ΔC expressing non-polarized cells. In summary, these data highlight the dynamic nature of CD81 and demonstrate a role for CD81 lateral diffusion to regulate HCV infection in a polarization-dependent manner. PMID:23126643

  16. Anti-hepatoma activity of resveratrol in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhong-Jie; Pan, Cheng-En; Liu, Hong-Shan; Wang, Guo-Jun

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the anti-tumor effect of resveratrol alone and the synergistic effects of resveratrol with 5-FU on the growth of H22 cells line in vitro METHODS: The number of cells was measured by MTT method,the morphological changes of H22 cells were investigated under microscopy and electron microscopyq. RESULTS: Resveratrol inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells line H22 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IC50 of the resveratrol on H22 cells was 6.57 mg·L-1. The synergistic anti-tumor effects of resveratrol with 5-FU increased to a greater extent than for H22 cells treated with 5-FU alone (70.2% vs 28.4%)(P < 0.05). Under microscope and electron microscope, characteristics of apoptosis such as typical apoptotic bodies were commonly found in tumor cells in the drug-treated groups. CONCLUSION: Resveratrol can suppresses the growth of H22 cells in vitro, its anti-tumor activity may occur through the induction of apoptosis. PMID:11833076

  17. Inhibition of sodium-linked glucose reabsorption normalizes diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration in conscious adenosine A₁-receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sällström, J; Eriksson, T; Fredholm, B B; Persson, A E G; Palm, F

    2014-02-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration is commonly observed in diabetics early after the onset of the disease and predicts the progression of nephropathy. Sustained hyperglycaemia is also closely associated with kidney hypertrophy and increased electrolyte and glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule. In this study, we investigated the role of the increased tubular sodium/glucose cotransport for diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration. To eliminate any potential confounding effect of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism, we used adenosine A₁-receptor deficient (A1AR(-/-)) mice known to lack a functional TGF mechanism and compared the results to corresponding wild-type animals (A1AR(+/+)). Diabetes was induced by an intravenous bolus injection of alloxan. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined in conscious mice by a single bolus injection of inulin. The sodium/glucose cotransporters were inhibited by phlorizin 30 min prior to GFR measurements. Normoglycaemic animals had a similar GFR independent of genotype (A₁AR(+/+) 233 ± 11 vs. A₁AR(-/-) 241 ± 25 μL min(-1)), and induction of diabetes resulted in glomerular hyperfiltration in both groups (A₁AR(+/+) 380 ± 25 vs. A₁AR(-/-) 336 ± 35 μL min(-1); both P < 0.05). Phlorizin had no effect on GFR in normoglycaemic mice, whereas it reduced GFR in both genotypes during diabetes (A₁AR(+/+) 365 ± 18 to 295 ± 19, A₁AR(-/-) 354 ± 38 to 199 ± 15 μL min(-1); both P < 0.05). Notably, the reduction was more pronounced in the A₁AR(-/-) (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that increased tubular sodium/glucose reabsorption is important for diabetes-induced hyperfiltration, and that the TGF mechanism is not involved in these alterations, but rather functions to reduce any deviations from a new set-point. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Impaired clearance of influenza A virus in obese, leptin receptor deficient mice is independent of leptin signaling in the lung epithelium and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Radigan, Kathryn A; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Soberanes, Saul; Nicholson, Trevor; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Cho, Takugo; Chi, Monica; Hamanaka, Robert B; Misharin, Alexander V; Perlman, Harris; Budinger, G R Scott; Mutlu, Gökhan M

    2014-01-01

    During the recent H1N1 outbreak, obese patients had worsened lung injury and increased mortality. We used a murine model of influenza A pneumonia to test the hypothesis that leptin receptor deficiency might explain the enhanced mortality in obese patients. We infected wild-type, obese mice globally deficient in the leptin receptor (db/db) and non-obese mice with tissue specific deletion of the leptin receptor in the lung epithelium (SPC-Cre/LepR fl/fl) or macrophages and alveolar type II cells (LysM-Cre/Lepr fl/fl) with influenza A virus (A/WSN/33 [H1N1]) (500 and 1500 pfu/mouse) and measured mortality, viral clearance and several markers of lung injury severity. The clearance of influenza A virus from the lungs of mice was impaired in obese mice globally deficient in the leptin receptor (db/db) compared to normal weight wild-type mice. In contrast, non-obese, SP-C-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl and LysM-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl had improved viral clearance after influenza A infection. In obese mice, mortality was increased compared with wild-type mice, while the SP-C-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl and LysM-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl mice exhibited improved survival. Global loss of the leptin receptor results in reduced viral clearance and worse outcomes following influenza A infection. These findings are not the result of the loss of leptin signaling in lung epithelial cells or macrophages. Our results suggest that factors associated with obesity or with leptin signaling in non-myeloid populations such as natural killer and T cells may be associated with worsened outcomes following influenza A infection.

  19. Infection of type I interferon receptor-deficient mice with various old world arenaviruses: a model for studying virulence and host species barriers.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Toni; Merkler, Doron; Günther, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Lassa virus causes hemorrhagic Lassa fever in humans, while the related Old World arenaviruses Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala are supposedly apathogenic to humans and cause only inapparent infection in non-human primates. Here, we studied whether the virulence of Old World arenaviruses in humans and non-human primates is reflected in type I interferon receptor deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice by testing several strains of Lassa virus vs. the apathogenic viruses Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala. All Lassa virus strains tested-Josiah, AV, BA366, and Nig04-10-replicated to high titers in blood, lung, kidney, heart, spleen, brain, and liver and caused disease as evidenced by weight loss and elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) levels with a high AST/ALT ratio. Lassa fever-like pathology included acute hepatitis, interstitial pneumonia, and pronounced disturbance of splenic cytoarchitecture. Infiltrations of activated monocytes/macrophages expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase and T cells were found in liver and lung. In contrast, Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala virus replicated poorly in the animals and acute inflammatory alterations were not noted. Depletion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells strongly enhanced susceptibility of IFNAR(-/-) mice to the apathogenic viruses. In conclusion, the virulence of Old World arenaviruses in IFNAR(-/-) mice correlates with their virulence in humans and non-human primates. In addition to the type I interferon system, T cells seem to regulate whether or not an arenavirus can productively infect non-host rodent species. The observation that Lassa virus overcomes the species barrier without artificial depletion of T cells suggests it is able to impair T cell functionality in a way that corresponds to depletion.

  20. Thiol Oxidative Stress Induced by Metabolic Disorders Amplifies Macrophage Chemotactic Responses and Accelerates Atherogenesis and Kidney Injury in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Mu; Zhao, Qingwei; Lee, Chi Fung; Tannock, Lisa R.; Smart, Eric J.; LeBaron, Richard G.; Phelix, Clyde F.; Rangel, Yolanda; Asmis, Reto

    2009-01-01

    Background Strengthening the macrophage glutathione redox buffer reduces macrophage content and decreases the severity of atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR−/−) mice, but the underlying mechanisms were not clear. This study examined the effect of metabolic stress on the thiol redox state, chemotactic activity in vivo and the recruitment of macrophages into atherosclerotic lesions and kidneys of LDL-R−/− mice in response to mild, moderate and severe metabolic stress. Methods and Results Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels in peritoneal macrophages isolated from mildly, moderately and severe metabolically-stressed LDL-R−/− mice were measured by HPLC, and the glutathione reduction potential (Eh) was calculated. Macrophage Eh correlated with the macrophage content in both atherosclerotic (r2=0.346, P=0.004) and renal lesions (r2=0.480, P=0.001) in these mice as well as the extent of both atherosclerosis (r2=0.414, P=0.001) and kidney injury (r2=0.480, P=0.001). Compared to LDL-R−/− mice exposed to mild metabolic stress, macrophage recruitment into MCP-1-loaded Matrigel plugs injected into LDL-R−/− mice increased 2.6–fold in moderately metabolically-stressed mice and 9.8–fold in severely metabolically-stressed mice. The macrophage Eh was a strong predictor of macrophage chemotaxis (r2=0.554, P<0.001). Conclusion Thiol oxidative stress enhances macrophage recruitment into vascular and renal lesions by increasing the responsiveness of macrophages to chemoattractants. This novel mechanism contributes at least in part to accelerated atherosclerosis and kidney injury associated with dyslipidemia and diabetes in mice. PMID:19592463

  1. Immunization with malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice challenged with Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Turunen, S Pauliina; Kummu, Outi; Wang, Chunguang; Harila, Kirsi; Mattila, Riikka; Sahlman, Marjo; Pussinen, Pirkko J; Hörkkö, Sohvi

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal infections increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease via partly unresolved mechanisms. Of the natural IgM Abs that recognize molecular mimicry on bacterial epitopes and modified lipid and protein structures, IgM directed against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is associated with atheroprotective properties. Here, the effect of natural immune responses to malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) in conferring protection against atherosclerosis, which was accelerated by the major periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, was investigated. LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice were immunized with mouse MDA-LDL without adjuvant before topical application challenge with live P. gingivalis. Atherosclerosis was analyzed after a high-fat diet, and plasma IgG and IgM Ab levels were measured throughout the study, and the secretion of IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-γ in splenocytes stimulated with MDA-LDL was determined. LDLR(-/-) mice immunized with MDA-LDL had elevated IgM and IgG levels to MDA-LDL compared with saline-treated controls. MDA-LDL immunization diminished aortic lipid depositions after challenge with P. gingivalis compared with mice receiving only P. gingivalis challenge. Immunization of LDLR(-/-) mice with homologous MDA-LDL stimulated the production of IL-5, implicating general activation of B-1 cells. Immune responses to MDA-LDL protected from the P. gingivalis-accelerated atherosclerosis. Thus, the linkage between bacterial infectious burden and atherogenesis is suggested to be modulated via natural IgM directed against cross-reactive epitopes on bacteria and modified LDL. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Cholesterol accumulation caused by low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency or a cholesterol-rich diet results in ectopic bone formation during experimental osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    de Munter, Wouter; Blom, Arjen B; Helsen, Monique M; Walgreen, Birgitte; van der Kraan, Peter M; Joosten, Leo A B; van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L E M

    2013-11-04

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with the metabolic syndrome, however the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated whether low density lipoprotein (LDL) accumulation leads to increased LDL uptake by synovial macrophages and affects synovial activation, cartilage destruction and enthesophyte/osteophyte formation during experimental OA in mice. LDL receptor deficient (LDLr-/-) mice and wild type (WT) controls received a cholesterol-rich or control diet for 120 days. Experimental OA was induced by intra-articular injection of collagenase twelve weeks after start of the diet. OA knee joints and synovial wash-outs were analyzed for OA-related changes. Murine bone marrow derived macrophages were stimulated with oxidized LDL (oxLDL), whereupon growth factor presence and gene expression were analyzed. A cholesterol-rich diet increased apolipoprotein B (ApoB) accumulation in synovial macrophages. Although increased LDL levels did not enhance thickening of the synovial lining, S100A8 expression within macrophages was increased in WT mice after receiving a cholesterol-rich diet, reflecting an elevated activation status. Both a cholesterol-rich diet and LDLr deficiency had no effect on cartilage damage; in contrast, ectopic bone formation was increased within joint ligaments (fold increase 6.7 and 6.1, respectively). Moreover, increased osteophyte size was found at the margins of the tibial plateau (4.4 fold increase after a cholesterol-rich diet and 5.3 fold increase in LDLr-/- mice). Synovial wash-outs of LDLr-/- mice and supernatants of macrophages stimulated with oxLDL led to increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling compared to controls. LDL accumulation within synovial lining cells leads to increased activation of synovium and osteophyte formation in experimental OA. OxLDL uptake by macrophages activates growth factors of the TGF-superfamily.

  3. Effect of maternal diet rich in omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids on the liver of LDL receptor-deficient mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Torres, Dilênia De Oliveira Cipriano; Dos Santos, Ana Célia Oliveira; Silva, Amanda Karolina Soares E; Leite, Jacqueline Isaura Alvarez; De Souza, José Roberto Botelho; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2010-04-01

    Omega-6 fatty acids are important to fetal development. However, during gestation/lactation, these fatty acids may contribute toward the development of fat tissue. Omega-9 fatty acids are associated with a reduction in serum lipids and protection from liver disease. The present study investigated the effect of the maternal intake of omega-6 and omega-9 in hypercholesterolemic mothers on the liver of the offspring. LDL receptor-deficient mice were fed a diet rich in either omega-6 (E6D) or omega-9 (E9D) for 45 days prior to mating and until the birth of the offspring, evaluating the effect on the offspring liver in comparison to a standard diet (STD). Mothers fed with the E6D experienced an increase in total cholesterol (TC) and the offspring exhibited an increase in TC, hepatic triglycerides (TG), and CC-chemokine ligand (CCL)2/monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 as well as a reduction in HDL. Histological analysis on this group revealed steatosis, leukocyte infiltrate, and increased CCL2/MCP-1 expression. The ultrastructural analysis revealed hepatocytes with lipid droplets and myofibroblasts. The offspring of mothers fed the standard diet exhibited low serum TC, but microvesicular steatosis was observed. The offspring of mothers fed the E9D exhibited lower serum and hepatic TG as well as higher LDL in comparison to the other diets. The histological analyses revealed lower steatosis and leukocyte infiltrate. The findings suggest that hypercholesterolemic mothers with a diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids predispose their offspring to steatohepatitis, whereas a diet rich in omega-9 has a protective effect. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Overexpression of c-Jun contributes to sorafenib resistance in human hepatoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Yuki; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Sasaki, Reina; Takahashi, Koji; Wu, Shuang; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite recent advances in treatment strategies, it is still difficult to cure patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib is the only approved multiple kinase inhibitor for systemic chemotherapy in patients with advanced HCC. The majority of advanced HCC patients are resistant to sorafenib. The mechanisms of sorafenib resistance are still unknown. Methods The expression of molecules involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in human hepatoma cell lines was examined in the presence or absence of sorafenib. Apoptosis of human hepatoma cells treated with sorafenib was investigated, and the expression of Jun proto-oncogene (c-Jun) was measured. Results The expression and phosphorylation of c-Jun were enhanced in human hepatoma cell lines after treatment with sorafenib. Inhibiting c-Jun enhanced sorafenib-induced apoptosis. The overexpression of c-Jun impaired sorafenib-induced apoptosis. The expression of osteopontin, one of the established AP-1 target genes, was enhanced after treatment with sorafenib in human hepatoma cell lines. Conclusions The protein c-Jun plays a role in sorafenib resistance in human hepatoma cell lines. The modulation and phosphorylation of c-Jun could be a new therapeutic option for enhancing responsiveness to sorafenib. Modulating c-Jun may be useful for certain HCC patients with sorafenib resistance. PMID:28323861

  5. Hypoxia/hepatoma dual specific suicide gene expression plasmid delivery using bio-reducible polymer for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Nam, Kihoon; Lee, Minhyung; Kim, Sung Wan

    2013-10-10

    Gene therapy is suggested as a promising alternative strategy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma) therapy. To achieve a successful and safe gene therapy, tight regulation of gene expression is required to minimize side-effects in normal tissues. In this study, we developed a novel hypoxia and hepatoma dual specific gene expression vector. The constructed vectors were transfected into various cell lines using bio-reducible polymer, PAM-ABP. First, pAFPS-Luc or pAFPL-Luc vector was constructed with the alpha-fectoprotein (AFP) promoter and enhancer for hepatoma tissue specific gene expression. Then, pEpo-AFPL-Luc was constructed by insertion of the erythropoietin (Epo) enhancer for hypoxic cancer specific gene expression. In vitro transfection assay showed that pEpo-AFPL-Luc transfected hepatoma cell increased gene expression under hypoxic condition. To confirm the therapeutic effect of dual specific vector, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene was introduced for cancer cell killing. The pEpo-AFPL-TK was transfected into hepatoma cell lines in the presence of ganciclovir (GCV) pro-drug. Caspase-3/7, MTT and TUNEL assays elucidated that pEpo-AFPL-TK transfected cells showed significant increasing of death rate in hypoxic hepatoma cells compared to controls. Therefore, the hypoxia/hepatoma dual specific gene expression vector with the Epo enhancer and AFP promoter may be useful for hepatoma specific gene therapy. © 2013.

  6. Magnetic nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic gene delivery and magnetic-inducing heating on hepatoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chenyan; An, Yanli; Zhang, Jia; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treating cancers, but their clinical applications are being hampered due to uncontrolled gene delivery and expression. To develop a targeted, safe and efficient tumor therapy system, we constructed a tissue-specific suicide gene delivery system by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers for the combination of gene therapy and hyperthermia on hepatoma. The suicide gene was hepatoma-targeted and hypoxia-enhanced, and the MNPs possessed the ability to elevate temperature to the effective range for tumor hyperthermia as imposed on an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The tumoricidal effects of targeted gene therapy associated with hyperthermia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The experiment demonstrated that hyperthermia combined with a targeted gene therapy system proffer an effective tool for tumor therapy with high selectivity and the synergistic effect of hepatoma suppression.

  7. Hepatoma targeting peptide conjugated bio-reducible polymer complexed with oncolytic adenovirus for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Kim, Hyun Ah; Nam, Kihoon; Na, Youjin; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, SungWan

    2015-12-28

    Despite adenovirus (Ad) vector's numerous advantages for cancer gene therapy, such as high ability of endosomal escape, efficient nuclear entry mechanism, and high transduction, and therapeutic efficacy, tumor specific targeting and antiviral immune response still remain as a critical challenge in clinical setting. To overcome these obstacles and achieve cancer-specific targeting, we constructed tumor targeting bioreducible polymer, an arginine grafted bio-reducible polymer (ABP)-PEG-HCBP1, by conjugating PEGylated ABP with HCBP1 peptides which has high affinity and selectivity towards hepatoma. The ABP-PEG-HCBP1-conjugated replication incompetent GFP-expressing ad, (Ad/GFP)-ABP-PEG-HCBP1, showed a hepatoma cancer specific uptake and transduction compared to either naked Ad/GFP or Ad/GFP-ABP. Competition assays demonstrated that Ad/GFP-ABP-PEG-HCBP1-mediated transduction was specifically inhibited by HCBP1 peptide rather than coxsackie and adenovirus receptor specific antibody. In addition, ABP-PEG-HCBP1 can protect biological activity of Ad against serum, and considerably reduced both innate and adaptive immune response against Ad. shMet-expressing oncolytic Ad (oAd; RdB/shMet) complexed with ABP-PEG-HCBP1 delivered oAd efficiently into hepatoma cancer cells. The oAd/ABP-PEG-HCBP1 demonstrated enhanced cancer cell killing efficacy in comparison to oAd/ABP complex. Furthermore, Huh7 and HT1080 cancer cells treated with oAd/shMet-ABP-PEG-HCBP1 complex had significantly decreased Met and VEGF expression in hepatoma cancer, but not in non-hepatoma cancer. In sum, these results suggest that HCBP1-conjugated bioreducible polymer could be used to deliver oncolytic Ad safely and efficiently to treat hepatoma.

  8. The Triad of Lichen Planus, Thymoma and Liver Cirrhosis-Hepatoma. First Reported Case

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, J. A.; Saadiah, S; Roslina, A M; Atan, M; Masir, Noraidah; Hussein, S; Ganesapillai, T

    2000-01-01

    We describe a patient with liver cirrhosis who presented with erosive oral and cutaneous lichen planus (LP) and incidentally was found simultaneously to have thymoma and hepatoma. We support the notion forwarded earlier that LP and chronic liver disease is more than a mere coincidence and that there is a non-coincidental association between LP and thymoma. We believe this is also the first reported case in the English Literature of coexistence of the three condition LP, thymoma and hepatoma complicating liver disease. PMID:22977389

  9. AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in AT1a receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao C.; Shao, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    It is well recognized that ANG II interacts with arginine vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water reabsorption and urine concentration in the kidney. The present study used ANG II type 1a (AT1a) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a−/−) mice to test the hypothesis that AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in the renal medulla. Eight groups of wild-type (WT) and Agtr1a−/− mice were treated with or without 24-h water deprivation and 1-desamino-8-d-AVP (DDAVP; 100 ng/h ip) for 2 wk or with losartan (10 mg/kg ip) during water deprivation. Under basal conditions, Agtr1a−/− mice had lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), greater than threefold higher 24-h urine excretion (WT mice: 1.3 ± 0.1 ml vs. Agtr1a−/− mice: 5.9 ± 0.7 ml, P < 0.01), and markedly decreased urine osmolality (WT mice: 1,834 ± 86 mosM/kg vs. Agtr1a−/− mice: 843 ± 170 mosM/kg, P < 0.01), without significant changes in 24-h urinary Na+ excretion. These responses in Agtr1a−/− mice were associated with lower basal plasma AVP (WT mice: 105 ± 8 pg/ml vs. Agtr1a−/− mice: 67 ± 6 pg/ml, P < 0.01) and decreases in total lysate and membrane aquaporin-2 (AQP2; 48.6 ± 7% of WT mice, P < 0.001) and adenylyl cyclase isoform III (55.6 ± 8% of WT mice, P < 0.01) proteins. Although 24-h water deprivation increased plasma AVP to the same levels in both strains, 24-h urine excretion was still higher, whereas urine osmolality remained lower, in Agtr1a−/− mice (P < 0.01). Water deprivation increased total lysate AQP2 proteins in the inner medulla but had no effect on adenylyl cyclase III, phosphorylated MAPK ERK1/2, and membrane AQP2 proteins in Agtr1a−/− mice. Furthermore, infusion of DDAVP for 2 wk was unable to correct the urine-concentrating defects in Agtr1a−/− mice. These results demonstrate that AT1a receptor-mediated ANG II signaling is required to maintain tonic AVP release and regulate V2 receptor-mediated responses to

  10. Detection of early stage atherosclerotic plaques using PET and CT fusion imaging targeting P-selectin in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Ikuko; Hasegawa, Koki; Wada, Yasuhiro; Hirase, Tetsuaki; Node, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► P-selectin regulates leukocyte recruitment as an early stage event of atherogenesis. ► We developed an antibody-based molecular imaging probe targeting P-selectin for PET. ► This is the first report on successful PET imaging for delineation of P-selectin. ► P-selectin is a candidate target for atherosclerotic plaque imaging by clinical PET. -- Abstract: Background: Sensitive detection and qualitative analysis of atherosclerotic plaques are in high demand in cardiovascular clinical settings. The leukocyte–endothelial interaction mediated by an adhesion molecule P-selectin participates in arterial wall inflammation and atherosclerosis. Methods and results: A {sup 64}Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid conjugated anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody ({sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb) probe was prepared by conjugating an anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody with DOTA followed by {sup 64}Cu labeling. Thirty-six hours prior to PET and CT fusion imaging, 3 MBq of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb was intravenously injected into low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient Ldlr-/- mice. After a 180 min PET scan, autoradiography and biodistribution of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody was examined using excised aortas. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet for promotion of atherosclerotic plaque development, PET and CT fusion imaging revealed selective and prominent accumulation of the probe in the aortic root. Autoradiography of aortas that demonstrated probe uptake into atherosclerotic plaques was confirmed by Oil red O staining for lipid droplets. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a chow diet to develop mild atherosclerotic plaques, probe accumulation was barely detectable in the aortic root on PET and CT fusion imaging. Probe biodistribution in aortas was 6.6-fold higher in Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet than in those fed with a normal chow diet. {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin m

  11. Effects of dietary sodium on reactive oxygen species formation and endothelial dysfunction in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice on high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ketonen, Juha; Mervaala, Eero

    2008-11-01

    Hypertension and high serum cholesterol level are important risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In the present study we tested the hypothesis whether high sodium intake, when given in combination with Western type high-fat diet, induces endothelial dysfunction and promotes atherosclerosis. Furthermore, the role and enzyme sources of increased oxidative stress were examined. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (LDLR(-/-)) and control C57Bl/6 mice received either high-fat, normal-sodium diet (fat 18% and cholesterol 0.5%; NaCl 0.7%; w/w) or high-fat, high-sodium diet (7% NaCl w/w) for 12 weeks. Superoxide formation was assessed by lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence, endothelial functions were examined ex vivo, and atherosclerotic lesions from the aorta were assessed by light microscopy. High-fat, high-sodium diet increased systolic blood pressure in LDLR(-/-) mice but not in C57Bl/6 mice, whereas it induced cardiac hypertrophy in both mouse strains. Dietary combination of fat and sodium induced endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice. Preincubation with a superoxide scavenger Tiron normalized endothelial dysfunction, whereas the hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase did not alter endothelial function. High sodium intake induced superoxide formation in LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet. Stimulation of muscarinic receptors in the endothelial cells by acetylcholine increased superoxide generation, whereas preincubation with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-arginine methyl ester or endothelium removal reduced superoxide production. Inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase by apocynin decreased vascular superoxide formation whereas the xanthine oxidase inhibitor oxypurinol did not significantly affect oxidative stress in LDLR(-/-) mice. In conclusion, the detrimental effects of dietary sodium on endothelial function and progression of atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet are

  12. [Regularity of drugs compatibility of anti-hepatoma traditional Chinese medicine ancient prescriptions and risk evaluation of anti-hepatoma new drug research and development].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Hong-Fa; Fan, Wei; Liu, Zhen; Man, Shu-Li; Si, Shu-Yong; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Traditional Chinese ancient prescriptions have been used for treatment of liver cancer for a long history and the scientific and rational compatibility is a great wealth for modern research and development (R&D) of new drugs. The research and development of new drugs are often accompanied with a large investment, a long cycle and a high risk, especially for the anti-tumor drugs R&D which are facing more risks and lower successful rate. In this research, the regularity of compatibility of drugs was analyzed from 124 anti-hepatoma ancient prescriptions by computer program. The results can offer help to the R&D of anti-hepatoma new drugs and reduce the risk of drug screening. In addition, we surveyed 22 companies in this field from six provinces such as Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and so on and obtained 240 risk assessment questionaires. Then we used qualitative analysis method to interpret the greatest impacts for the risks in the process of R&D, production and sales of anti-hepatoma new drugs. The study provides a basis for anti-liver cancer drugs R&D researchers, who can take effective measures to reduce the R&D risks and improve successful rate.

  13. Decreased Mitochondrial OGG1 Expression is Linked to Mitochondrial Defects and Delayed Hepatoma Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Kyoung; Youn, Hwang-Guem; Wang, Hee-Jung; Yoon, Gyesoon

    2013-01-01

    Many solid tumor cells exhibit mitochondrial respiratory impairment; however, the mechanisms of such impairment in cancer development remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SNU human hepatoma cells with declined mitochondrial respiratory activity showed decreased expression of mitochondrial 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase/lyase (mtOGG1), a mitochondrial DNA repair enzyme; similar results were obtained with human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Among several OGG1-2 variants with a mitochondrial- targeting sequence (OGG1-2a, -2b, -2c, -2d, and -2e), OGG1-2a was the major mitochondrial isoform in all examined hepatoma cells. Interestingly, hepatoma cells with low mtOGG1 levels showed delayed cell growth and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Knockdown of OGG1-2 isoforms in Chang-L cells, which have active mitochondrial respiration with high mtOGG1 levels, significantly decreased cellular respiration and cell growth, and increased intracellular ROS. Overexpression of OGG1-2a in SNU423 cells, which have low mtOGG1 levels, effectively recovered cellular respiration and cell growth activities, and decreased intracellular ROS. Taken together, our results suggest that mtOGG1 plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial respiration, thereby contributing to cell growth of hepatoma cells. PMID:23677377

  14. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing human TRAIL as a potential candidate for hepatoma therapy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently proved for clinical trials. We have previously reported, for the first time, NDV Anhinga strain has an efficient cancer therapeutic efficacy in hepatoma. Tumor necrosis factor-related apo...

  15. Studies on anti-hepatoma activity of Annona squamosa L. pericarp extract.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Yun; Cao, Yu-Zhu; Li, Fu-Qiang; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Peng, Chen-Xiao; Lu, Jia-Hui; Chen, Jian-Wei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yong

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the anti-hepatoma activity of different extracts from A. squamosa pericarps, phytochemistry of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction and possible anti-hepatoma mechanism of active constituents. The anti-hepatoma activity of different extracts from A. squamosa pericarps were evaluated by MTT assay against SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and verified by using H22 xenografts bearing mice. Phytochemical investigation of the active pericarp extract was carried out. The pro-apoptosis and cycle arrest effects of active constituents were observed by fluorescent microscope and flow cytometry. Western blot assay was conducted to find the possible anti-hepatoma mechanisms of active constituents. The result showed that EtOAc extract was the active fraction. Two ent-kaurane diterpenoids, named ent-kauran-16-en-19-oic acid and ent-kauran-15-en-19-oic acid, were isolated from the active EtOAc fraction. The pro-apoptosis and G1 phase arrest effects of these diterpenoids were found. Western blot assay showed that ent-kauran-16-en-19-oic acid could activate caspase-3,-8,-9, up-regulate of Bax and down-regulate of Bcl-2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental study of simultaneous photodynamic and hyperthermic treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and A22 hepatoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luksiene, Zivile

    1997-12-01

    Combined treatment of PDT and hyperthermia was examined on Ehrlich ascites tumor cell viability and A22 hepatoma tumor growth inhibition. Histological evaluations of tumors after different treatments have shown tumor necrosis, congestion of blood vessels and hemorrhage. The most drastic damages were observed after simultaneous PDT and hyperthermia action. At these experimental conditions tumor growth for 5 days was absolutely inhibited.

  17. Berberine Inhibits Human Hepatoma Cell Invasion without Cytotoxicity in Healthy Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xuediao; Yang, Zhicheng; Zang, Linquan

    2011-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapy fails to cure metastatic hepatoma mainly due to its high hepatotoxicity. Many plant-derived agents have been accepted to effectively inhibit hepatoma cell invasion. However, the investigation that whether effectual plant-derived agents against invasive hepatoma cells exert unexpected cytotoxicity in healthy hepatocytes has been ignored. This study demonstrated that berberine exhibited significant cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells mainly through upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production but was ineffective in normal Chang liver cells. Berberine exerted anti-invasive effect on HepG2 cells through suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. Moreover, berberine could significantly inhibit the activity of PI3K-AKT and ERK pathways. Combination treatment of ERK pathway inhibitor PD98059 or AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 and berberine could result in a synergistic reduction on MMP-9 expression along with an inhibition of cell invasion. Enhancement of ROS production by berberine had no influence on its suppressive effects on the activity of PI3K-AKT and ERK pathways, as well as MMP-9 expression and HepG2 cell invasion. In conclusion, our results suggest that berberine may be a potential alternative against invasive hepatoma cells through PI3K-AKT and ERK pathways-dependent downregulation of MMP-9 expression. This study also provides a previously neglected insight into the investigation of plant-derived agents-based therapy against tumor invasion with the consideration of damage to healthy cells. PMID:21738655

  18. Anti-hepatoma activities of ethyl acetate extract from Ampelopsis sinica root.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Zhi; Huang, Bi-Sheng; Cao, Yan; Chen, Ke-Li; Li, Juan

    2017-03-13

    Ampelopsis sinica root (ASR) is a known hepatoprotective folk traditional Chinese medicine. The anti‑hepatoma activity of ethyl acetate extract from A. sinica root (ASRE) in vitro and in vivo and its possible mechanism were explored. This study was designed to investigate cytotoxicity by MTT assay, induction of apoptosis via Hoechst 33258 staining, scanning electron microscopy and bivariate flow cytometric analysis (Annexin V-FITC/PI), inflammation and apoptosis related genes expression by RT-PCR and p53 protein expression by immunofluorescence assay in HepG2 cells. Then, the antitumor activity in vivo was detected by hepatoma H22 xenograft tumor in mice. The results showed that ASRE had powerful anti‑hepatoma activity in vitro without obvious toxicity on normal cells and could induce HepG2 cell apoptosis. The mechanism may be associated with downregulation of inflammatory cytokines including cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase and FLAP, increase of the ratio of bax/bcl-2, activation caspase-3 and inhibition of survivin, and increased expression of p53 protein. Furthermore, the HPLC assay showed the main compounds of ASRE were gallic acid, catechin and gallic acid ethyl ester. In animal experiments, ASR ethanol extract decreased the tumor weights of hepatoma H22 tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, ASR may be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. Biological response of hepatomas to an extract of Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) is not mediated by inositols or rutin.

    PubMed

    Curran, Julianne M; Stringer, Danielle M; Wright, Brenda; Taylor, Carla G; Przybylski, Roman; Zahradka, Peter

    2010-03-10

    Buckwheat contains d-chiro-inositol (D-CI) and myo-inositol (MI), possible insulin-mimetic compounds; thus, this study investigated the insulin-mimetic activities of a buckwheat concentrate (BWC), D-CI, and MI on insulin signal transduction pathways and glucose uptake with H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. BWC stimulated phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular-related kinase (p42/44 ERK) and its downstream target, p70(S6K), on Thr(421). In contrast, D-CI, MI, rutin, or its agylcone form, quercetin, did not activate these signal transduction proteins. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), another target of insulin, was also up-regulated upon BWC treatment. The effects of BWC on glucose uptake were subsequently investigated using H4IIE cells. Insulin and D-CI stimulated glucose uptake, whereas BWC inhibited basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Although results from this work suggest that BWC has insulin-mimetic effects on select protein phosphorylation events in H4IIE cells, D-CI and MI were not the active components responsible for the observed effects. The inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC suggests that buckwheat may affect hepatic glucose metabolism, possibly by inhibiting glucose flux. Furthermore, the fact that D-CI and MI stimulated glucose uptake in H4IIE cells suggests that other compounds are responsible for inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC.

  20. Andrographolide inhibits hepatoma cells growth and affects the expression of cell cycle related proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai-Kai; Liu, Tian-Yu; Xu, Chong; Ji, Li-Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2009-09-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the toxic effects of andrographolide (Andro) on hepatoma cells and elucidate its preliminary mechanisms. After cells were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-50 micromol x L(-1)) for 24 h, cell viability was evaluated with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, after hepatoma cells (Hep3B and HepG2) were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-30 micromol x L(-1)) for 14 d, the number of colony formation was accounted under microscope. Cell cycle related proteins such as Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin B and Cyclin D1 were detected with Western blotting assay and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. MTT results showed that Andro induced growth inhibition of hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no significant effects on human normal liver L-02 cells. Andro dramatically decreased the colony formation of hepatoma cells in the concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, Andro induced a decrease of Hep3B cells at the G0-G1 phase and a concomitant accumulation of cells at G2-M phase. At the molecular level, Western blotting results showed that Andro decreased the expression of Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B proteins in a time-dependent manner, which are all cell cycle related proteins. Taken together, the results demonstrated that Andro specifically inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and cellular cell cycle related proteins were possibly involved in this process.

  1. Baicalein inhibits the migration and invasive properties of human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Tseng-Hsi; Huang, Wen-Shih; Teng, Chun-Yuh; Liou, Yi-Sheng; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Lin, Wea-Lung; Huang, Hai-I; Tung, Jai-Nien; Huang, Chih-Yang; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Wang, Wen-Hung; Hwang, Jin-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Flavonoids have been demonstrated to exert health benefits in humans. We investigated whether the flavonoid baicalein would inhibit the adhesion, migration, invasion, and growth of human hepatoma cell lines, and we also investigated its mechanism of action. The separate effects of baicalein and baicalin on the viability of HA22T/VGH and SK-Hep1 cells were investigated for 24 h. To evaluate their invasive properties, cells were incubated on matrigel-coated transwell membranes in the presence or absence of baicalein. We examined the effect of baicalein on the adhesion of cells, on the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), protein kinase C (PKC), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and on tumor growth in vivo. We observed that baicalein suppresses hepatoma cell growth by 55%, baicalein-treated cells showed lower levels of migration than untreated cells, and cell invasion was significantly reduced to 28%. Incubation of hepatoma cells with baicalein also significantly inhibited cell adhesion to matrigel, collagen I, and gelatin-coated substrate. Baicalein also decreased the gelatinolytic activities of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA, decreased p50 and p65 nuclear translocation, and decreased phosphorylated I-kappa-B (IKB)-{beta}. In addition, baicalein reduced the phosphorylation levels of PKC{alpha} and p38 proteins, which regulate invasion in poorly differentiated hepatoma cells. Finally, when SK-Hep1 cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of baicalein induced a significant dose-dependent decrease in tumor growth. These results demonstrate the anticancer properties of baicalein, which include the inhibition of adhesion, invasion, migration, and proliferation of human hepatoma cells in vivo. - Highlight: > Baicalein inhibits several essential steps in the onset of metastasis.

  2. A Long Noncoding RNA Perturbs the Circadian Rhythm of Hepatoma Cells to Facilitate Hepatocarcinogenesis12

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Zheng, Minying; Sun, Baodi; Wang, Yue; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Clock circadian regulator (CLOCK)/brain and muscle arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) complex governs the regulation of circadian rhythm through triggering periodic alterations of gene expression. However, the underlying mechanism of circadian clock disruption in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we report that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC), contributes to the perturbations in circadian rhythm of hepatoma cells. Our observations showed that HULC was able to heighten the expression levels of CLOCK and its downstream circadian oscillators, such as period circadian clock 1 and cryptochrome circadian clock 1, in hepatoma cells. Strikingly, HULC altered the expression pattern and prolonged the periodic expression of CLOCK in hepatoma cells. Mechanistically, the complementary base pairing between HULC and the 5' untranslated region of CLOCK mRNA underlay the HULC-modulated expression of CLOCK, and the mutants in the complementary region failed to achieve the event. Moreover, immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validated that the levels of CLOCK were elevated in HCC tissues, and the expression levels of HULC were positively associated with those of CLOCK in clinical HCC samples. In functional experiments, our data exhibited that CLOCK was implicated in the HULC-accelerated proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data show that an lncRNA, HULC, is responsible for the perturbations in circadian rhythm through upregulating circadian oscillator CLOCK in hepatoma cells, resulting in the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which lncRNA accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis through disturbing circadian rhythm of HCC. PMID:25622901

  3. A long noncoding RNA perturbs the circadian rhythm of hepatoma cells to facilitate hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming; Zheng, Minying; Sun, Baodi; Wang, Yue; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Clock circadian regulator (CLOCK)/brain and muscle arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) complex governs the regulation of circadian rhythm through triggering periodic alterations of gene expression. However, the underlying mechanism of circadian clock disruption in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we report that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC), contributes to the perturbations in circadian rhythm of hepatoma cells. Our observations showed that HULC was able to heighten the expression levels of CLOCK and its downstream circadian oscillators, such as period circadian clock 1 and cryptochrome circadian clock 1, in hepatoma cells. Strikingly, HULC altered the expression pattern and prolonged the periodic expression of CLOCK in hepatoma cells. Mechanistically, the complementary base pairing between HULC and the 5' untranslated region of CLOCK mRNA underlay the HULC-modulated expression of CLOCK, and the mutants in the complementary region failed to achieve the event. Moreover, immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validated that the levels of CLOCK were elevated in HCC tissues, and the expression levels of HULC were positively associated with those of CLOCK in clinical HCC samples. In functional experiments, our data exhibited that CLOCK was implicated in the HULC-accelerated proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data show that an lncRNA, HULC, is responsible for the perturbations in circadian rhythm through upregulating circadian oscillator CLOCK in hepatoma cells, resulting in the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which lncRNA accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis through disturbing circadian rhythm of HCC.

  4. Merocyanine 540 and Photofrin II as photosensitizers for in vitro killing of duck hepatitis B virus and human hepatoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Shien, Yong-Shau; Kao, Ming-Chien

    1994-03-01

    The feasibility of using merocyanine 540 (MC 540) and Photofrin II (PII) as effective photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agents for killing hepatoma cells and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in vitro was investigated. Cultured duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV and hepatoma cells, Hep 3B and HCC 36, were used as models. MC 540 and PII effectively inhibits the DHBV growth by 90 - 99% in a dose- and light-dependent manner. Photodynamic killing of MC 540 in the two hepatoma cell lines results in 94 - 99% growth inhibition. However, both photosensitizers exhibit dark cytotoxicity (37 - 56%). The present results suggest that MC 540 and PII could be promising and effective photodynamic agents for killing HBV and hepatoma cells.

  5. Dichloroacetate Enhances Adriamycin-Induced Hepatoma Cell Toxicity In Vitro and In Vivo by Increasing Reactive Oxygen Species Levels

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gang; Liu, Jianjun; Sheng, Shile; Wang, Hongjian; Qin, Wenxin

    2014-01-01

    A unique bioenergetic feature of cancer, aerobic glycolysis is considered an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Recently, dichloroacetate (DCA), a small-molecule metabolic modulator, was shown to reverse the glycolytic phenotype, induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and trigger apoptosis in various tumor cells. In this work, the capacity of DCA to enhance Adriamycin (ADM) efficacy in hepatoma cells by modulating glucose metabolism and redox status was evaluated. Two human hepatoma (HCC-LM3 and SMMC-7721) and a normal liver (LO2) cell lines were treated with DCA or ADM alone, or in combination. Exposure of hepatoma cells to DCA/ADM combination resulted in significantly decreased cell viability and increased percentage of apoptotic cells as well as intracellular ROS levels, in comparison with treatment with DCA or ADM alone. However, simultaneous treatment with the thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 10 mmol/L) reduced the elevated ROS levels and protected hepatoma cells from the cytotoxic effects of DCA/ADM combination. L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, enhanced hepatoma cell sensitivity to DCA/ADM combination. Interestingly, treatment with DCA/ADM combination did not significantly increase cytotoxicity in normal hepatocytes in comparison with the drugs administered individually. Finally, DCA reduced tumor growth and enhanced ADM efficacy on HCC-LM3 hepatoma in mice. Overall, our data suggest that DCA enhances ADM cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells by increasing intracellular ROS levels and provide a strong biochemical rationale for the use of DCA in combination with ADM for treatment of hepatoma. PMID:24728083

  6. Sorafenib suppresses growth and survival of hepatoma cells by accelerating degradation of enhancer of zeste homolog 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Yu; He, Hongyong; Liu, Jing; Xu, Le; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Haiou; Liu, Weisi; Liu, Yidong; Pan, Deng; Chen, Lin; Wu, Qian; Xu, Jiejie; Gu, Jianxin

    2013-06-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a mammalian histone methyltransferase that contributes to the epigenetic silencing of target genes that regulate cancer cell growth and survival. It is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a clinical significance that remains obscure. Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, has been used as a first-line therapeutic drug and shown clinical efficiency for advanced-stage HCC patients. In the present study, we found that sorafenib lowered the protein level of EZH2 through accelerating proteasome-mediated EZH2 degradation in hepatoma cells. Overexpression of EZH2 reversed sorafenib-induced cell growth arrest, cell cycle arrest, and cell apoptosis dependent on histone methyltransferase activity in hepatoma cells. More importantly, shRNA-mediated EZH2 knockdown or EZH2 inhibition with 3-deazaneplanocin A treatment promoted sorafenib-induced hepatoma cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Sorafenib altered the hepatoma epigenome by reducing EZH2 and H3K27 trimethylation. These results revealed a novel therapeutic mechanism underlying sorafenib treatment in suppressing hepatoma growth and survival by accelerating EZH2 degradation. Genetic deletion or pharmacological ablation of EZH2 made hepatoma cells more sensitive to sorafenib, which helps provide a strong framework for exploring innovative combined therapies for advanced-stage HCC patients.

  7. Herbal compound “Songyou Yin” attenuates hepatoma cell invasiveness and metastasis through downregulation of cytokines secreted by activated hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) play an important role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we determined if cytokines secreted in response to the herbal compound “Songyou Yin” (SYY) treatment of aHSCs could influence invasiveness and metastatic capabilities of hepatoma cells. Methods Primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated, activated, divided into SYY treated and untreated (nSYY) groups, and conditioned media (CM-SYY and CM-nSYY, respectively) were collected. The hepatoma cell line, McA-RH7777 was cultured for 4 weeks with SYY, CM-SYY, and CM-nSYY, designated McA-SYY, McA-SYYCM and McA-nSYYCM. The invasiveness and metastatic capabilities were evaluated using Matrigel invasion assay in vitro and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and vimentin protein levels in McA-SYYCM and McA-nSYYCM were evaluated by Western blot. Cytokine levels in conditioned media were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Matrigel invasion assay indicated that the number of McA-SYYCM cells passing through the basement membrane was less than in McA-nSYYCM cells (P < 0.01). Similar results were also observed in vivo for lung metastasis. McA-SYYCM cells showed less pulmonary metastasis capabilities than McA-nSYYCM cells (P < 0.001). The reduced expression of MMP-2 and reversed epithelial to mesenchymal transition with E-cadherin upregulation, and N-cadherin and vimentin downregulation were also found in McA-SYYCM compared to McA-nSYYCM. Metastasis-promoting cytokines hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β1, and vascular endothelial growth factor were markedly decreased in CM-SYY compared to CM-nSYY. Conclusions SYY attenuates hepatoma cell invasiveness and metastasis capabilities through downregulating cytokines secreted by activated hepatic stellate cells. PMID:23622143

  8. The combinational effect of vincristine and berberine on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Wei, Dandan; Han, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Chengzhong; Zhang, Jie; Mo, Chunfen; Yang, Ming; Li, Junhong; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Qin; Xiao, Hengyi

    2014-04-01

    The use of vincristine, a known antitumor agent, in hepatoma therapy is limited particularly because of its toxic effect. Meanwhile, berberine has drawn increasing attention to its antineoplastic effect in recent years. In view of the advantages of combinational drug treatment reported in anti-cancer chemotherapy, we evaluated the effects of co-treatment of vincristine and berberine on hepatic carcinoma cell lines in this study. We find that combinational usage of these two drugs can significantly induce cell growth inhibition and apoptosis even under a concentration of vincristine barely showing cytotoxicity in the same cells when used alone. The underlying mechanism about this combinational effect was addressed in this study by monitoring the signals related to mitochondrial function, apoptotic pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our results suggest a new value of berberine as a potential adjuvant agent in cancer chemotherapy and provide a hopeful approach for developing hepatoma therapy by utilizing the combinational effect of vincristine and berberine.

  9. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest of Mice H22 Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yiye; Ni, Yanbo; Yang, Jing; Lin, Xutao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that astaxanthin (ASX), a member of the carotenoid family, has strong biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immune-modulation activities. Previous studies have confirmed that ASX can effectively inhibit hepatoma cells in vitro. Material/Methods MTT was used to assay proliferation of mice H22 cells, and flow cytometry was used to determine apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of H22 cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, anti-tumor activity of ASX was observed in mice. Results ASX inhibited the proliferation of H22 cells, promoted cell necrosis, and induced cell cycle arrest in G2 phase in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions This study indicated that ASX can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in mice H22 hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27333866

  10. Efficient replication systems for hepatitis C virus using a new human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Kato, Nobuyuki; Mori, Kyoko; Abe, Ken-ichi; Dansako, Hiromichi; Kuroki, Misao; Ariumi, Yasuo; Wakita, Takaji; Ikeda, Masanori

    2009-12-01

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a serious global health problem. Cell culture-based persistent HCV RNA replication systems and infectious HCV production systems are widely used in HCV research. However, persistent HCV production systems have been developed only for HuH-7 hepatoma cells. Here we found a new human hepatoma cell line, Li23, that enables persistent HCV production and anti-HCV reagent assay. Li23's cDNA expression profile differed from HuH-7's, although the two cells had similar liver-specific expression profiles. We used HCV RNA with a specific combination of adaptive mutations to develop an HCV replicon system and genome-length HCV RNA replicating systems including a reporter assay system. Finally, Li23-derived cells persistently produced infectious virus of an HCV strain. Li23-derived cells are potentially useful for understanding the HCV life cycle and for finding antiviral targets.

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 Is a Target of MicroRNA-16 in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Agra Andrieu, Noelia; Motiño, Omar; Mayoral, Rafael; Llorente Izquierdo, Cristina; Fernández-Alvarez, Ana; Boscá, Lisardo; Casado, Marta; Martín-Sanz, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression has been detected in human hepatoma cell lines and in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the contribution of COX-2 to the development of HCC remains controversial. COX-2 expression is higher in the non-tumoral tissue and inversely correlates with the differentiation grade of the tumor. COX-2 expression depends on the interplay between different cellular pathways involving both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. The aim of this work was to assess whether COX-2 could be regulated by microRNAs in human hepatoma cell lines and in human HCC specimens since these molecules contribute to the regulation of genes implicated in cell growth and differentiation. Our results show that miR-16 silences COX-2 expression in hepatoma cells by two mechanisms: a) by binding directly to the microRNA response element (MRE) in the COX-2 3′-UTR promoting translational suppression of COX-2 mRNA; b) by decreasing the levels of the RNA-binding protein Human Antigen R (HuR). Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-16 inhibits cell proliferation, promotes cell apoptosis and suppresses the ability of hepatoma cells to develop tumors in nude mice, partially through targeting COX-2. Moreover a reduced miR-16 expression tends to correlate to high levels of COX-2 protein in liver from patients affected by HCC. Our data show an important role for miR-16 as a post-transcriptional regulator of COX-2 in HCC and suggest the potential therapeutic application of miR-16 in those HCC with a high COX-2 expression. PMID:23226427

  12. In vitro infectivity of irradiated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites to cultured hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sigler, C.I.; Leland, P.; Hollingdale, M.R.

    1984-07-01

    The invasion of gamma-irradiated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites into cultured hepatoma cells and their transformation into trophozoites was similar to invasion and transformation of non-irradiated sporozoites. However, trophozoites from irradiated sporozoites did not further develop into schizonts, but persisted within the cells for up to 3 days. Sporozoite surface protective antigen was present in trophozoites from irradiated and non-irradiated sporozoites, suggesting that hepatocyte antigen processing may contribute to the induction of anti-malarial immunity.

  13. PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander) hepatoma cell line: further characterization and studies of infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Alexander, J J; Tully, J G; London, W T; Wong, D C; Purcell, R H

    1980-01-01

    The Alexander hepatoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5, was studied for evidence of hepatitis B virus markers and alpha-fetoprotein. Only hepatitis B surface antigen and alpha-fetoprotein were detected. Induction experiments with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and inoculation of chimpanzees with whole cells or tissue culture fluid did not reveal evidence of synthesis of additional hepatitis B virus markers or of production of infectious virus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6160110

  14. Hepatoma-Targeted Radionuclide Immune Albumin Nanospheres: 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Xiao, Yanhong; Shi, Yujuan; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    An effective strategy has been developed for synthesis of radionuclide immune albumin nanospheres (131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs). In vitro as well as in vivo targeting of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs to AFP-positive hepatoma was examined. In cultured HepG2 cells, the uptake and retention rates of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were remarkably higher than those of 131I alone. As well, the uptake rate and retention ratios of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs in AFP-positive HepG2 cells were also significantly higher than those in AFP-negative HEK293 cells. Compared to 131I alone, 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were much more easily taken in and retained by hepatoma tissue, with a much higher T/NT. Due to good drug-loading, high encapsulation ratio, and highly selective affinity for AFP-positive tumors, the 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs are promising for further effective radiation-gene therapy of hepatoma. PMID:26981334

  15. Intracellular glutathione regulates Andrographolide-induced cytotoxicity on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lili; Shen, Kaikai; Liu, Jun; Chen, Ying; Liu, Tianyu; Wang, Zhengtao

    2009-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional herbal plant Andrographis paniculata, was reported to induce apoptosis in hepatoma Hep3B cells in our previous study (Ji LL, Liu TY, Liu J, Chen Y, Wang ZT. Andrographolide inhibits human hepatoma-derived Hep3B cells growth through the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Planta Med 2007; 73: 1397-1401). The present investigation was carried out to observe whether cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) plays important roles in ANDRO-induced apoptosis. ANDRO initially increased intracellular GSH levels which then decreased later, while inhibition of cellular GSH synthesis by L-Buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) augmented ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in Hep3B cells. On the other hand, the thiol antioxidant dithiothreitol (DTT) rescued ANDRO-depleted cellular GSH, and abrogated ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Furthermore, BSO pretreatment augmented ANDRO-decreased expression of antioxidant protein thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), while DTT reversed this decrease. Further results showed that ANDRO increased the activity of the GSH-related antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, this study demonstrates that the intracellular redox system plays important roles in regulating the cytotoxicity of ANDRO on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

  16. [Effect of Conditioned Medium from Endothelial Cells on Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype of Hepatoma Cells].

    PubMed

    Feng, Chuan; Yang, Xianjiong; Sun, Jinghui; Luo, Qing; Song, Guanbin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the influences of conditioned medium from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on cancer stem cell phenotype of human hepatoma cells. HUVEC and human hepatoma cells (MHCC97H) were cultured, respectively, and then the MHCC97H cells were co-cultured with conditioned medium from HUVEC (EC-CM) with Transwell system. Anti-cancer drug sensitivity, colony-formation, migration/invasion ability, expression of cancer stem cell marker and sphere formation were performed to determine the cancer stem cell phenotype in MHCC97H cells. We found that MHCC97H cells co-cultured with EC-CM exhibited significantly higher colony-formation ability and lower sensitivity of anti-cancer drugs 5-FU and Cis. Transwell assay showed that treatment with EC-CM obviously increased migration and invasion of MHCC97H cells. Moreover, increased sphere forming capability and expression of CD133 in MHCC97H cells were observed after co-cultured with EC-CM. These results suggested that EC-CM could promote cancer stem cell phenotype of hepatoma cells.

  17. HAF, hepatoma aggregation factor produced by Streptomyces sp. strain No. A-6143.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Nakano, N; Nagatomi, Y; Tominaga, H; Nakazono, N; Itai, M; Uyeda, M; Shibata, M

    1990-08-01

    We searched for a new cell aggregation factor for hepatoma AH109A cells, and found one we called HAF in the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. strain No. A-6143 isolated from a soil sample. HAF was purified by salting-out with ammonium sulfate. DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, and hydroxylapatite column chromatography, HAF was glycoprotein which had a molecular weight of about 73,000. HAF was stable from pH 6 to 8 at 37 degrees C and up to 40 degrees C at pH 8.0 and the aggregation activity of HAF was maximum around pH 8 at 30 degrees C. The activity was not influenced by some saccharides, but it was inhibited by EDTA and EGTA: moreover HAF activity was restored by the addition of calcium ions. HAF aggregated hepatoma AH136B and COS-7 cells as well as hepatoma AH109A cells, but it was inert to other cancer cells and human erythrocytes. These properties proved that HAF is completely different from other aggregation factors for cancer cells so far reported.

  18. CEA and AFP expression in human hepatoma cells transfected with antisense IGF-I gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Li, Shu-Nong; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether antisense insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene can modulate CEA and AFP expression in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). METHODS: Transfection of HepG2 cells was accomplished using Lipofectin reagent. Northern blot analysis confirmed the antisense IGF-I RNA of the transfected cells. CEA and AFP levels were measured using radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2) were transfected with antisense IGF-I gene. Northern blot analysis confirmed that antisense IGF-I RNA was expressed in the transfected cells. The effect of antisense IGF-I gene on CEA and AFP expression was demonstrated by the fact that the CEA and AFP levels in the supernatant of transfected cell culture were significantly lower as compared with the parent cells, [CEA 7.0 μg/L ± 0.76 μg/L and 3.29 μg/L ± 1.80 μg/L (P < 0.05) and AFP 53.63 μg/L ± 6.02 μg/L and 9.0 μg/L ± 5.26 μg/L (P < 0.01), respectively]. CONCLUSION: The malignant potentiality of the transfected cells was partially suppressed.Antisense IGF-I gene can modulate the expression of CEA and AFP in human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2) PMID:11819225

  19. Polyunsaturated Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Geranylgeranoic Acid Induces Unfolded Protein Response in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iwao, Chieko; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The acyclic diterpenoid acid geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) has been reported to induce autophagic cell death in several human hepatoma-derived cell lines; however, the molecular mechanism for this remains unknown. In the present study, several diterpenoids were examined for ability to induce XBP1 splicing and/or lipotoxicity for human hepatoma cell lines. Here we show that three groups of diterpenoids emerged: 1) GGA, 2,3-dihydro GGA and 9-cis retinoic acid induce cell death and XBP1 splicing; 2) all-trans retinoic acid induces XBP1 splicing but little cell death; and 3) phytanic acid, phytenic acid and geranylgeraniol induce neither cell death nor XBP1 splicing. GGA-induced ER stress/ unfolded protein response (UPR) and its lipotoxicity were both blocked by co-treatment with oleic acid. The blocking activity of oleic acid for GGA-induced XBP1 splicing was not attenuated by methylation of oleic acid. These findings strongly suggest that GGA at micromolar concentrations induces the so-called lipid-induced ER stress response/UPR, which is oleate-suppressive, and shows its lipotoxicity in human hepatoma cells. PMID:26186544

  20. Target-specific delivery of siRNA into hepatoma cells' cytoplasm by bifunctional carrier peptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Lin; Ma, Jingjing; Qiao, Xinxiao; Zhu, Dunwan; Liu, Lanxia; Leng, Xigang

    2017-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is among the most potential approach for the therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma and the major barrier hindering siRNA therapeutics is the low efficiency of delivery to the desired cells. The current study aimed at developing a novel peptide for more efficient hepatoma targeted siRNA delivery, by combining luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone with hepatoma targeting specificity and MPG(△NLS) with cytoplasm-delivery tendency. The developed bifunctional peptide LHRH-MPG(△NLS) and siRNA were mixed together and resulted in LHRH-MPG(△NLS)/siRNA polyplexes through self-assembly. The polyplexes were characterized by agarose gel retardation and dynamic light scatting analysis. Hepatoma targeting specificity was analyzed with the GE IN Cell Analyzer 2000 High-Content Cellular Analysis System after cell transfection, and the effect of RNA interference was detected by RT-PCR. The results demonstrated that LHRH-MPG(△NLS) was able to assemble with siRNA to form stable and nano-sized peptide/siRNA polyplexes, which could inhibit the expression of the target gene and was essentially non-cytotoxic, as compared with the commercial transfection reagent lipofectamine 2000.

  1. Dual role of acetaminophen in promoting hepatoma cell apoptosis and kidney fibroblast proliferation

    PubMed Central

    YU, YUNG-LUEN; YIANG, GIOU-TENG; CHOU, PEI-LUN; TSENG, HSU-HUNG; WU, TSAI-KUN; HUNG, YU-TING; LIN, PEI-SHIUAN; LIN, SHU-YU; LIU, HSIAO-CHUN; CHANG, WEI-JUNG; WEI, CHYOU-WEI

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP), is a safe analgesic and antipyretic drug at therapeutic dose, and is widely used in the clinic. However, high doses of APAP can induce hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Most studies have focused on high-dose APAP-induced acute liver and kidney injury. So far, few studies have investigated the effects of the therapeutic dose (1/10 of the high dose) or of the low dose (1/100 of the high dose) of APAP on the cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular effects of therapeutic- or low-dose APAP treatment on hepatoma cells and kidney fibroblasts. As expected, high-dose APAP treatment inhibited while therapeutic and low-dose treatment did not inhibit cell survival of kidney tubular epithelial cells. In addition, therapeutic-dose treatment induced an increase in the H2O2 level, activated the caspase-9/-3 cascade, and induced cell apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Notably, APAP promoted fibroblast proliferation, even at low doses. This study demonstrates that different cellular effects are exerted upon treatment with different APAP concentrations. Our results indicate that treatment with the therapeutic dose of APAP may exert an antitumor activity on hepatoma, while low-dose treatment may be harmful for patients with fibrosis, since it may cause proliferation of fibroblasts. PMID:24682227

  2. Tumor-targeted gene therapy using Adv-AFP-HRPC/IAA prodrug system suppresses growth of hepatoma xenografted in mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, M; Liu, J; Chen, D-E; Rao, Y; Tang, Z-J; Ho, W-Z; Dong, C-Y

    2012-02-01

    Clinical efficacy of current therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment is limited. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is non-toxic for mammalian cells. Oxidative decarboxylation of IAA by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) leads to toxic effects of IAA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel gene-targeted enzyme prodrug therapy with IAA on hepatoma growth in vitro and in vivo mouse hepatoma models. We generated a plasmid using adenovirus to express HRP isoenzyme C (HRPC) with the HCC marker, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as the promoter (pAdv-AFP-HRPC). Hepatocellular cells were infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and treated with IAA. Cell death was detected using MTT assay. Hepatoma xenografts were developed in mice by injection of mouse hepatoma cells. The size and weight of tumors and organs were evaluated. Cell death in tumors was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. HRPC expression in tissues was detected using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction. IAA stimulated death of hepatocellular cells infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not in control cells. Growth of hepatoma xenografts, including the size and weight, was inhibited in mice treated with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and IAA, compared with that in control group. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment induced cell death in hepatoma xenografts in mice. HRPC gene expressed only in hepatoma, but not in other normal organs of mice. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment did not cause any side effects on normal organs. These findings suggest that pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA enzyme/prodrug system may serve as a strategy for HCC therapy.

  3. Specific growth stimulation by linoleic acid in hepatoma cell lines transfected with the target protein of a liver carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Keler, T; Barker, C S; Sorof, S

    1992-01-01

    The hepatic carcinogen N-2-fluorenylacetamide (2-acetylaminofluorene) was shown previously to interact specifically with its target protein, liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), early during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. In search of the significance of the interaction, rat L-FABP cDNA in the sense and antisense orientations was transfected into a subline of the rat hepatoma HTC cell line that did not express L-FABP. After the transfections, the basal doubling times of the cells were not significantly different. However, at 10(-5)-10(-7) M, linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid, a ligand of L-FABP, and the precursor of many eicosanoids and related lipids, stimulated the incorporation of [3H]thymidine in three randomly isolated and stably transfected cell clones that expressed L-FABP, but virtually did not stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine in three L-FABP-nonexpressing clones transfected with the antisense DNA. Linoleic acid at 10(-6) M increased cell number almost 3-fold (38% vs. 14%; P less than 0.0001) and thymidine incorporation nearly 5-fold (23.2% vs. 4.9%; P less than 0.001) in the L-FABP-expressing cells compared to that in the transfected nonexpressing cells. L-FABP acted specifically and cooperatively with linoleic acid, inasmuch as all the proteins other than L-FABP in the transfected L-FABP nonexpressing cells and four other fatty acids (gamma-linolenic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and palmitoleic acid) were unable to effect a significant elevation or difference in the level of DNA synthesis that was attributable to the transfection. Metabolism of the linoleic acid to oxygenated derivatives was apparently necessary, since the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin partly inhibited and the antioxidant lipoxygenase inhibitors nordihydroguariaretic acid and alpha-tocopherol completely abolished the growth stimulation. The evidence supports the idea that L-FABP, the target protein of the liver carcinogen

  4. Inhibition of insulin degradation by hepatoma cells after microinjection of monoclonal antibodies to a specific cytosolic protease.

    PubMed Central

    Shii, K; Roth, R A

    1986-01-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies were identified by their ability to bind to 125I-labeled insulin covalently linked to a cytosolic insulin-degrading enzyme from human erythrocytes. All four antibodies were also found to remove more than 90% of the insulin-degrading activity from erythrocyte extracts. These antibodies were shown to be directed to different sites on the enzyme by mapping studies and by their various properties. Two antibodies recognized the insulin-degrading enzyme from rat liver; one inhibited the erythrocyte enzyme directly; and two recognized the enzyme after gel electrophoresis and transfer to nitrocellulose filters. By this latter procedure and immunoprecipitation from metabolically labeled cells, the enzyme from a variety of tissues was shown to be composed of a single polypeptide chain of apparent Mr 110,000. Finally, these monoclonal antibodies were microinjected into the cytoplasm of a human hepatoma cell line to assess the contribution of this enzyme to insulin degradation in the intact cell. In five separate experiments, preloading of cells with these monoclonal antibodies resulted in an inhibition of insulin degradation of 18-54% (average 39%) and increased the amount of 125I-labeled insulin associated with the cells. In contrast, microinjection of control antibody or an extraneous monoclonal antibody had no effect on insulin degradation or on the amount of insulin associated with the cells. Moreover, the monoclonal antibodies to the insulin-degrading enzyme caused no significant inhibition of degradation of another molecule, low density lipoprotein. Thus, these results support a role for this enzyme in insulin degradation in the intact cell. Images PMID:2424018

  5. Tumor Response and Apoptosis of N1-S1 Rodent Hepatomas in Response to Intra-arterial and Intravenous Benzamide Riboside

    SciTech Connect

    McLennan, Gordon Bennett, Stacy L.; Ju, Shenghong; Babsky, Andriy; Bansal, Navin; Shorten, Michelle L.; Levitin, Seth; Bonnac, Laurent; Panciewicz, Krystoff W.; Jayaram, Hiramagular N.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Benzamide riboside (BR) induces tumor apoptosis in multiple cell lines and animals. This pilot study compares apoptosis and tumor response in rat hepatomas treated with hepatic arterial BR (IA) or intravenous (IV) BR. Methods: A total of 10{sup 6} N1-S1 cells were placed in the left hepatic lobes of 15 Sprague-Dawley rats. After 2 weeks, BR (20 mg/kg) was infused IA (n = 5) or IV (n = 5). One animal in each group was excluded for technical factors, which prevented a full dose administration (1 IA and 1 IV). Five rats received saline (3 IA and 2 IV). Animals were killed after 3 weeks. Tumor volumes after IA and IV treatments were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test. The percentage of tumor and normal liver apoptosis was counted by using 10 fields of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling)-stained slides at 40 Multiplication-Sign magnification. The percentage of apoptosis was compared between IV and IA administrations and with saline sham-treated rats by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Tumors were smaller after IA treatment, but this did not reach statistical significance (0.14 IA vs. 0.57 IV; P = 0.138). There was much variability in percentage of apoptosis and no significant difference between IA and IV BR (44.49 vs. 1.52%; P = 0.18); IA BR and saline (44.49 vs. 33.83%; P = 0.66); or IV BR and saline (1.52 vs. 193%; P = 0.18). Conclusions: Although differences in tumor volumes did not reach statistical significance, there was a trend toward smaller tumors after IA BR than IV BR in this small pilot study. Comparisons of these treatment methods will require a larger sample size and repeat experimentation.

  6. Chemotherapy by Intravenous Administration of Conjugates of Daunomycin with Monoclonal and Conventional Anti-Rat α -fetoprotein Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Yutaka; Hurwitz, Esther; Kashi, Rina; Sela, Michael; Hibi, Nozomu; Hara, Akihiko; Hirai, Hidematsu

    1982-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to rat α -fetoprotein (AFP) were produced by hybridization of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice immunized with rat AFP. The monoclonal antibodies as well as horse anti-rat AFP were coupled via a dextran bridge to daunomycin. Both types of conjugates were tested in vitro and in vivo for their anti-tumor activity. They were equally cytotoxic to rat AH66 hepatoma cell line in culture. Rats challenged with hepatoma cells were treated with the conjugates either by intraperitoneal or intravenous injections. Daunomycin conjugates with horse anti-AFP and monoclonal mouse anti-AFP were capable of delaying the tumor development more efficiently than the controls of antibodies or free drug, mixtures of drug with antibodies, and a conjugate of drug and normal immunoglobulin. The specific conjugates were considerably more effective when the treatments were given intravenously. The specific conjugates produced 60% long-term survival, whereas the controls delayed only slightly tumor development.

  7. Galactose-functionalized multi-responsive nanogels for hepatoma-targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shaofeng; Gao, Shan; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Chun; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-d-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using a combination of enzymatic transesterification and emulsion copolymerization for intracellular drug delivery. The nanogel exhibited redox, pH and temperature-responsive properties, which can be adjusted by varying the monomer feeding ratio. Furthermore, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the nanogels was close to body temperature and can result in rapid thermal gelation at 37 °C. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed that the P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel showed uniform spherical monodispersion. With pyrene as a probe, the fluorescence excitation spectra demonstrated nanogel degradation in response to glutathione (GSH). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed an amorphous property of DOX within the nanogel, which was used in this study as a model anti-cancer drug. Drug-releasing characteristics of the nanogel were examined in vitro. The results showed multi-responsiveness of DOX release by the variation of environmental pH values, temperature or the availability of GSH, a biological reductase. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed a higher anti-tumor activity of the galactose-functionalized DOX-loaded nanogels against human hepatoma HepG2 cells, which was, at least in part, due to specific binding between the galactose segments and the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-Rs) in hepatic cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometric profiles further confirmed elevated cellular uptake of DOX by the galactose-functionalised nanogels. Thus, we report here a multi-responsive P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel with a hepatoma-specific targeting ability for anti-cancer drug delivery.We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-d-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using

  8. Studies on chemical constituents and anti-hepatoma effects of essential oil from Annona squamosa L. pericarps.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Yun; Peng, Chen-Xiao; Hu, Yan; Bu, Chen; Guo, Shu-Chen; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yong; Chen, Jian-Wei

    2017-06-01

    Annona squamosa L. fruit played great anti-neoplastic activities. Its pericarps were discarded as waste. In this study, essential oil extracted from A. squamosa L. pericarps (APEO) was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Furthermore, the anti-hepatoma activities and the underlying mechanism of the oil were firstly described. A total of 59 compounds were identified by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major compound in the oil was (-)-spathulenol (32.51%). The APEO demonstrated anti-hepatoma activity against SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell line with IC50 lower than 55 μg/mL. At the same time, nucleus shrinkage or broken were found in cells incubated with APEO through fluorescent microscope. In addition, pro-apoptosis and cell cycle arrest effects were confirmed by flow cytometry analysis.

  9. Human serum activates CIDEB-mediated lipid droplet enlargement in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singaravelu, Ragunath; Lyn, Rodney K.; Srinivasan, Prashanth; Delcorde, Julie; Steenbergen, Rineke H.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne; Pezacki, John P.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Human serum induced differentiation of hepatoma cells increases cellular lipid droplet (LD) size. •The observed increase in LD size correlates with increased PGC-1α and CIDEB expression. •Induction of CIDEB expression correlates with rescue of VLDL secretion and loss of ADRP. •siRNA knockdown of CIDEB impairs the human serum mediated increase in LD size. •This system represents a cost-efficient model to study CIDEB’s role in lipid biology. -- Abstract: Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB’s role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible levels of CIDEB. Recent work has highlighted the ability of human serum to differentiate hepatoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that culturing Huh7.5 cells in media supplemented with human serum activates CIDEB expression. This activation occurs through the induced expression of PGC-1α, a positive transcriptional regulator of CIDEB. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy revealed a correlation between CIDEB levels and LD size in human serum treated Huh7.5 cells. Human serum treatment also resulted in a rapid decrease in the levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Furthermore, individual overexpression of CIDEB was sufficient to down-regulate ADRP protein levels. siRNA knockdown of CIDEB revealed that the human serum mediated increase in LD size was CIDEB-dependent. Overall, our work highlights CIDEB’s role in LD fusion, and presents a new model system to study the PGC-1α/CIDEB pathway’s role in LD dynamics and the VLDL pathway.

  10. Drug Transporter Expression and Activity in Human Hepatoma HuH-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vée, Marc; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-12-28

    Human hepatoma cells may represent a valuable alternative to the use of human hepatocytes for studying hepatic drug transporters, which is now a regulatory issue during drug development. In the present work, we have characterized hepatic drug transporter expression, activity and regulation in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells, in order to determine the potential relevance of these cells for drug transport assays. HuH-7 cells displayed notable multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) activity, presumed to reflect expression of various hepatic MRPs, including MRP2. By contrast, they failed to display functional activities of the uptake transporters sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), and of the canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Concomitantly, mRNA expressions of various sinusoidal and canalicular hepatic drug transporters were not detected (NTCP, OATP1B1, organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), OCT1 and bile salt export pump) or were found to be lower (OATP1B3, OATP2B1, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1, BCRP and MRP3) in hepatoma HuH-7 cells than those found in human hepatocytes, whereas other transporters such as OAT7, MRP4 and MRP5 were up-regulated. HuH-7 cells additionally exhibited farnesoid X receptor (FXR)- and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-related up-regulation of some transporters. Such data indicate that HuH-7 cells, although expressing rather poorly some main hepatic drug transporters, may be useful for investigating interactions of drugs with MRPs, notably MRP2, and for studying FXR- or Nrf2-mediated gene regulation.

  11. Cell surface GRP78 facilitates hepatoma cells proliferation and migration by activating IGF-IR.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yancun; Chen, Chen; Chen, Jinliang; Zhan, Renhui; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Li, Defang; Li, Minjing

    2017-07-01

    The 78kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78) is a multifunctional chaperone that is involved in a variety of cellular processes. Insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) often aberrant expresses in many types of tumor cells. The IGF-IR signaling plays key roles in carcinogenesis and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. The crosstalk between GRP78 and IGF-IR molecules has not well been illuminated. Here, we demonstrated a reciprocal regulation of GRP78 expression and IGF-IR pathway activation. IGF-I induced GRP78 expression in hepatoma cells. IGF-IR knockdown or IGF-IR inhibitor repressed GRP78 expression. Both phosphatidylinositol 3-kianase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways involved in IGF-I induction of GRP78 expression. Interestingly, treatment of hepatoma cells with IGF-I re-distributes GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cell surface and promotes its physical interaction with IGF-IR. Also, GRP78 promotes IGF-IR phosphorylation and activation. Blocked of GRP78 by small interfering RNA or inhibition of GRP78 function by (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) blocks IGF-I induced IGF-IR phosphorylation and its downstream signaling. Further, blocked cell surface GRP78 with antibody inhibits IGF-I stimulated cellular proliferation and migration. These data reveal an essential role for the molecular chaperone GRP78 in IGF-IR signaling and implicate the use of GRP78 inhibitors in blocking IGF-IR signaling in hepatoma cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Drug Transporter Expression and Activity in Human Hepatoma HuH-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vée, Marc; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatoma cells may represent a valuable alternative to the use of human hepatocytes for studying hepatic drug transporters, which is now a regulatory issue during drug development. In the present work, we have characterized hepatic drug transporter expression, activity and regulation in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells, in order to determine the potential relevance of these cells for drug transport assays. HuH-7 cells displayed notable multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) activity, presumed to reflect expression of various hepatic MRPs, including MRP2. By contrast, they failed to display functional activities of the uptake transporters sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), and of the canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Concomitantly, mRNA expressions of various sinusoidal and canalicular hepatic drug transporters were not detected (NTCP, OATP1B1, organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), OCT1 and bile salt export pump) or were found to be lower (OATP1B3, OATP2B1, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1, BCRP and MRP3) in hepatoma HuH-7 cells than those found in human hepatocytes, whereas other transporters such as OAT7, MRP4 and MRP5 were up-regulated. HuH-7 cells additionally exhibited farnesoid X receptor (FXR)- and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-related up-regulation of some transporters. Such data indicate that HuH-7 cells, although expressing rather poorly some main hepatic drug transporters, may be useful for investigating interactions of drugs with MRPs, notably MRP2, and for studying FXR- or Nrf2-mediated gene regulation. PMID:28036031

  13. Dietary Factors and Hepatoma in Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri). I. Aflatoxins in Vegetable Protein Feedstuffs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinnhuber, R.O.; Wales, J.H.; Ayers, J.L.; Engebrecht, R.H.; Amend, D.F.

    1968-01-01

    Aflatoxins (toxic metabolites of the mold Aspergillus flavus) were present in a commercial trout ration causing hepatoma in rainbow trout. Cottonseed meal and solvent extracts of cottonseed meal and of rations containing cottonseed meal and peanut meal were found by chemical assay and confirmed by duckling assay to contain aflatoxins. Diets containing these materials and a purified test diet to which aflatoxins had been added produced microscopic tumors in 6 months and gross lesions of hepatocarcinoma in 9 months. Similar diets without aflatoxin were negative.

  14. High permissivity of human HepG2 hepatoma cells for influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Ollier, Laurence; Caramella, Anne; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2004-12-01

    Human HepG2 hepatoma cells are highly permissive for influenza virus type A and type B, even without the addition of trypsin, and they exhibit a marked cytopathic effect. This property greatly facilitates the primary isolation of influenza viruses. Virus replication was significantly reduced by the plasmin(ogen)-specific inhibitor tranexamic acid, and this suggests a potential role played by the plasminogen/tissue plasminogen activator complex at the surface of HepG2 cells. This might represent a new approach for study of the interrelations of this complex with influenza viruses.

  15. High Permissivity of Human HepG2 Hepatoma Cells for Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ollier, Laurence; Caramella, Anne; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    Human HepG2 hepatoma cells are highly permissive for influenza virus type A and type B, even without the addition of trypsin, and they exhibit a marked cytopathic effect. This property greatly facilitates the primary isolation of influenza viruses. Virus replication was significantly reduced by the plasmin(ogen)-specific inhibitor tranexamic acid, and this suggests a potential role played by the plasminogen/tissue plasminogen activator complex at the surface of HepG2 cells. This might represent a new approach for study of the interrelations of this complex with influenza viruses. PMID:15583326

  16. Effects of chemotherapeutic agents on alpha-fetoprotein secretion and growth of human hepatoma cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Muraoka, A.; Tokiwa, T.; Sato, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of various chemotherapeutic agents on alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) secretion and growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma cell lines were investigated in vitro. It was found that there was a high correlation between hepatoma cell number and AFP secretion after treatment and that the amount of AFP secreted per cell per 72 h was not affected with therapeutically achievable concentrations. These results suggest that serum AFP level in patients with hepatomas does not correlate with the size of whole tumour but with that of viable tumour mass, and that AFP-secreting capacity of tumour cells in the mass is kept unchanged after chemotherapy. PMID:2469455

  17. A novel protocol for the subcellular fractionation of C3A hepatoma cells using sucrose density gradient centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Kitambi Satish; Chandrasekar, Gayathri; Srivastava, Renu; Puvanakrishnan, Rengarajulu

    2004-07-30

    In this paper, we describe a method to obtain a relatively pure mitochondrial and microsomal fractions by subcellular fractionation of human hepatoma cell line C3A using sucrose as the hypoosmotic medium. The cells were subjected to osmotic stress with sucrose and homogenized. Osmolarity was then restored to the cells and the organelles were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The protein profiles were examined by SDS-PAGE and the purity was analysed by marker enzymes and Western blotting. Our results indicate a good separation of mitochondrial and microsomal fractions from human hepatoma C3A cells.

  18. The Influence of Postnecrotic Cirrhosis on Aflatoxin Carcinogenesis in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Small doses of aflatoxins B1 and G1 administered by intraperitoneal injection to rats with CC14-induced postnecrotic cirrhosis rapidly cause...hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced atypia of liver cells. Following administration of 600 G. of aflatoxins in three equal weekly doses to groups of animals...with moderate to severe cirrhosis, 11 of 16 animals developed hepatoma within 12 weeks. When aflatoxins of the same dosage were administered to

  19. Impact of chromosome 2 obesity loci on cardiovascular complications of insulin resistance in LDL receptor-deficient C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Smith, Daria; Collins, Alan R; Wang, Xuping; Crockett, Craig; Castellani, Lawrence; Lusis, Aldons J; Davis, Richard C

    2006-08-01

    Previous characterization of mouse chromosome 2 identified genomic intervals that influence obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. For this, resistant CAST/Ei (CAST) alleles were introgressed onto a susceptible C57BL/6J background to generate congenic strains with CAST alleles encompassing 67-162 Mb (multigenic obesity 6 [MOB6]) and 84-180 Mb (MOB5) from mouse chromosome 2. To examine the effects of each congenic locus on atherosclerosis and glucose disposal, we bred each strain onto a sensitizing LDL receptor-null (LDLR(-/-)) C57BL/6J background to predispose them to hypercholesterolemia and insulin resistance. LDLR(-/-) congenics and controls were characterized for measures of atherogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and obesity. We identified a genomic interval unique to the MOB6 congenic (72-84 Mb) that dramatically decreased atherosclerosis by approximately threefold and decreased insulin resistance. This region also reduced adiposity twofold. Conversely, the congenic region unique to MOB5 (162-180 Mb) increased insulin resistance but had little effect on atherosclerosis and adiposity. The MOB congenic intervals are concordant to human and rat quantitative trait loci influencing diabetes and atherosclerosis traits. Thus, our results define a strategy for studying the poorly understood interactions between diabetes and atherosclerosis and for identifying genes underlying the cardiovascular complications of insulin resistance.

  20. Berberine Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression through Proteasomal Degradation in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Xuanbin; Tan, Hor-Yue; Li, Sha; Tsang, Chi Man; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the underlying mechanism on berberine-induced Cyclin D1 degradation in human hepatic carcinoma. We observed that berberine could suppress both in vitro and in vivo expression of Cyclin D1 in hepatoma cells. Berberine exhibits dose- and time-dependent inhibition on Cyclin D1 expression in human hepatoma cell HepG2. Berberine increases the phosphorylation of Cyclin D1 at Thr286 site and potentiates Cyclin D1 nuclear export to cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. In addition, berberine recruits the Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex-β-Transducin Repeat Containing Protein (SCFβ-TrCP) complex to facilitate Cyclin D1 ubiquitin-proteasome dependent proteolysis. Knockdown of β-TrCP blocks Cyclin D1 turnover induced by berberine; blocking the protein degradation induced by berberine in HepG2 cells increases tumor cell resistance to berberine. Our results shed light on berberine′s potential as an anti-tumor agent for clinical cancer therapy. PMID:27854312

  1. Inhibition of water activated by far infrared functional ceramics on proliferation of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongmei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Meng, Junping; Zhang, Guangchuan

    2014-05-01

    Rare earth (RE)/tourmaline composite materials prepared by the precipitation method are added to the ceramic raw materials at a certain percentage and sintered into RE functional ceramics with high far infrared emission features. Then the far infrared functional ceramics are used to interact with water. The influence of the ceramics on the physical parameters of water is investigated, and the effect of the activated water on the growth of Bel-7402 hepatoma cells cultured in vitro is further studied. The results indicate that, compared with the raw water, the water activated by the ceramics can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells, with statistical probability P < 0.01, which means that the effect is significant. It can be explained that the water activated by the ceramics has a higher concentration of H+, which decreases the potential difference across the cell membrane to release the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). After entering the cells, the activated water stimulates the mitochondria to produce immune substances that lead tumor cells to apoptosis.

  2. Glucocorticoid Modulation of Mitochondrial Function in Hepatoma Cells Requires the Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Paz, José C.; Sebastián, David; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Liesa, Marc; Segalés, Jessica; Palacín, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone, enhance hepatic energy metabolism and gluconeogenesis partly through changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial function is influenced by the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission events. However, whether glucocorticoids modulate mitochondrial function through the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is currently unknown. Results: Here, we report that the effects of dexamethasone on mitochondrial function and gluconeogenesis in hepatoma cells are dependent on the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Dexamethasone increased routine oxygen consumption, maximal respiratory capacity, superoxide anion, proton leak, and gluconeogenesis in hepatoma cells. Under these conditions, dexamethasone altered mitochondrial morphology, which was paralleled by a large increase in Drp1 expression, and reduced mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2. In vivo dexamethasone treatment also enhanced Drp1 expression in mouse liver. On the basis of these observations, we analyzed the dependence on the Drp1 function of dexamethasone effects on mitochondrial respiration and gluconeogenesis. We show that the increase in mitochondrial respiration and gluconeogenesis induced by dexamethasone are hampered by the inhibition of Drp1 function. Innovation: Our findings provide the first evidence that the effects of glucocorticoids on hepatic metabolism require the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Conclusion: In summary, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial effects of dexamethasone both on mitochondrial respiration and on the gluconeogenic pathway depend on Drp1. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 366–378. PMID:22703557

  3. Targeting NFKB by autophagy to polarize hepatoma-associated macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Peng; Su, Yu-Chi; Lee, Pei-Huan; Lei, Huan-Yao

    2013-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been linked to promoting tumor progression by stimulating angiogenesis, cell growth and inflammation. NFKB activity in TAMs may mediate inflammation-associated tumor formation. However, most isolated TAMs from established tumors express a M2 phenotype with less NFKB activation and show a strong immunosuppressive phenomenon. How tumors affect the dynamic of NFKB activity in TAMs, and hence maintain their pro-tumor M2 phenotype is still poorly understood. We recently found that hepatoma-derived toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-related ligands are capable of stimulating M2 macrophage differentiation via controlling NFKB RELA/p65 protein homeostasis by selective autophagy. TLR2 signal induces NFKB RELA cytosolic ubiquitination and leads to its degradation by SQSTM1/p62-mediated autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy will rescue NFKB activity and shape the phenotype of hepatoma-polarized M2 macrophages. This suggests that autophagy might play a role in manipulating TAM functions and tumor-associated immune responses. Our study also demonstrates that autophagy can directly control a transcriptional factor in addition to its regulatory molecules. This finding uncovers a new role of autophagy in controlling cellular functions.

  4. Targeting NFKB by autophagy to polarize hepatoma-associated macrophage differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Peng; Su, Yu-Chi; Lee, Pei-Huan; Lei, Huan-Yao

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been linked to promoting tumor progression by stimulating angiogenesis, cell growth and inflammation. NFKB activity in TAMs may mediate inflammation-associated tumor formation. However, most isolated TAMs from established tumors express a M2 phenotype with less NFKB activation and show a strong immunosuppressive phenomenon. How tumors affect the dynamic of NFKB activity in TAMs, and hence maintain their pro-tumor M2 phenotype is still poorly understood. We recently found that hepatoma-derived toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-related ligands are capable of stimulating M2 macrophage differentiation via controlling NFKB RELA/p65 protein homeostasis by selective autophagy. TLR2 signal induces NFKB RELA cytosolic ubiquitination and leads to its degradation by SQSTM1/p62-mediated autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy will rescue NFKB activity and shape the phenotype of hepatoma-polarized M2 macrophages. This suggests that autophagy might play a role in manipulating TAM functions and tumor-associated immune responses. Our study also demonstrates that autophagy can directly control a transcriptional factor in addition to its regulatory molecules. This finding uncovers a new role of autophagy in controlling cellular functions. PMID:23360732

  5. Regulatory aspects of the glutamylation of methotrexate in cultured hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nimec, Z.; Galivan, J.

    1983-10-15

    The glutamylation of methotrexate has been evaluated in H35 hepatoma cells in vitro as a function of the conditions of culture. Glutamylation yields methotrexate polyglutamate with two to five additional glutamate residues and is a saturable process. The rate of glutamylation increases little above 10 microM extracellular methotrexate which corresponds to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 microM. The rate of glutamylation measured over a 6-h period was stimulated by a reduction in cellular folates and prior incubation of the cells with insulin. Glutamylation was also more rapid in dividing cultures than in confluent cells. The combination of insulin inclusion and folate reduction, which was additive, caused approximately a fourfold increase in the rate of glutamylation over control cells under the conditions tested. The maximal rate of methotrexate glutamylation, which was 100 nmol/g/h, occurred in folate-depleted, insulin-supplemented cells. Supplementing folate-depleted cells with reduced folate coenzymes caused the glutamylation to be reduced by more than 90%. In addition to showing that folates can modify the rates of methotrexate polyglutamate formation, data are presented suggesting that methotrexate polyglutamates can regulate their own synthesis. The consequences of the formation of these retained forms of methotrexate in H35 hepatoma cells and the effects of potential regulators of this process are discussed in terms of the glutamylation of folates in the cells and the chemotherapeutic effects of antifolates.

  6. Simultaneous expression of salivary and pancreatic amylase genes in cultured mouse hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Darlington, G J; Tsai, C C; Samuelson, L C; Gumucio, D L; Meisler, M H

    1986-01-01

    The tissue-specific expression of two types of mouse amylase genes does not overlap in vivo; the Amy-1 locus is transcribed in the parotid gland and the liver, while expression of Amy-2 is limited to the pancreas. We identified a mouse hepatoma cell line, Hepa 1-6, in which both amylase genes can be simultaneously expressed. Amy-1 is constitutively active in these cells and is inducible by dexamethasone at the level of mRNA. We demonstrated that the liver-specific promoter of Amy-1 is utilized by the dexamethasone-treated hepatoma cells, and that glucocorticoid consensus sequences are present upstream of this promoter. Amy-2 is not detectable constitutively, but can be activated if the cells are cultured in serum-free medium containing dexamethasone. Expression of Amy-2 in a nonpancreatic cell type has not previously been observed. We speculate that induction of Amy-1 and activation of Amy-2 may involve different regulatory mechanisms. Hepa 1-6 cells provide an experimental system for molecular analysis of these events. Images PMID:2431276

  7. Quercetin induces oxidative stress and potentiates the apoptotic action of 2-methoxyestradiol in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuh-Fang; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Hung, Hui-Fang; Lee, Hui-Ju; Lui, Wing-Yiu; Chi, Chin-Wen; Wang, Jane-Jen

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Asia. This study evaluated the growth inhibition effect of quercetin and 2-methoxyestradiol in vitro in human HCC cell lines. Combination treatment enhanced the cytotoxic effect in HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cell lines as compared with quercetin or 2-methoxyestradiol alone. The cell population of sub-G0/G1 phase and the level of annexin V binding were increased synergistically after combination treatment with quercetin and 2-methoxyestradiol in both cell lines. Moreover, quercetin combined with 2-methoxyestradiol increased superoxide levels, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in mRNA, protein levels, and SOD activity. Finally, we also found the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased after combination treatment. The changes of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial disruption were likely to be involved in the mechanism for the synergistic cytotoxicity effects of combination treatment in human hepatoma cells. These results provided a basis for further study of the potential usage of quercetin combination with hormonal agents for the treatment of human hepatoma.

  8. Melatonin, a novel selective ATF-6 inhibitor, induces human hepatoma cell apoptosis through COX-2 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Bu, Li-Jia; Yu, Han-Qing; Fan, Lu-Lu; Li, Xiao-Qiu; Wang, Fang; Liu, Jia-Tao; Zhong, Fei; Zhang, Cong-Jun; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hua; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2017-02-14

    To clarify the mechanisms involved in the critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress initiating unfolded protein response pathway modified by melatonin. Hepatoma cells, HepG2, were cultured in vitro. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to measure HepG2 cell apoptosis. Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods were used to determine the protein and messenger RNA levels of ER stress and apoptosis related genes' expression, respectively. Tissue microarray construction from patients was verified by immunohistochemical analysis. In the present study, we first identified that melatonin selectively blocked activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6) and then inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, leading to enhanced liver cancer cell apoptosis under ER stress condition. Dramatically increased CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein level, suppressed COX-2 and decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio by melatonin or ATF-6 siRNA contributed the enhanced HepG2 cell apoptosis under tunicamycin (an ER stress inducer) stimulation. In clinical hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the close relationship between ATF-6 and COX-2 was further confirmed. These findings indicate that melatonin as a novel selective ATF-6 inhibitor can sensitize human hepatoma cells to ER stress inducing apoptosis.

  9. Melatonin, a novel selective ATF-6 inhibitor, induces human hepatoma cell apoptosis through COX-2 downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Li-Jia; Yu, Han-Qing; Fan, Lu-Lu; Li, Xiao-Qiu; Wang, Fang; Liu, Jia-Tao; Zhong, Fei; Zhang, Cong-Jun; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hua; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    AIM To clarify the mechanisms involved in the critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress initiating unfolded protein response pathway modified by melatonin. METHODS Hepatoma cells, HepG2, were cultured in vitro. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to measure HepG2 cell apoptosis. Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods were used to determine the protein and messenger RNA levels of ER stress and apoptosis related genes’ expression, respectively. Tissue microarray construction from patients was verified by immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS In the present study, we first identified that melatonin selectively blocked activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6) and then inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, leading to enhanced liver cancer cell apoptosis under ER stress condition. Dramatically increased CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein level, suppressed COX-2 and decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio by melatonin or ATF-6 siRNA contributed the enhanced HepG2 cell apoptosis under tunicamycin (an ER stress inducer) stimulation. In clinical hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the close relationship between ATF-6 and COX-2 was further confirmed. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that melatonin as a novel selective ATF-6 inhibitor can sensitize human hepatoma cells to ER stress inducing apoptosis. PMID:28246472

  10. Molecular switch of Cre/loxP for radiation modulated gene therapy on hepatoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Chen, Fu-Du; Wang, Fu Hui; Ke, Chien Chih; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2007-02-01

    For the purpose of enhancement of AFP promoter for the use of radiation modulated gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we combined hepatitis B virus (HBV) enhancer II with AFP promoter which shows the selectivity to the target cells to control the Cre/loxP system. Different gene constructs, pE4luc, pE4Tk, EIIAPA-Cre, E4CMV-STOP-Tk and chimeric promoters combined with HBV enhancer were constructed and transfected into HepG2, HeLa and NIH-3T3 cell lines. Cell experiments revealed that E4 enhancer responses to radiation best after 60 h irradiation at a dose range of 5-7 Gy in HepG2 stable clone. The EIIAPA promoter provided high specificity to hepatoma and activated the Cre downstream and removed the stop cassette only in hepatoma cells. After removal of the stop cassette, the E4 response to radiation could encode more Tk protein and kill more tumor cells. In summary, the chimeric EIIAPA promoter can stringently control the expression of Cre recombinase only in HCC. The radiation effect of the EIIAPA-Cre and E4CMV-STOP-Tk system shows promising results in terms of cell survival of HCC.

  11. Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor: Its Possible Involvement in the Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Nakamura, Hideji; Liu, Weidong; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2015-06-19

    The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important complication of viral infection induced by hepatitis virus C, and our major research theme is to identify a new growth factor related to the progression of HCC. HDGF (hepatoma-derived growth factor) is a novel growth factor that belongs to a new gene family. HDGF was initially purified from the conditioned medium of a hepatoma cell line. HDGF promotes cellular proliferation as a DNA binding nuclear factor and a secreted protein acting via a receptor-mediated pathway. HDGF is a unique multi-functional protein that can function as a growth factor, angiogenic factor and anti-apoptotic factor and it participates in the development and progression of various malignant diseases. The expression level of HDGF may be an independent prognostic factor for predicting the disease-free and overall survival in patients with various malignancies, including HCC. Furthermore, the overexpression of HDGF promotes the proliferation of HCC cells, while a reduction in the HDGF expression inhibits the proliferation of HCC cells. This article provides an overview of the characteristics of HDGF and describes the potential role of HDGF as a growth-promoting factor for HCC.

  12. Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Aoki, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15 K and 1 atm). The changes in the membrane properties induced by hepatic canceration were investigated and were compared with previous MD calculations included in our previous study of the changes in membrane properties induced by murine thymic canceration. The calculated model membranes for normal hepatocytes and hepatomas comprised 23 and 24 kinds of lipids, respectively. These included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. We referred to previously published experimental values for the mole fraction of the lipids adopted in the present calculations. The calculated structural and dynamic properties of the membranes such as lateral structure, order parameters, lateral self-diffusion constants, and rotational correlation times all showed that hepatic canceration causes plasma membranes to become more ordered laterally and less fluid. Interestingly, this finding contrasts with the less ordered structure and increased fluidity of plasma membranes induced by thymic canceration observed in our previous MD study.

  13. Berberine Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression through Proteasomal Degradation in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Xuanbin; Tan, Hor-Yue; Li, Sha; Tsang, Chi Man; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this study is to explore the underlying mechanism on berberine-induced Cyclin D1 degradation in human hepatic carcinoma. We observed that berberine could suppress both in vitro and in vivo expression of Cyclin D1 in hepatoma cells. Berberine exhibits dose- and time-dependent inhibition on Cyclin D1 expression in human hepatoma cell HepG2. Berberine increases the phosphorylation of Cyclin D1 at Thr286 site and potentiates Cyclin D1 nuclear export to cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. In addition, berberine recruits the Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex-β-Transducin Repeat Containing Protein (SCF(β-TrCP)) complex to facilitate Cyclin D1 ubiquitin-proteasome dependent proteolysis. Knockdown of β-TrCP blocks Cyclin D1 turnover induced by berberine; blocking the protein degradation induced by berberine in HepG2 cells increases tumor cell resistance to berberine. Our results shed light on berberine's potential as an anti-tumor agent for clinical cancer therapy.

  14. Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Aoki, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2016-02-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15 K and 1 atm). The changes in the membrane properties induced by hepatic canceration were investigated and were compared with previous MD calculations included in our previous study of the changes in membrane properties induced by murine thymic canceration. The calculated model membranes for normal hepatocytes and hepatomas comprised 23 and 24 kinds of lipids, respectively. These included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. We referred to previously published experimental values for the mole fraction of the lipids adopted in the present calculations. The calculated structural and dynamic properties of the membranes such as lateral structure, order parameters, lateral self-diffusion constants, and rotational correlation times all showed that hepatic canceration causes plasma membranes to become more ordered laterally and less fluid. Interestingly, this finding contrasts with the less ordered structure and increased fluidity of plasma membranes induced by thymic canceration observed in our previous MD study.

  15. Role of ROS-mediated autophagy in radiation-induced bystander effect of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Jianghong; Fu, Jiamei; Wang, Juan; Ye, Shuang; Liu, Weili; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-05-01

    Autophagy plays a crucial role in cellular response to ionizing radiation, but it is unclear whether autophagy can modulate radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). Here, we investigated the relationship between bystander damage and autophagy in human hepatoma cells of HepG2. HepG2 cells were treated with conditioned medium (CM) collected from 3 Gy γ-rays irradiated hepatoma HepG2 cells for 4, 12, or 24 h, followed by the measurement of micronuclei (MN), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and protein expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 in the bystander HepG2 cells. In some experiments, the bystander HepG2 cells were respectively transfected with LC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA), Beclin-1 siRNA or treated with 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Additional MN and mitochondrial dysfunction coupled with ROS were induced in the bystander cells. The expressions of protein markers of autophagy, LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin-1, increased in the bystander cells. The inductions of bystander MN and overexpressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 were significantly diminished by DMSO. However, when the bystander cells were transfected with LC3 siRNA or Beclin-1 siRNA, the yield of bystander MN was significantly enhanced. The elevated ROS have bi-functions in balancing the bystander effects. One is to cause MN and the other is to induce protective autophagy.

  16. Harmine suppresses homologous recombination repair and inhibits proliferation of hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Wenjun; Chen, Lu; Gao, Neng; Men, Yulong; Xu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    To avoid cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, rapidly proliferating cancer cells have to promote DNA double strand break (DSB) repair to fix replication stress induced DSBs. Therefore, developing drugs blocking homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) – 2 major DSB repair pathways – holds great potential for cancer therapy. Over the last few decades, much attention has been paid to explore drugs targeting DSB repair pathways for cancer therapy. Here, using 2 well-established reporters for analyzing HR and NHEJ efficiency, we found that both HR and NHEJ are elevated in hepatoma cell lines Hep3B and HuH7 compared with normal liver cell lines Chang liver and QSG-7701. Our further study found that Harmine, a natural compound, negatively regulates HR but not NHEJ by interfering Rad51 recruitment, resulting in severe cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, NHEJ inhibitor Nu7441 markedly sensitizes Hep3B cells to the anti-proliferative effects of Harmine. Taken together, our study suggested that Harmine holds great promise as an oncologic drug and combination of Harmine with a NHEJ inhibitor might be an effective strategy for anti-cancer treatment. PMID:26382920

  17. Radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines exposed to 12C6+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, X.; Yang, J.; Li, W.; Guo, C.; Dang, B.; Wang, J.; Zhou, L.; Wei, W.; Gao, Q.

    AIM To investigate the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines METHODS Accelerated carbon ions by heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou HIRFL have high LET We employed it to study the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines SMMC-7721 and human normal liver cell lines L02 using premature chromosome condensation technique PCC Cell survive was documented by a colony assay Chromatid breaks were measured by counting the number of chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks immediately after prematurely chromosome condensed by Calyculin-A RESULTS The survival curve of the two cell lines presented a good linear relationship and the survival fraction of L02 is higher than that of SMMC-7721 Additionally the two types of G 2 phase chromosome breaks chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks of L02 are lower than that of SMMC-7721 CONCLUSION Human normal liver cell line have high radioresistance than that of hepatoma cell line It imply that it is less damage to normal organs when radiotherapy to hepatoma

  18. Enhanced proliferation of human hepatoma cells by PAR-2 agonists via the ERK/AP-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liqun; Zheng, Yanmin; Li, Xuan; Zhao, Junyan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Chen, Li; Zhou, Jing; Hai, Ou; Li, Fei

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the expression and role of PAR-2 in the proliferation of the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, PAR-2 protein and mRNA expression were evaluated by immuno-histochemistry, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analysis. The signaling pathways downstream of PAR-2 activation that lead to hepatoma cell proliferation were analyzed. The results showed that PAR-2 is expressed in human hepatoma cells and PAR-2 mRNA expression was found to be upregulated in cells treated with trypsin or SLIGKV-NH2 (P<0.001). The proliferation rate of HepG2 cells treated with trypsin or SLIGKV-NH2 was significantly increased (P<0.001). The percentage of S phase, G2/M phase and the proliferation index (PI) of HepG2 cells treated with trypsin or SLIGKV-NH2 were significantly elevated (P<0.001). The proliferative responses of HepG2 to trypsin and SLIGKV-NH2 were associated with the upregulation of c-fos and PCNA, which were significantly blocked by PD98059 pretreatment. In conclusion, our results indicate that PAR-2 enhances proliferation of human hepatoma cells possibly via the ERK/AP-1 pathway.

  19. Selenoprotein Genes Exhibit Differential Expression Patterns Between Hepatoma HepG2 and Normal Hepatocytes LO2 Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Tang, Jiayong; Xu, Jingyang; Cao, Lei; Jia, Gang; Long, Dingbiao; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Wang, Kangning

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of selenoprotein genes between hepatoma HepG2 and normal hepatocytes LO2 cell lines. Liver HepG2 and LO2 cells were cultured in 12-well plates under the same condition until cells grew to complete confluence, and then cells were harvested for total RNA and protein extraction. The qPCRs were performed to compare gene expression of 14 selenoprotein genes and 5 cancer signaling-related genes. Enzyme activities were also assayed. The results showed that human hepatoma HepG2 cells grew faster than normal hepatocytes LO2 cells. Among the genes investigated, 10 selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, Selx, Sepp, Sepw1, Sepn1, Selt, Seli, Selh) and 3 cancer signaling-related genes (Bcl-2A, caspase-3, and P38) were upregulated (P < 0.05), while Selo and Bcl-2B were downregulated (P < 0.05) in hepatoma HepG2 cells compared to LO2 cells. Significant correlations were found between selenoprotein genes and the cancer signaling-related genes Caspase3, P53, Bc1-2A, and Bc1-2B. Our results revealed that selenoprotein genes were aberrantly expressed in hepatoma HepG2 cells compared to normal liver LO2 cells, which indicated that those selenoprotein genes may play important roles in the occurrence and development of liver carcinogenesis.

  20. A position-dependent silencer plays a major role in repressing. alpha. -fetoprotein expression in human hepatoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabayashi, Hidekazu; Hashimoto, Tomoko; Miyao, Yasuyoshi; Tjong, Kuokoewang; Chan, J.; Tamaoki, Taiki )

    1991-12-01

    A large percentage of human hepatomas produce {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP), but the levels of AFP expression vary greatly among hepatomas. To understand the molecular basis for this variation. The authors analyzed transcriptional regulatory activities associated with the 5{prime}-flanking region of the AFP gene in two human hepatoma cell lines, HuH-7 and huH-1/cl-2, which produce a high and a low level of AFP, respectively. They found that the low level of AFP production in huH-1/cl-2 is due to the action of at least two silencer regions located between the enhancer and the promoter of the AFP gene. In contrast, no silencer activity is expressed in HuH-7. They identified 5{prime}-CTTCATAACTAATACTT-3{prime} to be a core sequence responsible for the negative regulatory activity. This sequence is repeated four times in a strong, distal silencer region, Sd, whereas one copy is present in a weak, proximal silencer region, Sp. The silencer reduces transcriptional initiation by blocking enhancer activation of the AFP promoter in a position-dependent manner. The silencer functions in the presence of positive transcription factors and may play a key role in developmental repression as well as variable expression of the AFP gene in hepatomas.

  1. Inhibition of IGF receptor signaling and hepatoma cell growth by an antibody to ligand oligopeptide of receptor.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jing; Diao, Zhenyu; Deng, Xiaozhao

    2008-02-01

    Research on insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system have shown it to be potent mitogen for hepatoma cells and made it an attractive therapeutic target. But little strategy has been reported to date on targeting and sequestrating IGF against hepatoma. This study is based on the capability of ligand oligopeptide (LOP) to recognize IGF receptor with high efficiency, which is over-expressed on some hepatoma cells. We have been hypothesizing that antibody to LOP would mimic the extracellular ligand-binding domain of IGF receptor and inhibit receptor signaling and cell proliferation. Gene encoding for LOP [E5 (EPFRSPDLALETYG)] of IGF receptor was inserted into HBc carrier for expression in Escherichia coli. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific LOP potently inhibited signal transduction mediated by the IGF-IR interaction with IGF-I. Furthermore, it exhibited 47% inhibitory rate of soft agar colony formation and also induced apoptosis. These results indicate an anti-hepatoma potential of the mAb to an LOP of IGF receptor could block the activation of receptor and downstream signaling pathways, and suppress the biological effects mediated by receptor.

  2. Generation of fluorescently labeled cell lines, C3A hepatoma cells, and human adult skin fibroblasts to study coculture models.

    PubMed

    Samluk, Anna; Zakrzewska, Karolina Ewa; Pluta, Krzysztof Dariusz

    2013-07-01

    Hepatic/nonhepatic cell cocultures are widely used in studies on the role of homo- and heterotypic interactions in liver physiology and pathophysiology. In this article, for the first time, establishment of the coculture model employing hepatoma C3A cells and human skin fibroblasts, stably expressing fluorescent markers, is described. Suitability of the model in studying coculture conditions using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry was examined. C3A cells spontaneously formed island-like growth patterns surrounded by fibroblasts. The "islands" size and resulting intensity of the homo- and heterotypic interactions can easily be tuned by applying various plated cells ratios. We examined the capability of the hepatoma cells to produce albumin in hepatic/nonhepatic cell cocultures. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests showed that greater number of fibroblasts in coculture, resulting in smaller sizes of hepatoma "islands," and thus, a larger heterotypic interface, promoted higher albumin synthesis. The use of fluorescently labeled cells in flow cytometry measurements enabled us to separately gate two cell populations and to evaluate protein expression only in/on cells of interest. Flow cytometry confirmed ELISA results indicating the highest albumin production in hepatoma cells cocultured with the greatest number of fibroblasts and the inhibited protein synthesis in coculture with osteosarcoma cells.

  3. Raised arterial blood pressure in neurokinin-1 receptor-deficient mice (NK1R(-/-) ): evidence for a neural rather than a vascular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Amie J; Stanford, S Clare; Hosford, Patrick S; Hobbs, Adrian J; Ramage, Andrew G

    2016-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does genetic ablation of neurokinin-1 receptors alter arterial blood pressure? What is the main finding and its importance? NK1R(-/-) mice have increased mean arterial blood pressure, but without a concomitant change in vascular reactivity. This finding suggests that neurokinin-1 receptors play a role in the neural regulation of blood pressure. Mice with functional ablation of the neurokinin-1 receptor gene, Tacr1, (NK1R(-/-) ) express behavioural abnormalities equivalent to those seen in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An established model of ADHD is the spontaneously hypertensive rat, which exhibits high blood pressure owing to increased central sympathetic drive. In light of the evidence that the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) also influences cardiovascular haemodynamics, we have investigated whether NK1R(-/-) mice exhibit raised blood pressure. Cardiovascular parameters were recorded for 24 h in conscious mice using radiotelemetry. Vascular function was assessed in mesenteric resistance arteries by wire myography. The NK1R(-/-) mice exhibited a higher blood pressure than wild-type animals throughout the 24 h period. Heart rate and locomotor activity in NK1R(-/-) mice were higher than in wild-type mice during the night period (active phase), consistent with an ADHD-like phenotype, but not during the day. Mesenteric and renal arteries from NK1R(-/-) mice exhibited normal vascular function; the responses to vasoconstrictors (U46619 and phenylephrine) and the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine, were not altered in these animals, suggesting that the NK1R does not regulate vascular tone. Analysis of heart rate variability revealed a higher low-frequency to high-frequency ratio in NK1R(-/-) mice, indicative of increased cardiac sympathetic activity. We propose that the raised blood pressure in NK1R(-/-) mice could be due to a neural mechanism rather than a change in vascular reactivity. Further

  4. Purification and characterization of a novel type i ribosome inactivating protein, pachyerosin, from Pachyrhizus erosus seeds, and preparation of its immunotoxin against human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin-Lin; Cheng, Yuan-Liu; Qiu, Yi; Shen, Cai-Hong; Yi, Bin; Peng, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Pachyrhizus erosus seeds have a high protein content and are used in China due to their cytotoxic effect. Here we report the biological and pharmacological activity of the protein extracts from P. erosus seeds. A novel ribosome-inactivating protein, pachyerosin, from P. erosus seeds was successively purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-sepharose FF, and Sephacryl S-200. Pachyerosin showed to be a type I ribosome-inactivating protein with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.19. It strongly inhibited protein synthesis of rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an IC50 of 0.37 ng/mL and showed N-glycosidase activity on rat liver ribosomes with an EC50 of 85.9 pM. The N-terminal 27 amino acids of pachyerosin revealed a 60.71% sequence identity with abrin A from the seeds of Abrus precatorius. With the aim of targeting the delivery of pachyerosin, immunotoxin was prepared by conjugating pachyerosin with anti-human AFP monoclonal antibodies SM0736. The immunotoxin pachyerosin-SM0736 efficiently inhibited the growth of the human hepatoma cell line HuH-7 with an IC50 of 0.050 ± 0.004 nM, 2360 times lower than that of pachyerosin and 430 times lower than that of the immunotoxin against human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901. These results imply that pachyerosin may be used as a new promising anticancer agent.

  5. Combined effect of honokiol and rosiglitazone on cell growth inhibition through enhanced G0/G1 phase arrest in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Chi; Hsu, Hui-Tzu; Weng, Jing-Wen; Chang, Yuh-Fang; Hsia, Cheng-Yuan; Lee, Hsin-Chen; Chi, Chin-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Honokiol, a derivative extracted from the stem and bark of Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to have anticancer effects in hepatoma cells. Recently, it was found that honokiol acted as not only a retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist but also as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist. Additionally, honokiol is capable of activating PPARγ/RXR heterodimers synergistically in the presence of rosiglitazone in 3T3-L1 adipocyte and HLE human hepatoma cells. Furthermore, synthetic PPARγ agonist thiazolidinediones exhibited growth inhibition effects in hepatoma cells through PPARγ-dependent and PPARγ-independent pathways. However, the combined effects of treatment with honokiol and PPARγ agonist are unclear in hepatoma cells. In this study, sulforhodamine B assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis were used to examine the combined effects of honokiol and PPARγ agonist (rosiglitazone) treatment on growth inhibition in SK-Hep1 and Mahlavu hepatoma cells. Honokiol or rosiglitazone treatment in hepatoma cells induced growth inhibition at high dose by sulforhodamine B assay. Moreover, we found that combined treatment with honokiol and rosiglitazone showed more effective growth inhibition in hepatoma cells than treatment with honokiol or rosiglitazone alone. Also, treatment with honokiol and rosiglitazone induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase; increased p21; and decreased cyclin D1, cyclin E1, and Rb expression in SK-Hep1 hepatoma cells. Honokiol combined with rosiglitazone showed more effective growth inhibition in hepatoma cells mediated through the regulation of G0/G1 phase-related proteins p21, cyclin D1, cyclin E1, and Rb and cell cycle progression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  6. Inhibition of diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer in rats by Rhizoma paridis saponin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Man, Shuli; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Xin; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-09-01

    Rhizoma Paridis saponin (RPS) had been regarded as the main active components responsible for the anti-tumor effects of the herb Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. In the present research, we set up a rat model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatoma to evaluate antitumor effect of RPS. After 20 weeks treatment, rats were sacrificed to perform histopathological examinations, liver function tests, oxidative stress assays and so forth. As a result, DEN-induced hepatoma formation. RPS alleviated levels of liver injury through inhibiting liver tissues of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) formation, increasing superoxide dismutases (SOD) production, and up-regulating expression of GST-α/μ/π in DEN-induced rats. All in all, RPS would be a potent agent inhibiting chemically induced liver cancer in the prospective application.

  7. The effects of propofol on the growth behavior of hepatoma xenografts in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Na; Cao, Quanjun; Cui, Xuejie; Zhou, Qiaoling; Yang, Chengxiang

    2017-06-01

    Studies on the effects of propofol on the growth of hepatoma xenografts in Balb/c mice. In an effort to establish a hepatoma-xenograft model of BALB/C mice, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells SMMC-7721 were inoculated subcutaneously into BALB/C mice. Forty mice were randomly divided into five different groups (n=8): control group (C group), Intralipid group (Y group), low dose (50mg/kg) propofol group (P1 group), medium dose (100mg/kg) propofol group (P2 group) and high dose (150mg/kg) propofol group (P3 group). The tumor volume was measured before treatment and every 3days after treatment (T0d-T18d, T0 represents time point before treatment, T3d-T18d represent time points every 3days after treatment for a total of 18 days). All mice were sacrificed 19days after drug withdrawal. The tumor masses were extracted, weighed, and the tumor inhibition rate of propofol was calculated. The protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the xenografted tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry staining. No statistical significance in the tumor volume at T0d (before treatment), T3d (3days after treatment), and T6d (6days after treatment) among the five groups (P>0.05) could be determined. Compared to group C, the tumor volumes in the P1, P2, and P3 groups were found to be significantly decreased in size upon increasing the propofol dosages (P<0.05). There was no statistical significance at time points T9d-T18d in group Y compared to group C (P>0.05). The tumor weights in the P1, P2, and P3 groups were found to be significantly lower as the propofol dosages increased (P<0.05), with no statistical significance determined in group Y (P>0.05). MMP-2 and VEGF protein levels were found to be significantly lower in the P1, P2, and P3 groups as the propofol dosages increased (P<0.05), with no statistical significance in group Y (P>0.05). Within a certain range, propofol was found to inhibit tumor growth and expression of MMP

  8. Establishment of a human hepatoma multidrug resistant cell line in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Ling, Xian-Long; Li, Shi-Wei; Li, Xin-Qiang; Yan, Bin

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To establish a multidrug-resistant hepatoma cell line (SK-Hep-1), and to investigate its biological characteristics. METHODS: A highly invasive SK-Hep-1 cell line of human hepatocellular carcinoma, also known as malignant hepatoma was incubated with a high concentration of cisplatin (CDDP) to establish a CDDP-resistant cell subline (SK-Hep-1/CDDP). The 50% inhibitory dose (IC50) values and the resistance indexes [(IC50 SK-Hep-1/CDDP)/(IC50 SK-Hep-1)] for other chemotherapeutic agents and the growth curve of cells were all evaluated using cell counting kit-8 assays. The distribution of the cell cycles were detected by flow cytometry. Expression of acquired multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) was compared with that in parent cells by Western blotting and immunofluorescence combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The SK-Hep-1/CDDP cells (IC50 = 70.61 ± 1.06 μg/mL) was 13.76 times more resistant to CDDP than the SK-Hep-1 cells (IC50 = 5.13 ± 0.09 μg/mL), and CDDP-resistant cells also demonstrated cross-resistance to many anti-tumor agents such as doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and vincristine. Similar morphologies were determined in both SK-Hep-1 and SK-Hep-1/CDDP groups. The cell cycle distribution of the SK-Hep-1/CDDP cell line exhibited a significantly increased percentage of cells in S (42.2% ± 2.65% vs 27.91% ± 2.16%, P < 0.01) and G2/M (20.67% ± 5.69% vs 12.14% ± 3.36%, P < 0.01) phases in comparison with SK-Hep-1 cells, while the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase decreased (37.5% ± 5.05% vs 59.83% ± 3.28%, P < 0.01). The levels of MDR1 and MRP1 were overexpressed in the SK-Hep-1/CDDP cells exhibiting the MDR phenotype. CONCLUSION: Multiple drug resistance of multiple drugs in the human hepatoma cell line SK-Hep-1/CDDP was closely related to the overexpression of MDR1 and MRP1. PMID:20458768

  9. The citrus fruit flavonoid naringenin suppresses hepatic glucose production from Fao hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Purushotham, Aparna; Tian, Min; Belury, Martha A

    2009-02-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is the major source of fasting hyperglycemia. Here, we investigated the role of the citrus fruit flavonoid naringenin, in the attenuation of hepatic glucose production from hepatoma (Fao) cells. We show that naringenin, but not its glucoside naringin, suppresses hepatic glucose production. Furthermore, unlike insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production, incubation of hepatocytes with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor Ly294002 had no effect on the ability of naringenin to suppress hepatic glucose production. Further, naringenin did not increase phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 or, Thr308, indicating this down-stream target of PI3-kinase is also not a player in naringenin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production. Importantly, like the dimethylbiguanide, metformin, naringenin significantly decreased cellular ATP levels without increasing cell cytotoxicity. Together, these results suggest that the aglycone, naringenin, has a role in the attenuation of hyperglycemia and may exert this effect in a manner similar to the drug, metformin.

  10. A novel multi-target RNAi adenovirus inhibits hepatoma cell proliferation, migration, and induction of angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tingting; Cheng, Ya; Ren, Weihua; Jia, Weidong; Ma, Jinliang; Xu, Geliang

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-step process involving many genes. Consequently, single gene targeting therapy has limited efficacy, making combination therapy targeting multiple genes a necessity. Based on our previous findings, we constructed a single vector mediating simultaneous expression of multiple short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), chemokine C-C motif receptor 1 (CCR1), and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), three genes closely related to HCC progression that act through separate pathways. The shRNA vector efficiently downregulated the mRNA and protein of all three molecules in Huh7 hepatoma cells. The vector also inhibited cell proliferation and migration and reduced angiogenesis. Furthermore, this shRNA vector can be recombined into adenovirus, a gene therapy vector, for better in vivo application. It thus offers a potentially effective future gene therapy approach to treating human liver cancer. PMID:27221035

  11. Isoliquiritigenin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Ling; Kuo, Po-Lin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2005-02-01

    Isoliquiritigenin (4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone, ISL) is a natural pigment with a simple chalcone structure. In this study, we report the ISL-induced inhibition on the growth of human hepatoma cells (Hep G2) for the first time. The cell growth inhibition achieved by ISL treatment resulted in programmed cell death in a caspase activation-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 10.51 microg/mL. Outcomes of ISL treatment included the up-regulation of IkappaBalpha expression in the cytoplasm, and the decrease of NF-kappaB level as well as its activity in the nucleus. In addition, ISL also suppressed the expression of Bcl-XL and c-IAP1/2 protein, the downstream target molecule of NF-kappaB. These results demonstrated that ISL treatment inhibited the NF-kappaB cell survival-signaling pathway and induced apoptotic cell death in Hep G2 cells.

  12. Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase is a Peroxisomal Enzyme in Human Fibroblast and Hepatoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Gilbert-Andre; Warner, Thomas G.; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Hallewell, Robert A.

    1991-08-01

    The intracellular localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) has been examined by immunofluorescence using four monoclonal anti-Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase antibodies raised against a recombinant human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase derivative produced and purified from Escherichia coli. Colocalization with catalase, a peroxisomal matrix enzyme, was used to demonstrate the peroxisomal localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase in human fibroblasts and hepatoma cells. In the fibroblasts of Zellweger syndrome patients, the enzyme is not transported to the peroxisomal ghosts but, like catalase, remains in the cytoplasm. In addition, immunocryoelectron microscopy of yeast cells expressing human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase showed that the enzyme is translocated to the peroxisomes.

  13. Time-course regulation of quercetin on cell survival/proliferation pathways in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Angeles Martín, María; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2008-04-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid, has been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties, but the precise molecular mechanisms of action are not thoroughly elucidated. This study was aimed at investigating the time-course regulation effect of quercetin on survival/proliferation pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Quercetin induced a significant time-dependent inactivation of the major survival signaling proteins, i. e., phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha), in concert with a time-dependent activation of key death-related signals: c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and PKC-delta. These data suggest that quercetin exerts a tight regulation of survival/proliferation pathways that requires the integration of different signals and persists over time, being the balance of these regulatory signals what determines the fate of HepG2 cells.

  14. [Retention jaundice caused by central hepatic hepatoma. Treatment with Kron's extra-anatomic biliary prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Partensky, C; Paliard, P; Maurin, T; Bret, P M

    1983-01-01

    A 31 year-old patient presented with a retention jaundice from a centrally located hepatoma invading the hilum. Because of the patient's age and the severity of the pruritus and jaundice, palliative treatment was performed by percutaneous catheterization of the intrahepatic biliary tracts to drain the right and left hepatic canals. As the hilar stenosis could not be overcome, the external drainage was transformed into internal drainage by implantation of a Kron's biliary prosthesis linking the intrahepatic biliary tracts, following segment III hepatotomy, to the duodenal lumen, with burying of the prosthesis in the gastric antrum region. Jaundice was reduced until death of the patients from metastases 6 months later. This case demonstrates that the use of Kron's biliary prosthesis to perform a biliodigestive shunt from intrahepatic biliary pathways is a valid palliative procedure in patients with limited life expectancies.

  15. [Effects of niflumic acid on the proliferation of human hepatoma cells].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Tao, Ling; Cao, Yun-Xin; Dong, Ling; Hu, Yu-Zhen; Yang, An-Gang; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

    2003-04-25

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of niflumic acid (NFA), a chloride channel blocker, on the proliferation of human hepatoma cell line (HHCC). Cell proliferation was analyzed by cell count and MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis was carried out by flow cytometry. [Ca(2+)](i) was determined by laser scanning confocal system. It was found that NFA decreased significantly the cell number and the MTT optical density (OD) of HHCC cells, and that the OD value was reversed after washout of NFA. Compared with control, NFA blocked cell cycle progression in G(1) phase. Extracellular application of NFA (100 micromol/L) induced a rapid decrease in [Ca(2+)](i). These findings demonstrate that blockage of chloride channels by NFA induces growth arrest of HHCC in G(1) phase, which may be due to the inhibition of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent signaling pathways.

  16. Coexistence of hepatoma with mantle cell lymphoma in a hepatitis B carrier

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mu-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Ching; Cheng, Hao-Tsai; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Huang, Hsin-Chih; Kao, Hsiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in the liver is rare. Reports show that these patients have cirrhotic livers or hepatitis virus infections before they develop HCC and NHL. We present a patient with hepatitis B virus infection who was transferred to our hospital with a newly detected liver mass; abdominal computed tomography examination showed one hypodense mass of 7 cm in diameter and multiple mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes. A liver tumor biopsy showed a hepatoma, and the pathologic findings from an inguinal lymph node excision showed mantle cell lymphoma. An immunohistochemical stain confirmed that the atypical lymphoid cells within the HCC were positive for the CD20, CD5 and cyclin D1 antigens. Taking these findings into account, the hepatic tumor was determined to be a HCC infiltrated by mantle cell lymphoma. PMID:26668520

  17. Coexistence of hepatoma with mantle cell lymphoma in a hepatitis B carrier.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mu-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Ching; Cheng, Hao-Tsai; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Huang, Hsin-Chih; Kao, Hsiao-Wen

    2015-12-07

    The coexistence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in the liver is rare. Reports show that these patients have cirrhotic livers or hepatitis virus infections before they develop HCC and NHL. We present a patient with hepatitis B virus infection who was transferred to our hospital with a newly detected liver mass; abdominal computed tomography examination showed one hypodense mass of 7 cm in diameter and multiple mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes. A liver tumor biopsy showed a hepatoma, and the pathologic findings from an inguinal lymph node excision showed mantle cell lymphoma. An immunohistochemical stain confirmed that the atypical lymphoid cells within the HCC were positive for the CD20, CD5 and cyclin D1 antigens. Taking these findings into account, the hepatic tumor was determined to be a HCC infiltrated by mantle cell lymphoma.

  18. Two unusual cases with Wilson's disease: hepatoma and fulminant hepatitis treated with plasma exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Aydinli, Musa; Harmanci, Ozgur; Ersoy, Osman; Iskit, Arzu T.; Ozcebe, Osman; Abbasoglu, Osman; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2006-01-01

    We report two atypical cases of Wilson's disease. The first case is a 22-year-old male patient with a history of disease for 15 years and diagnosed as Wilson's disease upon investigations. Alpha-fetoprotein level was found elevated and computed tomography showed a 3.5-cm liver mass. Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed. Radiofrequency ablation and liver transplantation were performed successfully. The second case is a 24-year-old female patient who presented with fulminant hepatitis. Urinary copper excretion and ceruloplasmin levels were suggestive of Wilson's disease. Despite chelation therapy, no improvement was observed. Plasma exchange therapy was performed for seven days. Her clinical status improved, and transplantation was no longer needed. To conclude, although hepatoma is rarely seen in Wilson's disease, patients should be examined regularly to diagnose it in a treatable stage. Removal of copper and toxic metabolites with plasma exchange therapy may be a way of treatment for fulminant hepatitis associated with Wilson's disease. PMID:17225847

  19. Sphere-forming cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties in human hepatoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are regarded as the cause of tumor formation and recurrence. The isolation and identification of CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs. Methods Human hepatoma cell lines were plated in stem cell conditioned culture system allowed for sphere forming. To evaluate the stemness characteristics of spheres, the self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity of the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells, and the expression levels of stem cell related proteins in the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells were assessed, comparing with the parental cells. The stem cell RT-PCR array was performed to further explore the biological properties of liver CSCs. Results The PLC/PRF/5, MHCC97H and HepG2 cells could form clonal nonadherent 3-D spheres and be serially passaged. The PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells possessed a key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, overexpression of liver CSCs related proteins (Oct3/4, OV6, EpCAM, CD133 and CD44). Even 500 sphere-forming cells were able to form tumors in NOD/SCID mice, and the tumor initiating capability was not decreased when spheres were passaged. Besides, downstream proteins DTX1 and Ep300 of the CSL (CBF1 in humans, Suppressor of hairless in Drosophila and LAG1 in C. elegans) -independent Notch signaling pathway were highly expressed in the spheres, and a gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 could significantly inhibit the sphere formation ability. Conclusions Nonadherent tumor spheres from hepatoma cell lines cultured in stem cell conditioned medium possess liver CSC properties, and the CSL-independent Notch signaling pathway may play a role in liver CSCs. PMID:21669008

  20. Chaperone proteins involved in troglitazone-induced toxicity in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Maniratanachote, Rawiwan; Minami, Keiichi; Katoh, Miki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2005-02-01

    Troglitazone (TRO), an effective thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agent, was reported to produce idiosyncratic hepatotoxic effects in some individuals. In contrast, rosiglitazone (RSG), in the same group of agents, has no significant toxic effects and now is widely used. In this study, human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines were exposed to various doses of TRO as well as RSG (0, 25, 50, and 75 microM) for 48 h. Cell lysates were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and the gels were stained with coomassie brilliant blue to compare the spot profiles. The greatest protein expression at a MW of 75 kDa and isoelectric point of 5 was specifically increased with TRO treatments of 50 and 75 microM. The spot was identified as a mixture of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) and, to a lesser extent, protein disulfide isomerase-related protein (PDIrp). Immunoblot analyses showed that the BiP protein was dose-dependently increased by TRO treatment and, to a lower degree, by RSG. These effects were also correlated with the high induction of BiP mRNA by TRO (50 and 75 microM) and the lower induction by RSG. However, both treatments showed no significant effects on PDIrp expression. The toxic effects of TRO in relation to the overexpression of BiP were also demonstrated in HLE cells, another human hepatoma cell line. In HLE cells, the inhibition of BiP expression by small interference RNA rendered cells more susceptible to the toxic effects of TRO. These results suggest that the overexpression of BiP is a defense mechanism of the endoplasmic reticulum in response to TRO-induced toxicity.

  1. Inhibiting effect of a hepatoma extract on the mitotic rate of regenerating liver.

    PubMed

    Echave Llanos, J M; Badrán, A F; Moreno, F R

    1986-01-01

    Aqueous tumor extracts were prepared by the homogenization of a fast-growing, undifferentiated, transplantable malignant murine hepatoma in distilled water. After centrifugation, an aliquot of 0.01 ml of the supernatant g body weight was injected intraperitoneally into partially hepatectomized mice. Control animals were injected with saline. Groups of mice were killed at various times in relation to the hepatectomy. Four h before killing the animals were given Colcemid (1 microgram/g body weight). The number of Colcemid-arrested mitoses in the hepatocytes and in the littoral cells, respectively, were counted in 140 microscopic fields. The extract significantly inhibited the mitotic rate in hepatocytes when the injection was given between 22 h before, and up to 26 h after hepatectomy. In the littoral cells, a slight initial stimulation was followed by a slight but significant inhibition which occurred when the injection was given at hepatectomy or until 18 h after hepatectomy. The effect was not modified by exposing the extracts to temperatures of 47 degrees C for 30 min or 22 degrees C for 24 h, but 10 min of boiling destroyed their inhibitory effect. Lyophilization and storing at -18 degrees C for up to 4 weeks did not modify the effect. The mitosis-inhibiting effect was also measurable when the extract was injected subcutaneously. There was an almost linear dose-response curve. The results are discussed in relation to circadian rhythms, the pattern of liver cell proliferation after hepatectomy, and recent similar reports from the literature. The conclusion is drawn that extracts of a hepatoma contain one or more growth-inhibitory factors significantly active on regenerating liver cells, and less significantly on littoral cells.

  2. Inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Y; Kar, S; Wiest, L; Pegg, A E; Carr, B I

    1997-01-01

    We screened genes responsive to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta 1) protein in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep3B) using a PCR-mediated differential display technique, in order to investigate the mechanisms involved in TGF-beta-induced growth suppression. We found a gene that was down-regulated by TGF-beta 1 to be completely identical in an approx. 620 bp segment to the gene for the enzyme spermidine synthase, which mediates the conversion of putrescine into spermidine. Both spermidine synthase mRNA expression and its enzyme activity were decreased after TGF-beta 1 treatment of Hep3B cells. The inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by TGF-beta 1 protein was also observed in other hepatoma cell lines. The expression of genes for other biosynthetic enzymes in polyamine metabolism (ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase) was also inhibited to the same extent as for spermidine synthase, while the gene expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, a catabolic enzyme, was relatively resistant to TGF-beta 1. Spermine levels in Hep3B cells were decreased by TGF-beta 1 treatment, although the levels of spermidine and putrescine were unchanged, probably due to compensation by remaining spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity. Exogenously added spermidine or spermine, but not putrescine, partially antagonized the growth-inhibitor effects of TGF-beta 1 on Hep3B cells. Our data suggest that down-regulation of gene expression of the enzymes involved in polyamine metabolism, including spermidine synthase, may be associated with the mechanism of TGF-beta-induced growth suppression. PMID:9020892

  3. Mitomycin C induces bystander killing in homogeneous and heterogeneous hepatoma cellular models

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Ratna; Sharma, Aanchal; Ajay, Amrendra Kumar; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide that is particularly refractory to chemotherapy. Several studies have proposed combination chemotherapy regimen for HCC treatment. However, these therapies are not effective in regressing tumor and prolonging survival of patient's suffering from HCC. Therefore, the development of more effective therapeutic tools and new strategies for the treatment of HCC are urgently needed. Over the last decade much attention has been focused on "bystander effect" as a possible therapeutic strategy for the treatment of certain human tumors. Interest in this therapeutic approach originated from numerous reports describing the radiation induced bystander effect. However, the knowledge about chemotherapy induced bystander effect is still limited. Hence, chemotherapy induced bystander phenomenon in hepatoma cells was explored by utilizing Mitomycin C (MMC). Results MMC induced bystander killing was observed only in hepatoma cells and it did not occur in cervical cancer cells. MMC induced bystander killing was transferable via medium. It occurred in co-cultured cells indicating the involvement of secreted as well as membrane bound factors. FasL and TRAIL were detected in the conditioned medium from treated cells. In medium transfer experiment, pre-treatment with EDTA (a broad range protease inhibitor) diminished MMC induced bystander killing. Following drug exposure, expression of Fas and TRAIL receptors increased and treatment with neutralizing antibodies against FasL and TRAIL inhibited bystander killing. Conclusion Our results highlight the therapeutic importance of MMC in the treatment of HCC and implicate role of membrane bound and secreted forms of FasL and TRAIL in MMC induced bystander killing. PMID:19845939

  4. Interleukin-21 receptor deficiency increases the initial toll-like receptor 2 response but protects against joint pathology by reducing Th1 and Th17 cells during streptococcal cell wall arthritis.

    PubMed

    Marijnissen, Renoud J; Roeleveld, Debbie M; Young, Deborah; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla; Garcia de Aquino, Sabrina; van de Loo, Fons A J; van Spriel, Annemiek B; Boots, Annemieke M H; van den Berg, Wim B; Koenders, Marije I

    2014-04-01

    The cytokine interleukin-21 (IL-21) can have both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential dual role of IL-21 in experimental arthritis in relation to Th17 cells. Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) and chronic streptococcal cell wall (SCW) arthritis were induced in IL-21 receptor-deficient (IL-21R(-/-) ) and wild-type mice. Knee joints, synovial tissue, and serum were analyzed for arthritis pathology and inflammatory markers. During AIA and chronic SCW arthritis, IL-21R deficiency protected against severe inflammation and joint destruction. This was accompanied by suppressed serum IgG1 levels and antigen-specific T cell responses. Levels of IL-17 were reduced during AIA, and synovial lymphocytes isolated during SCW arthritis for flow cytometry demonstrated that mainly IL-17+ interferon-γ (IFNγ)-positive T cells were reduced in IL-21R(-/-) mice. However, during the acute phases of SCW arthritis, significantly higher joint swelling scores were observed, consistent with enhanced tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 expression. Interestingly, IL-21R(-/-) mice were significantly less capable of up-regulating suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) and SOCS-3 messenger RNA. IL-21 stimulation also affected the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2)/caspase recruitment domain 15 response to SCW fragments in vitro, indicating that impaired SOCS regulation in the absence of IL-21 signaling might contribute to the increased local activation during SCW arthritis. In contrast to the proinflammatory role of IL-21 in adaptive immunity, which drives IL-17+IFN+ cells and joint pathology during chronic experimental arthritis, IL-21 also has an important immunosuppressive role, presumably by inhibiting TLR signaling via SOCS-1 and SOCS-3. If this dual role of IL-21 in various immune processes is present in human disease, it could make IL-21 a difficult therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2014 by the American

  5. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice.

    PubMed

    Merkel, M; Velez-Carrasco, W; Hudgins, L C; Breslow, J L

    2001-11-06

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway.

  6. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Martin; Velez-Carrasco, Wanda; Hudgins, Lisa C.; Breslow, Jan L.

    2001-01-01

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway. PMID:11606787

  7. Spatial Analysis of the Home Addresses of Hospital Patients with Hepatitis B Infection or Hepatoma in Shenzhen, China from 2010 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tao; Du, Qingyun; Ren, Fu; Liang, Shi; Lin, Denan; Li, Jiajia; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatoma associated with hepatitis B infection is a major public health problem in Shenzhen (China) and worldwide. China has the largest number of people infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and many studies have demonstrated that HBV infection is associated with hepatoma development. Shenzhen officials have been attempting to monitor and control these diseases for many years. The methodology and the results of this study may be useful in developing a system to monitor, prevent and control these diseases. Methods: The aim of the study was to analyze HBV infection and hepatoma distribution characteristics and patterns in Shenzhen by combining geographic information system (GIS) technology and spatial analysis. The study used data from patients at the district level from the 2010–2012 population censuses. Results: Only one-third of the patients were female, and 70.7% of all cases were 20–50 years of age. There was no global spatial correlation of the distribution of hepatitis B infections and hepatomas; however, there was a local spatial correlation, and certain sub-districts of the Nanshan district had significant agglomeration effects. Based on incidence density and rate maps, we can conclude that the Shenzhen special zone had a higher incidence density and rate of hepatitis B infections and hepatomas compared with the area outside of the Shenzhen special zone during 2010–2012. Conclusions: This study demonstrated substantial geographic variation in the incidence of hepatitis B infection and hepatoma in Shenzhen. The prediction and control of hepatitis B infections and hepatoma development and interventions for these diseases should focus on disadvantaged areas to reduce disparities. GIS and spatial analysis play an important role in public health risk-reduction programs and may become integral components in the epidemiologic description, analysis and risk assessment of hepatitis B and hepatoma. PMID:24637909

  8. Analysis of the Cytotoxicity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles, Diamond and Graphite, in Human Glioblastoma and Hepatoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Pijanowska, Dorota Genowefa; Pluta, Krzysztof Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests. PMID:25816103

  9. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of carbon-based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, in human glioblastoma and hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Karolina Ewa; Samluk, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Pijanowska, Dorota Genowefa; Pluta, Krzysztof Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: leptin receptor deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... leptin receptor gene causes obesity and pituitary dysfunction. Nature. 1998 Mar 26;392(6674):398-401. Citation ... and human weight regulation: lessons from experiments of nature. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2009 Jan;38(1): ...

  11. TAM receptor deficiency affects adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Rui; Meng, Lingbin; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2014-01-01

    The Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM) subfamily of receptor protein tyrosine kinases functions in cell growth, differentiation, survival, and most recently found, in the regulation of immune responses and phagocytosis. All three receptors and their ligands, Gas6 (growth arrest-specific gene 6) and protein S, are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). TAM receptors play pivotal roles in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Loss of these receptors causes a comprised neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult hippocampus. TAM receptors have a negative regulatory effect on microglia and peripheral antigen-presenting cells, and play a critical role in preventing overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines detrimental to the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of adult neuronal stem cells (NSCs). Besides, these receptors also play an intrinsic trophic function in supporting NSC survival, proliferation, and differentiation into immature neurons. All these events collectively ensure a sustained neurogenesis in adult hippocampus. PMID:25487541

  12. Role of CXCR4/SDF-1 alpha in the migratory phenotype of hepatoma cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition in response to the transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Esther; Caja, Laia; Navarro, Estanis; Sancho, Patricia; Mainez, Jèssica; Murillo, Miguel M; Vinyals, Antonia; Fabra, Angels; Fabregat, Isabel

    2009-11-01

    Treatment of FaO rat hepatoma cells with TGF-beta selects cells that survive to its apoptotic effect and undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). We have established a cell line (T beta T-FaO, from TGF-beta-treated FaO) that shows a mesenchymal, de-differentiated, phenotype in the presence of TGF-beta and is refractory to its suppressor effects. In the absence of this cytokine, cells revert to an epithelial phenotype in 3-4 weeks and recover the response to TGF-beta. T beta T-FaO show higher capacity to migrate than that observed in the parental FaO cells. We found that FaO cells express low levels of CXCR4 and do not respond to SDF-1 alpha. However, TGF-beta up-regulates CXCR4, through a NF kappaB-dependent mechanism, and T beta T-FaO cells show elevated levels of CXCR4, which is located in the presumptive migration front. A specific CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100) attenuates the migratory capacity of T beta T-FaO cells on collagen gels. Extracellular SDF-1 alpha activates the ERKs pathway in T beta T-FaO, but not in FaO cells, increasing cell scattering and protecting cells from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. Targeted knock-down of CXCR4 with specific siRNA blocks the T beta T-FaO response to SDF-1 alpha. Thus, the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis might play an important role in mediating cell migration and survival after a TGF-beta-induced EMT in hepatoma cells.

  13. Impact of graphene oxide on viability of Chinese hamster ovary and mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells.

    PubMed

    Batiuskaite, Danute; Grinceviciute, Nora; Snitka, Valentinas

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of the cyto- and bio-compatibility is a critical step in the development of graphene oxide (GO) as a new promising material for in vivo biomedical applications. In this study, we report the impact of GO, with and without the addition of bovine serum albumin, on healthy (Chinese hamster ovary) and a cancer (mouse hepatoma MH-22A) cells viability and the estimation of the intracellular distribution of GO inside the cells in vitro. The viability tests were performed using a colony formation assay. The intracellular distribution of GO was estimated using Raman spectroscopy and imaging. The viability of both cell lines decreased with increasing concentration of graphene oxide (12.5-50.0 μg/ml): in the case of Chinese hamster ovary cells viability decreased from 44% to 11%, in the case of mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells--from 22% to 3%. These cell lines significantly differed in their response to GO and GO-BSA formulations. The results of viability tests correlate with results of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy and imaging findings. The GO influence on cell morphology changes, cell structure, cells colony growth dynamics and GO accumulation inside the cells was higher in the case of mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NDRG2 overexpression suppresses hepatoma cells survival during metabolic stress through disturbing the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Guang; Ru, Yi; Wang, Qinhao; Zhang, Yao; Wei, Xuehui; Xu, Xinyuan; Shen, Lan; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Kaichun; Yao, Libo; Li, Xia

    2017-02-05

    Because of the high nutrient consumption and inadequate vascularization, solid tumor constantly undergoes metabolic stress during tumor development. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes participated in cancer cells' metabolic reprogramming. N-Myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene, but its function in cancer metabolism, particularly during metabolic stress, remains unclear. In this study, we found that NDRG2 overexpression significantly reduced hepatoma cell proliferation and enhanced cell apoptosis under glucose limitation. Moreover, NDRG2 overexpression aggravated energy imbalance and oxidative stress by decreasing the intracellular ATP and NADPH generation and increasing ROS levels. Strikingly, NDRG2 inhibited the activation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), which preserves ATP and NADPH purveyance in the absence of glucose. Finally, mechanistic investigation showed that NDRG2 overexpression suppressed the glucose-deprivation induced AMPK/ACC pathway activation in hepatoma cells, whereas the expression of a constitutively active form of AMPK abrogated glucose-deprivation induced AMPK activation and cell apoptosis. Thus, as a negative regulator of AMPK, NDRG2 disturbs the induction of FAO genes by glucose limitation, leading to dysregulation of ATP and NADPH, and thus reduces the tolerance of hepatoma cells to glucose limitation.

  15. Chemopreventive action of Lygodium flexuosum extract in human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B cells.

    PubMed

    Wills, P J; Asha, V V

    2009-03-18

    Lygodium flexuosum (Lygodiaceae), a medicinal fern used in Indian traditional medicine against liver disorders. The rationale of the study was to examine whether the n-hexane extract from plant Lygodium flexuosum affects apoptosis on human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B cells. Chemopreventive activity of the Lygodium flexuosum extract was determined by MTT assay, annexin-V FITC binding to phosphatidyl serine and cleavage of PARP. Subdiploid condition of cells treated with Lygodium flexuosum was analyzed by flow cytometry. Further, used transiently transfected NF-kappaB reporter in PLC/PRF/5 cells to evaluate the inhibitive effect of Lygodium flexuosum extract. Lygodium flexuosum extract inhibited the cell viability and induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells in a concentration dependent manner as evidenced by apoptotic changes such as flipping of phosphatidyl serine, cleavage of PARP. Cell cycle analysis showed the subG1 apoptotic population in cells treated with higher concentrations of the extract. When activated with exogenous TNF-alpha in transfected hepatoma cells it was observed that NF-kappaB dependent gene expression was inhibited by treatment with Lygodium flexuosum extract in PLC/PRF/5 cells dose-dependently. This investigation suggests that the Lygodium flexuosum extract has antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in both cancer cells and has inhibitive role in TNF-alpha induced NF-kappaB activation in PLC/PRF/5 cells confirms the potential of the extract as a chemopreventive agent.

  16. Identifying apoptosis-evasion proteins/pathways in human hepatoma cells via induction of cellular hormesis by UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Sen-Yung; Hsu, Chih-Yun; He, Jung-Ru; Liu, Chiung-Liang; Lo, Shao-Jung; Chen, Ying-Ching; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2009-08-01

    Evading apoptosis is pivotal in both of carcinogenesis and resistance to anticancer therapy. We investigated the molecules and pathways of apoptosis evasion in human hepatoma cells by irradiating hepatoma cells with optimized UV (so-called "hormetic responses"). Proteins and pathways related to hormetic responses were identified via proteomic approaches followed by reconstruction of function-networks. Of the 2326 defined protein spots, 42 distinct proteins significantly changed their expression. Eleven hormetic response proteins (HINT1, PHB, CTSD, ANXA1, LGASL1, TPT1, NPM, PRDX2, UCHL1, CERK, and C1QBP) were involved in 5 death-regulatory pathways, including the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway, protein ubiquinization, cellular redox, calcium-mediated signaling pathway, and sphingomyelin-metabolism pathway. Knockdown of HINT1 expression via RNA interference increased tumor cell resistance to apoptosis induction, while silencing NPM, UCHL1, or CERK greatly sensitized tumor cells to apoptosis induction. In conclusion, NPM, UCHL1, and CERK act as apoptosis-evasion proteins that may serve as therapeutic targets for hepatoma. Silencing their expression would increase therapeutic efficacy, thereby reducing the corresponding doses and side-effects of anticancer therapy. This model of induction of cellular hormetic responses to identify apoptosis-evasion molecules/pathways via proteomic approaches can be applied to other modalities of anticancer therapy.

  17. Dihydromyricetin inhibits migration and invasion of hepatoma cells through regulation of MMP-9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing-Yu; Li, Ran; Zeng, Guo-Fang; Liu, Bin; Liu, Jie; Shu, Yang; Liu, Zhong-Kao; Qiu, Zhi-Dong; Wang, Dong-Jun; Miao, Hui-Lai; Li, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Run-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of dihydromyricetin (DHM) on the migration and invasion of human hepatic cancer cells. METHODS: The hepatoma cell lines SK-Hep-1 and MHCC97L were used in this study. The cells were cultured in RPIM-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 37 °C in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator. DHM was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted to various concentrations in medium before applying to cells. MTT assays were performed to measure the viability of the cells after DHM treatment. Wound healing and Boyden transwell assays were used to assess cancer cell motility. The invasive capacity of cancer cells was measured using Matrigel-coated transwell chambers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 activity was examined by fluorescence analysis. Western blot was carried out to analyze the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, p-38, JNK, ERK1/2 and PKC-δ proteins. All data were analyzed by Student’s t tests in GraphPad prism 5.0 software and are presented as mean ± SD. RESULTS: DHM was found to strongly inhibit the migration of the hepatoma cell lines SK-Hep-1 (without DHM, 24 h: 120 ± 8 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 65 ± 10 μmol/L, P < 0.001) and MHCC97L (without DHM, 24 h: 126 ± 7 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 74 ± 6 μmol/L, P < 0.001). The invasive capacity of the cells was reduced by DHM treatment (SK-Hep-1 cells without DHM, 24 h: 67 ± 4 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 9 ± 3 μmol/L, P < 0.001; MHCC97L cells without DHM, 24 h: 117 ± 8 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 45 ± 2 μmol/L, P < 0.001). MMP2/9 activity was also inhibited by DHM exposure (SK-Hep-1 cells without DHM, 24 h: 600 ± 26 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 100 ± 6 μmol/L, P < 0.001; MHCC97L cells without DHM, 24 h: 504 ± 32 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM 24 h: 156 ± 10 μmol/L, P < 0.001). Western blot analysis showed that DHM decreased the expression level of MMP-9 but had little effect on MMP-2. Further investigation indicated that DHM markedly

  18. Leptin receptor-deficient (knockout) medaka, Oryzias latipes, show chronical up-regulated levels of orexigenic neuropeptides, elevated food intake and stage specific effects on growth and fat allocation.

    PubMed

    Chisada, Shin-ichi; Kurokawa, Tadahide; Murashita, Koji; Rønnestad, Ivar; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Takeda, Shunichi; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi

    2014-01-01

    analyses using the mutant will contribute to a better understanding of the role of leptin in fish. This is the first study to produce fish with leptin receptor deficiency.

  19. Preparation of a dual cored hepatoma-specific star glycopolymer nanogel via arm-first ATRP approach.

    PubMed

    Lou, Shaofeng; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Zhang, Mingming; Ji, Shenglu; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Ju; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling

    2017-01-01

    A reductase-cleavable and thermo-responsive star-shaped polymer nanogel was prepared via an "arm-first" atom transfer radical polymerization approach. The nanogel consists of a thermo- and redox-sensitive core and a zwitterionic copolymer block. The dual sensitive core is composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) that is formed by disulfide crosslinking of N-isopropylacrylamide. The zwitterionic copolymer block contains a poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) component, a known anti-adsorptive moiety that extends blood circulation time, and a lactose motif of poly(2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylamide) that specifically targets the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-Rs) of hepatoma. Doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated into the cross-linked nanogels via solvent extraction/evaporation method and dialysis; average diameter of both blank and DOX-loaded nanogels was ~120 nm. The multi-responsiveness of nanogel drug release in different temperatures and redox conditions was assessed. After 24 h, DOX release was only ~20% at 30°C with 0 mM glutathione (GSH), whereas over 90% DOX release was observed at 40°C and 10 mM GSH, evidence of dual responsiveness to temperature and reductase GSH. The IC50 value of DOX-loaded nanogels was much lower in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells compared to non-hepatic HeLa cells. Remarkably, DOX uptake of HepG2 cells differed substantially in the presence and absence of galactose (0.31 vs 1.42 µg/mL after 48 h of incubation). The difference was non-detectable in HeLa cells (1.21 vs 1.57 µg/mL after 48 h of incubation), indicating that the overexpression of ASGP-Rs leads to the DOX-loaded lactosylated nanogels actively targeting hepatoma. Our data indicate that the lactose-decorated star-shaped nanogels are dual responsive and hepatoma targeted, and could be employed as hepatoma-specific anti-cancer drug delivery vehicle for cancer chemotherapy.

  20. Green and black tea extracts inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and activate AMP-kinase to decrease cholesterol synthesis in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dev K.; Banerjee, Subhashis; Porter, Todd D.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that green and black tea consumption can lower serum cholesterol in animals and in man, and suppression of hepatic cholesterol synthesis is suggested to contribute to this effect. To evaluate this hypothesis, we measured cholesterol synthesis in cultured rat hepatoma cells in the presence of green and black tea extracts and selected components. Green and black tea decreased cholesterol synthesis by up to 55% and 78%, respectively, as measured by a 3-h incorporation of radiolabeled acetate. Inhibition was much less evident when radiolabeled mevalonate was used, suggesting that the inhibition was mediated largely at or above the level of HMG-CoA reductase. Both extracts directly inhibited HMG-CoA reductase when added to microsomal preparations, although the extent of inhibition was considerably less than the decrease in cholesterol synthesis observed in whole cells. As HMG-CoA reductase activity also can be decreased by enzyme phosphorylation by AMP-kinase, the phosphorylation state of HMG-CoA reductase and AMP-kinase, which is activated by phosphorylation, was determined in lysates from cells treated with tea extracts. Both extracts increased AMP-kinase phosphorylation and HMG-CoA reductase phosphorylation by 2.5- to 4-fold, but with different time-courses: maximal phosphorylation with green tea was evident within 30 min of treatment, whereas with black tea phosphorylation was slower to develop, with maximal phosphorylation occurring 3 or more h after treatment. These results suggest that both green and black tea decrease cholesterol synthesis in whole cells by directly inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and by promoting its inactivation by AMP-kinase. PMID:18926682

  1. Suppression of cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) expression in hepatoma cells replicates the hepatic lipidosis observed in hepatic POR-null mice.

    PubMed

    Porter, Todd D; Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I; Zou, Ling

    2011-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis.

  2. Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) Expression in Hepatoma Cells Replicates the Hepatic Lipidosis Observed in Hepatic POR-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I.; Zou, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis. PMID:21368239

  3. Silver nanoparticles affect glucose metabolism in hepatoma cells through production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Yun, Su Jin; Jang, Ji-Young; Kang, Hangoo; Kim, Kyongmin; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is a candidate for anticancer therapy because of its effects on cell survival and signaling. Although numerous reports are available regarding their effect on cell death, the effect of AgNPs on metabolism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AgNPs on glucose metabolism in hepatoma cell lines. Lactate release from both HepG2 and Huh7 cells was reduced with 5 nm AgNPs as early as 1 hour after treatment, when cell death did not occur. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs decreased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells but not in Huh7 cells. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs reduced nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 expression in both cell types without affecting its activation at the early time points after AgNPs' treatment. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected 1 hour after 5 nm AgNPs' treatment, and lactate release was restored in the presence of an ROS scavenger. Our results suggest that 5 nm AgNPs affect glucose metabolism by producing ROS.

  4. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutants exhibit distinct biological activities in hepatoma Huh7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiaohong; Zhang Shuhui; Lin Jing; Zhang Shunmin; Feitelson, Mark A.; Gao Hengjun; Zhu Minghua

    2008-09-05

    The role of the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in hepatocarcinogenesis remains controversial. To investigate the biological impact of hepatitis B virus x gene (HBx) mutation on hepatoma cells, plasmids expressing the full-length HBx or HBx deletion mutants were constructed. The biological activities in these transfectants were analyzed by a series of assays. Results showed that HBx3'-20 and HBx3'-40 amino acid deletion mutants exhibited an increase in cellular proliferation, focus formation, tumorigenicity, and invasive growth and metastasis through promotion of the cell cycle from G0/G1 to the S phase, when compared with the full-length HBx. In contrast, HBx3'-30 amino acid deletion mutant repressed cell proliferation by blocking in G1 phase. The expression of P53, p21{sup WAF1}, p14{sup ARF}, and MDM2 proteins was regulated by expression of HBx mutants. In conclusions, HBx variants showed different effects and functions on cell proliferation and invasion by regulation of the cell cycle progression and its associated proteins expression.

  5. Clinical and biological significance of hepatoma-derived growth factor in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fenfen; Shi, Huijuan; Zhen, Tiantian; Dai, Sujuan; Kang, Lili; Liang, Yingjie; Wang, Jin; Han, Anjia

    2013-11-01

    We sought to investigate the clinicopathological significance and biological function of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) in Ewing's sarcoma. Our results showed that HDGF expression is up-regulated in Ewing's sarcoma. Nuclear HDGF expression is significantly associated with tumour volume (p < 0.001), metastases at diagnosis (p < 0.001), low overall survival rate (p < 0.001) and low disease-free survival rate (p < 0.001). HDGF knock-down results in significant reduction of Ewing's sarcoma cell growth, proliferation and enhances tumourigenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, HDGF knock-down causes cell cycle arrest and enhanced sensitization to serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, recombinant HDGF promotes proliferation and colony formation of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Ninety-eight candidate HDGF downstream genes were identified in Ewing's sarcoma cells using cDNA microarray analysis. In addition, we found that HDGF knock-down inhibited FLI1 expression in Ewing's sarcoma cells at the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings suggest that HDGF exhibits oncogenic properties and may be a novel prognostic factor in Ewing's sarcoma. Targeting HDGF might be a potential therapeutic strategy for Ewing's sarcoma.

  6. Antiproliferative and apoptotic potential of Daphne gnidium L. root extract on lung cancer and hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chaouki, W; Meddah, B; Hmamouchi, M

    2015-03-01

    Daphne gnidium L. (Thymeleacees) is a famous Moroccan plant with cancer-related ethnobotanical use. Previously, we demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of D. gnidium had antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic potential on human breast tumor MCF-7 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the antiproliferative effect of this extract was similar for different human cancer cell lines such as A549 lung cancer and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells. Moreover, this work essentially focused on the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide on A549 and SMMC-7721 cells. The characterization of the mechanisms involved in this effect was determined by lactate dehydrogenase test, apoptosis assays and western blot analyses. Our present study has shown that this extract strongly inhibited proliferation of A549 (IC50: 213 ± 15 μg/ml) and SMMC-7721 (IC50: 170 ± 13 μLg/ml) cells. The characterization of antiproliferative effect demonstrated that this extract was an apoptosis inducer in both cell lines tested. The results of western blot analyses have shown in SMMC-7721 cells that this extract activated caspase signaling triggered by the modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. These findings suggest that this natural extract-induced effects may have novel therapeutic applications for the treatment of different cancer types.

  7. GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED ALTERATION OF THE SURFACE MEMBRANE OF CULTURED HEPATOMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Philip L.; Tomkins, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Glucocorticoids induce an alteration of the surface of hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells as expressed by changes in cell electrophoretic, antigenic, and adhesive properties. The alteration is assayed by the increased adhesiveness of induced cells for a glass surface. The induction process has a lag period of about 3 hr and attains a plateau level after 24–30 hr when 50–80% of the steroid-treated cells are firmly adhered. Less than 10% of untreated cells adhere under the same conditions. Induction is inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, demonstrates both pH and temperature dependence, and responds to changes in steroid concentration and structure. By contrast, the attachment per se of preinduced cells is not affected by inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis, fluctuations of temperature and pH, and the presence or absence of the hormone. When the induction process is reversed by removal of steroid or addition of actinomycin D, preinduced adhesiveness is lost with a half-life of 13–24 hr, but in the presence of cycloheximide the loss is accelerated (t1/2 3–5.5 hr). These results suggest that glucocorticoids induce the biosynthesis of a protein which either modifies the cell surface (an enzyme) or is incorporated into surface structures (structural protein). PMID:4327515

  8. Silver nanoparticles affect glucose metabolism in hepatoma cells through production of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Yun, Su Jin; Jang, Ji-Young; Kang, Hangoo; Kim, Kyongmin; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is a candidate for anticancer therapy because of its effects on cell survival and signaling. Although numerous reports are available regarding their effect on cell death, the effect of AgNPs on metabolism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AgNPs on glucose metabolism in hepatoma cell lines. Lactate release from both HepG2 and Huh7 cells was reduced with 5 nm AgNPs as early as 1 hour after treatment, when cell death did not occur. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs decreased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells but not in Huh7 cells. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs reduced nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 expression in both cell types without affecting its activation at the early time points after AgNPs’ treatment. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected 1 hour after 5 nm AgNPs’ treatment, and lactate release was restored in the presence of an ROS scavenger. Our results suggest that 5 nm AgNPs affect glucose metabolism by producing ROS. PMID:26730190

  9. Transplantable Subcutaneous Hepatoma 22a Affects Functional Activity of Resident Tissue Macrophages in Periphery

    PubMed Central

    Kisseleva, Ekaterina P.; Krylov, Andrei V.; Stepanova, Olga I.; Lioudyno, Victoria I.

    2011-01-01

    Tumors spontaneously develop central necroses due to inadequate blood supply. Recent data indicate that dead cells and their products are immunogenic to the host. We hypothesized that macrophage tumor-dependent reactions can be mediated differentially by factors released from live or dead tumor cells. In this study, functional activity of resident peritoneal macrophages was investigated in parallel with tumor morphology during the growth of syngeneic nonimmunogenic hepatoma 22a. Morphometrical analysis of tumor necroses, mitoses and leukocyte infiltration was performed in histological sections. We found that inflammatory potential of peritoneal macrophages in tumor-bearing mice significantly varied depending on the stage of tumor growth and exhibited two peaks of activation as assessed by nitroxide and superoxide anion production, 5′-nucleotidase activity and pinocytosis. Increased inflammatory reactions were not followed by the enhancement of angiogenic potential as assessed by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor mRNA expression. Phases of macrophage activity corresponded to the stages of tumor growth characterized by high proliferative potential. The appearance and further development of necrotic tissue inside the tumor did not coincide with changes in macrophage behavior and therefore indirectly indicated that activation of macrophages was a reaction mostly to the signals produced by live tumor cells. PMID:21760797

  10. Hepatoma-derived growth factor: from the bovine uterus to the in vitro embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Gómez, E; Correia-Álvarez, E; Caamaño, J N; Díez, C; Carrocera, S; Peynot, N; Martín, D; Giraud-Delville, C; Duranthon, V; Sandra, O; Muñoz, M

    2014-10-01

    Early in cow embryo development, hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is detectable in uterine fluid. The origin of HDGF in maternal tissues is unknown, as is the effect of the induction on developing embryos. Herein, we analyze HDGF expression in day 8 endometrium exposed to embryos, as well as the effects of recombinant HDGF (rHDGF) on embryo growth. Exposure to embryos did not alter endometrial levels of HDGF mRNA or protein. HDGF protein localized to cell nuclei in the luminal epithelium and superficial glands and to the apical cytoplasm in deep glands. After uterine passage, levels of embryonic HDGF mRNA decreased and HDGF protein was detected only in the trophectoderm. In fetal fibroblast cultures, addition of rHDGF promoted cell proliferation. In experiments with group cultures of morulae in protein-free medium containing polyvinyl alcohol, adding rHDGF inhibited blastocyst development and did not affect cell counts when the morulae were early (day 5), whereas it enhanced blastocyst development and increased cell counts when the morulae were compact (day 6). In cultures of individual day 6 morulae, adding rHDGF promoted blastocyst development and increased cell counts. Our experiments with rHDGF indicate that the growth factor stimulates embryonic development and cell proliferation. HDGF is synthesized similarly by the endometrium and embryo, and it may exert embryotropic effects by autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms.

  11. Reculation of folylpolyglutamate synthetase in extracts of H35 hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.B.; Galivan, J.; Nair, M.G. )

    1987-05-01

    Folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) in extracts of H35 hepatoma cells was assayed using 250 {mu}M methotrexate (MTX) as the substrate under conditions where ({sup 3}H)glutamate incorporation was linear with respect to time and rotein concentration. Extracts from confluent cultures with reduced cellular folates exhibited nearly 1.7-fold higher FPGS specific activity than extracts of control cultures (600 pmol/hr/mg). Extracts of rapidly dividing cells (72 hrs) showed nearly a 2.3-fold increase. The addition of reduced exogenous folates such as folinic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (20 {mu}M, 24 hrs) to confluent cultures of folate-depleted cells typically lowered the FPGS activity in the resultant extracts by 40%, while a 42-hour exclusion of methionine from the media reduced the activity by half. The combination of methionine exclusion and folate addition for 42 hrs resulted in 75% lower FPGS activity vs extracts of control cultures of folate-depleted cells. These data suggest that the change sin the glutamylation rate of MTX in whole cells due to culture conditions such as folate restriction, reduced folate addition, methionine exclusion, and growth state are at least in part a consequence of alterations in FPGS activity. Using MTX or N{sup 10}-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid (CB3717) as the starting substrate under appropriate assay conditions, FPGS from extracts catalyzed the formation of similar polyglutamate products as seen in analogous whole cell experiments.

  12. Glutathione-degradable drug-loaded nanogel effectively and securely suppresses hepatoma in mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingang; Wang, Jianmeng; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Jianxun; Shi, Bo; Huang, Kexin; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-01-01

    The reduction-responsive polymeric nanocarriers have attracted considerable interest because of a significantly higher concentration of intracellular glutathione in comparison with that outside cells. The smart nanovehicles can selectively transport the antitumor drugs into cells to improve efficacies and decrease side effects. In this work, a facilely prepared glutathione-degradable nanogel was employed for targeting intracellular delivery of an antitumor drug (ie, doxorubicin [DOX]). DOX was loaded into nanogel through a sequential dispersion and dialysis approach with a drug loading efficiency of 56.8 wt%, and the laden nanogel (noted as NG/DOX) showed an appropriate hydrodynamic radius of 56.1±3.5 nm. NG/DOX exhibited enhanced or improved maximum tolerated dose on healthy Kunming mice and enhanced intratumoral accumulation and dose-dependent antitumor efficacy toward H22 hepatoma-xenografted mouse model compared with free drug. In addition, the upregulated antitumor efficacy of NG/DOX was further confirmed by the histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Furthermore, the excellent in vivo security of NG/DOX was confirmed by the detection of body weight, histopathology, and biochemical indices of corresponding organs and serum. With controllable large-scale preparation and fascinating in vitro and in vivo properties, the reduction-responsive nanogel exhibited a good prospect for clinical chemotherapy. PMID:26543363

  13. Proteomic analysis of human hepatoma cells expressing methionine adenosyltransferase I/III☆

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Paul C.; Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Bigaud, Emilie; Serna, Antonio; Renández-Alcoceba, Rubén; Lu, Shelly C.; Mato, José M.; Prieto, Jesús; Corrales, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase I/III (MATI/III) synthesizes S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in quiescent hepatocytes. Its activity is compromised in most liver diseases including liver cancer. Since SAM is a driver of hepatocytes fate we have studied the effect of re-expressing MAT1A in hepatoma Huh7 cells using proteomics. MAT1A expression leads to SAM levels close to those found in quiescent hepatocytes and induced apoptosis. Normalization of intracellular SAM induced alteration of 128 proteins identified by 2D-DIGE and gel-free methods, accounting for deregulation of central cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation and survival. Human Dead-box protein 3 (DDX3X), a RNA helicase regulating RNA splicing, export, transcription and translation was down-regulated upon MAT1A expression. Our data support the regulation of DDX3X levels by SAM in a concentration and time dependent manner. Consistently, DDX3X arises as a primary target of SAM and a principal intermediate of its antitumoral effect. Based on the parallelism between SAM and DDX3X along the progression of liver disorders, and the results reported here, it is tempting to suggest that reduced SAM in the liver may lead to DDX3X up-regulation contributing to the pathogenic process and that replenishment of SAM might prove to have beneficial effects, at least in part by reducing DDX3X levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. PMID:22270009

  14. Specific gene transfer mediated by lactosylated poly-L-lysine into hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Midoux, P; Mendes, C; Legrand, A; Raimond, J; Mayer, R; Monsigny, M; Roche, A C

    1993-01-01

    Plasmid DNA/glycosylated polylysine complexes were used to transfer in vitro a luciferase reporter gene into human hepatoma cells by a receptor-mediated endocytosis process. HepG2 cells which express a galactose specific membrane lectin were efficiently and selectively transfected with pSV2Luc/lactosylated polylysine complexes in a sugar dependent manner: i) HepG2 cells which do not express membrane lectin specific for mannose were quite poorly transfected with pSV2Luc/mannosylated polylysine complexes, ii) HeLa cells which do not express membrane lectin specific for galactose were not transfected with pSV2Luc/lactosylated polylysine complexes. The transfection efficiency of HepG2 cells with pSV2Luc/lactosylated polylysine complexes was greatly enhanced either in the presence of chloroquine or in the presence of a fusogenic peptide. A 22-residue peptide derived from the influenza virus hemagglutinin HA2 N-terminal polypeptide that mimics the fusogenic activity of the virus, was selected. In the presence of the fusogenic peptide, the luciferase activity in HepG2 cells was 10 fold larger than that of cells transfected with pSV2Luc/lactosylated polylysine complexes in the presence of chloroquine. Images PMID:8383843

  15. Effects of Lipofectamine 2000/siRNA complexes on autophagy in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mo, Robert H; Zaro, Jennica L; Ou, Jing-Hsiung James; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2012-05-01

    Lipofectamine 2000 is commonly used for siRNA transfections. However, few studies have examined cellular responses to this delivery system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of siRNA transfection using Lipofectamine 2000 on cellular autophagy. Huh7.5 cells, stably transfected to express GFP-LC3, were treated with Lipofectamine 2000/negative control siRNA (NC siRNA) complexes. At different time points after treatment, cells were lysed and analyzed by immunoblotting and fluorescence spectroscopy. Cells were also observed using confocal microscopy. An increase of endogenous LC3 lipidation, GFP-LC3 fluorescence, and autophagosomal puncta was observed in cells treated with Lipofectamine 2000/NC siRNA complexes. The kinetics of the increase of GFP-LC3 fluorescence correlated with the concentration of NC siRNA transfected, where 50, 100, and 200 nM NC siRNA caused a significant increase at 72, 48, and 24 h, respectively, after transfection. A similar effect on the GFP-LC3 signal was also observed for cells treated with Lipofectamine 2000 complexed with two other NC siRNAs. The effects were also confirmed in another hepatoma cell line, H4IIE, by immunoblotting. Lipofectamine 2000-mediated transport of NC siRNAs led to an increase of autophagosomes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thus, this effect on cells should be taken into consideration when using this approach for intracellular delivery of siRNA.

  16. Curcumin inhibits ROS formation and apoptosis in methylglyoxal-treated human hepatoma G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wen-Hsiung; Wu, Hsin-Jung; Hsuuw, Yan-Der

    2005-05-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl compound endogenously produced mainly from glycolytic intermediates. Elevated MG levels in diabetes patients are believed to contribute to diabetic complications. MG is cytotoxic through induction of apoptosis. Curcumin, the yellow pigment of Curcuma longa, is known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of curcumin on MG-induced apoptotic events in human hepatoma G2 cells. We report that curcumin prevented MG-induced cell death and apoptotic biochemical changes such as mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, caspase-3 activation, and cleavage of PARP (poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase). Using the cell permeable dye 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) as an indicator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, we found that curcumin abolished MG-stimulated intracellular oxidative stress. The results demonstrate that curcumin significantly attenuates MG-induced ROS formation, and suggest that ROS triggers cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and subsequent apoptotic biochemical changes.

  17. Extinction of Hepatitis C Virus by Ribavirin in Hepatoma Cells Involves Lethal Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Prieto, Ana M.; Sheldon, Julie; Grande-Pérez, Ana; Tejero, Héctor; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan I.; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction produced by enhanced mutation rates, is under investigation as an antiviral strategy that aims at counteracting the adaptive capacity of viral quasispecies, and avoiding selection of antiviral-escape mutants. To explore lethal mutagenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV), it is important to establish whether ribavirin, the purine nucleoside analogue used in anti-HCV therapy, acts as a mutagenic agent during virus replication in cell culture. Here we report the effect of ribavirin during serial passages of HCV in human hepatoma Huh-7.5 cells, regarding viral progeny production and complexity of mutant spectra. Ribavirin produced an increase of mutant spectrum complexity and of the transition types associated with ribavirin mutagenesis, resulting in HCV extinction. Ribavirin-mediated depletion of intracellular GTP was not the major contributory factor to mutagenesis since mycophenolic acid evoked a similar decrease in GTP without an increase in mutant spectrum complexity. The intracellular concentration of the other nucleoside-triphosphates was elevated as a result of ribavirin treatment. Mycophenolic acid extinguished HCV without an intervening mutagenic activity. Ribavirin-mediated, but not mycophenolic acid-mediated, extinction of HCV occurred via a decrease of specific infectivity, a feature typical of lethal mutagenesis. We discuss some possibilities to explain disparate results on ribavirin mutagenesis of HCV. PMID:23976977

  18. Hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein 2 promotes DNA repair by homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Baude, Annika; Aaes, Tania Løve; Zhai, Beibei; Al-Nakouzi, Nader; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Daugaard, Mads; Rohde, Mikkel; Jäättelä, Marja

    2016-01-01

    We have recently identified lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75, also known as PSIP1) as a component of the homologous recombination DNA repair machinery. Through its Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro (PWWP) domain, LEDGF/p75 binds to histone marks associated with active transcription and promotes DNA end resection by recruiting DNA endonuclease retinoblastoma-binding protein 8 (RBBP8/CtIP) to broken DNA ends. Here we show that the structurally related PWWP domain-containing protein, hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein 2 (HDGFRP2), serves a similar function in homologous recombination repair. Its depletion compromises the survival of human U2OS osteosarcoma and HeLa cervix carcinoma cells and impairs the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of replication protein A2 (RPA2) and the recruitment of DNA endonuclease RBBP8/CtIP to DNA double strand breaks. In contrast to LEDGF/p75, HDGFRP2 binds preferentially to histone marks characteristic for transcriptionally silent chromatin. Accordingly, HDGFRP2 is found in complex with the heterochromatin-binding chromobox homologue 1 (CBX1) and Pogo transposable element with ZNF domain (POGZ). Supporting the functionality of this complex, POGZ-depleted cells show a similar defect in DNA damage-induced RPA2 phosphorylation as HDGFRP2-depleted cells. These data suggest that HDGFRP2, possibly in complex with POGZ, recruits homologous recombination repair machinery to damaged silent genes or to active genes silenced upon DNA damage. PMID:26721387

  19. Circulating auto-antibody against hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Nahamura, Hideji; Yoshida, Kenya; Kishima, Yoshihiko; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Uyama, Hirokazu; Kuroda, Toshifumi; Okuda, Yorihide; Hirotani, Tomonori; Ito, Hiroaki; Kawase, Ichiro

    2004-01-01

    Various circulating auto-antibodies have been reported in patients with ulcerative colitis. Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a mitogen, localized dominantly in the nucleus of proliferating cells. In this study, we demonstrated the circulating anti-HDGF auto-antibody and investigated its clinical roles in patients with ulcerative colitis. Anti-HDGF IgG antibodies were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant HDGF in 20 healthy volunteers and 40 patients with ulcerative colitis. Circulating anti-HDGF antibody was detected in the serum of a patient with total colitis by Western blotting. Anti-HDGF auto-antibodies were detected at 65.6% in the serum of patients with total/left-sided colitis, compared with healthy subjects at 10%. During active stage, the circulating anti-HDGF auto-antibodies were detected at a higher frequency of 78.3% than those in remission stage at 37.5%. Furthermore, the titers during active colitis were higher than those during the remission stage. Anti-HDGF auto-antibodies were not detected in any patients with proctitis. These findings suggest that anti-HDGF auto-antibodies in the serum of patients with ulcerative colitis would help to classify the total/left-sided colitis from proctitis, and the serial measurement of the titer would also be a good marker for the active colitis.

  20. Dexamethasone blocks arachidonate biosynthesis in isolated hepatocytes and cultured hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, C.A.; de Alaniz, M.J.; Brenner, R.R.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on the incorporation and conversion of (1-14C)eicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid to arachidonic acid in isolated hepatocytes and in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells was studied. In both kinds of cells, no changes in the exogenous acid incorporation were found when the hormone was added to the incubation media at 0.1 or 0.2 mM concentration, while the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid was significantly depressed. The effect on the biosynthesis was faster in isolated normal liver cells (60 min) than in tumoral cells (120 min) and reached an inhibition of ca. 50% after 3 hr of treatment. The addition of cycloheximide (10(-6) M) also caused a marked decrease in the biosynthesis of this polyunsaturated fatty acid, but when dexamethasone was added to the media simultaneously with cycloheximide, a synergistic action was not observed. The results obtained show that protein synthesis would be involved in the modulation of the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid by glucocorticoids. The changes in the delta 5 desaturation of labeled 20:3 omega 6 to arachidonic acid correlated with changes in the fatty acid composition in isolated cells.

  1. Origin of increased deoxycytidine excretion into urine of rats bearing Yoshida ascites sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, M.; Fujimura, S.

    1984-06-01

    The metabolism of deoxycytidine (dCyd) and dCyd nucleotides in Yoshida ascites sarcoma (YS) cells and the host rat liver was investigated with reference to the increased excretion of urinary dCyd. Incorporation of (/sup 14/C)orotic acid into the livers of rats at the fifth day after the transplantation of YS cells, was 2 times higher than that into the normal rat livers. After the injection of (/sup 14/C)orotic acid, the ratio of the specific radioactivity of cytidylate to uridylate moieties of the host liver RNA was measured and found to be higher than that of normal rat liver RNA and to be similar to that of YS cell RNA. When (/sup 14/C)orotic acid was injected into rats followed by the transplantation of YS cells, the radioactivities present in the livers disappeared more rapidly than those in the control rat livers. The activities of pyrimidine de novo synthesis enzymes, such as cytidine triphosphate synthetase and cytidine diphosphate reductase, in YS were higher than those in both rat ascites hepatoma AH 7974 and Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, the transplantations of which did not induce increased excretion of dCyd into urine of the hosts. The activities of dCyd kinase and dCyd deaminase in YS cells were lower than those in the other two tumors investigated. The activities of cytidine triphosphate synthetase and cytidine diphosphate reductase in the livers of YS-bearing rats were elevated compared with those in the livers of rat ascites hepatoma AH 7974- or Walker 256 carcinosarcoma-bearing rats and normal rats, while the activities of dCyd kinase, 5'-nucleotidase, and dCyd deaminase were similar between normal rat livers and tumor-bearing rat livers.

  2. Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) aggregates inhibited proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted apoptosis, especially for hepatoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinqian; Sun, Qiang; Bo, Jian; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Mengran; Xia, Zhenglin; Ju, Lili; Xiang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) may be useful as carriers for anticancer drugs due to their particular structure. However, the interactions between the material itself and cancerous or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, the effects of raw SWNH material on the biological functions of human liver cell lines were studied. Our results showed that unmodified SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth, and proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted their apoptosis, especially in hepatoma cell lines. Individual spherical SWNH particles were found inside the nuclei of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the lysosomes of normal human liver L02 cells, implying that SWNH particles could penetrate into human liver cells_and the different interacted mechanisms on human normal cell lines compared to hepatoma cell lines. Further research on the mechanisms and application in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with SWNHs is needed. PMID:24523586

  3. Distribution of [sup 65]Zn labeled alpha-fetoprotein during proliferation of the BW7756 murine hepatoma

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The radiolabeling of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) with [sup 65]Zn for the determination of its biodistribution was studied in mice bearing the BW7756 murine hepatoma as compared to that found with normal mice. AFP is an oncofetal protein of about 70,000 daltons associated with pregnancy and certain cancers (e.g., hepatoma). The AFP was purified from mouse amniotic fluid (MAF) using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and higher performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The biological activity of AFP was maintained through the separation procedures and the purity was determined using double immunodiffusion (DID), immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis (SDS). The labeling procedures included removal of intrinsic metal with EDTA, incubation with radiotracer ([sup 65]Zn) and buffer, followed by removal of unbound [sup 65]Zn using gel filtration chromatography. The results correlated well with Zn fluctuations recorded by other techniques (RIXRF, radiotracer [sup 65]Zn). Large amounts of [sup 65]Zn-AFP were localized in the liver, spleen and tumor with significant elevations above normal in the log growth phase (day 14-18). [sup 65]Zn-AFP levels in the skin, pancreas, brain and thyroid decreased as the tumor mass increased. Tumor [sup 65]Zn-AFP uptake increased with time but leveled off in the late log phase (day 21) due to tumor necrosis. In light of the results of this investigation, and previous work stating that AFP binds Zn with a higher affinity than does albumin, it is suggestive that the Zn fluctuations observed in the earlier hepatoma studies were due to the in vivo binding of Zn to AFP. These results confirm the thesis that intrinsic labeling (replacement of naturally bound ligands with radioactive analogs) does not alter the biochemical integrity as non-intrinsic labeling (e.g., Iodine) may.

  4. The augmented anti-tumor effects of Antrodia camphorata co-fermented with Chinese medicinal herb in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Lai; Huang, Zih-Ning; Hsieh, Hsiao-Hui; Yu, Wen-Chun; Tzeng, Win-Yu; Lee, Guo-Yang; Chen, Yi-Peng; Chang, Chia-Yu; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2009-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata, unique fungal specie, has been used as a folk medicine in Taiwan for many years. The purpose of this study was to compare the extracts from the solid-state culture of A. camphorata co-fermented with Chinese medicinal herb (AC-CF) with two other extracts from fruiting bodies (AC-FB) or solid-state culture (AC-SS), for their anti-tumor effects in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. We measured in vitro cell proliferation, percentage of apoptosis, population distribution of cell cycles, Western blot analysis of multiple drugs resistance-1 (MDR-1), and apoptosis-related proteins in HepG2 cells treated with three different preparations of A. camphorate extracts. Our results showed that AC-CF had better anti-proliferation effect on human hepatoma HepG2 cells than AC-FB or AC-SS dose-dependently. In addition, AC-CF in combination with anti-tumor agents (mitomycin C or methotrexate) showed better adjuvant anti-tumor effects than AC-FB or AC-SS. We further demonstrated the augmented adjuvant anti-tumor effects of AC-CF not only through down regulation of MDR-1 expression but also through a COX-2 dependent apoptosis pathway, involving down-regulation of COX-2 and p-AKT and up-regulation of PARP-1. In conclusion, in this study, we have demonstrated a novel strategy of fermenting A. camphorata with Chinese medicinal herb (AC-CF), which augmented their anti-tumor effects in human hepatoma HepG2 cells as compared to the traditional ones (AC-FB or AC-SS).

  5. Inhibitory effects of ganoderma lucidum on tumorigenesis and metastasis of human hepatoma cells in cells and animal models.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chia-Jui; Chau, Chi-Fai; Yen, Gow-Chin; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chen, Deng-Hai; Chen, Kuang-Dee

    2009-06-10

    Metastasis is considered to be the major cause of death in patients with cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly metastatic cancer. Ganoderma lucidum , a well-known mushroom with various biological effects, is a functional food known to contain lucidenic acid. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti-invasion effect of a lucidenic acid-rich G. lucidum extract (GLE) on human hepatoma HepG2 cells as well as the antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects of GLE in human hepatoma cells implanted into ICR-nu/nu mice. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression levels of HepG2 cells were reduced by GLE treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of GLE on MMP-9 expression proceeded by inhibiting the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B in the cytosol as well as reducing activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B levels in the nucleus of HepG2 cells. In a human tumor xenograft model, a dose-response inhibition was observed in the average size, volume, and weight of tumors upon oral administration of GLE. The number of metastatic tumor-bearing mice, the number of affected organs, and the number of tumor foci as well as the MMP-2 and -9 activities in serum of mice were also significantly suppressed by oral administration of GLE. These results suggest that the lucidenic acid-rich GLE could serve as a chemopreventive agent for the tumorigenesis and metastasis of highly invasive hepatoma cells.

  6. Partial characterization of mechanism of insulin accumulation in H35 hepatoma cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Smith, R M; Jarett, L

    1990-06-01

    The mechanism controlling insulin accumulation in nuclei of H35 hepatoma cells was investigated by incubating intact cells with 125I-labeled insulin in the presence or absence of agents that perturb different intracellular sites involved in the processing of ligand-receptor complexes. Purified nuclei were isolated, and nuclear-associated 125I-insulin was determined. Insulin accumulation in the nuclei was time and temperature dependent. Nuclear accumulation was linear and insulin-concentration dependent between 5 and 50 ng insulin/ml. However, pharmacological concentrations of insulin increased the amount of insulin translocated to the nucleus to a far greater extent than it increased total cell-associated insulin. Chloroquine, an acidotrophic agent, increased total cell-associated and intracellular insulin but had no effect on nuclear accumulation. The monovalent ionophores monensin and nigericin inhibited nuclear accumulation of insulin at low concentrations (0.5-5.0 microM) without affecting total insulin binding or intracellular accumulation. At 10 or 25 microM, monensin and nigericin also acted as acidotrophic agents and increased total insulin binding and intracellular accumulation but inhibited nuclear accumulation by a maximum of 50%. Low concentrations of monensin and nigericin were additive; maximal concentrations were not. A 23187 and valinomycin did not affect insulin binding or intracellular and nuclear accumulation of insulin. Neither depletion of ATP by sodium azide, 2,4-dinitrophenol, sodium cyanide, or oligomycin nor disruption of cytoskeletal elements by cytochalasin D or colchicine had any effect on nuclear accumulation of insulin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Transcriptional regulation of human paraoxonase 1 by PXR and GR in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Ruiz, N; Rojas-García, A E; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Elizondo, G; Bernal-Hernández, Y Y; Mejía-García, A; Medina-Díaz, I M

    2015-12-25

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is A-esterase synthesized in the liver and secreted into the plasma, where it associates with HDL. PON1 acts as an antioxidant preventing lipid oxidation and detoxifies a wide range of substrates, including organophosphate compounds. The variability of PON1 (enzyme activity/serum levels) has been attributed to internal and external factors. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of PON1 have not been well-studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the transcriptional activation of PON1 by nuclear receptors (NR) in human hepatoma cells. In silico analysis was performed on the promoter region of PON1 to determine the response elements of NR. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate the effect of specific NR ligands on the mRNA levels of genes regulated by NR and PON1. The results indicated that NR response elements had 95% homology to pregnenolone (PXR), glucocorticoids (GR), retinoic acid (RXR) and peroxisomes proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Treatments with Dexamethasone (GR ligand), Rifampicin (PXR ligand) and TCDD (AhR ligand) increased the mRNA levels of PON1 at 24 and 48 h. We showed that the activation of GR by Dexamethasone results in PON1 gene induction accompanied by an increase in activity levels. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that GR regulates PON1 gene transcription through directly binding to NR response elements at -95 to -628 bp of the PON1 promoter. This study suggests new molecular mechanisms for the transcriptional regulation of PON1 through a process involving the activation of PXR.

  8. Vanadium compounds discriminate hepatoma and normal hepatic cells by differential regulation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Liu, Tong-Tong; Fu, Ying; Wang, Kui; Yang, Xiao-Gai

    2010-09-01

    Our previous study indicated that vanadium compounds can block cell cycle progression at the G1/S phase in human hepatoma HepG2 cells via a highly activated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signal. To explore their differential action on normal cells, we investigated the response of an immortalized hepatic cell line, L02 cells. The results demonstrated that a higher concentration of vanadium compounds was needed to inhibit L02 proliferation, which was associated with S and G2/M cell cycle arrest. In addition, in contrast to insignificant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HepG2 cells, all of the vanadium compounds resulted significant increases in both O2.- and H2O2 levels in L02 cells. At the same time, ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as well as cell division control protein 2 homolog (Cdc2) were found to be highly phosphorylated, which could be counteracted with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The current study also demonstrated that both the ERK and the JNK pathways contributed to the cell cycle arrest induced by vanadium compounds in L02 cells. More importantly, it was found that although NAC can ameliorate the cytotoxicity of vanadium compounds in L02 cells, it did not decrease their cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. It thus shed light on the potential therapeutic applications of vanadium compounds with antioxidants as synergistic agents to reduce their toxicities in human normal cells without affecting their antitumor activities in cancer cells.

  9. Palmitic and linoleic acids induce ER stress and apoptosis in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Hepatic inflammation and degeneration induced by lipid depositions may be the major cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study, we tried to investigate the effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on hepatoma cell apoptosis. Methods H4IIE liver cells were treated with palmitic acid, linoleic acid, or both with or without the calcium-specific chelator BAPTA-AM after which the expression of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, caspase-3 levels, and calcium flux were measured. Results Palmitic or linoleic acid (250 μM) induced H4IIE cell apoptosis, which required calcium flux but not caspase-3. Apoptosis was not observed when cells were co-treated with linoleic acid (125 μM) and palmitic acid (250 μM). Importantly, the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytoplasm during cell apoptosis was specifically detected only when linoleic acid (125 μM), but not palmitic acid (250 μM), was added to the cells. Depletion of intracellular calcium flux by the calcium-specific chelator, BAPTA-AM, abolished linoleic acid-induced apoptosis. Moreover, in the presence of BAPTA-AM, expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes, CHOP, GRP78, and GRP94, was induced by linoleic acid, but not palmitic acid. Conclusions The results suggest that linoleic acid promotes cell apoptosis through the release of cytochrome C, only if the intracellular calcium flux is unperturbed and intact. These results confirm that ER stress contributes to fatty acid-induced liver cell apoptosis. PMID:22221411

  10. Apoptosis of hepatoma cells SMMC-7721 induced by Ginkgo biloba seed polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun; Yang, Gui-Wen; An, Li-Guo

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the apoptosis of hepatoma cells SMMC-7721 induced by polysaccharide isolated from Ginkgo biloba seed. METHODS: Ginkgo biloba seed polysaccharide (GBSP) was isolated by ethanol fractionation of Ginkgo biloba seed and purified by Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The purity of GBSP was verified by reaction with iodine-potassium iodide and ninhydrin and confirmed by UV spectrophotometer, cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and Sepharose 4B gel filtration chromatography. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Flow Cytometry (FCM) were used to examine the SMMC-7721 cells with and without GBSP treatment at 500 mg/mL for 36 h. RESULTS: GBSP product obtained was of high purity with the average molecular weight of 1.86 × 105. Quantitative analysis of SMMC-7721 cells in vitro with FCM showed that the percentages of G2-M cells without and with GBSP treatment were 17.01% ± 1.28% and 11.77% ± 1.50% (P < 0.05), the debris ratio of the cells were 0.46% ± 0.12% and 0.06% ± 0.06% (P < 0.01), and the apoptosis ratio of cells was 3.84% ± 0.55% and 9.13% ± 1.48% (P < 0.01) respectively. Following GBSP treatment, microvilli of SMMC-7721 cells appeared thinner and the number of spherical cells increased markedly. Most significantly, the apoptosis bodies were formed on and around the spherical cells treated with GBSP. CONCLUSION: GBSP could potentially induce the apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells. PMID:12378625

  11. Hepatoma-derived growth factor regulates breast cancer cell invasion by modulating epithelial--mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Cher; Kung, Mei-Lang; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Wu, Jian-Ching; Kuo, Hsiao-Mei; Tsai, Han-En; Lin, Yu-Wei; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Jong-Kang; Yeh, Ming-Hsin; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2012-10-01

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) participates in tumourigenesis but its role in breast cancer is unclear. We set out to elucidate the expression profile and function of HDGF during breast carcinogenesis. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical studies revealed elevated HDGF expression in human breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Nuclear HDGF labelling index was positively correlated with tumour grade, stage and proliferation index, but negatively correlated with survival rate in breast cancer patients. HDGF over-expression was associated with lymph node metastasis and represented an independent prognostic factor for tumour recurrence. Gene transfer studies were performed to elucidate the influence of cellular HDGF level on the malignant behaviour and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells. Adenovirus-mediated HDGF over-expression stimulated the invasiveness and colony formation of MCF-7 cells. Moreover, HDGF over-expression promoted breast cancer cell EMT by E-cadherin down-regulation and vimentin up-regulation. Conversely, HDGF knockdown by RNA interference in MDA-MB-231 cells attenuated the malignant behaviour and elicited EMT reversal by enhancing E-cadherin expression while depleting vimentin expression. Because HDGF is a secreted protein, we evaluated the cellular function of recombinant HDGF and found that exogenously supplied HDGF enhanced the invasiveness of breast cancer cells by down-regulating E-cadherin and up-regulating vimentin at transcriptional and translational levels. In contrast, blockade of HDGF secretion with an HDGF antibody inhibited the malignant behaviours and EMT. Finally, exogenous HDGF partially reversed benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC)-induced EMT suppression. HDGF over-expression may exert a prognostic role for tumour metastasis and recurrence in breast cancer by modulating EMT. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The regulatory role of hepatoma-derived growth factor as an angiogenic factor in the eye.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Michelle E; Wang, Weiwen; Chen, Xiuping; Ji, Yanli; Shakya, Akhalesh; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Chenming; Gonzalez, Vivianne; Brewer, Megan; Ma, Jian-Xing; Wen, Rong; Zhang, Fangliang; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a mitogen that promotes endothelial proliferation and neuronal survival. Using a unique technology of ligandomics, we recently identified HDGF as a retinal endothelial binding protein. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of HDGF in regulating ocular vasculature and the expression of HDGF in the retina. HDGF expression in the retinal was analyzed with western blot and immunohistochemistry. Angiogenic activity was investigated in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVECs) with in vitro endothelial proliferation, migration, and permeability assays. In vivo angiogenic activity was quantified with a corneal pocket assay. The Evans blue assay and western blot using anti-mouse albumin were performed to detect the capacity of HDGF to induce retinal vascular leakage. Immunohistochemistry revealed that HDGF is expressed in the retina with a distinct pattern. HDGF was detected in retinal ganglion cells and the inner nuclear layer but not in the inner plexiform layer, suggesting that HDGF is expressed in the nucleus, but not in the cytoplasm, of retinal neurons. In contrast to family member HDGF-related protein 3 (HRP-3) that has no expression in photoreceptors, HDGF is also present in the outer nuclear layer and the inner and outer segments of photoreceptors. This suggests that HDGF is expressed in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm of photoreceptors. In vitro functional assays showed that HDGF induced the proliferation, migration, and permeability of HRMVECs. Corneal pocket assay indicated that HDGF directly stimulated angiogenesis in vivo. Intravitreal injection of HDGF significantly induced retinal vascular leakage. These results suggest that HDGF is an angiogenic factor that regulates retinal vasculature in physiologic and pathological conditions. Identification of HDGF by ligandomics and its independent characterization in this study also support the validity of this new technology for systematic

  13. Prognostic value of nuclear hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) localization in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Yun, Jun; Fei, Fei; Yi, Jun; Tian, Ruifeng; Li, Sanzhong; Gan, Xiaoqiang

    2012-08-15

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) plays an important role in tumor progression. Highly expressed HDGF has been found to indicate poor prognosis in many cancers. However, no information is available regarding the prognostic value of nuclear or cytoplasmic HDGF staining level in breast cancer. In the present study, the nuclear or cytoplasmic HDGF staining level was investigated in 86 patients with primary breast cancer by immunohistochemistry; the relationship between nuclear or cytoplasmic HDGF staining level and clinicopathological parameters was examined by Two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test or Krustal-Wallis. The prognostic value of nuclear or cytoplasmic HDGF staining level in disease-free survival and overall survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods and log-rank test. We found that the percentage of cases with strong nuclear HDGF staining level was significantly higher in the cases with high tumor grade, high stage, high proliferation index (Ki-67 index>20%), as well as in those with lymph node invasion and recurrence (p<0.05) compared to those without. No significant correlation was found between cytoplasmic HDGF expression and any clinicopathological variables. In addition, disease-free survival and overall survival were significantly lower in patients with high nuclear HDGF expression (level 2) than in those with low nuclear HDGF expression (level 0 and level 1). Further Cox multivariate analysis showed that high nuclear HDGF expression is an independent factor for indicating poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. No significant difference in disease-free survival rate and overall survival was found between different cytoplasmic HDGF staining levels. All these findings suggest that increased nuclear HDGF expression is involved in tumor progression and might be used as a new prognosticator for breast cancer. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Zinc protoporphyrin IX enhances chemotherapeutic response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang-Sui; Li, Huan-Song; Qi, Dun-Feng; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Xin-Chun; Shi, Kui; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xin-Hui

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of zinc protoporphyrin IX on the response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin and the possible mechanism involved. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was determined by a flow cytometric assay. Western blotting was used to measure protein expression. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 activity was measured by determining the level of bilirubin generated in isolated microsomes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was measured with a colorimetric assay kit. Mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 tumor cells subcutaneously into the right flanks. All mice were sacrificed 6 wk after the first treatment and tumors were weighed and measured. RESULTS: Overexpression of HO-1 in HepG2 cell line was associated with increased chemoresistance to cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin; CDDP) compared to other cell lines in vitro. Inhibition of HO-1 expression or activity by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX) markedly augmented CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity towards all liver cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, induction of HO-1 with hemin increased resistance of tumor cells to CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, cells treated with ZnPP IX plus CDDP exhibited marked production of intracellular ROS and caspase-3 activity, which paralleled the incidence of cell apoptosis, whereas hemin decreased cellular ROS and caspase-3 activity induced by CDDP. CONCLUSION: ZnPP IX increases cellular sensitivity and susceptibility of liver cancer cell lines to CDDP and this may represent a mechanism of increasing ROS. PMID:25024611

  15. Genetic analysis of a transcriptional activation pathway by using hepatoma cell variants.

    PubMed Central

    Bulla, G A; Fournier, R E

    1994-01-01

    A hierarchy of liver-enriched transcription factors plays an important role in activating expression of many hepatic genes. In particular, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4) is a major activator of the gene encoding HNF-1, and HNF-1 itself activates expression of more than 20 liver genes. To dissect this activation pathway genetically, we prepared somatic cell variants that were deficient in expression of the liver-specific alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) gene, which requires both HNF-1 and HNF-4 for high-level gene activity. This was accomplished in two steps. First, hepatoma transfectants that stably expressed two selectable markers under alpha 1AT promoter control were prepared; second, variant sublines that could no longer express either transgene were isolated by direct selection. In this report, we demonstrate that the variants contain defects in the HNF-4/HNF-1 activation pathway. These defects functioned in trans, as expression of many liver genes was affected, but the variant phenotypes were recessive to wild type in somatic cell hybrids. Three different variant classes could be discriminated by their phenotypic responses to ectopic expression of either HNF-4 or HNF-1. Two variant clones appeared specifically deficient in HNF-4 expression, as transfection with an HNF-4 expression cassette fully restored their hepatic phenotypes. Another line activated HNF-1 in response to forced HNF-4 expression, but activation of downstream genes failed to occur. One clone was unresponsive to either HNF-1 or HNF-4. Using the variants, we demonstrate further that the chromosomal genes encoding alpha 1AT, aldolase B, and alpha-fibrinogen display strict requirements for HNF-1 activation in vivo, while other liver genes were unaffected by the presence or absence of HNF-1 or HNF-4. We also provide evidence for the existence of an autoregulatory loop in which HNF-1 regulates its own expression through activation of HNF-4. Images PMID:7935424

  16. Ascorbic acid enhances iron-induced ferritin translation in human leukemia and hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Toth, I; Rogers, J T; McPhee, J A; Elliott, S M; Abramson, S L; Bridges, K R

    1995-02-10

    Ascorbate is an important cofactor in many cellular metabolic reactions and is intimately linked to iron homeostasis. Continuously cultured cells are ascorbate deficient due to the lability of the vitamin in solution and to the fact that daily supplementation of media with ascorbate is unusual. We found that ascorbate repletion alone did not alter ferritin synthesis. However, ascorbate-replete human hepatoma cells, Hep3B and HepG2, as well as K562 human leukemia cells achieved a substantially higher cellular ferritin content in response to a challenge with iron than did their ascorbate-deficient counterparts grown under standard culture conditions. Most of the elevation in ferritin content was due to an increase in de novo ferritin synthesis of greater than 50-fold, as shown by in vivo labeling with [35S]methionine and immunoprecipitation. RNA-blot analysis showed only minor changes in steady state levels of ferritin mRNA, suggesting that ascorbate enhances iron-induced ferritin synthesis primarily by post-transcriptional events. Transient gene expression experiments using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene constructs showed that the ascorbate effect on ferritin translation is not mediated through the stem-loop near the translational start site that transduces ferritin synthesis in response to cytokines. The data suggest that ascorbate possibly modifies the action of the iron-responsive element on ferritin translation, although more precise structure-function studies are needed to clarify this issue. These data demonstrate a novel role of ascorbate as a signaling molecule in post-transcriptional gene regulation. The mechanism by which ascorbate modulates cellular iron metabolism is complex and requires additional detailed investigation.

  17. The regulatory role of hepatoma-derived growth factor as an angiogenic factor in the eye

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Michelle E.; Wang, Weiwen; Chen, Xiuping; Ji, Yanli; Shakya, Akhalesh; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Chenming; Gonzalez, Vivianne; Brewer, Megan; Ma, Jian-xing; Wen, Rong; Zhang, Fangliang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a mitogen that promotes endothelial proliferation and neuronal survival. Using a unique technology of ligandomics, we recently identified HDGF as a retinal endothelial binding protein. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of HDGF in regulating ocular vasculature and the expression of HDGF in the retina. Methods HDGF expression in the retinal was analyzed with western blot and immunohistochemistry. Angiogenic activity was investigated in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVECs) with in vitro endothelial proliferation, migration, and permeability assays. In vivo angiogenic activity was quantified with a corneal pocket assay. The Evans blue assay and western blot using anti-mouse albumin were performed to detect the capacity of HDGF to induce retinal vascular leakage. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed that HDGF is expressed in the retina with a distinct pattern. HDGF was detected in retinal ganglion cells and the inner nuclear layer but not in the inner plexiform layer, suggesting that HDGF is expressed in the nucleus, but not in the cytoplasm, of retinal neurons. In contrast to family member HDGF-related protein 3 (HRP-3) that has no expression in photoreceptors, HDGF is also present in the outer nuclear layer and the inner and outer segments of photoreceptors. This suggests that HDGF is expressed in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm of photoreceptors. In vitro functional assays showed that HDGF induced the proliferation, migration, and permeability of HRMVECs. Corneal pocket assay indicated that HDGF directly stimulated angiogenesis in vivo. Intravitreal injection of HDGF significantly induced retinal vascular leakage. Conclusions These results suggest that HDGF is an angiogenic factor that regulates retinal vasculature in physiologic and pathological conditions. Identification of HDGF by ligandomics and its independent characterization in this study also support the validity of this

  18. Thyroid hormone receptor inhibits hepatoma cell migration through transcriptional activation of Dickkopf 4

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Liao, Chen-Hsin; Huang, Ya-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Ming; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Liao, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, Cheng-Yi; Chung, I-Hsiao; Wu, Tzu-I; Chen, Wei-Jan; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •T{sub 3} affects DKK4 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2-TR cells. •Regulation of DKK4 by T{sub 3} is at transcriptional level. •DKK4 overexpression suppresses hepatoma cell metastasis. -- Abstract: Triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) is a potent form of thyroid hormone mediates several physiological processes including cellular growth, development, and differentiation via binding to the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR). Recent studies have demonstrated critical roles of T{sub 3}/TR in tumor progression. Moreover, long-term hypothyroidism appears to be associated with the incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), independent of other major HCC risk factors. Dickkopf (DKK) 4, a secreted protein that antagonizes the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is induced by T{sub 3} at both mRNA and protein levels in HCC cell lines. However, the mechanism underlying T{sub 3}-mediated regulation of DKK4 remains unknown. In the present study, the 5′ promoter region of DKK4 was serially deleted, and the reporter assay performed to localize the T{sub 3} response element (TRE). Consequently, we identified an atypical direct repeat TRE between nucleotides −1645 and −1629 conferring T{sub 3} responsiveness to the DKK4 gene. This region was further validated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Stable DKK4 overexpression in SK-Hep-1 cells suppressed cell invasion and metastatic potential, both in vivo andin vitro, via reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression. Our findings collectively suggest that DKK4 upregulated by T{sub 3}/TR antagonizes the Wnt signal pathway to suppress tumor cell progression, thus providing new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying thyroid hormone activity in HCC.

  19. Induction of phenolsulfotransferase expression by phenolic acids in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Huang, Shang-Ming; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2005-06-15

    Phenolic acids are antioxidant phenolic compounds, widespread in plant foods, which contribute significant biological and pharmacological properties; some have demonstrated a remarkable ability to alter sulfate conjugation. However, the modulation mechanisms of antioxidant phenolic acids on phenolsulfotransferase activity have not yet been described. In the present study, the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, was used as a model to investigate the effect of antioxidant phenolic acids on enzymatic activity and expression of one of the major phase II sulfate conjugation enzymes, P-form phenolsulfotransferase (PST-P). The results showed that gallic acid, gentisic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid increased PST-P activity, in a dose-dependent manner. A maximum of 4- and 5-fold induction of PST-P activity was observed for both gallic acid and gentisic acid; however, they showed an adverse effect on cell growth at higher concentrations. A 2- or 2.5-fold increase of PST-P activity was found with either p-coumaric or p-hydroxybenzoic acid treatment, whereas no significant effect was found for ferulic acid treatment. PST-P induction, by gallic acid, was further confirmed, using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting techniques to measure mRNA expression and protein translation. A significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.01) between the expressions of PST-P mRNA and the corresponding PST-P activity was observed. Thus, gallic acid increased PST-P protein expression in HepG2 cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The results demonstrated that certain antioxidant phenolic acids could induce PST-P activity in HepG2 cells, by promoting PST-P mRNA and protein expression, suggesting a novel mechanism by which phenolic acids may be implicated in phase II sulfate conjugation.

  20. Downregulation of miR-210 expression inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wei; Sun, Ting; Cao, Jianping; Liu, Fenju; Tian, Ye; Zhu, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and an important contributor to tumor radioresistance. miR-210 is the most consistently and robustly induced microRNA under hypoxia in different types of tumor cells and normal cells. In the present study, to explore the feasibility of miR-210 as an effective therapeutic target, lentiviral-mediated anti-sense miR-210 gene transfer technique was employed to downregulate miR-210 expression in hypoxic human hepatoma SMMC-7721, HepG2 and HuH7 cells, and phenotypic changes of which were analyzed. Hypoxia led to an increased hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and miR-210 expression and cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase in all cell lines. miR-210 downregulation significantly suppressed cell viability, induced cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, increased apoptotic rate and enhanced radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Moreover, apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 3 (AIFM3) was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. AIFM3 downregulation by siRNA attenuated radiation induced apoptosis in miR-210 downregulated hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-210 might be a potential therapeutic target and specific inhibition of miR-210 expression in combination with radiotherapy might be expected to exert strong anti-tumor effect on hypoxic human hepatoma cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 downregulation radiosensitized hypoxic hepatoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIFM3 was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 might be a therapeutic target to hypoxic hepatoma.

  1. An Occult Hepatitis B-Derived Hepatoma Cell Line Carrying Persistent Nuclear Viral DNA and Permissive for Exogenous Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Chien, Rong-Nan; Lin, Shi-Ming; Ke, Po-Yuan; Lin, Chen-Chun; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is defined as persistence of HBV DNA in liver tissues, with or without detectability of HBV DNA in the serum, in individuals with negative serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Despite accumulating evidence suggesting its important clinical roles, the molecular and virological basis of occult hepatitis B remains unclear. In an attempt to establish new hepatoma cell lines, we achieved a new cell line derived from a hepatoma patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and occult HBV infection. Characterization of this cell line revealed previously unrecognized properties. Two novel human hepatoma cell lines were established. Hep-Y1 was derived from a male hepatoma patient negative for HCV and HBV infection. Hep-Y2 was derived from a female hepatoma patient suffering from chronic HCV and occult HBV infection. Morphological, cytogenetic and functional studies were performed. Permissiveness to HBV infection was assessed. Both cell lines showed typical hepatocyte-like morphology under phase-contrast and electron microscopy and expressed alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, transferrin, and aldolase B. Cytogenetic analysis revealed extensive chromosomal anomalies. An extrachromosomal form of HBV DNA persisted in the nuclear fraction of Hep-Y2 cells, while no HBsAg was detected in the medium. After treated with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide, both cell lines were permissive for exogenous HBV infection with transient elevation of the replication intermediates in the cytosol with detectable viral antigens by immunoflurescence analysis. In conclusions, we established two new hepatoma cell lines including one from occult HBV infection (Hep-Y2). Both cell lines were permissive for HBV infection. Additionally, Hep-Y2 cells carried persistent extrachromosomal HBV DNA in the nuclei. This cell line could serve as a useful tool to establish the molecular and virological basis of occult HBV infection. PMID:23734258

  2. An occult hepatitis B-derived hepatoma cell line carrying persistent nuclear viral DNA and permissive for exogenous hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Chien, Rong-Nan; Lin, Shi-Ming; Ke, Po-Yuan; Lin, Chen-Chun; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is defined as persistence of HBV DNA in liver tissues, with or without detectability of HBV DNA in the serum, in individuals with negative serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Despite accumulating evidence suggesting its important clinical roles, the molecular and virological basis of occult hepatitis B remains unclear. In an attempt to establish new hepatoma cell lines, we achieved a new cell line derived from a hepatoma patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and occult HBV infection. Characterization of this cell line revealed previously unrecognized properties. Two novel human hepatoma cell lines were established. Hep-Y1 was derived from a male hepatoma patient negative for HCV and HBV infection. Hep-Y2 was derived from a female hepatoma patient suffering from chronic HCV and occult HBV infection. Morphological, cytogenetic and functional studies were performed. Permissiveness to HBV infection was assessed. Both cell lines showed typical hepatocyte-like morphology under phase-contrast and electron microscopy and expressed alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, transferrin, and aldolase B. Cytogenetic analysis revealed extensive chromosomal anomalies. An extrachromosomal form of HBV DNA persisted in the nuclear fraction of Hep-Y2 cells, while no HBsAg was detected in the medium. After treated with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide, both cell lines were permissive for exogenous HBV infection with transient elevation of the replication intermediates in the cytosol with detectable viral antigens by immunoflurescence analysis. In conclusions, we established two new hepatoma cell lines including one from occult HBV infection (Hep-Y2). Both cell lines were permissive for HBV infection. Additionally, Hep-Y2 cells carried persistent extrachromosomal HBV DNA in the nuclei. This cell line could serve as a useful tool to establish the molecular and virological basis of occult HBV infection.

  3. Synergistic effects of acyclic retinoid and OSI-461 on growth inhibition and gene expression in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masahito; Suzui, Masumi; Deguchi, Atsuko; Lim, Jin T E; Xiao, Danhua; Hayes, Julia H; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P; Weinstein, I Bernard

    2004-10-01

    Hepatoma is one of the most frequently occurring cancers worldwide. However, effective chemotherapeutic agents for this disease have not been developed. Acyclic retinoid, a novel synthetic retinoid, can reduce the incidence of postsurgical recurrence of hepatoma and improve the survival rate. OSI-461, a potent derivative of exisulind, can increase intracellular levels of cyclic GMP, which leads to activation of protein kinase G and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the combined effects of acyclic retinoid plus OSI-461 in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line. We found that the combination of as little as 1.0 micromol/L acyclic retinoid and 0.01 micromol/L OSI-461 exerted synergistic inhibition of the growth of HepG2 cells. Combined treatment with low concentrations of these two agents also acted synergistically to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through induction of Bax and Apaf-1, reduction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9. OSI-461 enhanced the G0-G1 arrest caused by acyclic retinoid, and the combination of these agents caused a synergistic decrease in the levels of expression of cyclin D1 protein and mRNA, inhibited cyclin D1 promoter activity, decreased the level of hyperphosphorylated forms of the Rb protein, induced increased cellular levels of the p21(CIP1) protein and mRNA, and stimulated p21(CIP1) promoter activity. Moreover, OSI-461 enhanced the ability of acyclic retinoid to induce increased cellular levels of retinoic acid receptor beta and to stimulate retinoic acid response element-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. A hypothetical model involving concerted effects on p21(CIP1) and retinoic acid receptor beta expression is proposed to explain these synergistic effects. Our results suggest that the combination of acyclic retinoid plus OSI-461 might be an effective regimen for the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of human hepatoma and possibly other malignancies.

  4. Differentially profiling the low-expression transcriptomes of human hepatoma using a novel SSH/microarray approach

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi-Shin; Lee, Yun-Shien; Lee, Yung-Lin; Lee, Wei-Chen; Hsieh, Sen-Yung

    2006-01-01

    Background The main limitation in performing genome-wide gene-expression profiling is the assay of low-expression genes. Approaches with high throughput and high sensitivity for assaying low-expression transcripts are urgently needed for functional genomic studies. Combination of the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray techniques using the subtracted cDNA clones as probes printed on chips has greatly improved the efficiency for fishing out the differentially expressed clones and has been used before. However, it remains tedious and inefficient sequencing works for identifying genes including the great number of redundancy in the subtracted amplicons, and sacrifices the original advantages of high sensitivity of SSH in profiling low-expression transcriptomes. Results We modified the previous combination of SSH and microarray methods by directly using the subtracted amplicons as targets to hybridize the pre-made cDNA microarrays (named as "SSH/microarray"). mRNA prepared from three pairs of hepatoma and non-hepatoma liver tissues was subjected to the SSH/microarray assays, as well as directly to regular cDNA microarray assays for comparison. As compared to the original SSH and microarray combination assays, the modified SSH/microarray assays allowed for much easier inspection of the subtraction efficiency and identification of genes in the subtracted amplicons without tedious and inefficient sequencing work. On the other hand, 5015 of the 9376 genes originally filtered out by the regular cDNA microarray assays because of low expression became analyzable by the SSH/microarray assays. Moreover, the SSH/microarray assays detected about ten times more (701 vs. 69) HCC differentially expressed genes (at least a two-fold difference and P < 0.01), particularly for those with rare transcripts, than did the regular cDNA microarray assays. The differential expression was validated in 9 randomly selected genes in 18 pairs of hepatoma/non-hepatoma

  5. Glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose suppresses carcinogen-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis by restricting cancer cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaofa; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Dong; Sun, Rongsheng; Wang, Qingyan; Liu, Xinyi

    2015-03-01

    The abnormal metabolism of cancer cells is a crucial feature of tumors and provides promising therapeutic targets for cancer treatments. Aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells, termed the Warburg effect, is a highlighted characteristic of cancer‑specific metabolism. However, the effect of glycolysis inhibition on hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of the glycolysis inhibitor 2‑deoxy‑D‑glucose (2‑DG) on the N‑diethylnitrosamine (DEN)‑induced rat hepatocarcinoma model and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. It was observed that 2‑DG significantly delayed hepatocarcinogenesis and effectively prolonged survival time in the DEN‑treated rats. The glycolysis inhibitor, 2‑DG prominently decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in the DEN‑induced rat hepatoma and had no evident impact on the pericarcinomatous liver tissues. Further investigation revealed that 2‑DG resulted in a reduction of glycolysis products, the compensatory increase of hexokinase 2 expression and a decrease in 6‑phosphofructo‑2‑kinase, pyruvate kinase M2 and lactate dehydrogenase A expression in the hepatoma tissues. The inhibition of glycolysis further suppressed the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis and ATP production, while it promoted autophagic activation. In addition, the in vitro study demonstrated that hypoxia, an important factor in the tumor microenvironment, may assist in increasing 2‑DG‑induced inhibition of cell viability, cell cycle retardation and the decrease of colony formation ability in hepatoma cells. Taken together, the present results suggested that 2‑DG may inhibit hepatocarcinogenesis in the DEN‑treated rats via restricting cancer cell metabolism. This finding provides a promising measure in the prevention and treatment of hepatoma.

  6. Interleukin-18 Down-Regulates Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 Expression through Farnesoid X Receptor Associated with Nuclear Factor Kappa B and Yin Yang 1 in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-cong; Lian, Wei; Zhang, Liang-jun; Feng, Xin-chan; Gao, Yu; Li, Shao-xue; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Long; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Lei; Wang, Rong-quan; Chai, Jin; Chen, Wen-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) plays an important role in bile acid metabolism by transporting toxic organic anion conjugates, including conjugated bilirubin, glutathione, sulfate, and multifarious drugs. MRP2 expression is reduced in cholestatic patients and rodents. However, the molecular mechanism of MRP2 down-regulation remains elusive. In this report, we treated human hepatoma HepG2 cells with interleukin-18 (IL-18) and measured the expression of MRP2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) by quantitative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. We found that expression of MRP2 was repressed by IL-18 at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the activated NF-κB pathway increased YY1 and reduced FXR. These changes were all attenuated in HepG2 cells with knockdown of the NF-κB subunit, p65. The reduced expression of FXR and MRP2 in HepG2 cells that had been caused by IL-18 treatment was also attenuated by YY1 knockdown. We further observed significantly elevated IL-18, NF-κB, and YY1 expression and decreased FXR and MRP2 expression in bile duct-ligated Sprague Dawley rat livers. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays also showed that FXR bound to the promoter region in MRP2 was less abundant in liver extracts from bile duct-ligated rats than sham-operated rats. Our findings indicate that IL-18 down-regulates MRP2 expression through the nuclear receptor FXR in HepG2 cells, and may be mediated by NF-κB and YY1.

  7. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in Morris Hepatoma 7777 mitochondria and its sensitivity to malonyl CoA inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Woldegiorgis, G.; Shrago, E.

    1986-05-01

    Earlier reports in the literature have indicated no detectable Carnitine Palymitoyl Transferase (CPT) activity in homogenates prepared from Morris Hepatoma 7777. In its study CPT activity in isolated mitochondria (mito) was measured by butanol extraction of the (/sup 3/H)palmitoyl carnitine formed as outlined by Bremer et al. Contrary to the earlier work where no appreciable activity of CPT was observed the authors find significant levels of CPT (2.6 nMol/min/mg protein) in isolated mito from Morris Hepatoma 7777 (MH 7777). The level of CPT activity observed in MH 7777 mito was, however, 36% lower compared to the host liver CPT activity (4.1 nMol/min/mg protein). The enzyme in MH 7777 mito showed 83% inhibition in the presence of 10 ..mu..M malonyl CoA, in agreement with the degree of sensitivity observed with the host liver isolated mito. On freeze thawing host mito, total CPT activity increased and the sensitivity of the enzyme to malonyl CoA decreased. Frozen thawed MH 7777 mito showed a similar response to malonyl CoA but no change in the total CPT level was observed. The authors results establish for the first time the presence of a malonyl CoA sensitive CPT in MH 7777 mito, which may have slightly different properties from normal due to the membrane environment of the enzyme.

  8. Critical roles of cellular glutathione homeostasis and jnk activation in andrographolide-mediated apoptotic cell death in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lili; Shen, Kaikai; Jiang, Ping; Morahan, Grant; Wang, Zhengtao

    2011-08-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO), isolated from the traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is reported to have the potential therapeutic effects for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in our previous reports. Here, we investigated the mechanism of ANDRO-mediated apoptotic cell death, focusing on the involvement of cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) homeostasis and c-Jun NH(2) -Terminal kinase (JNK). Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of cellular GSH biosynthesis, significantly augmented ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity in hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. BSO depleted cellular GSH, and augmented ANDRO-induced apoptosis, inhibition of colony formation and JNK activation in Hep3B cells. All these effects could be reversed by GSH monoethyl ester (GSH.EE), whose deacetylation replenishes cellular GSH. BSO also augmented ANDRO-induced activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4 (MKK4) and c-Jun, which are all up-stream or down-stream signals of JNK. Further results showed that JNK inhibitor SP600125 and 420116 both reversed ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity, and SP600125 also decreased ANDRO-increased intracellular GSH and GCL activity. Finally, we showed that in nude mice bearing xenografted Hep3B tumors, BSO improved the inhibition of tumor growth by ANDRO. Taken together, our results suggest that there is a crosstalk between JNK activation and cellular GSH homeostasis, and ANDRO targets this to induce cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells.

  9. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau Ethanol Extract Inhibits Hepatoma in Mice through Upregulation of the Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danmin; Guo, Wenjie; Gao, Jing; Chen, Jun; Olatunji, Joshua Opeyemi

    2015-09-18

    Clinacanthans nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a popular medicinal vegetable in Southern Asia, and its extracts have displayed significant anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism for this effect has yet to be established. This study investigated the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of C. nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau 30% ethanol extract (CN30) in vivo. CN30 was prepared and its main components were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CN30 had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor volume and weight. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining and TUNEL assay revealed that hepatoma cells underwent significant apoptosis with CN30 treatment, while expression levels of proliferation markers PCNA and p-AKT were significantly decreased when treated with low or high doses of CN30 treatment. Western blot analysis of PAPR, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl2 also showed that CN30 induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, intracellular staining analysis showed that CN30 treatment increased the number of IFN-γ⁺ T cells and decreased the number of IL-4⁺ T cells. Serum IFN-γ and interleukin-2 levels also significantly improved. Our findings indicated that CN30 demonstrated antitumor properties by up-regulating the immune response, and warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of cancers.

  10. Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yunha; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Jin Seok; Chai, Kyu Yun; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cui, Ming-Xun; So, Hong Seob; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Raekil

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression. CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma. PMID:18203281

  11. Degradable and biocompatible nanoparticles decorated with cyclic RGD peptide for efficient drug delivery to hepatoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Pascal; Bedhouche, Wahib; Huang, Zhi Wei; Cammas-Marion, Sandrine

    2013-10-01

    Amphiphilic derivatives of poly(benzyl malate) were synthesized and characterized with the aim of being used as degradable and biocompatible building blocks for the design of functional nanoparticles (NPs). An anti-cancer model drug, doxorubicin, has been successfully encapsulated into the prepared NPs and its release profile has been evaluated in water and in culture medium. NPs bearing biotin molecules were prepared either for site-specific drug delivery via the targeting of biotin receptors overexpressed on the surface of several cancer cells, or for grafting biotinylated cyclic RGD peptide onto their surface using the strong and highly specific interactions between biotin and the streptavidin protein. We have shown that this binding did not affect dramatically the physico-chemical properties of the corresponding NPs. Cyclic RGD grafted fluorescent NPs were more efficiently uptaken by the HepaRG hepatoma cells than biotinylated fluorescent NPs. Furthermore, the targeting of HepaRG hepatoma cells with NPs bearing cyclic RGD was very efficient and much weaker for HeLa and HT29 cell lines confirming that cyclic RGD is a suitable targeting agent for liver cells. Our results also provide a new mean for rapid screening of short hepatotropic peptides in order to design NPs showing specific liver targeting properties.

  12. Active compounds from Saussurea lappa Clarks that suppress hepatitis B virus surface antigen gene expression in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, H C; Chou, C K; Lee, S D; Wang, J C; Yeh, S F

    1995-05-01

    We have examined the antiviral activity of the crude extract prepared from the root of Saussurea lappa Clarks, a Chinese medicinal herb which is widely used for many illnesses including cancer. Two active components, costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone, were identified which show strong suppressive effect on the expression of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in human hepatoma Hep3B cells, but have little effect on the viability of the cells. Both costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone suppress the HBsAg production by Hep3B cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50s of 1.0 and 2.0 microM, respectively. Northern blotting analysis shows that the suppression of HBsAg gene expression by both costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone were mainly at the mRNA level. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone on HBsAg and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), a marker for hepatitis B viral genome replication in human liver cells, was also observed in another human hepatoma cell line HepA2 which was derived from HepG2 cells by transfecting a tandemly repeat hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA. Similarly, the mRNA of HBsAg in HepA2 cells was also suppressed by these two compounds. Our findings suggest that costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone may have potential to develop as specific anti-HBV drugs in the future.

  13. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer of human phenylalanine hydroxylase into NIH 3T3 and hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ledley, F.D.; Grenett, H.E.; McGinnis-Shelnutt, M.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1986-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). A full-length human PAH cDNA sequence has been inserted into pzip-neoSV(X), which is a retroviral vector containing the bacterial neo gene. The recombinant has been transfected into Psi2 cells, which provide synthesis of the retroviral capsid. Recombinant virus was detected in the culture medium of the transfected Psi2 cells, which is capable of transmitting the human PAH gene into mouse NIH 3T3 cells by infection leading to stable incorporation of the recombinant provirus. Infected cells express PAH mRNA, immunoreactive PAH protein, and exhibit pterin-dependent phenylaline hydroxylase activity. The recombinant virus is also capable of infecting a mouse hepatoma cell line that does not normal synthesize PAH. PAH activity is present in the cellular extracts and the entire hydroxylation system is reconstituted in the hepatoma cells infected with the recombinant viruses. Thus, recombinant viruses containing human PAH cDNA provide a means for introducing functional PAH into mammalian cells of hepatic origin and can potentially be introduced into whole animals as a model for somatic gene therapy for PKU.

  14. Activation of AMPK/MnSOD signaling mediates anti-apoptotic effect of hepatitis B virus in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Hong, Hong-Hai; Chen, Shi-Ping; Ma, Cai-Qi; Liu, Han-Yan; Yao, Ya-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-apoptotic capability of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the HepG2 hepatoma cell line and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Targeted knockdown of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) genes as well as AMPK agonist AICAR and antagonist compound C were employed to determine the correlations of expression of these genes. RESULTS: HBV markedly protected the hepatoma cells from growth suppression and cell death in the condition of serum deprivation. A decrease of superoxide anion production accompanied with an increase of MnSOD expression and activity was found in HepG2.215 cells. Moreover, AMPK activation contributed to the up-regulation of MnSOD. HBx protein was identified to induce the expression of AMPK and MnSOD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HBV suppresses mitochondrial superoxide level and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect by activating AMPK/MnSOD signaling pathway, which may provide a novel pharmacological strategy to prevent HCC. PMID:27158203

  15. Amphiregulin impairs apoptosis-stimulating protein 2 of p53 overexpression-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Lin, Dongdong; Ouyang, Yabo; Pang, Lijun; Guo, Xianghua; Wang, Shanshan; Zang, Yunjin; Chen, Dexi

    2017-03-01

    Overexpression of apoptosis-stimulating protein 2 of p53 (ASPP2) induces apoptotic cell death in hepatoma cells (e.g. HepG2 cells) by enhancing the transactivation activity of p53, but long-term ASPP2 overexpression fails to induce more apoptosis since activation of the epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor/SOS1 pathway impairs the pro-apoptotic role of ASPP2. In this study, in recombinant adenovirus-ASPP2-infected HepG2 cells, ASPP2 overexpression induces amphiregulin expression in a p53-dependent manner. Although amphiregulin initially contributes to ASPP2-induced apoptosis, it eventually impairs the pro-apoptotic function of ASPP2 by activating the epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor/SOS1 pathway, leading to apoptosis resistance. Moreover, blocking soluble amphiregulin with a neutralizing antibody also significantly increased apoptotic cell death of HepG2 cells due to treatment with methyl methanesulfonate, cisplatin, or a recombinant p53 adenovirus, suggesting that the function of amphiregulin involved in inhibiting apoptosis may be a common mechanism by which hepatoma cells escape from stimulus-induced apoptosis. Thus, our data elucidate an apoptosis-evasion mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma and have potential implications for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  16. Influence of BGP-15, a nicotinic amidoxime derivative, on the vascularization and growth of murine hepatoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Kardon, Tamás; Nagy, Gábor; Csala, Miklós; Kiss, András; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Nagy, Péter Literáti; Wunderlich, Livius; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Mandl, József

    2006-01-01

    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key regulator of angiogenesis, is controlled by the oxygen supply. Previous observations suggested that nicotinic amidoxime derivatives (i.e. BGP-15) might interfere with the induction of hypoxia-sensitive genes. Hence, the effect of BGP-15 on angiogenesis was studied in Hepa 1c1c7 tumor xenografts. Hepa 1c1c7 hepatoma cells were implanted under the dorsal skin of female CD-1-nu/nu immunodeficient mice. One group of animals was given 100 mg/kg body weight/day BGP-15 intraperitoneally during tumor development. Vascularization, apoptotic and mitotic indices were determined by the histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the tumors. VEGF and GLUT-1 expressions were measured by Northern blot. The in vivo administration of BGP-15 resulted in a decrease in tumor weight and mitotic index, while it did not affect the apoptotic rate in the xenograft. Furthermore, BGP-15 treatment depressed microvascular density and the level of VEGF mRNA by 50%, and similarly decreased GLUT-1 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that BGP-15 suppresses hepatoma development by affecting angiogenesis.

  17. Apoptosis-inducing activity of cisplatin (CDDP) against human hepatoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Masahiko; Hashimoto, Ken; Shimada, Jun; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    The sensitivity of human hepatoma (HepG2) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2) cell lines against various apoptosis-inducing agents was compared. HepG2 cells were generally more resistant to an oxidant (H2O2), antioxidants (sodium ascorbate, gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate) and anticancer drugs (doxorubicin, methotrexate, cisplatin (CDDP), etoposide, 5-fluoro-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione (5-FU), peplomycin sulfate) as compared to HSC-2 cells. Lower concentrations of CDDP, but not other anticancer drugs, induced comparable cytostatic effects on both HSC-2 and HepG2 cells. CDDP induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9 in HepG2 cells. On the other hand, CDDP did not induce DNA fragmentation and activated caspase 3 only marginally in HSC-2 cells. Combination treatment with CDDP (10 microM) and 5-FU (100 microM) additively activated all three caspases in HepG2 cells, but not in HSC-2 cells. The present study demonstrated the chemotherapeutic potential of combined treatment of CDDP and 5-FU against hepatoma cells and the considerable variation of drug sensitivity between cancer cell lines.

  18. [Mechanism of regulation of hepatoma cell cycle by XPD/P44 subcomplex : an in vitro experiment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-yun; Xiong, Gao-fei; Wu, Bo-lin; Zhang, Ji-xiang

    2008-07-22

    To explore the effects of xeroderma pigmentosum group D(XPD)/P44 subcomplex on the cell cycle of the hepatoma cells. Human hematoma cells of the line SMMC-7721 were cultured and transfected with human XPD gene by Lipofectamine and 2 strains with stably transfected plasmid pEGFG-N2 and stably transfected recombinant plasmid pEGFG-N2/XPD were selected. After stably transfection,the antisense oligonucleotides of P44 were added to treat the stably transfected cells. The cells were divided into 6 groups: Group (1) (control group), Group (2) transfected with the blank plasmid pEGFP-N2, Group (3) transfected with the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N2/XPD, Group (4) transfected with ASODN complementary to the translation initiation site of pEGFP-N2/XPD, Group (5) transfected with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODN) complementary to the translation terminal site of pEGFP-N2/XPD, and Group (6) transfected with ASODN complementary to the translation exon5 site of pEGFP-N2/XPD. The expression levels of wild-type P44, XPD, cdk7, cdk2, c-myc, and cdc25A were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The cell growth and the cell cycle were examined by MTT and flow cytometry (FCM). The P44 and XPD mRNA expression levels of Group (4) were significantly higher than those of Groups (1) and (2) (both P < 0.01). Western blotting indicated that the changes of P44 and XPD protein expression levels were consistent with those of their mRNAs respectively; while the mRNA and protein expression levels of cdk7, cdk2, c-myc, and cdc25A were all decreased. MTF method showed that the hepatoma cells grew slowly, FCM showed that the number of the cells arrested at the G1 stage of Group (3) were higher than those of Groups (1) and (2). After the blockage of P44 gene expression, the expression levels of XPD mRNA and protein were decreased. The XPD mRNA and protein expression levels of Groups (4), (5), and (6) were significantly higher than those of Group (3) (all P < 0.01). The mRNA and protein

  19. Hypoxia on the Expression of Hepatoma Upregulated Protein in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Sakiyama, Marcelo J; Ma, Tangeng; Fair, Logan; Zhou, Xinchun; Hassan, Mohamed; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Gomez, Christian R

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a multifunctional protein with clinical promise. This protein has been demonstrated to be a predictive marker for the outcome in high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients, besides being a resistance factor in PCa. Although changes in oxygen tension (pO2) are associated with PCa aggressiveness, the role of hypoxia in the regulation of tumor progression genes such as HURP has not yet been described. We hypothesized that pO2 alteration is involved in the regulation of HURP expression in PCa cells. In the present study, PCa cells were incubated at 2% O2 (hypoxia) and 20% O2 (normoxia) conditions. Hypoxia reduced cell growth rate of PCa cells, when compared to the growth rate of cells cultured under normoxia (p < 0.05). The decrease in cell viability was accompanied by fivefold (p < 0.05) elevated rate of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. The expression of VEGF and the hypoxia-inducible metabolic enzyme carbonic anhydrase 9 were elevated maximally nearly 61-fold and 200-fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Noted in two cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2B) and independent of the oxygen levels, HURP expression assessed at both mRNA and protein levels was reduced. However, the decrease was more pronounced in cells cultured under hypoxia (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the analysis of patients' specimens by Western blot revealed a marked increase of HURP protein (fivefold), when compared to control (cystoprostatectomy) tissue (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis showed an increase in the immunostaining intensity of HURP and the hypoxia-sensitive molecules, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), VEGF, and heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) in association with tumor grade. The data also suggested a redistribution of subcellular localization for HURP and HIF-1α from the nucleus to the cytoplasmic compartment in relation to increasing tumor grade. Analysis of HURP Promoter for HIF-1-binding sites revealed presence of

  20. Antisense oligonucleotide targeting at the initiator of hTERT arrests growth of hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su-Xia; Sun, Wen-Sheng; Cao, Ying-Lin; Ma, Chun-Hong; Han, Li-Hui; Zhang, Li-Ning; Wang, Zhen-Guang; Zhu, Fa-Liang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inhibitory effect of antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide (asON) complementary to the initiator of human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) on the growth of hepatoma cells. METHODS: The as-hTERT was synthesized by using a DNA synthesizer. HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with as-hTERT at the concentration of 10 μmol/L. After 72 h, these cells were obtained for detecting growth inhibition, telomerase activity using the methods of MTT, TRAP-PCR-ELISA, respectively. BALB/c(nu/nu) mice were injected HepG2.2.15 cells and a human-nude mice model was obtained. There were three groups for anti-tumor activity study. Once tumors were established, these animals in the first group were administered as-hTERT and saline. Apoptosis of tumor cells was detected by FCM. In the 2nd group, the animals were injected HepG2.2.15 cells together with as-hTERT. In the third group, the animals were given as-hTERT 24 hours postinjection of HepG2.2.15 cells. The anti-HBV effects were assayed with ELISA in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Growth inhibition was observed in cells treated with as-hTERT in vitro. A significant different in the value of A570 - A630 was found between cells treated with as-hTERT and control (P < 0.01) by MTT method. The telomerase activity of tumor cells treated with as-hTERT was reduced, the value of A450 nm was 0.42 compared to control (1.49) with TRAP-PCR-ELISA. The peak of apoptosis in tumor cells given as-hTERT was 21.12%, but not seen in saline-treated control. A prolonged period of carcinogenesis was observed in the second and third group animals. There was inhibitory effect on the expression of HBsAg and HBeAg in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSION: As-hTERT has an anti-tumor activity, which may be useful for gene therapy of tumors. PMID:14760759

  1. Observation of DNA damage of human hepatoma cells irradiated by heavy ions using comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Li-Mei; Li, Wen-Jian; Pang, Xin-Yue; Gao, Qing-Xiang; Feng, Yan; Zhou, Li-Bin; Zhang, Gao-Hua

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Now many countries have developed cancer therapy with heavy ions, especially in GSI (Gesellschaft fürSchwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt, Germany), remarkable results have obtained, but due to the complexity of particle track structure, the basic theory still needs further researching. In this paper, the genotoxic effects of heavy ions irradiation on SMMC-7721 cells were measured using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The information about the DNA damage made by other radiations such as X-ray, γ-ray, UV and fast neutron irradiation is very plentiful, while little work have been done on the heavy ions so far. Hereby we tried to detect the reaction of liver cancer cells to heavy ion using comet assay, meanwhile to establish a database for clinic therapy of cancer with the heavy ions. METHODS: The human hepatoma cells were chosen as the test cell line irradiated by 80Mev/u 20Ne10+ on HIRFL (China), the radiation-doses were 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Gy, and then comet assay was used immediately to detect the DNA damages, 100-150 cells per dose-sample (30-50 cells were randomly observed at constant depth of the gel). The tail length and the quantity of the cells with the tail were put down. EXCEL was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: We obtained clear images by comet assay and found that SMMC-7721 cells were all damaged apparently from the dose 0.5 Gy to 8 Gy (t-test: P < 0.001, vs control). The tail length and tail moment increased as the doses increased, and the number of cells with tails increased with increasing doses. When doses were higher than 2 Gy, nearly 100% cells were damaged. Furthermore, both tail length and tail moment, showed linear equation. CONCLUSION: From the clear comet assay images, our experiment proves comet assay can be used to measure DNA damages by heavy ions. Meanwhile DNA damages have a positive correlation with the dose changes of heavy ions and SMMC-7721 cells have a great radiosensitivity to 20Ne10+. Different

  2. Intrinsic anticarcinogenic effects of Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract on a human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Wan Omar, Wan Haifa Haryani; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Safian, Muhd Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

    2009-01-01

    Background Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity. Results The anticarcinogenic activity of an ethanolic extract from Piper sarmentosum in HepG2 and non-malignant Chang's liver cell lines has been previously determined using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. The ethanolic extract that showed anticarcinogenic properties in HepG2 cells had an IC50 of 12.5 μg mL-1, while IC50 values in the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line were greater than 30 μg mL-1. Apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed using an inverted microscope and showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies following May-Grunwald-Giemsa's staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the overall population (apoptotic index) showed a continuously significant increase (p < 0.05) in 12.5 μg mL-1 ethanolic extract-treated cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours compared to controls (untreated cells). Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with 10, 12 and 14 μg mL-1 of ethanolic extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells. Molecular analysis of DNA fragmentation was used to examine intrinsic apoptosis induced by the ethanolic extracts. These results showed a typical intrinsic apoptotic characterisation, which included fragmentation of nuclear DNA in ethanolic extract-treated HepG2 cells. However, the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line produced no DNA fragmentation. In addition, the DNA genome was similarly intact for both the untreated non-malignant Chang's liver and HepG2 cell lines. Conclusion Therefore, our results suggest that the ethanolic extract from P. sarmentosum induced anticarcinogenic activity through an intrinsic apoptosis

  3. Involvement of the prostaglandin E receptor EP2 in paeoniflorin-induced human hepatoma cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanshan; Sun, Wuyi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Di; Jin, Juan; Wu, Jingjing; Chen, Jingyu; Wu, Huaxun; Wang, Qingtong

    2013-02-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to play an important role in tumor development and progression. PGE2 mediates its biological activity by binding any one of four prostanoid receptors (EP1 through EP4). The present study was designed to determine the role of the EP2 receptor during the proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell lines and the effect of paeoniflorin, a monoterpene glycoside. The proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium after exposure to the selective EP2 receptor agonists butaprost and paeoniflorin. Apoptosis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells was also quantified by flow cytometry with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining. The expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were quantified by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The expression of the EP2 receptor and cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 was determined by western blotting. Butaprost significantly increased proliferation in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Paeoniflorin significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells stimulated by butaprost at multiple time points (24, 48, and 72 h). Paeoniflorin induced apoptosis in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, which was quantified by annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. Our results indicate that the expression of the EP2 receptor and Bcl-2 was significantly increased, whereas that of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 was decreased in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells after stimulation by butaprost. Paeoniflorin significantly decreased the expression of the EP2 receptor and Bcl-2 and increased Bax and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells on addition of butaprost. Our results show that the PGE2 receptor subtype EP2 may play a vital role in the survival of both HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Paeoniflorin, which may be a promising agent in the treatment of liver cancer, induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by downregulating

  4. Inhibitory effects of vegetable and fruit ferment liquid on tumor growth in Hepatoma-22 inoculation model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Toshima, Yasushi; Wu, Xiao-li; Zhang, Xu; Cai, Yun-qing

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-tumor effect of vegetables and fruits ferment liquid (VFFL) in human hepatoma-22(H22)-bearing mice. Mice bearing H22 were randomly divided into four groups, that is a control group and three VFFL groups (16.7, 33.3 and 66.6 ml/kg). Inhibition rates of tumor, thymus and spleen index were observed. The apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and the apoptotic body was observed under an electron microscope. A survival study was performed on the same model for the duration of 60 days. For this survival study, the mice were divided into five groups, which included a control group, three VFFL groups (16.7, 33.3 and 66.6 ml/kg) and a CP group. Tumor inhibition rates for VFFL16.7, 33.3 and 66.6ml/kg were 25.7%, 35.0 % (p<0.05) and 49.1 % (p<0.01) respectively at 30d, increasing in proportion to the concentration of VFFL given. Thymus and spleen indices of the VFFL groups were also higher than that of the control group. The apoptotic rates in VFFL 16.7, 33.3 and 66.6 ml/kg groups were 20.5%, 24.0% and 15.8% respectively, while it was only 6.82% in control group. In particular, the apoptotic body in the 66.6 ml/kg group exhibited typical apoptotic characteristics, e.g., condensation of nucleus, chromatin fragmentation, and shrinkage of cytoplasm. For the survival study, the mice in the VFFL 66.6ml/kg group exhibited significantly extended survival rates compared with the mice in the control group (p<0.05). This study concludes that VFFL possesses anti-tumor properties, which it exhibits by inducing apoptosis and prolonging life in H22 tumor-bearing mice.

  5. Hypoxia on the Expression of Hepatoma Upregulated Protein in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Sakiyama, Marcelo J.; Ma, Tangeng; Fair, Logan; Zhou, Xinchun; Hassan, Mohamed; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Gomez, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a multifunctional protein with clinical promise. This protein has been demonstrated to be a predictive marker for the outcome in high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients, besides being a resistance factor in PCa. Although changes in oxygen tension (pO2) are associated with PCa aggressiveness, the role of hypoxia in the regulation of tumor progression genes such as HURP has not yet been described. We hypothesized that pO2 alteration is involved in the regulation of HURP expression in PCa cells. In the present study, PCa cells were incubated at 2% O2 (hypoxia) and 20% O2 (normoxia) conditions. Hypoxia reduced cell growth rate of PCa cells, when compared to the growth rate of cells cultured under normoxia (p < 0.05). The decrease in cell viability was accompanied by fivefold (p < 0.05) elevated rate of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. The expression of VEGF and the hypoxia-inducible metabolic enzyme carbonic anhydrase 9 were elevated maximally nearly 61-fold and 200-fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Noted in two cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2B) and independent of the oxygen levels, HURP expression assessed at both mRNA and protein levels was reduced. However, the decrease was more pronounced in cells cultured under hypoxia (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the analysis of patients’ specimens by Western blot revealed a marked increase of HURP protein (fivefold), when compared to control (cystoprostatectomy) tissue (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis showed an increase in the immunostaining intensity of HURP and the hypoxia-sensitive molecules, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), VEGF, and heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) in association with tumor grade. The data also suggested a redistribution of subcellular localization for HURP and HIF-1α from the nucleus to the cytoplasmic compartment in relation to increasing tumor grade. Analysis of HURP Promoter for HIF-1-binding sites revealed presence

  6. Mapping of the gene encoding the human hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) with homology to the high-mobility group (HMG)-1 protein to Xq25

    SciTech Connect

    Wanschura, S.; Bartnitzke, S.; Bullerdiek, J.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the localization of the human hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) gene to human chromosome Xq25 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Homology to the high-mobility group (HMG)-1 protein was also demonstrated. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Sodium butyrate enhances STAT 1 expression in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells and augments their responsiveness to interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Hung, W C; Chuang, L Y

    1999-05-01

    Although interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has shown great promise in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, the anti-tumour effect of this agent in the therapy of liver cancer is unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that differentiation-inducing agents could modulate the responsiveness of cancer cells to IFN-alpha by regulating the expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, a group of transcription factors which play important roles in the IFN signalling pathway. We have reported that sodium butyrate is a potent differentiation inducer for human hepatoma cells. In this study, we investigated whether this drug could regulate the expression of STAT proteins and enhance the anti-tumour effect of IFN-alpha in hepatoma cells. We found that sodium butyrate specifically activated STAT1 gene expression and enhanced IFN-alpha-induced phosphorylation and activation of STAT1 proteins. Co-treatment with these two drugs led to G1 growth arrest, accompanied by down-regulation of cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p21WAF-1, and accumulation of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein in hepatoma cells. Additionally, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, a biological hallmark of apoptosis, was detected in hepatoma cells after continuous incubation with a combination of these two drugs for 72 h. Our results show that sodium butyrate potently enhances the anti-tumour effect of IFN-alpha in vitro and suggest that a rational combination of these two drugs may be useful for the treatment of liver cancer.

  8. The Limonoids TS3 and Rubescin E Induce Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma Cell Lines and Interfere with NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicole; Tontsa, Armelle Tsamo; Wegscheid, Claudia; Mkounga, Pierre; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem; Sass, Gabriele; Tiegs, Gisa

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely resistant towards pharmacological therapy. To date, the multi-kinase inhibitor Sorafenib is the only available therapeutic agent with the potential to prolong patient survival. Using the human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Huh7, we analyzed anti-cancer activities of 6 purified havanensin type limonoids isolated from the traditional African medicinal plant Trichilia rubescens Oliv. Our results show that two of the compounds, TR4 (TS3) and TR9 (Rubescin E) reduced hepatoma cell viability, but not primary hepatocyte viability, at TC50s of 5 to 10 μM. These were significantly lower than the TC50s for Sorafenib, the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA or 5-Fluoruracil. In comparison, TR3 (Rubescin D), a limonoid isolated in parallel and structurally highly similar to TR4 and TR9, did not interfere with hepatoma cell viability. Both, TR4 and TR9, but not TR3, induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells and interfered with NF-κB activation. TR4 as well as TR9 significantly supported anti-cancer activities of Sorafenib. In summary, the limonoids TR4 and TR9 exhibit anti-cancer activities and support Sorafenib effects in vitro, having the potential to support future HCC therapy. PMID:27518192

  9. Co-culture of hepatoma cells with hepatocytic precursor (stem-like) cells inhibits tumor cell growth and invasion by downregulating Akt/NF-κB expression

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Cheng-Jun; Xu, Miao; Li, Wei-Qing; Yang, Jia-Mei; Yan, Hong-Zhu; Liu, Hui-Min; Xia, Chun-Yan; Yu, Hong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytic stem cells (HSCs) have inhibitory effects on hepatocarcinoma cells. The present study investigated the effects of HSC activity in hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro. A Transwell co-culture system of hepatocytic precursor (stem-like) WB-F344 cells and hepatoma CBRH-7919 cells was used to assess HSC activity in metastasized hepatoma cells in vitro. Nude mouse xenografts were used to assess HSC activity in vivo. Co-culture of hepatoma CBRH-7919 cells with WB-F344 cells suppressed the growth and colony formation, tumor cell migration and invasion capacity of CBRH-7919 cells. The nude mouse xenograft assay demonstrated that the xenograft size of CBRH-7919 cells following co-culture with WB-F344 cells was significantly smaller compared with that of control cells. Furthermore, the expression levels of the epithelial markers E-cadherin and β-catenin were downregulated, while the mesenchymal markers α-SMA and vimentin were upregulated. Co-culture of CBRH-7919 cells with WB-F344 cells downregulated NF-κB and phospho-Akt expression. In conclusion, hepatocytic precursor (stem-like) WB-F344 cells inhibited the growth, colony formation and invasion capacity of metastasized hepatoma CBRH-7919 cells in vitro and in vivo by downregulating Akt/NF-κB signaling. PMID:27895771

  10. Exo70 is transcriptionally up-regulated by hepatic nuclear factor 4α and contributes to cell cycle control in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yujie; Hou, Jihuan; Mi, Panying; Mao, Liyuan; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Youyu; Xiao, Li; Cao, Hanwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Hu, Tianhui; Zhan, Yan-yan

    2016-01-01

    Exo70, a member of the exocyst complex, is involved in cell exocytosis, migration, invasion and autophagy. However, the expression regulation and function of Exo70 in hepatocellular carcinoma are still poorly understood. In this study, we found Exo70 expression in human hepatoma cells was greatly reduced after knocking down hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), the most important and abundant transcription factor in liver. This regulation occurred at the transcriptional level but not post-translational level. HNF4α transactivated Exo70 promoter through directly binding to the HNF4α-response element in this promoter. Cell cycle analysis further revealed that down-regulation of HNF4α and Exo70 was essential to berberine-stimulated G2/M cell cycle arrest in hepatoma cells. Moreover, knocking down either Exo70 or HNF4α induced G2/M phase arrest of hepatoma cells. Exo70 acted downstream of HNF4α to stimulate G2/M transition via increasing Cdc2 expression. Together, our results identify Exo70 as a novel transcriptional target of HNF4α to promote cell cycle progression in hepatoma, thus provide a basis for the development of therapeutic strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26848864

  11. Effect of mitomycin C on the activation of adenylate cyclase in rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Matsunaga, T; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R

    1986-09-01

    Isoproterenol (IPN)-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by exposure of AH130 cells to mitomycin C (MMC). The enhancement was also observed in prostaglandin E1-, guanine nucleotide analog-, NaF-, cholera toxin- and forskolin-stimulated activities of the enzyme but not in manganese-stimulated activity. In addition, even when the cells pretreated with islet-activating protein were exposed to MMC, IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase was enhanced. Anaerobic exposure of AH130 cells to MMC somewhat inhibited IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase in contrast with aerobic exposure. Exposure of cells to adriamycin also caused enhancement of IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase but exposure to nitrogen mustard inhibited the enzyme stimulation by IPN. The enhancing effect of MMC was lost by the combined treatment with alpha-tocopherol. From these results, it was shown that MMC modulated the activity of adenylate cyclase, probably through alterations in membrane structure.

  12. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant HBxΔ127 promotes proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fabao; You, Xiaona; Chi, Xiumei; Wang, Tao; Ye, Lihong; Niu, Junqi; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Relative to wild type HBx, HBX mutant HBxΔ127 strongly enhances cell proliferation. • Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 remarkably up-regulates miR-215 in hepatoma cells. • HBxΔ127-elevated miR-215 promotes cell proliferation via targeting PTPRT mRNA. - Abstract: The mutant of virus is a frequent event. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a vital role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the identification of potent mutant of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is significant. Previously, we identified a natural mutant of the HBx gene (termed HBxΔ127). Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhanced cell proliferation and migration in HCC. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism of HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells. Our data showed that both wild type HBx and HBxΔ127 could increase the expression of miR-215 in hepatoma HepG2 and H7402 cells. However, HBxΔ127 was able to significantly increase miR-215 expression relative to wild type HBx in the cells. We identified that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type T (PTPRT) was one of the target genes of miR-215 through targeting 3′UTR of PTPRT mRNA. In function, miR-215 was able to promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Meanwhile anti-miR-215 could partially abolish the enhancement of cell proliferation mediated by HBxΔ127 in vitro. Knockdown of PTPRT by siRNA could distinctly suppress the decrease of cell proliferation mediated by anti-miR-215 in HepG2-XΔ127/H7402-XΔ127 cells. Moreover, we found that anti-miR-215 remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Collectively, relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhances proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of HBx mutant HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  13. PPAR{alpha} agonists up-regulate organic cation transporters in rat liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luci, Sebastian; Geissler, Stefanie; Koenig, Bettina; Koch, Alexander; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Hirche, Frank; Eder, Klaus . E-mail: klaus.eder@landw.uni-halle.de

    2006-11-24

    It has been shown that clofibrate treatment increases the carnitine concentration in the liver of rats. However, the molecular mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we observed for the first time that treatment of rats with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} agonist clofibrate increases hepatic mRNA concentrations of organic cation transporters (OCTNs)-1 and -2 which act as transporters of carnitine into the cell. In rat hepatoma (Fao) cells, treatment with WY-14,643 also increased the mRNA concentration of OCTN-2. mRNA concentrations of enzymes involved in carnitine biosynthesis were not altered by treatment with the PPAR{alpha} agonists in livers of rats and in Fao cells. We conclude that PPAR{alpha} agonists increase carnitine concentrations in livers of rats and cells by an increased uptake of carnitine into the cell but not by an increased carnitine biosynthesis.

  14. Arecoline induces HA22T/VGH hepatoma cells to undergo anoikis - involvement of STAT3 and RhoA activation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our previous study showed that, in basal cell carcinoma cells, arecoline reduces levels of the tumor cell survival factor interleukin-6 (IL-6), increases levels of tumor suppressor factor p53, and elicits cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis. In preliminarily studies, we observed that arecoline induces detachment of the human-derived hepatoma cell line HA22T/VGH from the extracellular matrix. In the present study, we explored the fate of the detached HA22T/VGH cells and investigated the underlying mechanism. Methods HA22T/VGH cells or primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with arecoline, then changes in morphology, viability, apoptosis, and the expression of surface β1-integrin, apoptosis-related proteins, and IL-6 were examined. Furthermore, activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and the RhoA/Rock signaling pathway, including p190RhoGAP and Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase SHP2, was examined. Results A low concentration of arecoline (≤ 100 μg/ml) caused cytoskeletal changes in HA22T/VGH cells, but not hepatocytes, and this was accompanied by decreased β1-integrin expression and followed by apoptosis, indicating that HA22T/VGH cells undergo anoikis after arecoline treatment. IL-6 expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, which provides protection against anoikis, were inhibited and levels of downstream signaling proteins, including Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, were decreased, while Bax expression, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activity were increased. In addition, phosphorylation/activation of p190RhoGAP, a RhoA inhibitor, and of its upstream regulator, SHP2, was inhibited by arecoline treatment, while Rho/Rock activation was increased. Addition of the RhoA inhibitor attenuated the effects of arecoline. Conclusions This study demonstrated that arecoline induces anoikis of HA22T/VGH cells involving inhibition of STAT3 and increased RhoA/Rock activation and that the STAT3

  15. Arecoline induces HA22T/VGH hepatoma cells to undergo anoikis - involvement of STAT3 and RhoA activation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiao-Ling; Su, Shu-Jem; Huang, Li-Wen; Hsieh, Bau-Shan; Hu, Yu-Chen; Hung, Thu-Ching; Chang, Kee-Lung

    2010-05-28

    Our previous study showed that, in basal cell carcinoma cells, arecoline reduces levels of the tumor cell survival factor interleukin-6 (IL-6), increases levels of tumor suppressor factor p53, and elicits cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis. In preliminarily studies, we observed that arecoline induces detachment of the human-derived hepatoma cell line HA22T/VGH from the extracellular matrix. In the present study, we explored the fate of the detached HA22T/VGH cells and investigated the underlying mechanism. HA22T/VGH cells or primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with arecoline, then changes in morphology, viability, apoptosis, and the expression of surface beta1-integrin, apoptosis-related proteins, and IL-6 were examined. Furthermore, activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and the RhoA/Rock signaling pathway, including p190RhoGAP and Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase SHP2, was examined. A low concentration of arecoline (

  16. Role of CCK-A receptor in the regulation of pancreatic bicarbonate secretion in conscious rats: a study in naturally occurring CCK-A receptor gene knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, K; Suzuki, S; Kanai, S; Masuda, M; Funakoshi, A

    1999-10-01

    Whether cholecystokinin (CCK) has a direct action on duct cells and the role of CCK-A receptor in bicarbonate secretion were examined by comparing the results obtained from OLETF (CCK-A receptor-deficient rats) and control (LETO) rats. Rats were prepared with cannulae for draining bile and pancreatic juice separately, with two duodenal cannulae and an external jugular vein cannula. The experiments were conducted without anesthesia. The responses of bicarbonate secretion to intravenous infusion of CCK, acetyl-beta-methylcholine (Ach), and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), and to intraduodenal infusion of HCl and a liquid meal were examined. To examine the synergistic effect between CCK and secretin, the effect of CCK during a background secretin infusion was examined in LETO rats. CCK did not stimulate bicarbonate secretion in either strain, nor in LETO rats with secretin infusion. When gastric acid secretion was prevented by administration of omeprazole, Ach did not increase bicarbonate secretion, but 2DG did in both strains. Intraduodenal infusion of HCI and a liquid meal significantly increased bicarbonate secretion in both strains; however, the responses were much less in OLETF than LETO rats. In conclusion, intravenous injection of CCK did not stimulate bicarbonate secretion, and the lack of CCK-A receptor decreased bicarbonate secretion in response to luminal stimulants.

  17. Aneuploid nuclear DNA content in some enzyme-altered rat liver foci during tumor promotion

    SciTech Connect

    Sudilovsky, O.; Hei, T.K.

    1985-01-01

    Most rat hepatomas are aneuploid. To determine if ploidy changes can be detected also during hepatocarcinogenesis, male F344 rats were partially hepatectomized; 18 hrs later they were given 50 mg/kg weight diethylnitrosamine i.p. and fed a promoting choline-deficient diet containing 0.05% phenobarbital. Controls received partial hepatectomy, i.p. saline, and choline-supplemented diet. Rats were sacrificed at various times and liver sections were stained with a combined Feulgen-..gamma..-glutamyl transferase stain. DNA content of hepatocytes in enzyme-altered foci (EAF) thus identified was measured by microspectrophotometry. No EAF were found in control animals. Nuclear DNA values of control hepatocytes had a trimodal distribution, with peaks corresponding to 2N, 4N, and 8N ploidy. A similar pattern was seen in most EAF from treated rats. However, at each treatment time a minority of EAF (23, 14, and 36% at 10, 16 and 29 wks, respectively) evinced an aneuploid pattern. Out of a total of 59 EAF counted in 10 rats, 15 were aneuploid. Although aneuploidy is essential in the progression stage of cancer, this finding indicates it is already present during promotion, long before hepatomas can be diagnosed. More important, it demonstrates that EAF heterogeneity is not only phenotypic but also genomic. Aneuploid DNA content in some EAF may be a marker for abnormal cell populations from which carcinomas are most likely to arise.

  18. Glucose metabolism by adult hepatocytes in primary culture and by cell lines from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Bissell, D M; Levine, G A; Bissell, M J

    1978-03-01

    The metabolic fate of [U-14C]glucose has been examined in detail in adult rat hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture, as well as in two permanent cell lines--Buffalo rat liver (BRL) and transplantable rat hepatoma (HTC) cells-derived from normal rat liver and from rat hepatoma, respectively. Under defined conditions of incubation, at a glucose concentration of 5.5 mM, the three types of cultured liver cells exhibited pronounced differences in glucose metabolism. Primary cultures, like the intact liver, differed from the cell lines in consuming relatively small amounts of glucose and converting approximately 50% of the total metabolized glucose to lactate. By contrast, the permantent cell lines consumed glucose at a 40-fold greater rate than did primary cultures, converting 80--90% of the carbohydrate to lactate. Oxidative metabolism of glucose carbon also differed among the three types of liver culture. Of the total [U-14C]glucose consumed, primary cultures converted approximately 30% to labeled CO2 per hour, whereas the liver cell lines converted 5--10%. Finally, glucose metabolism in primary culture exhibited adaptation as hepatocytes aged in culture, shifting progressively toward the pattern exhibited by the permanent cell lines. This change occurred over a time course similar to that for other kinds of functional change in hepatocytes in primary culture and thus may be relevant to the general problem of phenotypic alteration in liver cell culture.

  19. Lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Wenhui; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX is able to upregulate expression of NF-{kappa}B p65. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX enhances nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 via increasing p-I{kappa}B-{alpha} level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX stimulates transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LTB4 activates transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. -- Abstract: The issue that lipid metabolism enzyme and its metabolites regulate transcription factors in cancer cell is not fully understood. In this study, we first report that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and its metabolite leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are capable of activating nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) in hepatoma cells. We found that the treatment of MK886 (an inhibitor of 5-LOX) or knockdown of 5-LOX was able to downregulate the expression of NF-{kappa}B p65 at the mRNA level and decreased the phosphorylation level of inhibitor {kappa}B{alpha} (I{kappa}B{alpha}) in the cytoplasm of hepatoma HepG2 or H7402 cells, which resulted in the decrease of the level of nuclear NF-{kappa}B p65. These were confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in HepG2 cell. Moreover, the above treatments were able to decrease the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in the cells. The LTB4, one of metabolites of 5-LOX, is responsible for 5-LOX-activated NF-{kappa}B in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. Our finding provides new insight into the significance of lipid metabolism in activation of transcription factors in cancer.

  20. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S. Kachura, J.R.; Gallinger, S.; Grant, D.; Greig, P.; McGilvray, I.; Knox, J.; Sherman, M.; Wong, F.; Wong, D.

    2007-04-15

    Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious

  1. [Intervention of glypican-3 genetic transcription on anti-proliferative effect of hepatoma cells with high metastatic potentiality].

    PubMed

    Yao, Min; Wang, Li; Shi, Yun; Qian, Qi; Yu, Dandan; Shi, Yang; Lu, Shaolin; Yao, Dengfu

    2014-08-26

    To explore the silencing glypican-3 (GPC-3) gene transcription by specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA) on the inhibition of hepatoma cells with high metastatic potentiality and hepatoma growth. After MHCC-97H cells were transfected with higher effective GPC-3-shRNA, GPC-3 mRNA was analyzed by multiple FG-RT-PCR or protein by Western blot. Cell proliferation was detected by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine and sulforhodamine B assay, its migratory metastasis and invasiveness by wound healing or transwell chamber system and cell apoptosis was detected by Caspase-Glo(®) 3/7 Luminescence assay. Nude mice were subcutaneously injected with stable MHCC-97H cells for observing the forming time or volume of xenograft tumors. And the expressions of GPC-3, β-catenin, p-GSK3β and CyclinD1 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. After shRNA1 transfection with high efficiency (>80%), the expression of GPC-3 was down-regulated to 75.6% (t = 15.473, P < 0.001) at mRNA level in accordance with its protein, inhibiting cell proliferation (71.1%, t = 10.468, P < 0.001) notably, decreasing its migration (80.1%, t = 32.697, P < 0.001) and invasiveness (69.1%, t = 39.647, P < 0.001). β-catenin was down-regulated (67.7%, t = 18.4, P < 0.001) and Gli1 increased (53.5%, t = -4.824, P = 0.008) with its protein. The average forming time of subcutaneous tumors was 11.2 days (d) in the shRNA group and it was significantly longer (P < 0.01) than that in the control (5.3 d) or shRNA-neg (5.5 d) group. And the average volume (65.5 mm(3)) of tumors with decreased GPC-3, β-catenin, p-GSK3β, and cyclinD1 expressions in the shRNA group was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than that in the shRNA-neg (365.7 mm(3)) or control (404.8 mm(3)) group, respectively. Specific shRNA might intervene effectively the GPC-3 gene transcription and inhibit invasion and tumor growth. Thus GPC-3 may become a potential molecular target for hepatoma gene therapy.

  2. Prolonged perturbation of the oscillations of hepatoma Fao cell proliferation by a single small dose of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Guerroui, S; Deschatrette, J; Wolfrom, C

    2005-06-01

    The proliferation rate of various cell types in vitro, including hepatoma Fao cells, displays aperiodic oscillations. The frequency of these oscillations is about one every 3-5 weeks, and there are variations in cell functions and polarity. Topological analysis has showed that these oscillations in growth rate are determined, and presumably chaotic. One characteristic of complex chaotic systems is that their dynamics can be persistently modified by a small external perturbation. We show that treatment with a single small dose of the anticancer drug methotrexate causes long-term stable alteration of the oscillatory dynamics of Fao cell proliferation. The oscillations of growth rate are shifted, and their mean level decreased according to a fractal pattern.

  3. Butein induces G(2)/M phase arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma cancer cells through ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong-Oh; Kim, Mun-Ock; Choi, Yung Hyun; Hyun, Jin Won; Chang, Weon Young; Kim, Gi-Young

    2010-02-28

    We investigated the molecular effects of 3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (butein) treatment in two human hepatoma cancer cell lines-HepG2 and Hep3B. Butein treatment inhibited cancer cell growth by inducing G(2)/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Butein-induced G(2)/M phase arrest was associated with increased ATM, Chk1, and Chk2 phosphorylations and reduced cdc25C levels. Additionally, butein treatment enhanced inactivated phospho-Cdc2 levels, reduced Cdc2 kinase activity, and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was accompanied by JNK activation. The extent of butein-induced G(2)/M phase arrest significantly decreased following pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine or glutathione and following JNK phosphorylation reduction by SP600125. Both N-acetyl-l-cysteine and glutathione also decreased butein-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results imply a critical role of ROS and JNK in the anticancer effects of butein.

  4. The X protein of hepatitis B virus activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing melanoma inhibitory activity 2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yilin; Yang, Yang; Cai, Yanyan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yingle; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Jianguo

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that HBV represses MIA2 gene expression both invitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The X protein of HBV plays a major role in such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activates cell growth and proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates cell proliferation, over-expression of MIA2 impaired such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing MIA2 expression. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths globally. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for over 75% of all HCC cases; however, the molecular pathogenesis of HCC is not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of the newly identified gene melanoma inhibitory activity 2 (MIA2) was reduced by HBV infection invitro and invivo, and that HBV X protein (HBx) plays a major role in this regulation. Recent studies have revealed that MIA2 is a potential tumor suppressor, and that, in most HCCs, MIA2 expression is down-regulated or lost. We found that the knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activated cell growth and proliferation, suggesting that MIA2 inhibits HCC cell growth and proliferation. In addition, the over-expression of HBx alone induced cell proliferation, whereas MIA2 over-expression impaired the HBx-mediated induction of proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that HBx activates hepatoma cell growth and proliferation through repression of the potential tumor suppressor MIA2.

  5. Inhibitory and immunological effects induced by the combination of photodynamic therapy and dendritic cells on mouse transplanted hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan-zheng; Bai, Shuang; Cai, Xiao-jun; Li, Li-bo

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the anti-tumor and immune efficacy of photodynamic immune-therapy (PIT), the combination of photodynamic therapy and dendritic cells (DC), on murine Heps hepatoma. DCs were derived from syngeneic mouse bone marrow and then labeled with DAPI in vitro. The hepatoma model was established by subcutaneous inoculation with Heps cells in one hundred and twenty-eight mice. They were then divided into four groups at random: control group, PDT group, DC group and PIT group. Tumors in the control group were injected with normal saline. Mice in the PDT group were injected with the photosensitizer Deuteporfin 24 h before irradiation. Mice in the DC group were injected with DAPI labeled dendritic cells intratumorally. Mice in the PIT group were further given an injection of DCs after photoirradiation. Tumor growth and survival time were recorded after treatment. Fluorescence of tumor draining lymph nodes was evaluated under fluorescence microscope. Cytotoxic activity of splenocytes was tested by standard lactate dehydrogenase (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) release assay. (1) Tumor growth was significantly slowed down in the PDT and PIT group compared to the control group (P<0.01). (2) The mean survival time was significantly prolonged in the PDT and PIT group. (3) The number of fluorescent cells in the draining lymph nodes from DC group was higher than that of the PIT group. (4) The anti-tumor activity of splenocytes in the PDT and PIT group was significantly higher than that of the DC and control groups (P<0.01, P<0.01). The present study suggests that PDT can inhibit tumor growth and induce anti-tumour immune response. The combination of PDT induced by Deuteporfiin and dendritic cell is capable of amplifying the antitumor immune response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacological evaluation of several major ingredients of Chinese herbal medicines in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, C C; Pan, S L; Teng, C M; Guh, J H

    2003-08-01

    Long-dan-tan (Chinese name) is one of the most common herbal medicines used by Chinese people with chronic liver disease. Accumulated anecdotal evidence suggests that Long-dan-tan may show a beneficial effect in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Long-dan-tan is made from five plants: Gentiana root, Scutellaria root, Gardenia fruit, Alisma rhizome, and Bupleurum root. In this study, we have examined the cytotoxic effects of the five major ingredients isolated from the above plants, i.e. gentiopicroside, baicalein, geniposide, alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d, respectively, on human hepatoma Hep3B cells. Annexin V immunofluorescence detection, DNA fragmentation assays and FACScan analysis of propidium iodide-staining cells showed that gentiopicroside, baicalein, and geniposide had little effect, whereas alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d profoundly induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells. Alisol B acetate, but not saikosaponin-d, induced G2/M arrest of the cell cycle as well as a significant increase in caspase-3 activity. Interestingly, baicalein by itself induced an increase in H(2)O(2) generation and the subsequent NF-kappaB activation; furthermore, it effectively inhibited the transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1))-induced caspase-3 activation and cell apoptosis. We suggest that alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d induced cell apoptosis through the caspase-3-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively. Instead of inducing apoptosis, baicalein inhibits TGF-beta(1)-induced apoptosis via increase in cellular H(2)O(2) formation and NF-kappaB activation in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

  7. Interaction of Na+ and K+ transport with aerobic energy metabolism in slices of Morris hepatoma 3924A.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, T; van Rossum, G D; Russo, M A; Palombini, G

    1976-11-01

    Addition of increasing concentrations of glucose to slices of Morris hepatoma 3924A greatly stimulated aerobic lactate production and reduced respiration by 20%. Neither the adenine nucleotide content of the slices nor the calculated rate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate synthesis was altered. Ouabain reduced the rate of O2 uptake (by 20 to 25%) and of aerobic lactate production (by 25 to 50%) without affecting adenine nucleotide contents. The reduction by ouabain of the calculated rate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate synthesis was similar whether the slices were utilizing only endogenous substrate or exogenous glucose also. Raising the medium K+ concentration (and correspondingly reducing Na+) partially overcame the inhibition of ion transport by ouabain and partially restored the rates of respiration and aerobic lactate production toward control levels. Electron microscopic observations of mitochondria within the slices incubated under different conditions showed variations in configuration between "orthodox," "condensed" and degenerating forms. Slices preincubated at 1 degrees showed mitochondria in the condensed form: they were restored to the orthodox configuration during incubation at 38 degrees in oxygenated medium. Oligomycin and glucose enhanced the transition, but ouabain reduced the number of mitochondria undergoing the change. The results suggest that in hepatoma 3924A utilization of adenosine 5'-triphosphate by ion transport exerts a simultaneous control of both respiration and aerobic glycolysis, which is presumably mediated by alterations in the availability of adenosine 5-diphosphate. The mitochondria undergo conformational transitions under conditions likely to affect local availability of adenosine 5'-diphosphate within cell compartments, but the transitions are not all externally added adenosine diphosphate on isolated mitochondria.

  8. The effect of interferon-{alpha} on the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 in human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flaman, Anathea S.; Gravel, Caroline; Hashem, Anwar M.; Tocchi, Monika; Li Xuguang

    2011-06-01

    Interferon {alpha} (IFN{alpha}) is used to treat malignancies and chronic viral infections. It has been found to decrease the rate of drug metabolism by acting on cytochrome P450 enzymes, but no studies have investigated the consequences of IFN{alpha} treatment on the CYP3A4 isoform, responsible for the metabolism of a majority of drugs. In this study, we have examined the effect of IFN{alpha} on CYP3A4 catalytic activity and expression in human hepatoma cells. We found that IFN{alpha} inhibits CYP3A4 activity and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP3A4, independent of de novo protein synthesis. Pharmacologic inhibitors and a dominant-negative mutant expression plasmid were used to dissect the molecular pathway required for CYP3A4 suppression, revealing roles for Jak1 and Stat1 and eliminating the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated and extracellular regulated kinases. Treatment of hepatoma cells with IFN{alpha} did not affect the nuclear localization or relative abundance of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, suggesting that the suppression of CYP3A4 by IFN{alpha} does not result from inhibitory Sp3 out-competing Sp1. To our knowledge, this is the first report that IFN{alpha} down-regulates CYP3A4 expression largely through the JAK-STAT pathway. Since IFN{alpha} suppresses CYP3A4 expression, caution is warranted when IFN{alpha} is administered in combination with CYP3A4 substrates to avoid the occurrence of adverse drug interactions.

  9. Antimutagenicity of supercritical CO2 extracts of Terminalia catappa leaves and cytotoxicity of the extracts to human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ting-Fu; Weng, Yih-Ming; Lin, Shwu-Bin; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2003-06-04

    Natural antimutagens may prevent cancer and are therefore of great interest to oncologists and the public at large. Phytochemicals are potent antimutagen candidates. When the Ames test was applied to examine the antimutagenic potency of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extracts of Terminalia catappa leaves at a dose of 0.5 mg/plate, toxicity and mutagenicity were not detected. The antimutagenic activity of SC-CO(2) extracts increased with decreases of temperature (60, 50, and 40 degrees C) and pressure (4000, 3000, and 2000 psi) used for extraction. The most potent antimutagenicity was observed in extracts obtained at 40 degrees C and 2000 psi. At a dose of 0.5 mg of extract/plate, approximately 80% of the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, with S-9) and 46% of the mutagenicity of N-methyl-N '-nitroguanidine (MNNG, without S-9) were inhibited. Media supplemented with SC-CO(2) extracts at a range of 0-500 microg/mL were used to cultivate human hepatoma (Huh 7) and normal liver (Chang liver) cells. The viability of the cells was assayed by measuring cellular acid phosphatase activity. A dose-dependent growth inhibition of both types of cells was observed. The SC-CO(2) extracts were more cytotoxic to Huh 7 cells than to Chang liver cells. The observation that SC-CO(2) extracts of T. catappa leaves did not induce mutagenicity at the doses tested while exhibiting potent antimutagenicity and were more cytotoxic to human hepatoma cells than to normal liver cells is of merit and warrants further investigation.

  10. Critical role of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activation in troglitazone-induced apoptosis of human HepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bae, Myung-Ae; Song, Byoung J

    2003-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist troglitazone (TRO) was used for treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes until its removal from the market because of its severe hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanism for its hepatotoxicity is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether TRO caused cell death by altering signaling pathways associated with cell damage and survival in human hepatoma cells. Our data reveal that TRO caused time- and concentration-dependent apoptosis of HepG2 and Chang liver human hepatoma cells, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and staining with Hoechst 33342. In contrast, 50 or 100 microM rosiglitazone, a structural analog of TRO, did not cause apoptosis in these hepatoma cells. TRO activated both c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase about 5-fold between 0.5 and 8 h before they returned to control levels at 16 h in HepG2 cells. In contrast, TRO failed to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Furthermore, TRO increased the levels of proapoptotic proteins, Bad, Bax, release of cytochrome c, and cleavage of Bid in a time-dependent manner. The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein level decreased in hepatoma cells treated with TRO. Pretreatment of hepatoma cells with a selective JNK inhibitor, anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one (SP600125), significantly reduced the rate of TRO-induced cell death, whereas 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole (SB203580), an inhibitor of p38 kinase, had little effect on apoptosis. Pretreatment with SP600125 also prevented JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation. In addition, rosiglitazone, which is not as toxic to hepatoma cells as TRO, did not stimulate JNK activity. Transfection of cDNA for the dominant-negative mutant JNK-KR (Lys-->Arg) or SEK1-KR (Lys-->Arg), an immediate upstream kinase of JNK, significantly reduced TRO-induced JNK activation and cell death rate. Furthermore, SP600125 pretreatment effectively prevented the

  11. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide exerts proliferation/anti-apoptosis/angiogenesis/migration effects via amplifying the activation of NF-κB pathway in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yulan; Pan, Wanying; Hu, Fen; Wu, Hongfu; Feng, Jianqiang; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jingfu

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) takes part in a diverse range of intracellular pathways and hss physical and pathological properties in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of H2S on cancer are controversial and remain unclear. The present study investigates the effects of H2S on liver cancer progression via activating NF-κB pathway in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells. PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells were pretreated with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h. The expression levels of CSE, CBS, phosphosphorylate (p)-NF-κB p65, caspase-3, COX-2, p-IκB and MMP-2 were measured by western blot assay. Cell viability was detected by cell counter kit 8 (CCK-8). Apoptotic cells were observed by Hoechst 33258 staining assay. The production level of H2S in cell culture medium was measured by using the sulfur-sensitive electrode method. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the production of H2S was dramatically increased in the PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells, compared with human LO2 hepatocyte cells group, along with the overexpression levels of CSE and CBS. Treatment of PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h markedly increased the expression levels of CSE, CBS, p-IκB and NF-κB activation, leading to COX-2 and MMP-2 overexpression, and decreased caspase-3 production, as well as increased cell viability and decreased number of apoptotic cells. Otherwise, the production level of H2S and VEGF were also significantly increased. Furthermore, co-treatment of PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS and 200 µmol/l PDTC for 24 h significantly overturned these indexes. The findings of the present study provide evidence that the NF-κB is involved in the NaHS-induced cell proliferation, anti-apoptisis, angiogenesis, and migration in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells, and that the PDTC against the NaHS-induced effects were by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.

  12. Changes in polyamine levels and protein synthesis rate during rat liver carcinogenesis induced by 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene.

    PubMed

    Perin, A; Sessa, A

    1978-01-01

    The concentrations of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in liver of rats fed on 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and in the resultant hepatomas were found to be significantly higher than were those observed in normal liver from rats of the same strain, sex, and age. These modifications were due to the carcinogen and not to the special low-riboflavin diet used to obtain the carcinogenic effect of 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene. The first change observed during liver carcinogenesis was the early increase in the putrescine level, followed by an increase of spermidine and spermine, which reached maximum levels in growing hepatomas. A significant increase of urinary polyamines was also observed in tumor-bearing rats. Experiments on leucine incorporation into proteins of tissue slices, which were obtained from the same tissues on which polyamine determinations were carried out, showed that in rat liver carcinogenesis the rate of protein synthesis was well correlated with the polyamine levels. These results suggest that polyamines may play a role in the process of carcinogenesis and in tumor protein synthesis in vivo.

  13. Chemotherapy by intravenous administration of conjugates of daunomycin with monoclonal and conventional anti-rat alpha-fetoprotein antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukada, Y; Hurwitz, E; Kashi, R; Sela, M; Hibi, N; Hara, A; Hirai, H

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to rat alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were produced by hybridization of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice immunized with rat AFP. The monoclonal antibodies as well as horse anti-rat AFP were coupled via a dextran bridge to daunomycin. Both types of conjugates were tested in vitro and in vivo for their anti-tumor activity. They were equally cytotoxic to rat AH66 hepatoma cell line in culture. Rats challenged with hepatoma cells were treated with the conjugates either by intraperitoneal or intravenous injections. Daunomycin conjugates with horse anti-AFP and monoclonal mouse anti-AFP were capable of delaying the tumor development more efficiently than the controls of antibodies or free drug, mixtures of drug with antibodies, and a conjugate of drug and normal immunoglobulin. The specific conjugates were considerably more effective when the treatments were given intravenously. The specific conjugates produced 60% long-term survival, whereas the controls delayed only slightly tumor development. PMID:6185954

  14. [Analysis on anti-hepatoma effect of medicine invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis based on warm-pungent-liver efficiency network].

    PubMed

    Gu, Hao; Ma, Li; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    The efficiency network is a complicated network for revealing the efficient mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and relations among efficiencies. The efficiency-property relations were used to establish a warm-pungent-liver efficiency network to explain the principle of treating hepatoma with medicines invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis. Safflower, a warm-pungent medicine distributing along the live meridian, was taken for example to discuss the efficiency network' s application in the identification of active ingredients of TCMs and the combination. In the early stage of this study, combined warm-pungent-liver medicines distributed along the liver meridian and invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis were taken as the study objects to collect the pharmacological effect data of warm-pungent-liver medicines and obtain the pharmacological effect combinations with the highest blood circulation-invigorating association by the association rules and the chi-square test. The pharmacological target data recorded in the DrugBank database is used to establish the warm-pungent-liver efficiency network according to the principle line of "efficiency-property-pharmacology-target-protein interaction" under the background of the protein interaction network. The blood circulation-invigorating medicines could directly treat hepatoma by impacting protooncogene, cancer suppressor gene, cell apoptosis and anti-inflammation, and indirectly treat hepatoma by resisting coagulation and adhesion, regulating local blood circulation, preventing cancer cell metastasis and enhancing the tissues' sensitivity to the anticancer drugs. Among the active ingredients of safflower screened based on the blood circulation-invigorating network targets, carthamin yellow, quercetin and luteolin have been proved to have the anti-hepatoma effect in literatures, which indicated the reliability of this study's results and the purpose of the efficiency

  15. Emodin inhibits the growth of hepatoma cells: finding the common anti-cancer pathway using Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Mu; Hsu, Yu-An; Tsai, Yuhsin; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Huang, Su-Hua; Wan, Lei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2010-02-19

    Emodin--a major component of Rheum palmatum L.-exerts antiproliferative effects in cancer cells that are regulated by different signaling pathways. Hepatocellular carcinoma has high-incidence rates and is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of emodin on human hepatocarcinoma cell viability and investigate its mechanisms of action in Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells. To define the molecular changes associated with this process, expression profiles were compared in emodin-treated hepatoma cells by cDNA microarray hybridization, quantitative RT-PCRs, and Western blot analysis. G2/M phase arrest was observed in all 3 cell lines. Cell cycle regulatory gene analysis showed increased protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, Chk2, Cdk2, and P27 in hepatoma cells after time courses of emodin treatment, and Western blot analysis showed decreased protein levels of Cdc25c and P21. Microarray expression profile data and quantitative PCR revealed that 15 representative genes were associated with emodin treatment response in hepatoma cell lines. The RNA expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GDF15, SERPINE1, SOS1, RASD1, and MRAS were upregulated and those of NR1H4, PALMD, and TXNIP were downregulated in all three hepatoma cells. Moreover, at 6h after emodin treatment, the levels of GDF15, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYR61 were upregulated. Here, we show that emodin treatment caused G2/M arrest in liver cancer cells and increased the expression levels of various genes both in mRNA and protein level. It is likely that these genes act as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  16. A study on the thermochemotherapy effect of nanosized As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes on experimental hepatoma in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Jia; An, Yanli; Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Jing; Li, Yutao; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanosized, thermosensitive magnetoliposome encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (MZFs) and antitumor drugs (As2O3). The nanoliposomes were spherical and mostly single volume, with an average diameter of 128.2 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed a liposome phase transition temperature of 42.71 °C. After that, we studied the liposomes' anti-hepatoma effect in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of the nanoliposomes on human hepatoma cells, SMMC-7721, and changes in expression of apoptosis-related proteins were examined in vitro. The results show that As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes combined with hyperthermia had a great impact on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which increased to 1.914 and exhibited a rapid response to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. An in situ rabbit liver tumor model was established and used to evaluate the antitumor effect of combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy following transcatheter arterial embolization with As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes. The results demonstrated a strong anti-hepatoma effect, with a tumor volume inhibition rate of up to 85.22%. Thus, As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes may play a great role in the treatment of hepatocarcinoma.

  17. Orphan receptor TR3 enhances p53 transactivation and represses DNA double-strand break repair in hepatoma cells under ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bi-xing; Chen, Hang-zi; Du, Xiao-dan; Luo, Jie; He, Jian-ping; Wang, Rong-hao; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Rong; Hou, Ru-rong; Hong, Ming; Wu, Qiao

    2011-08-01

    In response to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), cells elicit an evolutionarily conserved checkpoint response that induces cell cycle arrest and either DNA repair or apoptosis, thereby maintaining genomic stability. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a central enzyme involved in DSB repair for mammalian cells that comprises a DNA-PK catalytic subunit and the Ku protein, which act as regulatory elements. DNA-PK also functions as a signaling molecule to selectively regulate p53-dependent apoptosis in response to IR. Herein, we demonstrate that the orphan nuclear receptor TR3 suppresses DSB repair by blocking Ku80 DNA-end binding activity and promoting DNA-PK-induced p53 activity in hepatoma cells. We find that TR3 interacts with Ku80 and inhibits its binding to DNA ends, which then suppresses DSB repair. Furthermore, TR3 is a phosphorylation substrate for DNA-PK and interacts with DNA-PK catalytic subunit in a Ku80-independent manner. Phosphorylated TR3, in turn, enhances DNA-PK-induced phosphorylation and p53 transcription activity, thereby enhancing IR-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Together, our findings reveal novel functions for TR3, not only in DSB repair regulation but also in IR-induced hepatoma cell apoptosis, and they suggest that TR3 is a potential target for cancer radiotherapy.

  18. Inhibition of bleomycin-induced [3H] thymidine 5'-triphosphate incorporation into liver and hepatoma nuclei by N-ethyl maleimide and daunomycin.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, M L; Sartiano, G P; Klein, K; Ove, P

    1977-02-01

    The addition of bleomycin to a nuclear incorporating system results in an increased incorporation of 3H-thymidine 5'-triphosphate (3H-TTP) into the DNA of liver and hepatoma nuclei. Bleomycin added to the nuclear incorporating system also produces scissions of DNA as determined by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of the extracted DNA. The action of bleomycin is dependent on the presence of sulfhydryl agents in the incubation mixture. Two compounds, N-ethyl maleimide and daunomycin, inhibit the bleomycin-induced incorporation of 3H-TTP preferentially. N-Ethyl maleimide inhibits bleomycin-induced activity in liver and hepatoma 7777 nuclei equally. Lower levels of daunomycin inhibit the bleomycin-induced activity in the hepatoma 7777 nuclei than are required to inhibit the activity in liver nuclei. The two compounds inhibit the bleomycin effect by different mechanisms. The addition of N-ethyl maleimide to bleomycin in the incubation system prevents bleomycin from causing breaks in the DNA. The addition of daunomycin, despite inhibition of bleomycin-induced 3H-TTP incorporation, does not affect the bleomycin-produced breaks in the DNA. N-Ethyl maleimide acts by binding to the DNA and by competing with a sulfhydryl agent for bleomycin-sensitive sites on the DNA. Daunomycin apparently inhibits a repair enzyme that is responsible for the increased incorporation following bleomycin treatment.

  19. A fast and sensitive colorimetric assay for IL-6 in hepatoma cells based on the production of a secreted form of alkaline phosphatase (SEAP).

    PubMed

    Gregory, B; Savino, R; Ciliberto, G

    1994-03-29

    Structure-function studies of cytokines require that simple, sensitive and reliable biological assays are available. A well known property of interleukin-6 (IL-6) is that of being able to induce transcription from several liver-specific promoters in human hepatoma cells. However, the available assays of IL-6 in hepatoma cells, which are either based on the detection of increased expression of endogenous acute phase response genes or on the activation of reporter genes transfected under the control of IL-6 responsive promoters, are not very sensitive and are time consuming. We have established a new assay for IL-6 in hepatoma cells which is based on the transfection of an IL-6 inducible promoter/secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene fusion and which measures the inducible production and release of SEAP in the culture medium. SEAP activity is measured with a simple colorimetric assay that requires no cell manipulation, thus allowing a large set of samples to be analysed simultaneously. The CRP/SEAP assay can be used in studies on the structure-function relationships of human IL-6.

  20. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes.

  1. Preparation and therapeutic evaluation of 188Re-thermogelling emulsion in rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Ying-Hsia; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Luo, Tsai-Yueh

    2014-01-01

    Radiolabeled Lipiodol® (Guerbet, Villepinte, France) is routinely used in hepatoma therapy. The temperature-sensitive hydrogel polyethylene glycol-b-poly-DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-b-polyethylene glycol triblock copolymer is used as an embolic agent and sustained drug release system. This study attempted to combine the polyethylene glycol-b-poly-DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-b-polyethylene glycol hydrogel and radio-labeled Lipiodol to form a new radio-thermogelling emulsion, rhenium-188–N,N’-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride–Lipiodol/hydrogel (188Re-ELH). The therapeutic potential of 188Re-ELH was evaluated in a rodent hepatoma model. Rhenium-188 chelated with N,N’-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride was extracted with Lipiodol to obtain rhenium-188–N,N’-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride–Lipiodol (188Re-EL), which was blended with the hydrogel in equal volumes to develop 188Re-ELH. The 188Re-ELH phase stability was evaluated at different temperatures. Biodistribution patterns and micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images in Sprague Dawley rats implanted with the rat hepatoma cell line N1-S1 were observed after in situ tumoral injection of ~3.7 MBq 188Re-ELH. The therapeutic potential of 188Re-EL (48.58±3.86 MBq/0.1 mL, n=12) was evaluated in a 2-month survival study using the same animal model. The therapeutic effects of 188Re-ELH (25.52±4.64 MBq/0.1 mL, n=12) were evaluated and compared with those of 188Re-EL. The responses were assessed by changes in tumor size and survival rates. The 188Re-ELH emulsion was stable in the gel form at 25°C–35°C for >52 hours. Biodistribution data and micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images of the 188Re-ELH group indicated that most activity was selectively observed in hepatomas. Long-term 188Re-ELH studies have demonstrated protracted reductions in tumor volumes

  2. Preparation and therapeutic evaluation of (188)Re-thermogelling emulsion in rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ying-Hsia; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Luo, Tsai-Yueh

    2014-01-01

    Radiolabeled Lipiodol(®) (Guerbet, Villepinte, France) is routinely used in hepatoma therapy. The temperature-sensitive hydrogel polyethylene glycol-b-poly-DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-b-polyethylene glycol triblock copolymer is used as an embolic agent and sustained drug release system. This study attempted to combine the polyethylene glycol-b-poly-DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-b-polyethylene glycol hydrogel and radio-labeled Lipiodol to form a new radio-thermogelling emulsion, rhenium-188-N,N'-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride-Lipiodol/hydrogel ((188)Re-ELH). The therapeutic potential of (188)Re-ELH was evaluated in a rodent hepatoma model. Rhenium-188 chelated with N,N'-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride was extracted with Lipiodol to obtain rhenium-188-N,N'-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride-Lipiodol ((188)Re-EL), which was blended with the hydrogel in equal volumes to develop (188)Re-ELH. The (188)Re-ELH phase stability was evaluated at different temperatures. Biodistribution patterns and micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images in Sprague Dawley rats implanted with the rat hepatoma cell line N1-S1 were observed after in situ tumoral injection of ~3.7 MBq (188)Re-ELH. The therapeutic potential of (188)Re-EL (48.58±3.86 MBq/0.1 mL, n=12) was evaluated in a 2-month survival study using the same animal model. The therapeutic effects of (188)Re-ELH (25.52±4.64 MBq/0.1 mL, n=12) were evaluated and compared with those of (188)Re-EL. The responses were assessed by changes in tumor size and survival rates. The (188)Re-ELH emulsion was stable in the gel form at 25°C-35°C for >52 hours. Biodistribution data and micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images of the (188)Re-ELH group indicated that most activity was selectively observed in hepatomas. Long-term (188)Re-ELH studies have demonstrated protracted reductions in tumor

  3. Accumulation of diacylglycerol in the liver membrane of the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat with hepatitis: FT-IR spectroscopic and HPLC detection.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S; Kazusaka, A; Fujita, S

    2000-04-03

    Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats develop severe hepatitis and subsequent hepatoma with excess accumulation of copper in the liver with increasing age. Lipids extracted from the LEC rat liver membrane were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy and an HPLC technique at the stages of pre-hepatitis and hepatitis, i.e. at 10 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. The 10-week-old rats exhibited an IR spectrum characteristic of a phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine mixture with a ratio of 2:1. The 16-week-old rats developed new absorption bands at 1161 and 1070 cm(-1), which were assigned to the spectra of triglyceride, neutral lipid, and diacylglycerol, an endogenous activator of protein kinase C, respectively. The diacylglycerol was estimated to amount to ca. 10% (w/w) of phospholipid extract by comparing the spectrum with those of model compounds. This was confirmed using an HPLC assay. Previously, we found that a serum response factor is activated by copper in the LEC rat liver, and suggested that it must mediate proto-oncogene c-fos induction. The results obtained here suggest that accumulation of diacylglycerol plays an important role in development of hepatoma in LEC rats by mediating proto-oncogene c-fos induction.

  4. Evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity using DMSO-treated human hepatoma HuH-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong; Flynn, Thomas J; Xia, Menghang; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L; Ferguson, Martine S

    2015-10-01

    A human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) was evaluated as a metabolically competent cell model to investigate cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition, induction, and hepatotoxicity. First, CYP3A4 gene expression and activity were determined in HuH-7 cells under three culture conditions: 1-week culture, 3-week culture, or 1 % dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. HuH-7 cells treated with DMSO for 2 weeks after confluence expressed the highest CYP3A4 gene expression and activity compared to the other two culture conditions. Furthermore, CYP3A4 activity in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells was compared to that in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2/C3A) and human bipotent progenitor cell line (HepaRG), which yielded the following ranking: HepaRG > DMSO-treated HuH-7 > HepG2/C3A cells. The effects of three known CYP3A4 inhibitors were evaluated using DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells. CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition in HuH-7 cells was further compared to human recombinant CYP3A4, indicating similar potency for reversible inhibitors (IC 50 within 2.5-fold), but different potency for the irreversible inhibitor. Next, induction of CYP3A4 activity was compared between DMSO-treated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells using two known inducers. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells yielded minimal CYP3A4 induction compared to that in the HepaRG cells after 48-h treatments. Finally, the cytotoxicity of five known hepatotoxicants was evaluated in DMSO-treated HuH-7, HepG2/C3A, and HepaRG cells, and significant differences in cytotoxic sensitivity were observed. Overall, DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells are a valuable model for medium- or high-throughput screening of chemicals for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity.

  5. [Effects of intratumoral injection of microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin on transplanted human hepatoma in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Lin, Li-wu; Chen, Zhi-kui; Xue, En-sheng; Lin, Xiao-dong; Yu, Li-Yun; Lin, Zhen-hu

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intratumoral injection of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin in nude mice with transplanted human hepatoma. Cytotoxic activity of cytotoxin from cobra venom was determined by using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method in vitro. Microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin were prepared with a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Forty BALB/c nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously in right flank with hepatoma BEL-7404 cells. Thirty-two mice whose tumor size reached about 1.0 cm in diameter, were randomly assigned into normal saline group, blank microsphers group, cytotoxin group and cytotoxin-PLGA group. Nude mice were intratumorally injected with normal saline, blank microspheres, cytotoxin or cytotoxin-PLGA microspheres respectively. Internal echo characteristics and blood flow of tumors were observed by high-frequency ultrasound every week after treatment. Twenty-six days after treatment, the tumors were removed to calculate the inhibition rate of tumor growth. The tumor, heart, liver and kidney tissues were obtained for histopathological examination. The cytotoxin separated and purified from crude cobra venom caused intense cytotoxic effects to the BEL-7404 cells in vitro. The diameter of PLGA microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin was about (34.45+/-9.85)microm. Encapsulation rate was up to (78.13+/-8.92)%, and cumulative amount of cobra venom cytotoxin released from the PLGA microspheres in vitro during 30 days was up to 84.3%. After intratumoral injection, tumor volumes and weights in the cytotoxin-PLGA group were lower than those in the normal saline group, with a tumor growth inhibition rate of 52.36%. Observed under a light microscope, most tumor tissues were necrotic. No obvious morphological change could be seen on the liver, kidney and heart tissues. The above findings indicate that intratumoral injection of cytotoxin-PLGA microspheres has strong

  6. Long term and large-scale cultivation of human hepatoma Hep G2 cells in hollow fiber bioreactor. Cultivation of human hepatoma Hep G2 in hollow fiber bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, J J; Chen, B S; Tsai, T F; Wu, Y J; Pang, V F; Hsieh, A; Hsieh, J H; Chang, T H

    1991-02-01

    Long-term and large scale cultivation of an anchorage-dependent cell line using an industrial scale hollow fiber perfusion bioreactor is described. Hep G2 cells (a human hepatoma cell line) were cultivated in an Acusyst-P (Endotronic) with a total fiber surface area of 7.2 m2 6 x 1.2m2) to produce Hep G2 crude conditioned medium (CCM). Pretreatment of the cellulose acetate hollow fibers with collagen enhances the attachment of the anchorage-dependent cells. We have succeeded in growing the Hep G2 cells in an antibiotics- and serum-free IMDM medium, supplemented with 50 micrograms/ml of Hep G2 CCM protein at inoculation. The Hep G2 cells replicate and secrete CCM protein in quantities comparable to those produced in DMEM containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). The highest CCM protein productivity during the 80-day cultivation was 1.1 g/day with a total of 30 g of protein accumulated. Hep G2 CCM (20-40 micrograms protein/ml) was comparable to or even better than 10% FCS in supporting the growth of Molt-4 (a human T leukemia cell line) and FO (a mouse myeloma cell line) cells in vitro. The availability of this large amount of Hep G2 CCM will aid the further purification and characterization of growth factor(s) which could be used as serum substituents.

  7. DMFC (3,5-dimethyl-(7)H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one) regulates Bim to trigger Bax and Bak activation to suppress drug-resistant human hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jun; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Qianqian; Li, Xia; Sun, Jianguo; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Liu, Feiyan

    2017-03-01

    3,5-Dimethyl-(7)H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one (DMFC) is a coumarin derivative with anti-cancer activity against human hepatoma cells, but the mechanisms underlying DMFC function in cancer suppression is unknown. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying DMFC anti-cancer activity and determining whether DMFC is effective in suppression of drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma. We show here that DMFC effectively suppresses both the parent and the multidrug-resistant hepatoma cell growth in vitro and DMFC suppresses hepatoma cell growth at least in part through inducing tumor cell apoptosis. In the molecular level, we observed that DMFC treatment decreases Bcl-2 level by a post-transcriptional mechanism and activates Bim transcription to increase Bim mRNA and protein level in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that DMFC-induced Bim interrupts interactions between Bcl-2 and Bax and between Mcl-1 and Bak, resulting in dissociation of Bax from Bcl-2 and Bak from Mcl-1 and subsequent activation of both Bax and Bak. Activation of Bax and Bak leads to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and cytochrome c release. Consistent with its potent apoptosis-inducing activity, DMFC exhibited potent activity against the multidrug-resistant hepatoma xenograft growth in vivo. Therefore, we determine that DMFC suppresses hepatoma growth through decreasing Bcl-2 and increasing Bim to induce tumor cell apoptosis and hold great promise for further development as a therapeutic agent to treat chemoresistant hepatoma.

  8. Cancer cachexia: physical activity and muscle force in tumour-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Míriam; Busquets, Sílvia; Sirisi, Sònia; Serpe, Roberto; Orpí, Marcel; Coutinho, Joana; Martínez, Raquel; López-Soriano, Francisco J; Argilés, Josep M

    2011-01-01

    Rats bearing the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma are subjected to substantial weight loss, which is accompanied by anorexia at the end of the tumour cycle. Total physical activity (measured using the IR Actimeter system and Actitrack software) was determined during 11 days in control and tumour-bearing animals, skeletal muscle strength being also by the grip-strength test. The results presented clearly show that the presence of the tumour induces an earlier decrease in physical performance, which affects both skeletal muscle force and physical activity (both locomotor movements and stereotyped movements and distance travelled, among others parameters).

  9. Preventive effects of Morus alba L. anthocyanins on diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    PubMed Central

    SARIKAPHUTI, ARIYA; NARARATWANCHAI, THAMTHIWAT; HASHIGUCHI, TERUTO; ITO, TAKASHI; THAWORANUNTA, SITA; KIKUCHI, KIYOSHI; OYAMA, YOKO; MARUYAMA, IKURO; TANCHAROEN, SALUNYA

    2013-01-01

    The mulberry plant (Morus alba L.) contains abundant anthocyanins (ANCs), which are natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the ANC composition of Thai Morus alba L. fruits and to assess the effect of an ANC extract on blood glucose and insulin levels in male leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The major components of the ANC extract were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. ZDF and lean rats were treated with 125 or 250 mg ANCs/kg body weight, or 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) twice daily for 5 weeks. Neither ANC dose had an effect on body weight. Following 5 weeks of treatment, glucose levels were observed to increase from 105.5±8.7 to 396.25±21 mg/dl (P<0.0001) in the CMC-treated ZDF rats; however, the glucose levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg ANCs (228.25±45 and 131.75±10 mg/dl, respectively; P<0.001 versus CMC). The administration of 250 mg/kg ANCs normalized glucose levels in the ZDF rats towards those of the lean littermates. Insulin levels were decreased significantly in the ZDF rats treated with CMC or 125 mg/kg ANCs (P<0.0001), but not in the rats treated with 250 mg/kg ANCs. Histologically, 250 mg/kg ANCs was observed to prevent islet degeneration compared with the islets in CMC-treated rats. This study, demonstrated that ANCs extracted from Morus alba L. were well tolerated and exhibited effective anti-diabetic properties in ZDF rats. ANCs represent a promising class of therapeutic compounds that may be useful in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24137248

  10. Cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of three types of magnetic nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Wei; Xiaojun, Xu; Ximing, Pu; Zhenqing, Hou; Qiqing, Zhang

    2011-07-01

    The evaluation of the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has attracted much attention in recent years. The current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Fe3O4, oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 (OA-Fe3O4), and carbon-coated Fe (C-Fe) nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells and the mechanisms. WST-1 assay demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of three types of MNPs was in a dose-dependent manner. G1 (Fe3O4 and OA-Fe3O4) phase and G2 (C-Fe) phase cell arrests and apoptosis induced by MNPs were detected by flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol. Moreover, apoptosis was further confirmed by morphological and biochemical hallmarks, such as swollen mitochondria with lysing cristae and caspase-3 activation. Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway. The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

  11. Aqueous extract of Polygonum bistorta modulates proteostasis by ROS-induced ER stress in human hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Huei; Weng, Yui-Ping; Lin, Hsuan-Yuan; Tang, Sai-Wen; Chen, Chao-Jung; Liang, Chi-Jung; Ku, Chung-Yu; Lin, Jung-Yaw

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains the leading cause of cancer mortality with limited therapeutic targets. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a pivotal role in maintaining proteostasis in normal cells. However, alterations in proteostasis are often found in cancer cells, making it a potential target for therapy. Polygonum bistorta is used in traditional Chinese medicine owing to its anticancer activities, but the molecular and pharmacological mechanisms remain unclear. Using hepatoma cells as a model system, this study demonstrated that P. bistorta aqueous extract (PB) stimulated ER stress by increasing autophagosomes but by blocking degradation, followed by the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and cell apoptosis. In addition, an autophagy inhibitor did not enhance ubiquitinated protein accumulation whereas a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger diminished both ubiquitinated protein accumulation and ligand-stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, suggesting that ROS generation by PB may be upstream of PB-triggered cell death. Nevertheless, PB-exerted proteostasis impairment resulted in cytoskeletal changes, impairment of cell adhesion and motility, and inhibition of cell cycle progression. Oral administration of PB delayed tumour growth in a xenograft model without significant body weight loss. These findings indicate that PB may be a potential new alternative or complementary medicine for HCC. PMID:28134285

  12. Preparation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Chian; Wu, Wen-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2010-12-01

    A preparative column chromatographic method for isolation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a traditional Chinese herb, was developed to evaluate their antiproliferative effects on the hepatoma cell Hep3B. An open column containing 70 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:2.5, wt/wt) was used to elute carotenoid with 2% ethanol in ethyl acetate and chlorophyll with 50% ethanol in acetone. After high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the carotenoid fraction was composed of all-trans- and cis-isomers of lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene as well as epoxy-containing carotenoids, while the chlorophyll fraction consisted of chlorophylls a and b and their derivatives. Both carotenoid and chlorophyll fractions as well as lutein and chlorophyll a standards at 50-100 μg/mL were effective against Hep3B cells with a dose-dependent response with the following order: carotenoid fraction > chlorophyll fraction > lutein > chlorophyll a. For all treatments, the cell cycle was arrested in the G₀/G₁ phase, with Hep3B cells undergoing necrosis or apoptosis.

  13. Enhanced migration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase overexpressing hepatoma cells is attributed to gelatinases: Relevance to intracellular signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Roeb, Elke; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin; Hamacher, Sabine; Jansen, Bettina; Dahmen, Judith; Wagner, Sandra; Matern, Siegfried

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of gelatinases (especially MMP-9) on migration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) overexpressing hepatoma cells. METHODS: Wild type HepG2 cells, cells stably transfected with TIMP-1 and TIMP-1 antagonist (MMP-9-H401A, a catalytically inactive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) which still binds and neutralizes TIMP-1) were incubated in Boyden chambers either with or without Galardin (a synthetic inhibitor of MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9) or a specific inhibitor of gelatinases. RESULTS: Compared to wild type HepG2 cells, the cells overexpressing TIMP-1 showed 115% migration (P<0.05) and the cells overexpressing MMP-9-H401A showed 62% migration (P<0.01). Galardin reduced cell migration dose dependently in all cases. The gelatinase inhibitor reduced migration in TIMP-1 overexpressing cells predominantly. Furthermore, we examined intracellular signal transduction pathways of TIMP-1-dependent HepG2 cells. TIMP-1 deactivates cell signaling pathways of MMP-2 and MMP-9 involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Specific blockade of the ERK pathway suppresses gelatinase expression either in the presence or absence of TIMP-1. CONCLUSION: Overexpressing functional TIMP-1- enhanced migration of HepG2-TIMP-1 cells depends on enhanced MMP-activity, especially MMP-9. PMID:15754388

  14. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of geraniol in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Queiroz, T B; Santos, G F; Ventura, S C; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Gaivão, I O M; Maistro, E L

    2017-09-27

    Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol present in the essential oil of many aromatic plants and is one of the most frequently used molecules by the flavor and fragrance industries. The literature also reports its therapeutic potential, highlighting itself especially as a likely molecule for the development of drugs against cancer. In view of these considerations, this study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of geraniol, in an in vitro protocol, using two types of human cells: one without the ability to metabolize (peripheral blood mononuclear cells - PBMC), and the other with this capability (human hepatoma cell line - HepG2) through the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Four concentrations (10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) were selected for the genotoxic assessment for PBMC and three (1.25, 2.5, and 5 µg/mL) for HepG2 cells based on cytotoxicity tests (MTT assay). Results showed that geraniol did not present genotoxic or clastogenic/aneugenic effects on both cell types under the conditions studied. However, caution is advised in the use of this substance by humans, since a significant reduction in viability of HepG2 and a marked decrease in cell viability on normal PBMC were verified.

  15. Mutation of N-linked glycosylation at Asn548 in CD133 decreases its ability to promote hepatoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Ren, Shifang; Xie, Liqi; Cui, Chunhong; Xing, Yang; Liu, Chanjuan; Cao, Benjin; Yang, Fan; Li, Yinan; Chen, Xiaoning; Wei, Yuanyan; Lu, Haojie; Jiang, Jianhai

    2015-08-21

    The membrane glycoprotein CD133 is a popular marker for cancer stem cells and contributes to cancer initiation and invasion in a number of tumor types. CD133 promotes tumorigenesis partly through an interaction between its phosphorylated Y828 residue and the PI3K regulatory subunit p85, and the interaction with β-catenin. Although CD133 glycosylation is supposed to be associated with its function, the contribution of N-glycosylation to its functions remains unclear. Here we analyzed the exact site(s) of N-glycosylation in CD133 by mass spectrometry and found that all eight potential N-glycosylation sites of CD133 could be indeed occupied by N-glycans. Loss of individual N-glycosylation sites had no effect on the level of expression or membrane localization of CD133. However, mutation at glycosylation site Asn548 significantly decreased the ability of CD133 to promote hepatoma cell growth. Furthermore, mutation of Asn548 reduced the interaction between CD133 and β-catenin and inhibited the activation of β-catenin signaling by CD133 overexpression. Our results identified the characteristics and function of CD133 glycosylation sites. These data could potentially shed light on molecular regulation of CD133 by glycosylation and enhance our understanding of the utility of glycosylated CD133 as a target for cancer therapies.

  16. Ellagic acid modulates lipid accumulation in primary human adipocytes and human hepatoma Huh7 cells via discrete mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Okla, Meshail; Kang, Inhae; Kim, Da Mi; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Shay, Neil; Gu, Liwei; Chung, Soonkyu

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that consumption of a muscadine grape phytochemical powder (MGP) decreased lipid accumulation in high-fat fed mice. The aim of this study was to identify the responsible polyphenolic constituents and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In mice, MGP supplementation significantly reduced visceral fat mass as well as adipocyte size. To determine whether MGP affects adipogenesis or hypertrophic lipid accumulation, we used a human adipogenic stem cell (hASCs) model. Among the MGP, ellagic acid (EA) was identified as a potent negative regulator of adipogenesis of hASCs. In addition, EA substantially decreased the conversion of [(3)H]-acetyl CoA into fatty acids (FAs), suggesting that EA inhibits de novo synthesis of FA in mature adipocytes. Similarly, MGP supplementation significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels. The TG-lowering effects of EA were confirmed in human hepatoma Huh7 cells. EA reduced [(3)H]-oleic acid esterification into [(3)H]-TG as well as the de novo synthesis of FA from [(3)H]-acetyl CoA in Huh7 cells. Intriguingly, EA also increased oxygen consumption rate and β-oxidation-related gene expression. Taken together, EA attenuated new fat cell formation and FA biosynthesis in adipose tissue, while it reduced the synthesis of TG and FA and increased FA oxidation in the liver. These results suggest that EA exerts unique lipid-lowering effects both in adipose tissue and liver via discrete mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of drugs in subtoxic concentrations on the metabolic fluxes in human hepatoma cell line Hep G2

    SciTech Connect

    Niklas, Jens; Noor, Fozia; Heinzle, Elmar

    2009-11-01

    Commonly used cytotoxicity assays assess the toxicity of a compound by measuring certain parameters which directly or indirectly correlate to the viability of the cells. However, the effects of a given compound at concentrations considerably below EC{sub 50} values are usually not evaluated. These subtoxic effects are difficult to identify but may eventually cause severe and costly long term problems such as idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. We determined the toxicity of three hepatotoxic compounds, namely amiodarone, diclofenac and tacrine on the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2 using an online kinetic respiration assay and analysed the effects of subtoxic concentrations of these drugs on the cellular metabolism by using metabolic flux analysis. Several changes in the metabolism could be detected upon exposure to subtoxic concentrations of the test compounds. Upon exposure to diclofenac and tacrine an increase in the TCA-cycle activity was observed which could be a signature of an uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation. The results indicate that metabolic flux analysis could serve as an invaluable novel tool for the investigation of the effects of drugs. The described methodology enables tracking the toxicity of compounds dynamically using the respiration assay in a range of concentrations and the metabolic flux analysis permits interesting insights into the changes in the central metabolism of the cell upon exposure to drugs.

  18. Procyanidins from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Seedpod induce autophagy mediated by reactive oxygen species generation in human hepatoma G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuqing; Xu, Hui; Luo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, autophagic effect of procyanidins from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seedpod (LSPCs) on human hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cells, and the inherent correlation between autophagic levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were investigated. The results showed that LSPCs increased monodansylcadaverine (MDC) fluorescence intensity and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion in HepG2 cells. In addition, the typically autophagic characteristics (autophagosomes and autolysosomes) were observed in LSPCs-treated cells, but not found in the cells treated with autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Furthermore, the elevated ROS level was in line with the increasing of autophagy activation caused by LSPCs, however, both 3-MA and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcyteine (NAC) inhibitors effectively suppressed the autophagy and ROS generation triggered by LSPCs. As a result, these results indicated that LSPCs induced HepG2 cell autophagy in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation on HepG2 cells. Moreover, we found that LSPCs caused DNA damage, S phase arrest and the decrement of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) which were associated with ROS generation. In summary, our findings demonstrated that the LSPCs-induced autophagy and autophagic cell death were triggered by the ROS generation in HepG2 cells, which might be associated with ROS generation through the mitochondria-dependent signaling way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Genotoxicity of marine sediments in the fish hepatoma cell line PLHC-1 as assessed by the Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Šrut, Maja; Traven, Luka; Štambuk, Anamaria; Kralj, Sonja; Žaja, Roko; Mićović, Vladimir; Klobučar, Göran I V

    2011-02-01

    The main goal of this study was to test the usefulness of the Comet assay in the PLHC-1 hepatoma fish cell line as a tool for detecting the presence of genotoxic compounds in contaminated marine sediments. The system has been tested using both model chemicals (benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)) and extracts of sediment samples obtained with solvent dichloromethane/methanol. For all of the analysed sediment extracts as well as for the model chemicals a concentration dependent genotoxic effect was observed. The sediment with the highest observed genotoxic potential was additionally extracted using various solvents in order to test which class of compounds, according to their polarity, is most responsible for the observed genotoxic effect. Non-polar solvents (cyclohexane and dichloromethane) yielded stronger genotoxic effect but the highest level of DNA damage was determined after exposure to sediment extract obtained with the solvent mixture dichloromethane/methanol which extracts a wide range of contaminants. Our results indicate that the PLHC-1 cell line is a suitable in vitro model in sediment genotoxicity assessment and encourage the use of fish cell lines as versatile tools in ecogenotoxicology.

  20. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on fish hepatoma cells treated with mercury chloride and ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Han, Min; Nili, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    Organisms are exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore the combined action of radiation with various chemicals is an inevitable feature of modern life. Radiation is known to cause cell death, mainly due to its ability to produce reactive oxygen species in cells. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a well-known sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant whose role in radioprotection has been reported. Synergistic effects of radiation and mercury chloride on human cells was previously reported by the authors. Based on the previous report, this study was designed to assess the synergistic effects of radiation and mercury chloride on fish hepatoma cells, as well as to investigate the protective effects of NAC on the cells. The cytotoxicity of radiation was enhanced in the presence of mercury chloride. NAC in lower concentrations prevented cells from death after irradiation with lower doses (<300 Gy) while it did not prevent cells from radiation-induced death after irradiation with higher doses (300, 500 Gy). The intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels significantly decreased after irradiation while the combined treatment of NAC and radiation alleviated the decrease in the GSH levels. The investigations give a clue for the action mechanism of synergistic or protective effects of NAC on the cells. Due to their high resistance to ionizing radiation, the PLHC-1 cells can be effectively used as a screening tool for assessing the combined effects of radiation with toxic chemicals.

  1. Quercetin modulates NF-kappa B and AP-1/JNK pathways to induce cell death in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid, has been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties, but the precise molecular mechanisms of action are not thoroughly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of quercetin (50 microM) on two main transcription factors (NF-kappa B and AP-1) related to survival/proliferation pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) over time. Quercetin induced a significant time-dependent inactivation of the NF-kappa B pathway consistent with a downregulation of the NF-kappa B binding activity (from 15 min onward). These features were in concert with a time-dependent activation (starting at 15 min and maintained up to 18 h) of the AP-1/JNK pathway, which played an important role in the control of the cell death induced by the flavonoid and contributed to the regulation of survival/proliferation (AKT, ERK) and death (caspase-3, p38, unbalance of Bcl-2 proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins) signals. These data suggest that NF-kappa B and AP-1 play a main role in the tight regulation of survival/proliferation pathways exerted by quercetin and that the sustained JNK/AP-1 activation and inhibition of NF-kappa B provoked by the flavonoid induced HepG2 death.

  2. Silencing clusterin gene transcription on effects of multidrug resistance reversing of human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjie; Sai, Wenli; Yao, Min; Gu, Hongbin; Yao, Yao; Qian, Qi; Yao, Dengfu

    2015-05-01

    Abnormal clusterin (CLU) expression is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, the CLU expression was analyzed in human hepatoma cells and chemoresistant counterpart HepG2/ADM cells. Compared with L02 cells, the overexpression of cellular CLU was identified in HepG2, HepG2/ADM, SMMC7721, Hep3B ,and PLC cells and relatively lower expression in Bel-7404, SNU-739, and MHCC97H cells. Specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to silence CLU gene transcription were designed, and the most effective sequences were screened. After the HepG2/ADM cells transfected with shRNA-1, the inhibition of CLU expression was 73.68 % at messenger RNA (mRNA) level by real-time quantitative RT-PCR with obvious enhancement in cell chemosensitivity, increasing apoptosis induced by doxorubicin using fluorescence kit, and Rh-123 retention qualified with flow cytometry. Knockdown CLU also significantly decreased the drug efflux pump activity through the depression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (q = 11.739, P < 0.001). Moreover, silencing CLU led to downregulation of β-catenin (q = 13.544, P = 0.001), suggesting that downregulation of CLU might be a key point to reverse multidrug resistance of HepG2/ADM cells.

  3. Dibenzylbutane- and butyrolactone-type lignans as apoptosis inducers in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells.