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Sample records for receptors fc

  1. The platelet Fc receptor, FcγRIIa.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jianlin; Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Baker, Ross I; Andrews, Robert K; Gardiner, Elizabeth E

    2015-11-01

    Human platelets express FcγRIIa, the low-affinity receptor for the constant fragment (Fc) of immunoglobulin (Ig) G that is also found on neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Engagement of this receptor on platelets by immune complexes triggers intracellular signaling events that lead to platelet activation and aggregation. Importantly these events occur in vivo, particularly in response to pathological immune complexes, and engagement of this receptor on platelets has been causally linked to disease pathology. In this review, we will highlight some of the key features of this receptor in the context of the platelet surface, and examine the functions of platelet FcγRIIa in normal hemostasis and in response to injury and infection. This review will also highlight pathological consequences of engagement of this receptor in platelet-based autoimmune disorders. Finally, we present some new data investigating whether levels of the extracellular ligand-binding region of platelet glycoprotein VI which is rapidly shed upon engagement of platelet FcγRIIa by autoantibodies, can report on the presence of pathological anti-heparin/platelet factor 4 immune complexes and thus identify patients with pathological autoantibodies who are at the greatest risk of developing life-threatening thrombosis in the setting of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

  2. Targeting the Fc receptor in autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinrui; Kimberly, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Fc receptors and their interaction with immunoglobulin and innate immune opsonins such as CRP are key players in humoral and cellular immune responses. As the effector mechanism for some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and often a contributor to the pathogenesis and progression of autoimmunity, FcRs are promising targets for treating autoimmune diseases. Areas covered This review discusses the nature of different Fc receptors and the various mechanisms of their involvement in initiating and modulating immunocyte functions and their biological consequences. It describes a range of current strategies in targeting Fc receptors and manipulating their interaction with specific ligands while presenting the pros and cons of these approaches. This review also discusses potential new strategies including regulation of FcR expression and receptor cross-talk. Expert opinion Fc receptors are appealing targets in the treatment of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, there are still knowledge limitations and technical challenges, the most important being a better understanding of the individual roles of each of the Fc receptors and enhancement of the specificity in targeting particular cell types and specific Fc receptors. PMID:24521454

  3. Targeting the Fc receptor in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinrui; Kimberly, Robert P

    2014-03-01

    The Fc receptors (FcRs) and their interactions with immunoglobulin and innate immune opsonins, such as C-reactive protein, are key players in humoral and cellular immune responses. As the effector mechanism for some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, and often a contributor to the pathogenesis and progression of autoimmunity, FcRs are promising targets for treating autoimmune diseases. This review discusses the nature of different FcRs and the various mechanisms of their involvement in initiating and modulating immunocyte functions and their biological consequences. It describes a range of current strategies in targeting FcRs and manipulating their interaction with specific ligands, while presenting the pros and cons of these approaches. This review also discusses potential new strategies including regulation of FcR expression and receptor crosstalk. FcRs are appealing targets in the treatment of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, there are still knowledge limitations and technical challenges, the most important being a better understanding of the individual roles of each of the FcRs and enhancement of the specificity in targeting particular cell types and specific FcRs.

  4. Fc gamma receptors: glycobiology and therapeutic prospects

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Jerrard M; Wormald, Mark R; Rudd, Pauline M; Davey, Gavin P

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies hold great promise for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases, and developments in antibody–drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies continue to enhance treatment options for patients. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies are proteins with complex modifications, which have a significant impact on their function. The most important of these modifications is glycosylation, the addition of conserved glycans to the antibody Fc region, which is critical for its interaction with the immune system and induction of effector activities such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, complement activation and phagocytosis. Communication of IgG antibodies with the immune system is controlled and mediated by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), membrane-bound proteins, which relay the information sensed and gathered by antibodies to the immune system. These receptors are also glycoproteins and provide a link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Recent information suggests that this receptor glycan modification is also important for the interaction with antibodies and downstream immune response. In this study, the current knowledge on FcγR glycosylation is discussed, and some insight into its role and influence on the interaction properties with IgG, particularly in the context of biotherapeutics, is provided. For the purpose of this study, other Fc receptors such as FcαR, FcεR or FcRn are not discussed extensively, as IgG-based antibodies are currently the only therapeutic antibody-based products on the market. In addition, FcγRs as therapeutics and therapeutic targets are discussed, and insight into and comment on the therapeutic aspects of receptor glycosylation are provided. PMID:27895507

  5. Human Fc gamma RII, in the absence of other Fc gamma receptors, mediates a phagocytic signal.

    PubMed Central

    Indik, Z; Kelly, C; Chien, P; Levinson, A I; Schreiber, A D

    1991-01-01

    Fc gamma receptors are important components in the binding and phagocytosis of IgG-sensitized cells. Studies on the role of these receptors have been limited by the fact that most hematopoietic cells express more than one Fc gamma receptor. We studied the role of Fc gamma RIIA in isolation on a human erythroleukemia cell line (HEL) which expresses Fc gamma RIIA as its only Fc gamma receptor. HEL cells were observed to bind and phagocytose IgG-sensitized red blood cells (RBCs) in a dose-dependent manner. We then examined the role of Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RII in isolation and in combination, in transfected COS-1 cells. Fc gamma RIIA-transfected COS cells also mediated both the binding and phagocytosis of IgG-sensitized RBCs. In contrast, phagocytosis was not observed in Fc gamma RI-transfected cells, although these cells avidly bound IgG-sensitized RBCs. Furthermore, coexpression of both receptors by doubly transfected cells did not affect the phagocytic efficiency of Fc gamma RIIA. These studies establish that Fc gamma RIIA can mediate phagocytosis and suggest that transfected COS-1 cells provide a model for examining this process. Since HEL cells exhibit characteristics of cells of the megakaryocyte-platelet lineage, including expression of Fc gamma RII as the only Fc gamma receptor, Fc gamma RIIA on megakaryocytes and platelets may be involved in the ingestion of IgG-containing immune complexes. Furthermore, these studies indicate that Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RIIA differ in their requirements for transduction of a phagocytic signal. Images PMID:1834702

  6. Targeting the neonatal fc receptor for antigen delivery using engineered fc fragments.

    PubMed

    Mi, Wentao; Wanjie, Sylvia; Lo, Su-Tang; Gan, Zhuo; Pickl-Herk, Beatrix; Ober, Raimund J; Ward, E Sally

    2008-12-01

    The development of approaches for Ag delivery to the appropriate subcellular compartments of APCs and the optimization of Ag persistence are both of central relevance for the induction of protective immunity or tolerance. The expression of the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, in APCs and its localization to the endosomal system suggest that it might serve as a target for Ag delivery using engineered Fc fragment-epitope fusions. The impact of FcRn binding characteristics of an Fc fragment on in vivo persistence allows this property to also be modulated. We have therefore generated recombinant Fc (mouse IgG1-derived) fusions containing the N-terminal epitope of myelin basic protein that is associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in H-2(u) mice. The Fc fragments have distinct binding properties for FcRn that result in differences in intracellular trafficking and in vivo half-lives, allowing the impact of these characteristics on CD4(+) T cell responses to be evaluated. To dissect the relative roles of FcRn and the "classical" FcgammaRs in Ag delivery, analogous aglycosylated Fc-MBP fusions have been generated. We show that engineered Fc fragments with increased affinities for FcRn at pH 6.0-7.4 are more effective in delivering Ag to FcRn-expressing APCs in vitro relative to their lower affinity counterparts. However, higher affinity of the FcRn-Fc interaction at near neutral pH results in decreased in vivo persistence. The trade-off between improved FcRn targeting efficiency and lower half-life becomes apparent during analyses of T cell proliferative responses in mice, particularly when Fc-MBP fusions with both FcRn and FcgammaR binding activity are used.

  7. The neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, as a target for drug delivery and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sockolosky, Jonathan T.; Szoka, Francis C.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based drugs are arguably the most successful class of protein therapeutics due in part to their remarkably long blood circulation. This arises from IgG interaction with the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn. FcRn is the central regulator of IgG and albumin homeostasis throughout life and is increasingly being recognized as an important player in autoimmune disease, mucosal immunity, and tumor immune surveillance. Various engineering approaches that hijack or disrupt the FcRn-mediated transport pathway have been devised to develop long-lasting and non-invasive protein therapeutics, protein subunit vaccines, and therapeutics for treatment of autoimmune and infectious disease. In this review, we highlight the diverse biological functions of FcRn, emerging therapeutic opportunities, as well as the associated challenges of targeting FcRn for drug delivery and disease therapy. PMID:25703189

  8. Fcγ Receptor Heterogeneity in Leukocyte Functional Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies participate in defense of the organism from all types of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. IgG antibodies recognize their associated antigen via their two Fab portions and are in turn recognized though their Fc portion by specific Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) on the membrane of immune cells. Multiple types and polymorphic variants of FcγR exist. These receptors are expressed in many cells types and are also redundant in inducing cell responses. Crosslinking of FcγR on the surface of leukocytes activates several effector functions aimed toward the destruction of pathogens and the induction of an inflammatory response. In the past few years, new evidence on how the particular IgG subclass and the glycosylation pattern of the antibody modulate the IgG–FcγR interaction has been presented. Despite these advances, our knowledge of what particular effector function is activated in a certain cell and in response to a specific type of FcγR remains very limited today. On one hand, each immune cell could be programmed to perform a particular cell function after FcγR crosslinking. On the other, each FcγR could activate a particular signaling pathway leading to a unique cell response. In this review, I describe the main types of FcγRs and our current view of how particular FcγRs activate various signaling pathways to promote unique leukocyte functions. PMID:28373871

  9. Fcγ receptors and ligands and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Sundgren, Nathan; Khera, Amit; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W

    2015-01-16

    Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) classically modulate intracellular signaling on binding of the Fc region of IgG in immune response cells. How FcγR and their ligands affect cardiovascular health and disease has been interrogated recently in both preclinical and clinical studies. The stimulation of activating FcγR in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and monocytes/macrophages causes a variety of cellular responses that may contribute to vascular disease pathogenesis. Stimulation of the lone inhibitory FγcR, FcγRIIB, also has adverse consequences in endothelial cells, antagonizing NO production and reparative mechanisms. In preclinical disease models, activating FcγRs promote atherosclerosis, whereas FcγRIIB is protective, and activating FcγRs also enhance thrombotic and nonthrombotic vascular occlusion. The FcγR ligand C-reactive protein (CRP) has undergone intense study. Although in rodents CRP does not affect atherosclerosis, it causes hypertension and insulin resistance and worsens myocardial infarction. Massive data have accumulated indicating an association between increases in circulating CRP and coronary heart disease in humans. However, Mendelian randomization studies reveal that CRP is not likely a disease mediator. CRP genetics and hypertension warrant further investigation. To date, studies of genetic variants of activating FcγRs are insufficient to implicate the receptors in coronary heart disease pathogenesis in humans. However, a link between FcγRIIB and human hypertension may be emerging. Further knowledge of the vascular biology of FcγR and their ligands will potentially enhance our understanding of cardiovascular disorders, particularly in patients whose greater predisposition for disease is not explained by traditional risk factors, such as individuals with autoimmune disorders.

  10. Clinical Ramifications of the MHC Family Fc Receptor FcRn

    PubMed Central

    Roopenian, Derry C.; Sun, Victor Z.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge that antibodies of the IgG isotype have remarkably extended persistence in circulation and are able to pass through cell barriers has substantial implications. While is well-established that so-called neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, acts throughout life to confer these unusual properties, its ramifications on clinical medicine and therapeutic uses are not broadly appreciated. Scope Here we discuss basic principles and gaps in understanding of FcRn, including its management of IgG antibodies and along with albumin, its impact on use and design of antibody-based therapeutics, and its genetics. PMID:20848168

  11. Distribution of the IgG Fc Receptor, FcRn, in the Human Fetal Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Uzma; Dickinson, Bonny L.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Simister, Neil E.; Lencer, Wayne I.; Walker, W. Allan

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal Fc receptor, FcRn, functions in the maternofetal transfer of gamma globulin (IgG) in the neonatal rodent. In humans, most of this transfer is presumed to occur in utero via the placenta. Although the fetus swallows amniotic fluid that contains immunoglobulin, it is unknown whether this transfer also occurs via the fetal intestine. A human FcRn has been identified in the syncytiotrophoblast that mediates the maternofetal transfer of antibody. It has also been identified in human fetal intestine and is postulated to function in IgG transport. We hypothesize that the human fetal intestinal FcRn may play a role in IgG transport from the amniotic fluid into the fetal circulation. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of the FcRn along the human fetal intestine. Lysates prepared from human fetal intestine and from a nonmalignant human fetal intestinal epithelial cell line (H4) were subjected to Western blot analysis and probed using anti-FcRn antibodies. A 42-kD band, consistent with the known molecular weight of the FcRn, was detected along the human fetal intestine and in H4 cells. Expression of the human FcRn was confirmed with immunohistochemistry. Our study demonstrates the expression of FcRn along the human fetal intestine and in a human nonmalignant fetal intestinal epithelial cell line (H4), which by location indicates that FcRn could play a role in the uptake and transport of IgG in the human fetus. PMID:12538789

  12. Chemoenzymatic synthesis and Fcγ receptor binding of homogeneous glycoforms of antibody Fc domain. Presence of a bisecting sugar moiety enhances the affinity of Fc to FcγIIIa receptor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Guozhang; Ochiai, Hirofumi; Huang, Wei; Yang, Qiang; Li, Cishan; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2011-11-23

    Structurally well-defined IgG-Fc glycoforms are highly demanded for understanding the effects of glycosylation on an antibody's effector functions. We report in this paper chemoenzymatic synthesis and Fcγ receptor binding of an array of homogeneous IgG-Fc glycoforms. The chemoenzymatic approach consists of the chemical synthesis of defined N-glycan oxazolines as donor substrates, the expression of the Fc domain in a CHO cell line in the presence of an α-mannosidase inhibitor kifunensine, and an endoglycosidase-catalyzed glycosylation of the deglycosylated Fc domain (GlcNAc-Fc homodimer) with the synthetic glycan oxazolines. The enzyme from Arthrobacter protophormiae (Endo-A) was found to be remarkably efficient to take various modified N-glycan core oxazolines, including the bisecting sugar-containing derivatives, for Fc glycosylation remodeling, resulting in the formation of the corresponding homogeneous Fc glycoforms. Nevertheless, neither Endo-A nor the Mucor hiemalis endoglycosidase mutants (EndoM-N175A and EndoM-N175Q) were able to transfer full-length complex-type N-glycan to the Fc domain, implicating the limitations of these two enzymes in Fc glycosylation remodeling. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding studies with the synthetic IgG-Fc glycoforms unambiguously proved that the presence of a bisecting GlcNAc moiety could significantly enhance the binding of Fc to FcγRIIIa, the activating Fcγ receptor, independent of Fc core-fucosylation. Interestingly, the Fc glycoforms carrying an unusual bisecting sugar moiety such as a mannose or a LacNAc moiety also demonstrated enhanced affinity to FcγRIIIa. On the orther hand, the presence of a bisecting GlcNAc or core-fucosylation had little effect on the affinity of Fc to the inhibitory Fcγ receptor, FcγRIIb. Our experimental data also showed that the α-linked mannose residues in the pentasaccharide Man3GlcNAc2 core was essential to maintain a high affinity of Fc to both FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIb. The

  13. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis and Fcγ Receptor Binding of Homogeneous Glycoforms of Antibody Fc Domain. Presence of a Bisecting Sugar Moiety Enhances the Affinity of Fc to FcγIIIa Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Guozhang; Ochiai, Hirofumi; Huang, Wei; Yang, Qiang; Li, Cishan; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2011-01-01

    Structurally well-defined IgG-Fc glycoforms are highly demanded for understanding the effects of glycosylation on antibody’s effector functions. We report in this paper chemoenzymatic synthesis and Fcγ receptor binding of an array of homogeneous IgG-Fc glycoforms. The chemoenzymatic approach consists of the chemical synthesis of defined N-glycan oxazolines as donor substratess, the expression of the Fc domain in a CHO cell line in the presence of an α-mannosidase inhibitor kifunensine, and an endoglycosidase-catalyzed glycosylation of the deglycosylated Fc domain (GlcNAc-Fc homodimer) with the synthetic glycan oxazolines. The enzyme from Arthrobacter protophormiae (Endo-A) was found to be remarkably efficient to take various modified N-glycan core oxazolines, including the bisecting sugar-containing derivatives, for Fc glycosylation remodeling, resulting in the formation of the corresponding homogeneous Fc glycoforms. Nevertheless, neither Endo-A, nor the Mucor hiemalis endoglycosidase mutants (EndoM-N175A and EndoM-N175Q), was able to transfer full-length complex-type N-glycan to the Fc domain, implicating the limitations of these two enzymes in Fc glycosylation remodeling. SPR binding studies with the synthetic IgG-Fc glycoforms unambiguously proved that the presence of a bisecting GlcNAc moiety could significantly enhance the binding of Fc to FcγRIIIa, the activating Fcγ receptor, independent of Fc core-fucosylation. Interestingly, the Fc glycoforms carrying an unusual bisecting sugar moiety such as a mannose or a LacNAc moiety also demonstrated enhanced affinity to FcγRIIIa. On the orther hand, the presence of a bisecting GlcNAc or core fucosylation had little effect on the affinity of Fc to the inhibitory Fcγ receptor, FcγRIIb. Our experimental data also showed that the α-linked mannose residues in the pentasaccharide Man3GlcNAc2 core was essential to maintain a high-affinity of Fc to both FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIb. The synthetic homogeneous Fc

  14. Importance of the Side Chain at Position 296 of Antibody Fc in Interactions with FcγRIIIa and Other Fcγ Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, Yuya; Yagi, Hirokazu; Satoh, Tadashi; Shibata-Koyama, Mami; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Mitsuo; Kato, Koichi; Iida, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an important effector function determining the clinical efficacy of therapeutic antibodies. Core fucose removal from N-glycans on the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) improves the binding affinity for Fcγ receptor IIIa (FcγRIIIa) and dramatically enhances ADCC. Our previous structural analyses revealed that Tyr–296 of IgG1-Fc plays a critical role in the interaction with FcγRIIIa, particularly in the enhanced FcγRIIIa binding of nonfucosylated IgG1. However, the importance of the Tyr–296 residue in the antibody in the interaction with various Fcγ receptors has not yet been elucidated. To further clarify the biological importance of this residue, we established comprehensive Tyr–296 mutants as fucosylated and nonfucosylated anti-CD20 IgG1s rituximab variants and examined their binding to recombinant soluble human Fcγ receptors: shFcγRI, shFcγRIIa, shFcγRIIIa, and shFcγRIIIb. Some of the mutations affected the binding of antibody to not only shFcγRIIIa but also shFcγRIIa and shFcγRIIIb, suggesting that the Tyr–296 residue in the antibody was also involved in interactions with FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIb. For FcγRIIIa binding, almost all Tyr–296 variants showed lower binding affinities than the wild-type antibody, irrespective of their core fucosylation, particularly in Y296K and Y296P. Notably, only the Y296W mutant showed improved binding to FcγRIIIa. The 3.00 Å-resolution crystal structure of the nonfucosylated Y296W mutant in complex with shFcγRIIIa harboring two N-glycans revealed that the Tyr-to-Trp substitution increased the number of potential contact atoms in the complex, thus improving the binding of the antibody to shFcγRIIIa. The nonfucosylated Y296W mutant retained high ADCC activity, relative to the nonfucosylated wild-type IgG1, and showed greater binding affinity for FcγRIIa. Our data may improve our understanding of the biological importance of human IgG1-Fc Tyr–296 in

  15. The expression of Fcγ receptors in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yalei; Liu, Mingming; Zhang, Yang; Qu, Chenxue; Lu, Guizhi; Huang, Youyuan; Zhang, Hong; Yu, Nan; Yuan, Shanshan; Gao, Ying; Gao, Yanming; Guo, Xiaohui

    2015-03-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism underlying Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is still unclear. Thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) are diagnostic hallmarks of HT. These IgG antibodies regulate the balance of immunologic tolerance and autoimmunity via Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). The aim of our study was to investigate the role of FcγRs in the pathogenesis of HT. The percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HT patients bearing FcγRII was significantly lower than that seen in healthy donors, and the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) value of FcγRII on PBMCs from HT patients was significantly higher. The percentage of PBMCs positive for FcγRIII also was significantly higher in HT patients, and the percentage of B cells bearing FcγRIIB in HT patients was significantly lower than that seen in healthy donors. Our study therefore provides evidence for FcγRs, especially FcγRIIB, being involved in the pathogenesis of HT.

  16. Identification of an immunoglobulin Fc receptor of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, K P; Fives-Taylor, P M

    1994-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans expresses proteins that bind to the Fc portion of immunoglobulins. The immunoglobulin Fc receptors on the surface of A. actinomycetemcomitans were detected by the binding of biotinylated human or murine Fc molecules to strain SUNY 465 adsorbed to the bottom of microtiter wells. Biotinylated Fc binding was inhibited by unlabeled Fc molecules and human plasma. Fc receptors were identified by the binding of biotinylated Fc molecules to bacterial membrane proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose. Multiple bands were identified, and the major Fc-binding protein was determined to be a heat-modifiable protein. This protein migrated with approximate molecular weights of 25,000 and 32,000 (unheated and heated, respectively). Amino-terminal sequence analysis of this protein revealed a sequence identical to the heat-modifiable protein described for A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 43718. This protein sequence exhibits significant homology with the N termini of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli and related OmpA-like proteins from other gram-negative bacteria. Images PMID:7927715

  17. Fc Receptors for Immunoglobulins and Their Appearance during Vertebrate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Akula, Srinivas; Mohammadamin, Sayran; Hellman, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Receptors interacting with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (Igs) have a number of important functions in vertebrates. They facilitate phagocytosis by opsonization, are key components in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity as well as activating cells to release granules. In mammals, four major types of classical Fc receptors (FcRs) for IgG have been identified, one high-affinity receptor for IgE, one for both IgM and IgA, one for IgM and one for IgA. All of these receptors are related in structure and all of them, except the IgA receptor, are found in primates on chromosome 1, indicating that they originate from a common ancestor by successive gene duplications. The number of Ig isotypes has increased gradually during vertebrate evolution and this increase has likely been accompanied by a similar increase in isotype-specific receptors. To test this hypothesis we have performed a detailed bioinformatics analysis of a panel of vertebrate genomes. The first components to appear are the poly-Ig receptors (PIGRs), receptors similar to the classic FcRs in mammals, so called FcRL receptors, and the FcR γ chain. These molecules are not found in cartilagous fish and may first appear within bony fishes, indicating a major step in Fc receptor evolution at the appearance of bony fish. In contrast, the receptor for IgA is only found in placental mammals, indicating a relatively late appearance. The IgM and IgA/M receptors are first observed in the monotremes, exemplified by the platypus, indicating an appearance during early mammalian evolution. Clearly identifiable classical receptors for IgG and IgE are found only in marsupials and placental mammals, but closely related receptors are found in the platypus, indicating a second major step in Fc receptor evolution during early mammalian evolution, involving the appearance of classical IgG and IgE receptors from FcRL molecules and IgM and IgA/M receptors from PIGR. PMID:24816777

  18. Characterization of the human platelet Fc sub. gamma. receptor

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.

    1988-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is often associated with immune complex disease and may in part be due to the interaction of circulating (IgG) immune complexes with an Fc{sub {gamma}} receptor on the platelet surface. Characterization of the immune complex-platelet interaction should provide for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of immune thrombocytpenia. To this end, a ligand binding assay, employing {sup 125}I-IgG trimer, was established. Receptor expression was determined by measuring the saturable binding of radiolabeled trimer to platelets at equilibrium. Normal human platelets were observed to express 8559 {plus minus} 852 binding sites for IgG trimer with a Kd of 12.5 {plus minus} 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} M. Binding of IgG trimer to human platelets was blocked following preincubation of the cells with an anti-Fc{sub {gamma}}RII monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, this binding was ionic-strength dependent but was unaffected by the presence of Mg{sup ++} or cytochalasin B. Platelet Fc{sub {gamma}} receptor modulation was examined by assessing the effects of various physiologic and pharmacologic on the ability of platelets to bind IgG trimer. Platelet Fc{sub {gamma}} receptor expression was not affected by thrombin, ADP, or {gamma}-interferon. However, in 7/12 normal donors, treatment of platelets with dexamethasone resulted in a decrease in the number of Fc{sub {gamma}} receptors expressed.

  19. Targeted Fcγ Receptor (FcγR)-mediated Clearance by a Biparatopic Bispecific Antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Kasturirangan, Srinath; Rainey, G. Jonah; Xu, Linda; Wang, Xinwei; Portnoff, Alyse; Chen, Tracy; Fazenbaker, Christine; Zhong, Helen; Bee, Jared; Zeng, Zhutian; Jenne, Craig; Wu, Herren; Gao, Changshou

    2017-01-01

    Soluble ligands have commonly been targeted by antibody therapeutics for cancers and other diseases. Although monoclonal antibodies targeting such ligands can block their interactions with their cognate receptors, they can also significantly increase the half-life of their ligands by FcRn-mediated antibody recycling, thereby evading ligand renal clearance and requiring increasingly high antibody doses to neutralize the increasing pool of target. To overcome this issue, we generated a bispecific/biparatopic antibody (BiSAb) that targets two different epitopes on IL-6 to block IL-6-mediated signaling. The BiSAb formed large immune complexes with IL-6 that can bind Fcγ receptors on phagocytic cells and are rapidly internalized. In addition, rapid clearance of the BiSAb·IL-6 complex was observed in mice while the parental antibodies prolonged the serum half-life of IL-6. Intravital imaging of the liver in mice confirmed that the rapid clearance of these large immune complexes was associated with Fcγ receptor-dependent binding to Kupffer cells in the liver. The approach described here provides a general strategy for therapeutic antibodies with the ability to not only neutralize but also actively drive clearance of their soluble antigens. PMID:28100773

  20. Targeted Fcγ Receptor (FcγR)-mediated Clearance by a Biparatopic Bispecific Antibody.

    PubMed

    Kasturirangan, Srinath; Rainey, G Jonah; Xu, Linda; Wang, Xinwei; Portnoff, Alyse; Chen, Tracy; Fazenbaker, Christine; Zhong, Helen; Bee, Jared; Zeng, Zhutian; Jenne, Craig; Wu, Herren; Gao, Changshou

    2017-03-10

    Soluble ligands have commonly been targeted by antibody therapeutics for cancers and other diseases. Although monoclonal antibodies targeting such ligands can block their interactions with their cognate receptors, they can also significantly increase the half-life of their ligands by FcRn-mediated antibody recycling, thereby evading ligand renal clearance and requiring increasingly high antibody doses to neutralize the increasing pool of target. To overcome this issue, we generated a bispecific/biparatopic antibody (BiSAb) that targets two different epitopes on IL-6 to block IL-6-mediated signaling. The BiSAb formed large immune complexes with IL-6 that can bind Fcγ receptors on phagocytic cells and are rapidly internalized. In addition, rapid clearance of the BiSAb·IL-6 complex was observed in mice while the parental antibodies prolonged the serum half-life of IL-6. Intravital imaging of the liver in mice confirmed that the rapid clearance of these large immune complexes was associated with Fcγ receptor-dependent binding to Kupffer cells in the liver. The approach described here provides a general strategy for therapeutic antibodies with the ability to not only neutralize but also actively drive clearance of their soluble antigens.

  1. Physical proximity and functional interplay of PECAM-1 with the Fc receptor Fc gamma RIIa on the platelet plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Thai, Le M; Ashman, Leonie K; Harbour, Stacey N; Hogarth, P Mark; Jackson, Denise E

    2003-11-15

    We and others have recently defined that Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) functions as a negative regulator of platelet-collagen interactions involving the glycoprotein VI/Fc receptor gamma chain (GPVI/FcR-gamma chain) signaling pathway.1,2 In this study, we hypothesized that PECAM-1 may be physically and functionally associated with Fc gamma RIIa on the platelet membrane. The functional relationship between PECAM-1 and Fc gamma RIIa was assessed by determining the effect of anti-PECAM-1 monoclonal antibody Fab fragments on Fc gamma RIIa-mediated platelet aggregation and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HITS)-mediated platelet aggregation. Preincubation of washed platelets with monoclonal antibody fragments of 2BD4 directed against PECAM-1 and IV.3 directed against Fc gamma RIIa completely blocked Fc gamma RIIa-mediated platelet aggregation and HITS-mediated platelet aggregation, whereas anti-CD151 antibody had no blocking effect. Coengagement of Fc gamma RIIa and PECAM-1 resulted in negative regulation of Fc gamma RIIa-mediated phospholipase C gamma 2 activation, calcium mobilization, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathways. In addition, the physical proximity of Fc gamma RIIa and PECAM-1 was confirmed by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and coimmunoprecipitation studies. These results indicate that PECAM-1 and Fc gamma RIIa are colocalized on the platelet membrane and PECAM-1 down-regulates Fc gamma RIIa-mediated platelet responses.

  2. Neonatal Fc Receptor Promotes Immune Complex–Mediated Glomerular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Suleiman, Hani; St. John, Patricia L.; Ge, Linna; Mezo, Adam R.; Shaw, Andrey S.; Abrahamson, Dale R.; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a major regulator of IgG and albumin homeostasis systemically and in the kidneys. We investigated the role of FcRn in the development of immune complex–mediated glomerular disease in mice. C57Bl/6 mice immunized with the noncollagenous domain of the α3 chain of type IV collagen (α3NC1) developed albuminuria associated with granular capillary loop deposition of exogenous antigen, mouse IgG, C3 and C5b-9, and podocyte injury. High-resolution imaging showed abundant IgG deposition in the expanded glomerular basement membrane, especially in regions corresponding to subepithelial electron dense deposits. FcRn-null and -humanized mice immunized with α3NC1 developed no albuminuria and had lower levels of serum IgG anti-α3NC1 antibodies and reduced glomerular deposition of IgG, antigen, and complement. Our results show that FcRn promotes the formation of subepithelial immune complexes and subsequent glomerular pathology leading to proteinuria, potentially by maintaining higher serum levels of pathogenic IgG antibodies. Therefore, reducing pathogenic IgG levels by pharmacologic inhibition of FcRn may provide a novel approach for the treatment of immune complex–mediated glomerular diseases. As proof of concept, we showed that a peptide inhibiting the interaction between human FcRn and human IgG accelerated the degradation of human IgG anti-α3NC1 autoantibodies injected into FCRN-humanized mice as effectively as genetic ablation of FcRn, thus preventing the glomerular deposition of immune complexes containing human IgG. PMID:24357670

  3. Fc or not Fc; that is the question: Antibody Fc-receptor interactions are key to universal influenza vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Vanderven, Hillary A; Wheatley, Adam K; Kent, Stephen J

    2017-06-03

    A universal vaccine that provides long-lasting protection from both epidemic and pandemic influenza viruses remains the "holy grail" of influenza vaccine research. Though virus neutralization assays are the current benchmark of measuring vaccine effectiveness, it is clear that Fc-receptor functions can drastically improve the effectiveness of antibodies and vaccines in vivo. Antibodies that kill virus-infected cells and/or elicit an antiviral environment, termed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediating antibodies, provide a link between the innate and adaptive immune response. New technologies allowing the rapid isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have yielded a plethora of mAbs which target conserved regions of influenza virus, such as the hemagglutinin (HA) stem region. Many such mAbs have been used to gain a better understanding of Fc-receptor functions in vivo. In parallel, several studies have characterized the induction of polyclonal ADCC following influenza vaccination and infection in humans. Taken together, these studies suggest that ADCC-mediating antibodies (ADCC-Abs) significantly contribute to host immunity against influenza virus and may be a mechanism to exploit for rational vaccine and therapeutic design. We discuss recent research on influenza-specific ADCC and potential future avenues to extend our understanding.

  4. Human Fc. gamma. RIII: Cloning, expression, and identification of the chromosomal locus of two Fc receptors for IgG

    SciTech Connect

    Peltz, G.A.; Moore, K.W. ); Grundy, H.O.; Lebo, R.V.; Barsh, G.S. ); Yssel, H. )

    1989-02-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a human receptor for the Fc portion of IgG Fc{gamma}RIII or CD16, was isolated from a human leukocyte library by a transient expression-immunoselection procedure. This cDNA (pGP5) encodes a 46-kDa phosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface protein with CD16 determinants and affinity for human IgG. The deduced protein sequence is most homologous to the murine receptor Fc{gamma}RII{alpha}, with slightly less homology to the human receptors Fc{gamma}RII and Fc{epsilon}RI. The cDNA hybridizes to a 2.2 kilobase mRNA in human leukocytes and a cloned human natural killer cell line. Fc{gamma}RIII is mapped to chromosome 1 by spot-blot analysis of sorted human chromosomes. Hybridization of Fc{gamma}RII and Fc{gamma}RIII probes to restriction digests of human genomic DNA separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrates physical linkage of the two genes within a maximum distance of 200 kilobases. The results identify a locus for at least two Fc{gamma}R genes on human chromosome 1.

  5. The role of Fc Receptors in HIV Prevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Boesch, Austin W.; Brown, Eric; Ackerman, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, a wealth of experimental evidence has accumulated supporting the importance of Fc receptor (FcR) ligation in antibody-mediated pathology and protection in many disease states. Here we present the diverse evidence base that has accumulated as to the importance of antibody effector functions in the setting of HIV prevention and therapy, including clinical correlates, genetic associations, viral evasion strategies, and a rapidly growing number of compelling animal model experiments. Collectively, this work identifies antibody interactions with FcR as important to both therapeutic and prophylactic strategies involving both passive and active immunity. These findings mirror those in other fields as investigators continue to work toward identifying the right antibodies and the right effectors to be present at the right sites at the right time. PMID:26497529

  6. Monomeric IgG1 Fc molecules displaying unique Fc receptor interactions that are exploitable to treat inflammation-mediated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tianlei; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Weizao; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2014-01-01

    The IgG1 Fc is a dimeric protein that mediates important antibody effector functions by interacting with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) and the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Here, we report the discovery of a monomeric IgG1 Fc (mFc) that bound to FcγRI with very high affinity, but not to FcγRIIIa, in contrast to wild-type (dimeric) Fc. The binding of mFc to FcRn was the same as that of dimeric Fc. To test whether the high-affinity binding to FcγRI can be used for targeting of toxins, a fusion protein of mFc with a 38 kDa Pseudomonas exotoxin A fragment (PE38), was generated. This fusion protein killed FcγRI-positive macrophage-like U937 cells but not FcγRI-negative cells, and mFc or PE38 alone had no killing activity. The lack of binding to FcγRIIIa resulted in the absence of Fc-mediated cytotoxicity of a scFv-mFc fusion protein targeting mesothelin. The pharmacokinetics of mFc in mice was very similar to that of dimeric Fc. The mFc's unique FcγRs binding pattern and related functionality, combined with its small size, monovalency and the preservation of FcRn binding which results in relatively long half-life in vivo, suggests that mFc has great potential as a component of therapeutics targeting inflammation mediated by activated macrophages overexpressing FcγRI and related diseases, including cancer. PMID:25517305

  7. Characterization of the rabbit neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and analyzing the immunophenotype of the transgenic rabbits that overexpresses FcRn.

    PubMed

    Catunda Lemos, Ana Paula; Cervenak, Judit; Bender, Balázs; Hoffmann, Orsolya Ivett; Baranyi, Mária; Kerekes, Andrea; Farkas, Anita; Bosze, Zsuzsanna; Hiripi, László; Kacskovics, Imre

    2012-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) regulates IgG and albumin homeostasis, mediates maternal IgG transport, takes an active role in phagocytosis, and delivers antigen for presentation. We have previously shown that overexpression of FcRn in transgenic mice significantly improves the humoral immune response. Because rabbits are an important source of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, adaptation of our FcRn overexpression technology in this species would bring significant advantages. We cloned the full length cDNA of the rabbit FcRn alpha-chain and found that it is similar to its orthologous analyzed so far. The rabbit FcRn - IgG contact residues are highly conserved, and based on this we predicted pH dependent interaction, which we confirmed by analyzing the pH dependent binding of FcRn to rabbit IgG using yolk sac lysates of rabbit fetuses by Western blot. Using immunohistochemistry, we detected strong FcRn staining in the endodermal cells of the rabbit yolk sac membrane, while the placental trophoblast cells and amnion showed no FcRn staining. Then, using BAC transgenesis we generated transgenic rabbits carrying and overexpressing a 110 kb rabbit genomic fragment encoding the FcRn. These transgenic rabbits--having one extra copy of the FcRn when hemizygous and two extra copies when homozygous--showed improved IgG protection and an augmented humoral immune response when immunized with a variety of different antigens. Our results in these transgenic rabbits demonstrate an increased immune response, similar to what we described in mice, indicating that FcRn overexpression brings significant advantages for the production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.

  8. Characterization of the Rabbit Neonatal Fc Receptor (FcRn) and Analyzing the Immunophenotype of the Transgenic Rabbits That Overexpresses FcRn

    PubMed Central

    Catunda Lemos, Ana Paula; Cervenak, Judit; Bender, Balázs; Hoffmann, Orsolya Ivett; Baranyi, Mária; Kerekes, Andrea; Farkas, Anita; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Hiripi, László; Kacskovics, Imre

    2012-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) regulates IgG and albumin homeostasis, mediates maternal IgG transport, takes an active role in phagocytosis, and delivers antigen for presentation. We have previously shown that overexpression of FcRn in transgenic mice significantly improves the humoral immune response. Because rabbits are an important source of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, adaptation of our FcRn overexpression technology in this species would bring significant advantages. We cloned the full length cDNA of the rabbit FcRn alpha-chain and found that it is similar to its orthologous analyzed so far. The rabbit FcRn - IgG contact residues are highly conserved, and based on this we predicted pH dependent interaction, which we confirmed by analyzing the pH dependent binding of FcRn to rabbit IgG using yolk sac lysates of rabbit fetuses by Western blot. Using immunohistochemistry, we detected strong FcRn staining in the endodermal cells of the rabbit yolk sac membrane, while the placental trophoblast cells and amnion showed no FcRn staining. Then, using BAC transgenesis we generated transgenic rabbits carrying and overexpressing a 110 kb rabbit genomic fragment encoding the FcRn. These transgenic rabbits – having one extra copy of the FcRn when hemizygous and two extra copies when homozygous - showed improved IgG protection and an augmented humoral immune response when immunized with a variety of different antigens. Our results in these transgenic rabbits demonstrate an increased immune response, similar to what we described in mice, indicating that FcRn overexpression brings significant advantages for the production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. PMID:22247762

  9. Evidence that human Fc gamma receptor IIA (CD32) subtypes are not receptors for oxidized LDL.

    PubMed

    Morganelli, P M; Groveman, D S; Pfeiffer, J R

    1997-11-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that clearance of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) immune complexes by macrophage IgG Fc receptors (Fc gamma Rs) plays a role in atherogenesis. Ox-LDL may also be cleared directly by Fc gamma Rs, as shown for murine Fc gamma RII-B2. In humans, the homologous Fc gamma R is Fc gamma RIIA (CD32), which is abundantly expressed on monocytes and macrophages and shares 60% sequence identity with murine Fc gamma RII-B2. As murine Fc gamma RII-B2 and human Fc gamma RIIA also share similar IgG ligand-binding properties, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that human CD32 is a receptor for oxLDL. For these studies we used transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, monocytes, and cell lines that functionally express either of two Fc gamma RIIA subtypes (R131 or H131) and assayed binding or degradation of several preparations of oxLDL. The integrity of all oxLDL preparations was checked by studying their ability to react with CHO cells expressing human type I scavenger receptors and by other characteristics of lipoprotein oxidation. Although we showed that each preparation of oxLDL could recognize class A or class B scavenger receptors, we did not detect any differences in the binding or degradation of any type of oxLDL preparation among control versus CHO cell transfectants. Using monocytes that express Fc gamma RIIA and CD36, we showed that the binding of oxLDL was inhibited by antibodies to CD36, but not by Fc gamma RIIA antibodies. Thus, the data do not support the hypothesis that human Fc gamma RIIA is by itself a receptor for oxLDL. We conclude that human CD32 can mediate uptake of lipoprotein immune complexes, but does not mediate uptake of oxLDL in the absence of anti-oxLDL antibodies. OxLDL may interact with human mononuclear phagocytes directly via other types of receptors, such as class A and class B scavenger receptors or CD68.

  10. Binding site and subclass specificity of the herpes simplex virus type 1-induced Fc receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wiger, D; Michaelsen, T E

    1985-01-01

    Immunoglobulin Fc-binding activity was detected by indirect immunofluorescence employing fluorochrome conjugated F(ab')2 antibody fragments on acetone-fixed cell cultures infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Using this method the Fc receptor-like activity seemed to be restricted to the IgG class of human immunoglobulins. While IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 myeloma proteins bind to this putative Fc gamma receptor at a concentration of 0.002 mg/ml, IgG3 myeloma proteins were without activity at 0.1 mg/ml. The binding activity was associated with the Fc fragments of IgG, while the pFc' fragments of IgG appeared to be unable to bind in this assay system. The reactivity and specificity of the HSV-1 Fc receptor was independent of both the type of tissue culture cells used and the strain of HSV-1 inducing the Fc receptor-like activity. The HSV-1-induced Fc receptor has a similar specificity for human immunoglobulin class and subclasses as staphylococcal Protein A. However, these two Fc receptors exhibit at least one striking difference. The IgG3 G3m(st) protein which binds to Protein A does not bind to HSV-1-induced Fc receptor. A possible reaction site for the HSV-1 Fc receptor on IgG could be at or near Asp 276. Images Figure 1 PMID:2982735

  11. Characterization of the interactions of rabbit neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) with rabbit and human IgG isotypes.

    PubMed

    Szikora, Bence; Hiripi, László; Bender, Balázs; Kacskovics, Imre; Iliás, Attila

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of rabbit as an animal model in pharmacological studies like investigating placental transfer of therapeutic IgGs, little is known about the molecular interaction of the rabbit neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) with rabbit and human IgG molecules. We analyzed the interactions of the rabbit and human FcRn with rabbit and human IgG isotypes using surface plasmon resonance assay. Similar to FcRn of other species, rabbit FcRn functions in pH-dependent manner, as it binds IgGs at pH 6.0, but no binding occurs at pH 7.4. We also showed that rabbit FcRn binds rabbit IgG and human IgG1 with nearly identical affinity, whereas it has stronger interactions with the other human IgG isotypes. The similar affinity of rabbit IgG and human IgG1 for rabbit FcRn was confirmed by in vitro FcRn-mediated recycling assay. These data verify that rabbit is an appropriate animal model for analyzing the pharmacokinetics of human therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

  12. Production of recombinant TRAIL and TRAIL receptor: Fc chimeric proteins.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P

    2000-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/TNF receptor (TNFR) families of ligands and receptors are implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes and regulate cellular functions as diverse as proliferation, differentiation, and death. Recombinant forms of these ligands and receptors can act to agonize or antagonize these functions and are therefore useful for laboratory studies and may have clinical applications. A protocol is presented for the expression and purification of dimeric soluble receptors fused to the Fc portion of human IgG1 and of soluble, N-terminally Flag-tagged ligands. Soluble recombinant proteins are easier to handle than membrane-bound proteins and the use of tags greatly facilitates their detection and purification. In addition, some tags may provide enhanced biological activity to the recombinant proteins (mainly by oligomerization and stabilization effects) and facilitate their functional characterization. Expression in bacterial (for selected ligands) and eukaryotic expression systems (for ligands and receptors) was performed using M15 pREP4 bacteria and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. The yield of purified protein is about 1 mg/liter for the mammalian expression system and several milligrams per liter for the bacterial expression system. Protocols are given for a specific ligand-receptor pair, namely TRAIL (Apo-2L) and TRAIL receptor 2 (DR5), but can be applied to other ligands and receptors of the TNF family.

  13. Of ITIMs, ITAMs, and ITAMis: revisiting immunoglobulin Fc receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Getahun, Andrew; Cambier, John C

    2015-11-01

    Receptors for immunoglobulin Fc regions play multiple critical roles in the immune system, mediating functions as diverse as phagocytosis, triggering degranulation of basophils and mast cells, promoting immunoglobulin class switching, and preventing excessive activation. Transmembrane signaling associated with these functions is mediated primarily by two amino acid sequence motifs, ITAMs (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs) and ITIMs (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs) that act as the receptors' interface with activating and inhibitory signaling pathways, respectively. While ITAMs mobilize activating tyrosine kinases and their consorts, ITIMs mobilize opposing tyrosine and inositol-lipid phosphatases. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of signaling by these receptors/motifs and their sometimes blurred lines of function.

  14. Monovalent Fc receptor blockade by an anti-Fcγ receptor/albumin fusion protein ameliorates murine ITP with abrogated toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaojie; Menard, Melissa; Prechl, József; Bhakta, Varsha; Sheffield, William P; Lazarus, Alan H

    2016-01-07

    Patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) commonly have antiplatelet antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia through Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). Antibodies specific for FcγRs, designed to inhibit antibody-FcγR interaction, had been shown to improve ITP in refractory human patients. However, the development of such FcγR-specific antibodies has stalled because of adverse events, a phenomenon recapitulated in mouse models. One hypothesis behind these adverse events involved the function of the Fc region of the antibody, which engages FcγRs, leading to inflammatory responses. Unfortunately, inhibition of Fc function by deglycosylation failed to prevent this inflammatory response. In this work, we hypothesize that the bivalent antigen-binding fragment regions of immunoglobulin G are sufficient to trigger adverse events and have reasoned that designing a monovalent targeting strategy could circumvent the inflammatory response. To this end, we generated a fusion protein comprising a monovalent human FcγRIIIA-specific antibody linked in tandem to human serum albumin, which retained FcγR-binding activity in vitro. To evaluate clinically relevant in vivo FcγR-blocking function and inflammatory effects, we generated a murine version targeting the murine FcγRIII linked to murine albumin in a passive murine ITP model. Monovalent blocking of FcγR function dramatically inhibited antibody-dependent murine ITP and successfully circumvented the inflammatory response as assessed by changes in body temperature, basophil activation, and basophil depletion. Consistent with our hypothesis, in vivo cross-linking of the fusion protein induced these inflammatory effects, recapitulating the adverse events of the parent antibody. Thus, monovalent blocking of FcγR function demonstrates a proof of concept to successfully treat FcγR-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  15. Crystal Structure of the HSV-1 Fc Receptor Bound to Fc Reveals a Mechanism for Antibody Bipolar Bridging

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, E.R.; Wang, C.; Baker, D.; Bjorkman, P.J.; /Caltech /Howard Hughes Med. Inst.

    2007-08-08

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 expresses a heterodimeric Fc receptor, gE-gI, on the surfaces of virions and infected cells that binds the Fc region of host immunoglobulin G and is implicated in the cell-to-cell spread of virus. gE-gI binds immunoglobulin G at the basic pH of the cell surface and releases it at the acidic pH of lysosomes, consistent with a role in facilitating the degradation of antiviral antibodies. Here we identify the C-terminal domain of the gE ectodomain (CgE) as the minimal Fc-binding domain and present a 1.78-{angstrom} CgE structure. A 5-{angstrom} gE-gI/Fc crystal structure, which was independently verified by a theoretical prediction method, reveals that CgE binds Fc at the C{sub H}2-C{sub H}3 interface, the binding site for several mammalian and bacterial Fc-binding proteins. The structure identifies interface histidines that may confer pH-dependent binding and regions of CgE implicated in cell-to-cell spread of virus. The ternary organization of the gE-gI/Fc complex is compatible with antibody bipolar bridging, which can interfere with the antiviral immune response.

  16. Fc receptor targeting in the treatment of allergy, autoimmune diseases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akira; Kubo, Tomohiro; Takai, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Fc receptors (FcRs) play an important role in the maintenance of an adequate activation threshold of various cells in antibody-mediated immune responses. Analyses of murine models show that the inhibitory FcR, FcyRIIB plays a pivotal role in the suppression of antibody-mediated allergy and autoimmunity. On the other hand, the activating-type FcRs are essential for the development of these diseases, suggesting that regulation of inhibitory or activating FcR is an ideal target for a therapeutic agent. Recent experimental or clinical studies also indicate that FcRs function as key receptors in the treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) therapy. This review summarizes FcR functions and highlights possible FcR-targeting therapies including mAb therapies for allergy, autoimmune diseases and cancer.

  17. Computational modeling of the Fc αRI receptor binding in the Fc α domain of the human antibody IgA: Normal Modes Analysis (NMA) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasinghe, Manori; Posgai, Monica; Tonddast-Navaei, Sam; Ibrahim, George; Stan, George; Herr, Andrew; George Stan Group Collaboration; Herr's Group Team

    2014-03-01

    Fc αRI receptor binding in the Fc α domain of the antibody IgA triggers immune effector responses such as phagocytosis and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells. Fc α is a dimer of heavy chains of the IgA antibody and each Fc α heavy chain which consisted of two immunoglobulin constant domains, CH2 and CH3, can bind one Fc αRI molecule at the CH2-CH3 interface forming a 2:1 stoichiometry. Experimental evidences confirmed that Fc αRI binding to the Fc α CH2-CH3 junction altered the kinetics of HAA lectin binding at the distant IgA1 hinge. Our focus in this research was to understand the conformational changes and the network of residues which co-ordinate the receptor binding dynamics of the Fc α dimer complex. Structure-based elastic network modeling was used to compute normal modes of distinct Fc α configurations. Asymmetric and un-liganded Fc α configurations were obtained from the high resolution crystal structure of Fc α-Fc αRI 2:1 symmetric complex of PDB ID 1OW0. Our findings confirmed that Fc αRI binding, either in asymmetric or symmetric complex with Fc α, propagated long-range conformational changes across the Fc domains, potentially also impacting the distant IgA1 hinge.

  18. Science Signaling Podcast for 20 December 2016: Trans-inhibition by Fc receptors.

    PubMed

    Daëron, Marc; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2016-12-20

    This Podcast features an interview with Marc Daëron, author of a Research Article that appears in the 20 December 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about a mechanism by which an Fc receptor can inhibit signaling by other receptors without aggregating with those other receptors. Engagement of Fc receptors on basophils and mast cells can either activate these cells, which promotes autoimmune and allergic inflammation, or prevent these cells from being activated. Whether these cells are activated depends upon which Fc receptors are present in clusters, because some Fc receptors can inhibit signaling by other Fc receptors that are present in the same signalosome, a phenomenon known as cis-inhibition. Malbec et al. identified a mechanism whereby inhibitory Fc receptors limit signaling by activating Fc receptors without being present in the same signalosome. This mechanism of trans-inhibition also allowed inhibitory Fc receptors to limit signaling by growth factor receptors in mast cells and oncogene-induced proliferation in mastocytoma cells.Listen to Podcast. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Certolizumab pegol does not bind the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn): Consequences for FcRn-mediated in vitro transcytosis and ex vivo human placental transfer.

    PubMed

    Porter, Charlene; Armstrong-Fisher, Sylvia; Kopotsha, Tim; Smith, Bryan; Baker, Terry; Kevorkian, Lara; Nesbitt, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) are used to treat inflammatory diseases, which often affect women of childbearing age. The active transfer of these antibodies across the placenta by binding of the Fc-region to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) may result in adverse fetal or neonatal effects. In contrast to other anti-TNFs, certolizumab pegol lacks an Fc-region. The objective of this study was to determine whether the structure of certolizumab pegol limits active placental transfer. Binding affinities of certolizumab pegol, infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept to human FcRn and FcRn-mediated transcytosis were determined using in vitro assays. Human placentas were perfused ex vivo to measure transfer of certolizumab pegol and positive control anti-D IgG from the maternal to fetal circulation. FcRn binding affinity (KD) was 132nM, 225nM and 1500nM for infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept, respectively. There was no measurable certolizumab pegol binding affinity, similar to that of the negative control. FcRn-mediated transcytosis across a cell layer (mean±SD; n=3) was 249.6±25.0 (infliximab), 159.0±20.2 (adalimumab) and 81.3±13.1ng/mL (etanercept). Certolizumab pegol transcytosis (3.2±3.4ng/mL) was less than the negative control antibody (5.9±4.6ng/mL). No measurable transfer of certolizumab pegol from the maternal to the fetal circulation was observed in 5 out of 6 placentas that demonstrated positive-control IgG transport in the ex vivo perfusion model. Together these results support the hypothesis that the unique structure of certolizumab pegol limits its transfer through the placenta to the fetus and may be responsible for previously reported differences in transfer of other anti-TNFs from mother to fetus.

  20. Dissection of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-albumin interface using mutagenesis and anti-FcRn albumin-blocking antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sand, Kine Marita Knudsen; Dalhus, Bjørn; Christianson, Gregory J; Bern, Malin; Foss, Stian; Cameron, Jason; Sleep, Darrell; Bjørås, Magnar; Roopenian, Derry C; Sandlie, Inger; Andersen, Jan Terje

    2014-06-13

    Albumin is the most abundant protein in blood and plays a pivotal role as a multitransporter of a wide range of molecules such as fatty acids, metabolites, hormones, and toxins. In addition, it binds a variety of drugs. Its role as distributor is supported by its extraordinary serum half-life of 3 weeks. This is related to its size and binding to the cellular receptor FcRn, which rescues albumin from intracellular degradation. Furthermore, the long half-life has fostered a great and increasing interest in utilization of albumin as a carrier of protein therapeutics and chemical drugs. However, to fully understand how FcRn acts as a regulator of albumin homeostasis and to take advantage of the FcRn-albumin interaction in drug design, the interaction interface needs to be dissected. Here, we used a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed towards human FcRn in combination with site-directed mutagenesis and structural modeling to unmask the binding sites for albumin blocking antibodies and albumin on the receptor, which revealed that the interaction is not only strictly pH-dependent, but predominantly hydrophobic in nature. Specifically, we provide mechanistic evidence for a crucial role of a cluster of conserved tryptophan residues that expose a pH-sensitive loop of FcRn, and identify structural differences in proximity to these hot spot residues that explain divergent cross-species binding properties of FcRn. Our findings expand our knowledge of how FcRn is controlling albumin homeostasis at a molecular level, which will guide design and engineering of novel albumin variants with altered transport properties.

  1. Fc receptors as potential targets for the treatment of allergy, autoimmune disease and cancer.

    PubMed

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Akira; Akiyama, Kenichi

    2003-09-01

    The activation threshold of various cells in the immune system is tuned by immune inhibitory receptors. The inhibitory Fc receptor, FcgammaRIIB, is one of the critical elements for keeping immune cells silent. Murine models for allergic responses and autoimmune diseases illustrate the indispensable roles of FcgammaRIIB in the suppression of these immune disorders. On the contrary, activating-type Fc receptors are crucial for the onset and exacerbation of such diseases. In addition, recent reports have revealed the pivotal roles of Fc receptors in enhancing antigen presentation by dendritic cells, which leads to efficient major histocompatibility complex class I- and class II-restricted T cell activation. In this context, anti-cancer immunopotentiation could be augmented by targeting the tumor antigens to Fc receptors on dendritic cells. This review summarizes recent advances in Fc receptor biomedicine in light of exploiting them as potential therapeutic targets for allergy, autoimmune disease and cancer.

  2. Neuraminidase treatment of human T lymphocytes: effect on Fc receptor phenotype and function.

    PubMed Central

    Schulof, R S; Fernandes, G; Good, R A; Gupta, S

    1980-01-01

    Purified peripheral blood T cells or T mu cells from normal healthy donors were treated in vitro with neuraminidase and examined for the expression of IgM Fc and IgG Fc receptors. Increasing concentrations of neuraminidase selectively removed IgM Fc receptors, whereas the number of T cells expressing IgG Fc receptors was significantly increased. Following neuraminidase treatment, IgM Fc receptors could be regenerated by reincubation of T cells at 37 degrees C. The regeneration of IgM Fc receptors could be blocked by treatment with cycloheximide. Neuraminidase treatment of purified T mu cells resulted in the expression of IgG Fc receptors on a subpopulation of T mu lymphocytes. A small percentage of the neuraminidase-treated T cells expressed receptors for both IgG and IgM. Treatment of T cells with neuraminidase did not effect T cell-mediated spontaneous cytotoxicity (SLMC) or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Our results indicate that T cell Fc receptor phenotypes can be modulated in vitro without significantly altering their functional capacity. PMID:6968261

  3. Mutations in an avian IgY-Fc fragment reveal the locations of monocyte Fc receptor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alexander I.; Sutton, Brian J.; Calvert, Rosaleen A.

    2010-01-01

    The avian IgY antibody isotype shares a common ancestor with both mammalian IgG and IgE and so provides a means to study the evolution of their structural and functional specialisations. Although both IgG and IgE bind to their leukocyte Fc receptors with 1:1 stoichiometry, IgY binds to CHIR-AB1, a receptor expressed in avian monocytes, with 2:1 stoichiometry. The mutagenesis data reported here explain the structural basis for this difference, mapping the CHIR-AB1 binding site to the Cυ3/Cυ4 interface and not the N-terminal region of Cυ3 where, at equivalent locations, the IgG and IgE leukocyte Fc receptor binding sites lie. This finding, together with the phylogenetic relationship of the antibodies and their receptors, indicates that a substantial shift in the nature of Fc receptor binding occurred during the evolution of mammalian IgG and IgE. PMID:19733585

  4. Fc receptor targeting in the treatment of allergy, autoimmune diseases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akira; Akiyama, Kenichi; Takai, Toshiyuki

    2005-02-01

    Immune activation and inhibitory receptors play an important role in the maintenance of an adequate activation threshold of various cells in our immune system. Analyses of murine models show that the inhibitory Fcreceptor, FcgammaRIIB plays an indispensable role in the suppression of anti-body-mediated allergy and autoimmunity. In contrast, the activating-type Fcreceptors (FcRs) are essential for the development of these diseases, suggesting that regulation of inhibitory or activating FcR is an ideal target as a therapeutic agent. In addition, recent crystal structural analyses of FcR-Ig-Fc fragment complexes provide an effective approach for developing FcR-targeting drugs. This review summarises recent advances of FcR, which were mainly obtained by murine studies, and highlights novel antibodies as possible FcR-targeting therapies for allergy, autoimmune diseases and cancer.

  5. Fc-gamma receptors: Attractive targets for autoimmune drug discovery searching for intelligent therapeutic designs.

    PubMed

    Bosques, Carlos J; Manning, Anthony M

    2016-11-01

    Autoantibody immune complexes (ICs) mediate pathogenesis in multiple autoimmune diseases via direct interference with target function, complement fixation, and interaction with Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs). Through high avidity interactions, ICs are able to crosslink low affinity FcγRs expressed on a wide variety of effector cells, leading to secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and inducing cytotoxicity, ultimately resulting in tissue injury. Given their relevance in numerous autoimmune diseases, FcγRs have been considered as attractive therapeutic targets for the last three decades. However, a limited number of investigational drug candidates have been developed targeting FcγRs and only a few approved therapeutics have been associated with impacting FcγRs. This review provides a historical overview of the different therapeutic approaches used to target FcγRs for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extending serum half-life of albumin by engineering neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binding.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jan Terje; Dalhus, Bjørn; Viuff, Dorthe; Ravn, Birgitte Thue; Gunnarsen, Kristin Støen; Plumridge, Andrew; Bunting, Karen; Antunes, Filipa; Williamson, Rebecca; Athwal, Steven; Allan, Elizabeth; Evans, Leslie; Bjørås, Magnar; Kjærulff, Søren; Sleep, Darrell; Sandlie, Inger; Cameron, Jason

    2014-05-09

    A major challenge for the therapeutic use of many peptides and proteins is their short circulatory half-life. Albumin has an extended serum half-life of 3 weeks because of its size and FcRn-mediated recycling that prevents intracellular degradation, properties shared with IgG antibodies. Engineering the strictly pH-dependent IgG-FcRn interaction is known to extend IgG half-life. However, this principle has not been extensively explored for albumin. We have engineered human albumin by introducing single point mutations in the C-terminal end that generated a panel of variants with greatly improved affinities for FcRn. One variant (K573P) with 12-fold improved affinity showed extended serum half-life in normal mice, mice transgenic for human FcRn, and cynomolgus monkeys. Importantly, favorable binding to FcRn was maintained when a single-chain fragment variable antibody was genetically fused to either the N- or the C-terminal end. The engineered albumin variants may be attractive for improving the serum half-life of biopharmaceuticals.

  7. The Role of CD38 in Fcγ Receptor (FcγR)-mediated Phagocytosis in Murine Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, John; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Han, Myung-Kwan; Kim, Uh-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a crucial event in the immune system that allows cells to engulf and eliminate pathogens. This is mediated through the action of immunoglobulin (IgG)-opsonized microbes acting on Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on macrophages, which results in sustained levels of intracellular Ca2+ through the mobilization of Ca2+ second messengers. It is known that the ADP-ribosyl cyclase is responsible for the rise in Ca2+ levels after FcγR activation. However, it is unclear whether and how CD38 is involved in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. Here we show that CD38 is recruited to the forming phagosomes during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized particles and produces cyclic-ADP-ribose, which acts on ER Ca2+ stores, thus allowing an increase in FcγR activation-mediated phagocytosis. Ca2+ data show that pretreatment of J774A.1 macrophages with 8-bromo-cADPR, ryanodine, blebbistatin, and various store-operated Ca2+ inhibitors prevented the long-lasting Ca2+ signal, which significantly reduced the number of ingested opsonized particles. Ex vivo data with macrophages extracted from CD38−/− mice also shows a reduced Ca2+ signaling and phagocytic index. Furthermore, a significantly reduced phagocytic index of Mycobacterium bovis BCG was shown in macrophages from CD38−/− mice in vivo. This study suggests a crucial role of CD38 in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis through its recruitment to the phagosome and mobilization of cADPR-induced intracellular Ca2+ and store-operated extracellular Ca2+ influx. PMID:22396532

  8. Qualification of a homogeneous cell-based neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binding assay and its application to studies on Fc functionality of IgG-based therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Abhishek; Arora, Taruna; Liu, Ling; Crouse-Zeineddini, Jill; Mukku, Venkat

    2013-04-30

    The Fc region of IgG-based molecules plays an important role in determining their in vivo pharmacokinetic profile by its pH-dependent binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) which is expressed on the endothelial cells lining blood vessels. By virtue of this pH-specific interaction with IgG-Fc, FcRn mediates IgG homeostasis in human adults by maintaining serum IgG levels, and also transfers maternal IgGs from mother to fetus via the placenta. The Fc-FcRn interaction is also critical for keeping IgG-based therapeutic molecules in circulation thereby enhancing their serum half life. A homogeneous cell-based flow cytometric FcRn binding assay was established to characterize the Fc-FcRn interaction of therapeutic IgG-based molecules. It is a competition-based assay, wherein the IgG-Fc containing test molecule competes with a fixed concentration of fluorescently-labeled IgG-Fc moiety in solution for binding to the cell-expressed FcRn. The cell-bound fluorescence is read on a flow cytometer. Response of the test sample is analyzed relative to the standard sample and the results are reported as % relative binding. The assay is robust and meets the qualification criteria for specificity, method linearity, accuracy and precision over the relative binding range of 60%-160%. This assay was shown to effectively characterize altered Fc-FcRn interactions for photo-stressed, heat-stressed, oxidized, and Fc mutant samples. It was observed that the relative binding of the IgG-Fc to the cell-surface-expressed FcRn in the assay varies across different molecules, even within the same IgG subclass. This indicates that the Fc-FcRn binding can be influenced by the antigen-binding region of the molecules in addition to the IgG subclass. Overall, this assay is reflective of the in vivo mechanism of immunoglobulin binding to membrane-bound FcRn, and can be used as an analytical tool for assessing lot-to-lot consistency and stability testing across different batches of the same molecule

  9. Fc receptors in antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adam; Foo, Suan-Sin; Bruzzone, Roberto; Dinh, Luan Vu; King, Nicholas J C; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2015-11-01

    Sensitization of the humoral immune response to invading viruses and production of antiviral antibodies forms part of the host antiviral repertoire. Paradoxically, for a number of viral pathogens, under certain conditions, antibodies provide an attractive means of enhanced virus entry and replication in a number of cell types. Known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, the phenomenon occurs when virus-antibody immunocomplexes interact with cells bearing complement or Fc receptors, promoting internalization of the virus and increasing infection. Frequently associated with exacerbation of viral disease, ADE of infection presents a major obstacle to the prevention of viral disease by vaccination and is thought to be partly responsible for the adverse effects of novel antiviral therapeutics such as intravenous immunoglobulins. There is a growing body of work examining the intracellular signaling pathways and epitopes responsible for mediating ADE, with a view to aiding rational design of antiviral strategies. With in vitro studies also confirming ADE as a feature of infection for a growing number of viruses, challenges remain in understanding the multilayered molecular mechanisms of ADE and its effect on viral pathogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Influence of cadmium on isolated peritoneal macrophage populations: cadmium inhibits Fc receptor internalization

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro experiments were performed to examine the effect of cadmium on adherent phagocytic cell populations. The authors were able to demonstrate, in vitro, a phagocytic defect that was originally observed in an in vivo system. Using in vitro methodologies, cadmium was found to inhibit opsonin-dependent but not opsonin-independent phagocytosis in two different populations of macrophages. The receptors through which the opsonized /sup 51/Cr-ElgG were internalized were characterized as Fc receptors. They were able to demonstrate that cadmium could reversibly inhibit internalization of Fc receptors. This mechanism, rather than an alteration of the receptors' binding capabilities, was responsible for the observed inhibition of Fc mediated (opsonin-dependent) phagocytosis in both populations of macrophages tested. The defect was not specific for cadmium per se. Zinc treatment caused a similar inhibition of Fc receptor mediated phagocytosis.

  11. The Neonatal Fc Receptor (FcRn) Enhances Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Transcytosis across Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep; Gach, Johannes S.; Becerra, Juan C.; Phan, Tran B.; Pudney, Jeffrey; Moldoveanu, Zina; Joseph, Sarah B.; Landucci, Gary; Supnet, Medalyn Jude; Ping, Li-Hua; Corti, Davide; Moldt, Brian; Hel, Zdenek; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Ruprecht, Ruth M.; Burton, Dennis R.; Mestecky, Jiri; Anderson, Deborah J.; Forthal, Donald N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) crosses mucosal surfaces to establish infection are unknown. Acidic genital secretions of HIV-1-infected women contain HIV-1 likely coated by antibody. We found that the combination of acidic pH and Env-specific IgG, including that from cervicovaginal and seminal fluids of HIV-1-infected individuals, augmented transcytosis across epithelial cells as much as 20-fold compared with Env-specific IgG at neutral pH or non-specific IgG at either pH. Enhanced transcytosis was observed with clinical HIV-1 isolates, including transmitted/founder strains, and was eliminated in Fc neonatal receptor (FcRn)-knockdown epithelial cells. Non-neutralizing antibodies allowed similar or less transcytosis than neutralizing antibodies. However, the ratio of total:infectious virus was higher for neutralizing antibodies, indicating that they allowed transcytosis while blocking infectivity of transcytosed virus. Immunocytochemistry revealed abundant FcRn expression in columnar epithelia lining the human endocervix and penile urethra. Acidity and Env-specific IgG enhance transcytosis of virus across epithelial cells via FcRn and could facilitate translocation of virus to susceptible target cells following sexual exposure. PMID:24278022

  12. Fc gamma receptor III on human neutrophils. Allelic variants have functionally distinct capacities.

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, J E; Edberg, J C; Kimberly, R P

    1990-01-01

    As a model system to explore the functional consequences of structural variants of human Fc gamma receptors (Fc gamma R), we have investigated Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis in relation to the NA1-NA2 polymorphism of Fc gamma RIII (CD16) on neutrophils (Fc gamma RIIIPMN). The neutrophil-specific NA antigen system is a biallelic polymorphism with codominant expression demonstrating a gene dose effect with the anti-NA1 MAb CLB-gran 11 in a large donor population. To explore the impact of this allelic variation of Fc gamma RIIIPMN on phagocytosis, we used two Fc gamma RIII-dependent probes, IgG-sensitized erythrocytes (EA) and concanavalin. A-treated erythrocytes (E-ConA). Comparison of Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis by PMN from NA1 subjects and from NA2 subjects showed lower levels of phagocytosis of both probes by the NA2 individuals. The difference was most pronounced with lightly opsonized EA: at the lowest level of sensitization the phagocytic index was 72% lower for NA2 donors, whereas at the highest level of sensitization it was 21% lower (P less than 0.003). Blockade of Fc gamma RII with MAb IV.3 Fab amplified by threefold the difference between NA1 and NA2 donors. NA1 and NA2 individuals had identical phagocytic capacities for the non-Fc gamma RIII probes, serum-treated and heat-treated zymosan. These individuals did not show differential quantitative cell surface expression of Fc gamma RIIIPMN measured by a panel of anti-CD16 MAb (3G8, CLB FcR-gran 1, VEP13, BW209/2) and by Scatchard analysis of 125I-IgG dimer binding. The difference in Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis was not explicable on the basis of differential collaboration of Fc gamma RIIIPMN alleles with Fc gamma RII, since (a) the difference in phagocytic capacity between NA1 and NA2 individuals was readily apparent with the E-ConA probe (which is independent of Fc gamma RII) and (b) the difference in phagocytosis of EA was magnified by Fc gamma RII blockade. The demonstration that allelic

  13. Comparison of various tests for Fc receptors on different human lymphocyte sub populations.

    PubMed

    Winchester, R J; Hoffman, T; Ferrarini, M; Ross, G D; Kunkel, H G

    1979-07-01

    Six different immune complex test systems for the detection of IgG Fc receptors were applied to the study of various human lymphocyte populations. The extent of binding varied widely according to the system and the cell type employed. Two systems bound preferentially to a high proportion of B lymphocytes from peripheral blood or tonsils, one of which bound with only a very few T cells. In contrast, four other test systems which bound well with the Fc receptors on T lymphocytes gave weaker reactions with Fc receptors on B cells. The reactivity of Fc receptors on null or third population lymphocytes was similar to that of the Fc-positive T cells. Pronase digestion experiments showed a graded selective loss of reactivity with the different Fc reagents. No one system was optimal for all of the lymphocyte populations, although aggregated IgG exhibited the broadest spectrum of reactivity. A pronounced effect of temperature was evident on the binding reactions, and native IgG showed strong binding at 4 degrees C, particularly to the Fc receptors on T cells.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Human Neonatal Fc Receptor (FcRn) Tissue Expression in Transgenic Mice by Online Peptide Immuno-Affinity LC-HRMS.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yao-Yun; Neubert, Hendrik

    2016-04-19

    Neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is the homeostatic receptor responsible for the long half-life of endogenous IgG by protecting it from lysosomal degradation. Understanding systemic FcRn tissue expression is important to predict and design the half-life of therapeutic antibodies and Fc-coupled biotherapeutics. To this end, we measured human FcRn (hFcRn) tissue expression in Tg32, a human FcRn knock-in transgenic mouse model, for which a strong correlation of drug clearance to humans has been demonstrated. Building an hFcRn tissue expression profile in Tg32 was enabled by the development of a tissue preparation procedure composed of bead-based protein extraction and protein precipitation using acetone followed by pellet digestion with trypsin. Digests were then loaded onto an online peptide immuno-affinity flow configuration hyphenated with reversed phase nanoflow chromatography and coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry to quantify hFcRn derived peptides. The workflow allowed bypassing some of the challenges typically associated with membrane protein analysis. We demonstrated acceptable precision and bias for measuring hFcRn in tissue matrices, typically within 20% coefficient of variation and relative error. We also report hFcRn expression in several Tg32 tissues. We anticipate that establishing a quantitative approach for hFcRn in tissues will enable the systematic measurement of hFcRn concentrations to further increase the accuracy of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for PK prediction of Fc-containing biotherapeutics. This is anticipated to improve the translation of pharmacokinetic data from preclinical model systems to humans.

  15. Modulation of Microglial Cell Fcγ Receptor Expression Following Viral Brain Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Priyanka; Hu, Shuxian; Sheng, Wen S.; Prasad, Sujata; Lokensgard, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) for IgG couple innate and adaptive immunity through activation of effector cells by antigen-antibody complexes. We investigated relative levels of activating and inhibitory FcγRs on brain-resident microglia following murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Flow cytometric analysis of microglial cells obtained from infected brain tissue demonstrated that activating FcγRs were expressed maximally at 5 d post-infection (dpi), while the inhibitory receptor (FcγRIIB) remained highly elevated during both acute and chronic phases of infection. The highly induced expression of activating FcγRIV during the acute phase of infection was also noteworthy. Furthermore, in vitro analysis using cultured primary microglia demonstrated the role of interferon (IFN)γ and interleukin (IL)-4 in polarizing these cells towards a M1 or M2 phenotype, respectively. Microglial cell-polarization correlated with maximal expression of either FcγRIV or FcγRIIB following stimulation with IFNγ or IL-4, respectively. Finally, we observed a significant delay in polarization of microglia towards an M2 phenotype in the absence of FcγRs in MCMV-infected Fcer1g and FcgR2b knockout mice. These studies demonstrate that neuro-inflammation following viral infection increases expression of activating FcγRs on M1-polarized microglia. In contrast, expression of the inhibitory FcγRIIB receptor promotes M2-polarization in order to shut-down deleterious immune responses and limit bystander brain damage. PMID:28165503

  16. X-ray Crystal Structures of Monomeric and Dimeric Peptide Inhibitors in Complex with the Human Neonatal Fc Receptor, FcRn

    SciTech Connect

    Mezo, Adam R.; Sridhar, Vandana; Badger, John; Sakorafas, Paul; Nienaber, Vicki

    2010-10-28

    The neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, is responsible for the long half-life of IgG molecules in vivo and is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. A family of peptides comprising the consensus motif GHFGGXY, where X is preferably a hydrophobic amino acid, was shown previously to inhibit the human IgG:human FcRn protein-protein interaction (Mezo, A. R., McDonnell, K. A., Tan Hehir, C. A., Low, S. C., Palombella, V. J., Stattel, J. M., Kamphaus, G. D., Fraley, C., Zhang, Y., Dumont, J. A., and Bitonti, A. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 105, 2337-2342). Herein, the x-ray crystal structure of a representative monomeric peptide in complex with human FcRn was solved to 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure shows that the peptide binds to human FcRn at the same general binding site as does the Fc domain of IgG. The data correlate well with structure-activity relationship data relating to how the peptide family binds to human FcRn. In addition, the x-ray crystal structure of a representative dimeric peptide in complex with human FcRn shows how the bivalent ligand can bridge two FcRn molecules, which may be relevant to the mechanism by which the dimeric peptides inhibit FcRn and increase IgG catabolism in vivo. Modeling of the peptide:FcRn structure as compared with available structural data on Fc and FcRn suggest that the His-6 and Phe-7 (peptide) partially mimic the interaction of His-310 and Ile-253 (Fc) in binding to FcRn, but using a different backbone topology.

  17. The Fc and not CD4 Receptor Mediates Antibody Enhancement of HIV Infection in Human Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homsy, Jacques; Meyer, Mia; Tateno, Masatoshi; Clarkson, Sarah; Levy, Jay A.

    1989-06-01

    Antibodies that enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity have been found in the blood of infected individuals and in infected or immunized animals. These findings raise serious concern for the development of a safe vaccine against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To address the in vivo relevance and mechanism of this phenomenon, antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infectivity in peripheral blood macrophages, lymphocytes, and human fibroblastoid cells was studied. Neither Leu3a, a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD4 receptor, nor soluble recombinant CD4 even at high concentrations prevented this enhancement. The addition of monoclonal antibody to the Fc receptor III (anti-FcRIII), but not of antibodies that react with FcRI or FcRII, inhibited HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 enhancement in peripheral blood macrophages. Although enhancement of HIV infection in CD4+ lymphocytes could not be blocked by anti-FcRIII, it was inhibited by the addition of human immunoglobulin G aggregates. The results indicate that the FcRIII receptor on human macrophages and possibly another Fc receptor on human CD4+ lymphocytes mediate antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infectivity and that this phenomenon proceeds through a mechanism independent of the CD4 protein.

  18. Ecto-Fc MS identifies ligand-receptor interactions through extracellular domain Fc fusion protein baits and shotgun proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Jeffrey N.; De Wit, Joris; Comoletti, Davide; Zemla, Roland; Ghosh, Anirvan

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-receptor interactions represent essential biological triggers which regulate many diverse and important cellular processes. We have developed a discovery-based proteomic biochemical protocol which couples affinity purification with multidimensional liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LCLC-MS/MS) and bioinformatic analysis. Compared to previous approaches, our analysis increases sensitivity, shortens analysis duration, and boosts comprehensiveness. In this protocol, receptor extracellular domains are fused with the Fc region of IgG to generate fusion proteins that are purified from transfected HEK293T cells. These “ecto-Fcs” are coupled to protein A beads and serve as baits for binding assays with prey proteins extracted from rodent brain. After capture, the affinity purified proteins are digested into peptides and comprehensively analyzed by LCLC-MS/MS with ion trap mass spectrometers. In four working days, this protocol can generate shortlists of candidate ligand-receptor protein-protein interactions. Our “Ecto-Fc MS” approach outperforms antibody-based approaches and provides a reproducible and robust framework to identify extracellular ligand – receptor interactions. PMID:25101821

  19. Utilization of Fc receptors as a mucosal vaccine strategy against an intracellular bacterium, Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Rawool, Deepak B; Bitsaktsis, Constantine; Li, Ying; Gosselin, Diane R; Lin, Yili; Kurkure, Nitin V; Metzger, Dennis W; Gosselin, Edmund J

    2008-04-15

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that targeting Ag to Fc receptors (FcR) on APCs can enhance humoral and cellular immunity. However, studies are lacking that examine both the use of FcR-targeting in generating immune protection against infectious agents and the use of FcRs in the induction of mucosal immunity. Francisella tularensis is a category A intracellular mucosal pathogen. Thus, intense efforts are underway to develop a vaccine against this organism. We hypothesized that protection against mucosal infection with F. tularensis would be significantly enhanced by targeting inactivated F. tularensis live vaccine strain (iFt) to FcRs at mucosal sites, via intranasal immunization with mAb-iFt complexes. These studies demonstrate for the first time that: 1) FcR-targeted immunogen enhances immunogen-specific IgA production and protection against subsequent infection in an IgA-dependent manner, 2) FcgammaR and neonatal FcR are crucial to this protection, and 3) inactivated F. tularensis, when targeted to FcRs, enhances protection against the highly virulent SchuS4 strain of F. tularensis, a category A biothreat agent. In summary, these studies show for the first time the use of FcRs as a highly effective vaccination strategy against a highly virulent mucosal intracellular pathogen.

  20. A strategy for bacterial production of a soluble functional human neonatal Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jan Terje; Justesen, Sune; Berntzen, Gøril; Michaelsen, Terje E; Lauvrak, Vigdis; Fleckenstein, Burkhard; Buus, Søren; Sandlie, Inger

    2008-02-29

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I related receptor, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), rescues immunoglobulin G (IgG) and albumin from lysosomal degradation by recycling in endothelial cells. FcRn also contributes to passive immunity by mediating transport of IgG from mother to fetus (human) or newborn (rodents), and may translocate IgG over mucosal surfaces. FcRn interacts with the Fc-region of IgG and domain III of albumin with binding at pH 6.0 and release at pH 7.4. Knowledge of these interactions has facilitated design of recombinant proteins with altered serum half-lives and/or altered biodistribution. To generate further research in this field, there is a great need for large amounts of soluble human FcRn (shFcRn) for in vitro interaction studies. In this report, we describe a novel laboratory scale production of functional shFcRn in Escherichia coli (E. coli) at milligram level. Truncated wild type hFcRn heavy chains were expressed, extracted, purified from inclusion bodies under denaturing non-reducing conditions, and subsequently refolded in the presence of human beta(2)-microglobulin (hbeta(2)m). The secondary structural elements of refolded heterodimeric shFcRn were correctly formed as demonstrated by circular dichroism (CD). Furthermore, functional and stringent pH dependent binding to IgG and human serum albumin were demonstrated by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This method may be easily adapted for the expression of large amounts of other FcRn species and MHC class I related molecules.

  1. Allelic Dependent Expression of an Activating Fc receptor on B cells Enhances Humoral Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinrui; Wu, Jianming; Ptacek, Travis; Redden, David T; Brown, Elizabeth E; Alarcón, Graciela S; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle A; Reveille, John D.; Kaslow, Richard A; Kimberly, Robert P; Edberg, Jeffrey C

    2014-01-01

    B cells are pivotal regulators of acquired immune responses and recent work in both experimental murine models and humans has demonstrated that subtle changes in the regulation of B cell function can significantly alter immunological responses. The balance of negative and positive signals in maintaining an appropriate B cell activation threshold is critical in B lymphocyte immune tolerance and autoreactivity. FcγRIIb (CD32B), the only recognized Fcγ receptor on B cells, provides IgG-mediated negative modulation through a tyrosine-based inhibition motif which down-regulates B cell receptor initiated signaling. These properties make FcγRIIb a promising target for antibody-based therapy. Here we report the discovery of allele-dependent expression of the activating FcγRIIc on B cells. Identical to FcγRIIb in the extracellular domain, FcγRIIc has a tyrosine-based activation motif in its cytoplasmic domain. In both human B cells and in B cells from mice transgenic for human FcγRIIc, FcγRIIc expression counterbalances the negative feedback of FcγRIIb and enhances humoral responses to immunization in mice and to BioThrax® vaccination in a human Anthrax vaccine trial. Moreover, the FCGR2C-ORF allele is associated with the risk of development of autoimmunity in humans. FcγRIIc expression on B cells challenges the prevailing paradigm of uni-directional negative feedback by IgG immune complexes via the inhibitory FcγRIIb, is a previously unrecognized determinant in human antibody/autoantibody responses, and opens the opportunity for more precise personalized use of B cell targeted antibody-based therapy. PMID:24353158

  2. Allelic-dependent expression of an activating Fc receptor on B cells enhances humoral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinrui; Wu, Jianming; Ptacek, Travis; Redden, David T; Brown, Elizabeth E; Alarcón, Graciela S; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle A; Reveille, John D; Kaslow, Richard A; Kimberly, Robert P; Edberg, Jeffrey C

    2013-12-18

    B cells are pivotal regulators of acquired immune responses, and recent work in both experimental murine models and humans has demonstrated that subtle changes in the regulation of B cell function can substantially alter immunological responses. The balance of negative and positive signals in maintaining an appropriate B cell activation threshold is critical in B lymphocyte immune tolerance and autoreactivity. FcγRIIb (CD32B), the only recognized Fcγ receptor on B cells, provides immunoglobulin G (IgG)-mediated negative modulation through a tyrosine-based inhibition motif, which down-regulates B cell receptor-initiated signaling. These properties make FcγRIIb a promising target for antibody-based therapy. We report the discovery of allele-dependent expression of the activating FcγRIIc on B cells. Identical to FcγRIIb in the extracellular domain, FcγRIIc has a tyrosine-based activation motif in its cytoplasmic domain. In both human B cells and B cells from mice transgenic for human FcγRIIc, FcγRIIc expression counterbalances the negative feedback of FcγRIIb and enhances humoral responses to immunization in mice and to BioThrax vaccination in a human anthrax vaccine trial. Moreover, the FCGR2C-ORF allele is associated with the risk of development of autoimmunity in humans. FcγRIIc expression on B cells challenges the prevailing paradigm of unidirectional negative feedback by IgG immune complexes via the inhibitory FcγRIIb, is a previously unrecognized determinant in human antibody/autoantibody responses, and opens the opportunity for more precise personalized use of B cell-targeted antibody-based therapy.

  3. Broadly neutralizing anti-influenza antibodies require Fc receptor engagement for in vivo protection.

    PubMed

    DiLillo, David J; Palese, Peter; Wilson, Patrick C; Ravetch, Jeffrey V

    2016-02-01

    In vivo protection by antimicrobial neutralizing Abs can require the contribution of effector functions mediated by Fc-Fcγ receptor (Fc-FcγR) interactions for optimal efficacy. In influenza, broadly neutralizing anti-hemagglutinin (anti-HA) stalk mAbs require Fc-FcγR interactions to mediate in vivo protection, but strain-specific anti-HA head mAbs do not. Whether this rule applies only to anti-stalk Abs or is applicable to any broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) against influenza is unknown. Here, we characterized the contribution of Fc-FcγR interactions during in vivo protection for a panel of 13 anti-HA mAbs, including bNAbs and non-neutralizing Abs, against both the stalk and head domains. All classes of broadly binding anti-HA mAbs required Fc-FcγR interactions to provide protection in vivo, including those mAbs that bind the HA head and those that do not neutralize virus in vitro. Further, a broadly neutralizing anti-neuraminidase (anti-NA) mAb also required FcγRs to provide protection in vivo, but a strain-specific anti-NA mAb did not. Thus, these findings suggest that the breadth of reactivity of anti-influenza Abs, regardless of their epitope, necessitates interactions with FcγRs on effector cell populations to mediate in vivo protection. These findings will guide the design of antiviral Ab therapeutics and inform vaccine design to elicit Abs with optimal binding properties and effector functions.

  4. Racially restricted contribution of immunoglobulin Fcγ and Fcγ receptor genotypes to humoral immunity to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J P; Namboodiri, A M; Kistner-Griffin, E; Iwasaki, M; Kasuga, Y; Hamada, G S; Tsugane, S

    2013-03-01

    Tumour-associated antigen human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is over-expressed in 25-30% of breast cancer patients and is associated with poor prognosis. Naturally occurring anti-HER2 antibody responses have been described in patients with HER2 over-expressing tumours. There is significant interindividual variability in antibody responsiveness, but the host genetic factors responsible for this variability are poorly understood. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether immunoglobulin genetic markers [GM (genetic determinants of γ chains)] and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) alleles contribute to the magnitude of natural antibody responsiveness to HER2 in patients with breast cancer. A total of 855 breast cancer patients from Japan and Brazil were genotyped for several GM and FcγR alleles. They were also characterized for immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies to HER2. In white subjects (n = 263), GM 23-carriers had higher levels of anti-HER2 antibodies than non-carriers of this allele (p = 0·004). At the GM 5/21 locus, the homozygotes for the GM 5 allele had higher levels of anti-HER2 antibodies than the other two genotypes (P = 0·0067). In black subjects (n = 42), FcγRIIa-histidine/histidine homozygotes and FcγRIIIa-phenylalanine/valine heterozygotes were associated with high antibody responses (P = 0·0071 and 0·0275, respectively). FcγR genotypes in white subjects and GM genotypes in black subjects were not associated with anti-HER2 antibody responses. No significant associations were found in other study groups. These racially restricted contributions of GM and FcγR genotypes to humoral immunity to HER2 have potential implications for immunotherapy of breast cancer.

  5. A regulatory role for Fc gamma receptors (CD16 and CD32) in hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    de Andres, B; Hagen, M; Sandor, M; Verbeek, S; Rokhlin, O; Lynch, R G

    1999-05-03

    Progenitor cells of the T- and B-lineages in mice express (CD32) and Fc gamma RIII (CD16) but as the developing lymphocytes begin to express clonal antigen receptors, CD16 and CD32 are downregulated in T-cells, and CD16 is downregulated in B-cells. Considering that counter-receptors for Fc gamma R occur on thymic and bone marrow stromal cells, the possibility exists that Fc gamma R might participate in some aspect of T- and B-lineage development prior to the stage of antigen receptor expression. Previous studies provided evidence that Fc gamma R can influence murine T-lineage development. In the present studies we found that anti-Fc gamma RII/III mAb accelerated B-lineage development in bone marrow cultures from normal mice, but not in cultures from CD16-/- or CD32-/- mice. Similar results were observed when FACS-purified B-progenitor cells were co-cultured with BMS2, a bone marrow stromal cell line. Fresh bone marrow from CD32-/- mice contained about two-fold more B-lineage cells compared to bone marrow from normal or CD16-/- mice. These studies indicate that the Fc gamma R on B-lineage progenitor cells can influence their further development and add to a growing body of evidence that implicates Fc gamma R as regulatory elements in hematopoiesis.

  6. An Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanism drives antibody-mediated target-receptor signaling in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicholas S; Yang, Becky; Yang, Annie; Loeser, Stefanie; Marsters, Scot; Lawrence, David; Li, Yun; Pitti, Robert; Totpal, Klara; Yee, Sharon; Ross, Sarajane; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Lu, Yanmei; Adams, Cam; Offringa, Rienk; Kelley, Bob; Hymowitz, Sarah; Daniel, Dylan; Meng, Gloria; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2011-01-18

    Antibodies to cell-surface antigens trigger activatory Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated retrograde signals in leukocytes to control immune effector functions. Here, we uncover an FcγR mechanism that drives antibody-dependent forward signaling in target cells. Agonistic antibodies to death receptor 5 (DR5) induce cancer-cell apoptosis and are in clinical trials; however, their mechanism of action in vivo is not fully defined. Interaction of the DR5-agonistic antibody drozitumab with leukocyte FcγRs promoted DR5-mediated tumor-cell apoptosis. Whereas the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab required activatory FcγRs for tumoricidal function, drozitumab was effective in the context of either activatory or inhibitory FcγRs. A CD40-agonistic antibody required similar FcγR interactions to stimulate nuclear factor-κB activity in B cells. Thus, FcγRs can drive antibody-mediated receptor signaling in target cells.

  7. Separation and functional analysis of subpopulations of lymphocytes bearing complement and Fc receptors.

    PubMed

    Parish, C R

    1975-01-01

    A highly versatile procedure is described in this review which can be used to separate and obtain in pure form subpopulations of lymphoid cells which express different cell surface structures. The method is based on the observation that when rosetting and non-rosetting leukocytes are centrifuged on a cushion of Isopaque/Ficoll, the rosetting leukocytes and red cells sink whereas the non-rosetting leukocytes float. Thus, any subpopulation of leukocytes can be separated providing they can be identified by rosetting. The earlier sections of this review describe the method, its efficiency of separation and its advantages compared with other fractionation procedures. Subsequent sections describe experiments in which the procedure was specifically applied to separating Fc receptor (Fc+) and complement receptor (CR+) lymphocytes. On the basis of these two receptors it was possible to subdivide T and B lymphocytes into distinct subpopulations. Four subclasses of B lymphocytes were identified in mouse spleen (Fc+CR+,Fc+CR-,Fc-CR+ and Fc-CR-) and two subclasses of T cells were also detected (Fc+ and Fc-). The functional relevance of these subpopulations of lymphocytes was examined. It was found that in all cases examined, antigens could successfully activate CR+ B cells to produce antibody. However, only polymeric antigens, whether T-dependent or T-independent, were capable of triggering CR- B cells to synthesize antibody. Furthermore, preliminary experiments suggest that Fc receptors are present on functional B cells and helper T cells but are not expressed on cytotoxic T cells. On the basis of these results it is proposed that complement receptors on B lymphocytes provide an additional binding site which stabilizes the union between the antigen-specific receptors and soluble antigen. In contrast, due to their multi-determinant nature, polymeric antigens can avidly bind to B cells without involvement of the complement receptors. The possibility of Fc receptors playing a

  8. Changes in complementarity-determining regions significantly alter IgG binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Piche-Nicholas, Nicole M; King, Amy C; Avery, Lindsay B; Kavosi, Mania; Wang, Mengmeng; O'Hara, Denise M; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Katragadda, Madan

    2017-10-09

    A large body of data exists demonstrating that neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binding of an IgG via its Fc CH2-CH3 interface trends with the pharmacokinetics (PK) of IgG. We have observed that PK of IgG molecules vary widely, even when they share identical Fc domains. This led us to hypothesize that domains distal from the Fc could contribute to FcRn binding and affect PK. In this study, we explored the role of these IgG domains in altering the affinity between IgG and FcRn. Using a surface plasmon resonance-based assay developed to examine the steady-state binding affinity (KD) of IgG molecules to FcRn, we dissected the contributions of IgG domains in modulating the affinity between FcRn and IgG. Through analysis of a broad collection of therapeutic antibodies containing more than 50 unique IgG molecules, we demonstrated that variable domains, and in particular complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), significantly alter binding affinity to FcRn in vitro. Furthermore, a panel of IgG molecules differing only by 1-5 mutations in CDRs altered binding affinity to FcRn in vitro, by up to 79-fold, and the affinity values correlated with calculated isoelectric point values of both variable domains and CDR-L3. In addition, tighter affinity values trend with faster in vivo clearance of a set of IgG molecules differing only by 1-3 mutations in human FcRn transgenic mice. Understanding the role of CDRs in modulation of IgG affinity to FcRn in vitro and their effect on PK of IgG may have far-reaching implications in the optimization of IgG therapeutics.

  9. The immunoglobulin-binding Eib proteins from Escherichia coli are receptors for IgG Fc.

    PubMed

    Leo, Jack C; Goldman, Adrian

    2009-05-01

    The immunoglobulin-binding proteins from Escherichia coli (Eibs) comprise a family of six proteins homologous to the Yersinia adhesin YadA. These proteins are postulated to bind to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in a non-immune manner. However, a recent study [Ghumra, A., Pleass, R.J., 2007. Escherichia coli do not express Fc-receptors for human immunoglobulin G (IgG). Mol. Immunol. 44, 2144-2146] appeared to show that these proteins do not bind Fc and suggested that the binding seen in earlier studies is due to the polyclonal preparations used in the assays containing antibodies specific to epitopes in the Eib proteins. To resolve this matter, we produced purified, recombinant Eibs for the first time and investigated their binding to intact antibodies and Fc fragments by immunoblot and ELISA techniques. We were able to purify four members of the family, EibA, -C, -D and -F, and show conclusively that these bind IgG Fc. We were also able to block the binding of full-length antibody with IgG Fc, but not with IgG Fab. Binding to IgG Fab was not detectable by surface plasmon resonance, whereas the affinities of Eibs to IgG and IgG Fc were in the range of 50-200 nM. We further demonstrate that deglycosylating IgG Fc does not affect Eib binding. Our results show that the Eib proteins do indeed bind human IgG Fc and that IgG Fc receptors are present in E. coli.

  10. Functional study of a monoclonal antibody to IgE Fc receptor (Fc epsilon R2) of eosinophils, platelets, and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    An IgM mAb (BB10) was produced by immunization of mice with human eosinophils purified according to their abnormal low density ("hypodense" cells), and previously shown to exhibit increased IgE- dependent antiparasite cytotoxicity. This BB10 antibody, selected for positive fluorescence staining of hypodense blood or lung eosinophils and low or negative staining of normodense eosinophils or neutrophils, could strongly inhibit IgE-dependent cytotoxicity of human eosinophils and platelets. The specificity for the IgE Fc receptor was suggested by the high levels of inhibition of IgE rosettes formed by eosinophils after incubation with the purified IgM fraction of BB10, whereas other receptors (Fc gamma R, CR1) were not affected. On the other hand, BB10, able to inhibit rat eosinophil Fc epsilon R, did not react with the IgE Fc receptor on mast cells or basophils. A technique using radioiodinated BB10 allowed us to quantify the specific binding of BB10 to human eosinophils and platelets. Competition experiments revealed a crossinhibition between the binding of BB10 and IgE, suggesting the specificity of BB10 for the IgE binding site of eosinophil, platelet, and monocyte Fc epsilon R. Three proteins having extrapolated Mr of 32,000, 43,000-45,000, and 97,000 were found in the platelet extract eluted from a BB10 or from an IgE immunosorbent column. These findings confirm the similarities between IgE Fc receptors on human eosinophils, platelets, and macrophages, already observed with polyclonal antibodies directed against the B lymphocyte Fc epsilon receptor. They suggest, moreover, that the mAb BB10 can represent a good reagent for further investigations on the structure and the functions of this IgE Fc receptor (Fc epsilon R2). PMID:2425032

  11. Differential Use of Human Neutrophil Fcγ Receptors for Inducing Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Omar Rafael; Mora, Nancy; Cortes-Vieyra, Ricarda; Uribe-Querol, Eileen; Rosales, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant leukocytes in the blood. PMN migrate from the circulation to sites of infection, where they are responsible for antimicrobial functions. PMN use phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to kill microbes. NETs are fibers composed of chromatin and neutrophil-granule proteins. Several pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and also some pharmacological stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) are efficient inducers of NETs. Antigen-antibody complexes are also capable of inducing NET formation. However the particular Fcγ receptor involved in triggering this function is a matter of controversy. In order to provide some insight into what Fcγ receptor is responsible for NET formation, each of the two human Fcγ receptors was stimulated individually by specific monoclonal antibodies and NET formation was evaluated. FcγRIIa cross-linking did not promote NET formation. Cross-linking other receptors such as integrins also did not promote NET formation. In contrast FcγRIIIb cross-linking induced NET formation similarly to PMA stimulation. NET formation was dependent on NADPH-oxidase, PKC, and ERK activation. These data show that cross-linking FcγRIIIb is responsible for NET formation by the human neutrophil.

  12. Differential Use of Human Neutrophil Fcγ Receptors for Inducing Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation

    PubMed Central

    Alemán, Omar Rafael; Mora, Nancy; Cortes-Vieyra, Ricarda; Uribe-Querol, Eileen; Rosales, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant leukocytes in the blood. PMN migrate from the circulation to sites of infection, where they are responsible for antimicrobial functions. PMN use phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to kill microbes. NETs are fibers composed of chromatin and neutrophil-granule proteins. Several pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and also some pharmacological stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) are efficient inducers of NETs. Antigen-antibody complexes are also capable of inducing NET formation. However the particular Fcγ receptor involved in triggering this function is a matter of controversy. In order to provide some insight into what Fcγ receptor is responsible for NET formation, each of the two human Fcγ receptors was stimulated individually by specific monoclonal antibodies and NET formation was evaluated. FcγRIIa cross-linking did not promote NET formation. Cross-linking other receptors such as integrins also did not promote NET formation. In contrast FcγRIIIb cross-linking induced NET formation similarly to PMA stimulation. NET formation was dependent on NADPH-oxidase, PKC, and ERK activation. These data show that cross-linking FcγRIIIb is responsible for NET formation by the human neutrophil. PMID:27034964

  13. Fc gamma-receptor activity of isolated human placental syncytiotrophoblast plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P J; Johnson, P M

    1981-01-01

    Fc gamma-receptor activity of isolated human placental syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membrane (StMPM) vesicle preparations has been determined in an immunoradiometric assay using Sepharose-immobilized protein A to separate free 125I-labelled human IgG from membrane-bound 125I-IgG. This receptor assay has been optimalized in terms of buffer pH and molarity, and used to demonstrate that prior 60 min washing of isolated membranes in 3 M KCl to remove extrinsic membrane-bound protein substantially increases the membrane-binding capacity for IgG. Inhibition studies have determined the syncytiotrophoblast Fc gamma-receptor equilibrium constant for association (Ka) as 4.0 x 10(7) M-1 at 37 degrees and the number of available Fc gamma-receptor sites as 1.5 x 10(14) per mg membrane protein. PMID:7461733

  14. IgE Fc receptor positive T and B lymphocytes in patients with the hyper IgE syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, L F; Spiegelberg, H L; Buckley, R H

    1985-01-01

    The percentages of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), bearing Fc receptors for IgE (Fc epsilon R) and IgG (Fc gamma R) were determined in four patients with the hyper IgE syndrome by a rosette assay employing IgE and IgG coated fixed ox erythrocytes. The patients had 8 +/- 3% Fc epsilon R+ and 13 +/- 8% Fc gamma R+ PBL, compared to 1.2 +/- 1% Fc epsilon R+ and 17 +/- 4% Fc gamma R+ PBL for control donors. T cells were isolated by rosetting with neuraminidase treated sheep erythrocytes (EN). Indirect immunofluorescence with Lyt 3 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to the sheep erythrocyte receptor, followed by rosetting for Fc epsilon R and Fc gamma R showed that the patients' T cells contained less than 0.1% Fc epsilon R+ and 1.4 +/- 0.2% Fc gamma R+ cells; T cells from the control subjects contained less than 0.1% Fc epsilon R+ and 11 +/- 4% Fc gamma R+ cells. The non-T (EN rosette depleted) cells of the patients included 56 +/- 18% sIgM+/sIgD+, 45 +/- 9% Fc epsilon R+ and 35 +/- 27% Fc gamma R+ cells. Indirect immunofluorescence with MoAb to IgM, IgD, and NK cells (antibody B73.1) followed by rosetting for Fc epsilon R and Fc gamma R, indicated that 92 +/- 2% of the Fc epsilon R+ cells and 9 +/- 7% of the Fc gamma R+ cells were B cells (mu+/delta+), while 3 +/- 4% of the Fc epsilon R+ and 30 +/- 23% of the Fc gamma R+ cells were NK cells (B73.1+). Thus, most of the Fc epsilon R+ non-T cells were B cells, and only a small fraction appeared to be NK cells. On the other hand, Fc gamma R+ B cells were outnumbered by Fc gamma R+ NK cells (B73.1+) by three to one. The data indicate that patients with the hyper IgE syndrome have increased numbers of Fc gamma R+ PBL, most of them being B cells, whereas their T cells contain less than 0.1% Fc epsilon R+ cells. PMID:3882288

  15. TIRF imaging of Fc gamma receptor microclusters dynamics and signaling on macrophages during frustrated phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia; Kurilova, Svetlana; Scott, Brandon L; Bosworth, Elizabeth; Iverson, Bradley E; Bailey, Elizabeth M; Hoppe, Adam D

    2016-03-12

    Recent evidence indicates that in addition to the T-cell receptor, microclustering is an important mechanism for the activation of the B-cell receptor and the mast cell Fcε-receptor. In macrophages and neutrophils, particles opsonized with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies activate the phagocytic Fcγ-receptor (FcγR) leading to rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. The purpose of this study was to establish a system for high-resolution imaging of FcγR microclustering dynamics and the recruitment of the downstream signaling machinery to these microclusters. We developed a supported lipid bilayer platform with incorporated antibodies on its surface to study the formation and maturation of FcγR signaling complexes in macrophages. Time-lapse multicolor total internal reflection microscopy was used to capture the formation of FcγR-IgG microclusters and their assembly into signaling complexes on the plasma membrane of murine bone marrow derived macrophages. Upon antibody binding, macrophages formed FcγR-IgG complexes at the leading edge of advancing pseudopods. These complexes then moved toward the center of the cell to form a structure reminiscent of the supramolecular complex observed in the T-cell/antigen presenting cell immune synapse. Colocalization of signaling protein Syk with nascent clusters of antibodies indicated that phosphorylated receptor complexes underwent maturation as they trafficked toward the center of the cell. Additionally, imaging of fluorescent BtkPH domains indicated that 3'-phosphoinositides propagated laterally away from the FcγR microclusters. We demonstrate that surface-associated but mobile IgG induces the formation of FcγR microclusters at the pseudopod leading edge. These clusters recruit Syk and drive the production of diffusing PI(3,4,5)P3 that is coordinated with lamellar actin polymerization. Upon reaching maximal extension, FcγR microclusters depart from the leading edge and are transported to the center of the cellular

  16. Human Fc receptor-like 5 binds intact IgG via mechanisms distinct from that of Fc-receptors 1

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Andrea; Damdinsuren, Bazarragchaa; Ise, Tomoko; Dement-Brown, Jessica; Li, Huifang; Nagata, Satoshi; Tolnay, Mate

    2013-01-01

    Fc receptor-like 5 (FCRL5) regulates BCR signaling and has been reported to bind aggregated IgG. Using surface plasmon resonance, we analyzed the interaction of native IgG samples with FCRL5, revealing a complex binding mechanism, where isotype is just one factor. FCRL5 bound IgG1 and IgG4 with approximately 1 μM KD, while the interaction with IgG3 was a magnitude weaker. However, IgG2 samples displayed a wide range of affinities, indicating that additional factors affect binding. We used a panel of 19 anti-FCRL5 mAbs with defined reactivity to identify domains involved in ligand binding. Six mAbs blocked IgG binding, indicating critical roles of FCRL5 domains 1 and 3, as well as epitopes at the domain 1/2 and domain 2/3 boundaries. We found that only glycosylated IgG containing both Fab arms and the Fc region bound with high affinity. Furthermore, the presence of sialic acid in the IgG carbohydrate altered FCRL5 binding. The interaction of IgG and FCRL5 consisted of two kinetic components, suggesting a complex binding mechanism. We established that the IgG-Fc and IgG-F(ab’)2 fragments bind FCRL5 independently but with low affinity, revealing the mechanism behind the two-step binding of whole IgG. This complex binding mechanism is distinct from that of Fc-receptors, which bind through the Fc. We propose that FCRL5 is a new type of receptor that recognizes intact IgG, possibly enabling B cells to sense immunoglobulin quality. Recognition of undamaged IgG molecules by FCRL5 could allow B cells to engage recently produced antibodies. PMID:23616577

  17. Characterization and crystallization of soluble human Fc gamma receptor II (CD32) isoforms produced in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Sondermann, P; Jacob, U; Kutscher, C; Frey, J

    1999-06-29

    Fc gamma RII (CD32), the receptor for the Fc part of IgG, is responsible for the clearance of immunocomplexes by macrophages and plays a role in the regulation of antibody production by B cells. To investigate the process of immunocomplex binding in terms of stoichiometry and stability of the Fc gamma RII:IgG complex, we produced both Fc gamma RII isoforms (Fc gamma RIIa and Fc gamma RIIb) as soluble proteins in insect cells. The expressed proteins could be purified in high yields and were biologically active as judged by their ability to bind IgG. Thus, the minor glycosylation performed by the insect cells is not crucial for the binding of the usually highly glycosylated Fc gamma RII to IgG. The dissociation constant of the sFc gamma RIIa:IgG-hFc complex was determined by fluorescence titration (KD = 2.5 x 10(-)7 M). Complementary sFc gamma RIIa antagonizes immunocomplex binding to B cells. Here sFc gamma RIIa showed a comparable dissociation constant (KD = 1.7 x 10(-)7 M) which was almost 10-fold lower than the constant for Fc gamma RIIb. The stoichiometry of the FcRIIa:IgG-hFc complex was determined by equilibrium gel filtration and shows that IgG is able to bind alternatively one or two Fc gamma RII molecules in a noncooperative manner. Furthermore, in an ELISA-based assay the isotype specificity of various anti-Fc gamma RII monoclonal antibodies was measured as well as their ability to interfere with the IgG recognition through its receptors. To further investigate the molecular basis of the Fc gamma RII-ligand interaction, we crystallized Fc gamma RIIb. Trigonal crystals diffracted to 3 A and the structure solution is in progress.

  18. Fc receptor endocytosis is controlled by a cytoplasmic domain determinant that actively prevents coated pit localization

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Macrophages and B-lymphocytes express two major isoforms of Fc receptor (FcRII-B2 and FcRII-B1) that exhibit distinct capacities for endocytosis. This difference in function reflects the presence of an in- frame insertion of 47 amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the lymphocyte isoform (FcRII-B1) due to alternative mRNA splicing. By expressing wild type and mutant FcRII cDNAs in fibroblasts, we have now examined the mechanism by which the insertion acts to prevent coated pit localization and endocytosis. We first identified the region of the FcRII-B2 cytoplasmic domain that is required for rapid internalization. Using a biochemical assay for endocytosis and an immuno-EM assay to determine coated pit localization directly, we found that the distal half of the cytoplasmic domain, particularly a region including residues 18-31, as needed for coated pit-mediated endocytosis. Elimination of the tyrosine residues at position 26 and 43, separately or together, had little effect on coated pit localization and a partial effect on endocytosis of ligand. Since the FcRII-B1 insertion occurs in the membrane-proximal region of the cytoplasmic domain (residue 6) not required for internalization, it is unlikely to act by physically disrupting the coated pit localization determinant. In fact, the insertion was found to prevent endocytosis irrespective of its position in the cytoplasmic tail and appeared to selectively exclude the receptor from coated regions. Moreover, receptors bearing the insertion exhibited a temperature- and ligand-dependent association with a detergent-insoluble fraction and with actin filaments, perhaps in part explaining the inability of FcRII-B1 to enter coated pits. PMID:1734021

  19. Fc receptors on human neutrophils: electron microscopic study of natural surface distribution.

    PubMed Central

    An, T

    1980-01-01

    The membrane receptor for the Fc portions of IgG (FcR) was examined on the cell surface of human neutrophils using electron microscopic markers of soluble immune complexes composed of ferritin (Fer) and rabbit 7S anti-Fer prepared in forty-fold and 120-fold antigen excess than needed at equivalence. By using negative staining coupled with electron microscopy, most of the immune complexes in forty-fold antigen excess were seen to be composed of one anti-Fer antibody and one or two Fer particles, suggesting that most of the indicator molecules are 'monovalent ligands' in terms of Fc pieces available per single immune complex molecule. FcR on neutrophils labelled with both indicators at 0 degrees in the presence of sodium azide were clustered as discontinuous patches of varying length over the cell surface. The pre-incubation of neutrophils at 37 degrees for 30 min prior to labelling did not alter the grouped distribution of FcR. No diffuse Fer labelling was observed. The clustering of FcR remained the same even after cross-linking the soluble complexes with F(ab')2 anti-Fer into multivalent ligands at 0 degrees. We favour the clustering of FcR as the natural surface representation on human neutrophils rather than an initial redistribution induced by the ligands. The findings are discussed with relation to the natural distribution of other surface antigens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7419239

  20. Targeting Sindbis virus-based vectors to Fc receptor-positive cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Klimstra, William B.; Williams, Jacqueline C.; Ryman, Kate D.; Heidner, Hans W. . E-mail: hans.heidner@utsa.edu

    2005-07-20

    Some viruses display enhanced infection for Fc receptor (FcR)-positive cell types when complexed with virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig). This process has been termed antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection (ADE). We reasoned that the mechanism of ADE could be exploited and adapted to target alphavirus-based vectors to FcR-positive cell types. Towards this goal, recombinant Sindbis viruses were constructed that express 1 to 4 immunoglobulin-binding domains of protein L (PpL) as N-terminal extensions of the E2 glycoprotein. PpL is a bacterial protein that binds the variable region of antibody kappa light chains from a range of mammalian species. The recombinant viruses incorporated PpL/E2 fusion proteins into the virion structure and recapitulated the species-specific Ig-binding phenotypes of native PpL. Virions reacted with non-immune serum or purified IgG displayed enhanced binding and ADE for several species-matched FcR-positive murine and human cell lines. ADE required virus expression of a functional PpL Ig-binding domain, and appeared to be Fc{gamma}R-mediated. Specifically, ADE did not occur with Fc{gamma}R-negative cells, did not require active complement proteins, and did not occur on Fc{gamma}R-positive murine cell lines when virions were bound by murine IgG-derived F(ab'){sub 2} fragments.

  1. syk protein tyrosine kinase regulates Fc receptor gamma-chain-mediated transport to lysosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnerot, C; Briken, V; Brachet, V; Lankar, D; Cassard, S; Jabri, B; Amigorena, S

    1998-01-01

    B- and T-cell receptors, as well as most Fc receptors (FcR), are part of a large family of membrane proteins named immunoreceptors and are expressed on all cells of the immune system. Immunoreceptors' biological functions rely on two of their fundamental attributes: signal transduction and internalization. The signals required for these two functions are present in the chains associated with immunoreceptors, within conserved amino acid motifs called immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs). We have examined the role of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) syk, a critical effector of immunoreceptor-mediated cell signalling through ITAMs, in FcR-associated gamma-chain internalization and lysosomal targeting. A point mutation in the immunoreceptor-associated gamma-chain ITAM affecting syk activation, as well as overexpression of a syk dominant negative mutant, inhibited signal transduction without affecting receptor coated-pit localization or internalization. In contrast, blocking of gamma-chain-mediated syk activation impaired FcR transport from endosomes to lysosomes and selectively inhibited the presentation of certain T-cell epitopes. Therefore, activation of the PTK syk is dispensable for receptor internalization, but necessary for cell signalling and for gamma-chain-mediated FcR delivery to lysosomes. PMID:9707420

  2. Structural Heterogeneity and Functional Domains of Murine Immunoglobulin G Fc Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Luster, Andrew D.; Weinshank, Richard; Kochan, Jarema; Pavlovec, Amalia; Portnoy, Daniel A.; Hulmes, Jeffrey; Pan, Yu-Ching E.; Unkeless, Jay C.

    1986-11-01

    Binding of antibodies to effector cells by way of receptors to their constant regions (Fc receptors) is central to the pathway that leads to clearance of antigens by the immune system. The structure and function of this important class of receptors on immune cells is addressed through the molecular characterization of Fc receptors (FcR) specific for the murine immunoglobulin G isotype. Structural diversity is encoded by two genes that by alternative splicing result in expression of molecules with highly conserved extracellular domains and different transmembrane and intracytoplasmic domains. The proteins encoded by these genes are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family, most homologous to the major histocompatibility complex molecule Eβ. Functional reconstitution of ligand binding by transfection of individual FcR genes demonstrates that the requirements for ligand binding are encoded in a single gene. These studies demonstrate the molecular basis for the functional heterogeneity of FcR's, accounting for the possible transduction of different signals in response to a single ligand.

  3. The unique cytoplasmic domain of human FcγRIIIA regulates receptor mediated function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoli; Baskin, Julie G.; Mangan, Erin K.; Su, Kaihong; Gibson, Andrew W.; Ji, Chuanyi; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Kimberly, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Ligand specificity characterizes receptors for antibody and many other immune receptors, but the common use of the FcR-γ-chain as their signaling subunit challenges the concept that these receptors are functionally distinct. We hypothesized that elements for specificity might be determined by the unique cytoplasmic domain (CY) sequences of the ligand-binding α-chains of γ-chain associated receptors. Among Fcγ receptors (FcRs), a protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation consensus motif, [RSSTR], identified within the FcγRIIIa (CD16A) CY by in silico analysis, is specifically phosphorylated by PKCs, unlike other FcRs. Phosphorylated CD16A mediates a more robust calcium flux, tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and pro-inflammatory cytokine production while non-phosphorylatable CD16A is more effective at activation of the Gab2/PI3K pathway, leading to enhanced degranulation. S100A4, a specific protein binding partner for CD16A-CY newly identified by yeast two-hybrid analysis, inhibits phosphorylation of CD16A-CY by PKC in vitro, and reduction of S100A4 levels in vivo enhances receptor phosphorylation upon cross-linking. Taken together, PKC-mediated phosphorylation of CD16A modulates distinct signaling pathways engaged by the receptor. Calcium activated binding of S100A4 to CD16A, promoted by the initial calcium flux, attenuates the phosphorylation of CY, and acting as a molecular switch, may both serve as a negative feedback on cytokine production pathways during sustained receptor engagement and favor a shift to degranulation, consistent with the importance of granule release following conjugate formation between CD16A+ effector cells and target cells. This switch mechanism points to new therapeutic targets and provides a frame for understanding novel receptor polymorphisms. PMID:23024279

  4. A Soluble Form of the High Affinity IgE Receptor, Fc-Epsilon-RI, Circulates in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Dehlink, Eleonora; Platzer, Barbara; Baker, Alexandra H.; LaRosa, Jessica; Pardo, Michael; Dwyer, Peter; Yen, Elizabeth H.; Szépfalusi, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    Soluble IgE receptors are potential in vivo modulators of IgE-mediated immune responses and are thus important for our basic understanding of allergic responses. We here characterize a novel soluble version of the IgE-binding alpha-chain of Fc-epsilon-RI (sFcεRI), the high affinity receptor for IgE. sFcεRI immunoprecipitates as a protein of ∼40 kDa and contains an intact IgE-binding site. In human serum, sFcεRI is found as a soluble free IgE receptor as well as a complex with IgE. Using a newly established ELISA, we show that serum sFcεRI levels correlate with serum IgE in patients with elevated IgE. We also show that serum of individuals with normal IgE levels can be found to contain high levels of sFcεRI. After IgE-antigen-mediated crosslinking of surface FcεRI, we detect sFcεRI in the exosome-depleted, soluble fraction of cell culture supernatants. We further show that sFcεRI can block binding of IgE to FcεRI expressed at the cell surface. In summary, we here describe the alpha-chain of FcεRI as a circulating soluble IgE receptor isoform in human serum. PMID:21544204

  5. Characterization of polymorphic forms of Fc receptor III on human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Ory, P A; Goldstein, I M; Kwoh, E E; Clarkson, S B

    1989-01-01

    We characterized Fc receptor III (FcR III) on human neutrophils and found it to be heavily glycosylated and polymorphic. In some individuals, FcR III that had been digested with N-glycanase appeared after SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions as two bands with apparent molecular masses of 33 and 29 kD. In other individuals, N-glycanase-treated FcR III appeared as a single band with an Mr of either 33 or 29 kD. After SDS-PAGE of N-glycanase-treated FcR III under nonreducing conditions, the apparent Mr of each structural type was decreased, suggesting the presence of intramolecular disulfide bonds. Digestion of the 33-kD band and the 29-kD band with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease yielded similar, but not identical, peptide maps. Thus, at least two polymorphic forms of FcR III are expressed on human neutrophils. The structural polymorphism of neutrophil FcR III correlated with previously described antigenic polymorphisms detected by monoclonal antibody Gran 11 and by alloantisera which recognize epitopes of the biallelic, neutrophil antigen (NA) system. Individuals whose neutrophils expressed the two-band structural type of FcR III were NA1NA2 heterozygotes. Individuals whose neutrophils expressed the single 33-kD band structural type were NA2NA2 homozygotes, and individuals whose neutrophils expressed the single 29-kD band structural type were NA1NA1 homozygotes. These findings indicate that antigenic and structural polymorphisms of human neutrophil FcR III are related and can be accounted for by differences at the level of primary protein structure. Images PMID:2523415

  6. Fc receptor-mediated immune responses: new tools but increased complexity in HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2013-07-01

    The modest success of the RV144 HIV vaccine trial in Thailand and the ensuing suggestion that a Fc-receptormediated antibody activity might have played a role in the protection observed have intensified investigations on Fcrelated immune responses. HIV neutralizing antibodies have been and continue to be the focal point of research into humoral immune protection. However, recent knowledge that their protective efficacy can be augmented by Fc-FcR interactions has increased the complexity of identifying immune correlates of protection. If anything, continued studies of both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms point to the lack of a single protective anti-HIV immune response. Here we focus on humoral immunity, analyzing the role played by Fc receptor-related responses and discussing how new knowledge of their interactions requires further investigation, but may also spur novel vaccination approaches. We initially address classical Fc-receptor mediated anti-viral mechanisms including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cell mediated viral inhibition (ADCVI), and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), as well as the effector cells that mediate these functions. Next, we summarize key aspects of FcR-Fc interactions that are important for potential control of HIV/SIV such as FcR polymorphisms and post-transcriptional modifications. Finally we discuss less commonly studied non-mechanistic anti-HIV immune functions: antibody avidity and envelopespecific B cell memory. Overall, a spectrum of immune responses, reflecting the immune system's redundancy, will likely be needed to prevent HIV infection and/or disease progression. Aside from elicitation of critical immune mechanisms, a successful vaccine will need to induce mature B cell responses and long-lasting immune memory.

  7. IgM-Dependent Phagocytosis in Microglia Is Mediated by Complement Receptor 3, Not Fcα/μ Receptor.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Jonathan R; Quan, Yi; Hanson, Josiah F; Colonna, Lucrezia; Iorga, Michael; Honda, Shin-ichiro; Shibuya, Kazuko; Shibuya, Akira; Elkon, Keith B; Möller, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Microglia play an important role in receptor-mediated phagocytosis in the CNS. In brain abscess and other CNS infections, invading bacteria undergo opsonization with Igs or complement. Microglia recognize these opsonized pathogens by Fc or complement receptors triggering phagocytosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Fcα/μR, the less-studied receptor for IgM and IgA, in microglial phagocytosis. We showed that primary microglia, as well as N9 microglial cells, express Fcα/μR. We also showed that anti-Staphylococcus aureus IgM markedly increased the rate of microglial S. aureus phagocytosis. To unequivocally test the role of Fcα/μR in IgM-mediated phagocytosis, we performed experiments in microglia from Fcα/μR(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, we found that IgM-dependent phagocytosis of S. aureus was similar in microglia derived from wild-type or Fcα/μR(-/-) mice. We hypothesized that IgM-dependent activation of complement receptors might contribute to the IgM-mediated increase in phagocytosis. To test this, we used immunologic and genetic inactivation of complement receptor 3 components (CD11b and CD18) as well as C3. IgM-, but not IgG-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus was reduced in wild-type microglia and macrophages following preincubation with an anti-CD11b blocking Ab. IgM-dependent phagocytosis of S. aureus was also reduced in microglia derived from CD18(-/-) and C3(-/-) mice. Taken together, our findings implicate complement receptor 3 and C3, but not Fcα/μR, in IgM-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus by microglia.

  8. Itraconazole, A Commonly Used Antifungal, Inhibits Fcγ Receptor-Mediated Phagocytosis: Alteration of Fcγ Receptor Glycosylation And Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Niño, Diego F.; Cauvi, David M.; De Maio, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Itraconazole (ICZ)‡ is commonly used for the treatment of fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. In addition, ICZ has been recently found to have anti-angiogenic effects and is currently being tested as a new chemotherapeutic agent in several cancer clinical trials. We have previously shown that ICZ impaired complex N-linked glycosylation processing, leading to the accumulation of high-mannose glycoproteins on the surface of macrophages. This investigation was directed at determining the effects of ICZ on phagocytosis as a major function of macrophages. We found a significant decrease in the phagocytosis of opsonized bacterial particles in ICZ-treated murine macrophages in comparison with non-treated macrophages. Furthermore, the impairment of phagocytosis was associated with a decrease in cell surface expression of Fcγ receptors (FcγR) as well as alteration of their glycosylation pattern. Concomitantly, a reduction in all three isoforms of the FcγR family (i.e., Fcgr1, Fcgr2 and Fcgr3) mRNA levels was observed after incubation with ICZ. The effect of ICZ on phagocytosis and FcγR expression was reversed by addition of LDL. These studies indicate that ICZ treatment certainly has a dramatic effect on macrophage function, which could result in a potential impairment of the immune system's ability to respond to pathogens and may lead to elevated incidence of infections. PMID:24667630

  9. Inhibitory effects of areca nut extract on expression of complement receptors and fc receptors in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Yun; Lin, Ming-Bin; Cheng, Chi-Fang; Chang, Lien-Yu; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Hung, Shan-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Chewing of areca quid increases the prevalence of periodontal diseases. Areca nut extract (ANE) inhibits the phagocytic activity of human neutrophils. This in vitro study investigates the effects of ANE on complement- and antibody-opsonized phagocytosis by neutrophils. Expression of complement receptors, Fc receptors, and F-actin in ANE-treated neutrophils is also analyzed. The viability of ANE-treated neutrophils was determined using the propidium iodide staining method. The possible effects of ANE on the expression of complement receptors and Fc receptors were examined using an immunofluorescence staining method followed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The phagocytic activity of neutrophils against complement or immunoglobulin (Ig)G-opsonized fluorescent beads was analyzed using flow cytometry. Expression of F-actin was determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. ANE significantly inhibited the production of complement receptors (CR1, CR3, and CR4) and Fc receptors (FcγRII and FcγRIII) in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of neutrophils with ANE significantly impaired their ability to phagocytose fluorescent beads. ANE also inhibited phagocytosis of fluorescent beads that were opsonized by complement or IgG. Moreover, expression of F-actin was inhibited after ANE treatment. ANE inhibits the complement- and IgG-mediated neutrophil phagocytosis that may result from reduction of the expression of complement receptors, Fc receptors, and F-actin formation after ANE treatment. The findings suggest that areca nut chewing may jeopardize the defensive functions of neutrophils and affect periodontal health.

  10. Neonatal Fc receptor expression in dendritic cells mediates protective immunity against colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kristi; Rath, Timo; Flak, Magdalena B; Arthur, Janelle C; Chen, Zhangguo; Glickman, Jonathan N; Zlobec, Inti; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Stachler, Matthew D; Odze, Robert D; Lencer, Wayne I; Jobin, Christian; Blumberg, Richard S

    2013-12-12

    Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in the mucosal immune system that we have now shown extends to the induction of CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that FcRn within dendritic cells (DCs) was critical for homeostatic activation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells that drove protection against the development of colorectal cancers and lung metastases. FcRn-mediated tumor protection was driven by DCs activation of endogenous tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells via the cross-presentation of IgG complexed antigens (IgG IC), as well as the induction of cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine secretion, particularly interleukin-12, both of which were independently triggered by the FcRn-IgG IC interaction in murine and human DCs. FcRn thus has a primary role within mucosal tissues in activating local immune responses that are critical for priming efficient anti-tumor immunosurveillance.

  11. Fc gamma receptor-dependent clearance is enhanced following lipopolysaccharide in vivo treatment.

    PubMed

    Palermo, M S; Alves Rosa, F; Fernández Alonso, G; Isturiz, M A

    1997-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) occupy centre stage in the pathogenesis of gram-negative sepsis. Although LPS are potent stimulators of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), their effects on immune complex (IC)-specific clearance have not yet been reported. In order to evaluate this issue, we examined the MPS function after LPS treatment by measuring intravascular removal rate of syngeneic erythrocytes sensitized with specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) (EA). Our findings showed that LPS, directly or through the release of endogenous cytokines, enhance Fc gamma receptor (Fc gamma R)-dependent clearance. The EA uptake by liver, spleen and bone marrow was significantly increased leading to an effective clearance of immune complexes. Splenic antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), an in vitro indicator of Fc gamma R functionality, was also increased after in vivo LPS treatment. However, cytometric studies showed that endotoxin did not modify Fc gamma R expression on splenocytes, but markedly enhanced the expression of CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), an adhesion molecule closely related to Fc gamma R activity. We conclude that LPS enhance Fc gamma R-dependent effector functions and suggest that this effect is mediated through alterations in adhesion molecules.

  12. Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by ATF-Fc, an engineered antibody targeting urokinase receptor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xian-Wen; Duan, Hai-Feng; Gao, Li-Hua; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Li, Yong-Mei; Xi, Yongyi; Zhao, Su-Rong; Yin, Liang; Li, Jin-Feng; Chen, Hui-Peng; Wu, Chu-Tse

    2008-05-01

    Urokinase (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) play an important role in tumor growth and metastasis, and overexpression of these molecules is strongly correlated with poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumors. In this study, ATF-Fc, an antibody-like molecule comprising the amino-terminal fragment of human uPA (ATF) linked to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 via a flexible linker was developed. Its antitumor activities were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ATF-Fc had obvious cytotoxic effect on several types of tumor cells, which is dependent on cellular expression of uPAR and its Fc fragment. Treatment with ATF-Fc caused a significant suppression on tumor growth and metastasis of xenograft human tumors (MCF-7 breast cancer and BGC-823 gastric cancer) in athymic nude mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ATF-Fc had an anti-angiogenesis activity both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, we provided a novel therapeutic antibody-like molecule in the management of a variety of solid tumors by disrupting the uPA/uPAR interaction.

  13. Fc gamma receptor-dependent clearance is enhanced following lipopolysaccharide in vivo treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, M S; Alves Rosa, F; Fernández Alonso, G; Isturiz, M A

    1997-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) occupy centre stage in the pathogenesis of gram-negative sepsis. Although LPS are potent stimulators of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), their effects on immune complex (IC)-specific clearance have not yet been reported. In order to evaluate this issue, we examined the MPS function after LPS treatment by measuring intravascular removal rate of syngeneic erythrocytes sensitized with specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) (EA). Our findings showed that LPS, directly or through the release of endogenous cytokines, enhance Fc gamma receptor (Fc gamma R)-dependent clearance. The EA uptake by liver, spleen and bone marrow was significantly increased leading to an effective clearance of immune complexes. Splenic antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), an in vitro indicator of Fc gamma R functionality, was also increased after in vivo LPS treatment. However, cytometric studies showed that endotoxin did not modify Fc gamma R expression on splenocytes, but markedly enhanced the expression of CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), an adhesion molecule closely related to Fc gamma R activity. We conclude that LPS enhance Fc gamma R-dependent effector functions and suggest that this effect is mediated through alterations in adhesion molecules. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9497496

  14. Investigating the Interaction between the Neonatal Fc Receptor and Monoclonal Antibody Variants by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Larraillet, Vincent; Schlothauer, Tilman; Kettenberger, Hubert; Hilger, Maximiliane; Rand, Kasper D.

    2015-01-01

    The recycling of immunoglobulins by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is of crucial importance in the maintenance of antibody levels in plasma and is responsible for the long half-lives of endogenous and recombinant monoclonal antibodies. From a therapeutic point of view there is great interest in understanding and modulating the IgG–FcRn interaction to optimize antibody pharmacokinetics and ultimately improve efficacy and safety. Here we studied the interaction between a full-length human IgG1 and human FcRn via hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and targeted electron transfer dissociation to map sites perturbed by binding on both partners of the IgG–FcRn complex. Several regions in the antibody Fc region and the FcRn were protected from exchange upon complex formation, in good agreement with previous crystallographic studies of FcRn in complex with the Fc fragment. Interestingly, we found that several regions in the IgG Fab region also showed reduced deuterium uptake. Our findings indicate the presence of hitherto unknown FcRn interaction sites in the Fab region or a possible conformational link between the IgG Fc and Fab regions upon FcRn binding. Further, we investigated the role of IgG glycosylation in the conformational response of the IgG–FcRn interaction. Removal of antibody glycans increased the flexibility of the FcRn binding site in the Fc region. Consequently, FcRn binding did not induce a similar conformational stabilization of deglycosylated IgG as observed for the wild-type glycosylated IgG. Our results provide new molecular insight into the IgG–FcRn interaction and illustrate the capability of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to advance structural proteomics by providing detailed information on the conformation and dynamics of large protein complexes in solution. PMID:25378534

  15. Investigating the interaction between the neonatal Fc receptor and monoclonal antibody variants by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Larraillet, Vincent; Schlothauer, Tilman; Kettenberger, Hubert; Hilger, Maximiliane; Rand, Kasper D

    2015-01-01

    The recycling of immunoglobulins by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is of crucial importance in the maintenance of antibody levels in plasma and is responsible for the long half-lives of endogenous and recombinant monoclonal antibodies. From a therapeutic point of view there is great interest in understanding and modulating the IgG-FcRn interaction to optimize antibody pharmacokinetics and ultimately improve efficacy and safety. Here we studied the interaction between a full-length human IgG(1) and human FcRn via hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and targeted electron transfer dissociation to map sites perturbed by binding on both partners of the IgG-FcRn complex. Several regions in the antibody Fc region and the FcRn were protected from exchange upon complex formation, in good agreement with previous crystallographic studies of FcRn in complex with the Fc fragment. Interestingly, we found that several regions in the IgG Fab region also showed reduced deuterium uptake. Our findings indicate the presence of hitherto unknown FcRn interaction sites in the Fab region or a possible conformational link between the IgG Fc and Fab regions upon FcRn binding. Further, we investigated the role of IgG glycosylation in the conformational response of the IgG-FcRn interaction. Removal of antibody glycans increased the flexibility of the FcRn binding site in the Fc region. Consequently, FcRn binding did not induce a similar conformational stabilization of deglycosylated IgG as observed for the wild-type glycosylated IgG. Our results provide new molecular insight into the IgG-FcRn interaction and illustrate the capability of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to advance structural proteomics by providing detailed information on the conformation and dynamics of large protein complexes in solution. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Natural clusterings of Fc receptors on human neutrophils--not affected by the cytoskeletal reagents.

    PubMed Central

    An, T; Hymes, A J; O'Neal, C H

    1981-01-01

    By using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and immunodiffusion, we confirmed the monovalency of the electron microscopic ligand for the receptor for the Fc portion of IgG (FcR) on human neutrophils, which was composed of one ferritin (Fer) molecule and one IgG anti-Fer molecule. Pre-treatment of neutrophils at 37 degrees for 30 min with cytochalasin B, colchicine, both of the reagents, concanavalin A, and tetracaine did not alter the clustering of FcR on the surface, which was demonstrated by the ligand at 0 degrees. The effectiveness of these employed cytoskeletal reagents was determined ultrastructurally by observing the changes of morphology and cytoskeletal structures of treated neutrophils; a novel and unique cellular change of cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils was described which we called arachnocytosis. Under our experimental conditions the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane under the receptor patches did not show any specialized density resembling coated membrane regions. These data verify our previous finding that FeR is naturally clustered on human neutrophils, and suggest strongly that the FcR natural clustering is not primarily mediated by the cytoskeletons consisting of microfilaments (actin) and microtubules, and the coated membrane region. The exact mechanism for FcR clustering on human neutrophils is not clear and remains to be elucidated. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7251061

  17. The Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RII; CD32) on human neonatal B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Jessup, C F; Ridings, J; Ho, A; Nobbs, S; Roberton, D M; Macardle, P; Zola, H

    2001-07-01

    B cells express an Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRII; CD32) which is involved in feedback inhibition of antibody production. Engagement of FcgammaRII during ligation of the antigen receptor provides an inhibitory signal. FcgammaRII exists as several isoforms, with FcgammaRIIb (which carries an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif; ITIM) being predominant form on adult B cells. The inhibitory role of FcgammaRIIb may be unhelpful to the infant, since primary exposure to infectious agents is likely to be in the presence of maternal IgG. We hypothesized that neonatal B cells would be less susceptible to feedback inhibition by antibody, either through the expression of activation-competent FcgammaRII isoforms (FcgammaRIIa and FcgammaRIIc) or through reduced expression of the inhibitory FcgammaRIIb isoforms. Cord and adult B cells were examined for expression of FcgammaRII isoforms using monoclonal antibodies and RT-PCR. In vitro assays were performed to assess susceptibility of cord and adult cells to FcgammaRII-mediated suppression. Although there is no phenotypic difference in FcgammaRII expression (FcgammaRIIb predominating on both adult and cord B cells), FcgammaRIIb is expressed at lower levels on cord cells. This quantitative difference in FcgammaRIIb expression may explain the reduced susceptibility of cord B cells to antibody-mediated inhibition observed in these experiments.

  18. Human platelet Fc (IgG) receptor and its modulation

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.; McDermott, P.; Schreiber, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    The authors demonstrated that IgG oligomers bind to washed human platelets (P) by an Fc dependent process optimally at low ionic strength (/sup +/0.07) in 3 hrs at 4/sup 0/, while IgG monomer binds immeasurably. The authors studied the modulation of this Fc (IgG) binding site (Rc) on P by measuring /sup 125/I-IgG trimer binding to P at equilibrium and assessing Rc number of affinity. At ..mu.. = 0.07, P expressed 2 fold more Rc than at ..mu.. = 0.15, without a change in affinity; this effect was reversed upon re-exposure of P to ionic strength ..mu.. = 0.15. Equal numbers and affinities of Rc were observed in the presence of either 2mM EDTA, 2 mM EGTA or 2 mM EGTA + 2 mM Mg/sup + +/. Cytochalasin B (10 ..mu..g/ml) did not alter Rc (4987 sites/P, Ka = 0.9 x 10/sup 7/M/sup -1/ vs 5098 sites/P, Ka = 1.1 x 10/sup 7/M/sup -1/). Incubation with P alloreactive plasma at a concentration which depleted 33% of plasma C3, decreased Rc by 50%. However, activation of P by 10..mu..M ADP with Ca/sup + +/, Mg/sup + +/ and 100 ..mu..g/ml fibrinogen did not affect Rc number of affinity (2825 sites/P, Ka = 1.1 x 10/sup 7/M/sup -1/ vs 2551 sites/P, Ka = 0.9 x 10/sup 7/M/sup -1/). Thrombin (0.01 - 10 U/ml) also did not alter the number or affinity of Rc. P from 2 patients with thrombastenia expressed normal Rc number and affinity. Binding of IgG trimer to P occurs independent of actin filament interaction, Mg/sup + +/, modulation of P by ADP or thrombin, and of GPIIb/IIIa orGPIIb/IIIa-fibrogen interaction.

  19. Fc Receptor-Like Proteins in Pathophysiology of B-cell Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Mollie; Bryant, John Matthew; Sutkowski, Natalie; Haque, Azizul

    2016-01-01

    Members of the family of Fc receptor-like (FcRL) proteins, homologous to FcγRI, have been identified by multiple research groups. Consequently, they have been described using multiple nomenclatures including Fc receptor homologs (FcRH), immunoglobulin superfamily receptor translocation-associated genes (IRTA), immunoglobulin-Fc-gp42-related genes (IFGP), Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase anchor proteins (SPAP), and B cell cross-linked by anti-immunoglobulin M-activating sequences (BXMAS). They are now referred to under a unified nomenclature as FCRL. Eight different human FCRL genes have been identified, all of which appear to be related to the genes of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) of cellular adhesion molecules. These type 1 transmembrane glycoproteins are composed of different combinations of 5 types of immunoglobulin-like domains, with each protein consisting of 3 to 9 domains, and no individual domain type conserved throughout all of the FCRL proteins. Ligands for the majority of the FCRLs remain unknown. In general, FCRL expression is restricted to lymphocytes and is primarily expressed in B-lymphocytes, supporting FCRL’s involvement in a variety of immune disorders. Most FCRLs functionally repress B-cell activation; however, they might have dual roles in lymphocyte functions as these proteins often possess immunoreceptor tyrosine activation (ITAM) and inhibitory (ITIM) motif elements. The biological functions of these newly recognized FCRL proteins are just beginning to emerge, and might provide the insight necessary for understanding pathophysiology of lymphocyte disorders and treating different immune diseases. PMID:27446638

  20. Characterization and allelic polymorphisms of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) IgG Fc receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doan C; Scinicariello, Franco; Attanasio, Roberta

    2011-06-01

    Macaque models are invaluable for AIDS research. Indeed, initial development of HIV-1 vaccines relies heavily on simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques. Neutralizing antibodies, a major component of anti-HIV protective responses, ultimately interact with Fc receptors on phagocytic and natural killer cells to eliminate the pathogen. Despite the major role that Fc receptors play in protective responses, there is very limited information available on these molecules in rhesus macaques. Therefore, in this study, rhesus macaque CD32 (FcγRII) and CD64 (FcγRI) homologues were genetically characterized. In addition, presence of CD16 (FcγRIII), CD32, and CD64 allelic polymorphisms were determined in a group of nine animals. Results from this study show that the predicted structures of macaque CD32 and CD64 are highly similar to their human counterparts. Macaque and human CD32 and CD64 extracellular domains are 88-90% and 94-95% homologous, respectively. Although all cysteines are conserved between the two species, macaque CD32 exhibits two additional N-linked glycosylation sites, whereas CD64 lacks three of them when compared to humans. Five CD32, three CD64, and three CD16 distinct allelic sequences were indentified in the nine animals examined, indicating a relatively high level of polymorphism in macaque Fcγ receptors. Together, these results validate rhesus macaques as models for vaccine development and antibody responses, while at the same time, underscoring the need to take into account the high degree of genetic heterogeneity present in this species when designing experimental protocols.

  1. Fc and C3b Receptors on Pulmonary Endothelial Cells: Induction by Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Una S.; Schultz, Duane R.; Ryan, James W.

    1981-10-01

    Receptors for the activated third component of complement and for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G are not expressed by apparently normal bovine pulmonary endothelial cells, but are expressed when the cells are exposed to white cell lysates or are infected with influenza or cytomegalovirus. The unmasking of these latent receptors may contribute to the pulmonary inflammatory response characteristic of, for example, anaphylaxis and to those lung diseases characterized by the deposition of immune complexes.

  2. Analysis of the Effects of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) Inhibitor Ibrutinib on Monocyte Fcγ Receptor (FcγR) Function.

    PubMed

    Ren, Li; Campbell, Amanda; Fang, Huiqing; Gautam, Shalini; Elavazhagan, Saranya; Fatehchand, Kavin; Mehta, Payal; Stiff, Andrew; Reader, Brenda F; Mo, Xiaokui; Byrd, John C; Carson, William E; Butchar, Jonathan P; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2016-02-05

    The irreversible Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor ibrutinib has shown efficacy against B-cell tumors such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on immune cells such as macrophages play an important role in tumor-specific antibody-mediated immune responses, but many such responses involve Btk. Here we tested the effects of ibrutinib on FcγR-mediated activities in monocytes. We found that ibrutinib did not affect monocyte FcγR-mediated phagocytosis, even at concentrations higher than those achieved physiologically, but suppressed FcγR-mediated cytokine production. We confirmed these findings in macrophages from Xid mice in which Btk signaling is defective. Because calcium flux is a major event downstream of Btk, we tested whether it was involved in phagocytosis. The results showed that blocking intracellular calcium flux decreased FcγR-mediated cytokine production but not phagocytosis. To verify this, we measured activation of the GTPase Rac, which is responsible for actin polymerization. Results showed that ibrutinib did not inhibit Rac activation, nor did the calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester). We next asked whether the effect of ibrutinib on monocyte FcγR-mediated cytokine production could be rescued by IFNγ priming because NK cells produce IFNγ in response to antibody therapy. Pretreatment of monocytes with IFNγ abrogated the effects of ibrutinib on FcγR-mediated cytokine production, suggesting that IFNγ priming could overcome this Btk inhibition. Furthermore, in monocyte-natural killer cell co-cultures, ibrutinib did not inhibit FcγR-mediated cytokine production despite doing so in single cultures. These results suggest that combining ibrutinib with monoclonal antibody therapy could enhance chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell killing without affecting macrophage effector function. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry

  3. Analysis of the Effects of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) Inhibitor Ibrutinib on Monocyte Fcγ Receptor (FcγR) Function*

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Li; Campbell, Amanda; Fang, Huiqing; Gautam, Shalini; Elavazhagan, Saranya; Fatehchand, Kavin; Mehta, Payal; Stiff, Andrew; Reader, Brenda F.; Mo, Xiaokui; Byrd, John C.; Carson, William E.; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2016-01-01

    The irreversible Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor ibrutinib has shown efficacy against B-cell tumors such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on immune cells such as macrophages play an important role in tumor-specific antibody-mediated immune responses, but many such responses involve Btk. Here we tested the effects of ibrutinib on FcγR-mediated activities in monocytes. We found that ibrutinib did not affect monocyte FcγR-mediated phagocytosis, even at concentrations higher than those achieved physiologically, but suppressed FcγR-mediated cytokine production. We confirmed these findings in macrophages from Xid mice in which Btk signaling is defective. Because calcium flux is a major event downstream of Btk, we tested whether it was involved in phagocytosis. The results showed that blocking intracellular calcium flux decreased FcγR-mediated cytokine production but not phagocytosis. To verify this, we measured activation of the GTPase Rac, which is responsible for actin polymerization. Results showed that ibrutinib did not inhibit Rac activation, nor did the calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester). We next asked whether the effect of ibrutinib on monocyte FcγR-mediated cytokine production could be rescued by IFNγ priming because NK cells produce IFNγ in response to antibody therapy. Pretreatment of monocytes with IFNγ abrogated the effects of ibrutinib on FcγR-mediated cytokine production, suggesting that IFNγ priming could overcome this Btk inhibition. Furthermore, in monocyte-natural killer cell co-cultures, ibrutinib did not inhibit FcγR-mediated cytokine production despite doing so in single cultures. These results suggest that combining ibrutinib with monoclonal antibody therapy could enhance chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell killing without affecting macrophage effector function. PMID:26627823

  4. Engineering neonatal Fc receptor-mediated recycling and transcytosis in recombinant proteins by short terminal peptide extensions

    PubMed Central

    Sockolosky, Jonathan T.; Tiffany, Matthew R.; Szoka, Francis C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of therapeutic recombinant proteins in medicine has led to a variety of tactics to increase their circulation time or to enable routes of administration other than injection. One clinically successful tactic to improve both protein circulation and delivery is to fuse the Fc domain of IgG to therapeutic proteins so that the resulting fusion proteins interact with the human neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). As an alternative to grafting the high molecular weight Fc domain to therapeutic proteins, we have modified their N and/or C termini with a short peptide sequence that interacts with FcRn. Our strategy was motivated by results [Mezo AR, et al. (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:2337–2342] that identified peptides that compete with human IgG for FcRn. The small size and simple structure of the FcRn-binding peptide (FcBP) allows for expression of FcBP fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and results in their pH-dependent binding to FcRn with an affinity comparable to that of IgG. The FcBP fusion proteins are internalized, recycled, and transcytosed across cell monolayers that express FcRn. This strategy has the potential to improve protein transport across epithelial barriers, which could lead to noninvasive administration and also enable longer half-lives of therapeutic proteins. PMID:22991460

  5. Fine specificity of the IgE interaction with the low and high affinity Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Nissim, A; Schwarzbaum, S; Siraganian, R; Eshhar, Z

    1993-02-15

    The characterization of the site(s) on the IgE molecule that accommodate the high (Fc epsilon RI) and low (Fc epsilon RII) affinity receptors for IgE should allow the design of IgE analogues that can be used to block the onset of the allergic response or to regulate IgE production. To identify the IgE domain responsible for receptor binding, we generated a series of chimeric IgE antibodies in which constant region domains were interchanged between the human and mouse molecules. Binding studies with these chimeras revealed that both the high and low affinity receptor binding-sites reside primarily in the third constant domain of IgE (C epsilon 3). Additional chimeric IgE molecules were generated in which different parts of the human C epsilon 3 domain were exchanged with their murine homologues. Binding experiments with these chimeras suggest that not only the sequence of a particular C epsilon 3 fragment, but the entire C epsilon 3 domain in its native configuration is essential for binding to the Fc epsilon RI. The amino acid residues determining the species specificity of the Fc epsilon RII are not contained in the first 16 amino acids of the C epsilon 3 domain.

  6. IgG-mediated anaphylaxis via Fcγ receptor in CD40-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Wakayama, H; Hasegawa, Y; Kawabe, T; Saito, H; Kikutani, H; Shimokata, K

    1998-01-01

    Anaphylaxis denotes an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to allergen, exclusively mediated by IgE antibodies. However, IgE antibodies do not explain all the syndromes that are encountered. We investigated potent IgG-mediated anaphylaxis in CD40-deficient mice that lack the immunoglobulin class switching for T cell-dependent antigens. Immunization with ovalbumin did not induce either humoral responses of IgG, IgA, and IgE, or systemic anaphylaxis in CD40-deficient mice. Although systemic anaphylaxis by active immunization was not observed in CD40-deficient mice, both passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and passive systemic anaphylaxis assessed by mouse blood pressure monitoring with cervical artery catheterization did take place when antigen-specific IgG was transferred and then antigen challenge given. Further, to investigate the inflammatory pathway of IgG-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions, we focused on the Fcγ receptor (FcγR) function. Pretreatment of the mice with the anti-FcγRII/FcγRIII MoAb clearly blocked the response of PCA and passive systemic anaphylaxis, suggesting that they were initiated through FcγR. In conclusion, we directly demonstrate the IgG-mediated anaphylaxis and its triggering mechanism through FcγR in in vivo conditions. In addition to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis, IgG-mediated anaphylaxis should be considered and the blocking of FcγR would provide one of the therapeutic targets for the control of IgG-mediated hypersensitivity diseases. PMID:9822270

  7. Recombinant anthrax toxin receptor-Fc fusion proteins produced in plants protect rabbits against inhalational anthrax.

    PubMed

    Wycoff, Keith L; Belle, Archana; Deppe, Dorothée; Schaefer, Leah; Maclean, James M; Haase, Simone; Trilling, Anke K; Liu, Shihui; Leppla, Stephen H; Geren, Isin N; Pawlik, Jennifer; Peterson, Johnny W

    2011-01-01

    Inhalational anthrax, a zoonotic disease caused by the inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores, has a ∼50% fatality rate even when treated with antibiotics. Pathogenesis is dependent on the activity of two toxic noncovalent complexes: edema toxin (EdTx) and lethal toxin (LeTx). Protective antigen (PA), an essential component of both complexes, binds with high affinity to the major receptor mediating the lethality of anthrax toxin in vivo, capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2). Certain antibodies against PA have been shown to protect against anthrax in vivo. As an alternative to anti-PA antibodies, we produced a fusion of the extracellular domain of human CMG2 and human IgG Fc, using both transient and stable tobacco plant expression systems. Optimized expression led to the CMG2-Fc fusion protein being produced at high levels: 730 mg/kg fresh leaf weight in Nicotiana benthamiana and 65 mg/kg in N. tabacum. CMG2-Fc, purified from tobacco plants, fully protected rabbits against a lethal challenge with B. anthracis spores at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight administered at the time of challenge. Treatment with CMG2-Fc did not interfere with the development of the animals' own immunity to anthrax, as treated animals that survived an initial challenge also survived a rechallenge 30 days later. The glycosylation of the Fc (or lack thereof) had no significant effect on the protective potency of CMG2-Fc in rabbits or on its serum half-life, which was about 5 days. Significantly, CMG2-Fc effectively neutralized, in vitro, LeTx-containing mutant forms of PA that were not neutralized by anti-PA monoclonal antibodies.

  8. Subclass specificity of the Fc receptor for human IgG on K562.

    PubMed

    Chiofalo, M S; Teti, G; Goust, J M; Trifiletti, R; La Via, M F

    1988-07-01

    The erythroleukemic cell line K562 bears a 40-kDa Fc receptor (Fc gamma RII) serologically related to and with a similar molecular weight as the Fc gamma R present on a broad range of leukocytes. The human IgG subclass specificity of the Fc gamma R on K562 was investigated using IgG aggregates of defined size, obtained from purified human myeloma proteins. The monoclonal antibody IV.3, which reacts with the Fc gamma RII present on various cell types, totally prevented binding of 125I-IgG2 trimers to K562. Experiments with radiolabeled IgG2 trimers showed that K562 cells bound a mean of 156,764 +/- 9895 molecules per cell with an association constant (Ka) of 1.8 +/- 0.7 X 10(8) M-1. Similar results were obtained with IgG3 oligomers. IgG3 and IgG2 trimers were about two- to threefold more effective in inhibiting binding of 125I-IgG2 trimers to K562 than IgG1 and IgG4 trimers. These results were confirmed by inhibition experiments using IgG monomers. The subclass specificity of the Fc gamma RII on K562 (i.e., IgG2 = IgG3 greater than IgG1 = IgG4) is quite distinct from the one reported for the Fc gamma RI and III of human cells (i.e., IgG1 = IgG3 greater than IgG4 and IgG2).

  9. Myosin II-dependent exclusion of CD45 from the site of Fcγ receptor activation during phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Shota; Kawauchi, Keiko; Sawada, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-21

    Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis requires myosin II activity. Here we show that myosin II contributes to FcγR activation and subsequent F-actin assembly at the nascent phagocytic cup. Inhibition of myosin II attenuates phosphorylation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) of FcγR and binding of Syk to the ITAM. Furthermore, FcγR clusters independently of myosin II activity at the phagocytic cup, from which the receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 is excluded depending on myosin II activity. These findings suggest that myosin II-dependent segregation of CD45 from FcγR facilitates phosphorylation of the ITAM and triggers phagocytosis.

  10. Maximizing the potency of an anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody by exploiting proximity to Fcγ receptors

    PubMed Central

    Loyau, Jérémy; Malinge, Pauline; Daubeuf, Bruno; Shang, Limin; Elson, Greg; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Fischer, Nicolas; Rousseau, François

    2014-01-01

    In order to treat Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated diseases, we generated a potent antagonistic antibody directed against human TLR4, Hu 15C1. This antibody's potency can be modulated by engaging not only TLR4 but also Fcγ receptors (FcγR), a mechanism that is driven by avidity and not cell signaling. Here, using various formats of the antibody, we further dissect the relative contributions of the Fv and Fc portions of Hu 15C1, discovering that the relationship to potency of the different antibody arms is not linear. First, as could be anticipated, we observed that Hu 15C1 co-engages up to 3 receptors on the same plasma membrane, i.e., 2 TLR4 molecules (via its variable regions) and either FcγRI or FcγRIIA (via the Fc). The Kd of these interactions are in the nM range (3 nM of the Fv for TLR4 and 47 nM of the Fc for FcγRI). However, unexpectedly, neutralization experiments revealed that, due to the low level of cell surface TLR4 expression, the avidity afforded by engagement through 2 Fv arms was significantly limited. In contrast, the antibody's neutralization capacity increases by 3 logs when able to exploit Fc-FcγR interactions. Taken together, these results demonstrate an unforeseen level of contribution by FcγRs to an antibody's effectiveness when targeting a cell surface protein of relatively low abundance. These findings highlight an exploitable mechanism by which FcγR-bearing cells may be more powerfully targeted, envisioned to be broadly applicable to other reagents aimed at neutralizing cell surface targets on cells co-expressing FcγRs. PMID:25484053

  11. Identification and characterization of a Fc receptor activity on the Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite.

    PubMed

    Vercammen, M; el Bouhdidi, A; Ben Messaoud, A; de Meuter, F; Bazin, H; Dubremetz, J F; Carlier, Y

    1998-01-01

    The Immunoglobulin (Ig) binding capacity of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites was investigated using fluorescence flow-cytometry analysis. Polyclonal mouse, human and rat immunoglobulins without specific anti-Toxoplasma activity bound to parasites in a concentration-dependent manner, saturating them at circulating serum concentrations. The immunoglobulin class and subclass specificity of binding was investigated using irrelevant monoclonal antibodies. IgM, IgA and IgG reacted with the parasite membrane. The attachment of mouse IgM to the parasite surface was hampered by mouse IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3. The binding of mouse IgG was proportionally reduced with increasing concentrations of mouse monoclonal IgM. The binding of murine immunoglobulin was diminished when in presence of human IgG. Purified Fc- but not Fab portions of immunoglobulins, fixed to parasites. Using labelled calibrated beads, the Ig binding capacity of parasites was estimated to be 6900 +/- 500 sites per tachyzoite. The Kd of the T. gondii Fc Receptor (FcR) activity was determined at 1.4 +/- 0.1 microM (mean +/- SEM). Such FcR activity was reduced by phospholipase C, trypsin and pronase treatment of the parasites. These data show a low affinity FcR activity on T. gondii tachyzoites which recognizes Ig of different species and isotypes and is likely supported by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored surface protein of the parasite.

  12. Intravenous immunoglobulin ameliorates ITP via activating Fc gamma receptors on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Siragam, Vinayakumar; Crow, Andrew R; Brinc, Davor; Song, Seng; Freedman, John; Lazarus, Alan H

    2006-06-01

    Despite a more than 20-year experience of therapeutic benefit, the relevant molecular and cellular targets of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in autoimmune disease remain unclear. Contrary to the prevailing theories of IVIg action in autoimmunity, we show that IVIg drives signaling through activating Fc gamma receptors (Fc gammaR) in the amelioration of mouse immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The actual administration of IVIg was unnecessary because as few as 10(5) IVIg-treated cells could, upon adoptive transfer, ameliorate ITP. IVIg did not interact with the inhibitory Fc gammaRIIB on the initiator cell, although Fc gammaRIIB does have a role in the late phase of IVIg action. Notably, only IVIg-treated CD11c+ dendritic cells could mediate these effects. We hypothesize that IVIg forms soluble immune complexes in vivo that prime dendritic-cell regulatory activity. In conclusion, the clinical effects of IVIg in ameliorating ITP seem to involve the acute interaction of IVIg with activating Fc gammaR on dendritic cells.

  13. Effect of trastuzumab interchain disulfide bond cleavage on Fcγ receptor binding and antibody-dependent tumour cell phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Mami; Yamanoi, Ayaka; Machino, Yusuke; Ootsubo, Michiko; Izawa, Ken-ichi; Kohroki, Junya; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The Fc domain of human IgG1 binds to Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) to induce effector functions such as phagocytosis. There are four interchain disulfide bonds between the H and L chains. In this study, the disulfide bonds within the IgG1 trastuzumab (TRA), which is specific for HER2, were cleaved by mild S-sulfonation or by mild reduction followed by S-alkylation with three different reagents. The cleavage did not change the binding activities of TRA to HER2-bearing SK-BR-3 cells. The binding activities of TRA to FcγRIIA and FcγRIIB were greatly enhanced by modification with mild reduction and S-alkylation with ICH2CONH2 or N-(4-aminophenyl) maleimide, while the binding activities of TRA to FcγRI and FcγRIIIA were decreased by any of the four modifications. However, the interchain disulfide bond cleavage by the different modifications did not change the antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of SK-BR-3 cells by activated THP-1 cells. The order of FcγR expression levels on the THP-1 cells was FcγRII > FcγRI > FcγRIII and ADCP was inhibited by blocking antibodies against FcγRI and FcγRII. These results imply that the effect of the interchain disulfide bond cleavage on FcγRs binding and ADCP is dependent on modifications of the cysteine residues and the FcγR isotypes. PMID:26254483

  14. Effect of trastuzumab interchain disulfide bond cleavage on Fcγ receptor binding and antibody-dependent tumour cell phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mami; Yamanoi, Ayaka; Machino, Yusuke; Ootsubo, Michiko; Izawa, Ken-ichi; Kohroki, Junya; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The Fc domain of human IgG1 binds to Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) to induce effector functions such as phagocytosis. There are four interchain disulfide bonds between the H and L chains. In this study, the disulfide bonds within the IgG1 trastuzumab (TRA), which is specific for HER2, were cleaved by mild S-sulfonation or by mild reduction followed by S-alkylation with three different reagents. The cleavage did not change the binding activities of TRA to HER2-bearing SK-BR-3 cells. The binding activities of TRA to FcγRIIA and FcγRIIB were greatly enhanced by modification with mild reduction and S-alkylation with ICH2CONH2 or N-(4-aminophenyl) maleimide, while the binding activities of TRA to FcγRI and FcγRIIIA were decreased by any of the four modifications. However, the interchain disulfide bond cleavage by the different modifications did not change the antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of SK-BR-3 cells by activated THP-1 cells. The order of FcγR expression levels on the THP-1 cells was FcγRII > FcγRI > FcγRIII and ADCP was inhibited by blocking antibodies against FcγRI and FcγRII. These results imply that the effect of the interchain disulfide bond cleavage on FcγRs binding and ADCP is dependent on modifications of the cysteine residues and the FcγR isotypes.

  15. The high-affinity receptor for IgG, FcγRI, of humans and non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Alicia M; Trist, Halina M; Tan, Peck-Szee; Wines, Bruce D; Hogarth, P Mark

    2015-11-01

    Non-human primate (NHP) models, especially involving macaques, are considered important models of human immunity and have been essential in preclinical testing for vaccines and therapeutics. Despite this, much less characterization of macaque Fc receptors has occurred compared to humans or mice. Much of the characterization of macaque Fc receptors so far has focused on the low-affinity Fc receptors, particularly FcγRIIIa. From these studies, it is clear that there are distinct differences between the human and macaque low-affinity receptors and their interaction with human IgG. Relatively little work has been performed on the high-affinity IgG receptor, FcγRI, especially in NHPs. This review will focus on what is currently known of how FcγRI interacts with IgG, from mutation studies and recent crystallographic studies of human FcγRI, and how amino acid sequence differences in the macaque FcγRI may affect this interaction. Additionally, this review will look at the functional consequences of differences in the amino acid sequences between humans and macaques. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Modulation of Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated Systemic Anaphylaxis by Low-Affinity Fc Receptors for IgG

    PubMed Central

    Ujike, Azusa; Ishikawa, Yoko; Ono, Masao; Yuasa, Takae; Yoshino, Tadashi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Takai, Toshiyuki

    1999-01-01

    It is widely accepted that immunoglobulin (Ig)E triggers immediate hypersensitivity responses by activating a cognate high-affinity receptor, FcεRI, leading to mast cell degranulation with release of vasoactive and proinflammatory mediators. This apparent specificity, however, is complicated by the ability of IgE to bind with low affinity to Fc receptors for IgG, FcγRII and III. We have addressed the in vivo significance of this interaction by studying IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis in FcγR-deficient mice. Mice deficient in the inhibitory receptor for IgG, FcγRIIB, display enhanced IgE-mediated anaphylactic responses, whereas mice deficient in an IgG activation receptor, FcγRIII, display a corresponding attenuation of IgE-mediated responses. Thus, in addition to modulating IgG-triggered hypersensitivity responses, FcγRII and III on mast cells are potent regulators of IgE-mediated responses and reveal the existence of a regulatory pathway for IgE triggering of effector cells through IgG Fc receptors that could contribute to the etiology of the atopic response. PMID:10330436

  17. Distinct Fcγ receptors mediate the effect of Serum Amyloid P on neutrophil adhesion and fibrocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma protein Serum Amyloid P (SAP) reduces neutrophil adhesion, inhibits the differentiation of monocytes into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes, and promotes phagocytosis of cell debris by macrophages. Together, these effects of SAP reduce key aspects of inflammation and fibrosis, and SAP injections improve lung function in pulmonary fibrosis patients. SAP functions are mediated in part by Fcγ receptors, but the contribution of each Fcγ receptor is not fully understood. We found that amino acids Q55 and E126 in human SAP affect human fibrocyte differentiation and SAP binding to FcγRI. E126, K130 and Q128 affect neutrophil adhesion and SAP affinity for FcγRIIa. Q128 also affects phagocytosis by macrophages and SAP affinity for FcγRI. All the identified functionally significant amino acids in SAP form a binding site that is distinct from the previously described SAP-FcγRIIa binding site. Blocking FcγRI with an IgG blocking antibody reduces the SAP effect on fibrocyte differentiation, and ligating FcγRIIa with antibodies reduces neutrophil adhesion. Together, these results suggest that SAP binds to FcγRI on monocytes to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation, and binds to FcγRIIa on neutrophils to reduce neutrophil adhesion. PMID:25024390

  18. Imaging and measuring the biophysical properties of Fc gamma receptors on single macrophages using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Xiao, Xiubin; Zhang, Weijing

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Nanoscale cellular ultra-structures of macrophages were observed. •The binding affinities of FcγRs were measured directly on macrophages. •The nanoscale distributions of FcγRs were mapped on macrophages. -- Abstract: Fc gamma receptors (FcγR), widely expressed on effector cells (e.g., NK cells, macrophages), play an important role in clinical cancer immunotherapy. The binding of FcγRs to the Fc portions of antibodies that are attached to the target cells can activate the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) killing mechanism which leads to the lysis of target cells. In this work, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe the cellular ultra-structures and measure the biophysical properties (affinity and distribution) of FcγRs on single macrophages in aqueous environments. AFM imaging was used to obtain the topographies of macrophages, revealing the nanoscale cellular fine structures. For molecular interaction recognition, antibody molecules were attached onto AFM tips via a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) crosslinker. With AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy, the binding affinities of FcγRs were quantitatively measured on single macrophages. Adhesion force mapping method was used to localize the FcγRs, revealing the nanoscale distribution of FcγRs on local areas of macrophages. The experimental results can improve our understanding of FcγRs on macrophages; the established approach will facilitate further research on physiological activities involved in antibody-based immunotherapy.

  19. Ethanol Inhibits High-Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor (FcεRI) Signaling in Mast Cells by Suppressing the Function of FcεRI-Cholesterol Signalosome

    PubMed Central

    Draberova, Lubica; Paulenda, Tomas; Halova, Ivana; Potuckova, Lucie; Bugajev, Viktor; Bambouskova, Monika; Tumova, Magda; Draber, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol has multiple effects on biochemical events in a variety of cell types, including the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI) signaling in antigen-activated mast cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. To get better understanding of the effect of ethanol on FcεRI-mediated signaling we examined the effect of short-term treatment with non-toxic concentrations of ethanol on FcεRI signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. We found that 15 min exposure to ethanol inhibited antigen-induced degranulation, calcium mobilization, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-13), and formation of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Removal of cellular cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin had a similar effect and potentiated some of the inhibitory effects of ethanol. In contrast, exposure of the cells to cholesterol-saturated methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished in part the inhibitory effect of ethanol on calcium response and production of reactive oxygen species, supporting lipid-centric theories of ethanol action on the earliest stages of mast cell signaling. Further studies showed that exposure to ethanol and/or removal of cholesterol inhibited early FcεRI activation events, including tyrosine phosphorylation of the FcεRI β and γ subunits, SYK kinases, LAT adaptor protein, phospholipase Cγ, STAT5, and AKT and internalization of aggregated FcεRI. Interestingly, ethanol alone, and particularly in combination with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, enhanced phosphorylation of negative regulatory tyrosine 507 of LYN kinase. Finally, we found that ethanol reduced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice, suggesting that ethanol also inhibits FcεRI signaling under in vivo conditions. The combined data indicate that ethanol interferes with early antigen-induced signaling events in mast cells by suppressing the function of Fc

  20. Critical Role of the Neonatal Fc Receptor (FcRn) in the Pathogenic Action of Antimitochondrial Autoantibodies Synergizing with Anti-desmoglein Autoantibodies in Pemphigus Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yumay; Chernyavsky, Alex; Webber, Robert J; Grando, Sergei A; Wang, Ping H

    2015-09-25

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a life-long, potentially fatal IgG autoantibody-mediated blistering disease targeting mucocutaneous keratinocytes (KCs). PV patients develop pathogenic anti-desmoglein (Dsg) 3 ± 1 and antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA), but it remained unknown whether and how AMA enter KCs and why other cell types are not affected in PV. Therefore, we sought to elucidate mechanisms of cell entry, trafficking, and pathogenic action of AMA in PV. We found that PVIgGs associated with neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) on the cell membrane, and the PVIgG-FcRn complexes entered KCs and reached mitochondria where they dissociated. The liberated AMA altered mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, and ATP production and induced cytochrome c release, although the lack or inactivation of FcRn abolished the ability of PVIgG to reach and damage mitochondria and to cause detachment of KCs. The assays of mitochondrial functions and keratinocyte adhesion demonstrated that although the pathobiological effects of AMA on KCs are reversible, they become irreversible, leading to epidermal blistering (acantholysis), when AMA synergize with anti-Dsg antibodies. Thus, it appears that AMA enter a keratinocyte in a complex with FcRn, become liberated from the endosome in the cytosol, and are trafficked to the mitochondria, wherein they trigger pro-apoptotic events leading to shrinkage of basal KCs uniquely expressing FcRn in epidermis. During recovery, KCs extend their cytoplasmic aprons toward neighboring cells, but anti-Dsg antibodies prevent assembly of nascent desmosomes due to steric hindrance, thus rendering acantholysis irreversible. In conclusion, FcRn is a common acceptor protein for internalization of AMA and, perhaps, for PV autoantibodies to other intracellular antigens, and PV is a novel disease paradigm for investigating and elucidating the role of FcRn in this autoimmune disease and possibly other autoimmune diseases.

  1. Ethanol Inhibits High-Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor (FcεRI) Signaling in Mast Cells by Suppressing the Function of FcεRI-Cholesterol Signalosome.

    PubMed

    Draberova, Lubica; Paulenda, Tomas; Halova, Ivana; Potuckova, Lucie; Bugajev, Viktor; Bambouskova, Monika; Tumova, Magda; Draber, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol has multiple effects on biochemical events in a variety of cell types, including the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI) signaling in antigen-activated mast cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. To get better understanding of the effect of ethanol on FcεRI-mediated signaling we examined the effect of short-term treatment with non-toxic concentrations of ethanol on FcεRI signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. We found that 15 min exposure to ethanol inhibited antigen-induced degranulation, calcium mobilization, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-13), and formation of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Removal of cellular cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin had a similar effect and potentiated some of the inhibitory effects of ethanol. In contrast, exposure of the cells to cholesterol-saturated methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished in part the inhibitory effect of ethanol on calcium response and production of reactive oxygen species, supporting lipid-centric theories of ethanol action on the earliest stages of mast cell signaling. Further studies showed that exposure to ethanol and/or removal of cholesterol inhibited early FcεRI activation events, including tyrosine phosphorylation of the FcεRI β and γ subunits, SYK kinases, LAT adaptor protein, phospholipase Cγ, STAT5, and AKT and internalization of aggregated FcεRI. Interestingly, ethanol alone, and particularly in combination with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, enhanced phosphorylation of negative regulatory tyrosine 507 of LYN kinase. Finally, we found that ethanol reduced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice, suggesting that ethanol also inhibits FcεRI signaling under in vivo conditions. The combined data indicate that ethanol interferes with early antigen-induced signaling events in mast cells by suppressing the function of Fc

  2. Critical Role of the Neonatal Fc Receptor (FcRn) in the Pathogenic Action of Antimitochondrial Autoantibodies Synergizing with Anti-desmoglein Autoantibodies in Pemphigus Vulgaris*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yumay; Chernyavsky, Alex; Webber, Robert J.; Grando, Sergei A.; Wang, Ping H.

    2015-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a life-long, potentially fatal IgG autoantibody-mediated blistering disease targeting mucocutaneous keratinocytes (KCs). PV patients develop pathogenic anti-desmoglein (Dsg) 3 ± 1 and antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA), but it remained unknown whether and how AMA enter KCs and why other cell types are not affected in PV. Therefore, we sought to elucidate mechanisms of cell entry, trafficking, and pathogenic action of AMA in PV. We found that PVIgGs associated with neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) on the cell membrane, and the PVIgG-FcRn complexes entered KCs and reached mitochondria where they dissociated. The liberated AMA altered mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, and ATP production and induced cytochrome c release, although the lack or inactivation of FcRn abolished the ability of PVIgG to reach and damage mitochondria and to cause detachment of KCs. The assays of mitochondrial functions and keratinocyte adhesion demonstrated that although the pathobiological effects of AMA on KCs are reversible, they become irreversible, leading to epidermal blistering (acantholysis), when AMA synergize with anti-Dsg antibodies. Thus, it appears that AMA enter a keratinocyte in a complex with FcRn, become liberated from the endosome in the cytosol, and are trafficked to the mitochondria, wherein they trigger pro-apoptotic events leading to shrinkage of basal KCs uniquely expressing FcRn in epidermis. During recovery, KCs extend their cytoplasmic aprons toward neighboring cells, but anti-Dsg antibodies prevent assembly of nascent desmosomes due to steric hindrance, thus rendering acantholysis irreversible. In conclusion, FcRn is a common acceptor protein for internalization of AMA and, perhaps, for PV autoantibodies to other intracellular antigens, and PV is a novel disease paradigm for investigating and elucidating the role of FcRn in this autoimmune disease and possibly other autoimmune diseases. PMID:26260795

  3. Generation of a double transgenic humanized neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)/albumin mouse to study the pharmacokinetics of albumin-linked drugs.

    PubMed

    Viuff, Dorthe; Antunes, Filipa; Evans, Leslie; Cameron, Jason; Dyrnesli, Hans; Thue Ravn, Birgitte; Stougaard, Magnus; Thiam, Kader; Andersen, Birgitte; Kjærulff, Søren; Howard, Kenneth A

    2016-02-10

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a natural carrier protein possessing multiple ligand binding sites with a plasma half-life ~19days, facilitated by interaction with the human neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), that promotes it as a highly attractive drug delivery technology. A lack of adequate rodent models, however, is a major challenge in the preclinical development of albumin-linked therapeutics. This work describes the first double transgenic mouse model bearing both human FcRn and HSA genes (hFcRn(+/+), hAlb(+/+)) under the control of an endogenous promoter. Human FcRn was shown by immunohistochemical and qPCR analysis to be ubiquitously expressed in the major organs. Physiological levels of HSA were detected in the blood that exhibited similar FcRn binding kinetics to recombinant or human serum-derived HSA. The circulatory half-life (t1/2) was shown to be dependent on FcRn binding affinity that increased from low affinity (t1/2 29h), to wild type (t1/2 50h), to high affinity (t1/2 80h) variants, that validates the application of the model for optimizing the pharmacokinetics of drug carriers who's circulatory half-life is dependent in some manner upon interaction with endogenous FcRn. This study presents a novel mouse model that better mimics the human physiological conditions and, thus, has potential wide applications in the development of albumin-linked drugs or conventional drugs whose action is influenced by reversible binding to endogenous HSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fc receptor triggering induces expression of surface activation antigens and release of platelet-activating factor in large granular lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Malavasi, F; Tetta, C; Funaro, A; Bellone, G; Ferrero, E; Franzone, A C; Dellabona, P; Rusci, R; Matera, L; Camussi, G

    1986-01-01

    Triggering of large granular lymphocyte (LGL) Fc receptor with a specific monoclonal antibody (AB8.28) linked to an insoluble matrix induces cell activation, as witnessed by expression of HLA class II (DR and DQ) molecules and interleukin 2 receptor. Moreover, this event is accompanied by a concomitant release of platelet-activating factor by LGL. We conclude that the Fc receptor molecule identified by mAb AB8.28 represents a trigger for LGL activation. PMID:3085094

  5. New roles for Fc receptors in neurodegeneration-the impact on Immunotherapy for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, James P.; Stavenhagen, Jeffrey B.; Teeling, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    There are an estimated 18 million Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers worldwide and with no disease modifying treatment currently available, development of new therapies represents an enormous unmet clinical need. AD is characterized by episodic memory loss followed by severe cognitive decline and is associated with many neuropathological changes. AD is characterized by deposits of amyloid beta (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation. Active immunization or passive immunization against Aβ leads to the clearance of deposits in transgenic mice expressing human Aβ. This clearance is associated with reversal of associated cognitive deficits, but these results have not translated to humans, with both active and passive immunotherapy failing to improve memory loss. One explanation for these observations is that certain anti-Aβ antibodies mediate damage to the cerebral vasculature limiting the top dose and potentially reducing efficacy. Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) are a family of immunoglobulin-like receptors which bind to the Fc portion of IgG, and mediate the response of effector cells to immune complexes. Data from both mouse and human studies suggest that cross-linking FcγR by therapeutic antibodies and the subsequent pro-inflammatory response mediates the vascular side effects seen following immunotherapy. Increasing evidence is emerging that FcγR expression on CNS resident cells, including microglia and neurons, is increased during aging and functionally involved in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we propose that increased expression and ligation of FcγR in the CNS, either by endogenous IgG or therapeutic antibodies, has the potential to induce vascular damage and exacerbate neurodegeneration. To produce safe and effective immunotherapies for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases it will be vital to understand the role of FcγR in the healthy and diseased brain. Here we review the literature on Fc

  6. Functional characteristics of enhanced Fc receptor expression of beta 2 integrin-deficient bovine mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Higuchi, H; Goji, N; Noda, H; Kuwabara, M

    1996-01-01

    Fc receptor expression, cytoplasmic Ca2+ signaling, chemiluminescent (CL) response, and electron spin resonance (ESR) combined with spin trapping of blood mononuclear phagocytes from control heifers and a heifer with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) were evaluated to elucidate the relationships between complement receptor type 3 (CR3) and Fc receptor expression and their functional responses. The mean fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-bovine IgG bound to mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD was 1.8-fold higher than that of control heifers. The mean increments of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations of mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD stimulated with OPZ, Agg-IgG, and PMA were 39.4 (P < 0.05), 118, and 71.6% compared with those of control heifers. A 1.27-fold increase in the CL response relative to control heifers was detected when mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD were stimulated with Agg-IgG. The OPZ-induced CL response of mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas the PMA-induced CL response was similar to that of control heifers. The ESR spectrum of mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD was increased when stimulated with Agg-IgG, and was impaired when stimulated by OPZ compared with that of control heifers. The ESR spectrum of mononuclear phagocytes stimulated with PMA was similar in control heifers and the heifer with LAD. Fc receptors on mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD were enhanced, and their cytoplasmic Ca2+ signaling, CL response, and ESR-spin trapping when stimulated with Agg-IgG and OPZ appeared to be associated with enhanced Fc receptors.

  7. Isolation of follicular dendritic cells from human tonsils and adenoids. III. Analysis of their Fc receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, E; Radoux, D; Kinet-Denoel, C; Moeremans, M; De Mey, J; Simar, L J

    1985-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDC), isolated from human tonsils or adenoids, were tested for their capacity to retain monomeric, aggregated or antigen-bound human antibodies in the absence of serum. FDC retain fluorescein-labelled heat-aggregated human immunoglobulins, but not monomeric ones nor fluorescein-labelled F(ab')2 in monomeric or aggregated form. Ultrastructural observations showed that colloidal gold-labelled monomeric, or antigen-bound, antibodies directed against tetanus toxoid are retained by dendrites and membrane infoldings of FDC but are never located in cytoplasmic vesicles. This retention was inhibited by incubating FDC with unlabelled aggregated or antigen-bound antibodies. When gold-labelled anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies were incubated in the presence of protein-A before the contact with FDC, a strong reduction of their retention occurred. This further suggested the presence of Fc receptors on isolated tonsillar FDC. Endocytosis was not observed in isolated FDC, even after prolonged incubation in presence of labelled immune complexes: their Fc receptors are, thus, not related to a phagocytic activity as they are in macrophages. Simultaneous ultrastructural labelling of Fc and C3b receptors with colloidal gold particles of different sizes did not reveal any clear relations between these two receptors on the surface of FDC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3156811

  8. CD44 Antibody Inhibition of Macrophage Phagocytosis Targets Fcγ Receptor- and Complement Receptor 3-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amash, Alaa; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yawen; Bhakta, Varsha; Fairn, Gregory D; Hou, Ming; Peng, Jun; Sheffield, William P; Lazarus, Alan H

    2016-04-15

    Targeting CD44, a major leukocyte adhesion molecule, using specific Abs has been shown beneficial in several models of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms contributing to the anti-inflammatory effects of CD44 Abs, however, remain poorly understood. Phagocytosis is a key component of immune system function and can play a pivotal role in autoimmune states where CD44 Abs have shown to be effective. In this study, we show that the well-known anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab IM7 can inhibit murine macrophage phagocytosis of RBCs. We assessed three selected macrophage phagocytic receptor systems: Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), complement receptor 3 (CR3), and dectin-1. Treatment of macrophages with IM7 resulted in significant inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized RBCs. The inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis was at an early stage in the phagocytic process involving both inhibition of the binding of the target RBC to the macrophages and postbinding events. This CD44 Ab also inhibited CR3-mediated phagocytosis of C3bi-opsonized RBCs, but it did not affect the phagocytosis of zymosan particles, known to be mediated by the C-type lectin dectin-1. Other CD44 Abs known to have less broad anti-inflammatory activity, including KM114, KM81, and KM201, did not inhibit FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of RBCs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate selective inhibition of FcγR and CR3-mediated phagocytosis by IM7 and suggest that this broadly anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab inhibits these selected macrophage phagocytic pathways. The understanding of the immune-regulatory effects of CD44 Abs is important in the development and optimization of therapeutic strategies for the potential treatment of autoimmune conditions.

  9. Antibody to FcεRIα Suppresses Immunoglobulin E Binding to High-Affinity Receptor I in Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jung Yeon; Bae, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Mina; Kim, Min Hee; Kang, Hyun Jung; Park, Eun Hye; Yoo, Kyung Sook; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High-affinity receptor I (FcεRI) on mast cells and basophils plays a key role in the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated type I hypersensitivity mediated by allergen cross-linking of the specific IgE-FcεRI complex. Thus, prevention of IgE binding to FcεRI on these cells is an effective therapy for allergic disease. We have developed a strategy to disrupt IgE binding to FcεRI using an antibody targeting FcεRIα. Materials and Methods Fab fragment antibodies, which lack the Fc domain, with high affinity and specificity for FcεRIα and effective inhibitory activity against IgE-FcεRI binding were screened. IgE-induced histamine, β-hexosaminidase and Ca2+ release in basophils were determined by ELISA. A B6.Cg-Fcer1atm1Knt Tg(FCER1A)1Bhk/J mouse model of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) was used to examine the inhibitory effect of NPB311 on allergic skin inflammation. Results NPB311 exhibited high affinity to human FcεRIα (KD=4 nM) and inhibited histamine, β-hexosaminidase and Ca2+ release in a concentration-dependent manner in hFcεRI-expressing cells. In hFcεRIα-expressing mice, dye leakage was higher in the PCA group than in controls, but decreased after NPB311 treatment. NPB311 could form a complex with FcεRIα and inhibit the release of inflammation mediators. Conclusion Our approach for producing anti-FcεRIα Fab fragment antibody NPB311 may enable clinical application to a therapeutic pathway in IgE/FcεRI-mediated diseases. PMID:27593869

  10. Identification of low density lipoprotein as a regulator of Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, R D; Khoo, M; Lund-Katz, S; Scerbo, L; Esfahani, M

    1990-01-01

    Optimal expression of the high-affinity Fc receptor for IgG (FcRI) by the human monocyte cell line U-937 requires the presence of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and neither cholesterol nor high density lipoprotein can provide the component necessary for optimal FcRI expression. Here we show that FcR-mediated phagocytosis also requires LDL. U-937 cells were cultured in medium containing interferon gamma and either fetal calf serum (FCS) or delipidated FCS (DLFCS). The phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes was measured by a colorimetric assay. U-937 cells cultured in DLFCS medium had less than 16% of the phagocytic activity of cells cultured in normal FCS medium. Phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes could be inhibited 85% by the addition of murine IgG2a myeloma protein (5 micrograms/ml). U-937 cells cultured in DLFCS medium supplemented with pure cholesterol in ethanol (10 micrograms/ml) had only 30% of the phagocytic activity of cells grown in FCS medium. Addition of very low density lipoprotein (0.2 mg of protein per ml) to DLFCS medium also failed to increase phagocytosis. However, the addition of LDL (0.2 mg of protein per ml) to DLFCS medium restored 90% of the phagocytic activity. Since neither pure cholesterol nor very low density lipoprotein restored normal phagocytic function to U-937 cells despite a normalization of cellular cholesterol content, the restoration of phagocytosis observed with LDL replacement cannot be explained by mere delivery of cholesterol by LDL. Thus, LDL is required for the expression of FcRI and FcR-mediated phagocytosis by U-937 cells and may be an important regulator of phagocytic activity of monocytes and macrophages in vivo. PMID:2367519

  11. Interactions of phagocytes with the Lyme disease spirochete: role of the Fc receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Benach, J.L.; Fleit, H.B.; Habicht, G.S.; Coleman, J.L.; Bosler, E.M.; Lane, B.P.

    1984-10-01

    The phagocytic capacity of murine and human mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes (including peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils), rabbit and murine peritoneal exudate cells, and the murine macrophage cell line P388D1 against the Lyme disease spirochete was studied. All of these cells were capable of phagocytosing the spirochete; phagocytosis was measured by the uptake of radiolabeled spirochetes, the appearance of immunofluorescent bodies in phagocytic cells, and electron microscopy. Both opsonized and nonopsonized organisms were phagocytosed. The uptake of opsonized organisms by neutrophils was blocked by a monoclonal antibody specific for the Fc receptor and by immune complexes; these findings suggested that most phagocytosis is mediated by the Fc receptor. Similarly, the uptake of opsonized organisms by human monocytes was inhibited by human monomeric IgG1 and by immune complexes. These results illustrate the role of immune phagocytosis of spirochetes in host defense against Lyme disease.

  12. Structural and phylogenetic analysis of the MHC class I-like Fc receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kandil, Eman; Ishibashi, Teruo; Kasahara, Masanori

    1995-06-01

    The intestinal epithelium of neonatal mice and rats expresses an Fc receptor that mediates selective uptake of IgG in mothers`milk. This receptor (FcRn), which helps newborn animals to acquire passive immunity, is an MHC class I-like heterodimer made up of a heavy chain and {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin. In the present study, we determined the genomic structure of a mouse gene (FcRn) encoding the heavy of FcRn. The overall exon-intron organization of the Fcrn gene was similar to that of the Fcrn gene, thus providing structural evidence that Fcrn os a bona fide class I gene. The 5{prime}-flanking region of the Fcrn gene contained the binding motifs for two cytokine-inducible transcription factors, NF-IL6 and NF1. However, regulatory elements found in MHC class I genes (enhancer A, enhancer B, and the IFN response element) were absent. Phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that, like the MICA, AZGP1, and CD1 genes, the Fcrn gene diverged form MHC class I genes after the emergence of amphibians but before the split of placental and marsupial mammals. Consistent with this result, Southern blot analysis with a mouse Fcrn cDNA probe detected cross-hybridizing bands in various mammalian species and chickens. Sequence analysis of the Fcrn gene isolated from eight mouse strains showed that the membrane-distal domain of FcRn has at least three amino acid variants. The fact that Fcrn is a single copy gene indicates that it is expressed in both the neonatal intestine and the fetal yolk sac. 74 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. The immunomodulatory adapter proteins DAP12 and Fc receptor γ-chain (FcRγ) regulate development of functional osteoclasts through the Syk tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mócsai, Attila; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Van Ziffle, Jessica A. G.; Hu, Yongmei; Burghardt, Andrew; Spusta, Steven C.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Lanier, Lewis L.; Lowell, Clifford A.; Nakamura, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Osteoclasts, the only bone-resorbing cells, are central to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, yet their development and regulation are incompletely understood. Multiple receptors of the immune system use a common signaling paradigm whereby phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) within receptor-associated adapter proteins recruit the Syk tyrosine kinase. Here we demonstrate that a similar mechanism is required for development of functional osteoclasts. Mice lacking two ITAM-bearing adapters, DAP12 and the Fc receptor γ-chain (FcRγ), are severely osteopetrotic. DAP12-/-FcRγ-/- bone marrow cells fail to differentiate into multinucleated osteoclasts or resorb bone in vitro and show impaired phosphorylation of the Syk tyrosine kinase. syk-/- progenitors are similarly defective in osteoclast development and bone resorption. Intact SH2-domains of Syk, introduced by retroviral transduction, are required for functional reconstitution of syk-/- osteoclasts, whereas intact ITAM-domains on DAP12 are required for reconstitution of DAP12-/- FcRγ-/- cells. These data indicate that recruitment of Syk to phosphorylated ITAMs is critical for osteoclastogenesis. Although DAP12 appears to be primarily responsible for osteoclast differentiation in cultures directly stimulated with macrophage-colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand cytokines, DAP12 and FcRγ have overlapping roles in supporting osteoclast development in osteoblast–osteoclast cocultures, which mirrors their overlapping functions in vivo. These results provide new insight into the biology of osteoclasts and suggest novel therapeutic targets in diseases of bony remodeling. PMID:15073337

  14. Pyruvate Kinase and Fcγ Receptor Gene Copy Numbers Associated With Malaria Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Faik, Imad; van Tong, Hoang; Lell, Bertrand; Meyer, Christian G; Kremsner, Peter G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2017-07-15

    Genetic factors are associated with susceptibility to many infectious diseases and may be determinants of clinical progression. Gene copy number variation (CNV) has been shown to be associated with phenotypes of numerous diseases, including malaria. We quantified gene copy numbers of the pyruvate kinase, liver, and red blood cell (PKLR) gene as well as of the Fcγ receptor 2A and Fcγ receptor 2C (FCGR2A, FCGR2C) and Fcγ receptor 3 (FCGR3) genes using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays in Gabonese children with severe (n = 184) or and mild (n = 189) malaria and in healthy Gabonese and white individuals (n = 76 each). The means of PKLR, FCGR2A, FCGR2C, and FCGR3 copy numbers were significantly higher among children with severe malaria compared to those with mild malaria (P < .002), indicating that a surplus of copies of those genes is significantly associated with malaria severity. Copy numbers of the FCGR2A and FCGR2C genes were significantly lower (P = .005) in Gabonese individuals compared with white individuals. In conclusion, CNV of the PKLR, FCGR2A, FCGR2C, and FCGR3 genes is associated with malaria severity, and our results provide evidence for a role of CNV in host responses to malaria. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Nanoscale imaging and mechanical analysis of Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Xiao, Xiubin; Zhang, Weijing

    2014-02-18

    Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells is an important mechanism in the immune therapy of cancers. Traditional research about macrophage phagocytosis was based on optical microscopy, which cannot reveal detailed information because of the 200-nm-resolution limit. Quantitatively investigating the macrophage phagocytosis at micro- and nanoscale levels is still scarce. The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers an excellent analytical instrument for quantitatively investigating the biological processes at single-cell and single-molecule levels under native conditions. In this work, we combined AFM and fluorescence microscopy to visualize and quantify the detailed changes in cell morphology and mechanical properties during the process of Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells. Lymphoma cells were discernible by fluorescence staining. Then, the dynamic process of phagocytosis was observed by time-lapse optical microscopy. Next, AFM was applied to investigate the detailed cellular behaviors during macrophage phagocytosis under the guidance of fluorescence recognition. AFM imaging revealed the distinct features in cellular ultramicrostructures for the different steps of macrophage phagocytosis. AFM cell mechanical property measurements indicated that the binding of cancer cells to macrophages could make macrophages become stiffer. The experimental results provide novel insights in understanding the Fc-receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis.

  16. Crosslinking of surface antibodies and Fc sub. gamma. receptors: Theory and application

    SciTech Connect

    Wofsy, C.; Goldstein, B. Los Alamos National Lab., NM )

    1991-03-15

    In an immune response, the crosslinking of surface immunoglobulin (sIg) on B cells by multiply-bound ligand activates a range of cell responses, culminating in the production of antibody-secreting cells. However, when the crosslinking agent is itself an antibody, B cell activation is inhibited. Solution antibody (IgG) can bind simultaneously to sIg and to another cell surface receptor, Fc{sub {gamma}}R, co-crosslinking' the distinct receptors. Experiments point to co-crosslinking as the inhibitory signal. It is not clear how co-crosslinking inhibits B cell stimulation. The authors construct and analyze a mathematical model aimed at clarifying the nature and mechanisms of action of the separate cell signals controlling B cell responses to antibodies. Basophils and mast cells respond to the crosslinking of cell surface antibody by releasing histamine. Like B cells, basophils also express FC{sub {gamma}}R. They use their model to analyze new data on the effect of antibody-induced co-crosslinking of the two types of receptor on this family of cells. Predictions of the model indicate that an observed difference between the response patterns induced by antibodies and by antibody fragments that cannot bind to FC{sub {gamma}}R can be explained if co-crosslinking is neither inhibitory nor stimulatory in this system.

  17. Heterogeneity of human lymphocyte Fc receptors. I. Differential susceptibility to proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Gormus, B. J.; Woodson, Mildred; Kaplan, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    To study the possible heterogeneity of human lymphocyte Fc receptors, isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were enzymatically altered (`stripped') by exposure to pronase or papain. Pronase treatment markedly increased the percentages of PBL binding IgG-sensitized erythrocytes (EA), while simultaneously removing or inactivating their receptors for heat-aggregated IgG (aggG). Papain treatment markedly diminished the ability of PBL to bind both EA and aggG. Essentially identical results were obtained utilizing EA composed of either human Rh-positive type O erythrocytes sensitized with the human anti-Rh serum Ripley (HRBC-A Ripley) or with chicken erythrocytes sensitized with rabbit anti-CRBC IgG (CRBC-A). CRBC sensitized with Fab'2 fragments of rabbit anti-CRBC IgG were incapable of forming rosettes with normal or with pronase- or papain-stripped PBL. Pre-treatment of normal lymphocytes with aggG totally ablated their ability to rosette with EA. Incubation of pronase-stripped PBL for 18–20 hr in 5% CO2-air at 37°C resulted in diminution (to levels originally present) in the percentages of lymphocytes binding EA, but no regeneration of aggG receptors. Similar incubation of papain-stripped PBL resulted in significant reappearance of receptors binding EA, but no regeneration of aggG receptors. These results strongly suggest that: (1) lymphocyte receptors that bind EA complexes differ from those that bind aggG; (2) some lymphocytes possess cryptic receptors for EA that are expressed after proteolysis with pronase; (3) PBL having receptors for EA also have aggG receptors; and (4) there is no evidence that proteolytic stripping of PBL results in the generation of functionally different receptors for complexed IgG, since the Fc specificity of this receptor remains unchanged. PMID:737911

  18. Helicobacter pylori eradication shifts monocyte Fcγ receptor balance toward inhibitory FcγRIIB in immune thrombocytopenic purpura patients

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, Atsuko; Nishimoto, Tetsuya; Okazaki, Yuka; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Ikeda, Yasuo; Kuwana, Masataka

    2008-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is a bleeding disorder in which platelet-specific autoantibodies cause a loss of platelets. In a subset of patients with ITP and infected with Helicobacter pylori, the number of platelets recovers after eradication of H. pylori. To examine the role of H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis of ITP, the response of 34 ITP patients to treatment with a standard H. pylori eradication regimen, irrespective of whether they were infected with H. pylori, was evaluated. Eradication of H. pylori was achieved in all H. pylori–positive patients, and a significant increase in platelets was observed in 61% of these patients. By contrast, none of the H. pylori–negative patients showed increased platelets. At baseline, monocytes from the H. pylori–positive patients exhibited an enhanced phagocytic capacity and low levels of the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB). One week after starting the H. pylori eradication regimen, this activated monocyte phenotype was suppressed and improvements in autoimmune and platelet kinetic parameters followed. Modulation of monocyte FcγR balance was also found in association with H. pylori infection in individuals who did not have ITP and in mice. Our findings strongly suggest that the recovery in platelet numbers observed in ITP patients after H. pylori eradication is mediated through a change in FcγR balance toward the inhibitory FcγRIIB. PMID:18654664

  19. Lyn Is Essential for Fcγ Receptor III–Mediated Systemic Anaphylaxis but Not for the Arthus Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Yuasa, Takae; Ono, Masao; Watanabe, Takeshi; Takai, Toshiyuki

    2001-01-01

    The Src family kinase Lyn initiates intracellular signal transduction by associating with a variety of immune receptors such as antigen receptor on B cells and high-affinity Fc receptor (FcR) for immunoglobulin Ig(E) (FcεRI) on mast cells. Involvement of Lyn in the IgE-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity is well documented, but the physiological significance of Lyn in IgG-dependent, type III low-affinity FcR for IgG (FcγRIII)-mediated responses is largely unknown. In this study, we generated a double-mutant mouse strain deficient in both type II FcR for IgG (FcγRIIB) and Lyn to exclude any involvement of inhibitory signaling by FcγRIIB, which otherwise downregulates FcγRIII-mediated cellular responses. FcγRIIB-deficient but Lyn-sufficient mice served as controls. The Lyn deficiency attenuated IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in vivo, and significantly reduced calcium mobilization and degranulation responses of bone marrow–derived mast cells (BMMCs) in vitro. However, we found that either interleukin 4 or tumor necrosis factor α release by BMMCs was comparable to that from Lyn-deficient and control mice, and the reverse-passive Arthus reaction was equally induced in both mutant mice, indicating that Lyn is not involved in the onset of the IgG-mediated, FcγRIII-dependent late phase responses of mast cells. These findings provide us with insight into distinct signaling mechanisms in mast cells underlying the development of diverse pathologies as well as a therapeutic potential for selective treatment of allergic disorders. PMID:11238587

  20. Fc-receptor and M-protein genes of group A streptococci are products of gene duplication.

    PubMed Central

    Heath, D G; Cleary, P P

    1989-01-01

    The partial nucleotide sequence for an Fc-receptor gene from an M-type 76 group A streptococcus was determined. DNA sequence analysis revealed considerable sequence similarity between the Fc-receptor and M-protein genes in their proposed promoter regions, signal sequences, and 3' termini. Additional analysis indicated that the deduced Fc-receptor protein contains a proline-rich region and membrane anchor region highly similar to that of M protein. In view of these results, we postulated that Fc-receptor and M-protein genes of group A streptococci are the products of gene duplication from a common ancestral gene. It is proposed that DNA sequence similarity between these two genes may allow for extragenic homologous recombination as a means of generating antigenic diversity in these two surface proteins. PMID:2660147

  1. Protein tyrosine kinase activity is essential for Fc gamma receptor-mediated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L; Nibbering, P H; Zomerdijk, T P; van Furth, R

    1994-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that the intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma receptor I (Fc gamma RI) or Fc gamma RII is a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent process. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity plays a role in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of bacteria and activation of PLC in these cells. The results showed that phagocytosis of bacteria by monocytes was not affected by the PTK inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin-47. The intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma RII or Fc gamma RII with anti-Fc gamma R monoclonal antibody and a bridging antibody or with human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was inhibited by these compounds in a dose-dependent fashion. The production of O2- by monocytes after stimulation with IgG or IgG-opsonized S. aureus was almost completely blocked by the PTK inhibitor. These results indicate that inhibition of PTK impairs the oxygen-dependent bactericidal mechanisms of monocytes. Genistein and tyrphostin-47, which do not affect the enzymatic activity of purified PLC, prevented activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII, measured as an increase in the intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration. Cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in monocytes, one of which was identified as PLC-gamma 1, and the phosphorylation could be completely blocked by PTK inhibitors, leading to the conclusion that activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma R in monocytes is regulated by PTK activity. Together, these results demonstrate that PTK activity is essential for the activation of PLC which is involved in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of S. aureus by human monocytes. Images PMID:7927687

  2. Actin restricts FcεRI diffusion and facilitates antigen-induced receptor immobilisation

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Nicholas L.; Lidke, Keith A.; Pfeiffer, Janet R.; Burns, Alan R.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Oliver, Janet M.; Lidke, Diane S.

    2010-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in restricting diffusion of plasma membrane components. Here, simultaneous observations of quantum dot-labelled FcεRI motion and GFP-tagged actin dynamics provide direct evidence that actin filament bundles define micron-sized domains that confine mobile receptors. Dynamic reorganisation of actin structures occurs over seconds, making the location and dimensions of actin-defined domains time dependent. Multiple FcεRI often maintain extended close proximity without detectable correlated motion, suggesting that they are co-confined within membrane domains. FcεRI signalling is activated by cross-linking with multivalent antigen. We show that receptors become immobilised within seconds of cross-linking. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton results in delayed immobilisation kinetics and increased diffusion of cross-linked clusters. These results implicate actin in membrane partitioning that not only restricts diffusion of membrane proteins, but also dynamically influences their long-range mobility, sequestration, and response to ligand binding. PMID:18641640

  3. Fc receptor-dependent mechanisms of monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Bakema, Jantine E; van Egmond, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Targeted therapies like treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have entered the arsenal of modern anticancer drugs. mAbs combine specificity with multiple effector functions that can lead to reduction of tumour burden. Direct mechanisms of action, including induction of apoptosis or growth inhibition, depend on the biology of the target antigen. Fc tails of mAbs have furthermore the potential to initiate complement-dependent lysis as well as immune effector cell-mediated tumour cell killing via binding to Fc receptors. Natural killer cells can induce apoptosis via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), whereas macrophages are able to phagocytose mAb-opsonized tumour cells (antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis; ADCP). Finally, neutrophils can induce non-apoptotic tumour cell death, especially in the presence of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antitumour mAbs. In spite of promising clinical successes in some malignancies, improvement of mAb immunotherapy is required to achieve overall complete remission in cancer patients. New strategies to enhance Fc receptor-mediated mechanisms of action or to overcome the immunosuppressive microenvironment of the tumour in mAb therapy of cancer are therefore currently being explored and will be addressed in this chapter.

  4. Imaging and measuring the biophysical properties of Fc gamma receptors on single macrophages using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Xiao, Xiubin; Zhang, Weijing

    2013-09-06

    Fc gamma receptors (FcγR), widely expressed on effector cells (e.g., NK cells, macrophages), play an important role in clinical cancer immunotherapy. The binding of FcγRs to the Fc portions of antibodies that are attached to the target cells can activate the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) killing mechanism which leads to the lysis of target cells. In this work, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe the cellular ultra-structures and measure the biophysical properties (affinity and distribution) of FcγRs on single macrophages in aqueous environments. AFM imaging was used to obtain the topographies of macrophages, revealing the nanoscale cellular fine structures. For molecular interaction recognition, antibody molecules were attached onto AFM tips via a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) crosslinker. With AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy, the binding affinities of FcγRs were quantitatively measured on single macrophages. Adhesion force mapping method was used to localize the FcγRs, revealing the nanoscale distribution of FcγRs on local areas of macrophages. The experimental results can improve our understanding of FcγRs on macrophages; the established approach will facilitate further research on physiological activities involved in antibody-based immunotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transgenic Rabbits That Overexpress the Neonatal Fc Receptor (FcRn) Generate Higher Quantities and Improved Qualities of Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (ATG)

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Mária; Cervenak, Judit; Bender, Balázs; Kacskovics, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Immune suppression with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) is a well-established therapeutic concept for preventing host rejection of transplanted organs and graft versus host disease. Increasing the efficiency of rATG production by reducing the number of animals would be highly beneficial to lower cost and to improve quality standards. We have developed transgenic (Tg) mice and rabbits that overexpress the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and have shown an augmented humoral immune response in these animals. To test whether our FcRn Tg rabbits produced rATG more efficiently, we immunized them and their New Zealand White controls with live Jurkat cells. By day 21 after immunization, Tg animals produced significantly, 1.5 times higher amount of total IgG compared to their wt littermates. Also, the binding efficiency of Tg sera to Jurkat cells and their complement-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly higher. The purified Tg IgG preparation contained 2.6 the amount of Jurkat specific IgG as the wt preparation analyzed by complement-mediated lysis, suggesting greater antigen-specific B cell activation in the Tg rabbits. To test this hypothesis, immunization with ovalbumin and human α1-antitrypsin was performed, resulting in significantly greater numbers of antigen-specific B-cells in the FcRn Tg rabbits as compared with wt controls. The shift towards significantly larger populations of antigen-specific B cells relative to the non-specific B cell pool is further corroborated by our previous findings in FcRn Tg mice. Consequently, our FcRn Tg rabbits have the potential to offer substantial qualitative and quantitative improvements for the production of rATG and other polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies. PMID:24194847

  6. IgG Receptor FcγRIIB Plays a Key Role in Obesity-Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sundgren, Nathan C.; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Boggan, Brigid-Meghan D.; Tanigaki, Keiji; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Chambliss, Ken L.; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    There is a well-recognized association between obesity, inflammation, and hypertension. Why obesity causes hypertension is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated using a C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mouse that CRP induces hypertension that is related to NO deficiency. Our prior work in cultured endothelial cells identified the Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) as the receptor for CRP whereby it antagonizes endothelial NO synthase. Recognizing known associations between CRP and obesity and hypertension in humans, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that FcγRIIB plays a role in obesity-induced hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry, we first demonstrated that the hypertension observed in transgenic mouse-CRP is mediated by the receptor, indicating that FcγRIIB is capable of modifying blood pressure. We then discovered in a model of diet-induced obesity yielding equal adiposity in all study groups that whereas FcγRIIB+/+ mice developed obesity-induced hypertension, FcγRIIB−/− mice were fully protected. Levels of CRP, the related pentraxin serum amyloid P component which is the CRP-equivalent in mice, and total IgG were unaltered by diet-induced obesity; FcγRIIB expression in endothelium was also unchanged. However, whereas IgG isolated from chow-fed mice had no effect, IgG from high-fat diet–fed mice inhibited endothelial NO synthase in cultured endothelial cells, and this was an FcγRIIB-dependent process. Thus, we have identified a novel role for FcγRIIB in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension, independent of processes regulating adiposity, and it may entail an IgG-induced attenuation of endothelial NO synthase function. Approaches targeting FcγRIIB may potentially offer new means to treat hypertension in obese individuals. PMID:25368023

  7. Functional optimization of agonistic antibodies to OX40 receptor with novel Fc mutations to promote antibody multimerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Armstrong, Anthony A; Tam, Susan H; McCarthy, Stephen G; Luo, Jinquan; Gilliland, Gary L; Chiu, Mark L

    2017-10-01

    Immunostimulatory receptors belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily are emerging as promising targets for cancer immunotherapies. To optimize the agonism of therapeutic antibodies to these receptors, Fc engineering of antibodies was applied to facilitate the clustering of cell surface TNFRs to activate downstream signaling pathways. One engineering strategy is to identify Fc mutations that facilitate antibody multimerization on the cell surface directly. From the analyses of the crystal packing of IgG1 structures, we identified a novel set of Fc mutations, T437R and K248E, that facilitated antibody multimerization upon binding to antigens on cell surface. In a NF-κB reporter assay, the engineered T437R/K248E mutations could facilitate enhanced agonism of an anti-OX40 antibody without the dependence on FcγRIIB crosslinking. Nonetheless, the presence of cells expressing FcγRIIB could facilitate a boost of the agonism of the engineered antibody with mutations on IgG1 Fc, but not on the silent IgG2σ Fc. The Fc engineered antibody also showed enhanced effector functions, including antibody-dependent cell-meditated cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, and complement-dependent cytotoxicity, depending on the IgG subtypes. Also, the engineered antibodies showed normal FcRn binding and pharmacokinetic profiles in mice. In summary, this study elucidated a novel Fc engineering approach to promote antibody multimerization on a cell surface, which could enhance agonism and improve effector function for anti-TNFR antibodies as well as other therapeutic antibodies.

  8. IgG receptor FcγRIIB plays a key role in obesity-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sundgren, Nathan C; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Boggan, Brigid-Meghan D; Tanigaki, Keiji; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Chambliss, Ken L; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W

    2015-02-01

    There is a well-recognized association between obesity, inflammation, and hypertension. Why obesity causes hypertension is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated using a C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mouse that CRP induces hypertension that is related to NO deficiency. Our prior work in cultured endothelial cells identified the Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) as the receptor for CRP whereby it antagonizes endothelial NO synthase. Recognizing known associations between CRP and obesity and hypertension in humans, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that FcγRIIB plays a role in obesity-induced hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry, we first demonstrated that the hypertension observed in transgenic mouse-CRP is mediated by the receptor, indicating that FcγRIIB is capable of modifying blood pressure. We then discovered in a model of diet-induced obesity yielding equal adiposity in all study groups that whereas FcγRIIB(+/+) mice developed obesity-induced hypertension, FcγRIIB(-/-) mice were fully protected. Levels of CRP, the related pentraxin serum amyloid P component which is the CRP-equivalent in mice, and total IgG were unaltered by diet-induced obesity; FcγRIIB expression in endothelium was also unchanged. However, whereas IgG isolated from chow-fed mice had no effect, IgG from high-fat diet-fed mice inhibited endothelial NO synthase in cultured endothelial cells, and this was an FcγRIIB-dependent process. Thus, we have identified a novel role for FcγRIIB in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension, independent of processes regulating adiposity, and it may entail an IgG-induced attenuation of endothelial NO synthase function. Approaches targeting FcγRIIB may potentially offer new means to treat hypertension in obese individuals.

  9. The role of macrophages in the susceptibility of Fc gamma receptor IIb deficient mice to Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Surawut, Saowapha; Ondee, Thunnicha; Taratummarat, Sujittra; Palaga, Tanapat; Pisitkun, Prapaporn; Chindamporn, Ariya; Leelahavanichkul, Asada

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional polymorphisms of FcγRIIb, an inhibitory receptor, are associated with Systemic Lupus Erythaematosus (SLE). Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection in SLE, perhaps due to the de novo immune defect. We investigated cryptococcosis in the FcγRIIb−/− mouse-lupus-model. Mortality, after intravenous C. neoformans-induced cryptococcosis, in young (8-week-old) and older (24-week-old) FcγRIIb−/− mice, was higher than in age-matched wild-types. Severe cryptococcosis in the FcγRIIb−/− mice was demonstrated by high fungal burdens in the internal organs with histological cryptococcoma-like lesions and high levels of TNF-α and IL-6, but not IL-10. Interestingly, FcγRIIb−/− macrophages demonstrated more prominent phagocytosis but did not differ in killing activity in vitro and the striking TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels, compared to wild-type cells. Indeed, in vivo macrophage depletion with liposomal clodronate attenuated the fungal burdens in FcγRIIb−/− mice, but not wild-type mice. When administered to wild-type mice, FcγRIIb−/− macrophages with phagocytosed Cryptococcus resulted in higher fungal burdens than FcγRIIb+/+ macrophages with phagocytosed Cryptococcus. These results support, at least in part, a model whereby, in FcγRIIb−/− mice, enhanced C. neoformans transmigration occurs through infected macrophages. In summary, prominent phagocytosis, with limited effective killing activity, and high pro-inflammatory cytokine production by FcγRIIb−/− macrophages were correlated with more severe cryptococcosis in FcγRIIb−/− mice. PMID:28074867

  10. Mononuclear phagocyte system Fc-receptor function in patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lobatto, S; Breedveld, F C; Camps, J A; Pauwels, E K; Westedt, M L; Daha, M R; van Es, L A

    1987-03-01

    Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) Fc-receptor function in 20 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated using radiolabelled autologous erythrocytes coated with an average of 5,800 molecules of anti-rhesus IgG (E. IgG). Although clearance times (T1/2) of E. IgG tended to be longer in RA patients than those in healthy controls (46 +/- 6 min vs 38 +/- 5 min, mean +/- s.e.m., P = 0.38), this did not reach statistical significance. Liver spleen uptake ratios (LS ratios) were increased in patients with RA (13/100 +/- 1/100 vs 7/100 +/- 1/100, P less than 0.05). There was no correlation of T1/2 or LS ratios with articular disease activity, vasculitis, ESR, IgM containing immune complex levels or Clq-binding immune complex levels. Although Clq-binding immune complex levels were significantly higher in patients with vasculitis than in those without (P less than 0.01), T1/2 and LS ratios did not differ in these two groups of patients. The T1/2 and LS ratios of E.IgG did not reveal a defect in MPS Fc-receptor function and did not correlate with one of the above-mentioned clinical and immunological parameters. We suggest that in order to establish a possible defect in Fc-receptor function correlating with disease activity and immune complex levels in RA patients, soluble immune complexes or immune complex-like material should be used as probes.

  11. Conformational Destabilization of Immunoglobulin G Increases the Low pH Binding Affinity with the Neonatal Fc Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Benjamin T.; Jensen, Pernille F.; Larraillet, Vincent; Lin, Kevin; Patapoff, Thomas; Schlothauer, Tilman; Rand, Kasper D.; Zhang, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Crystallographic evidence suggests that the pH-dependent affinity of IgG molecules for the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) receptor primarily arises from salt bridges involving IgG histidine residues, resulting in moderate affinity at mildly acidic conditions. However, this view does not explain the diversity in affinity found in IgG variants, such as the YTE mutant (M252Y,S254T,T256E), which increases affinity to FcRn by up to 10×. Here we compare hydrogen exchange measurements at pH 7.0 and pH 5.5 with and without FcRn bound with surface plasmon resonance estimates of dissociation constants and FcRn affinity chromatography. The combination of experimental results demonstrates that differences between an IgG and its cognate YTE mutant vary with their pH-sensitive dynamics prior to binding FcRn. The conformational dynamics of these two molecules are nearly indistinguishable upon binding FcRn. We present evidence that pH-induced destabilization in the CH2/3 domain interface of IgG increases binding affinity by breaking intramolecular H-bonds and increases side-chain adaptability in sites that form intermolecular contacts with FcRn. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of pH-dependent affinity in IgG-FcRn interactions and exemplify the important and often ignored role of intrinsic conformational dynamics in a protein ligand, to dictate affinity for biologically important receptors. PMID:26627822

  12. Endothelial Fcγ Receptor IIB Activation Blunts Insulin Delivery to Skeletal Muscle to Cause Insulin Resistance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Chambliss, Ken L; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Ahmed, Mohamed; Atochin, Dmitriy N; Huang, Paul L; Shaul, Philip W; Mineo, Chieko

    2016-07-01

    Modest elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with type 2 diabetes. We previously revealed in mice that increased CRP causes insulin resistance and mice globally deficient in the CRP receptor Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) were protected from the disorder. FcγRIIB is expressed in numerous cell types including endothelium and B lymphocytes. Here we investigated how endothelial FcγRIIB influences glucose homeostasis, using mice with elevated CRP expressing or lacking endothelial FcγRIIB. Whereas increased CRP caused insulin resistance in mice expressing endothelial FcγRIIB, mice deficient in the endothelial receptor were protected. The insulin resistance with endothelial FcγRIIB activation was due to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake caused by attenuated insulin delivery, and it was associated with blunted endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in skeletal muscle. In culture, CRP suppressed endothelial cell insulin transcytosis via FcγRIIB activation and eNOS antagonism. Furthermore, in knock-in mice harboring constitutively active eNOS, elevated CRP did not invoke insulin resistance. Collectively these findings reveal that by inhibiting eNOS, endothelial FcγRIIB activation by CRP blunts insulin delivery to skeletal muscle to cause insulin resistance. Thus, a series of mechanisms in endothelium that impairs insulin movement has been identified that may contribute to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Macrophage Membrane Potential Changes Associated with γ 2b/γ 1 Fc Receptor-Ligand Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, John Ding-E; Unkeless, Jay C.; Kaback, H. Ronald; Cohn, Zanvil A.

    1983-03-01

    We have studied the effects of specific ligands of the receptor for the IgG Fc fragment (FcR) on the membrane potential (Δ Psi ) of the macrophage cell line J774 by the [3H]tetraphenylphosphonium ion equilibration technique. We observe a membrane depolarization with binding of FcR ligands that is dependent on the degree of receptor crosslinking. Binding of the FcR by monovalent ligands is not sufficient to induce a significant drop in Δ Psi , but a sustained depolarization lasting ≈ 20 min occurs with insoluble multivalent ligands. This FcR-mediated depolarization can be inhibited by substitution of Na+ from the cell incubation medium with monovalent choline cation, indicating that depolarization is due to Na+ influx into the cell. The extracellular Ca2+ does not play a significant role in membrane depolarization. The depolarization response is not triggered by monoclonal antibodies directed against three other major macrophage surface antigens. The cell depolarization mediated by FcR ligands is followed by a prolonged hyperpolarization that can be partially blocked by ouabain and quinine, indicating that the hyperpolarization response is a result of a combination of a Na+, K+-ATPase activity and a Ca2+-activated K+ conductance. These data support our hypothesis that the mouse macrophage IgG FcR is a ligand-dependent ion channel.

  14. In vivo effector functions of high-affinity mouse IgG receptor FcγRI in disease and therapy models.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Caitlin M; Zenatti, Priscila P; Mancardi, David A; Beutier, Héloïse; Fiette, Laurence; Macdonald, Lynn E; Murphy, Andrew J; Celli, Susanna; Bousso, Philippe; Jönsson, Friederike; Bruhns, Pierre

    2016-10-10

    Two activating mouse IgG receptors (FcγRs) have the ability to bind monomeric IgG, the high-affinity mouse FcγRI and FcγRIV. Despite high circulating levels of IgG, reports using FcγRI(-/-) or FcγRIV(-/-) mice or FcγRIV-blocking antibodies implicate these receptors in IgG-induced disease severity or therapeutic Ab efficacy. From these studies, however, one cannot conclude on the effector capabilities of a given receptor, because different activating FcγRs possess redundant properties in vivo, and cooperation between FcγRs may occur, or priming phenomena. To help resolve these uncertainties, we used mice expressing only FcγRI to determine its intrinsic properties in vivo. FcγRI(only) mice were sensitive to IgG-induced autoimmune thrombocytopenia and anti-CD20 and anti-tumour immunotherapy, but resistant to IgG-induced autoimmune arthritis, anaphylaxis and airway inflammation. Our results show that the in vivo roles of FcγRI are more restricted than initially reported using FcγRI(-/-) mice, but confirm effector capabilities for this high-affinity IgG receptor in vivo.

  15. Quantitative cumulative biodistribution of antibodies in mice: effect of modulating binding affinity to the neonatal Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Yip, Victor; Palma, Enzo; Tesar, Devin B; Mundo, Eduardo E; Bumbaca, Daniela; Torres, Elizabeth K; Reyes, Noe A; Shen, Ben Q; Fielder, Paul J; Prabhu, Saileta; Khawli, Leslie A; Boswell, C Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important and well-known role in antibody recycling in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and thus it influences the systemic pharmacokinetics (PK) of immunoglobulin G (IgG). However, considerably less is known about FcRn's role in the metabolism of IgG within individual tissues after intravenous administration. To elucidate the organ distribution and gain insight into the metabolism of humanized IgG1 antibodies with different binding affinities FcRn, comparative biodistribution studies in normal CD-1 mice were conducted. Here, we generated variants of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D-specific antibody (humanized anti-gD) with increased and decreased FcRn binding affinity by genetic engineering without affecting antigen specificity. These antibodies were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, purified and paired radiolabeled with iodine-125 and indium-111. Equal amounts of I-125-labeled and In-111-labeled antibodies were mixed and intravenously administered into mice at 5 mg/kg. This approach allowed us to measure both the real-time IgG uptake (I-125) and cumulative uptake of IgG and catabolites (In-111) in individual tissues up to 1 week post-injection. The PK and distribution of the wild-type IgG and the variant with enhanced binding for FcRn were largely similar to each other, but vastly different for the rapidly cleared low-FcRn-binding variant. Uptake in individual tissues varied across time, FcRn binding affinity, and radiolabeling method. The liver and spleen emerged as the most concentrated sites of IgG catabolism in the absence of FcRn protection. These data provide an increased understanding of FcRn's role in antibody PK and catabolism at the tissue level.

  16. Genetic variation of human neutrophil Fcγ receptors and SIRPα in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity towards cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Treffers, Louise W; Zhao, Xi Wen; van der Heijden, Joris; Nagelkerke, Sietse Q; van Rees, Dieke J; Gonzalez, Patricia; Geissler, Judy; Verkuijlen, Paul; van Houdt, Michel; de Boer, Martin; Kuijpers, Taco W; van den Berg, Timo K; Matlung, Hanke L

    2017-09-27

    The efficacy of cancer therapeutic antibodies varies considerably among patients. Anti-cancer antibodies act through different mechanisms, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) triggered via Fcγ receptors (FcγR). This phagocyte ADCC can be promoted by interference with CD47-SIRPα interactions, but the magnitude of this enhancement also varies among individuals. Both FcγR and SIRPα display considerable genetic variation, and we investigated whether this explains some of the variability in ADCC. Because of linkage disequilibrium between FcγR variants the interpretation of previous reports suggesting a potential link between FcγR polymorphisms and ADCC has been troublesome. We performed an integrated genetic analysis that enables stratification. ADCC by activated human neutrophils towards Trastuzumab-coated breast cancer cells was predominantly dependent on FcγRIIa. Neutrophils from individuals with the FcγRIIa-131H polymorphic variant displayed significantly higher killing capacity relative to those with FcγRIIa-131R. Furthermore, ADCC was consistently enhanced by targeting CD47-SIRPα interactions, and there were no significant functional differences between the two most prevalent SIRPα polymorphic variants. Thus, neutrophil ADCC capacity is directly related to the FcγRIIa polymorphism, and targeting CD47-SIRPα interactions enhances ADCC independently of FcγR and SIRPα genotype, thereby further suggesting that CD47-SIRPα interference might be a generic strategy for potentiating the efficacy of antibody therapy in cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), a unique module linking antigen and Fc receptors to their signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Isakov, N

    1997-01-01

    Signal transduction by the T cell and B cell antigen receptors and by receptors for a variety of immunoglobulins' Fc region is strictly dependent on a receptor subunit cytoplasmic module termed immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). This module exists in one or more copies in each of the receptor-associated signal-transducing molecules and it possesses two repeats of the consensus sequence Tyr-X-X-Leu/Ile spaced by six to eight amino acids. Receptor engagement is followed by a rapid and transient phosphorylation of tyrosine residues within their ITAMs, thereby creating temporary binding sites for Src homology 2 (SH2)-containing signaling molecules operating downstream of the activated receptor. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings on the functional role of ITAMs in antigen and Fc receptor-mediated signal transduction, with a particular emphasis on kinases operating upstream and downstream of the ITAMs.

  18. Genetic polymorphism of Fcγ-receptors IIa, IIIa and IIIb in South Indian patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hans, Veenu Madaan; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2011-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that polymorphisms in Fcγ receptors are associated with different forms of periodontitis. However, the FcγR genotypes and their allele frequency differ among subjects from different ethnic backgrounds. The aim of the present study was to determine whether specific FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIa, and FcγRIIIb alleles and/or genotypes are associated with susceptibility to generalized aggressive periodontitits (GAgP) in a South Indian population. Buccal scrapings were obtained from 60 subjects with GAgP and 60 periodontally healthy individuals, and DNA was extracted from each of the samples. FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA with allele-specific primers followed by allele-specific restriction digestion of the products, whereas FcγRIIIb genotyping was done by allele-specific PCR. There was no significant difference in the distribution of the FcγRIIa H/R genotype between GAgP patients and healthy subjects, although significant over-representation of the R allele was noted in GAgP patients. With regard to FcγRIIIa F/V genetic polymorphism, the homozygous V/V genotype and V allele were significantly over-represented in the GAgP group, whereas the F/F genotype and F allele were over-represented in the controls. Furthermore, there was significant over-representation of the FcγRIIIb-NA2 allele and NA2/NA2 genotype in GAgP patients, and of the NA1/NA1 genotype and NA1 allele in the controls. These data suggest that the FcγRIIIa V/V genotype and/or V allele, as well as the FcγRIIIb NA2/NA2 and/or NA2 allele, along with the FcγRIIa- R allele, may be risk factors for GAgP in the population of South India.

  19. Distribution of type I Fc epsilon-receptors on the surface of mast cells probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Kubitscheck, U; Schweitzer-Stenner, R; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M; Pecht, I

    1993-01-01

    The aggregation state of type I Fc epsilon-receptors (Fc epsilon RI) on the surface of single living mast cells was investigated by resonance fluorescence energy transfer. Derivatization of Fc epsilon RI specific ligands, i.e., immunoglobulin E or Fab fragments of a Fc epsilon RI specific monoclonal antibody, with donor and acceptor fluorophores provided a means for measuring receptor clustering through energy transfer between the receptor probes. The efficiency of energy transfer between the ligands carrying distinct fluorophores was determined on single cells in a microscope by analyzing the photobleaching kinetics of the donor fluorophore in the presence and absence of receptor ligands labeled with acceptor fluorophores. To rationalize the energy transfer data, we developed a theoretical model describing the dependence of the energy transfer efficiency on the geometry of the fluorescently labeled macromolecular ligands and their aggregation state on the cell surface. To this end, the transfer process was numerically calculated first for one pair and then for an ensemble of Fc epsilon RI bound ligands on the cell surface. The model stipulates that the aggregation state of the Fc epsilon RI is governed by an attractive lipid-protein mediated interaction potential. The corresponding pair-distribution function characterizes the spatial distribution of the ensemble. Using this approach, the energy transfer efficiency of the ensemble was calculated for different degrees of receptor aggregation. Comparison of the theoretical modeling results with the experimental energy transfer data clearly suggests that the Fc epsilon RI are monovalent, randomly distributed plasma membrane proteins. The method provides a novel approach for determining the aggregation state of cell surface components. PMID:8431535

  20. Cross-species analysis of Fc engineered anti-Lewis-Y human IgG1 variants in human neonatal receptor transgenic mice reveal importance of S254 and Y436 in binding human neonatal Fc receptor

    PubMed Central

    Burvenich, Ingrid J. G.; Farrugia, William; Lee, Fook T.; Catimel, Bruno; Liu, Zhanqi; Makris, Dahna; Cao, Diana; O'Keefe, Graeme J.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; King, Dylan; Spirkoska, Violeta; Allan, Laura C.; Ramsland, Paul A.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT IgG has a long half-life through engagement of its Fc region with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). The FcRn binding site on IgG1 has been shown to contain I253 and H310 in the CH2 domain and H435 in the CH3 domain. Altering the half-life of IgG has been pursued with the aim to prolong or reduce the half-life of therapeutic IgGs. More recent studies have shown that IgGs bind differently to mouse and human FcRn. In this study we characterize a set of hu3S193 IgG1 variants with mutations in the FcRn binding site. A double mutation in the binding site is necessary to abrogate binding to murine FcRn, whereas a single mutation in the FcRn binding site is sufficient to no longer detect binding to human FcRn and create hu3S193 IgG1 variants with a half-life similar to previously studied hu3S193 F(ab')2 (t1/2β, I253A, 12.23 h; H310A, 12.94; H435A, 12.57; F(ab')2, 12.6 h). Alanine substitutions in S254 in the CH2 domain and Y436 in the CH3 domain showed reduced binding in vitro to human FcRn and reduced elimination half-lives in huFcRn transgenic mice (t1/2β, S254A, 37.43 h; Y436A, 39.53 h; wild-type, 83.15 h). These variants had minimal effect on half-life in BALB/c nu/nu mice (t1/2β, S254A, 119.9 h; Y436A, 162.1 h; wild-type, 163.1 h). These results provide insight into the interaction of human Fc by human FcRn, and are important for antibody-based therapeutics with optimal pharmacokinetics for payload strategies used in the clinic. PMID:27030023

  1. Development of a bioassay as a measure of drozitumab-mediated apoptosis induced by soluble Fc gamma receptors.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jeongsup; Huang, Ally; Miller, Aaron S

    2017-09-01

    Drozitumab is an agonistic therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the pro-apoptotic death receptor 5 (DR5). In vitro cell killing assays using drozitumab have traditionally required cross-linking with anti-Fc antibody to amplify the pro-apoptotic signal, although drozitumab shows activity in in vivo tumor models without artificial cross-linking. Recently it has been shown that FcγR expressing cells play an important role in the activity of drozitumab by mediating cross-linking in vivo (Wilson et al., 2011). To provide a more biologically relevant alternative to cross-linking with anti-Fc antibody in in vitro bioassays, methods for cross-linking with soluble FcγR extracellular domain (ECD) were developed in this work. FcγR cross-linking methods developed in this work were assessed in solution, bead-bound, and plate-bound assay formats, as well as a cell-based assay format. The assays showed reproducible drozitumab dose-response curves in the concentration range of 5-20,000ng/mL and had acceptable precision and accuracy. The assays are also able to detect degradative changes in drozitumab samples subjected to thermal stress. The data suggest that FcγR cross-linking of drozitumab is a viable alternative to anti-Fc cross-linking of drozitumab to measure effector mediated apoptosis of drozitumab in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fc receptor-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement of bacteriophage lambda-mediated gene transfer in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Sapinoro, Ramil; Volcy, Ketna; Shanaka, W.W.; Rodrigo, I.; Schlesinger, Jacob J.; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Lambda phage vectors mediate gene transfer in cultured mammalian cells and in live mice, and in vivo phage-mediated gene expression is increased when mice are pre-immunized with bacteriophage lambda. We now show that, like eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage vectors are subject to Fc receptor-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in mammalian cells. Antibody-dependent enhancement of phage gene transfer required FcγRI, but not its associated γ chain, and was not supported by other FcγR family members (FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB and FcγRIII). Studies using chlorpromazine and latrunculin A revealed an important role for clathrin-mediated endocytosis (chlorpromazine) and actin filaments (latrunculin A) in antibody-enhanced phage gene transfer. This was confirmed by experiments using inhibitors of endosomal acidification (bafilomycin A1, monensin) and by immunocytochemical colocalization of internalized phage particles with early endosome-associated protein-1 (EAA1) . In contrast, microtubule-targeting agents (nocodazole, taxol) increased the efficiency of antibody-enhanced phage gene transfer. These results reveal an unexpected antibody-dependent, FcγRI-mediated enhancement of phage transduction in mammalian cells, and suggest new approaches to improve bacteriophage-mediated gene transfer. PMID:18191979

  3. Rho is Required for the Initiation of Calcium Signaling and Phagocytosis by Fcγ Receptors in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hackam, David J.; Rotstein, Ori D.; Schreiber, Alan; Zhang, Wei-jian; Grinstein, Sergio

    1997-01-01

    Phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages and neutrophils is an essential component of host defense against infection. The mechanism whereby the interaction of opsonized particles with Fcγ receptors triggers the engulfment of opsonized particles remains incompletely understood, although activation of tyrosine kinases has been recognized as an early step. Recent studies in other systems have demonstrated that tyrosine kinases can in turn signal the activation of small GTPases of the ras superfamily. We therefore investigated the possible role of Rho in Fc receptor–mediated phagocytosis. To this end we microinjected J774 macrophages with C3 exotoxin from Clostridium botulinum, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho. C3 exotoxin induced the retraction of filopodia, the disappearance of focal complexes, and a global decrease in the F-actin content of J774 cells. In addition, these cells exhibited increased spreading and the formation of vacuolar structures. Importantly, inactivation of Rho resulted in the complete abrogation of phagocytosis. Inhibition of Fcγ receptor–mediated phagocytosis by C3 exotoxin was confirmed in COS cells, which become phagocytic upon transfection of the FcγRIIA receptor. Rho was found to be essential for the accumulation of phosphotyrosine and of F-actin around phagocytic cups and for Fcγ receptor–mediated Ca2+ signaling. The clustering of receptors in response to opsonin, an essential step in Fcγ-induced signaling, was the earliest event shown to be inhibited by C3 exotoxin. The effect of the toxin was specific, since clustering and internalization of transferrin receptors were unaffected by microinjection of C3. These data identify a role for small GTPases in Fcγ receptor–mediated phagocytosis by leukocytes. PMID:9294149

  4. DC subset-specific induction of T cell responses upon antigen uptake via Fcγ receptors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Christian H K; Baranska, Anna; Heidkamp, Gordon F; Heger, Lukas; Neubert, Kirsten; Lühr, Jennifer J; Hoffmann, Alana; Reimer, Katharina C; Brückner, Christin; Beck, Simone; Seeling, Michaela; Kießling, Melissa; Soulat, Didier; Krug, Anne B; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Leusen, Jeanette H W; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Dudziak, Diana

    2017-04-07

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are efficient antigen-presenting cells equipped with various cell surface receptors for the direct or indirect recognition of pathogenic microorganisms. Interestingly, not much is known about the specific expression pattern and function of the individual activating and inhibitory Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) on splenic DC subsets in vivo and how they contribute to the initiation of T cell responses. By targeting antigens to select activating and the inhibitory FcγR in vivo, we show that antigen uptake under steady-state conditions results in a short-term expansion of antigen-specific T cells, whereas under inflammatory conditions especially, the activating FcγRIV is able to induce superior CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Of note, this effect was independent of FcγR intrinsic activating signaling pathways. Moreover, despite the expression of FcγRIV on both conventional splenic DC subsets, the induction of CD8(+) T cell responses was largely dependent on CD11c(+)CD8(+) DCs, whereas CD11c(+)CD8(-) DCs were critical for priming CD4(+) T cell responses.

  5. Aliskiren Regulates Neonatal Fc Receptor and IgG Metabolism with Attenuation of Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ju Hyung; Baik, Haing Woon; Yoo, Seung-Min; Kim, Joo Heon; Cheong, Hae Il; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kang, Hee Gyung; Ha, Il-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Renin, in addition to its activation of the renin-angiotensin system, binds to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) and triggers inflammatory and fibrogenic signaling in tissue. In addition, aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, has been shown to affect IgG metabolism by altering PRR and neonatal Fc receptors (FcRns). We investigated the effect of aliskiren on proteinuria, glomerular extracellular matrix, expressions of fibronectin, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), PRR, FcRn and renal metabolism of IgG in a mice model of anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN). IgG deposition and expressions of FcRn and PRR were enhanced at glomeruli and urinary IgG levels increased in anti-GBM GN. Aliskiren attenuated anti-GBM GN with reduction of proteinuria and cortical expressions of fibronectin and TGF-β1. In addition, aliskiren suppressed the renal cortical expressions of FcRn and PRR. Aliskiren also reduced the glomerular IgG depositions and the urinary IgG levels albeit with increased circulating serum IgG levels. These results suggest that suppression of FcRn and PRR and regulation of IgG metabolism may be related to the attenuation of anti-GBM GN by aliskiren. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Fcγ receptor antigen targeting potentiates cross-presentation by human blood and lymphoid tissue BDCA-3+ dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Flinsenberg, Thijs W H; Compeer, Ewoud B; Koning, Dan; Klein, Mark; Amelung, Femke J; van Baarle, Debbie; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Boes, Marianne

    2012-12-20

    The reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) poses a serious health threat to immune compromised individuals. As a treatment strategy, dendritic cell (DC) vaccination trials are ongoing. Recent work suggests that BDCA-3(+) (CD141(+)) subset DCs may be particularly effective in DC vaccination trials. BDCA-3(+) DCs had however been mostly characterized for their ability to cross-present antigen from necrotic cells. We here describe our study of human BDCA-3(+) DCs in elicitation of HCMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell clones. We show that Fcgamma-receptor (FcγR) antigen targeting facilitates antigen cross-presentation in several DC subsets, including BDCA-3(+) DCs. FcγR antigen targeting stimulates antigen uptake by BDCA-1(+) rather than BDCA-3(+) DCs. Conversely, BDCA-3(+) DCs and not BDCA-1(+) DCs show improved cross-presentation by FcγR targeting, as measured by induced release of IFNγ and TNF by antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. FcγR-facilitated cross-presentation requires antigen processing in both an acidic endosomal compartment and by the proteasome, and did not induce substantial DC maturation. FcγRII is the most abundantly expressed FcγR on both BDCA-1(+) and BDCA-3(+) DCs. Furthermore we show that BDCA-3(+) DCs express relatively more stimulatory FcγRIIa than inhibitory FcγRIIb in comparison with BDCA-1(+) DCs. These studies support the exploration of FcγR antigen targeting to BDCA-3(+) DCs for human vaccination purposes.

  7. Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Mediates FcγRIIa/Toll-Like Receptor–4 Receptor Crosstalk in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Krupa, Agnieszka; Fudala, Rafal; Florence, Jon M.; Tucker, Torry; Allen, Timothy C.; Standiford, Theodore J.; Luchowski, Rafal; Fol, Marek; Rahman, Moshiur; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2013-01-01

    Previous observations by our laboratory indicate that the presence of anti–IL-8 autoantibody:IL-8 immune complexes in lung fluids from patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) comprises an important prognostic indicator in the development and ultimate outcome of ALI/ARDS. We also showed that these complexes display proinflammatory activity toward neutrophils through the engagement of FcγRIIa receptors. Because sepsis is one of the most common risk factors for ALI/ARDS, the initial goal of our present study involved investigating the effects of LPS on the expression of FcγRIIa receptors in neutrophils. Our results indicate that LPS triggers an increase in the expression of FcγRIIa on the neutrophil surface, which leads to shortening of the molecular distance between FcγRIIa and Toll-like receptor–4 (TLR4). When such neutrophils are stimulated with anti–IL-8:IL-8 complexes, the TLR4 cascade becomes activated via the engagement of FcγRIIa. The underlying molecular mechanism has been subsequently examined and involves Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk). In conclusion, our study reveals the existence of Btk-dependent molecular cooperation between FcγRIIa and TLR4 signaling cascades in LPS-“primed” human neutrophils. Furthermore, we used fluorescence lifetime imaging to study the interactions between TLR4 and FcγRIIa in human alveolar neutrophils from patients with ALI/ARDS. The results from these experiments confirm the existence of the molecular cooperation between TLR4 and FcγRIIa. PMID:23239500

  8. Fusion of the Fc part of human IgG1 to CD14 enhances its binding to gram-negative bacteria and mediates phagocytosis by Fc receptors of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Vida, András; Bardoel, Bart; Milder, Fin; Majoros, László; Sümegi, Andrea; Bácsi, Attila; Vereb, György; van Kessel, Kok P M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Antal-Szalmás, Péter

    2012-08-30

    Microbial resistance to antimicrobial drugs is promoting a search for new antimicrobial agents that target highly conservative structures of pathogens. Human CD14 - a known pattern recognition receptor (PRR) which recognizes multiple ligands from different microbes might be a worthy candidate. The aim of our work was to create a CD14/Fc dimer protein and evaluate its whole bacteria binding and opsonizing capabilities. Fusion of CD14 with the fragment crystallisable (Fc) part of human IgG1 could not only lead to an artificial opsonin but the dimerization through the Fc part might also increase its affinity to different ligands. Human CD14 and the Fc part of human IgG1 was fused and expressed in HEK293 cells. A histidine tagged CD14 (CD14/His) was also expressed as control. Using flow cytometry we could prove that CD14/Fc bound to whole Gram-negative bacteria, especially to short lipopolysaccharide (Ra and Re) mutants, and weak interaction was observed between the fusion protein and Listeria monocytogenes. Other Gram-positive bacteria and fungi did not show any association with CD14/Fc. CD14/His showed about 50-times less potent binding to Gram-negative bacteria. CD14/Fc acted as an opsonin and enhanced phagocytosis of these bacteria by neutrophil granulocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. Internalization of bacteria was confirmed by trypan blue quenching and confocal microscopy. On neutrophils the Fc part of the fusion protein was recognized by Fc receptors (CD16, CD32), as determined by blocking experiments. CD14/Fc enhanced the killing of bacteria in an ex vivo whole blood assay. Our experiments confirm that PRR/Fc fusion proteins can give a boost to FcR dependent phagocytosis and killing provided the antimicrobial part binds efficiently to microbes.

  9. Fc-receptors and immunity to malaria: from models to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pleass, R J

    2009-09-01

    The complexity and number of antigens (Ags) seen during an immune response has hampered the development of malaria vaccines. Antibodies (Abs) play an important role in immunity to malaria and their passive administration is effective at controlling the disease. Abs represent approximately 25% of all proteins undergoing clinical trials, and these 'smart biologicals' have undergone a major revival with the realization that Abs lie at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. At least 18 Abs have FDA approval for clinical use and approximately 150 are in clinical trials, the majority for the treatment of cancer, allograft rejection or autoimmune disease. Despite these triumphs none are in development for malaria, principally because they are perceived as being too expensive for a disease mainly afflicting poor and marginalized populations. Although unlikely, at least in the foreseeable future, that Ab-based prophylaxis will be made available to the millions of people at risk from malaria, they may be incorporated into current vaccine approaches, since Abs act as correlates of protection in studies aimed at defining the best Ags to include in vaccines. Abs may also form the basis for novel vaccination strategies by targeting Ags to appropriate antigen presenting cells. Therefore, to develop the most efficacious vaccines it will be necessary to fully understand which Abs and Fc-receptors (FcRs) are best engaged for a positive outcome.

  10. Visualization of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) interactions in living cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC).

    PubMed

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Przybyla, Julie A; Hu, Cheng-Deng; Watts, Val J

    2010-04-01

    Members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily have been shown to homo- and hetero-oligomerize both in vitro and in vivo. Although the functional and pharmacological significance of GPCR oligomerization is far from being completely understood, evidence suggests that, depending on the receptor, oligomerization may influence ligand binding, G protein coupling, and receptor targeting. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) is a technique based on the complementation of fragments from fluorescent proteins that allows the measurement and visualization of protein interactions in living cells. It can be extended to the simultaneous detection of distinct protein-protein interactions using a multicolor setup. This unit describes the application of BiFC and multicolor BiFC to the visualization of GPCR oligomerization in a neuronal cell model. Oligomerization of GPCR fusions to BiFC tags is visualized and measured using fluorescence microscopy and fluorometry. The effect of ligands on the relative formation of distinct oligomeric species is monitored with a ratiometric multicolor BiFC approach.

  11. Fc gamma receptor cross-linking activates p42, p38, and JNK/SAPK mitogen-activated protein kinases in murine macrophages: role for p42MAPK in Fc gamma receptor-stimulated TNF-alpha synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rose, D M; Winston, B W; Chan, E D; Riches, D W; Gerwins, P; Johnson, G L; Henson, P M

    1997-04-01

    Fc gamma R cross-linking on murine macrophages resulted in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members p42MAPK, p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). The temporal pattern of activation was distinct for each kinase. p42MAPK activation peaked at 5 min after receptor cross-linking, while peak p38 activity occurred 5 to 10 min later. Maximal JNK/SAPK activation occurred 20 min after Fc gamma R cross-linking. The selective MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (MEK-1) inhibitor PD 098059 inhibited activation of p42MAPK induced by Fc gamma R cross-linking, but not p38 or JNK/SAPK activation. PD 098059 also inhibited the synthesis of TNF-alpha induced by Fc gamma R cross-linking (IC50 approximately 0.1 microM). Together, these results suggest that 1) the activation of MAPKs may play a role in Fc gammaR signal transduction, and 2) the activation of p42MAPK is necessary for Fc gamma R cross-linking-induced TNF-alpha synthesis.

  12. Rotational dynamics of type I Fc epsilon receptors on individually-selected rat mast cells studied by polarized fluorescence depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, N A; Pecht, I; Roess, D A; Barisas, B G

    1992-01-01

    We report the first application of polarized fluorescence depletion (PFD), a technique which combines the sensitivity of fluorescence detection with the long lifetimes of triplet probes, to the measurement of membrane protein rotational diffusion on individually selected, intact mammalian cells. We have examined the rotation of type I Fc epsilon receptors (Fc epsilon RI) on rat mucosal mast cells of the RBL-2H3 line in their resting monomeric and differently oligomerized states using as probes IgE and three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; H10, J17, and F4) specific for the Fc epsilon RI. PFD experiments using eosin (EITC)-IgE show that individual Fc epsilon RI on cells have a rotational correlation time (RCT) at 4 degrees C of 79 +/- 4 microseconds. Similarly, Fc epsilon RI-bound EITC-Fab fragments of the J17 Fc epsilon RI-specific mAb exhibit an RCT of 76 +/- 6 microseconds. These values agree with previous measurements of Fc epsilon RI-bound IgE rotation by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy methods. Receptor-bound EITC-conjugated divalent J17 antibody exhibits an increased RCT of 140 +/- 6 microseconds. This is consistent with the ability of this mAb to form substantial amounts of Fc epsilon RI dimers on these cell surfaces. The ratio of limiting to initial anisotropy in these experiments remains constant at about 0.5 from 5 degrees C through 25 degrees C for IgE, Fab, and intact mAb receptor ligands. Extensive cross-linking by second antibody of cell-bound IgE, of intact Fc epsilon RI-specific mAbs or of their Fab fragments, however, produced large fixed anisotropies demonstrating, under these conditions, receptor immobilization in large aggregates. PFD using the mAbs H10 and F4 as receptor probes yielded values for triplet lifetimes, RCT values, and anisotropy parameters essentially indistinguishable from those obtained with the mAb J17 clone. Possible explanations for these observations are discussed. PMID:1547323

  13. Fyn kinase controls Fc{epsilon}RI receptor-operated calcium entry necessary for full degranulation in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Miranda, Elizabeth; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia

    2010-01-22

    IgE-antigen-dependent crosslinking of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) on mast cells leads to degranulation, leukotriene synthesis and cytokine production. Calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) mobilization is a sine qua non requisite for degranulation, allowing the rapid secretion of stored pro-inflammatory mediators responsible for allergy symptoms. Fyn is a Src-family kinase that positively controls Fc{epsilon}RI-induced mast cell degranulation. However, our understanding of the mechanism connecting Fyn activation to secretion of pre-synthesized mediators is very limited. We analyzed Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) differentiated from WT and Fyn -/- knock out mice. Fyn -/- BMMCs showed a marked defect in extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx after Fc{epsilon}RI crosslinking but not after thapsigargin addition. High concentrations of Gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+}) partially blocked Fc{epsilon}RI-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx in WT cells but, in contrast, completely inhibited Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in Fyn -/- cells. Low concentrations of an inhibitor of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) Ca{sup 2+} channels (2-aminoethoxyphenyl-borane, 2-APB) blocked Fc{epsilon}RI-induced maximal Ca{sup 2+} rise in WT but not in Fyn -/- cells. Ca{sup 2+} entry through Fyn-controlled, 2-APB sensitive channels was found to be important for full degranulation and IL-2 mRNA accumulation in WT cells. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that Fyn kinase interacts with TRPC 3/6/7 channels after IgE-antigen stimulation, but its association is not related to protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Results indicate Fyn kinase mediates the receptor-dependent activation of TRPC channels that contribute to degranulation in Fc{epsilon}RI-stimulated mast cells.

  14. Defect in the membrane expression of high affinity 72-kD Fc gamma receptors on phagocytic cells in four healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Ceuppens, J L; Baroja, M L; Van Vaeck, F; Anderson, C L

    1988-01-01

    Three different receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (FcR) have been characterized on human leukocytes. We have identified four healthy members of one family, whose blood phagocytic cells lack functional 72 kD high-affinity FcRI. Their monocytes were unable to bind the Fc portion of mouse (m)-IgG2a and of monomeric human IgG, and they were unreactive with two anti-FcRI monoclonal antibodies. Thus, FcRI is either absent, expressed at very low density, or is so structurally altered as to be unable to bind both its ligand and the anti-FcRI antibodies. The failure to bind the Fc portion of mIgG2a underlies the previously reported inability of these monocytes to support T cell mitogenesis on OKT3 stimulation. FcRI was not inducible upon incubation of their monocytes or neutrophils in gamma interferon. However, their monocytes were able to bind aggregated human IgG, and to phagocytose IgG-coated particles in vitro. Both functions could be blocked with a monoclonal antibody to the 40-kD low-affinity FcRII and therefore apparently were mediated exclusively through FcRII. This also demonstrates that FcRII can mediate phagocytosis independently. Despite the FcRI defect, these subjects had no circulating immune complexes, no evidence of autoimmune pathology and no increased susceptibility to infections. PMID:2969920

  15. Design, synthesis of diaminopyrimidine inhibitors targeting IgE- and IgG-mediated activation of Fc receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Argade, Ankush; Bhamidipati, Somasekhar; Li, Hui; Sylvain, Catherine; Clough, Jeffrey; Carroll, David; Keim, Holger; Braselmann, Sylvia; Taylor, Vanessa; Zhao, Haoran; Herlaar, Ellen; Issakani, Sarkiz D; Wong, Brian R; Masuda, Esteban S; Payan, Donald G; Singh, Rajinder

    2015-01-01

    Using cultured human mast cells (CHMC) the optimization of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine compounds leading to 22, R406 is described. Compound 22 is a potent upstream inhibitor of mast cell degranulation and its mechanism of action is via inhibition of Syk kinase. Compound 22 has significant activity in inhibiting both IgE- and IgG-mediated activation of Fc receptor (FcR) in mast cells and basophils, and in addition inhibits Syk kinase-dependent activity of FcR-mediated activation of monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated activation of B lymphocytes. Overall, the biological activity of 22 suggests that it has potential for application as a novel therapeutic for the treatment of an array of autoimmune maladies and hematological malignancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and characterization of macaque CD89 (immunoglobulin A Fc receptor)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Kenneth A; Scinicariello, Franco; Attanasio, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) molecule with its specific cellular receptor is necessary to trigger a variety of effector functions able to clear IgA-opsonized antigens. The human IgA-specific Fc receptor, FcαRI or CD89, is expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage. Recently, CD89 homologues have been identified in rats and cattle. Because non-human primates represent well established models for a variety of human diseases and for the testing of immunotherapeutic strategies, we cloned and sequenced cDNAs corresponding to the CD89 gene from rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques. Macaque sequences of full-length CD89 consist of five exons of length identical to the corresponding human CD89 exons. The rhesus and cynomolgus macaque derived amino acid sequences are highly homologous to each other (99·3% identity) and exhibit 86·5% and 86·1% identity to the human counterpart, respectively. Transfection of HeLa cells with plasmids containing the cloned macaque cDNAs resulted in the expression of surface molecules recognized by an anti-human CD89 antibody. Five splice variants were identified in rhesus macaques. Three of the five variants are similar to described human CD89 splice variants, whereas two variants have not been described in humans. Three splice variants were identified in cynomolgus macaques. Of the three variants, one is present also in humans and rhesus macaques, whereas the other two are shared with rhesus macaques but not humans. Similarly to the human CD89, macaque CD89 is expressed on myeloid cells from peripheral blood. The characterization of macaque CD89 represents an essential step in establishing a non-human primate model for the testing of immunotherapeutic approaches based on the manipulation of the IgA/CD89 interaction. PMID:15379978

  17. Antibody penetration into living cells. V. Interference between two fc gamma receptor-mediated functions: antibody penetration and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Llerena, J M; Ruíz-Argüelles, A; Alarcón-Segovia, D; Llorente, L; Díaz-Jouanen, E

    1981-01-01

    The same Fc gamma receptor appears to be shared for two important phenomena: antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody penetration into living cells. ADCC is inhibited through interaction with the Fc gamma receptor during the antibody penetration process, indicating that both mechanisms may modulate each other in vitro. PMID:6972908

  18. Site-selective conjugation of an anticoagulant aptamer to recombinant albumins and maintenance of neonatal Fc receptor binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmøkel, Julie; Voldum, Anders; Tsakiridou, Georgia; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Cameron, Jason; Sørensen, Esben S.; Wengel, Jesper; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-01

    Aptamers are an attractive molecular medicine that offers high target specificity. Nucleic acid-based aptamers, however, are prone to nuclease degradation and rapid renal excretion that require blood circulatory half-life extension enabling technologies. The long circulatory half-life, predominately facilitated by engagement with the cellular recycling neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), and ligand transport properties of albumin promote it as an attractive candidate to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of aptamers. This study investigates the effect of Cys34 site-selective covalent attachment of a factor IXa anticoagulant aptamer on aptamer functionality and human FcRn (hFcRn) engagement using recombinant human albumin (rHA) of either a wild type (WT) or an engineered human FcRn high binding variant (HB). Albumin-aptamer conjugates, connected covalently through a heterobifunctional succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate linker, were successfully prepared and purified by high performance liquid chromatography as confirmed by gel electrophoresis band-shift analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight. Minimal reduction (∼25%) in activity of WT-linked aptamer to that of aptamer alone was found using an anticoagulant activity assay measuring temporal levels of activated partial thrombin. Covalent albumin-aptamer conjugation, however, substantially compromized binding to hFcRn, to 10% affinity of that of non-conjugated WT, determined by biolayer interferometry. Binding could be rescued by aptamer conjugation to recombinant albumin engineered for higher FcRn affinity (HB) that exhibited an 8-fold affinity compared to WT alone. This work describes a novel albumin-based aptamer delivery system whose hFcRn binding can be increased using a HB engineered albumin.

  19. IgA and IgG antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody engagement of Fc receptor genetic variants influences granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Kelley, James M; Monach, Paul A; Ji, Chuanyi; Zhou, Yebin; Wu, Jianming; Tanaka, Sumiaki; Mahr, Alfred D; Johnson, Sharleen; McAlear, Carol; Cuthbertson, David; Carette, Simon; Davis, John C; Dellaripa, Paul F; Hoffman, Gary S; Khalidi, Nader; Langford, Carol A; Seo, Phillip; St Clair, E William; Specks, Ulrich; Stone, John H; Spiera, Robert F; Ytterberg, Steven R; Merkel, Peter A; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Kimberly, Robert P

    2011-12-20

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) is a rare autoimmune neutrophil-mediated vasculitis that can cause renal disease and mucosal manifestations. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are present in many patients, vary in level over time, and induce neutrophil activation through engagement with Fc receptors (FcRs). Given roles for FcRs in ANCA-mediated neutrophil activation and IgA antibodies in mucosal immunity, we hypothesized that FcR genetics and previously unappreciated IgA ANCA affect clinical presentation. We assembled a total of 673 patients and 413 controls from two multicenter cohorts, performed ELISA and immunofluorescence assays to determine IgA and IgG ANCA positivity, and used Illumina, TaqMan, or Pyrosequencing to genotype eight haplotype-tagging SNPs in the IgA FcR (FCAR) and to determine NA1/NA2 genotype of FCGR3B, the most prevalent neutrophil IgG FcR. We evaluated neutrophil activation by measuring degranulation marker CD11b with flow cytometry or neutrophil extracellcular trap formation with confocal microscopy. Functional polymorphisms in FCGR3B and FCAR differed between patient groups stratified by renal involvement. IgA ANCA were found in ∼30% of patients and were less common in patients with severe renal disease. Neutrophil stimulation by IgA or IgG ANCA led to degranulation and neutrophil extracellcular trap formation in a FcR allele-specific manner (IgA:FCAR P = 0.008; IgG:FCGR3B P = 0.003). When stimulated with IgA and IgG ANCA together, IgG ANCA induced neutrophil activation was reduced (P = 0.0001). FcR genotypes, IgA ANCA, and IgG ANCA are potential prognostic and therapeutic targets for understanding the pathogenesis and presentation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's).

  20. Interaction of Platelet Membrane Receptors with von Willebrand Factor, Ristocetin, and the Fc Region of Immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Anne; Ross, Gordon D.; Nachman, Ralph L.

    1978-01-01

    The agglutination of human platelets by ristocetin and von Willebrand factor was inhibited by aggregated immunoglobulin (Ig)G and by Fc fragments of IgG, but not by Fab, F(ab′)2 or pFc fragments of IgG. Because this inhibition occurred with formalin-fixed platelets as well as with normal platelets, a generalized aggregation of fluid membrane components by Fc fragments was not responsible for this inhibition of ristocetin and von Willebrand factor-induced agglutination. Reciprocal inhibition of platelet Fc receptors was produced by prior incubation of platelets with von Willebrand factor and ristocetin. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation studies demonstrated that aggregated IgG did not form fluid-phase complexes with von Willebrand factor and ristocetin. Furthermore, passage of von Willebrand factor and ristocetin through a column of immobilized heat-aggregated IgG did not alter platelet agglutinating activity which indicates that aggregated IgG did not inactivate von Willebrand factor or ristocetin. Thus, it was likely that the IgG-mediated interference with platelet agglutination by ristocetin and von Willebrand factor did not occur in the fluid phase but at the platelet surface. These studies suggest that the platelet membrane Fc receptor may be either a part of, or sterically related to, the membrane glycoprotein I complex that interacts with von Willebrand factor, and that occupation of one of these surface components blocks the availability of the other. PMID:309473

  1. The heavy chain of neonatal Fc receptor for IgG is sequestered in endoplasmic reticulum by forming oligomers in the absence of beta2-microglobulin association.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoping; Peng, Junmin; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Nakajima, Atsushi; Lencer, Wayne I; Blumberg, Richard S

    2002-01-01

    The heavy chain (HC) of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) for IgG is non-convalently associated with beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m). In beta(2)m(-/-) mice, FcRn functions are greatly impaired. We sought to determine how FcRn HC, particularly its structure and biogenesis, is affected by the absence of beta(2)m. Human FcRn HC, expressed from the beta(2)m-null cell line FO-1(FcRn), was present as a monomeric 45-kDa protein under reducing conditions but primarily as a 92-kDa oligomeric protein under non-reducing conditions. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and MS analysis showed that the 92-kDa protein was a dimer of the 45-kDa HC. Immunostaining showed that FcRn HC in FO-1(FcRn) was co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein Bip/GRP78 but not with an endosome protein, EEA1. In contrast, FcRn HC in FO-1(FcRn+beta2m) was detected in both the ER and endosome. The dimeric HC in FcRn oligomers was free of beta(2)m association in FO-1(FcRn+beta2m). Mutation of non-paired cysteine residues at positions 48 and 251 within the human FcRn cDNA failed to eliminate the oligomers. The FcRn HC oligomers could be reduced by reconstitution of FO-1(FcRn) with beta(2)m or by balanced expression of FcRn HC with beta(2)m, or beta(2)m fused with a KDEL retention sequence. Similarly, the majority of FcRn HC isolated from neonatal beta(2)m(-/-) mice was in a dimeric form under non-reducing conditions. The amount of FcRn HC was significantly decreased in beta(2)m(-/-) mice and FO-1(FcRn). Furthermore, beta(2)m-free FcRn HC was sensitive to endoglycosidase digestion. These results indicate that FcRn HC alone can form disulphide-bonded oligomers in the ER, which may represent a misfolded protein. The beta(2)m association with FcRn HC is critical for correct folding of FcRn and exiting the ER for routing to endosomes and the cell surface. PMID:12162790

  2. Dual role for Fcγ receptors in host defense and disease in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Belperron, Alexia A; Liu, Nengyin; Booth, Carmen J; Bockenstedt, Linda K

    2014-01-01

    Arthritis in mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, results from the influx of innate immune cells responding to the pathogen in the joint and is influenced in part by mouse genetics. Production of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells in vitro is largely mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) interaction with Borrelia lipoproteins, yet surprisingly mice deficient in TLR2 or the TLR signaling molecule MyD88 still develop arthritis comparable to that seen in wild type mice after B. burgdorferi infection. These findings suggest that other, MyD88-independent inflammatory pathways can contribute to arthritis expression. Clearance of B. burgdorferi is dependent on the production of specific antibody and phagocytosis of the organism. As Fc receptors (FcγR) are important for IgG-mediated clearance of immune complexes and opsonized particles by phagocytes, we examined the role that FcγR play in host defense and disease in B. burgdorferi-infected mice. B. burgdorferi-infected mice deficient in the Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcεRγ(-/-) mice) harbored ~10 fold more spirochetes than similarly infected wild type mice, and this was associated with a transient increase in arthritis severity. While the elevated pathogen burdens seen in B. burgdorferi-infected MyD88(-/-) mice were not affected by concomitant deficiency in FcγR, arthritis was reduced in FcεRγ(-/-) MyD88(-/-) mice in comparison to wild type or single knockout mice. Gene expression analysis from infected joints demonstrated that absence of both MyD88 and FcγR lowers mRNA levels of proteins involved in inflammation, including Cxcl1 (KC), Xcr1 (Gpr5), IL-1beta, and C reactive protein. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for FcγR-mediated immunity in limiting pathogen burden and arthritis in mice during the acute phase of B. burgdorferi infection, and further suggest that this pathway contributes to the arthritis that develops in B. burgdorferi-infected MyD88

  3. Dual role for Fcγ receptors in host defense and disease in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Belperron, Alexia A.; Liu, Nengyin; Booth, Carmen J.; Bockenstedt, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    Arthritis in mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, results from the influx of innate immune cells responding to the pathogen in the joint and is influenced in part by mouse genetics. Production of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells in vitro is largely mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) interaction with Borrelia lipoproteins, yet surprisingly mice deficient in TLR2 or the TLR signaling molecule MyD88 still develop arthritis comparable to that seen in wild type mice after B. burgdorferi infection. These findings suggest that other, MyD88-independent inflammatory pathways can contribute to arthritis expression. Clearance of B. burgdorferi is dependent on the production of specific antibody and phagocytosis of the organism. As Fc receptors (FcγR) are important for IgG-mediated clearance of immune complexes and opsonized particles by phagocytes, we examined the role that FcγR play in host defense and disease in B. burgdorferi-infected mice. B. burgdorferi-infected mice deficient in the Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcεRγ−/− mice) harbored ~10 fold more spirochetes than similarly infected wild type mice, and this was associated with a transient increase in arthritis severity. While the elevated pathogen burdens seen in B. burgdorferi-infected MyD88−/− mice were not affected by concomitant deficiency in FcγR, arthritis was reduced in FcεRγ−/−MyD88−/− mice in comparison to wild type or single knockout mice. Gene expression analysis from infected joints demonstrated that absence of both MyD88 and FcγR lowers mRNA levels of proteins involved in inflammation, including Cxcl1 (KC), Xcr1 (Gpr5), IL-1beta, and C reactive protein. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for FcγR-mediated immunity in limiting pathogen burden and arthritis in mice during the acute phase of B. burgdorferi infection, and further suggest that this pathway contributes to the arthritis that develops in B. burgdorferi

  4. Localization of the binding site on IgG for solubilized placental Fc gamma receptor.

    PubMed

    Matre, R; Tönder, O

    1984-01-01

    Placental Fc gamma R (FcR) inhibited the rosette formation between monocytes and rabbit IgG-sensitized erythrocytes (EA), whereas the rosette formation with granulocytes was not impaired. Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) inhibited the rosette formation with both cell types. Results obtained in absorption and agglutination experiments showed that SpA blocked the binding of FcR to IgG, and Cl did not. Furthermore, FcR did not interfere with the binding of SpA to IgG, whereas C1 affected this binding. FcR apparently bind to the C gamma 3 region. Since FcR inhibited the binding of EA to monocytes, the monocyte FcR binding site is probably also located within the C gamma 3 region.

  5. Mapping of the high affinity Fc epsilon receptor binding site to the third constant region domain of IgE.

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, A; Jouvin, M H; Eshhar, Z

    1991-01-01

    Identification of the precise region(s) on the IgE molecule that take part in the binding of IgE to its high affinity receptor (Fc epsilon RI) may lead to the design of IgE analogues able to block the allergic response. To localize the Fc epsilon RI-binding domain of mouse IgE, we attempted to confer on human IgE, which normally does not bind to the rodent receptor, the ability to bind to the rat Fc epsilon RI. Employing exon shuffling, we have expressed chimeric epsilon-heavy chain genes composed of a mouse (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetic acid (NP)-binding VH domain, and human C epsilon in which various domains were replaced by their murine counterparts. This has enabled us to test the Fc epsilon RI-binding of each mouse IgE domain while maintaining the overall conformation of the molecule. All of the chimeric IgE molecules which contain the murine C epsilon 3, bound equally to both the rodent and human receptor, as well as to monoclonal antibodies recognizing a site on IgE which is identical or very close to the Fc epsilon RI binding site. Deletion of the second constant region domain did not impair either the binding capacity of the mutated IgE or its ability to mediate mast cell degradation. These results assign the third epsilon domain of IgE as the principal region involved in the interaction with the Fc epsilon RI. Images PMID:1824934

  6. IgM, Fcμ-receptors and malarial immune evasion

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Salanti, Ali; Ditlev, Sisse B; Shao, Zhifeng; Ghumra, Ashfaq; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Pleass, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    "This is an author-produced version of a manuscript accepted for publication in The Journal of Immunology (The JI). The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. (AAI), publisher of The JI, holds the copyright to this manuscript. This version of the manuscript has not yet been copyedited or subjected to editorial proofreading by The JI; hence, it may differ from the final version published in The JI (online and in print). AAI (The JI) is not liable for errors or omissions in this author-produced version of the manuscript or in any version derived from it by the U.S. National Institutes of Health or any other third party. The final, citable version of record can be found at www.jimmunol.org." Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an ancestral antibody class found in all jawed vertebrates from sharks to mammals. This ancient ancestry is shared by malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) that infect all classes of terrestrial vertebrates with whom they coevolved. IgM, the least studied, and most enigmatic of the vertebrate immunoglobulins has recently been shown to form an intimate relationship with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Here we discuss how this association might come about, building on the recently determined structure of the human IgM pentamer, and how this interaction could affect parasite survival, particularly in light of the just discovered Fcμ-receptor (FcµR) localized to B and T cell surfaces. As this parasite may exploit an interaction with IgM to not only limit immune detection but also manipulate the immune response when detected, a better understanding of this association may prove critical for the development of improved vaccines or vaccination strategies. PMID:20410497

  7. Fc gamma receptor IIb participates in maternal IgG trafficking of human placental endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, TOMOKO; TAKIZAWA, TAKAMI; IWAKI, JUN; MISHIMA, TAKUYA; UI-TEI, KUMIKO; TAKESHITA, TOSHIYUKI; MATSUBARA, SHIGEKI; TAKIZAWA, TOSHIHIRO

    2015-01-01

    The human placental transfer of maternal IgG is crucial for fetal and newborn immunity. Low-affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor IIb2 (FCGR2B2 or FcγRIIb2) is exclusively expressed in an IgG-containing, vesicle-like organelle (the FCGR2B2 compartment) in human placental endothelial cells; thus, we hypothesized that the FCGR2B2 compartment functions as an IgG transporter. In this study, to examine this hypothesis, we performed in vitro bio-imaging analysis of IgG trafficking by FCGR2B2 compartments using human umbilical vein endothelial cells transfected with a plasmid vector containing enhanced GFP-tagged FCGR2B2 (pFCGR2B2-EGFP). FCGR2B2-EGFP signals were detected as intracellular vesicular structures similar to FCGR2B2 compartments in vivo. The internalization and transcytosis of IgG was significantly higher in the pFCGR2B2-EGFP-transfected cells than in the mock-transfected cells, and the majority of the internalized IgG was co-localized with the FCGR2B2-EGFP signals. Furthermore, we isolated FCGR2B2 compartments from the human placenta and found that the Rab family of proteins [RAS-related protein Rab family (RABs)] were associated with FCGR2B2 compartments. Among the RABs, RAB3D was expressed predominantly in placental endothelial cells. The downregulation of RAB3D by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a marked reduction in the FCGR2B2-EGFP signals at the cell periphery. Taken together, these findings suggest that FCGR2B2 compartments participate in the transcytosis of maternal IgG across the human placental endothelium and that RAB3D plays a role in regulating the intracellular dynamics of FCGR2B2 compartments. PMID:25778799

  8. Charge heterogeneity: Basic antibody charge variants with increased binding to Fc receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hintersteiner, Beate; Lingg, Nico; Zhang, Peiqing; Woen, Susanto; Hoi, Kong Meng; Stranner, Stefan; Wiederkum, Susanne; Mutschlechner, Oliver; Schuster, Manfred; Loibner, Hans; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We identified active isoforms of the chimeric anti-GD2 antibody, ch14.18, a recombinant antibody produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells, which is already used in clinical trials.1,2,3 We separated the antibody by high resolution ion-exchange chromatography with linear pH gradient elution into acidic, main and basic charge variants on a preparative scale yielding enough material for an in-depth study of the sources and the effects of microheterogeneity. The binding affinity of the charge variants toward the antigen and various cell surface receptors was studied by Biacore. Effector functions were evaluated using cellular assays for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Basic charge variants showed increased binding to cell surface receptor FcγRIIIa, which plays a major role in regulating effector functions. Furthermore, increased binding of the basic fractions to the neonatal receptor was observed. As this receptor mediates the prolonged half-life of IgG in human serum, this data may well hint at an increased serum half-life of these basic variants compared to their more acidic counterparts. Different glycoform patterns, C-terminal lysine clipping and N-terminal pyroglutamate formation were identified as the main structural sources for the observed isoform pattern. Potential differences in structural stability between individual charge variant fractions by nano differential scanning calorimetry could not been detected. Our in-vitro data suggests that the connection between microheterogeneity and the biological activity of recombinant antibody therapeutics deserves more attention than commonly accepted. PMID:27559765

  9. Albumin-based nanoparticles as methylprednisolone carriers for targeted delivery towards the neonatal Fc receptor in glomerular podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lin; Chen, Mingyu; Mao, Huijuan; Wang, Ningning; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Xiufen; Qian, Jun; Xing, Changying

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly used in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome. However, high doses and long periods of GC therapy can result in severe side effects. The present study aimed to selectively deliver albumin-methylprednisolone (MP) nanoparticles towards glomerular podocytes, which highly express the specific neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) of albumin. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was labeled with a fluorescent dye and linked with modified MP via an amide bond. The outcome nanoparticle named BSA633-MP showed a uniform size with a diameter of approximately 10 nm and contained 12 drug molecules on average. The nanoconjugates were found to be stable at pH 7.4 and acid-sensitive at pH 4.0, with approximately 72% release of the MP drug after 48 h of incubation. The nanoparticle demonstrated a 36-fold uptake in receptor-specific cellular delivery in the FcRn-expressing human podocytes compared to the uptake in the non-FcRn-expressing control cells. Co-localization further confirmed that uptake of the nanoconjugates involved receptor-mediated endocytosis followed by lysosome associated transportation. In vitro cellular experiments indicated that the BSA633-MP ameliorated puromycin aminonucleoside-induced podocyte apoptosis. Moreover, in vivo fluorescence molecular imaging showed that BSA633-MP was mainly accumulated in the liver and kidney after intravenous dosing for 24 h. Collectively, this study may provide an approach for the effective and safe therapy of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:28259932

  10. Live SIV vaccine correlate of protection: immune complex-inhibitory Fc receptor interactions that reduce target cell availability

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anthony J; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Shang, Liang; Reilly, Cavan S.; Southern, Peter J.; Perkey, Katherine E.; Duan, Lijie; Kohler, Heinz; Muller, Sybille; Robinson, James; Carlis, John V.; Li, Qingsheng; Johnson, R. Paul; Haase, Ashley T.

    2014-01-01

    Principles to guide design of an effective vaccine against HIV are greatly needed, particularly to protect women in the pandemic’s epicentre in Africa. We have been seeking these principles by identifying correlates of the robust protection associated with SIVmac239Δnef vaccination in the SIV-rhesus macaque animal model of HIV-1 transmission to women. We have identified one correlate of SIVmac239Δnef protection against vaginal challenge as a resident mucosal system for SIV-gp41 trimer antibody production and neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated concentration of these antibodies on the path of virus entry to inhibit establishment of infected founder populations at the portal of entry. Here we identify as a second protection correlate, blocking CD4+ T cell recruitment to inhibit local expansion of infected founder populations. Virus-specific immune complex interactions with the inhibitory FcγRIIb receptor in the epithelium lining the cervix initiate expression of genes that block recruitment of target cells to fuel local expansion. Immune complex-FcγRIIb receptor interactions at mucosal frontlines to dampen the innate immune response to vaginal challenge could be a potentially general mechanism for the mucosal immune system to sense and modulate the response to a previously encountered pathogen. Designing vaccines to provide protection without eliciting these transmission-promoting innate responses could contribute to developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:25143442

  11. Association between Fcγ receptor IIA, IIIA and IIIB genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to severe malaria anemia in children in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Munde, Elly O; Okeyo, Winnie A; Raballah, Evans; Anyona, Samuel B; Were, Tom; Ong'echa, John M; Perkins, Douglas J; Ouma, Collins

    2017-04-20

    Naturally-acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria develops after several episodes of infection. Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) bind to immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and mediate phagocytosis of opsonized microbes, thereby, linking humoral and cellular immunity. FcγR polymorphisms influence binding affinity to IgGs and consequently, can influence clinical malaria outcomes. Specifically, variations in FcγRIIA -131Arg/His, FcγRIIIA-176F/V and FcγRIIIB-NA1/NA2 modulate immune responses through altered binding preferences to IgGs and immune complexes. Differential binding, in turn, changes ability of immune cells to respond to infection through production of inflammatory mediators during P. falciparum infection. We determined the association between haplotypes of FcγRIIA-131Arg/His, FcγRIIIA-176F/V and FcγRIIIB-NA1/NA2 variants and severe malarial anemia (SMA; hemoglobin < 6.0 g/dL, any density parasitemia) in children (n = 274; aged 6-36 months) presenting for their first hospital visit with P. falciparum malaria in a holoendemic transmission region of western Kenya. FcγRIIA-131Arg/His and FcγRIIIA-176F/V genotypes were determined using TaqMan® SNP genotyping, while FcγRIIIBNA1/NA2 genotypes were determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Hematological and parasitological indices were measured in all study participants. Carriage of FcγRIIA-131Arg/FcγRIIIA-176F/FcγRIIIBNA2 haplotype was associated with susceptibility to SMA (OR = 1.70; 95% CI; 1.02-2.93; P = 0.036), while the FcγRIIA-131His/ FcγRIIIA-176F/ FcγRIIIB NA1 haplotype was marginally associated with enhanced susceptibility to SMA (OR: 1.80, 95% CI; 0.98-3.30, P = 0.057) and higher levels of parasitemia (P = 0.009). Individual genotypes of FcγRIIA-131Arg/His, FcγRIIIA-176F/V and FcγRIIIB-NA1/NA2 were not associated with susceptibility to SMA. The study revealed that haplotypes of FcγRs are important in conditioning susceptibility to SMA in immune

  12. Activating Fc gamma receptors participate in the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Kaifu, Tomonori; Sugahara-Tobinai, Akiko; Nakamura, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Takai, Toshiyuki

    2007-07-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in humans is an organ-specific autoimmune disease in which pancreatic islet beta cells are ruptured by autoreactive T cells. NOD mice, the most commonly used animal model of T1D, show early infiltration of leukocytes in the islets (insulitis), resulting in islet destruction and diabetes later. NOD mice produce various islet beta cell-specific autoantibodies, although it remains a subject of debate regarding whether these autoantibodies contribute to the development of T1D. Fc gammaRs are multipotent molecules that play important roles in Ab-mediated regulatory as well as effector functions in autoimmune diseases. To investigate the possible role of Fc gammaRs in NOD mice, we generated several Fc gammaR-less NOD lines, namely FcR common gamma-chain (Fc Rgamma)-deficient (NOD.gamma(-/-)), Fc gammaRIII-deficient (NOD.III(-/-)), Fc gammaRIIB-deficient (NOD.IIB(-/-)), and both Fc Rgamma and Fc gammaRIIB-deficient NOD (NOD.null) mice. In this study, we show significant protection from diabetes in NOD.gamma(-/-), NOD.III(-/-), and NOD.null, but not in NOD.IIB(-/-) mice even with grossly comparable production of autoantibodies among them. Insulitis in NOD.gamma(-/-) mice was also alleviated. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells or NK cells from NOD mice rendered NOD.gamma(-/-) animals more susceptible to diabetes, suggesting a possible scenario in which activating Fc gammaRs on dendritic cells enhance autoantigen presentation leading to the activation of autoreactive T cells, and Fc gammaRIII on NK cells trigger Ab-dependent effector functions and inflammation. These findings highlight the critical roles of activating Fc gammaRs in the development of T1D, and indicate that Fc gammaRs are novel targets for therapies for T1D.

  13. Site-selective conjugation of an anticoagulant aptamer to recombinant albumins and maintenance of neonatal Fc receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Schmøkel, Julie; Voldum, Anders; Tsakiridou, Georgia; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Cameron, Jason; Sørensen, Esben; Wengel, Jesper; Howard, Kenneth A

    2017-03-31

    Aptamers are an attractive molecular medicine that offers high target specificity. Nucleic acid-based aptamers however, are prone to nuclease degradation and rapid renal excretion that require blood circulatory half-life extension enabling technologies. The long circulatory half-life, predominately facilitated by engagement with the cellular recycling neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), and ligand transport properties of albumin promote it as an attractive candidate to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of aptamers. This study investigates the effect of Cys34 site-selective covalent attachment of a factor IXa anticoagulant aptamer on aptamer functionality and FcRn engagement using recombinant human albumin (rHA) of either a wild type (WT) or an engineered human FcRn high binding variant (HB). Aptamer-albumin conjugates, connected covalently through a heterobifunctional succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate linker, were successfully prepared and purified by high performance liquid chromatography as confirmed by gel electrophoresis band-shift analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight. Minimal reduction (~ 25%) in activity of WT-linked aptamer to that of aptamer alone was found using an anticoagulant activity assay measuring temporal levels of activated partial thrombin. Covalent aptamer-albumin conjugation, however, substantially compromised binding to FcRn, to 10% affinity of that of non-conjugated WT, determined by biolayer interferometry. Binding could be rescued by aptamer conjugation to recombinant albumin engineered for higher FcRn affinity (HB) that exhibited an 8-fold affinity compared to WT alone. This work describes a novel albumin-based aptamer delivery system whose FcRn binding can be increased using a high binding engineered albumin.

  14. Type I (CD64) and type II (CD32) Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis by human blood dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Fanger, N A; Wardwell, K; Shen, L; Tedder, T F; Guyre, P M

    1996-07-15

    Three classes of Fc receptors for IgG, Fc gamma RI (CD64), Fc gamma RII (CD32), and Fc gamma RIII (CD16), are expressed on blood leukocytes. Although Fc gamma R are important phagocytic receptors on phagocytes, most reports suggest that dendritic cells lack Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis and express significant levels of only CD32. We now report that phagocytically active forms of both CD64 and CD32 are expressed significantly on at least one subset of human blood dendritic cells. Countercurrent elutriation and magnetic bead selection were used to rapidly enrich subsets of blood dendritic cells (CD33brightCD14-HLA-DRbrightCD83-) and monocytes (CD33brightCD14brightHLA-DRdimCD83-). Upon culture for 2 days, dendritic cells became CD83-positive and markedly increased HLA-DR expression, whereas monocytes did not express CD83 and exhibited reduced levels of HLA-DR. Constitutive CD64 expression was identified on this circulating dendritic cell population, but at a lower level than on monocytes. CD64 expression by dendritic cells and monocytes did not decrease during 2 days in culture, and was up-regulated on both cell types following incubation with IFN-gamma. Freshly isolated blood dendritic cells performed CD64- and CD32-mediated phagocytosis, although at a lower level than monocytes. Dendritic cells generated by culture of adherent mononuclear cells in granulocyte-macrophage CSF and IL-4 also up-regulated CD64 following IFN-gamma stimulation, and mediated CD64-dependent phagocytosis. These results indicate that both CD64 and CD32 expressed on blood dendritic cells may play a role in uptake of foreign particles and macromolecules through a phagocytic mechanism before trafficking to T cell-reactive areas.

  15. A Two-pronged Binding Mechanism of IgG to the Neonatal Fc Receptor Controls Complex Stability and IgG Serum Half-life.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Schoch, Angela; Larraillet, Vincent; Hilger, Maximiliane; Schlothauer, Tilman; Emrich, Thomas; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2017-03-01

    The success of recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulins (IgG) is rooted in their ability to target distinct antigens with high affinity combined with an extraordinarily long serum half-life, typically around 3 weeks. The pharmacokinetics of IgGs is intimately linked to the recycling mechanism of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). For long serum half-life of therapeutic IgGs, the highly pH-dependent interaction with FcRn needs to be balanced to allow efficient FcRn binding and release at slightly acidic pH and physiological pH, respectively. Some IgGs, like the antibody briakinumab has an unusually short half-life of ∼8 days. Here we dissect the molecular origins of excessive FcRn binding in therapeutic IgGs using a combination of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and FcRn affinity chromatography. We provide experimental evidence for a two-pronged IgG-FcRn binding mechanism involving direct FcRn interactions with both the Fc region and the Fab regions of briakinumab, and correlate the occurrence of excessive FcRn binding to an unusually strong Fab-FcRn interaction. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. A di-leucine motif mediates endocytosis and basolateral sorting of macrophage IgG Fc receptors in MDCK cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, W; Fumey, C

    1994-01-01

    An important function of the low affinity IgG Fc receptor FcRII-B2 (FcR) on macrophages is the internalization of soluble antigen-antibody complexes for lysosomal degradation. Most endocytic receptors possess tyrosine-containing cytoplasmic determinants required for endocytosis. In many proteins, signals which overlap with the endocytosis determinant and share the same critical tyrosine residue also mediate basolateral sorting in the trans-Golgi network of epithelial cells. Despite the presence of two tyrosine residues in the FcR cytosolic domain, neither one is absolutely required for coated pit localization or basolateral targeting. Nevertheless, a short domain of 13 residues containing one of the non-critical tyrosine residues mediates endocytosis and basolateral delivery. Alanine scan mutagenesis of this region now revealed a critical role of a leucine-leucine motif in both events. These findings suggest that endocytosis and basolateral sorting can be mediated by both tyrosine- and di-leucine-based signals and confirm the close relationship between the two determinants already observed for 'classical' tyrosine-dependent motifs. Images PMID:8039492

  17. Endothelial expression of Fc gamma receptor IIb in the full-term human placenta.

    PubMed

    Mishima, T; Kurasawa, G; Ishikawa, G; Mori, M; Kawahigashi, Y; Ishikawa, T; Luo, S-S; Takizawa, T; Goto, T; Matsubara, S; Takeshita, T; Robinson, J M; Takizawa, T

    2007-01-01

    In the third trimester, human placental endothelial cells express Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcgammaRIIb). This expression is unique because FcgammaRIIb is generally expressed on immune cells and is typically undetectable in adult endothelial cells. Recently, we found a novel FcgammaRIIb-defined, IgG-containing organelle in placental endothelial cells; this organelle may be a key structure for the transcytosis of IgG across the endothelial layer. In this study, we verify the expression of FcgammaRIIb in endothelial placenta cells and use reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing analyses to define the expressed FCGR2B mRNA transcript variant. We also investigated the distribution of FCGR2B mRNA and protein within the vascular tree of the full-term human placenta by RT-PCR and quantitative microscopy. The mRNA sequence of FCGR2B expressed specifically in placental endothelial cells is that of transcript variant 2. FcgammaRIIb expression and synthesis occur throughout the placental vascular tree but do not extend into the umbilical cord. This study provides additional information on FcgammaRIIb expression in the human placenta.

  18. An Fc receptor for human immunoglobulin G is located within the tegument of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Stannard, L M; Hardie, D R

    1991-01-01

    Immunogold electron microscopy has demonstrated that human immunoglobulin G (IgG) can bind to the tegument of human cytomegalovirus virions by the Fc portion of the molecule. This binding was inhibited by preincubation of the Fc probes with protein A. Treatment of AD169 virions with Triton X-100 allowed release of the Fc-binding proteins, which were precipitated and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Polypeptides of approximately 69 and 33 kDa were recovered and shown by immunoblotting to retain their capacity to bind Fc-gold after separation under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. The combined results of blocking experiments, PAGE of precipitates, and Western blots (immunoblots) indicate that the tegument proteins which bind IgG-Fc are identical to those which bind beta 2 microglobulin. Images PMID:1851889

  19. Functional co-localization of monocytic aminopeptidase N/CD13 with the Fc{gamma} receptors CD32 and CD64

    SciTech Connect

    Riemann, Dagmar; Wulfaenger, Jens

    2005-06-17

    Information about the function of aminopeptidase N/CD13 on monocytes is limited. In order to gain more insight into its interaction with other proteins, we have identified molecules that co-localize with the membrane ectoenzyme at the cell surface of monocytes. Using laser scanning and electron microscopy as well as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by flow cytometry we show that monocytic CD13 co-localized with the Fc{gamma} receptor II/CD32 after Fc receptor ligation by a CD32-specific antibody. FRET was also observed between CD13 and the Fc{gamma} receptor I/CD64, but not with the myeloid marker CD33 representing a member of the sialoadhesin family. Our results imply a novel functional role of CD13 and Fc{gamma} receptors as members of a multimeric receptor complex. Further studies have to be done to elucidate common signaling pathways of these molecules.

  20. Functional co-localization of monocytic aminopeptidase N/CD13 with the Fc gamma receptors CD32 and CD64.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Dagmar; Tcherkes, Anatolij; Hansen, Gert H; Wulfaenger, Jens; Blosz, Tanja; Danielsen, E Michael

    2005-06-17

    Information about the function of aminopeptidase N/CD13 on monocytes is limited. In order to gain more insight into its interaction with other proteins, we have identified molecules that co-localize with the membrane ectoenzyme at the cell surface of monocytes. Using laser scanning and electron microscopy as well as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by flow cytometry we show that monocytic CD13 co-localized with the Fc gamma receptor II/CD32 after Fc receptor ligation by a CD32-specific antibody. FRET was also observed between CD13 and the Fc gamma receptor I/CD64, but not with the myeloid marker CD33 representing a member of the sialoadhesin family. Our results imply a novel functional role of CD13 and Fc gamma receptors as members of a multimeric receptor complex. Further studies have to be done to elucidate common signaling pathways of these molecules.

  1. Neonatal Fc receptor promoter gene polymorphism does not predict pharmacokinetics of IVIg or the clinical course of GBS.

    PubMed

    Fokkink, Willem-Jan R; Haarman, Annechien E G; Tio-Gillen, Anne P; van Rijs, Wouter; Huizinga, Ruth; van Doorn, Pieter A; Jacobs, Bart C

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome with a standard course of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) results in a variable clinical recovery which is associated with changes in serum IgG levels after treatment. The neonatal Fc-receptor protects IgG from degradation, and a genetic polymorphism in its promoter region that influences the expression of Fc-receptor, may in part explain the variation in IgG levels and outcome. This polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction in a cohort of 257 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome treated with IVIg. We could not demonstrate a relation between this polymorphism, the pharmacokinetics of IVIg, or the clinical course and outcome.

  2. Linkage on chromosome 3 of autoimmune diabetes and defective Fc receptor for lgG in NOD mice

    SciTech Connect

    Prins, J.B.; Todd, J.A.; Rodrigues, N.R.; Ghosh, S. ); Hogarth, P.M. ); Wicker, L.S.; Podolin, P.L.; Gaffney, E.; Peterson, L.B.; Fischer, P.A.; Sirotina, A. )

    1993-04-30

    A congenic, non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain that contains a segment of chromosome 3 from the diabetes-resistant mouse strain B6.PL-Thy-1[sup a] was less susceptible to diabetes than NOD mice. A fully penetrant immunological defect also mapped to this segment, which encodes the high-affinity Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G (lgG), Fc[gamma]Rl. The NOD Fcgr1 allele, which results in a deletion of the cytoplasmic tail, caused a 73 percent reduction in the turnover of cell surface receptor-antibody complexes. The development of congenic strains and the characterization of Mendelian traits that are specific to the disease phenotype demonstrate the feasibility of dissecting the pathophysiology of complex, non-Mendelian diseases.

  3. Ligation of human Fc receptor like-2 by monoclonal antibodies down-regulates B-cell receptor-mediated signalling

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Mahdi; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjatallah; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad; Ulivieri, Cristina; Amirghofran, Zahra; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; Shokri, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signalling and its regulation through negative and positive regulators are critical for balancing B-cell response and function. Human Fc receptor like-2 (FCRL2), a member of the newly identified FCRL family, could influence B-cell signalling due to possession of both immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation and inhibitory motifs (ITAM and ITIM). Since the natural ligand of FCRL2 has not been identified, we generated FCRL2-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and employed them to investigate the influence of FCRL2 stimulation on BCR signalling in an FCRL2-expressing B-cell line. Two anti-FCRL2 mAb-producing hybridoma clones (5A7-E7 and 3D8-G8) were selected. None of the mAbs displayed any cross-reactivity with the other members of the FCRL family including recombinant FCRL1, -3, -4 and -5, as tested by FACS and ELISA techniques. Engagement of the FCRL2 by these mAbs resulted in significant inhibition of BCR signalling mediators such as calcium mobilization and phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk, p38 and Jnk. These findings indicate that the FCRL2 ITIM motifs are functional and the anti-FCRL2 mAbs may mimic the natural ligand of FCRL2 by induction of inhibitory signals in B cells. PMID:24797767

  4. Autoreactive T cells in chronic spontaneous urticaria target the IgE Fc receptor Iα subunit.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Priscilla; Mittag, Diana; Hodgkin, Philip D; Harrison, Leonard C

    2016-09-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is the recurrence of urticaria without an apparent trigger. Half of the patients with CSU have IgG autoantibodies to FcεRIα on dermal mast cells and basophils, which on activation release mediators responsible for urticaria. IgG autoantibodies infer the presence of antigen/disease-specific T cells and CSU lesions are characterized by T-cell infiltration, but antigen/disease-specific T cells have not been documented in patients with CSU. We aimed to identify autoreactive T cells to FcεRIα in patients with CSU and determine their relationship with autoantibodies to FcεRIα and their diagnostic value. T-cell responses to FcεRIα were measured as proliferation by carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester dye dilution and cytokine secretion by ELISpot. Serum autoantibodies to FcεRIα were detected by radioimmunoprecipitation. Blood CD4(+) T-cell proliferation to FcεRIα was detected in 27% of the subjects with CSU and 0% of controls; IFN-γ responses to FcεRIα were detected in 53%, and IL-5 or IL-13 responses in a minority of subjects with CSU. Serum FcεRIα autoantibodies were detected in 43% of subjects with CSU and 0% of controls. IFN-γ and autoantibody responses to FcεRIα were inversely related, with IFN-γ responses being detected earlier than autoantibodies in disease. Combined with autoantibody, T-cell responses to FcεRIα conferred high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Autoreactive CD4(+) T cells that target FcεRIα were detected in most subjects with CSU, with a cytokine secretion profile more typical of a TH1-cell response. The inverse relationship between IFN-γ and autoantibody responses to FcεRIα may signify different stages in the disease course. Our findings suggest that measurement of T-cell as well as autoantibody responses to FcεRIα could improve diagnostic accuracy in subjects with CSU. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc

  5. Localization of the site of the murine IgG1 molecule that is involved in binding to the murine intestinal Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, J K; Tsen, M F; Ghetie, V; Ward, E S

    1994-10-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of a recombinant Fc hinge fragment has recently been used to localize the site of the murine IgG1 molecule that is involved in the control of catabolism (the "catabolic site"). In the current study, the effects of these CH2 and CH3 domain mutations (Ile 253 to Ala 253, His 310 to Ala 310, Gln 311 to Asn 311, His 433 to Ala 433 and Asn 434 to Gln 434) on intestinal transfer of Fc hinge fragments in neonatal mice have been analyzed. Studies using direct transfer and competition assays demonstrate that the mutations affect the transmission from intestinal lumen into serum in a way that correlates closely with the effects of the mutations on pharmacokinetics. Binding studies of several of the Fc hinge fragments to isolated neonatal brush borders have been used to confirm the in vivo transmission data. These analyses have resulted in the localization of the binding site for the intestinal transfer receptor, FcRn, to specific residues of the murine Fc hinge fragment. These residues are located at the CH2-CH3 domain interface and overlap with both the catabolic site and staphylococcal protein A (SpA) binding site. The pH dependence of IgG1 or Fc fragment binding to FcRn is consistent with the localization of the FcRn interaction site to a region of the Fc that encompasses two histidine residues (His 310 and His 433). To assess whether one or two FcRn binding sites per Fc hinge are required for intestinal transfer, a hybrid Fc hinge fragment comprising a heterodimer of one Fc hinge with the wild-type IgG1 sequence and a mutant Fc hinge with a defective catabolic site (mutated at His 310, Gln 311, His 433 and Asn 434) has been analyzed in direct and competition transmission assays. The studies demonstrate that the Fc hybrid is transferred with significantly reduced efficiency compared to the wild type Fc hinge homodimer and indicate that the binding to FcRn, and possibly subsequent transfer, is enhanced by the presence of two FcRn binding sites per

  6. Association of Fc gamma-receptors IIa, IIIa, and IIIb genetic polymorphism with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Hans, Veenu Madaan; Mehta, Dhoom Singh; Hans, Mayank

    2015-09-01

    Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) are the members of the immunoglobulin superfamily and may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Genetic variation in these receptors and its link with various forms of periodontitis is being studied in different populations. The aim of the present study is to determine whether specific FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIa, and FcγRIIIb alleles and/or genotypes are associated with risk for susceptibility to generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) in South Indian population. The study population consisted of 120 South Indian subjects; 60 with GCP and 60 periodontally healthy. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from samples collected by scrapping buccal epithelium. FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa genotyping were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA with allele-specific primers followed by allele-specific restriction digestion of the products. However, FcγRIIIb genotyping was done by allele-specific PCR. No significant difference in the distribution of FcγRIIa H/R and FcγRIIIa NA1/NA2 genotypes or their respective alleles was observed in GCP patients and healthy subjects. For FcγRIIIa F/V genetic polymorphism, the homozygous V/V genotype and V allele were significantly overrepresented in GCP patients while F/F genotype and F allele in controls. The present study demonstrates that FcγRIIIa V/V genotype, as well as V allele, could be a possible risk factor for chronic periodontitis in South Indian population.

  7. Association of Fc gamma-receptors IIa, IIIa, and IIIb genetic polymorphism with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Veenu Madaan; Mehta, Dhoom Singh; Hans, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) are the members of the immunoglobulin superfamily and may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Genetic variation in these receptors and its link with various forms of periodontitis is being studied in different populations. The aim of the present study is to determine whether specific FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIa, and FcγRIIIb alleles and/or genotypes are associated with risk for susceptibility to generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 120 South Indian subjects; 60 with GCP and 60 periodontally healthy. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from samples collected by scrapping buccal epithelium. FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa genotyping were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA with allele-specific primers followed by allele-specific restriction digestion of the products. However, FcγRIIIb genotyping was done by allele-specific PCR. Results: No significant difference in the distribution of FcγRIIa H/R and FcγRIIIa NA1/NA2 genotypes or their respective alleles was observed in GCP patients and healthy subjects. For FcγRIIIa F/V genetic polymorphism, the homozygous V/V genotype and V allele were significantly overrepresented in GCP patients while F/F genotype and F allele in controls. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that FcγRIIIa V/V genotype, as well as V allele, could be a possible risk factor for chronic periodontitis in South Indian population. PMID:26604564

  8. Capture of flowing human neutrophils by immobilised immunoglobulin: roles of Fc-receptors CD16 and CD32.

    PubMed

    Skilbeck, Christopher A; Lu, Xiaomei; Sheikh, Sajila; Savage, Caroline O S; Nash, Gerard B

    2006-05-01

    We investigated capture and activation of flowing human neutrophils through their Fc-receptors, FcRgammaIIIB (CD16) and FcRgammaIIA (CD32). Immobilised platelets bearing murine monoclonal antibody against glycoprotein IIbIIIA were able to capture and activate flowing neutrophils. The activation response was inhibited by antibody blockade of neutrophil CD32. However, capture only occurred efficiently at wall shear stress below 0.1 Pa if platelet P-selectin was blocked. If neutrophils were perfused over immobilised human IgG, many adhered at 0.025 or 0.05 Pa, but not at 0.1 Pa. Adhesion was reduced by blockade of CD16 or CD32, but blockade of CD16 had the greater effect. When neutrophils were perfused over a combination of purified P-selectin and IgG, blockade of CD16 and CD32 inhibited activation of captured cells. Immunoglobulin deposited in tissue could capture and activate slow-flowing neutrophils. It might also potentiate inflammatory responses at higher stress if presented along with selectins. The dominant FcR for capture of neutrophils was CD16, but with murine antibody, CD32 played a greater role.

  9. Structural similarity between Fc receptors and T cell receptors. Expression of the gamma-subunit of Fc epsilon RI in human T cells, natural killer cells and thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Vivier, E; Rochet, N; Kochan, J P; Presky, D H; Schlossman, S F; Anderson, P

    1991-12-15

    The TCR complex is composed of a clonotypic heterodimer (Ti alpha:beta or gamma:delta) noncovalently associated with the CD3 complex (gamma, delta, and epsilon), and with one or more disulfide-linked dimers whose components are designated zeta and eta. zeta and eta are alternative transcripts of a common gene and are structurally related to the gamma-subunit of the FcR for IgE expressed on mast cells and basophils (Fc epsilon RI). Recent evidence suggests that gamma can also be expressed in natural killer cells and in a murine cytotoxic T cell line, CTLL. Because zeta, eta, and gamma have the potential to join together to form disulfide linked homo- and heterodimers, it has been postulated that alternative dimeric forms composed of these zeta-related subunits might subserve unique signal transducing functions in hematopoietic cells. We have used mAb reactive with zeta and gamma to systematically examine the expression of these zeta-related dimers in human T cells, NK cells, and thymocytes. Our results show that each cell type expresses characteristic combinations of zeta-related homo- and hetero-dimers, and are therefore consistent with the possibility that these subunits contribute to the functional heterogeneity of lymphocyte subsets.

  10. Toll‐like receptor 4 induced FcγR expression potentiates early onset of joint inflammation and cartilage destruction during immune complex arthritis: Toll‐like receptor 4 largely regulates FcγR expression by interleukin 10

    PubMed Central

    van Lent, P L E M; Blom, A B; Grevers, L; Sloetjes, A; van den Berg, W B

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the role of Toll‐like receptor (TLR)2 and 4 in the onset of joint inflammation and cartilage destruction during immune complex‐mediated arthritis (ICA), and its relationship with FcγR expression. Materials and methods ICA was induced in knee joints of TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice and their wild‐type controls. Joint inflammation and cartilage destruction were measured in the knee joint using histology. mRNA levels were determined in synovial specimens and macrophages using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and cytokine protein levels in synovial washouts using Bioplex. Results Joint inflammation and cartilage destruction were not different in arthritic TLR2−/− and wild‐type mice. By contrast, at day 1 after ICA induction, joint swelling and proteoglycan depletion in knee joints of TLR4−/− mice were considerably lower (inflammation 68–79% and proteoglycan depletion 27–76%) when compared with wild‐type controls. Cytokine production at this time point was markedly reduced in TLR4−/− mice (interleukin (IL)1, IL6, macrophage inflammatory chemokine (MIP)‐1α and keratinocyte‐derived chemokine 49%, 72%, 68% and 84%, respectively). In arthritic synovia of TLR4−/− mice, and also after injection of the antigen poly‐l‐lysine (PLL) lysozyme alone, mRNA levels of FcγR, and the FcγR regulating cytokine IL10 were considerably lower. Stimulation of peritoneal macrophages with PLL lysozyme up regulated mRNA levels of FcγR and IL10, whereas neutralisation by anti‐IL10 antibodies largely blocked FcγR up regulation. At day 4, joint inflammation and cartilage destruction were comparable in TLR4−/− mice and wild‐type controls. Conclusion TLR4 regulates early onset of joint inflammation and cartilage destruction during ICA arthritis by up regulation of FcγR expression and enhanced cytokine production. TLR4‐mediated up regulation of FcγR is largely mediated by IL10. PMID:17068066

  11. Macrophage Polarization Modulates FcγR- and CD13-Mediated Phagocytosis and Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Independently of Receptor Membrane Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Coronel, Elizabeth; Ortega, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    In response to microenvironmental cues, macrophages undergo a profound phenotypic transformation acquiring distinct activation phenotypes ranging from pro-inflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory (M2). To study how activation phenotype influences phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by receptors for IgG antibodies (Fcγ receptors) and by CD13, human monocyte-derived macrophages were polarized to distinct phenotypes using IFN-γ (Mϕ-IFN-γ), IL-4 (Mϕ-IL-4), or IL-10 (Mϕ-IL-10). Phenotypically, Mϕ-IFN-γ were characterized as CD14+CD80+CD86+ cells, Mϕ-IL-4 as CD209highCD206+CD11b+CD14low, and Mϕ-IL-10 as CD16+CD163+ cells. Compared to non-polarized macrophages, FcγRI expression increased in Mϕ-IFN-γ and Mϕ-IL-10 and FcγRIII expression increased in Mϕ-IL-10. None of the polarizing cytokines modified FcγRII or CD13 expression. Functionally, we found that cytokine-mediated activation significantly and distinctively affected FcγR- and CD13-mediated phagocytosis and ROS generation. Compared to non-polarized macrophages, FcγRI-, FcγRII-, and CD13-mediated phagocytosis was significantly increased in Mϕ-IL-10 and decreased in Mϕ-IFN-γ, although both cytokines significantly upregulated FcγRI expression. IL-10 also increased phagocytosis of Escherichia coli, showing that the effect of IL-10 on macrophage phagocytosis is not specific for a particular receptor. Interestingly, Mϕ-IL-4, which showed poor FcγR- and CD13-mediated phagocytosis, showed very high phagocytosis of E. coli and zymosan. Coupled with phagocytosis, macrophages produce ROS that contribute to microbial killing. As expected, Mϕ-IFN-γ showed significant production of ROS after FcγRI-, FcγRII-, or CD13-mediated phagocytosis. Unexpectedly, we found that Mϕ-IL-10 can also produce ROS after simultaneous stimulation through several phagocytic receptors, as coaggregation of FcγRI/FcγRII/CD13 induced a belated but significant ROS production. Together, these

  12. Isoflavones suppress the expression of the FcεRI high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor independent of the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shuya; Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Kim, Yoon-hee; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2012-08-29

    Isoflavones found in soybeans and soy products possess clinically relevant properties. However, the anti-allergic effect of isoflavones has been poorly studied. We examined the effects of isoflavones, genistein, daidzein, and equol, on the expression of the high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor, FcεRI, which plays a central role in IgE-mediated allergic response. Flow cytometric analysis showed that all of these isoflavones reduced the cell surface expression of FcεRI on mouse bone-marrow-derived mast cells and human basophilic KU812 cells. All isoflavones decreased the levels of the FcεRIα mRNA in the cells. Genistein reduced the mRNA expression of the β chain, and daidzein and equol downregulated that of the γ chain. The suppressive effects of isoflavones on FcεRI expression were unaffected by ICI 182,780, an estrogen receptor antagonist, suggesting that these effects were independent of estrogen receptors.

  13. Associations between Fc gamma receptor IIA polymorphisms and the risk and prognosis of meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Pere; Muñiz-Diaz, Eduardo; Baraldès, Maria A; Arilla, Marina; Barquet, Nicolau; Pericas, Roser; Juárez, Cándido; Madoz, Pedro; Vázquez, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that the neutrophil Fc gamma receptor IIA (FcgammaRIIA) polymorphism influences the phagocytic capacity of neutrophils and the removal of encapsulated bacteria from the bloodstream. In particular, the R/R131 allotype is associated with less phagocytic activity. We performed a case-control study to determine the influence of the FcgammaRIIA polymorphism (R/R131, R/H131, H/H131) on the risk and outcome of meningococcal disease. The polymorphisms were measured in 130 patients with microbiologically proven meningococcal disease diagnosed from 1987 to 1998 (cases) and 260 asymptomatic sex-matched blood donors (controls). Clinical manifestations and complications of meningococcal disease were recorded, and a prognostic score (based on age, hemorrhagic diathesis, neurologic signs, and the absence of preadmission antibiotic) therapy was calculated. The distributions of FcgammaRIIA allotypes were similar in cases and controls. However, among patients with meningococcal infection, fulminant meningococcal disease (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 16; P = 0.04) and meningococcemia without meningitis (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.4 to 7.8; P = 0.004) were more common in those with the FcgammaRIIA-R/R131 allotype. Complications were also significantly more frequent in these patients. Of the 42 patients with the R/R131 allotype, 31 (74%) had an adverse prognostic score, compared with 7% (4 of 59) of those with the R/H131 allotype and 3% (1 of 29) of those with the H/H131 allotype (P <0.0001). The FcgammaRIIA-R/R131 allotype is associated with more severe forms of meningococcal disease.

  14. Expression of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR)-Fc fusion protein in Pichia pastoris and characterization of its anti-coxsackievirus activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kebin; Yu, Hua; Xie, Wei; Xu, Zihui; Zhou, Shiwen; Huang, Chunji; Sheng, Halei; He, Xiaomei; Xiong, Junzhi; Qian, Guisheng

    2013-04-15

    Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors (CARs) are the common cellular receptors which mediate coxsackievirus or adenovirus infection. Receptor trap therapy, which uses soluble viral receptors to block the attachment and internalization of virus, has been developed for the inhibition of virus infection. In this study, we have constructed a pPIC3.5K/CAR-Fc expression plasmid for the economical and scale-up production of CAR-Fc fusion protein in Pichia pastoris. The coding sequence of the fusion protein was optimized according to the host codon usage bias. The amount of the CAR-Fc protein to total cell protein was up to 10% by 1% methanol induction for 96h and the purity was up to 96% after protein purification. Next, the virus pull-down assay demonstrated the binding activity of the CAR-Fc to coxsackievirus. The analyses of MTT assay, immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR after virus neutralization assay revealed that CAR-Fc could significantly block coxsackievirus B3 infection in vitro. In coxsackievirus B3 infected mouse models, CAR-Fc treatment reduced mortality, myocardial edema, viral loads and inflammation, suggesting the significant virus blocking effect in vivo. Our results indicated that the P. pastoris expression system could be used to produce large quantities of bioactive CAR-Fc for further clinical purpose.

  15. Negative regulation of inflammatory responses by immunoglobulin A receptor (FcαRI) inhibits the development of Toll-like receptor-9 signalling-accelerated glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Kanamaru, Y; Liu, C; Suzuki, Y; Tada, N; Okumura, K; Horikoshi, S; Tomino, Y

    2011-11-01

    Myeloid FcαRI, a receptor for immunoglobulin (Ig)A, mediates cell activation or inhibition depending on the type of ligand interaction, which can be either multivalent or monovalent. Anti-inflammatory signalling is triggered by monomeric targeting using anti-FcαRI Fab or IgA ligand binding, which inhibits immune and non-immune-mediated renal inflammation. The participation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in kidney pathology in experimental models and various forms of human glomerular nephritis has been discussed. However, little is known about negative regulation of innate-immune activation. In the present study, we generated new transgenic mice that express FcαRI(R209L) /FcRγ chimeric protein and showed that the monovalent targeting of FcαRI exhibited inhibitory effects in an in vivo model of TLR-9 signalling-accelerated nephritis. Mouse monoclonal anti-FcαRI MIP8a Fab improved urinary protein levels and reduced the number of macrophages and immunoglobulin deposition in the glomeruli. Monovalent targeting using MIP8a Fab attenuates the TLR-9 signalling pathway and is associated with phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related protein kinases [extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), P38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)] and the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The inhibitory mechanism involves recruitment of tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) to FcαRI. Furthermore, cell transfer studies with macrophages pretreated with MIP8a Fab showed that blockade of FcαRI signalling in macrophages prevents the development of TLR-9 signalling-accelerated nephritis. These results suggest a role of anti-FcαRI Fab as a negative regulator in controlling the magnitude of the innate immune response and a new type of anti-inflammatory drug for treatment of kidney disease. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Neonatal Fc receptor stimulation induces ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase-1 overexpression in podocytes through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hualei; Feng, Songtao; Wu, Huijuan; Sun, Yu; Hu, Ruimin; Zhao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Zhigang

    2012-09-01

    Ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase-1 is overexpressed in renal podocytes in some immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritides, an effect closely related to extensive podocyte injury. Neonatal Fc receptor is newly recognized to be present on human renal podocytes. It is presumed that neonatal Fc receptor serves as a sensor for immune stimulation transduction and is involved in the pathogenesis of podocyte injury. In our current study, we found that neonatal Fc receptor was constitutively expressed in normal podocytes and up-regulated by immune stimulation induced by antithymocyte serum. An increase in neonatal Fc receptor expression was observed in human podocytes within diseased glomeruli in 97 cases of various glomerulonephritides. The expression percentage was significantly higher in immune-mediated disease, including membranous nephropathy (46.7%), immunoglobin A nephropathy (66.7%), lupus nephritis (87.5%), and acute proliferative glomerulonephritis (100%), than in normal kidney samples (16.7%) (P < .05), whereas there was no significant difference between minimal-change disease and normal kidney. Further study showed that neonatal Fc receptor up-regulated the expression of ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase-1 via activation of p38 in podocytes subjected to immune stimulation in vitro. These data suggest that neonatal Fc receptor acts as an immune sensor that evokes an inflammatory response, which may lead to functional and morphological changes in podocytes in glomerulonephritides.

  17. Live simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine correlate of protection: immune complex-inhibitory Fc receptor interactions that reduce target cell availability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony J; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Shang, Liang; Reilly, Cavan S; Southern, Peter J; Perkey, Katherine E; Duan, Lijie; Kohler, Heinz; Müller, Sybille; Robinson, James; Carlis, John V; Li, Qingsheng; Johnson, R Paul; Haase, Ashley T

    2014-09-15

    Principles to guide design of an effective vaccine against HIV are greatly needed, particularly to protect women in the pandemic's epicenter in Africa. We have been seeking these principles by identifying correlates of the robust protection associated with SIVmac239Δnef vaccination in the SIV-rhesus macaque animal model of HIV-1 transmission to women. We identified one correlate of SIVmac239Δnef protection against vaginal challenge as a resident mucosal system for SIV-gp41 trimer Ab production and neonatal FcR-mediated concentration of these Abs on the path of virus entry to inhibit establishment of infected founder populations at the portal of entry. In this study, we identify blocking CD4(+) T cell recruitment to thereby inhibit local expansion of infected founder populations as a second correlate of protection. Virus-specific immune complex interactions with the inhibitory FcγRIIb receptor in the epithelium lining the cervix initiate expression of genes that block recruitment of target cells to fuel local expansion. Immune complex-FcγRIIb receptor interactions at mucosal frontlines to dampen the innate immune response to vaginal challenge could be a potentially general mechanism for the mucosal immune system to sense and modulate the response to a previously encountered pathogen. Designing vaccines to provide protection without eliciting these transmission-promoting innate responses could contribute to developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine.

  18. Fc-gamma receptor polymorphisms as predictive and prognostic factors in patients receiving oncolytic adenovirus treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oncolytic viruses have shown potential as cancer therapeutics, but not all patients seem to benefit from therapy. Polymorphisms in Fc gamma receptors (FcgRs) lead to altered binding affinity of IgG between the receptor allotypes and therefore contribute to differences in immune defense mechanisms. Associations have been identified between FcgR polymorphisms and responsiveness to different immunotherapies. Taken together with the increasing understanding that immunological factors might determine the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy we studied whether FcgR polymorphisms would have prognostic and/or predictive significance in the context of oncolytic adenovirus treatments. Methods 235 patients with advanced solid tumors were genotyped for two FcgR polymorphisms, FcgRIIa-H131R (rs1801274) and FcgRIIIa-V158F (rs396991), using TaqMan based qPCR. The genotypes were correlated with patient survival and tumor imaging data. Results In patients treated with oncolytic adenoviruses, overall survival was significantly shorter if the patient had an FcgRIIIa-VV/ FcgRIIa-HR (VVHR) genotype combination (P = 0,032). In contrast, patients with FFHR and FFRR genotypes had significantly longer overall survival (P = 0,004 and P = 0,006, respectively) if they were treated with GM-CSF-armed adenovirus in comparison to other viruses. Treatment of these patients with unarmed virus correlated with shorter survival (P < 0,0005 and P = 0,016, respectively). Treating FFHH individuals with CD40L-armed virus resulted in longer survival than treatment with other viruses (P = 0,047). Conclusions Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that individual differences in effector cell functions, such as NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and tumor antigen presentation by APCs caused by polymorphisms in FcgRs could play role in the effectiveness of oncolytic virotherapies. If confirmed in larger populations, FcgR polymorphisms could

  19. Polymorphisms in the Fc Gamma Receptor IIIA and Toll-Like Receptor 9 Are Associated with Protection against Severe Malarial Anemia and Changes in Circulating Gamma Interferon Levels

    PubMed Central

    Munde, Elly O.; Okeyo, Winnie A.; Anyona, Samwel B.; Raballah, Evans; Konah, Stephen; Okumu, Wilson; Ogonda, Lilian; Vulule, John

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the immunogenetic basis of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection would aid in the designing of a rationally based malaria vaccine. Variants within the Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) mediate immunity through engagement of immunoglobulin G and other immune mediators, such as gamma interferon (IFN-γ), resulting in erythrophagocytosis and production of inflammatory cytokines in severe malarial anemia (SMA). The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger transcription of proinflammatory cytokines and induce adaptive immune responses. Therefore, these receptors may condition malaria disease pathogenesis through alteration in adaptive and innate immune responses. To further delineate the impacts of FcγRIIIA and TLR9 in SMA pathogenesis, the associations between FcγRIIIA −176F/V and TLR9 −1237T/C variants, SMA (hemoglobin [Hb] < 6.0 g/dl), and circulating IFN-γ levels were investigated in children (n = 301) from western Kenya with acute malaria. Multivariate logistic regression analysis (controlling for potential confounders) revealed that children with the FcγRIIIA −176V/TLR9 −1237C (VC) variant combination had 64% reduced odds of developing SMA (odds ratio [OR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.64; P = 0.001), while carriers of the FcγRIIIA −176V/TLR9 −1237T (VT) variant combination were twice as susceptible to SMA (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.50; P = 0.009). Children with SMA had higher circulating IFN-γ levels than non-SMA children (P = 0.008). Hemoglobin levels were negatively correlated with IFN-γ levels (r = −0.207, P = 0.022). Consistently, the FcγRIIIA −176V/TLR9 −1237T (VT) carriers had higher levels of circulating IFN-γ (P = 0.011) relative to noncarriers, supporting the observation that higher IFN-γ levels are associated with SMA. These results demonstrate that FcγRIIIA-176F/V and TLR9 −1237T/C variants condition susceptibility to SMA and functional changes in circulating IFN

  20. Binding of IgG-opsonized particles to Fc gamma R is an active stage of phagocytosis that involves receptor clustering and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sobota, Andrzej; Strzelecka-Kiliszek, Agnieszka; Gładkowska, Ewelina; Yoshida, Kiyotsugu; Mrozińska, Kazimiera; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2005-10-01

    Fc gammaR mediate the phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles and the clearance of IgG immune complexes. By dissecting binding from internalization of the particles, we found that the binding stage, rather than particle internalization, triggered tyrosine phosphorylation of Fc gammaR and accompanying proteins. High amounts of Lyn kinase were found to associate with particles isolated at the binding stage from J774 cells. PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine), an Src kinase inhibitor, but not piceatannol, an inhibitor of Syk kinase, reduced the amount of Lyn associated with the bound particles and simultaneously diminished the binding of IgG-coated particles. Studies of baby hamster kidney cells transfected with wild-type and mutant Fc gammaRIIA revealed that the ability of the receptor to bind particles was significantly reduced when phosphorylation of the receptor was abrogated by Y298F substitution in the receptor signaling motif. Under these conditions, binding of immune complexes of aggregated IgG was depressed to a lesser extent. A similar effect was exerted on the binding ability of wild-type Fc gammaRIIA by PP2. Moreover, expression of mutant kinase-inactive Lyn K275R inhibited both Fc gammaRIIA phosphorylation and IgG-opsonized particle binding. To gain insight into the mechanism by which protein tyrosine phosphorylation can control Fc gammaR-mediated binding, we investigated the efficiency of clustering of wild-type and Y298F-substituted Fc gammaRIIA upon binding of immune complexes. We found that a lack of Fc gammaRIIA phosphorylation led to an impairment of receptor clustering. The results indicate that phosphorylation of Fc gammaR and accompanying proteins, dependent on Src kinase activity, facilitates the clustering of activated receptors that is required for efficient particle binding.

  1. Downmodulation of vaccine-induced immunity and protection against the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis by the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIB.

    PubMed

    Franz, Brian J; Li, Ying; Bitsaktsis, Constantine; Iglesias, Bibiana V; Pham, Giang; Sunagar, Raju; Kumar, Sudeep; Gosselin, Edmund J

    2015-01-01

    Fc gamma receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) is the only Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) which negatively regulates the immune response, when engaged by antigen- (Ag-) antibody (Ab) complexes. Thus, the generation of Ag-specific IgG in response to infection or immunization has the potential to downmodulate immune protection against infection. Therefore, we sought to determine the impact of FcγRIIB on immune protection against Francisella tularensis (Ft), a Category A biothreat agent. We utilized inactivated Ft (iFt) as an immunogen. Naïve and iFt-immunized FcγRIIB knockout (KO) or wildtype (WT) mice were challenged with Ft-live vaccine strain (LVS). While no significant difference in survival between naïve FcγRIIB KO versus WT mice was observed, iFt-immunized FcγRIIB KO mice were significantly better protected than iFt-immunized WT mice. Ft-specific IgA in serum and bronchial alveolar lavage, as well as IFN-γ, IL-10, and TNF-α production by splenocytes harvested from iFt-immunized FcγRIIB KO, were also significantly elevated. In addition, iFt-immunized FcγRIIB KO mice exhibited a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine levels in vivo at 5 days after challenge, which correlates with increased survival following Ft-LVS challenge in published studies. Thus, these studies demonstrate for the first time the ability of FcγRIIB to regulate vaccine-induced IgA production and downmodulate immunity and protection. The immune mechanisms behind the above observations and their potential impact on vaccine development are discussed.

  2. Human eosinophils express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Messingham, Kelly N; Holahan, Heather M; Frydman, Alexandra S; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE ≥ 400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils.

  3. Increased expression of the IgE Fc receptors on rat macrophages induced by elevated serum IgE levels.

    PubMed Central

    Boltz-Nitulescu, G; Plummer, J M; Spiegelberg, H L

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages (M phi) from rats with elevated serum IgE levels induced by (i) Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) infection, (ii) IgE-secreting plasmacytoma IR 162, or (iii) i.p. injection of purified rat IgE, and M phi from normal animals cultured in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml IgE were analysed for Fc IgE receptors (Fc epsilon R) expression. To detect Fc epsilon R-bearing cells, a rosette assay employing fixed ox erythrocytes coated with rat IgE was used. With undersensitized indicator cells a significantly (P less than 0.002) greater number of M phi from animals having elevated serum IgE levels or of M phi cultured in the presence of IgE formed IgE rosettes than M phi from normal donors. The IgE rosettes were IgE class-specific, since they were inhibited by rat IgE in a dose-dependent manner, but not by any other rat Ig class, heat-denatured rat IgE or human IgE. The modulating effect of Fc epsilon R expression on M phi was IgE specific, because neither rat IgG nor heated rat IgE induced increased IgE rosette formation. Furthermore, elevated serum IgE levels did not increase the expression of Fc receptors for IgG subclasses. Studies of 125I-IgE binding showed that alveolar macrophages (AM phi) from Nb-infected rats bind IgE with similar affinity (Ka 1.1 X 10(7) M-1) as AM phi from normal animals, but they have increased numbers of IgE binding sites. Collectively, the results demonstrate that in vivo and in vitro elevated serum IgE concentrations induce increased IgE rosette formation as a result of a marked increase in the number of Fc epsilon R per macrophage. PMID:6236146

  4. Immune complex-induced inhibition of osteoclastogenesis is mediated via activating but not inhibitory Fcγ receptors on myeloid precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Grevers, Lilyanne C; de Vries, Teun J; Everts, Vincent; Verbeek, J Sjef; van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L E M

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the role of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) in osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. Bone destruction was analysed in arthritic knee joints of several FcγR-knockout mouse strains. Unfractionated bone marrow cells were differentiated in vitro towards osteoclasts in the absence or presence of immune complexes (ICs) and stimulated thereafter for 24 h with tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, mature osteoclasts were stimulated with ICs. Experiments were analysed for osteoclast formation, bone resorption and the expression of FcγRs and osteoclast markers. Bone destruction was significantly increased in arthritic knee joints of FcγRIIB-deficient mice. All FcγR classes were highly expressed on osteoclast precursors. Expression of the inhibitory FcγRIIB was similar on mature osteoclasts compared to macrophages, whereas activating FcγR levels were significantly lower. IC stimulation of mature osteoclasts did not affect their number or their bone resorptive capacity. ICs significantly inhibited differentiation of unfractionated bone marrow cells towards osteoclasts, bone resorption and expression of osteoclast markers. In the presence of ICs, osteoclastogenesis of FcγRIIB(-/-) precursors and bone resorption remained inhibited. In contrast, ICs could not inhibit osteoclast formation or bone resorption of FcRγ-chain(-/-) precursors. When IC-inhibited osteoclastogenesis was followed by stimulation with TNFα or LPS, the inhibitory effects of ICs were overruled. Activating FcγRs mediate IC-induced inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, which might be overruled in the presence of proinflammatory mediators. This suggests that the balance of FcγR-mediated inflammation, through proinflammatory cytokine production, as well as the direct inhibitory effect of ICs on osteoclastogenesis determines the net effect on bone loss.

  5. Activation-dependent expression of low affinity IgG receptors Fc gamma RII(CD32) and Fc gamma RIII(CD16) in subpopulations of human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, W; Matzke, J; Schmidt, R E

    1995-04-01

    Receptors for IgG (Fc gamma R) are expressed by small subpopulations of peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Our studies demonstrate that T lymphocytes can be induced in vitro to express two different low-affinity Fc gamma R. Mitogen activation of peripheral blood T lymphocytes obtained from eight healthy individuals leads to considerable augmentation of the Fc gamma RIII+ (CD32) T cell subpopulation. The highest percentage of CD32 expressing T lymphocytes could be detected after three days of activation. The T cell subpopulation which transiently express the CD32 antigen, encompasses CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Molecular cloning of the CD32 antigen by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction demonstrates that activated human T lymphocytes express the Fc gamma RIIIb2 isoform. The percentage of the Fc gamma RIII+ (CD16) T cell subpopulation was significantly increased only in the lymphocyte populations obtained from three out of eight volunteers immediately after mitogen activation. However, during short-term cell culture the CD16 expressing CD8+ T cell subset increased in the T cell population from all individuals investigated. During this time, the IL-2 receptor alpha-chain (CD25) expression level decreased as a function of time. In contrast to the CD8+CD16+ T cells, the percentage of the non-MCH-restricted CD56+CD16+ T cells was not influenced by mitogen activation and time of cell cultivation. We could show that CD16 in T cells is able to mediate a stimulus leading to proliferation of the CD8+CD56-CD16+ T cells but not that of the CD56+CD16+ T cell subset. This discrepancy cannot be explained by the expression of different Fc gamma RIII isoforms, because both T cell subsets express Fc gamma RIIIA alpha, as we demonstrate in this report.

  6. Fcγ Receptor-induced Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) Production Inhibits Angiogenesis and Enhances Efficacy of Anti-tumor Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Justiniano, Steven E.; Elavazhagan, Saranya; Fatehchand, Kavin; Shah, Prexy; Mehta, Payal; Roda, Julie M.; Mo, Xiaokui; Cheney, Carolyn; Hertlein, Erin; Eubank, Timothy D.; Marsh, Clay; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Byrd, John C.; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2013-01-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are potent mediators of antitumor antibody therapy, where they engage target cells via Fcγ receptors (FcγR). Binding of these cells to opsonized tumor targets elicits cytokine production, phagocytosis, and antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. Here we show for the first time that activation of monocyte FcγR results in the secretion of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1/sFlt-1), which serves to antagonize VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and tumor growth. Consistent with this, using a murine solid tumor model of antibody therapy, we show that sFlt-1 is involved in restricting tumor growth. Analyzing the mechanism of induction of sFlt-1, we found that the Erk and PI3K pathways were required for transcription, and NF-κB was required for translation. Upon closer examination of the role of NF-κB, we found that a microRNA, miR181a, negatively regulates FcγR-mediated sFlt-1 production and that NF-κB serves to antagonize this microRNA. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel and biologically important function of monocytes and macrophages during antibody therapy. PMID:23902770

  7. Fcγ receptor-induced soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) production inhibits angiogenesis and enhances efficacy of anti-tumor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Justiniano, Steven E; Elavazhagan, Saranya; Fatehchand, Kavin; Shah, Prexy; Mehta, Payal; Roda, Julie M; Mo, Xiaokui; Cheney, Carolyn; Hertlein, Erin; Eubank, Timothy D; Marsh, Clay; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Butchar, Jonathan P; Byrd, John C; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2013-09-13

    Monocytes/macrophages are potent mediators of antitumor antibody therapy, where they engage target cells via Fcγ receptors (FcγR). Binding of these cells to opsonized tumor targets elicits cytokine production, phagocytosis, and antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. Here we show for the first time that activation of monocyte FcγR results in the secretion of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1/sFlt-1), which serves to antagonize VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and tumor growth. Consistent with this, using a murine solid tumor model of antibody therapy, we show that sFlt-1 is involved in restricting tumor growth. Analyzing the mechanism of induction of sFlt-1, we found that the Erk and PI3K pathways were required for transcription, and NF-κB was required for translation. Upon closer examination of the role of NF-κB, we found that a microRNA, miR181a, negatively regulates FcγR-mediated sFlt-1 production and that NF-κB serves to antagonize this microRNA. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel and biologically important function of monocytes and macrophages during antibody therapy.

  8. Fc Gamma Receptor 3A Polymorphism and Risk for HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rohatgi, Soma; Gohil, Shruti; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Schultz, Hannah; Dufaud, Chad; Armour, Kathryn L.; Badri, Sheila; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most common causes of fungal disease in HIV-infected persons, but not all of those who are infected develop cryptococcal disease (CD). Although CD4+ T cell deficiency is a risk factor for HIV-associated CD, polymorphisms of phagocytic Fc gamma receptors (FCGRs) have been linked to CD risk in HIV-uninfected persons. To investigate associations between FCGR2A 131 H/R and FCGR3A 158 F/V polymorphisms and CD risk in HIV-infected persons, we performed PCR-based genotyping on banked samples from 164 men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS): 55 who were HIV infected and developed CD and a matched control group of 54 who were HIV infected and 55 who were HIV uninfected. Using additive and allelic statistical models for analysis, the high-affinity FCGR3A 158V allele was significantly associated with CD status after adjusting for race/ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; P = 0.005), as was the FCGR3A 158 VV homozygous genotype after adjusting for race/ethnicity, rate of CD4+ T cell decline, and nadir CD4+ T cell count (OR, 21; P = 0.005). No associations between CD and FCGR2A 131 H/R polymorphism were identified. In binding studies, human IgG (hIgG)-C. neoformans complexes exhibited more binding to CHO-K1 cells expressing FCGR3A 158V than to those expressing FCGR3A 158F, and in cytotoxicity assays, natural killer (NK) cells expressing FCGR3A 158V induced more C. neoformans-infected monocyte cytotoxicity than those expressing FCGR3A 158F. Together, these results show an association between the FCGR3A 158V allele and risk for HIV-associated CD and suggest that this polymorphism could promote C. neoformans pathogenesis via increased binding of C. neoformans immune complexes, resulting in increased phagocyte cargo and/or immune activation. PMID:23982074

  9. Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with an altered expression of low-affinity Fcγ receptors and costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Carreño, Leandro J; Pacheco, Rodrigo; Gutierrez, Miguel A; Jacobelli, Sergio; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the interface between immunity and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. The capture of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-containing immune complexes (ICs) by low-affinity Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) expressed on DCs may influence the immunogenicity/tolerogenicity of these cells, depending on the activating/inhibitory potential of FcγRs. Because of the key role that low-affinity FcγRs play in determining the magnitude of the response in IC-driven inflammation, these receptors are likely to play a role in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To evaluate if an altered expression of costimulatory molecules and/or FcγRs could account for disease severity, we evaluated the expression of these molecules on immature and mature DCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes of SLE patients and healthy donors. Our results show an increased expression of the costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86. Furthermore, the ratio of CD86/CD80 is higher in SLE patients compared with healthy donors. Conversely, while the expression of activating FcγRs was higher on DCs from SLE patients, expression of inhibitory FcγRs was lower, compared with DCs obtained from healthy donors. As a result, the activating to inhibitory FcγR ratio was significantly higher in DCs from SLE patients. The altered ratio of activating/inhibitory FcγRs on mature DCs showed a significant correlation with the activity of SLE, as determined by the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score. We postulate that the increased ratio of activating/inhibitory FcγRs expressed on DCs from SLE patients can contribute to the failure of peripheral tolerance in the IC-mediated phase of autoimmune pathogenesis. PMID:20067533

  10. Nociceptive neuronal Fc-gamma receptor I is involved in IgG immune complex induced pain in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haowu; Shen, Xinhua; Chen, Zhiyong; Liu, Fan; Wang, Tao; Xie, Yikuan; Ma, Chao

    2017-03-02

    Antigen-specific immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by pain and hyperalgesia. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Fc-gamma-receptor type I (FcγRI) is expressed in a subpopulation of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and can be directly activated by IgG immune complex (IgG-IC). In this study we investigated whether neuronal FcγRI contributes to antigen-specific pain in the naïve and rheumatoid arthritis model rats. In vitro calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp recordings in dissociated DRG neurons revealed that only the small-, but not medium- or large-sized DRG neurons responded to IgG-IC. Accordingly, in vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that intradermal injection of IgG-IC into the peripheral receptive field could sensitize only the C- (but not A-) type sensory neurons and evoke action potential discharges. Pain-related behavioral tests showed that intradermal injection of IgG-IC dose-dependently produced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the hindpaw of rats. These behavioral effects could be alleviated by localized administration of non-specific IgG or an FcγRI antibody, but not by mast cell stabilizer or histamine antagonist. In a rat model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) produced by methylated bovine serum albumin, FcγRI were found upregulated exclusively in the small-sized DRG neurons. In vitro calcium imaging revealed that significantly more small-sized DRG neurons responded to IgG-IC in the AIA rats, although there was no significant difference between the AIA and control rats in the magnitude of calcium changes in the DRG neurons. Moreover, in vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that C-nociceptive neurons in the AIA rats exhibited a greater incidence of action potential discharges and stronger responses to mechanical stimuli after IgG-IC was injected to the receptive fields. These results suggest that FcγRI expressed in the peripheral nociceptors might be directly activated

  11. Anti-Ganglioside Antibodies Induce Nodal and Axonal Injury via Fcγ Receptor-Mediated Inflammation.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Zhang, Gang; Liu, Weiqiang; Gao, Tong; Sheikh, Kazim A

    2015-04-29

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a postinfectious autoimmune neuropathy and anti-ganglioside antibodies (Abs) are strongly associated with this disorder. Several studies have implied that specific anti-ganglioside Abs induce neuropathy in patients with axonal forms of GBS. To study the mechanisms of anti-ganglioside Abs-induced neuropathy, we established a new passive transfer mouse model by L5 spinal nerve transection (L5SNT; modified Chung's model) and systemic administration of anti-ganglioside Abs. L5SNT causes degeneration of a small proportion of fibers that constitute sciatic nerve and its branches, but importantly breaks the blood-nerve barrier, which allows access to circulating Abs and inflammatory cells. Our studies indicate that, in this mouse model, anti-ganglioside Abs induce sequential nodal and axonal injury of intact myelinated nerve fibers, recapitulating pathologic features of human disease. Notably, our results showed that immune complex formation and the activating Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) were involved in the anti-ganglioside Abs-mediated nodal and axonal injury in this model. These studies provide new evidence that the activating FcγRs-mediated inflammation plays a critical role in anti-ganglioside Abs-induced neuropathy (injury to intact nerve fibers) in GBS. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356770-16$15.00/0.

  12. Immunoglobulin Fc gamma receptor promotes immunoglobulin uptake, immunoglobulin-mediated calcium increase, and neurotransmitter release in motor neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamed, Habib A.; Mosier, Dennis R.; Zou, Ling L.; Siklos, Laszlo; Alexianu, Maria E.; Engelhardt, Jozsef I.; Beers, David R.; Le, Wei-dong; Appel, Stanley H.

    2002-01-01

    Receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG; FcgammaRs) facilitate IgG uptake by effector cells as well as cellular responses initiated by IgG binding. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient IgG can be taken up by motor neuron terminals and transported retrogradely to the cell body and can alter the function of neuromuscular synapses, such as increasing intracellular calcium and spontaneous transmitter release from motor axon terminals after passive transfer. In the present study, we examined whether FcgammaR-mediated processes can contribute to these effects of ALS patient immunoglobulins. F(ab')(2) fragments (which lack the Fc portion) of ALS patient IgG were not taken up by motor axon terminals and were not retrogradely transported. Furthermore, in a genetically modified mouse lacking the gamma subunit of the FcR, the uptake of whole ALS IgG and its ability to enhance intracellular calcium and acetylcholine release were markedly attenuated. These data suggest that FcgammaRs appear to participate in IgG uptake into motor neurons as well as IgG-mediated increases in intracellular calcium and acetylcholine release from motor axon terminals. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Immunoglobulin Fc gamma receptor promotes immunoglobulin uptake, immunoglobulin-mediated calcium increase, and neurotransmitter release in motor neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamed, Habib A.; Mosier, Dennis R.; Zou, Ling L.; Siklos, Laszlo; Alexianu, Maria E.; Engelhardt, Jozsef I.; Beers, David R.; Le, Wei-dong; Appel, Stanley H.

    2002-01-01

    Receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG; FcgammaRs) facilitate IgG uptake by effector cells as well as cellular responses initiated by IgG binding. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient IgG can be taken up by motor neuron terminals and transported retrogradely to the cell body and can alter the function of neuromuscular synapses, such as increasing intracellular calcium and spontaneous transmitter release from motor axon terminals after passive transfer. In the present study, we examined whether FcgammaR-mediated processes can contribute to these effects of ALS patient immunoglobulins. F(ab')(2) fragments (which lack the Fc portion) of ALS patient IgG were not taken up by motor axon terminals and were not retrogradely transported. Furthermore, in a genetically modified mouse lacking the gamma subunit of the FcR, the uptake of whole ALS IgG and its ability to enhance intracellular calcium and acetylcholine release were markedly attenuated. These data suggest that FcgammaRs appear to participate in IgG uptake into motor neurons as well as IgG-mediated increases in intracellular calcium and acetylcholine release from motor axon terminals. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Evidence for immunoglobulin Fc receptor-mediated prostaglandin2 and platelet-activating factor formation by cultured rat mesangial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Neuwirth, R.; Singhal, P.; Diamond, B.; Hays, R.M.; Lobmeyer, L.; Clay, K.; Schlondorff, D.

    1988-09-01

    The possibility of Fc-dependent uptake of IgG immune complexes was examined in subcultured rat mesangial cells free of monocytes. 195Au-labeled colloidal gold particles were coated either with BSA only or with BSA followed by rabbit anti-BSA-IgG or the F(ab')2 fragment of the IgG. Mesangial cells preferentially took up 195Au particles covered with BSA-anti-BSA-IgG over those covered with BSA or the F(ab')2 fragment. This uptake was a time-dependent and saturable process inhibitable by sodium azide or cytochalasin B. Using phase-contrast microscopy in the light reflectance mode, it was established that essentially all mesangial cells took up IgG-coated gold particles. By electron microscopy the process was shown to consist of vesicular uptake with delivery to endosomes. Mesangial binding-uptake of the IgG-covered particles was associated with stimulation of PGE2 synthesis and production of platelet-activating factor, a lipid mediator of inflammation. To characterize the potential Fc receptor for IgG we used the rosetting technique with sheep red blood cells coated with IgG subclass-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies. 50% of mesangial cells exhibited rosetting with red cells coated with mouse IgG2a, whereas negligible rosetting was observed with IgG2b or IgG1. Competition experiments confirmed the specificity of IgG2a binding. We conclude that cultured rat mesangial cells exhibit specific receptors for IgG and that occupancy of Fc receptors results in endocytosis and is associated with generation of PGE2 and platelet-activating factor. These observations may be of significance for immune-mediated glomerular diseases.

  15. Phagocytosis via Complement or Fc-Gamma Receptors Is Compromised in Monocytes from Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Chronic Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Blanca I.; Twahirwa, Marcel; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Schlesinger, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes patients (DM2) have a higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) that may be attributed to functional defects in their mononuclear phagocytes given the critical role of these cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis containment. Our previous findings suggest that monocytes from DM2 have reduced association with serum-opsonized M. tuberculosis. To determine if this alteration is due to defects in phagocytosis via complement or Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs), in this study we evaluated the uptake of sheep red blood cells coated with IgG or complement, respectively, by monocytes from individuals with and without DM2. We found that chronic hyperglycemia was significantly associated with reduced phagocytosis via either receptor by univariable and multivariable analyses. This defect was independent of host serum opsonins and flow cytometry data indicated this was not attributed to reduced expression of these phagocytic receptors on DM2 monocytes. The positive correlation between both pathways (R = 0.64; p = 0.003) indicate that monocytes from individuals with chronic hyperglycemia have a defect in the two predominant phagocytic pathways of these cells. Given that phagocytosis is linked to activation of effector mechanisms for bacterial killing, it is likely that this defect is one factor contributing to the higher susceptibility of DM2 patients to pathogens like M. tuberculosis. PMID:24671137

  16. Macrophage impairment produced by Fc receptor gamma deficiency plays a principal role in the development of lipoprotein glomerulopathy in concert with apoE abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenji; Nakashima, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Maho; Ishimura, Atsunori; Miyahara, Yoshito; Abe, Yasuhiro; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Ifuku, Masakazu; Sasatomi, Yoshie; Saito, Takao

    2012-10-01

    To obtain a clear understanding of the pathogenesis of lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG), we studied the role of the deficiency of Fc receptor gamma chain (FcRγ) for the development of LPG in concert with apolipoprotein E (apoE) abnormalities. We generated apoE and FcRγ double-knockout (FcRγ/apoE-KO) mice, and subsequently introduced several kinds of human recombinant apoE genes. At 21 days after infection, the mice were sacrificed and histologically examined. Peritoneal macrophages were evaluated for their response to modified lipids. In the FcRγ/apoE-KO mice, the human apoE3-injected mice showed the most drastic LPG-like changes, as well as prominent hypertriglyceridemia. Meanwhile, relative to the human apoE3-injected mice, the FcRγ/apoE-KO mice showed greater lipoprotein deposition and less macrophage infiltration into the mesangial area. Moreover, the peritoneal macrophages in the apoE/FcRγ-KO mice were impaired in lipid uptake and secretion of the cytokines monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted, after the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. These results suggest that the impairment of macrophage function resulting from FcRγ deficiency plays a principal role in the development of LPG in the presence of apoE abnormalities.

  17. pH6 antigen (PsaA protein) of Yersinia pestis, a novel bacterial Fc-receptor.

    PubMed

    Zav'yalov, V P; Abramov, V M; Cherepanov, P G; Spirina, G V; Chernovskaya, T V; Vasiliev, A M; Zav'yalova, G A

    1996-05-01

    It was found that recombinant pH6 antigen (rPsaA protein) forming virulence-associated fimbriae on the surface of Yersinia pestis at pH 6.7 in host macrophage phagolysosomes or extracellularly in abscesses such as buboes, is a novel bacterial Fc-receptor. rPsaA protein displays reactivity with human IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses but does not react with rabbit, mouse and sheep IgG.

  18. Differential interaction of Crkl with Cbl or C3G, Hef-1, and gamma subunit immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in signaling of myeloid high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI).

    PubMed

    Kyono, W T; de Jong, R; Park, R K; Liu, Y; Heisterkamp, N; Groffen, J; Durden, D L

    1998-11-15

    Cbl-Crkl and Crkl-C3G interactions have been implicated in T cell and B cell receptor signaling and in the regulation of the small GTPase, Rap1. Recent evidence suggests that Rap1 plays a prominent role in the regulation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling. To gain insight into the role of Crkl in myeloid ITAM signaling, we investigated Cbl-Crkl and Crkl-C3G interactions following Fc gamma RI aggregation in U937IF cells. Fc gamma RI cross-linking of U937IF cells results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl, Crkl, and Hef-1, an increase in the association of Crkl with Cbl via direct SH2 domain interaction and increased Crkl-Hef-1 binding. Crkl constitutively binds to the guanine nucleotide-releasing protein, C3G, via direct SH3 domain binding. Our data show that distinct Cbl-Crkl and Crkl-C3G complexes exist in myeloid cells, suggesting that these complexes may modulate distinct signaling events. Anti-Crkl immunoprecipitations demonstrate that the ITAM-containing gamma subunit of Fc gamma RI is induced to form a complex with the Crkl protein, and Crkl binds to the cytoskeletal protein, Hef-1. The induced association of Crkl with Cbl, Hef-1, and Fc gamma RI gamma after Fc gamma RI activation and the constitutive association between C3G and Crkl provide the first evidence that a Fc gamma RI gamma-Crkl-C3G complex may link ITAM receptors to the activation of Rap1 in myeloid cells.

  19. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 regulates key signalling molecules involved in FcγRI-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mijeong; Raftery, Mark J.; Thomas, Paul S.; Geczy, Carolyn L.; Bryant, Katherine; Tedla, Nicodemus

    2016-01-01

    FcγRI cross-linking on monocytes may trigger clathrin-mediated endocytosis, likely through interaction of multiple intracellular molecules that are controlled by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events. However, the identity of phospho-proteins and their regulation are unknown. We proposed the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) that inhibits FcγRI-mediated cytokine production via Tyr dephosphorylation of multiple kinases, may also regulate endocytosis/phagocytosis through similar mechanisms. FcγRI and/or LILRB4 were antibody-ligated on THP-1 cells, lysates immunoprecipitated using anti-pTyr antibody and peptides sequenced by mass spectrometry. Mascot Search identified 25 Tyr phosphorylated peptides with high confidence. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the most significantly affected pathways were clathrin-mediated endocytosis and Fc-receptor dependent phagocytosis. Tyr phosphorylation of key candidate proteins in these pathways included common γ-chain of the Fc receptors, Syk, clathrin, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Cbl, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, tripartite motif-containing 21 and heat shock protein 70. Importantly, co-ligation of LILRB4 with FcγRI caused significant dephosphorylation of these proteins and was associated with suppression of Fc receptor-dependent uptake of antibody-opsonised bacterial particles, indicating that LILRB4. These results suggest that Tyr phosphorylation may be critical in FcγRI-dependent endocytosis/phagocytosis that may be regulated by LILRB4 by triggering dephosphorylation of key signalling proteins. PMID:27725776

  20. Targeting nanosystems to human DCs via Fc receptor as an effective strategy to deliver antigen for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luis J; Rueda, Felix; Cordobilla, Begoña; Simón, Lorena; Hosta, Leticia; Albericio, Fernando; Domingo, Joan Carles

    2011-02-07

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are increasingly being explored as cellular vaccines for tumor immunotherapy, since they provide an effective system of antigen presentation both in vitro and in vivo. An additional advantage of this cell type is that it is possible to target specific antigens through the activation of receptors, such as FcR (the receptor for the IgG Fc fragment) and TLR (toll-like Receptor). Thus, the uptake capacity of DCs can be improved, thereby increasing antigen presentation. This, in turn, would lead to an enhanced immune response, and, in some instances, the tolerance/anergy of immune effector cells present in cancer patients could be reverted. Here we studied various nanotargeting systems, including liposomes and gold nanoparticles of a peptide-based immunotherapeutic vaccine for the treatment of androgen-responsive prostate cancer. Building blocks of the immunogenic peptide consisted of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), also known as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptide (B- and T-cell epitope), in tandem with a T-helper epitope corresponding to the 830-844 region of tetanus toxoid. Three new peptides with several modifications at the N-terminal (palmitoyl, acetyl, and FITC) were synthesized. These peptides also contained a Cys as C-terminal residue to facilitate grafting onto gold nanoparticles. To target different antigen formulations to human DCs, the Fc was activated with a cross-linking spacer to generate a free thiol group and thus facilitate conjugation onto gold nanoparticles, liposomes, and peptide. Our results show that gold nanoparticles and liposomes targeted to FcRs of human DCs are effective antigen delivery carriers and induce a strong immune response with respect to nontargeted LHRH-TT-nanoparticle conjugates and a superior response to that of naked antigens. In addition, dual labeling using gold and FITC-peptide allowed DC tracking by flow cytometry as well as transmission electron microscopy. Nanoparticles

  1. Ability of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors to Sequester Y551 and Prevent Phosphorylation Determines Potency for Inhibition of Fc Receptor but not B-Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew T; Gardberg, Anna; Pereira, Albertina; Johnson, Theresa; Wu, Yin; Grenningloh, Roland; Head, Jared; Morandi, Federica; Haselmayer, Philipp; Liu-Bujalski, Lesley

    2017-03-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is expressed in a variety of hematopoietic cells. Btk has been demonstrated to regulate signaling downstream of the B-cell receptor (BCR), Fc receptors (FcRs), and toll-like receptors. It has become an attractive drug target because its inhibition may provide significant efficacy by simultaneously blocking multiple disease mechanisms. Consequently, a large number of Btk inhibitors have been developed. These compounds have diverse binding modes, and both reversible and irreversible inhibitors have been developed. Reported herein, we have tested nine Btk inhibitors and characterized on a molecular level how their interactions with Btk define their ability to block different signaling pathways. By solving the crystal structures of Btk inhibitors bound to the enzyme, we discovered that the compounds can be classified by their ability to trigger sequestration of Btk residue Y551. In cells, we found that sequestration of Y551 renders it inaccessible for phosphorylation. The ability to sequester Y551 was an important determinant of potency against FcεR signaling as Y551 sequestering compounds were more potent for inhibiting basophils and mast cells. This result was true for the inhibition of FcγR signaling as well. In contrast, Y551 sequestration was less a factor in determining potency against BCR signaling. We also found that Btk activity is regulated differentially in basophils and B cells. These results elucidate important determinants for Btk inhibitor potency against different signaling pathways and provide insight for designing new compounds with a broader inhibitory profile that will likely result in greater efficacy. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Is Fc gamma receptor IIA (FcγRIIA) polymorphism associated with clinical malaria and Plasmodium falciparum specific antibody levels in children from Burkina Faso?

    PubMed

    Cherif, Mariama K; Sanou, Guillaume S; Bougouma, Edith C; Diarra, Amidou; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Dolo, Amagana; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Cavanagh, David R; Theisen, Michael; Modiano, David; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Nebié, Issa

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the influences of FcγRIIA polymorphism on susceptibility to malaria and antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens were analyzed in children. We recruited 96 healthy children between 3 and 10 years at the beginning of the high transmission season and we followed up for 5 months through the high transmission season to assess the parasitological, immunological and genetic endpoints in relation to clinical malaria status. There was a similar distribution of homozygous and heterozygous individuals carrying the FcγRIIA-131R/R and FcγRIIA-131R/H allele, whereas the number of FcγRIIA-131H/H homozygous individuals was lower. P. falciparum infection frequency was not associated with the FcγRIIa-131R/H polymorphism. Only IgG antibody responses to GLURP R0 showed a significant association between antibody levels and FcγRIIA polymorphism (p=0.02). IgG levels to MSP2a were significantly higher in children who did not experience any clinical malaria episode compared to those who experienced at least one malaria episode (p=0.019). Cytophilic and non-cytophylic IgG subclass levels were higher in children without malaria than those who experienced at least one malaria episode. This difference was statistically significant for IgG1 to MSP3 (p=0.003) and to MSP2a (p=0.006); IgG3 to MSP2a (p=0.007) and to GLURP R0 (p=0.044); IgG2 to MSP2b (p=0.007) and IgG4 to MSP3 (p=0.051) and to MSP2a (p=0.049). In this study, homozygous carriers of the FcγRIIA-131R/R allele had higher malaria-specific antibody levels compare to the heterozygous carriers FcγRIIA-131R/H alleles and to homozygous carriers of FcγRIIA-131H/H alleles. The pre-existing antibodies responses were related to a reduced subsequent risk of clinical malaria.

  3. Expression Profile of Human Fc Receptors in Mucosal Tissue: Implications for Antibody-Dependent Cellular Effector Functions Targeting HIV-1 Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, Hannah M.; Carias, Ann M.; Evans, Abbey B.; Olejniczak, Natalia J.; Ziprin, Paul; King, Deborah F. L.; Hope, Thomas J.; Shattock, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of new Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 infections are acquired via sexual transmission at mucosal surfaces. Partial efficacy (31.2%) of the Thai RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial has been correlated with Antibody-dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by non-neutralizing antibodies targeting the V1V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope. This has led to speculation that ADCC and other antibody-dependent cellular effector functions might provide an important defense against mucosal acquisition of HIV-1 infection. However, the ability of antibody-dependent cellular effector mechanisms to impact on early mucosal transmission events will depend on a variety of parameters including effector cell type, frequency, the class of Fc-Receptor (FcR) expressed, the number of FcR per cell and the glycoslyation pattern of the induced antibodies. In this study, we characterize and compare the frequency and phenotype of IgG (CD16 [FcγRIII], CD32 [FcγRII] and CD64 [FcγRI]) and IgA (CD89 [FcαR]) receptor expression on effector cells within male and female genital mucosal tissue, colorectal tissue and red blood cell-lysed whole blood. The frequency of FcR expression on CD14+ monocytic cells, myeloid dendritic cells and natural killer cells were similar across the three mucosal tissue compartments, but significantly lower when compared to the FcR expression profile of effector cells isolated from whole blood, with many cells negative for all FcRs. Of the three tissues tested, penile tissue had the highest percentage of FcR positive effector cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to determine the location of CD14+, CD11c+ and CD56+ cells within the three mucosal tissues. We show that the majority of effector cells across the different mucosal locations reside within the subepithelial lamina propria. The potential implication of the observed FcR expression patterns on the effectiveness of FcR-dependent cellular effector functions to impact on the initial events in

  4. B cells expressing the IgA receptor FcRL4 participate in the autoimmune response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Amara, Khaled; Clay, Elizabeth; Yeo, Lorraine; Ramsköld, Daniel; Spengler, Julia; Sippl, Natalie; Cameron, James A; Israelsson, Lena; Titcombe, Philip J; Grönwall, Caroline; Sahbudin, Ilfita; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Malmström, Vivianne; Scheel-Toellner, Dagmar

    2017-03-24

    The clinical efficacy of B cell targeting therapies highlights the pathogenic potential of B cells in inflammatory diseases. Expression of Fc Receptor like 4 (FcRL4) identifies a memory B cell subset, which is enriched in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The high level of RANKL production by this B cell subset indicates a unique pathogenic role. In addition, recent work has identified a role for FcRL4 as an IgA receptor, suggesting a potential function in mucosal immunity. Here, the contribution of FcRL4+ B cells to the specific autoimmune response in the joints of patients with RA was investigated. Single FcRL4+ and FcRL4- B cells were sorted from synovial fluid and tissue from RA patients and their immunoglobulin genes characterized. Levels of hypermutation in the variable regions in both populations were largely consistent with memory B cells selected by an antigen- and T cell-dependent process. Recombinant antibodies were generated based on the IgH and IgL variable region sequences and investigated for antigen specificity. A significantly larger proportion of the recombinant antibodies generated from individual synovial FcRL4+ B cells showed reactivity towards citrullinated autoantigens. Furthermore, both in analyses based on heavy chain sequences and flow cytometric detection, FcRL4+ B cells have significantly increased usage of the IgA isotype. Their low level of expression of immunoglobulin and plasma cell differentiation genes does not suggest current antibody secretion. We conclude that these activated B cells are a component of the local autoimmune response, and through their RANKL expression, can contribute to joint destruction. Furthermore, their expression of FcRL4 and their enrichment in the IgA isotype points towards a potential role for these cells in the link between mucosal and joint inflammation.

  5. Fc gamma receptor IIIa polymorphisms in advanced colorectal cancer patients correlated with response to anti-EGFR antibodies and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies have shown efficacy in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). One of the mechanism is the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in which Fc region of the antibody binds to the Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) expressed by immune cells. The present study investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa and clinical outcome in mCRC treated with anti-EGFR antibodies. Methods Seventy-four consecutive patients with mCRC were analyzed. The genotypes for FcγRIIa-131 histidine (H)/arginine (R), FcγRIIIa-158 valine (V)/phenylanaline (F) polymorphisms were evaluated by directly sequencing. Multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was performed for FcγRIIIa-158 valine (V)/phenylanaline (F). Correlations between FcγR polymorphisms, baseline patient and tumor features were studied by contingency tables and the chi-square test. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was applied to the progression-free survival (PFS) curves. Univariate analysis was performed with the log-rank test. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to analyze the effect of multiple risk factors on PFS. Results FcγRIIIa polymorphisms were significantly associated with response to anti-EGFR-based therapy in 49 patients with kras wt tumors (p=0.035). There was not association with response for FcγRIIa polymorphisms. Furthermore, obtained results suggested that prognosis is particularly unfavorable for patients carrying the FcγRIIIa-158F/F genotype (median PFS V/V, V/F, F/F: 18.2 vs 17.3 vs 9.4 months). No prognostic ability was identified for FcγRIIa polymorphisms. Conclusions In mCRC patients the presence of FcγRIIIa-F can predict resistance to anti-EGFR therapy and unfavorable prognosis. PMID:23171437

  6. Zebrafish mast cells possess an FcɛRI-like receptor and participate in innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Da'as, Sahar; Teh, Evelyn M; Dobson, J Tristan; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; McBride, Eileen R; Wang, Hao; Neuberg, Donna S; Marshall, Jean S; Lin, Tong-Jun; Berman, Jason N

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified a zebrafish mast cell (MC) lineage and now aim to determine if these cells function analogously in innate and adaptive immunity like their mammalian counterparts. Intraperitoneal (IP) injection of compound 48/80 or live Aeromonas salmonicida resulted in significant MC degranulation evident histologically and by increased plasma tryptase compared with saline-injected controls (p=0.0006, 0.005, respectively). Pre-treatment with ketotifen abrogated these responses (p=0.0004, 0.005, respectively). Cross-reactivity was observed in zebrafish to anti-human high-affinity IgE receptor gamma (FcɛRIγ) and IgE heavy chain-directed antibodies. Whole mount in situ hybridization on 7-day embryos demonstrated co-localization of cpa5, a MC-specific marker, with myd88, a toll-like receptor adaptor, and zebrafish FcɛRI subunit homologs. Zebrafish injected IP with matched dinitrophenyl-sensitized mouse (anti-DNP) IgE and DNP-BSA or trinitrophenyl-sensitized mouse (anti-TNP) IgE and TNP-BSA demonstrated increased plasma tryptase compared with mismatched controls (p=0.03, 0.010, respectively). These results confirm functional conservation and validate the zebrafish model as an in vivo screening tool for novel MC modulating agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG affects the distribution of Fc receptor-bearing T lymphocytes in experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bartow, R A; McMurray, D N

    1989-01-01

    Inbred strain 2 guinea pigs were vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG or were left unvaccinated and challenged 6 weeks later by the respiratory route with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. By using a double rosette assay with isotype-specific antibody-coated ox and uncoated rabbit erythrocytes, the proportions of T lymphocytes bearing Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (T gamma cells) or IgM (T mu cells) were quantified in tissues taken from animals that were killed within 4 weeks postchallenge. Tuberculin reactivity in vivo and in vitro and antimycobacterial resistance were also measured. BCG vaccination protected the guinea pigs and resulted in significantly enhanced proportions of T mu cells in the blood during the first 3 weeks and in the spleen during weeks 2 and 3 postchallenge. Levels of T gamma cells declined in all tissues during the first 3 weeks of infection and were unaffected by prior vaccination with BCG. Increased proportions of T mu cells in the blood were accompanied by dramatic tuberculin skin reactions and purified protein derivative-induced lymphoproliferation in BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs during the first 2 weeks following virulent pulmonary challenge. Peak levels of T mu cells in the spleens of vaccinated animals at 2 weeks coincided with the first appearance of virulent mycobacteria in that organ. BCG vaccination appears to influence immunoregulatory events in pulmonary tuberculosis through effects on the distribution of IgM Fc receptor-bearing (T mu cell) T lymphocytes. PMID:2523350

  8. Neutralized adenovirus-immune complexes can mediate effective gene transfer via an Fc receptor-dependent infection pathway.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Philip L; Wendland, Rebecca L; Vincent, Theresa; Crystal, Ronald G

    2006-10-01

    Neutralization of adenovirus (Ad) by anti-Ad neutralizing antibodies in serum involves formation of Ad-immune complexes that prevent the virus from interacting with target cells. We hypothesized that Ad-immune complexes likely contain viable Ad vectors which, although no longer capable of gaining access to receptors on target cells, may be able to express transgenes in cells bearing Fc receptors for immunoglobulins, i.e., that antibody-based "neutralization" of Ad vectors may be circumvented by the Fc receptor pathway. To test this hypothesis, we expressed the Fcgamma receptor IIA (FcgammaR) in A549 lung epithelial cells or human dermal fibroblasts and evaluated gene transfer in the presence of human neutralizing anti-Ad serum. FcgammaR-expressing cells bound and internalized copious amounts of Ad, with a distinct population of internalized Ad trafficking to the nucleus. The dose-response curves for inhibition of gene transfer revealed that FcgammaR-expressing cells required a more-than-10-fold higher concentration of anti-Ad serum to achieve 50% inhibition of Ad-encoded beta-galactosidase expression compared with non-FcgammaR-expressing cells. The discrepancy between neutralization of Ad during infection of FcgammaR-expressing cells and neutralization of Ad during infection of non-FcgammaR-expressing cells occurred with either heat-inactivated or non-heat-inactivated sera, was blocked by addition of purified Fc domain protein, and did not require the cytoplasmic domain of FcgammaR, suggesting that immune complex internalization proceeded via endocytosis rather than phagocytosis. FcgammaR-mediated infection by Ad-immune complexes did not require expression of the coxsackie virus-Ad receptor (CAR) since similar data were obtained when CAR-deficient human dermal fibroblasts were engineered to express FcgammaR. However, interaction of the Ad penton base with cell surface integrins contributed to the difference in neutralization between FcgammaR-expressing and non

  9. The impact of Fcreceptor polymorphisms in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP with or without rituximab.

    PubMed

    Ahlgrimm, Manfred; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Kreuz, Markus; Regitz, Evi; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Bittenbring, Joerg

    2011-10-27

    Fcγ receptor (FcγR) polymorphisms have been shown to affect rituximab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Of 512 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated in the RICOVER-60 trial, carriers of FcγRIII 158 valine homozygous receptors (V/V) presented with a slightly decreased incidence of B-symptoms (158 V/V: 26%, V/F: 35%, phenylalanine receptors [F/F]: 42%; P = .037). Survival curves of all FcγR single nucleotide polymorphisms were superimposable after cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP); but after CHOP with rituximab (R-CHOP), event-free survival (EFS) and progression-free survival (PFS), but not overall survival, of FcγRIIIa 158 F/F had a trend to be lower than those of 158 V/F and 158 V/V: 3-year EFS: FcγRIIIa 158 F/F: 64.5%, 158 V/F: 70.2%, 158 V/V: 76.9% (log-rank test: P = .224 F/F vs V/V; P = .285 F/F vs V/F + V/V); 3-year PFS: FcγRIIIa 158 F/F: 68.3%, V/F: 76.1%, V/V: 80.5% (log-rank test: P = .233 for F/F vs V/V; P = .185 for F/F vs V/F + V/V). By multivariate analysis adjusting for International Prognostic Index factors, relative risk of F/F compared with V/F plus V/V was 1.80 (P = .052) for PFS and 1.55 (P = .120) for EFS. The interaction of R-CHOP, but not CHOP with FcγRIIIa polymorphisms, indicates a window of opportunity for CD20 antibodies designed to mediate enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

  10. FcγRIIB signals inhibit BLyS signaling and BCR-mediated BLyS receptor up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Jenni E.; Stadanlick, Jason E.; Cambier, John C.

    2009-01-01

    These studies investigate how interactions between the BCR and FcγRIIB affect B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) recep-tor expression and signaling. Previous studies showed that BCR ligation up-regulates BLyS binding capacity in mature B cells, reflecting increased BLyS receptor levels. Here we show that FcγRIIB coaggregation dampens BCR-induced BLyS receptor up-regulation. This cross-regulation requires BCR and FcγRIIB coligation, and optimal action relies on the Src-homology-2 (SH2)–containing inositol 5 phosphase-1 (SHIP1). Subsequent to FcγRIIB/BCR coaggregation, the survival promoting actions of BLyS are attenuated, reflecting reduced BLyS receptor signaling capacity in terms of Pim 2 maintenance, noncanonical NF-κB activation, and Bcl-xL levels. These findings link the negative regulatory functions of FcγRIIB with BLyS-mediated B-cell survival. PMID:18791164

  11. A critical role for Syk protein tyrosine kinase in Fc receptor-mediated antigen presentation and induction of dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Sedlik, Christine; Orbach, Daniel; Veron, Philippe; Schweighoffer, Edina; Colucci, Francesco; Gamberale, Romina; Ioan-Facsinay, Andrea; Verbeek, Sjef; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola; Bonnerot, Christian; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Di Santo, James; Amigorena, Sebastian

    2003-01-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the only APCs capable of initiating adaptive immune responses. The initiation of immune responses requires that DCs 1) internalize and present Ags; and 2) undergo a differentiation process, called "maturation", which transforms DCs into efficient APCs. DC maturation may be initiated by the engagement of different surface receptors, including certain cytokine receptors (such as TNFR), Toll-like receptors, CD40, and FcRs. The early activation events that link receptor engagement and DC maturation are not well characterized. We found that FcR engagement by immune complexes induced the phosphorylation of Syk, a protein tyrosine kinase acting immediately downstream of FcRs. Syk was dispensable for DC differentiation in vitro and in vivo, but was strictly required for immune complexes internalization and subsequent Ag presentation to T lymphocytes. Importantly, Syk was also required for the induction of DC maturation and IL-12 production after FcR engagement, but not after engagement of other surface receptors, such as TNFR or Toll-like receptors. Therefore, protein tyrosine phosphorylation by Syk represents a novel pathway for the induction of DC maturation.

  12. The Fc gamma receptor IIa R131H polymorphism is associated with inhibitor development in severe hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, C L; Astermark, J; Nagelkerke, S Q; Geissler, J; Tanck, M W T; Peters, M; Fijnvandraat, K; Kuijpers, T W

    2014-08-01

    The development of factor (F) VIII neutralizing alloantibodies (inhibitors) is a major complication of treatment with FVIII concentrates in hemophilia A and the etiology is still poorly understood. The low-affinity Fc gamma receptors (FcγR), which are expressed on immune cells, provide an important link between cellular and humoral immunity by interacting with IgG subtypes. Genetic variations of the genes encoding FcγRs (FCGR genes) have been associated with susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genetic variation of FCGR and inhibitor development in severe hemophilia A. In this case-control study samples of 85 severe hemophilia A patients (siblings from 44 families) were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation of the FCGR2 and FCGR3 gene cluster were studied in an FCGR-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay. Frequencies were compared in a generalized estimating equation regression model. Thirty-six patients (42%) had a positive history of inhibitor development. The polymorphism 131R > H in the FCGR2A gene was associated with an increased risk of inhibitor development (odds ratio [OR] per H-allele, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.9). This association persisted in 29 patients with high titer inhibitors (OR per H-allele, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.2) and in 44 patients with the F8 intron 22 inversion (OR per H-allele, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.6). Hemophilia A patients with the HH genotype of the FCGR2A polymorphism 131R > H have a more than 3-fold increased risk of inhibitor development compared with patients with the RR genotype. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Karyn E.; Guo, Wen; Serra, Carlo; Beck, Matthew; Wachtman, Lynn; Hoggatt, Amber; Xia, Dongling; Pearson, Chris; Knight, Heather; O’Connell, Micheal; Miller, Andrew D.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Bhasin, Shalender

    2015-01-01

    There are no approved therapies for muscle wasting in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which portends poor disease outcomes. To determine whether a soluble ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein (ActRIIB.Fc), a ligand trap for TGF-β/activin family members including myostatin, can prevent or restore loss of lean body mass and body weight in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Fourteen pair-housed, juvenile male rhesus macaques were inoculated with SIVmac239 and, 4 wk postinoculation (WPI) treated with intramuscular injections of 10 mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ wk−1 ActRIIB.Fc or saline placebo. Body weight, lean body mass, SIV titers, and somatometric measurements were assessed monthly for 16 wk. Age-matched SIV-infected rhesus macaques were injected with saline. Intervention groups did not differ at baseline. Gains in lean mass were significantly greater in the ActRIIB.Fc group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Administration of ActRIIB.Fc was associated with greater gains in body weight (P = 0.01) and upper arm circumference than placebo. Serum CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and SIV copy numbers did not differ between groups. Administration of ActRIIB.Fc was associated with higher muscle expression of myostatin than placebo. ActRIIB.Fc effectively blocked and reversed loss of body weight, lean mass, and fat mass in juvenile SIV-infected rhesus macaques.—O’Connell, K. E., Guo, W., Serra, C., Beck, M., Wachtman, L., Hoggatt, A., Xia, D., Pearson, C., Knight, H., O’Connell, M., Miller, A. D., Westmoreland, S. V., Bhasin, S. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques. PMID:25466897

  14. APG350 induces superior clustering of TRAIL receptors and shows therapeutic antitumor efficacy independent of cross-linking via Fcγ receptors.

    PubMed

    Gieffers, Christian; Kluge, Michael; Merz, Christian; Sykora, Jaromir; Thiemann, Meinolf; Schaal, René; Fischer, Carmen; Branschädel, Marcus; Abhari, Behnaz Ahangarian; Hohenberger, Peter; Fulda, Simone; Fricke, Harald; Hill, Oliver

    2013-12-01

    Cancer cells can be specifically driven into apoptosis by activating Death-receptor-4 (DR4; TRAIL-R1) and/or Death-receptor-5 (DR5; TRAIL-R2). Albeit showing promising preclinical efficacy, first-generation protein therapeutics addressing this pathway, especially agonistic anti-DR4/DR5-monoclonal antibodies, have not been clinically successful to date. Due to their bivalent binding mode, effective apoptosis induction by agonistic TRAIL-R antibodies is achieved only upon additional events leading to antibody-multimer formation. The binding of these multimers to their target subsequently leads to effective receptor-clustering on cancer cells. The research results presented here report on a new class of TRAIL-receptor agonists overcoming this intrinsic limitation observed for antibodies in general. The main feature of these agonists is a TRAIL-mimic consisting of three TRAIL-protomer subsequences combined in one polypeptide chain, termed the single-chain TRAIL-receptor-binding domain (scTRAIL-RBD). In the active compounds, two scTRAIL-RBDs with three receptor binding sites each are brought molecularly in close proximity resulting in a fusion protein with a hexavalent binding mode. In the case of APG350-the prototype of this engineering concept-this is achieved by fusing the Fc-part of a human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)-mutein C-terminally to the scTRAIL-RBD polypeptide, thereby creating six receptor binding sites per drug molecule. In vitro, APG350 is a potent inducer of apoptosis on human tumor cell lines and primary tumor cells. In vivo, treatment of mice bearing Colo205-xenograft tumors with APG350 showed a dose-dependent antitumor efficacy. By dedicated muteins, we confirmed that the observed in vivo efficacy of the hexavalent scTRAIL-RBD fusion proteins is-in contrast to agonistic antibodies-independent of FcγR-based cross-linking events.

  15. Rab20 regulates phagosome maturation in RAW264 macrophages during Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Egami, Youhei; Araki, Nobukazu

    2012-01-01

    Rab20, a member of the Rab GTPase family, is known to be involved in membrane trafficking, however its implication in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis is unclear. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of Rab20 during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es) in RAW264 macrophages. By the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused Rab20, it was shown that Rab20 was transiently associated with the phagosomal membranes. During the early stage of phagosome formation, Rab20 was not localized on the membranes of phagocytic cups, but was gradually recruited to the newly formed phagosomes. Although Rab20 was colocalized with Rab5 to some extent, the association of Rab20 with the phagosomes persisted even after the loss of Rab5 from the phagosomal membranes. Then, Rab20 was colocalized with Rab7 and Lamp1, late endosomal/lysosomal markers, on the internalized phagosomes. Moreover, our analysis of Rab20 mutant expression revealed that the maturation of phagosomes was significantly delayed in cells expressing the GDP-bound mutant Rab20-T19N. These data suggest that Rab20 is an important component of phagosome and regulates the phagosome maturation during FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  16. Natural killer (NK) cell deficiency associated with an epitope-deficient Fc receptor type IIIA (CD16-II)

    PubMed Central

    JAWAHAR, S.; MOODY, C.; CHAN, M.; FINBERG, R.; GEHA, R.; CHATILA, T.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility to herpes virus infections has been described in experimental animals depleted of NK cells and in patients with defective NK cell function. We have identified a child with recurrent infections, especially with herpes simplex virus, who had a decreased number of CD56+CD3− NK cells in circulation. Her NK cells expressed an altered form of the Fc receptor for IgG type IIIA (FcγRIIIA or CD16-II) which was not reactive with the anti-CD16-II MoAb B73.1. Sequence analysis revealed the patient to be homozygous for a T to A substitution at position 230 of CD16-II cDNA, predicting a Leu66 to His66 change in the first immunoglobulin domain of CD16-II at the B73.1 recognition site. Spontaneous NK cell activity of the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was markedly decreased, while antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) was unaffected. These results suggest that this child suffers from a defect affecting the development and function of NK cells, resulting in NK cytopenia and clinically significant immunodeficiency. The role of the CD16-II mutant in the pathogenesis of the patient's NK cell deficiency is discussed. PMID:8608639

  17. An activating and inhibitory signal from an inhibitory receptor LMIR3/CLM-1: LMIR3 augments lipopolysaccharide response through association with FcRgamma in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Kumi; Kitaura, Jiro; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Matsuoka, Takayuki; Kaitani, Ayako; Sugiuchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Mariko; Maehara, Akie; Enomoto, Yutaka; Oki, Toshihiko; Takai, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Toshio

    2009-07-15

    Leukocyte mono-Ig-like receptor 3 (LMIR3) is an inhibitory receptor mainly expressed in myeloid cells. Coengagement of Fc epsilonRI and LMIR3 impaired cytokine production in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) induced by Fc epsilonRI crosslinking alone. Mouse LMIR3 possesses five cytoplasmic tyrosine residues (Y241, Y276, Y289, Y303, Y325), among which Y241 and Y289 (Y241/289) or Y325 fit the consensus sequence of ITIM or immunotyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM), respectively. The inhibitory effect was abolished by the replacement of Y325 in addition to Y241/289 with phenylalanine (Y241/189/325/F) in accordance with the potential of Y241/289/325 to cooperatively recruit Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP)-1 or SHP-2. Intriguingly, LMIR3 crosslinking alone induced cytokine production in BMMCs expressing LMIR3 (Y241/276/289/303/325F) mutant as well as LMIR3 (Y241/289/325F). Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that LMIR3 associated with ITAM-containing FcRgamma. Analysis of FcRgamma-deficient BMMCs demonstrated that both Y276/303 and FcRgamma played a critical role in the activating function of this inhibitory receptor. Importantly, LMIR3 crosslinking enhanced cytokine production of BMMCs stimulated by LPS, while suppressing production stimulated by other TLR agonists or stem cell factor. Thus, an inhibitory receptor LMIR3 has a unique property to associate with FcRgamma and thereby functions as an activating receptor in concert with TLR4 stimulation.

  18. Fc receptor mediated endocytosis of small soluble immunoglobulin G immune complexes in Kupffer and endothelial cells from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Løvdal, T; Andersen, E; Brech, A; Berg, T

    2000-09-01

    Soluble circulating immunoglobulin G immune complexes are mainly eliminated by the liver, predominantly by uptake in the Kupffer cells, but also the liver endothelial cells seem to be of importance. In the present study we have followed the intracellular turnover of immune complexes after Fc(gamma) receptor mediated endocytosis in cultured rat liver endothelial cells and Kupffer cells by means of isopycnic centrifugation, DAB cross-linking and morphological techniques. For the biochemical experiments the antigen, dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (BSA), was labeled with radioiodinated tyramine cellobiose that cannot cross biological membranes and therefore traps labeled degradation products at the site of formation. The endocytic pathway followed by immune complexes was compared with that followed by scavenger receptor ligands, such as formaldehyde treated BSA and dinitrophenylated BSA, and the mannose receptor ligand ovalbumin. Both Kupffer cells and liver endothelial cells took up and degraded the immune complexes, but there was a clear delay in the degradation of immune complexes as compared to degradation of ligands taken up via scavenger receptors. The kinetics of the endocytosis of scavenger receptor ligand was unaffected by simultaneous uptake of immune complexes. Experiments using both biochemical and morphological techniques indicated that the delayed degradation was due to a late arrival of the immune complexes at the lysosomes, which partly was explained by retroendocytosis of immune complexes. Electron microscopy studies revealed that the immune complexes were retained in the early endosomes that remained accessible to other endocytic markers such as ovalbumin. In addition, the immune complexes were seen in multivesicular compartments apparently devoid of other endocytic markers. Finally, the immune complexes were degraded in the same lysosomes as the ligands of scavenger receptors. Thus, immune complexes seem to follow an endocytic pathway that is

  19. Distribution and Dynamics of Rat Basophilic Leukemia Immunoglobulin E Receptors (FcɛRI) on Planar Ligand-Presenting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Spendier, Kathrin; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Lidke, Keith A.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Thomas, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable interest in the signaling mechanisms of immunoreceptors, especially when triggered with membrane-bound ligands. We have quantified the spatiotemporal dynamics of the redistribution of immunoglobulin E-loaded receptors (IgE-FcɛRI) on rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 mast cells in contact with fluid and gel-phase membranes displaying ligands for immunoglobulin E, using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. To clearly separate the kinetics of receptor redistribution from cell spreading, and to precisely define the initial contact time (±50 ms), micropipette cell manipulation was used to bring individual cells into contact with surfaces. On ligand-free surfaces, there are micron-scale heterogeneities in fluorescence that likely reflect regions of the cell that are more closely apposed to the substrate. When ligands are present, receptor clusters form with this same size scale. The initial rate of accumulation of receptors into the clusters is consistent with diffusion-limited trapping with D ∼10−1μm2/s. These results support the hypothesis that clusters form by diffusion to cell-surface contact regions. Over longer timescales (>10 s), individual clusters moved with both diffusive and directed motion components. The dynamics of the cluster motion is similar to the dynamics of membrane fluctuations of cells on ligand-free fluid membranes. Thus, the same cellular machinery may be responsible for both processes. PMID:20643056

  20. Biphasic clearance of incompatible red blood cells through a novel mechanism requiring neither complement nor Fcγ receptors in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Liepkalns, Justine S; Hod, Eldad A; Stowell, Sean R; Cadwell, Chantel M; Spitalnik, Steven L; Zimring, James C

    2012-12-01

    Antibody binding to red blood cells (RBCs) can induce potentially fatal outcomes, including hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs), hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The mechanism(s) of RBC destruction following antibody binding is typically thought to require complement activation and/or the involvement of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). In the current report, we analyzed mechanisms of HTRs during incompatible transfusions of murine RBCs expressing human glycophorin A (hGPA) into mice with anti-hGPA. C3 and Fcγ receptor knockout, splenectomized, Fcγ receptor blocking antibody-treated, and clodronate-treated mice were passively immunized with anti-hGPA (10F7 or 6A7) and transfused with RBCs expressing the hGPA antigen. Posttransfusion blood and serum were collected and analyzed via flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. This HTR model results in both rapid clearance and cytokine storm. Neither complement nor FcγRs were required for RBC clearance; in contrast, FcγRs were required for cytokine storm. Circulating aggregates of hGPA RBCs were visible during the HTR. Splenectomy and phagocyte depletion by clodronate had no effect on acute RBC clearance; however, incompatible RBCs reentered over 24 hours in clodronate-treated mice. These data demonstrate a biphasic HTR, the first phase involving sequestration of incompatible hGPA RBCs and the second phase involving phagocytosis of sequestered RBCs. However, the mechanism(s) of phagocytosis in the second phase required neither C3 nor FcγRs. These findings demonstrate novel mechanistic biology of HTRs. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Fc gamma receptor type III (CD16) is included in the zeta NK receptor complex expressed by human natural killer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P; Caligiuri, M; O'Brien, C; Manley, T; Ritz, J; Schlossman, S F

    1990-01-01

    We recently reported that CD3- natural killer (NK) cells express the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor complex (zeta NK) in association with higher molecular weight structures whose expression differs between individual NK cell clones. Because NK cell cytolytic activity is known to be triggered by perturbation of the type III Fc gamma receptor (CD16), we sought to determine whether this activating molecule is included in the zeta NK molecular complex. Biochemical evidence for a physical association between CD16 and zeta NK was obtained by comparing immunoprecipitates formed using monoclonal antibodies reactive with each of these molecules by SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and peptide mapping. In both clonal and polyclonal populations of CD3- NK cells, CD16 and zeta NK specifically associated with one another. Functional evidence for a specific association between CD16 and zeta NK in intact cells was obtained by demonstrating a coordinate down-modulation of both of these molecules induced by either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or monoclonal antibodies reactive with CD16. Our results suggest that Fc gamma receptor type III (CD16) is included in the zeta NK complex and that this complex is likely to play an important role in NK cell activation. Images PMID:2138330

  2. Dengue vascular leakage is augmented by mast cell degranulation mediated by immunoglobulin Fcγ receptors.

    PubMed

    Syenina, Ayesa; Jagaraj, Cyril J; Aman, Siti A B; Sridharan, Aishwarya; St John, Ashley L

    2015-03-18

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most significant human arboviral pathogen and causes ∼400 million infections in humans each year. In previous work, we observed that mast cells (MC) mediate vascular leakage during DENV infection in mice and that levels of MC activation are correlated with disease severity in human DENV patients (St John et al., 2013b). A major risk factor for developing severe dengue is secondary infection with a heterologous serotype. The dominant theory explaining increased severity during secondary DENV infection is that cross-reactive but non-neutralizing antibodies promote uptake of virus and allow enhanced replication. Here, we define another mechanism, dependent on FcγR-mediated enhanced degranulation responses by MCs. Antibody-dependent mast cell activation constitutes a novel mechanism to explain enhanced vascular leakage during secondary DENV infection.

  3. FcR-Like 2 Inhibition of B Cell Receptor-Mediated Activation of B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Tanisha A.; Haga, Christopher L.; Ehrhardt, Götz R. A.; Davis, Randall S.; Cooper, Max D.

    2017-01-01

    FcR-like (FCRL) 2 is a transmembrane protein with immunomodulatory potential that is preferentially expressed by memory B cells in humans. It has two consensus ITIMs in addition to a putative ITAM sequence in its cytoplasmic domain. We have confirmed the cellular distribution of FCRL2 and analyzed its functional potential to show that coligation with the BCR leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of its ITIM motifs and subsequent Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 recruitment to facilitate inhibition of BCR signaling. Mutational analysis indicates that the tyrosine residues in both inhibitory motifs of FCRL2 are required for complete inhibition of BCR signaling, whereas tyrosines in the putative activation motif are dispensable for signal modulation. These findings suggest a negative immunomodulatory function for FCRL2 in the regulation of memory B cells. PMID:21068405

  4. Effect of protein A and its fragment B on the catabolic and Fc receptor sites of IgG.

    PubMed

    Dima, S; Medeşan, C; Moţa, G; Moraru, I; Sjöquist, J; Gheţie, V

    1983-08-01

    Radiolabeled protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) injected i.v. into mice and rabbits forms a soluble [(IgG)2-(SpA)1]2 complex (Mr = 684 000) which is identical in composition to that formed by SpA in vitro with an equivalent amount or an excess of IgG. A soluble rabbit IgG-SpA complex injected into a mice or rabbits dissociates completely in vivo and a new complex is formed with the IgG of the recipient animal. The half-life of SpA administered to a mouse or a rabbit is therefore the half-life of the IgG-SpA complex formed in vivo. In mice and rabbits the half-life of the complexes formed is 9 and 30 h, respectively, whereas the half-life of rabbit IgG in these animals is 106 and 153 h, respectively. Fragment B of SpA (fSpA) reacts with IgG of mouse and rabbit and forms an (IgG)1-(fSpA)1 complex. Complexes of identical composition are formed if fSpA is injected i.v. into mice and rabbits. The half-life of the complexes in mice and rabbits are much shorter than those of the corresponding free IgG in these animals (up to 15 times). This result suggests that the binding of fSpA to the CH2 and the CH3 domains of IgG alters the function of the site, which controls the catabolism of IgG and is located in the CH2 domain. By contrast, fSpA does not change the Fc receptor-binding site of IgG, indicating that the Fc receptor site and the catabolic site are unrelated to each other.

  5. C-Reactive Protein Causes Insulin Resistance in Mice Through Fcγ Receptor IIB–Mediated Inhibition of Skeletal Muscle Glucose Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Barrera, Jose A.; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Huang, Paul L.; Bonvini, Ezio; Shaul, Philip W.; Mineo, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    Elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance. Whether CRP plays a causal role is unknown. Here we show that CRP transgenic mice and wild-type mice administered recombinant CRP are insulin resistant. Mice lacking the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) are protected from CRP-induced insulin resistance, and immunohistochemistry reveals that FcγRIIB is expressed in skeletal muscle microvascular endothelium and is absent in skeletal muscle myocytes, adipocytes, and hepatocytes. The primary mechanism in glucose homeostasis disrupted by CRP is skeletal muscle glucose delivery, and CRP attenuates insulin-induced skeletal muscle blood flow. CRP does not impair skeletal muscle glucose delivery in FcγRIIB−/− mice or in endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock-in mice with phosphomimetic modification of Ser1176, which is normally phosphorylated by insulin signaling to stimulate nitric oxide–mediated skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose delivery and is dephosphorylated by CRP/FcγRIIB. Thus, CRP causes insulin resistance in mice through FcγRIIB-mediated inhibition of skeletal muscle glucose delivery. PMID:23069625

  6. Influence of suramin on the expression of Fc receptors and other markers on human monocytes and U937 cells, and on their phagocytic properties.

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, C; Spittler, A; Willheim, M; Szépfalusi, Z; Agis, H; Köller, M; Peterlik, M; Boltz-Nitulescu, G

    1994-01-01

    Suramin, a polyanionic and polycyclic compound, was initially used for the treatment of trypanosomiasis and onchocerciasis. In the last decade, it has been used in therapy of cancer and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The influence of suramin on the expression of various markers by human mononuclear phagocytes is not known and was, therefore, presently investigated. Suramin inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells and mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The constitutive and cytokine-driven expression of Fc receptors for IgG (Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RII), IgE (Fc epsilon RII) and IgA (Fc alpha R) on blood monocytes and U937 cells was suppressed by suramin. The basal level, as well as cytokine-induced major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens, was markedly diminished on suramin-treated monocytes. Furthermore, suramin dramatically reduced expression of CD14 and partially reduced complement receptor type 3 (CR3) and CR4 expression on monocytes. In contrast, suramin slightly induced MHC class I antigens on monocytes and CD71 on U937 cells. The capacity of monocytes to phagocytose IgG-sensitized ox erythrocytes, opsonized Escherichia coli, or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated latex beads was significantly inhibited. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of Fc epsilon RII-specific mRNA was only partially reduced, suggesting that other mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of Fc epsilon RII expression. Our data demonstrate that suramin suppresses the expression of various cell-surface structures on human mononuclear phagocytes and impairs their phagocytic capacity. Images Figure 2 PMID:8039810

  7. Fcγ-receptor IIa-mediated Src Signaling Pathway Is Essential for the Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Furuyama, Wakako; Marzi, Andrea; Maruyama, Junki; Kuroda, Makoto; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Manzoor, Rashid; Yoshida, Reiko; Igarashi, Manabu; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection has been demonstrated in vitro, raising concerns about the detrimental potential of some anti-EBOV antibodies. ADE has been described for many viruses and mostly depends on the cross-linking of virus-antibody complexes to cell surface Fc receptors, leading to enhanced infection. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Here we show that Fcγ-receptor IIa (FcγRIIa)-mediated intracellular signaling through Src family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) is required for ADE of EBOV infection. We found that deletion of the FcγRIIa cytoplasmic tail abolished EBOV ADE due to decreased virus uptake into cellular endosomes. Furthermore, EBOV ADE, but not non-ADE infection, was significantly reduced by inhibition of the Src family protein PTK pathway, which was also found to be important to promote phagocytosis/macropinocytosis for viral uptake into endosomes. We further confirmed a significant increase of the Src phosphorylation mediated by ADE. These data suggest that antibody-EBOV complexes bound to the cell surface FcγRIIa activate the Src signaling pathway that leads to enhanced viral entry into cells, providing a novel perspective for the general understanding of ADE of virus infection. PMID:28036370

  8. Differential regulation by leukotrienes and calcium of Fc gamma receptor-induced phagocytosis and Syk activation in dendritic cells versus macrophages.

    PubMed

    Canetti, Claudio; Aronoff, David M; Choe, Mun; Flamand, Nicolas; Wettlaufer, Scott; Toews, Galen B; Chen, Gwo-Hsiao; Peters-Golden, Marc

    2006-06-01

    Macrophage (MØ) phagocytosis via the Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G (Fc gammaR) requires the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and serves an important antimicrobial function. We have reported previously that Fc gammaR-mediated ingestion and Syk activation in MØ are amplified by and depend on the proinflammatory lipid mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Although Fc gammaR-mediated ingestion is also important for antigen uptake, there is no information about LTB4 regulation of these processes in dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we compared murine bone marrow (BM)-derived DCs to MØ from BM, peritoneum, and the pulmonary alveolar space. Neither phagocytosis nor Syk activation in DCs was influenced by exogenous LTB4. Unlike the various MØ populations, Syk activation in DCs was likewise unaffected by pharmacologic or genetic strategies to inhibit endogenous LTB4 synthesis or to block the high-affinity LTB4 receptor BLT1. DCs were refractory to regulation by LTB4 despite the fact that they expressed BLT1 and mobilized intracellular calcium in response to its ligation. This resistance to LTB4 in DCs instead reflected the fact that in contrast to MØ, Syk activation in DCs was itself entirely independent of calcium. These results identify a fundamental difference in Fc gammaR signaling between DCs and MØ, which may relate to the divergent, functional consequences of target ingestion in the two cell types.

  9. Interaction between activated chemokine receptor 1 and FcεRI at membrane rafts promotes communication and F-actin-rich cytoneme extensions between mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Freddy; Ono, Shoichiro; Ono, Santa J.

    2010-01-01

    Chemokines play important regulatory roles in immunity, but their contributions to mast cell function remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of FcεRI–chemokine receptor (CCR) 1 co-stimulation on receptor localization and cellular morphology of bone marrow-derived mast cells. Whereas FcεRI and CCR1 co-localized at the plasma membrane in unsensitized cells, sensitization with IgE promoted internalization of CCR1 molecules. Co-stimulation of FcεRI and CCR1 with antigen and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α was more effective than FcεRI stimulation alone in causing leading edge formation, flattened morphology, membrane ruffles and ganglioside (GM1+) lipid mediator release. Co-stimulation resulted in phalloidin-positive cytoneme-like cellular extensions, also known as tunneling nanotubes, which originated at points of calcium accumulation. This is the first report of cytoneme formation by mast cells. To determine the importance of lipid rafts for mast cell function, the cells were cholesterol depleted. Cholesterol depletion enhanced degranulation in resting, sensitized and co-stimulated cells, but not in FcεRI-cross-linked cells, and inhibited formation of filamentous actin+ cytonemes but not GM1+ cytonemes. Treatment with latrunculin A to sequester globular-actin abolished cytoneme formation. The cytonemes may participate in intercellular communication during allergic and inflammatory responses, and their presence in the co-stimulated mast cells suggests new roles for CCRs in immunopathology. PMID:20173038

  10. Fcγ receptor IIIa single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes affect human IgG binding and are associated with lupus nephritis in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chaoling; Ptacek, Travis S; Redden, David T; Zhang, Kui; Brown, Elizabeth E; Edberg, Jeffrey C; McGwin, Gerald; Alarcón, Graciela S; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Reveille, John D; Vilá, Luis M; Petri, Michelle; Qin, Aijian; Wu, Jianming; Kimberly, Robert P

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether the Fcγ receptor IIIa-66L/R/H (FcγRIIIa-66L/R/H) polymorphism influences net effective receptor function and to assess if the FCGR3A combined genotypes formed by FcγRIIIa-66L/R/H and FcγRIIIa-176F/V, as well as copy number variation (CNV), confer risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis. FcγRIIIa variants, expressed on A20 IIA1.6 cells, were used in flow cytometry-based human IgG-binding assays. Using Pyrosequencing methodology, FCGR3A single-nucleotide polymorphism and CNV genotypes were determined in a cohort of 1,728 SLE patients and 2,404 healthy controls. The FcγRIIIa-66L/R/H (rs10127939) polymorphism influenced ligand binding capacity in the presence of the FcγRIIIa-176V (rs396991) allele. There was a trend toward an association of the low-binding FcγRIIIa-176F allele with lupus nephritis among African Americans (P = 0.0609) but not among European Americans (P > 0.10). Nephritis among African American patients with SLE was associated with FcγRIIIa low-binding haplotypes containing the 66L/R/H and 176F variants (P = 0.03) and with low-binding genotype combinations (P = 0.002). No association was observed among European American patients with SLE. The distribution of FCGR3A CNV was not significantly different among controls and SLE patients with or without nephritis. FcγRIIIa-66L/R/H influences ligand binding. The low-binding haplotypes formed by 66L/R/H and 176F confer enhanced risk of lupus nephritis in African Americans. FCGR3A CNVs are not associated with SLE or lupus nephritis in either African Americans or European Americans. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Effects of C-reactive protein on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors via Fcγ receptors on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kumiko; Tanaka, Hideki; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Murakami, Fumiko; Matsuike, Rieko; Sekino, Jumpei; Tanabe, Natsuko; Morita, Toyoko; Yamazaki, Yoji; Kawato, Takayuki; Maeno, Masao

    2017-01-01

    The association between obesity and inflammation is well documented in epidemiological studies. Proteolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is involved in adipose tissue enlargement, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) collectively cleave all ECM proteins. Here, we examined the effects of C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, on the expression of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), which are natural inhibitors of MMPs, in adipocyte-differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. We analyzed the expression of Fcγ receptor (FcγR) IIb and FcγRIII, which are candidates for CRP receptors, and the effects of anti-CD16/CD32 antibodies, which can act as FcγRII and FcγRIII blockers on CRP-induced alteration of MMP and TIMP expression. Moreover, we examined the effects of CRP on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which is involved in MMP and TIMP expression, in the presence or absence of anti-CD16/CD32 antibodies. Stimulation with CRP increased MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-11, MMP-14, and TIMP-1 expression but did not affect MMP-2, TIMP-2, and TIMP-4 expression; TIMP-3 expression was not detected. Adipocyte-differentiated 3T3-L1cells expressed FcγRIIb and FcγRIII; this expression was upregulated on stimulation with CRP. Anti-CD16/CD32 antibodies inhibited CRP-induced expression of MMPs, except MMP-11, and TIMP-1. CRP induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 MAPK but did not affect SAPK/JNK phosphorylation, and Anti-CD16/CD32 attenuated the CRP-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not that of ERK1/2. These results suggest that CRP facilitates ECM turnover in adipose tissue by increasing the production of multiple MMPs and TIMP-1 in adipocytes. Moreover, FcγRIIb and FcγRIII are involved in the CRP-induced expression of MMPs and TIMP-1 and the CRP-induced phosphorylation of p38, whereas the FcγR-independent pathway may regulate the CRP-induced MMP-11 expression

  12. Phosphorylation and activation of Ca(2+)-sensitive cytosolic phospholipase A2 in MCII mast cells mediated by high-affinity Fc receptor for IgE.

    PubMed Central

    Currie, S; Roberts, E F; Spaethe, S M; Roehm, N W; Kramer, R M

    1994-01-01

    In the present study we examined the activation of Ca(2+)-sensitive cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) after aggregation of cell-surface high-affinity Fc receptors for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) on mast cells. MCII mast cells (a factor-dependent bone-marrow-derived murine mast cell line) produce significant amounts of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) (70 ng/10(6) cells) on cross-linking of Fc epsilon RI. Using enzymic and immunochemical analysis we found that cPLA2 is the predominant form of this enzyme in MCII mast cells (0.2 micrograms/mg of total protein) and other forms (i.e. secretory PLA2 or Ca2+ independent cytosolic PLA2) could not be detected. Therefore MCII mast cells represent an excellent cellular model for the study of the biochemical mechanism(s) responsible for Fc epsilon RI-induced activation of cPLA2 and the involvement of cPLA2 in Fc epsilon RI-mediated production of LTC4. After activation of Fc epsilon RI by cross-linking, cPLA2 in MCII mast cells exhibited a decreased electrophoretic mobility and its enzyme activity was increased 3-fold. Treatment with phosphatase reversed both the altered electrophoretic mobility and the enhanced enzyme activity demonstrating that they were the result of Fc epsilon RI-induced phosphorylation. On cross-linking of Fc epsilon RI, cPLA2 was phosphorylated within 30 s and appeared to be an early substrate for Fc epsilon RI-activated protein kinases in MCII mast cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation may be a critical component in this process, as genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases, blocked the activation of cPLA2. Using anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies we observed that the activating phosphorylation was not on tyrosine residues of cPLA2, indicating that tyrosine kinases participate upstream in the signalling cascade that couples Fc epsilon RI to cPLA2. We conclude that in MCII mast cells cPLA2 is activated by kinase-dependent mechanisms and may be responsible for Fc epsilon RI-induced mobilization of arachidonic acid for the

  13. Platelets activated by collagen through the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in the Fc receptor gamma-chain play a pivotal role in the development of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Norihide; Katoh, Youichi; Iwabuchi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Ichiro; Konishi, Hakuoh; Itoh, Seigo; Okumura, Ko; Ra, Chisei; Nagaoka, Isao; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2005-12-01

    Platelet activation and the formation of platelet microaggregates in coronary vessels play pivotal roles in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. The Fc receptor gamma-chain (FcR gamma) is coexpressed with glycoprotein (GP) VI, forming a platelet collagen receptor, and the activation of platelets by collagen is closely coupled with tyrosine phosphorylation of the FcRgamma. To examine the functional significance of platelet FcR gamma/GPVI complex in the early phase of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice, we performed coronary occlusion and reperfusion experiments using wild type mice and FcRgamma-deficient (FcRgamma(-/-)) mice that lack GPVI. The infarct size was significantly smaller in FcRgamma(-/-) mice subjected to occlusion and reperfusion of the coronary artery than in control FcR gamma(+/+) mice. Twenty-four hours after the reperfusion, electron microscopy of the injured tissue showed substantially more platelet aggregation and occlusive platelet microthrombi in the capillaries of the damaged areas of the wild type mice than in those of the FcR gamma(-/-) mice. Platelet Syk was scarcely activated in the FcR gamma(-/-) mice after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, but significantly activated in the FcR gamma(+/+) mice. CD11b expression on neutrophils was elevated after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in both mouse groups, whereas myeloperoxidase activity in the injured areas was significantly lower in the FcRgamma(-/-) mice than in the FcRgamma(+/+) mice. These results suggest that the collagen-induced activation of platelets through the FcR gamma plays a pivotal role in the extension of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. FcRgamma and GPVI may be important therapeutic targets for myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  14. Interaction of Poliovirus with Its Receptor Affords a High Level of Infectivity to the Virion in Poliovirus Infections Mediated by the Fc Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Minetaro; Horie, Hitoshi; Arita, Mineo; Nomoto, Akio

    1999-01-01

    Poliovirus infects susceptible cells through the poliovirus receptor (PVR), which functions to bind virus and to change its conformation. These two activities are thought to be necessary for efficient poliovirus infection. How binding and conformation conversion activities contribute to the establishment of poliovirus infection was investigated. Mouse L cells expressing mouse high-affinity Fcγ receptor molecules were established and used to study poliovirus infection mediated by mouse antipoliovirus monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (immunoglobulin G2a [IgG2a] subtypes) or PVR-IgG2a, a chimeric molecule consisting of the extracellular moiety of PVR and the hinge and Fc portion of mouse IgG2a. The antibodies and PVR-IgG2a showed the same degree of affinity for poliovirus, but the infectivities mediated by these molecules were different. Among the molecules tested, PVR-IgG2a mediated the infection most efficiently, showing 50- to 100-fold-higher efficiency than that attained with the different MAbs. A conformational change of poliovirus was induced only by PVR-IgG2a. These results strongly suggested that some specific interaction(s) between poliovirus and the PVR is required for high-level infectivity of poliovirus in this system. PMID:9882307

  15. Fc-receptor induced cell spreading during frustrated phagocytosis in J774A.1 macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovari, Daniel; Curtis, Jennifer; Wei, Wenbin

    2014-03-01

    Phagocytosis is the process where by cells engulf foreign particles. It is the primary mechanism through which macrophages and neutrophils (white blood cells) eliminate pathogens and debris from the body. The behavior is the result of a cascade of chemical and mechanical cues, which result in the actin-driven expansion of the cell's membrane around its target. For macrophages undergoing Fc-mediated phagocytosis, we show that above a minimum threshold the spreading rate and maximum cell-target contact area are independent of the target's opsonin density. Qualitatively, macrophage phagocytic spreading is similar to the spreading of other cell types (e.g. fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and Dict.d.). Early spreading is most likely the result of ``passive'' alignment of the cell to the target surface. This is followed by an active expansion period driven by actin. Finally upon reaching a maximum contact area, typically 2-3 times the size of ``non-activated'' cells, macrophages often undergo a period of rapid contraction not reported in other cell types. We hypothesize that this, as yet unexplained, transition may be specific to the chemical and mechanical machinery associated with phagocytosis. This work was funded by NSF grant PHYS 0848797 and NSF grant DMR 0820382.

  16. PTPN22 Is a Critical Regulator of Fcγ Receptor-Mediated Neutrophil Activation.

    PubMed

    Vermeren, Sonja; Miles, Katherine; Chu, Julia Y; Salter, Donald; Zamoyska, Rose; Gray, Mohini

    2016-12-15

    Neutrophils act as a first line of defense against bacterial and fungal infections, but they are also important effectors of acute and chronic inflammation. Genome-wide association studies have established that the gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) makes an important contribution to susceptibility to autoimmune disease, notably rheumatoid arthritis. Although PTPN22 is most highly expressed in neutrophils, its function in these cells remains poorly characterized. We show in this article that neutrophil effector functions, including adhesion, production of reactive oxygen species, and degranulation induced by immobilized immune complexes, were reduced in Ptpn22(-/-) neutrophils. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Lyn and Syk was altered in Ptpn22(-/-) neutrophils. On stimulation with immobilized immune complexes, Ptpn22(-/-) neutrophils manifested reduced activation of key signaling intermediates. Ptpn22(-/-) mice were protected from immune complex-mediated arthritis, induced by the transfer of arthritogenic serum. In contrast, in vivo neutrophil recruitment following thioglycollate-induced peritonitis and in vitro chemotaxis were not affected by lack of PTPN22. Our data suggest an important role for PTPN22-dependent dephosphorylation events, which are required to enable full FcγR-induced activation, pointing to an important role for this molecule in neutrophil function.

  17. Immunoglobulin G1 Fc domain motions: implications for Fc engineering

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Martin; Walker, Ross C.; Lanzilotta, William N.; Prestegard, James H.; Barb, Adam W.

    2014-01-01

    The fragment crystallizable (Fc) region links the key pathogen identification and destruction properties of immunoglobulin G(IgG). Pathogen opsonization positions Fcs to activate pro-inflammatory Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) on immune cells. The cellular response and committal to a damaging, though protective, immune response is tightly controlled at multiple levels. Control mechanisms are diverse and in many cases unclear, but one frequently suggested contribution originates in Fcγ receptor affinity being modulated through shifts in Fc conformational sampling. Here we report a previously unseen IgG1 Fc conformation. This observation motivated an extensive molecular dynamics (MD) investigation of polypeptide and glycan motions that revealed greater amplitude of motion for the N-terminal Cγ2 domains and N-glycan than previously observed. Residues in the Cγ2/Cγ3 interface and disulphide-bonded hinge were identified as influencing the Cγ2 motion. Our results are consistent with a model of Fc that is structurally dynamic. Conformational states that are competent to bind immune-stimulating FcγRs interconverted with Fc conformations distinct from those observed in FcγR complexes, which may represent a transient, nonbinding population. PMID:24522230

  18. Fc receptor density, MHC antigen expression and superoxide production are increased in interferon-gamma-treated microglia isolated from adult rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Woodroofe, M N; Hayes, G M; Cuzner, M L

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of microglia isolated from adult rat brain with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) at a concentration of 1 U/ml resulted in enhanced expression of Fc receptors and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and increased production of superoxide anions. Neonatal microglia and peritoneal macrophages, isolated and cultured in the same manner, displayed functional properties very similar to those of adult microglia, indicating a common origin for different macrophage populations. The Fc binding capacity of microglia was found to be significantly greater than that of peritoneal cells, thus underlining the potential role of microglia in immune-mediated demyelination. PMID:2556346

  19. The molecular landscape of antibody-mediated kidney transplant rejection: evidence for NK involvement through CD16a Fc receptors.

    PubMed

    Venner, J M; Hidalgo, L G; Famulski, K S; Chang, J; Halloran, P F

    2015-05-01

    The recent recognition that antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is the major cause of kidney transplant loss creates strong interest in its pathogenesis. We used microarray analysis of kidney transplant biopsies to identify the changes in pure ABMR. We found that the ABMR transcript changes in the initial Discovery Set were strongly conserved in a subsequent Validation Set. In the Combined Set of 703 biopsies, 2603 transcripts were significantly changed (FDR < 0.05) in ABMR versus all other biopsies. In cultured cells, the transcripts strongly associated with ABMR were expressed in endothelial cells, e.g. cadherins CDH5 and CDH13; IFNG-treated endothelial cells, e.g. phospholipase PLA1A and chemokine CXCL11; or NK cells, e.g. cytotoxicity molecules granulysin (GNLY) and FGFBP2. Other ABMR transcripts were expressed in normal kidney but not cell lines, either increased e.g. Duffy chemokine receptor (DARC) or decreased e.g. sclerostin (SOST). Pathway analysis of ABMR transcripts identified angiogenesis, with roles for angiopoietin and vascular endothelial growth factors; leukocyte-endothelial interactions; and NK signaling, including evidence for CD16a Fc receptor signaling elements shared with T cells. These data support a model of ABMR involving injury-repair in the microcirculation induced by cognate recognition involving antibody and CD16a, triggering IFNG release and antibody-dependent NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

  20. [Preparation and the biological effect of fusion protein GLP-1-exendin-4/ IgG4(Fc) fusion protein as long acting GLP-1 receptor agonist].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yun-cheng

    2015-12-01

    GLP-1 has a variety of anti-diabetic effects. However, native GLP-1 is not suitable for treatment of diabetes due to its short half-life (t½, 2-5 min). Exendin-4 is a polypeptide isolated from lizard saliva, which can bind to GLP-1 receptor, produce physiological effects similar to GLP-1, t½ up to 2.5 h, therefore, we developed a long-lasting GLP-1 receptor agonists and GLP-1-exendin-4 fusion IgG4 Fc [GLP-1-exendin-4/ IgG4(Fc)]. We constructed the eukaryotic expression vector of human GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc)-pOptiVEC- TOPO by gene recombination technique and expressed the fusion protein human GLP-1-IgG4 (Fc) in CHO/DG44 cells. The fusion protein stimulated the INS-1 cells secretion of insulin, GLP-1, exendin-4 and fusion protein in CD1 mice pharmacokinetic experiments, as well as GLP-1, exendin-4 and fusion protein did anti-diabetic effect on streptozotocin induced mice. Results demonstrated that the GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc) positive CHO/DG44 clones were chosen and the media from these positive clones. Western blotting showed that one protein band was found to match well with the predicted relative molecular mass of human GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc). Insulin RIA showed that GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc) dose-dependently stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in CD1 mice showed that with intraperitoneal injection (ip), the fusion protein peaked at 30 min in circulation and maintained a plateau for 200 h. Natural biological half-life of exendin-4 was (1.39 ± 0.28) h, GLP-1 in vivo t½ 4 min, indicating that fusion protein has long-lasting effects on the modulation of glucose homeostasis. GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc) was found to be effective in reducing the incidence of diabetes in multiple-low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice, longer duration of the biological activity of the fusion protein. The biological activity was significantly higher than that of GLP-1 and exendin-4. GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc) has good anti-diabetic activity

  1. Analysis of Response Elements Involved in the Regulation of the Human Neonatal Fc Receptor Gene (FCGRT)

    PubMed Central

    Mikulska, Joanna E.

    2015-01-01

    Human epithelial, endothelial and PMA-differentiated THP-1 cell lines were used as model systems to study the transcriptional regulation of the human FCGRT gene encoding the alpha chain of hFcRn. The data obtained from site-directed mutagenesis in transient transfection experiments indicate that the Sp1 sites at positions -641, -635, and -313, CF1/YY1 elements at positions -586 and -357, and the AP-1 motif at -276 within the-660/-233 fragment of the human FCGRT promoter (hFCGRT) participate in the regulation of human FCGRT in all selected cell lines. However, their individual contribution to promoter activity is not equivalent. The Sp1 binding site at -313 and the AP-1 site at -276 are critical for the activity of the hFCGRT promoter in epithelial and endothelial cells. Moreover, the CF1/YY1 site at -586 in differentiated THP-1 cells, plays an essential role in the transcriptional activity of the promoter. In addition, the C/EBPbeta binding site at -497 of the hFCGRT promoter in epithelial and endothelial cells, and the C/EBPbeta motif located at -497 and -233 within the hFCGRT promoter in differentiated THP-1 cells may function as positive regulatory sequences in response to LPS or PMA stimulation. EMSA and supershift analyses showed that the functionally identified binding motifs in the hFCGRT promoter were able to specifically interact with their corresponding (Sp1, Sp2, Sp3, c-Fos, c-Jun, YY1, and C/EBPbeta or C/EBPdelta) transcription factors (TFs), suggesting their possible involvement in the regulation of the human FCGRT gene expression. PMID:26252948

  2. Expression and Characterization of a Potent Long-Acting GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Chen, Fang; Wan, Deyou; Liu, Yunhui; Yang, Li; Feng, Hongru; Cui, Xinling; Gao, Xin; Song, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Human GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) can produce a remarkable improvement in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, its clinical benefits are limited by its short half-life, which is less than 2 min because of its small size and rapid enzymatic inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV. We engineered GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc, a 68-kDa fusion protein linking a variant human GLP-1 (A8G/G26E/R36G) to a human IgG2σ constant heavy-chain. A stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell line was obtained using electroporation. Western blotting showed that the expressed protein was immunoreactive to both GLP-1 and IgG antibodies. GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 cells in a dose- and glucose-dependent manner and increased insulin mRNA expression. The half-life of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc in cynomolgus monkeys was approximately 57.1 ± 4.5 h. In the KKAy mouse model of diabetes, one intraperitoneal injection of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc (1 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels for 5 days. A 4-week repeat-administration study identified sustained effects on blood glucose levels. Oral glucose tolerance tests conducted at the beginning and end of this 4-week period showed that GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc produced a stable glucose lowering effect. In addition, KKAy mice treated with GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc showed statistically significant weight loss from day 23. In conclusion, these properties of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc demonstrated that it represented a potential long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27232339

  3. Human IgG isotypes and activating Fcγ receptors in the interaction of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with phagocytic cells

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yun S; Grant, Andrew J; Restif, Olivier; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Armour, Kathryn L; Clark, Michael R; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Several classes and multiple subclasses of immunoglobulins are produced towards protein and polysaccharide antigens in response to Salmonella infection and play a key role in protection against systemic disease. The targeting of Salmonella to Fc receptors (FcR) on phagocytes is a key step in the antibody-mediated antibacterial functions of host cells. We wished to compare the relative efficiency of different human IgG subclasses, which targeted the Salmonella enterica OmpA surface protein in modulating the interaction of bacteria with human phagocytes. To this end, we developed a novel system by tagging OmpA with a foreign CD52 mimotope (TSSPSAD) and opsonizing the bacteria with a panel of humanized CD52 antibodies that share the same antigen-binding V-region, but have constant regions of different subclasses. Our data revealed that opsonization with all the IgG subclasses increases Salmonella uptake by human phagocytes. IgG3 resulted in the highest level of bacterial uptake and the highest average bacterial load per infected cell, which was closely followed by IgG1, then IgG4 and lastly IgG2. Phagocytosis mediated by IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 had a higher dependency on FcγRI than FcγRIIA, whereas IgG2-mediated phagocytosis required FcγRIIA more than FcγRI. The results show that IgG binding to OmpA increases the uptake of Salmonella by human phagocytic cells and that the efficiency of this process depends both on the subclass of the IgG and the type of FcR that is available for antibody binding. PMID:21323662

  4. Increased expression of CCL18, CCL19, and CCL17 by dendritic cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and regulation by Fc gamma receptors

    PubMed Central

    Radstake, T; van der Voort, R; ten, B; de Waal, Malefijt M; Looman, M; Figdor, C; van den Berg, W B; Barrera, P; Adema, G

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dendritic cells (DC) have a role in the regulation of immunity and tolerance, attracting inflammatory cells by the production of various chemokines (CK). Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) may be involved in regulation of the DC function. Objective: To assess the expression of CK by immature (iDC) and mature DC (mDC) and its regulation by FcγR in patients with RA and healthy donors (HC). Methods: Expression of CK by DC from patients with RA and from HC was determined by real time quantitative PCR and ELISA. DC were derived from monocytes following standardised protocols. To study the potential regulation by FcγR, iDC were stimulated with immune complexes (IC) during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced maturation. The presence of CK was studied in synovial tissue from patients with RA, osteoarthritis, and healthy subjects by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results: iDC from patients with RA had markedly increased mRNA levels of the CK CCL18 and CXCL8. Upon maturation with LPS, expression of CCL18, CCL19, CXCL8, CCL3, and CCL17 increased dramatically, reaching significantly higher levels in patients with RA. Monocytes failed to express these CK, except for CXCL8 and CCL3. IC-mediated triggering of the FcγR on DC from patients with highly active RA down regulated all CK, whereas the reverse was seen when DC from patients with low disease activity and healthy donors were stimulated. CCL18 was significantly increased in RA synovial tissue. Conclusion: Increased CK expression by DC was found in patients with RA. This expression is partly regulated by FcγR triggering and results in an inhibitory DC subtype in RA upon FcγR-mediated triggering. PMID:15331393

  5. The inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on Fc and C3 receptors on mouse and human leukocytes, and the protective potential of human albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, M.A.; Diaz-Perches, R.; Gutierrez, M.; Gamminio, E.; Liera, C.; Nieto, P.; Weiss-Steider, B. )

    1990-08-01

    The effect that ionizing radiation has in vitro on Fc and C3 receptors was evaluated at various doses and measured by means of erythrocytes coated with antibody (EA) and erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement (EAC) rosettes on human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and on mouse bone marrow cells (BMC) and PBL. We found that the number of cells with either EA and EAC rosettes decreased as the radiation doses increased, and that they were almost absent when the highest doses were employed. We obtained evidence that albumin is a natural source of radio-protection for Fc and C3 receptors, and we showed that by increasing the amount of this molecule we could completely protect receptors for EA and EAC in vitro. Finally, the possible therapeutic value of the administration of human albumin to patients undergoing radiotherapy is discussed.

  6. IgG-assisted age-dependent clearance of Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide by the blood-brain barrier neonatal Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Deane, Rashid; Sagare, Abhay; Hamm, Katie; Parisi, Margaret; LaRue, Barbra; Guo, Huang; Wu, Zhenhua; Holtzman, David M; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2005-12-14

    The role of blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport in clearance of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) by Abeta immunotherapy is not fully understood. To address this issue, we studied the effects of peripherally and centrally administered Abeta-specific IgG on BBB influx of circulating Abeta and efflux of brain-derived Abeta in APPsw(+/-) mice, a model that develops Alzheimer's disease-like amyloid pathology, and wild-type mice. Our data show that anti-Abeta IgG blocks the BBB influx of circulating Abeta in APPsw(+/-) mice and penetrates into the brain to sequester brain Abeta. In young mice, Abeta-anti-Abeta complexes were cleared from brain to blood by transcytosis across the BBB via the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), whereas in older mice, there was an age-dependent increase in FcRn-mediated IgG-assisted Abeta BBB efflux and a decrease in LRP-mediated clearance of Abeta-anti-Abeta complexes. Inhibition of the FcRn pathway in older APPsw(+/-) mice blocked clearance of endogenous Abeta40/42 by centrally administered Abeta immunotherapy. Moreover, deletion of the FcRn gene in wild-type mice inhibited clearance of endogenous mouse Abeta40/42 by systemically administered anti-Abeta. Our data suggest that the FcRn pathway at the BBB plays a crucial role in IgG-assisted Abeta removal from the aging brain.

  7. Increased survival and reduced renal injury in MRL/lpr mice treated with a human Fcγ receptor II (CD32) peptide.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun; Zhang, Gai P; Qiao, Song L; Guo, Jun Q; Wang, Xuan N; Yang, Yan Y; Zhang, Li N; Miao, Xian W; Zhao, Dong; Zhi, Yu B; Cai, Shu J; Luo, Jun; Deng, Rui G

    2012-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem chronic inflammatory disease affecting many organs. The deposition in kidney tissue of immune complexes and their interaction with macrophages is thought to trigger the inflammatory response leading to glomerulonephritis. It has been demonstrated that inhibition of this interaction in murine models can alleviate the disease. Six synthetic peptides were derived from the membrane-proximal extracellular domain (EC2) of human Fcγ receptor II (huFcγRII). Of these, one peptide, huRII6, was shown to be a potent competitive inhibitor of IgG binding to recombinant FcγRII in vitro. To examine the possible therapeutic impact of huRII6 in vivo, this peptide, or a control, was given by subcutaneous injection to female MRL/lpr mice from weeks 7 to 36, resulting in an enhanced survival rate compared with control-treated animals and a reduction of proteinuria. Histopathological examination of the kidneys showed a reduction in deposition of immune complexes and preservation of structure. Such a functional peptide should prove useful for examining the role of IgG-FcγR interactions in experimental models of disease and may provide for the development of FcR-targeting drugs to treat autoimmune disorders.

  8. The impact of Fc gamma receptor IIa and IIIa gene polymorphisms on the therapeutic response of rituximab in Egyptian adult immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Ellithy, Hend N; Ahmed, Salwa H; Shahin, Gehan H; Matter, Mervat M; Talatt, Mohamed

    2017-08-31

    In chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), rituximab removes the harmful autoantibodies through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The response to rituximab in ITP is variable; the effectiveness of rituximab is influenced by the process of activation of effector fragment C gamma receptors (FcγRs). Genetic factors may affect the response to rituximab. The influence of FcγRIIa (H131R) and FcγRIIIa (V158F) gene polymorphisms on the response to rituximab in ITP. One hundred ITP patients were genotyped for FcγRIIa (H131R) and FcγRIIIa (V158F) gene polymorphisms using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The response at the end of the third month was assessed by direct platelets count. Polymorphisms were analyzed in relation to the response. The mean platelets count at end of weeks 1-4 of rituximab was statistically significantly higher in patients who achieved complete response (CR) than partial response or no response (P-value = .001). Although RR (44.4%) and HR (38.9%) genotypes were observed to be higher in patients who achieved CR compared with the wild (HH) genotype (16.7%), it was not statistically significantly different (P-value = .648). The higher platelet count achieved early is predictive for a better response to rituximab later. FCγRIIA polymorphisms did not significantly influence response to rituximab in ITP.

  9. Heterogeneity of human lymphocyte Fc receptors. II. Relationship to antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gormus, B. J.; Woodson, Mildred; Kaplan, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were incubated (stripped) with pronase or papain and compared with unstripped lymphocytes for their ability to mediate antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Despite marked removal or inactivation of receptors for heat-aggregated IgG (aggG) by proteolytic digestion, and pronounced changes in the percentages of cells rosetting with IgG-sensitized erythrocytes (EA) (decreased by papain, increased by pronase), stripped PBL functioned normally in ADCC. Stripped and unstripped lymphocytes were pre-treated with aggG to determine the role of aggG receptors in ADCC. AggG almost totally abolished ADCC by unstripped PBL, but inhibited ADCC by enzyme-stripped lymphocytes relatively poorly. Neither untreated nor stripped PBL were able to induce cytotoxicity of chicken erythrocyte (CRBC) target cells sensitized with the Fab'2 fragment of anti-CRBC IgG antibody (CRBC-A). Exposure of PBL to EA monolayers composed of CRBC-A or of sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) sensitized with rabbit anti-SRBC IgG antibody (SRBC-A) depleted PBL of cells that rosetted with CRBC-A and with human Rh-positive, type O erythrocytes sensitized with the human anti-Rh serum Ripley (HRBC-A Ripley). Non-adherent cells were incapable of binding aggG and had markedly diminished cytotoxicity in ADCC. Similarly, exposure of PBL to HRBC-A Ripley monolayers resulted in non-adherent cells that were incapable of rosette formation with HRBC-A or CRBC-A, failed to bind aggG, and exhibited significantly diminished ADCC activity. These studies indicated that: (1) cytotoxic effector PBL active in ADCC (K cells) have receptors for aggG and for EA; (2) PBL deficient in functional aggG receptors (enzymatically inactivated or removed) are capable of inducing normal levels of ADCC; (3) aggG and EA receptors appear to be closely associated on native K-cell membranes; (4) there is no clear-cut relationship in a given lymphocyte population between the presence of either aggG or

  10. Pretreatment with a soluble activin type IIB receptor/Fc fusion protein improves hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pistilli, Emidio E.; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Mosqueira, Matias; Lachey, Jennifer; Seehra, Jasbir

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia, or reduced oxygen, occurs in a variety of clinical and environmental situations. Hypoxic exposure is associated with decreased muscle mass and a concomitant reduction in exercise capacity, although the exact mechanisms are not completely understood. The activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) is a receptor for transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) superfamily members that are involved in the negative regulation of lean tissue mass. Given that hypoxia has negative effects on muscle mass and function and that modulation of the ActRIIB has been shown to increase muscle mass, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological targeting of the ActRIIB for 2 wk would attenuate the loss of muscle mass and function in mice after exposure to normobaric hypoxia. ActRIIB modulation was achieved using a soluble activin receptor/Fc fusion protein (sActRIIB) in mice housed in a hypoxic chamber for 1 or 2 wk. Hypoxia induced a reduction in body weight in PBS- and sActRIIB-treated mice, although sActRIIB-treated mice remained larger throughout the hypoxic exposure. The absolute forces generated by extensor digitorum longus muscles were also significantly greater in sActRIIB- than PBS-treated mice and were more resistant to eccentric contraction-induced force drop after eccentric lengthening contractions. In summary, sActRIIB pretreatment attenuated hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction. These data suggest that targeting the ActRIIB is an effective strategy to counter hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction and to preacclimatize to hypoxia in clinical or high-altitude settings. PMID:19864340

  11. Pretreatment with a soluble activin type IIB receptor/Fc fusion protein improves hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Emidio E; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Mosqueira, Matias; Lachey, Jennifer; Seehra, Jasbir; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia, or reduced oxygen, occurs in a variety of clinical and environmental situations. Hypoxic exposure is associated with decreased muscle mass and a concomitant reduction in exercise capacity, although the exact mechanisms are not completely understood. The activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) is a receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily members that are involved in the negative regulation of lean tissue mass. Given that hypoxia has negative effects on muscle mass and function and that modulation of the ActRIIB has been shown to increase muscle mass, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological targeting of the ActRIIB for 2 wk would attenuate the loss of muscle mass and function in mice after exposure to normobaric hypoxia. ActRIIB modulation was achieved using a soluble activin receptor/Fc fusion protein (sActRIIB) in mice housed in a hypoxic chamber for 1 or 2 wk. Hypoxia induced a reduction in body weight in PBS- and sActRIIB-treated mice, although sActRIIB-treated mice remained larger throughout the hypoxic exposure. The absolute forces generated by extensor digitorum longus muscles were also significantly greater in sActRIIB- than PBS-treated mice and were more resistant to eccentric contraction-induced force drop after eccentric lengthening contractions. In summary, sActRIIB pretreatment attenuated hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction. These data suggest that targeting the ActRIIB is an effective strategy to counter hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction and to preacclimatize to hypoxia in clinical or high-altitude settings.

  12. Exon skipping of FcεRIβ eliminates expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor in mast cells with therapeutic potential for allergy

    PubMed Central

    Cruse, Glenn; Yin, Yuzhi; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Desai, Avanti; Arthur, Greer K.; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Beaven, Michael A.; Metcalfe, Dean D.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases are driven by activation of mast cells and release of mediators in response to IgE-directed antigens. However, there are no drugs currently available that can specifically down-regulate mast cell function in vivo when chronically administered. Here, we describe an innovative approach for targeting mast cells in vitro and in vivo using antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping of the β-subunit of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRIβ) to eliminate surface high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) expression and function, rendering mast cells unresponsive to IgE-mediated activation. As FcεRIβ expression is restricted to mast cells and basophils, this approach would selectively target these cell types. Given the success of exon skipping in clinical trials to treat genetic diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we propose that exon skipping of FcεRIβ is a potential approach for mast cell-specific treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27872312

  13. CD32B, the human inhibitory Fc-gamma receptor IIB, as a target for monoclonal antibody therapy of B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Christopher T; Veri, Maria-Concetta; Gorlatov, Sergey; Tuaillon, Nadine; Burke, Steve; Huang, Ling; Inzunza, H David; Li, Hua; Thomas, Shannon; Johnson, Syd; Stavenhagen, Jeffrey; Koenig, Scott; Bonvini, Ezio

    2006-10-01

    Human CD32B (FcgammaRIIB), the low-affinity inhibitory receptor for IgG, is the predominant Fc receptor (FcR) present on B cells. Immunohistochemical and expression studies have identified CD32B expression in a variety of B-cell malignancies, suggesting that CD32B is a potential immunotherapeutic target for B-cell malignancies. A high-affinity monoclonal antibody (mAb 2B6), from a novel panel of anti-human CD32B-specific mAbs, was chimerized (ch2B6) and humanized (hu2B6-3.5). Both ch2B6 and hu2B6-3.5 were capable of directing cytotoxicity by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages against B-lymphoma lines in vitro. In a human B-cell lymphoma mouse xenograft model, administration of ch2B6 or hu2B6-3.5 reduced tumor growth rate and improved tumor-free survival. Both the in vitro and in vivo activities of 2B6 required an intact Fc, suggesting an FcR-mediated mechanism of action. These data support the hypothesis that CD32B is a viable target for mAb treatment of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

  14. T cells stimulated with an analog peptide of type II collagen require the Fc receptor γ-chain to secrete interleukin-4 and suppress autoimmune arthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Myers, Linda K; Cullins, David L; Brand, David D; Kleinau, Sandra; Stuart, John M; Kang, Andrew H

    2011-09-01

    To explore the characteristics of the T cell population that responds to an analog peptide (A9) of type II collagen and regulates autoimmunity, using the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. Analog peptide A9 is a 26-amino acid peptide analogous to the sequence of a segment of type II collagen (CII245-270) but with substitutions at amino acid positions 260 (alanine for isoleucine), 261 (hydroxyproline for alanine), and 263 (asparagine for phenylalanine). We previously showed that A9 profoundly suppressed CIA and immune responses to type II collagen. In order to determine the mechanism of suppression, we used transgenic mice whose T cells express a type II collagen-specific receptor (T cell receptor) and performed passive cell transfer experiments. The results demonstrated that suppression of CIA by A9 is dependent on T cells. Using multiparameter flow cytometry, we determined that the cells responsible for suppression were CD4+ and expressed high levels of Fcε receptor Iγ chain (FcRγ). To establish the significance of this finding, we obtained mice genetically deficient in FcRγ in order to perform passive transfer experiments. The resulting FcRγ-/- CD4+ T cells, when primed by culture with A9, could not transfer the suppression of arthritis or secrete cytokines in response to A9. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the suppression of arthritis and the Th2 cytokine profile elicited by A9 is dependent on the presence of FcRγ in T cells. These findings are novel and may have therapeutic potential for patients with autoimmune arthritis. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Molecular mimicry between Fc receptor and S peplomer protein of mouse hepatitis virus, bovine corona virus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Oleszak, E L; Kuzmak, J; Hogue, B; Parr, R; Collisson, E W; Rodkey, L S; Leibowitz, J L

    1995-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated molecular mimicry between the S peplomer protein of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and Fc gamma R (Fc gamma R). A monoclonal antibody (MAb) to mouse Fc gamma R (2.4G2 anti-Fc gamma R MAb), purified rabbit immunoglobulin, but not their F(ab')2 fragments, as well as mouse and rat IgG, immunoprecipitated (1) recombinant S peplomer protein expressed by a vaccinia virus recombinant in human, rabbit, and mouse cells, and (2) natural S peplomer protein from cells infected with several strains of MHV and MHV escaped mutants. We report here results of studies documenting molecular mimicry between Fc gamma R and S peplomer protein of viruses representing three distinct antigenic subgroups of the Coronaviridae. We have shown a molecular mimicry between the S peplomer protein of bovine corona virus (BCV) and Fc gamma R. The 2.4G2 anti-Fc gamma R MAb, rabbit IgG, but not its F(ab')2 fragments, as well as homologous bovine serum, free of anti-BCV antibodies, immunoprecipitated S peplomer protein of BCV (Mebus strain). In contrast, we did not find molecular mimicry between S peplomer protein of human corona virus (HCV-OC43) and Fc gamma R. Although the OC43 virus belongs to the same antigenic group as MHV and BCV, MAb specific for human Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII and purified human IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 myeloma proteins did not immunoprecipitate the S peplomer protein from HCV-OC43-infected RD cells. In addition, we did demonstrate molecular mimicry between the S peplomer protein of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and Fc gamma R. TGEV belongs to the second antigenic subgroup of coronaviridae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Effect of TLR ligands co-encapsulated with multiepitopic antigen in nanoliposomes targeted to human DCs via Fc receptor for cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Felix; Eich, Christina; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Pere; Acosta, Gerardo; Albericio, Fernando; Cruz, Luis J; Domingo, Joan C

    2017-11-01

    Nanoliposomes (NLs) hold promise as new highly specific nanomedicine for anti-tumor vaccines, since they could be targeted to specific receptors on dendritic cell (DC) to induce maturation and activation and increase the anti-tumor immune response. Here we studied a NLs formulation targeted or not to FcR (the receptor for the IgG Fc fragment) for the treatment of androgen-responsive prostate cancer. Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) peptide (B- and T-cell epitopes), in tandem with a tetanus toxoid T-helper epitope (830-844 region) and several TLR (Toll-Like Receptor) ligands as adjuvants were co-encapsulated. Specific uptake in vitro of LHRH-TT liposomes targeted to the FcRs of human DCs was enhanced. DC maturation/activation, cytokine production and lymphocyte activation were consistently higher in targeted than non-targeted liposomes. Similar increase was observed as more adjuvants were administrated. Targeting to specific receptor and co-encapsulation of several TLR adjuvants are essential factors for the immune response in peptide based liposome vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Fc gamma receptor 3A and 2A polymorphisms do not predict response to rituximab in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kenkre, Vaishalee P.; Hong, Fangxin; Cerhan, James R.; Lewis, Marcia; Sullivan, Leslie; Williams, Michael E.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Horning, Sandra J.; Kahl, Brad S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pre-clinical studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Fcγ receptor (FCGR) genes influence response to rituximab, but the clinical relevance of this is uncertain. Experimental Design We prospectively obtained specimens for genotyping in the RESORT study, where 408 previously untreated, low tumor burden follicular lymphoma (FL) patients were treated with single agent rituximab. Patients received rituximab in 4 weekly doses and responders were randomized to rituximab re-treatment (RR) upon progression versus maintenance rituximab (MR). SNP genotyping was performed in 321 consenting patients. Results Response rates to initial therapy and response duration were correlated with the FCGR3A SNP at position 158 (rs396991) and the FCGR2A SNP at position 131 (rs1801274). The response rate to initial rituximab was 71%. No FCGR genotypes or grouping of genotypes were predictive of initial response. 289 patients were randomized to RR (n = 143) or to MR (n = 146). With a median follow up of 5.5 years, the 3-yr response duration in the RR arm and the MR arm was 50% and 78%, respectively. Genotyping was available in 235 of 289 randomized patients. In patients receiving RR (n = 115) or MR (n =120), response duration was not associated with any FCGR genotypes or genotype combinations. Conclusions Based on this analysis of treatment-naïve, low tumor burden FL, we conclude that the FCGR3A and FCGR2A SNPs do not confer differential responsiveness to rituximab. PMID:26510856

  18. Fc receptor-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement of bacteriophage lambda-mediated gene transfer in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Sapinoro, Ramil; Volcy, Ketna; Rodrigo, W W Shanaka I; Schlesinger, Jacob J; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2008-04-10

    Lambda phage vectors mediate gene transfer in cultured mammalian cells and in live mice, and in vivo phage-mediated gene expression is increased when mice are pre-immunized with bacteriophage lambda. We now show that, like eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage vectors are subject to Fc receptor-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in mammalian cells. Antibody-dependent enhancement of phage gene transfer required FcgammaRI, but not its associated gamma-chain, and was not supported by other FcgammaR family members (FcgammaRIIA, FcgammaRIIB, and FcgammaRIII). Studies using chlorpromazine and latrunculin A revealed an important role for clathrin-mediated endocytosis (chlorpromazine) and actin filaments (latrunculin A) in antibody-enhanced phage gene transfer. This was confirmed by experiments using inhibitors of endosomal acidification (bafilomycin A1, monensin) and by immunocytochemical colocalization of internalized phage particles with early endosome-associated protein-1 (EAA1). In contrast, microtubule-targeting agents (nocodazole, taxol) increased the efficiency of antibody-enhanced phage gene transfer. These results reveal an unexpected antibody-dependent, FcgammaRI-mediated enhancement of phage transduction in mammalian cells, and suggest new approaches to improve bacteriophage-mediated gene transfer.

  19. Enhanced suppression of adenovirus replication by triple combination of anti-adenoviral siRNAs, soluble adenovirus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and cidofovir.

    PubMed

    Pozzuto, Tanja; Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Fechner, Henry

    2015-08-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) generally induce mild self-limiting respiratory or intestinal infections but can also cause serious disease with fatal outcomes in immunosuppressed patients. Antiviral drug therapy is an important treatment for adenoviral infections but its efficiency is limited. Recently, we have shown that gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new approach to inhibit adenoviral infection. In the present in vitro study, we examined whether the efficiency of an RNAi-based anti-adenoviral therapy can be further increased by combination with a virus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and with the antiviral drug cidofovir. Initially, three siRNAs, siE1A_4, siIVa2_2 and Pol-si2, targeting the adenoviral E1A, IVa2 and DNA polymerase mRNAs, respectively, were used for gene silencing. Replication of the Ad was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by each siRNA, but the efficiency of inhibition differed (Pol-si2>siIVa2_2>siE1A_4). Double or triple combinations of the siRNAs compared with single siRNAs did not result in a measurably higher suppression of Ad replication. Combination of the siRNAs (alone or mixes of two or three siRNAs) with sCAR-Fc markedly increased the suppression of adenoviral replication compared to the same siRNA treatment without sCAR-Fc. Moreover, the triple combination of a mix of all three siRNAs, sCAR-Fc and cidofovir was about 23-fold more efficient than the combination of siRNAs mix/sCAR-Fc and about 95-fold more efficient than the siRNA mix alone. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with sCAR-Fc and cidofovir is suitable to increase the efficiency of anti-adenoviral siRNAs.

  20. Monoacylglycerol lipase promotes Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis in microglia but does not regulate LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kouchi, Zen

    2015-08-21

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is important for neuroinflammation. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying its expression and function remain unknown. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment post-translationally upregulated MAGL expression, whereas it downregulated MAGL transcription through a Stat6-mediated mechanism in microglia. Neither MAGL knockdown nor JZL-184, a selective MAGL inhibitor, suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in microglia. Moreover, exogenous expression of MAGL in BV-2 microglial cell line, which lacks endogenous MAGL, did not promote the induction of inflammatory cytokines by LPS treatment. Interestingly, MAGL knockdown reduced Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis in primary microglia, and introduction of MAGL into the BV-2 cells increased Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Collectively, these results suggest that MAGL regulates phagocytosis, but not LPS-mediated cytokine induction in microglia.

  1. Cell-bound IgE and increased expression of Fc epsilon-receptors on dendritic cells in cutaneous infiltrates of mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed Central

    Preesman, A H; Van de Winkel, J G; Magnusson, C G; Toonstra, J; van der Putte, S C; van Vloten, W A

    1991-01-01

    Skin biopsies of 31 non-atopic patients, 20 with mycosis fungoides, six with psoriasis and five with contact dermatitis, and of five non-atopic healthy controls were compared for the presence of cell-bound IgE and vacant IgE binding sites. IgE+ cells were demonstrated in the cutaneous infiltrate of nine (45%) patients with mycosis fungoides, two (33%) with psoriasis and one (20%) with contact dermatitis. Following pre-incubation of skin sections with IgE myeloma protein to saturate vacant IgE-binding sites, 14 out of 16 patients (88%) with stage I mycosis fungoides, five (83%) patients with psoriasis and one (20%) with contact dermatitis showed an increase in the number of IgE+ cells. While cell-bound IgE was positively related to serum IgE levels the expression of IgE-binding sites was not. All IgE+ cells were HLA-DR+ dendritic cells identified as either macrophages (CD68+, CD14+) or Langerhans cells (CD1+). Skin biopsies of non-atopic healthy controls or clinically uninvolved skin in mycosis fungoides had neither any IgE+ cells nor any vacant binding sites. Inhibition studies with IgG1, IgG4 and IgE myeloma proteins as well as with several enzymatic fragments of IgE demonstrated that IgE interacted with Fc epsilon-receptors through isotype-specific structures on the Fc epsilon-fragment. Four anti-CD23 monoclonal antibodies, however, were unable to stain vacant Fc epsilon-receptors nor could they block IgE-binding. We hypothesize that locally-secreted lymphokines, like IL-4 or interferon-gamma, induce Fc epsilon-receptors on dendritic cells in the cutaneous infiltrate and that these receptors become occupied in parallel with elevated serum IgE levels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1834378

  2. Contribution of Fcγ receptors to human respiratory syncytial virus pathogenesis and the impairment of T-cell activation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Roberto S; Ramirez, Bruno A; Céspedes, Pablo F; Cautivo, Kelly M; Riquelme, Sebastián A; Prado, Carolina E; González, Pablo A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of infant hospitalization related to respiratory disease. Infection with hRSV produces abundant infiltration of immune cells into the airways, which combined with an exacerbated pro-inflammatory immune response can lead to significant damage to the lungs. Human RSV re-infection is extremely frequent, suggesting that this virus may have evolved molecular mechanisms that interfere with host adaptive immunity. Infection with hRSV can be reduced by administering a humanized neutralizing antibody against the virus fusion protein in high-risk infants. Although neutralizing antibodies against hRSV effectively block the infection of airway epithelial cells, here we show that both, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and lung DCs undergo infection with IgG-coated virus (hRSV-IC), albeit abortive. Yet, this is enough to negatively modulate DC function. We observed that such a process is mediated by Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) expressed on the surface of DCs. Remarkably, we also observed that in the absence of hRSV-specific antibodies FcγRIII knockout mice displayed significantly less cellular infiltration in the lungs after hRSV infection, compared with wild-type mice, suggesting a potentially harmful, IgG-independent role for this receptor in hRSV disease. Our findings support the notion that FcγRs can contribute significantly to the modulation of DC function by hRSV and hRSV-IC. Further, we provide evidence for an involvement of FcγRIII in the development of hRSV pathogenesis.

  3. Interferon gamma rapidly induces in human monocytes a DNA-binding factor that recognizes the gamma response region within the promoter of the gene for the high-affinity Fc gamma receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K C; Finbloom, D S

    1992-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) transcriptionally activates several early-response genes in monocytes that are important for the ultimate phenotype of the activated macrophage. One of these genes is the high-affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI). Recently, Pearse et al. [Pearse, R.N., Feinman, R. & Ravetch, J. V. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 11305-11309] defined within the promoter region of the Fc gamma RI gene an element, the gamma response region, which was necessary for IFN-gamma-induced enhancement of Fc gamma RI. In this report we describe the induction by IFN-gamma of a DNA-binding factor, FcRF gamma (Fc gamma RI DNA-binding factor, IFN-gamma induced), that specifically recognizes the gamma response region element. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated the presence of FcRF gamma in human monocytes within 1 min after exposure to IFN-gamma. On EMSA, FcRF gamma consisted of two complexes termed FcRF gamma 1 and FcRF gamma 2. The nuclear concentration of FcRF gamma rapidly increased, peaked at 15 min, and then fell after 1-2 hr. Dose-response studies revealed (i) as little as 0.05 ng of IFN-gamma per ml induced FcRF gamma, (ii) maximum activation occurred at 1 ng/ml, and (iii) steady-state levels of Fc gamma RI mRNA closely paralleled that of FcRF gamma. Since FcRF gamma was activated in cells normally not expressing Fc gamma RI RNA, other regulatory mechanisms must control Fc gamma RI-restricted tissue expression. Activation of FcRF gamma by IFN-gamma was inhibited by pretreatment with 500 nM staurosporin and 25 microM phenyl arsine oxide. These data suggest that a kinase and possibly a phosphatase activity are required for IFN-gamma-induced signaling of FcRF gamma in monocytes. Images PMID:1334553

  4. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis is regulated by mechanical properties of the target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beningo, Karen A.; Wang, Yu-li

    2002-01-01

    Phagocytosis is an actin-based process used by macrophages to clear particles greater than 0.5 microm in diameter. In addition to its role in immunological responses, phagocytosis is also necessary for tissue remodeling and repair. To prevent catastrophic autoimmune reactions, phagocytosis must be tightly regulated. It is commonly assumed that the recognition/selection of phagocytic targets is based solely upon receptor-ligand binding. Here we report an important new criterion, that mechanical parameters of the target can dramatically affect the efficiency of phagocytosis. When presented with particles of identical chemical properties but different rigidity, macrophages showed a strong preference to engulf rigid objects. Furthermore, phagocytosis of soft particles can be stimulated with the microinjection of constitutively active Rac1 but not RhoA, and with lysophosphatidic acid, an agent known to activate the small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family. These data suggest a Rac1-dependent mechanosensory mechanism for phagocytosis, which probably plays an important role in a number of physiological and pathological processes from embryonic development to autoimmune diseases.

  5. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis is regulated by mechanical properties of the target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beningo, Karen A.; Wang, Yu-li

    2002-01-01

    Phagocytosis is an actin-based process used by macrophages to clear particles greater than 0.5 microm in diameter. In addition to its role in immunological responses, phagocytosis is also necessary for tissue remodeling and repair. To prevent catastrophic autoimmune reactions, phagocytosis must be tightly regulated. It is commonly assumed that the recognition/selection of phagocytic targets is based solely upon receptor-ligand binding. Here we report an important new criterion, that mechanical parameters of the target can dramatically affect the efficiency of phagocytosis. When presented with particles of identical chemical properties but different rigidity, macrophages showed a strong preference to engulf rigid objects. Furthermore, phagocytosis of soft particles can be stimulated with the microinjection of constitutively active Rac1 but not RhoA, and with lysophosphatidic acid, an agent known to activate the small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family. These data suggest a Rac1-dependent mechanosensory mechanism for phagocytosis, which probably plays an important role in a number of physiological and pathological processes from embryonic development to autoimmune diseases.

  6. Heterogeneity of nonimmune immunoglobulin Fc reactivity among gram-positive cocci: description of three major types of receptors for human immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Myhre, E B; Kronvall, G

    1977-09-01

    Two hundred and thirty strains of various gram-positive cocci were tested for quantitative, nonimmune binding of radiolabeled human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG). The majority of coagulase-positive staphylococci and streptococci belonging to serogroups C and G showed a high uptake of IgG. The binding of immunoglobulin to group A streptococci was considerably less, with a number of strains completely negative. None of the pneumococcal or the group B or D streptococcal strains displayed any binding capacity. Heterogeneity of the IgG reactivity of various reactive strains was studied in an inhibition assay using 10 different animal serum pools. Three different inhibition patterns were seen, each of them revealing a striking degree of homogeneity within single bacterial species. Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococci, respectively, constituted two homogeneous groups which differed markedly from each other and from C and G streptococci. No differences were observed between group C and G streptococci. Based on the profound differences between these homogeneous groups, three major types of Fc receptors could be defined. Type I and II Fc receptors were found on S. aureus and on group A streptococci, respectively. Fc receptor type III represented the immunoglobulin-binding structure of both group C and G streptococci.

  7. CD21(-/low) marginal zone B cells highly express Fc receptor-like 5 protein and are killed by anti-Fc receptor-like 5 immunotoxins in hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Benjamin; Nagata, Satoshi; Ise, Tomoko; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Pastan, Ira; Klatzmann, David; Saadoun, David; Cacoub, Patrice

    2014-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, including mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) vasculitis and B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The expansion of clonal and autoreactive rheumatoid factor-bearing CD21(-/low) marginal zone (MZ) B cells was demonstrated in patients with HCV-associated MC vasculitis. Fc receptor-like (FCRL) proteins comprise a family of immunoregulatory proteins preferentially expressed on B lineage cells. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression of FCRL proteins 1-5 on B cells from patients with HCV-associated MC vasculitis. Expression of FCRL proteins 1-5 was assessed by flow cytometry on B cells from 15 HCV-infected patients with type II MC (7 of whom had B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma), 20 HCV-infected patients without MC, and 20 healthy donors. To evaluate FCRL-5 as an immunotherapy target in HCV-associated MC vasculitis, 2 anti-FCRL-5 recombinant immunotoxins were produced using anti-FCRL-5 monoclonal antibodies and Pseudomonas exotoxin. Expression of FCRLs 2, 3, and 5 was markedly increased while expression of FCRL-1 was decreased on clonal CD21(-/low) MZ B cells, as compared with other B cell subsets, from HCV-infected patients and healthy donors. However, there was no difference in the pattern of FCRL expression between HCV-MC patients with lymphoma and those without lymphoma. The anti-FCRL-5 immunotoxins showed specific cytotoxicity against FCRL-5-expressing clonal CD21(-/low) MZ B cells isolated from HCV-infected patients as well as FCRL-5-transfected cell lines. No cytotoxicity against T cells or conventional B cells was observed. These findings suggest that FCRL-5-targeting therapies could be a specific treatment for HCV-associated MC vasculitis and other FCRL-5-positive autoimmune B cell disorders. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Direct interaction of Syk and Lyn protein tyrosine kinases in rat basophilic leukemia cells activated via type I Fc epsilon receptors.

    PubMed

    Amoui, M; Dráberová, L; Tolar, P; Dráber, P

    1997-01-01

    Activation of rat mast cells through the receptor with high affinity for IgE (Fc epsilonRI) requires a complex set of interactions involving transmembrane subunits of the Fc epsilonRI and two classes of nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK). the Src family PTK p53/p56(lyn) (Lyn) and the Syk/ZAP-family PTK p72(syk) (Syk). Early activation events involve increased activity of Lyn and Syk kinases and their translocation into membrane domains containing aggregated Fc epsilonRI, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for these changes have remained largely unclear. To determine the role of Fc epsilonRI subunits in this process, we have analyzed Syk- and Lyn-associated proteins in activated rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells and their variants deficient in the expression of Fc epsilonRI beta or gamma subunits. Sepharose 4B gel chromatography of postnuclear supernatants from Nonidet-P40-solubilized antigen (Ag)- or pervanadate-activated RBL cells revealed extensive changes in the size of complexes formed by Lyn and Syk kinases and other cellular components. A fusion protein containing Src homology 2 (SH2) and SH3 domains of Lyn bound Syk from lysates of nonactivated RBL cells; an increased binding was observed when lysates from Ag- or pervanadate-activated cells were used. A similar amount of Syk was bound when lysates from pervanadate-activated variant cells deficient in the expression of Fc epsilonRI beta or gamma subunits were used, suggesting that Fc epsilonRI does not function as the only intermediate in the formation of the Syk-Lyn complexes. Further experiments have indicated that Syk-Lyn interactions occur in Ag-activated RBL cells under in vivo conditions and that these interactions could involve direct binding of the Lyn SH2 domain with phosphorylated tyrosine of Syk. The physical association of Lyn and Syk during mast-like cell activation supports the recently proposed functional cooperation of these two tyrosine kinases in Fc epsilonRI signaling.

  9. Scavenger receptor function of mouse Fcγ receptor III contributes to progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E hyperlipidemic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinmei; Ng, Hang Pong; Lai, Yen-Chun; Craigo, Jodi K; Nagilla, Pruthvi S; Raghani, Pooja; Nagarajan, Shanmugam

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies showed loss of CD36 or scavenger receptor-AI/II (SR-A) does not ameliorate atherosclerosis in a hyperlipidemic mouse model, suggesting receptors other than CD36 and SR-A may also contribute to atherosclerosis. In this report, we show that apolipoprotein E (apoE)-CD16 double knockout (DKO; apoE-CD16 DKO) mice have reduced atherosclerotic lesions compared with apoE knockout mice. In vivo and in vitro foam cell analyses showed apoE-CD16 DKO macrophages accumulated less neutral lipids. Reduced foam cell formation in apoE-CD16 DKO mice is not due to change in expression of CD36, SR-A, and LOX-1. This led to a hypothesis that CD16 may have scavenger receptor activity. We presented evidence that a soluble form of recombinant mouse CD16 (sCD16) bound to malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDALDL), and this binding is blocked by molar excess of MDA- modified BSA and anti-MDA mAbs, suggesting CD16 specifically recognizes MDA epitopes. Interestingly, sCD16 inhibited MDALDL binding to macrophage cell line, as well as soluble forms of recombinant mouse CD36, SR-A, and LOX-1, indicating CD16 can cross-block MDALDL binding to other scavenger receptors. Anti-CD16 mAb inhibited immune complex binding to sCD16, whereas it partially inhibited MDALDL binding to sCD16, suggesting MDALDL binding site may be in close proximity to the immune complex binding site in CD16. Loss of CD16 expression resulted in reduced levels of MDALDL-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression. Finally, CD16-deficient macrophages showed reduced MDALDL-induced Syk phosphorylation. Collectively, our findings suggest scavenger receptor activity of CD16 may, in part, contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis.

  10. B cell expression of the inhibitory Fc gamma receptor is unchanged in early MS.

    PubMed

    Comabella, Manuel; Montalban, Xavier; Kakalacheva, Kristina; Osman, Deeqa; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Tintoré, Mar; Lünemann, Jan D

    2010-06-01

    Expression of the inhibitory Fcgamma receptor IIB (FcgammaRIIB) has emerged as a late checkpoint during peripheral B cell development which prevents autoreactive memory B lymphocytes from becoming long-lived plasma cells. Decreased expression of FcgammaRIIB or non-functional FcgammaRIIB variants are associated with the development of autoimmune tissue inflammation. We determined the expression profile of FcgammaRIIB in peripheral blood cells in treatment-naïve patients with early MS. Twenty-five patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) who converted to clinically definite MS (CDMS) and 25 demographically matched healthy donors were included in the study. Frequencies of peripheral blood monocytes and B cell subsets as well as FcgammaRIIB expression profile was determined by flow cytometry. FcgammaRIIB expression levels were higher in B cells compared to monocytes (p<0.0001) and higher in memory B cells compared to their naïve counterparts (p<0.0001). However, FcgammaRIIB expression in naïve and memory B cells as well as monocytes was unchanged in patients with early MS at onset of symptoms as well as after conversion to CDMS compared to controls. No significant correlations were found between FcgammaRIIB expression levels and brain MRI-derived metrics or EDSS progression during follow-up. These data indicate that FcgammaRIIB expression, a critical late B cell differentiation checkpoint preventing the occurrence of autoreactive long-lived plasma cells, is not impaired in treatment-naïve patients with MS, at least in the early phases of the disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of FcϵRI Signaling in Mast Cells by G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 and Its RH Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Hariharan; Gupta, Kshitij; Parameswaran, Narayanan; Ali, Hydar

    2014-01-01

    Agonist-induced phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by GPCR kinases (GRKs) promotes their desensitization and internalization. Here, we sought to determine the role of GRK2 on FcϵRI signaling and mediator release in mast cells. The strategies utilized included lentiviral shRNA-mediated GRK2 knockdown, GRK2 gene deletion (GRK2flox/flox/cre recombinase) and overexpression of GRK2 and its regulator of G protein signaling homology (RH) domain (GRK2-RH). We found that silencing GRK2 expression caused ∼50% decrease in antigen-induced Ca2+ mobilization and degranulation but resulted in ablation of cytokine (IL-6 and IL-13) generation. The effect of GRK2 on cytokine generation does not require its catalytic activity but is mediated via the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. Overexpression of GRK2 or its RH domain (GRK2-RH) enhanced antigen-induced mast cell degranulation and cytokine generation without affecting the expression levels of any of the FcϵRI subunits (α, β, and γ). GRK2 or GRK2-RH had no effect on antigen-induced phosphorylation of FcϵRIγ or Src but enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk. These data demonstrate that GRK2 modulates FcϵRI signaling in mast cells via at least two mechanisms. One involves GRK2-RH and modulates tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, and the other is mediated via the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. PMID:24904059

  12. Downregulation of the neonatal Fc receptor expression in non-small cell lung cancer tissue is associated with a poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Dalloneau, Emilie; Baroukh, Nadine; Mavridis, Konstantinos; Maillet, Agnès; Gueugnon, Fabien; Courty, Yves; Petit, Agnès; Kryza, Thomas; Del Rio, Maguy; Guyetant, Serge; Castaneda, Diana Carolina Cadena; Dhommée, Christine; Arnoult, Christophe; Scorilas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although the recommended tumor, node and metastasis (TNM) classification and stage determination are important to select therapeutic options for patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), additional molecular markers are required to indicate the prognosis, in particular within a specific stage, and help with the management of patients. Because neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has recently been involved in colon cancer immunosurveillance, we measured its expression in non-cancerous and NSCLC lung tissues and evaluated its prognostic value in overall survival for patient with NSCLC. FcRn expression was determined at both mRNA and protein levels on cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from 80 NSCLC patients. In NSCLC, FcRn was mainly found in resident and tumor infiltrating immune cells. The corresponding mRNA and protein were significantly less abundant in lung tumor than non-cancerous tissue. Moreover, analysis of our cohort and datasets from the public data bases show that FCGRT mRNA down-regulation is a robust and independent, unfavorable predictive factor of NSCLC patient survival. We conclude that FCGRT mRNA expression may be a useful additional marker for immunoscoring, reflecting tumor immune system, and help in the decision-making process for NSCLC patients. PMID:27384673

  13. Lipoprotein lipase regulates Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages maintained in glucose-deficient medium.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, B; Loike, J D; Kako, Y; Weinstock, P H; Breslow, J L; Silverstein, S C; Goldberg, I J

    1997-01-01

    During periods of intense activity such as phagocytosis, macrophages are thought to derive most of their energy from glucose metabolism under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To determine whether fatty acids released from lipoproteins by macrophage lipoprotein lipase (LPL) could substitute for glucose as a source of energy for phagocytosis, we cultured peritoneal macrophages from normal and LPL knockout (LPL-KO) mice that had been rescued from neonatal demise by expression of human LPL via the muscle creatine kinase promoter. Normal and LPL-KO macrophages were cultured in medium containing normal (5 mM) or low (1 mM) glucose, and were tested for their capacity to phagocytose IgG-opsonized sheep erythrocytes. LPL-KO macrophages maintained in 1 and 5 mM glucose phagocytosed 67 and 79% fewer IgG-opsonized erythrocytes, respectively, than macrophages from normal mice. Addition of VLDL to LPL-expressing macrophages maintained in 1 mM glucose enhanced the macrophages' phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes, but did not stimulate phagocytosis by LPL-KO macrophages. Inhibition of secreted LPL with a monoclonal anti-LPL antibody or with tetrahydrolipstatin blocked the ability of VLDL to enhance phagocytosis by LPL-expressing macrophages maintained in 1 mM glucose. Addition of oleic acid significantly enhanced phagocytosis by both LPL-expressing and LPL-KO macrophages maintained in 1 mM glucose. Moreover, oleic acid stimulated phagocytosis in cells cultured in non-glucose-containing medium, and increased the intracellular stores of creatine phosphate. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, but not of glycolysis, blocked the capacity of oleic acid to stimulate phagocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of acetyl LDL by macrophages from LPL-expressing and LPL-KO mice was similar whether the cells were maintained in 5 or 1 mM glucose, and was not augmented by VLDL. We postulate that fatty acids derived from macrophage LPL-catalyzed hydrolysis of triglycerides and

  14. Fc receptors for IgG (Fc gamma Rs) on human monocytes and macrophages are not infectivity receptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1): studies using bispecific antibodies to target HIV-1 to various myeloid cell surface molecules, including the Fc gamma R.

    PubMed Central

    Connor, R I; Dinces, N B; Howell, A L; Romet-Lemonne, J L; Pasquali, J L; Fanger, M W

    1991-01-01

    Fc gamma Rs (Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RII, and Fc gamma RIII) are highly expressed on human mononuclear phagocytes and function in the clearance of immune complexes and opsonized pathogens. We have examined the role of Fc gamma R in mediating antibody-dependent clearance of HIV-1 by human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages by using bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) to independently target the virus to Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RII, or Fc gamma RIII. Virus production was markedly reduced in monocytes cultured with strain HIV-1IIIB opsonized with BsAbs that target the virus to either Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII compared to monocytes cultured with virus in the absence of BsAbs or in the presence of BsAbs that target the virus to non-Fc gamma R surface antigens (CD33 and HLA-A,B,C). These results were confirmed using the monotropic isolate HIV-1JRFL. Interaction of HIV-1JRFL with Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII on human monocytes and Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RII, or Fc gamma RIII on monocyte-derived macrophages resulted in markedly reduced levels of virus production in these cultures. Moreover, HIV-1 infection of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages was completely blocked by anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies, indicating that interaction with CD4 is required for infectivity even under conditions of antibody-mediated binding of HIV-1 to Fc gamma R. Thus, we propose that highly opsonized HIV-1 initiates high-affinity multivalent interactions with Fc gamma R that trigger endocytosis and intracellular degradation of the antibody-virus complex. At lower levels of antibody opsonization, there are two few interactions with Fc gamma R to initiate endocytosis and intracellular degradation of the antibody-virus complex, but there are enough interactions to stabilize the virus at the cell surface, allowing antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection through high-affinity CD4 interactions. However, our results suggest that interaction of highly opsonized HIV-1 with Fc gamma Rs

  15. The Fc Receptor Polymorphisms and Expression of Neutrophil Activation Markers in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease from Western India

    PubMed Central

    Kangne, Harshada K.; Jijina, Farah F.; Italia, Yazdi M.; Jain, Dipti L.; Nadkarni, Anita H.; Gupta, Maya; Pradhan, Vandana; Mukesh, Rati D.; Ghosh, Kanjaksha K.; Colah, Roshan B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Sickle cell disease has variable clinical manifestations. Activation of neutrophils plays an important role in the initiation and propagation of vaso occlusive crises which can be analysed by determining the expression of neutrophil antigens such as CD16, CD32, and CD62L. The common FcγR polymorphisms (FcγRIIA and FcγRIIIB) are considered to influence clinical presentation. This study focuses on distribution of FcγR polymorphisms and their association with neutrophil activity among the patients from western India. Methods. In this paper 127 sickle cell anemia patients and 58 patients with sickle-β-thalassemia (median age 12 ± 8.58 years) with variable clinical phenotypes along with 175 normals were investigated. FcγRs polymorphisms were analysed by RFLP and AS-PCR. Activation of neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry. Results. The genotypic frequency of the H/R genotype of FcγRIIA and the NA1/NA1 genotype of FcγRIIIB was significantly decreased in patients compared to normals (P-0.0074, P-0.0471, resp.). We found a significant difference in the expression of CD32 and CD62L among the patients as against normals. A significantly higher expression of CD32 was seen in the milder patients with the H/H genotype (P-0.0231), whereas the expression of CD16 was higher in severe patients with the NA2/NA2 genotype (P-0.0312). Conclusion. The two FcγR polymorphisms had significant association with variable phenotypes of sickle cell disease. The expression of CD62L decreased in our patients indicating activation of neutrophils. PMID:24191245

  16. Association analysis of copy numbers of FC-gamma receptor genes for rheumatoid arthritis and other immune-mediated phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Lude; el Bannoudi, Hanane; Jansen, Diahann T S L; Kok, Klaas; Trynka, Gosia; Diogo, Dorothee; Swertz, Morris; Fransen, Karin; Knevel, Rachel; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Kremer, Joel; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Weersma, Rinse K; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Guryev, Viktor; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Gregersen, Peter K; Plenge, Robert M; Wijmenga, Cisca; Huizinga, Tom W-J; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Toes, Rene E M; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Segmental duplications (SDs) comprise about 5% of the human genome and are enriched for immune genes. SD loci often show copy numbers variations (CNV), which are difficult to tag with genotyping methods. CNV in the Fcγ receptor region (FCGR) has been suggested to be associated with rheumatic diseases. The objective of this study was to delineate association of FCGR-CNV with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), coeliac disease and Inflammatory bowel disease incidence. We developed a method to accurately quantify CNV in SD loci based on the intensity values from the Immunochip platform and applied it to the FCGR locus. We determined the method's validity using three independent assays: segregation analysis in families, arrayCGH, and whole genome sequencing. Our data showed the presence of two separate CNVs in the FCGR locus. The first region encodes FCGR2A, FCGR3A and part of FCGR2C gene, the second encodes another part of FCGR2C, FCGR3B and FCGR2B. Analysis of CNV status in 4578 individuals with RA and 5457 controls indicated association of duplications in the FCGR3B gene in antibody-negative RA (P=0.002, OR=1.43). Deletion in FCGR3B was associated with increased risk of antibody-positive RA, consistently with previous reports (P=0.023, OR=1.23). A clear genotype–phenotype relationship was observed: CNV polymorphisms of the FCGR3A gene correlated to CD16A expression (encoded by FCGR3A) on CD8 T-cells. In conclusion, our method allows determining the CNV status of the FCGR locus, we identified association of CNV in FCGR3B to RA and showed a functional relationship between CNV in the FCGR3A gene and CD16A expression. PMID:25966632

  17. Association of Fc receptor-like 5 (FCRL5) with Graves' disease is secondary to the effect of FCRL3.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Matthew J; Brand, Oliver J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Newby, Paul R; Franklyn, Jayne A; Gough, Stephen C L

    2010-11-01

    The Fc receptor-like 3 (FCRL3) molecule, involved in controlling B-cell signalling, may contribute to the autoimmune disease process. Recently, a genome-wide screen detected association of neighbouring gene FCRL5 with Graves' disease (GD). To determine whether FCRL5 represents a further independent B-cell signalling GD susceptibility loci, we screened 12 tag SNPs, capturing all known common variation within FCRL5, in 5192 UK Caucasian GD index cases and controls. A case-control association study investigating twelve tag SNPs within FCRL5 which captured the majority of known common variation within this gene region. A data set comprising 2504 UK Caucasian patients with GD and 2688 geographically matched controls taken from the 1958 British Birth cohort. We used the chi-squared test and haplotype analysis to investigate the association between the tag SNPs and GD before performing logistic regression analysis to determine whether association at FCRL5 was independent of the known FCRL3 association. Three of the FCRL5 tag SNPs, rs6667109, rs3811035 and rs6692977 showed association with GD (P = 0·015-0·001, OR = 1·15-1·16). Logistic regression performed on all FCRL5 and, previously screened, FCRL3 tag SNPs revealed that association with FCRL5 was secondary to linkage disequilibrium with the FCRL3, rs11264798 and rs10489678 SNPs. FCRL5 does not appear to be exerting an independent effect on the development of GD in the UK. Fine mapping of the entire FCRL region is required to determine the exact location of the aetiological variant/s present. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Fc receptor-bearing peripheral blood mononuclear cells in breast cancer patients: a possible marker of tumour burden and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, J; McPherson, T A

    1981-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence was used to identify and quantitate peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells possessing high avidity Fc receptors in 105 patients upon referral to the breast cancer clinic at the Cross Cancer Institute. The cell detected was shown to be a non-adherent PBM, probably belonging to the T or null cell population. The mean percentage +/- 2 standard deviations of PBM-positive cells in 75 patients with no disease or benign breast disease was 5.3 +/- ;6.7, and this was significantly (P less than 0.001) less than the percentage found for 31 patients with breast cancer. The percentage of PBM-positive cells correlated directly with tumour burden in patient with small (less than or equal to 5 cm) tumours without regional node or extranodal metastases (5/13 had greater than or equal to 12% positive PBM) and in those with small tumours plus regional node metastases, but without extranodal metastases (8/10 had greater than or equal to 12% positive PBM). This correlation was less, however, in patients with large tumours (greater than 5 cm), and in those with extranodal metastases (4/8 had greater than or equal to 12% positive PBM), and in patients tested postoperatively (1/13 had greater than or equal to 12% positive PBM) even though 6!13 had regional node metastases at the time of surgery. Thus, this relatively simple assay, which can be done on peripheral blood samples, may turn out to be useful in patients with breast cancer as a prognostic marker insofar as it may be an indirect indicator of tumour burden preoperatively. If so, it may lead to a more aggressive postoperative adjuvant therapy approach to the subpopulation of node-negative PBM-positive breast cancer patients than is currently used for node-negative patients. PMID:7035033

  19. Association analysis of copy numbers of FC-gamma receptor genes for rheumatoid arthritis and other immune-mediated phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Franke, Lude; el Bannoudi, Hanane; Jansen, Diahann T S L; Kok, Klaas; Trynka, Gosia; Diogo, Dorothee; Swertz, Morris; Fransen, Karin; Knevel, Rachel; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Kremer, Joel; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Weersma, Rinse K; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Guryev, Viktor; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Gregersen, Peter K; Plenge, Robert M; Wijmenga, Cisca; Huizinga, Tom W-J; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Toes, Rene E M; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    Segmental duplications (SDs) comprise about 5% of the human genome and are enriched for immune genes. SD loci often show copy numbers variations (CNV), which are difficult to tag with genotyping methods. CNV in the Fcγ receptor region (FCGR) has been suggested to be associated with rheumatic diseases. The objective of this study was to delineate association of FCGR-CNV with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), coeliac disease and Inflammatory bowel disease incidence. We developed a method to accurately quantify CNV in SD loci based on the intensity values from the Immunochip platform and applied it to the FCGR locus. We determined the method's validity using three independent assays: segregation analysis in families, arrayCGH, and whole genome sequencing. Our data showed the presence of two separate CNVs in the FCGR locus. The first region encodes FCGR2A, FCGR3A and part of FCGR2C gene, the second encodes another part of FCGR2C, FCGR3B and FCGR2B. Analysis of CNV status in 4578 individuals with RA and 5457 controls indicated association of duplications in the FCGR3B gene in antibody-negative RA (P=0.002, OR=1.43). Deletion in FCGR3B was associated with increased risk of antibody-positive RA, consistently with previous reports (P=0.023, OR=1.23). A clear genotype-phenotype relationship was observed: CNV polymorphisms of the FCGR3A gene correlated to CD16A expression (encoded by FCGR3A) on CD8 T-cells. In conclusion, our method allows determining the CNV status of the FCGR locus, we identified association of CNV in FCGR3B to RA and showed a functional relationship between CNV in the FCGR3A gene and CD16A expression.

  20. Raft localization of type I Fcε receptor and degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells exposed to decavanadate, a structural model for V2O5.

    PubMed

    Al-Qatati, Abeer; Fontes, Fabio L; Barisas, B George; Zhang, Dongmei; Roess, Deborah A; Crans, Debbie C

    2013-09-07

    Vanadium oxides (VOs) have been identified as low molecular weight sensitizing agents associated with occupational asthma and compromised pulmonary immunocompetence. Symptoms of adult onset asthma result, in part, from increased signal transduction by Type I Fcε receptors (FcεRI) leading to release of vasoactive compounds including histamine from mast cells. Exposure to (VOs) typically occurs in the form of particles which are insoluble. Upon contact with water or biological fluids, (VOs) form a series of soluble oxoanions, one of which is decavanadate, V10O28(6-) abbreviated V10, which is structurally related to a common vanadium oxide, that is vanadium pentoxide, V2O5. Here we investigate whether V10 may be initiating plasma membrane events associated with activation of FcεRI signal transduction. We show that exposure of RBL-2H3 cells to V10 causes a concentration-dependent increase in degranulation of RBL-2H3 and, in addition, an increase in plasma membrane lipid packing as measured by the fluorescent probe, di-4-ANEPPDHQ. V10 also increases FcεRI accumulation in low-density membrane fragments, i.e., lipid rafts, which may facilitate FcεRI signaling. To determine whether V10 effects on plasma membrane lipid packing were similarly observed in Langmuir monolayers formed from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the extent of lipid packing in the presence and absence of V10 and vanadate was compared. V10 increased the surface area of DPPC Langmuir monolayers by 6% and vanadate decreased the surface area by 4%. These results are consistent with V10 interacting with this class of membrane lipids and altering DPPC packing.

  1. The leukocyte receptor CD84 inhibits Fc epsilon RI-mediated signaling through homophilic interaction in transfected RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Vila, Irene; Saborit-Villarroya, Ifigènia; Engel, Pablo; Martin, Margarita

    2008-04-01

    Signaling through the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (Fc epsilon RI) results in the coordinated activation of tyrosine kinases, thus leading to calcium mobilization, degranulation, and leukotriene and cytokine synthesis. Here, we show that CD84, a member of the CD150 family of leukocyte receptors, inhibits Fc epsilon RI-mediated mast cell degranulation in CD84-transfected rat basophilic leukaemia-2H3 mast cell line cells (RBL-2H3) through homophilic interaction. There was no reduction in overall protein phosphorylation following IgE triggering in CD84 RBL-2H3 cells. Indeed, phosphorylation of Dok-1 and c-Cbl increased in CD84 RBL-2H3, suggesting that inhibition is mediated by these molecules. MAP kinase phosphorylation (ERK1/2, JNK and p38) and cytokine synthesis were impaired in CD84 RBL-2H3. This inhibitory mechanism was independent of SAP and SHP-2 recruitment. Interestingly, CD84 mutants in tyrosines (Y279F and DeltaY324) reversed this inhibitory profile. These data suggest that CD84 may play a role in modulating Fc epsilon RI-mediated signaling in mast cells. Thus, CD84 could play a protective role against undesired allergic and inflammatory responses.

  2. The low affinity IgG receptor Fc gamma RIIB contributes to the binding of the mast cell specific antibody, mAb BGD6.

    PubMed

    Guiraldelli, Michel F; Berenstein, Elsa H; Grodzki, Ana Cristina G; Siraganian, Reuben P; Jamur, Maria Celia; Oliver, Constance

    2008-04-01

    The mast cell specific monoclonal antibody, mAb BGD6, is a mast cell lineage marker [Jamur, M.C., Grodzki, A.C., Berenstein, E.H., Hamawy, M.M., Siraganian, R.P., Oliver, C., 2005. Identification and characterization of undifferentiated mast cells in mouse bone marrow. Blood 105, 4282-4289]. In rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells, mAb BGD6 precipitates cell-surface proteins of approximately 110 and 40-60 kDa. An expression cloning strategy was used to identify proteins that interact with mAb BGD6. A RBL-2H3 cDNA library in plasmids was transfected into PEAK cells, which do not bind mAb BGD6, and positive cells were selected with mAb BGD6. The plasmids recovered from the positive cells were amplified; retransfected into PEAK cells and after several screening cycles a positive clone was identified. This clone showed almost complete identity to Fc gamma RIIB (CD32), the low affinity IgG receptor. However, in contrast to the sequence in GenBank, this clone had an insert of 141 bp which codes for a longer isoform of this molecule with an extra 47 aa in its cytoplasmic domain. In RBL-2H3 cells both isoforms were expressed, with higher expression of the shorter form. The mechanism of binding of mAB BGD6 on both RBL-2H3 and CD32 transfected PEAK cells was then examined. Intact mAb BGD6 bound to both RBL-2H3 and CD32 expressing PEAK cells, but F(ab')(2) fragments bound only to RBL-2H3 cells demonstrating that mAb BGD6 binds to Fc gamma RIIB only through its Fc portion. On RBL-2H3 cells, the Fab of an anti-CD32 mAb partially inhibited the binding of intact mAb BGD6. The binding pattern of mAb BGD6 inhibited with anti-CD32 resembled that of the F(ab')(2) fragment of the antibody suggesting that the Fc portion of mAb BGD6 contributes to its binding on cells that have Fc gamma RIIB. These results are consistent with a model where mAb BGD6 binds through its Fab portion to a approximately 110 kDa protein and the Fc tail interacts with Fc gamma RIIB (CD32).

  3. Third-stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larva excretory secretory antigens modulate function of Fc gamma receptor I-mediated monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture.

    PubMed

    Benjathummarak, Surachet; Kumsiri, Ratchanok; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Kalambaheti, Thareerat; Waikagul, Jitra; Viseshakul, Nareerat; Maneerat, Yaowapa

    2016-01-01

    Third (infective)-stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae (L3) mainly cause human gnathostomiasis. G. spinigerum L3 migrate throughout the subcutaneous tissues, vital organs, and central nervous system and can cause various pathogenesis including sudden death. Interestingly, G. spinigerum L3 can survive and evade host cellular immunity for months or years. The effects of G. spinigerum excretory-secretory (ES) products involved in larval migration and immune-evasive strategies are unknown. Monocytes are innate immune cells that act as phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells and also play roles against helminthic infections via a complex interplay between other immune cells. Fc gamma receptor I (FcγRI) is a high-affinity receptor that is particularly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The cross-linking of FcγRI and antigen-antibody complex initiates signal transduction cascades in phagocytosis, cytokine production, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). This study investigated whether ES antigen (ESA) from G. spinigerum L3 affects monocyte functions. Cultures of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) separated from healthy buffy coats were used as a human immune cell model. ESA was prepared from G. spinigerum L3 culture. Using Real-Time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), the effect of ESA to down-regulate FcγRI mRNA expression in monocytes during 90 min of observation was not well delineated. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a significant phenotypic-decreased FcγRI expression on the monocyte surface at 12 hours (h) of cultivation with the ESA (p = 0.033). Significantly reduced monocyte-mediated phagocytosis capacity was consistently observed after 12 h of ESA pretreatment (p = 0.001). Our results suggest that G. spinigerum ESA modulates monocyte function via depletion of FcγRI expression. This study provides preliminary information for future in-depth studies to

  4. The herpes virus Fc receptor gE-gI mediates antibody bipolar bridging to clear viral antigens from the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Ndjamen, Blaise; Farley, Alexander H; Lee, Terri; Fraser, Scott E; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2014-03-01

    The Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein gE-gI is a transmembrane Fc receptor found on the surface of infected cells and virions that binds human immunoglobulin G (hIgG). gE-gI can also participate in antibody bipolar bridging (ABB), a process by which the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) of the IgG bind a viral antigen while the Fc binds to gE-gI. IgG Fc binds gE-gI at basic, but not acidic, pH, suggesting that IgG bound at extracellular pH by cell surface gE-gI would dissociate and be degraded in acidic endosomes/lysosomes if endocytosed. The fate of viral antigens associated with gE-gI-bound IgG had been unknown: they could remain at the cell surface or be endocytosed with IgG. Here, we developed an in vitro model system for ABB and investigated the trafficking of ABB complexes using 4-D confocal fluorescence imaging of ABB complexes with transferrin or epidermal growth factor, well-characterized intracellular trafficking markers. Our data showed that cells expressing gE-gI and the viral antigen HSV-1 gD endocytosed anti-gD IgG and gD in a gE-gI-dependent process, resulting in lysosomal localization. These results suggest that gE-gI can mediate clearance of infected cell surfaces of anti-viral host IgG and viral antigens to evade IgG-mediated responses, representing a general mechanism for viral Fc receptors in immune evasion and viral pathogenesis.

  5. The Herpes Virus Fc Receptor gE-gI Mediates Antibody Bipolar Bridging to Clear Viral Antigens from the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Ndjamen, Blaise; Farley, Alexander H.; Lee, Terri; Fraser, Scott E.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    The Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein gE-gI is a transmembrane Fc receptor found on the surface of infected cells and virions that binds human immunoglobulin G (hIgG). gE-gI can also participate in antibody bipolar bridging (ABB), a process by which the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) of the IgG bind a viral antigen while the Fc binds to gE-gI. IgG Fc binds gE-gI at basic, but not acidic, pH, suggesting that IgG bound at extracellular pH by cell surface gE-gI would dissociate and be degraded in acidic endosomes/lysosomes if endocytosed. The fate of viral antigens associated with gE-gI–bound IgG had been unknown: they could remain at the cell surface or be endocytosed with IgG. Here, we developed an in vitro model system for ABB and investigated the trafficking of ABB complexes using 4-D confocal fluorescence imaging of ABB complexes with transferrin or epidermal growth factor, well-characterized intracellular trafficking markers. Our data showed that cells expressing gE-gI and the viral antigen HSV-1 gD endocytosed anti-gD IgG and gD in a gE-gI–dependent process, resulting in lysosomal localization. These results suggest that gE-gI can mediate clearance of infected cell surfaces of anti-viral host IgG and viral antigens to evade IgG-mediated responses, representing a general mechanism for viral Fc receptors in immune evasion and viral pathogenesis. PMID:24604090

  6. Cellular Uptake of α-Synuclein Oligomer-Selective Antibodies is Enhanced by the Extracellular Presence of α-Synuclein and Mediated via Fcγ Receptors.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Gabriel; Eriksson, Fredrik; Möller, Christer; da Fonseca, Tomás Lopes; Outeiro, Tiago F; Lannfelt, Lars; Bergström, Joakim; Ingelsson, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy targeting aggregated α-synuclein has emerged as a potential treatment strategy against Parkinson's disease and other α-synucleinopathies. We have developed α-synuclein oligomer/protofibril selective antibodies that reduce toxic α-synuclein in a human cell line and, upon intraperitoneal administration, in spinal cord of transgenic mice. Here, we investigated under which conditions and by which mechanisms such antibodies can be internalized by cells. For this purpose, human neuroglioma H4 cells were treated with either monoclonal oligomer/protofibril selective α-synuclein antibodies, linear epitope monoclonal α-synuclein antibodies, or with a control antibody. The oligomer/protofibril selective antibody mAb47 displayed the highest cellular uptake and was therefore chosen for additional analyses. Next, α-synuclein overexpressing cells were incubated with mAb47, which resulted in increased antibody internalization as compared to non-transfected cells. Similarly, regular cells exposed to mAb47 together with media containing α-synuclein displayed a higher uptake as compared to cells incubated with regular media. Finally, different Fcγ receptors were targeted and we then found that blockage of FcγRI and FcγRIIB/C resulted in reduced antibody internalization. Our data thus indicate that the robust uptake of the oligomer/protofibril selective antibody mAb47 by human CNS-derived cells is enhanced by extracellular α-synuclein and mediated via Fcγ receptors. Altogether, our finding lend further support to the belief that α-synuclein pathology can be modified by monoclonal antibodies and that these can target toxic α-synuclein species in the extracellular milieu. In the context of immunotherapy, antibody binding of α-synuclein would then not only block further aggregation but also mediate internalization and subsequent degradation of antigen-antibody complexes.

  7. Antigen-Induced Oligomerization of the B Cell Receptor Is an Early Target of FcγRIIB Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanli; Sohn, Hae Won; Tolar, Pavel; Meckel, Tobias; Pierce, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    The FcγRIIB is a potent inhibitory coreceptor that blocks BCR signaling in response to immune complexes and, as such, plays a decisive role in regulating Ab responses. The recent application of high-resolution live cell imaging to B cell studies is providing new molecular details of the earliest events in the initiation BCR signaling that follow within seconds of Ag binding. In this study, we report that when colligated to the BCR through immune complexes, the FcγRIIB colocalizes with the BCR in microscopic clusters and blocks the earliest events that initiate BCR signaling, including the oligomerization of the BCR within these clusters, the active recruitment of BCRs to these clusters, and the resulting spreading and contraction response. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses indicate that blocking these early events may not require molecular proximity of the cytoplasmic domains of the BCR and FcγRIIB, but relies on the rapid and sustained association of FcγRIIB with raft lipids in the membrane. These results may provide novel early targets for therapies aimed at regulating the FcγRIIB to control Ab responses in autoimmune disease. PMID:20083655

  8. Robust expression of the human neonatal Fc receptor in a truncated soluble form and as a full-length membrane-bound protein in fusion with eGFP.

    PubMed

    Seijsing, Johan; Lindborg, Malin; Löfblom, John; Uhlén, Mathias; Gräslund, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) have revealed a multitude of important functions in mammals, including protection of IgG and serum albumin (SA) from lysosomal degradation. The pharmacokinetic behavior of therapeutic antibodies, IgG-Fc- and SA-containing drugs is therefore influenced by their interaction with FcRn. Pre-clinical development of such drugs is facilitated if their interaction with FcRn can be studied in vitro. For this reason we have developed a robust system for production of the soluble extracellular domain of human FcRn as well as the full-length receptor as fusion to green fluorescent protein, taking advantage of a lentivirus-based gene delivery system where stable over-expressing cells are easily and rapidly generated. Production of the extracellular domain in multiple-layered culture flasks, followed by affinity purification using immobilized IgG, resulted in capture of milligram amounts of soluble receptor per liter cell culture with retained IgG binding. The receptor was further characterized by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, circular dichroism spectroscopy, ELISA, surface plasmon resonance and a temperature stability assay showing a functional and stable protein of high purity. The full-length receptor was found to be successfully over-expressed in a membrane-bound form with retained pH-dependent IgG- and SA-binding.

  9. Robust Expression of the Human Neonatal Fc Receptor in a Truncated Soluble Form and as a Full-Length Membrane-Bound Protein in Fusion with eGFP

    PubMed Central

    Seijsing, Johan; Lindborg, Malin; Löfblom, John; Uhlén, Mathias; Gräslund, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) have revealed a multitude of important functions in mammals, including protection of IgG and serum albumin (SA) from lysosomal degradation. The pharmacokinetic behavior of therapeutic antibodies, IgG-Fc- and SA-containing drugs is therefore influenced by their interaction with FcRn. Pre-clinical development of such drugs is facilitated if their interaction with FcRn can be studied in vitro. For this reason we have developed a robust system for production of the soluble extracellular domain of human FcRn as well as the full-length receptor as fusion to green fluorescent protein, taking advantage of a lentivirus-based gene delivery system where stable over-expressing cells are easily and rapidly generated. Production of the extracellular domain in multiple-layered culture flasks, followed by affinity purification using immobilized IgG, resulted in capture of milligram amounts of soluble receptor per liter cell culture with retained IgG binding. The receptor was further characterized by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, circular dichroism spectroscopy, ELISA, surface plasmon resonance and a temperature stability assay showing a functional and stable protein of high purity. The full-length receptor was found to be successfully over-expressed in a membrane-bound form with retained pH-dependent IgG- and SA-binding. PMID:24260574

  10. Differential effect of the inhibition of Grb2-SH3 interactions in platelet activation induced by thrombin and by Fc receptor engagement.

    PubMed Central

    Saci, Abdelhafid; Liu, Wang-Qing; Vidal, Michel; Garbay, Christiane; Rendu, Francine; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla

    2002-01-01

    The adaptor protein Grb2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 2) is involved in cell proliferation via the Ras signalling pathway. In order to study the role of Grb2 in blood platelet responses, we used a peptide containing two proline-rich sequences derived from Sos (peptidimer), which binds to Grb2-Src homology 3 domain (SH3) with a high affinity, and hence inhibits Grb2-SH3-mediated protein interactions. Platelet aggregation and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) release measured in the presence of the peptidimer were: (i) significantly decreased when induced by thrombin; and (ii) potentiated when induced by the engagement of the Fc receptor. In thrombin-activated platelets, the Grb2-SH2 domain formed an association with the beta3 subunit of the alphaIIb-beta3 integrin (GPIIb-IIIa), Shc, Syk, Src and SHP1 (SH2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1), whereas these associations did not occur after the engagement of the receptor for the Fc domain of IgG (FcgammaRIIa) or in resting platelets. Grb2-SH3 domains formed an association with the proline-rich sequences of Sos and Cbl in both resting and activated platelets, since the peptidimer abolished these associations. Inhibition of both fibrinogen binding and platelet aggregation by the peptide RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) had no effect on thrombin-induced Grb2-SH2 domain association with the aforementioned signalling molecules, indicating that these associations occurred during thrombin-induced 'inside-out' signalling. Platelet aggregation induced by direct activation via alphaIIb-beta3 ('outside-in' signalling) was potentiated by the peptidimer. The results show that inhibition of Grb2-SH3 interactions with signal-transduction proteins down-regulates thrombin-induced platelet activation, but also potentiates Fc receptor- and alphaIIb-beta3-mediated platelet activation. PMID:11964172

  11. Interaction of p72syk with the gamma and beta subunits of the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E, Fc epsilon RI.

    PubMed Central

    Shiue, L; Green, J; Green, O M; Karas, J L; Morgenstern, J P; Ram, M K; Taylor, M K; Zoller, M J; Zydowsky, L D; Bolen, J B

    1995-01-01

    Activation of protein tyrosine kinases is one of the initial events following aggregation of the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (Fc epsilon RI) on RBL-2H3 cells, a model mast cell line. The protein tyrosine kinase p72syk (Syk), which contains two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, is activated and associates with phosphorylated Fc epsilon RI subunits after receptor aggregation. In this report, we used Syk SH2 domains, expressed in tandem or individually, as fusion proteins to identify Syk-binding proteins in RBL-2H3 lysates. We show that the tandem Syk SH2 domains selectively associate with tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of the gamma and beta subunits of Fc epsilon RI. The isolated carboxy-proximal SH2 domain exhibited a significantly higher affinity for the Fc epsilon RI subunits than did the amino-proximal domain. When in tandem, the Syk SH2 domains showed enhanced binding to phosphorylated gamma and beta subunits. The conserved tyrosine-based activation motifs contained in the cytoplasmic domains of the gamma and beta subunits, characterized by two YXXL/I sequences in tandem, represent potential high-affinity binding sites for the dual SH2 domains of Syk. Peptide competition studies indicated that Syk exhibits a higher affinity for the phosphorylated tyrosine activation motif of the gamma subunit than for that of the beta subunit. In addition, we show that Syk is the major protein in RBL-2H3 cells that is affinity isolated with phosphorylated peptides corresponding to the phosphorylated gamma subunit motif. These data suggest that Syk associates with the gamma subunit of the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E through an interaction between the tandem SH2 domains of SH2 domains of Syk and the phosphorylated tyrosine activation motif of the gamma subunit and that Syk may be the major signaling protein that binds to Fc epsilon RI tyrosine activation motif of the gamma subunit and that Syk may be the major signaling protein that binds to Dc epsilon

  12. Protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae infection by C-reactive protein and natural antibody requires complement but not Fc gamma receptors.

    PubMed

    Mold, Carolyn; Rodic-Polic, Bojana; Du Clos, Terry W

    2002-06-15

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen and the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Both adaptive and innate immune mechanisms provide protection from infection. Innate immunity to S. pneumoniae in mice is mediated by naturally occurring anti-phosphocholine (PC) Abs and complement. The human acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) also protects mice from lethal S. pneumoniae infection. CRP and anti-PC Ab share the ability to bind to PC on the cell wall C-polysaccharide of S. pneumoniae and to activate complement. CRP and IgG anti-PC also bind to Fc gamma R. In this study, Fc gamma R- and complement-deficient mice were used to compare the mechanisms of protection conferred by CRP and anti-PC Ab. Injection of CRP protected wild-type, FcR gamma-chain-, Fc gamma RIIb-, and Fc gamma RIII-deficient mice from infection. Complement was required for the protective effect of CRP as cobra venom factor treatment eliminated the effect of CRP in both gamma-chain-deficient and wild-type mice, and CRP failed to protect C3- or C4-deficient mice from infection. Unexpectedly, gamma-chain-deficient mice were extremely sensitive to pneumococcal infection. This sensitivity was associated with low levels of natural anti-PC Ab. Gamma-chain-deficient mice immunized with nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae produced both IgM- and IgG PC-specific Abs, were protected from infection, and were able to clear the bacteria from the bloodstream. The protection provided by immunization was eliminated by complement depletion. The results show that in this model of systemic infection with highly virulent S. pneumoniae, protection from lethality by CRP and anti-PC Abs requires complement, but not Fc gamma R.

  13. Mucosal Immunization with an Unadjuvanted Vaccine That Targets Streptococcus pneumoniae PspA to Human Fcγ Receptor Type I Protects against Pneumococcal Infection through Complement- and Lactoferrin-Mediated Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bitsaktsis, Constantine; Iglesias, Bibiana V.; Li, Ying; Colino, Jesus; Snapper, Clifford M.; Hollingshead, Susan K.; Pham, Giang; Gosselin, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    Targeting an antigen to Fc receptors (FcR) can enhance the immune response to the antigen in the absence of adjuvant. Furthermore, we recently demonstrated that intranasal immunization with an FcγR-targeted antigen enhances protection against a category A intracellular mucosal pathogen, Francisella tularensis. To determine if a similar strategy could be applied to the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, we used an improved mucosal FcR-targeting strategy that specifically targets human FcγR type I (hFcγRI). A humanized single-chain antibody component in which the variable domain binds to hFcγRI [anti-hFcγRI (H22)] was linked in a fusion protein with the pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). PspA is known to elicit protection against pneumococcal sepsis, carriage, and pneumonia in mouse models when administered with adjuvants. Anti-hFcγRI-PspA or recombinant PspA (rPspA) alone was used to intranasally immunize wild-type (WT) and hFcγRI transgenic (Tg) mice in the absence of adjuvant. The hFcγRI Tg mice receiving anti-hFcγRI-PspA exhibited elevated S. pneumoniae-specific IgA, IgG2c, and IgG1 antibodies in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Neither immunogen was effective in protecting WT mice in the absence of adjuvant, but when PspA was targeted to hFcγRI as the anti-hFcγRI-PspA fusion, enhanced protection against lethal S. pneumoniae challenge was observed in the hFcγRI Tg mice compared to mice given nontargeted rPspA alone. Immune sera from the anti-hFcγRI-PspA-immunized Tg mice showed enhanced complement C3 deposition on bacterial surfaces, and protection was dependent upon an active complement system. Immune serum also showed an enhanced bactericidal activity directed against S. pneumoniae that appears to be lactoferrin mediated. PMID:22158740

  14. Macrophages and Fc-receptor interactions contribute to the antitumour activities of the anti-CD40 antibody SGN-40.

    PubMed

    Oflazoglu, E; Stone, I J; Brown, L; Gordon, K A; van Rooijen, N; Jonas, M; Law, C-L; Grewal, I S; Gerber, H-P

    2009-01-13

    SGN-40 is a therapeutic antibody targeting CD40, which induces potent anti-lymphoma activities via direct apoptotic signalling cells and by cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Here we show antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) by macrophages to contribute significantly to the therapeutic activities and that the antitumour effects of SGN-40 depend on Fc interactions.

  15. T15 group A streptococcal Fc receptor binds to the same location on IgG as staphylococcal protein A and IgG rheumatoid factors.

    PubMed

    Nardella, F A; Schröder, A K; Svensson, M L; Sjöquist, J; Barber, C; Christensen, P

    1987-02-01

    Previous work has shown that IgG rheumatoid factors (RF) bind to the C gamma 2-C gamma 3 interface region of human IgG in the same area that binds staphylococcal protein A (SPA). Group A, C, and G strains of Streptococci possess Fc receptors that bind to IgG but not to fragments containing only the C gamma 2 or C gamma 3 domains. This work describes the binding site location on human IgG for the binding of the isolated Fc receptor from the T15 strain of a Group A streptococcus and its relationship to the site that binds SPA and the IgG RF. The isolated T15 Fc receptor (T15) with a molecular mass of 29.5 kD inhibited the binding of IgG RF to IgG. The binding of T15 itself to IgG was strongly inhibited by SPA (42.0 kD) and its monovalent fragment D (7 kD). Human IgG fragments consisting of the C gamma 3 domains did not inhibit the binding of T15 to IgG, whereas those with both domains were effective inhibitors. T15 did not bind to rabbit IgG fragments consisting of either the C gamma 2 or C gamma 3 domains, but did bind to those with both domains. An IgG3 myeloma protein was a poor inhibitor and has been shown to bind poorly to the IgG RF. Most IgG3 myeloma proteins did not bind to SPA. The substitution of Arg and Phe for His 435 and Tyr 436 is responsible for the poor binding of IgG3 to SPA and to the IgG RF. Chemical modification of His or Tyr on IgG reduced its ability to inhibit the binding of T15 to IgG. Reversal of the chemical modifications with hydroxylamine resulted in near complete restoration of inhibitory capacity. This information, collectively, coupled with the known positions in space of the His and Tyr residues in the C gamma 2-C gamma 3 interface region, verified that both His 435 and Tyr 436, and possibly His 310 and 433, are involved. These residues are also involved in binding SPA and the IgG RF. These data therefore indicate that the T15 Group A Streptococcal Fc receptor binds to the same location on the Fc of IgG as SPA and the IgG RF. The

  16. Polymorphisms of CD16A and CD32 Fcγ receptors and circulating immune complexes in Ménière's disease: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Autoimmune diseases with elevated circulating autoantibodies drive tissue damage and the onset of disease. The Fcγ receptors bind IgG subtypes modulating the clearance of circulating immune complexes (CIC). The inner ear damage in Ménière's disease (MD) could be mediated by an immune response driven by CIC. We examined single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the CD16A and CD32 genes in patients with MD which may determine a Fcγ receptor with lower binding to CIC. Methods The functional CD16A (FcγRIIIa*559A > C, rs396991) and CD32A (FcγRIIa*519A > G, rs1801274) SNPs were analyzed using PCR-based TaqMan Genotyping Assay in two cohorts of 156 mediterranean and 112 Galicia patients in a case-control study. Data were analyzed by χ2 with Fisher's exact test and Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT). CIC were measured by ELISA for C1q-binding CIC. Results Elevated CIC were found in 7% of patients with MD during the intercrisis period. No differences were found in the allelic frequency for rs396991 or rs1801274 in controls subjects when they were compared with patients with MD from the same geographic area. However, the frequency of AA and AC genotypes of CD16A (rs396991) differed among mediterranean and Galicia controls (Fisher's test, corrected p = 6.9 × 10-4 for AA; corrected p = 0.02 for AC). Although genotype AC of the CD16A receptor was significantly more frequent in mediterranean controls than in patients, [Fisher's test corrected p = 0.02; OR = 0.63 (0.44-0.91)], a genetic additive effect for the allele C was not observed (CATT, p = 0.23). Moreover, no differences were found in genotype frequencies for rs396991 between patients with MD and controls from Galicia (CATT, p = 0.14). The allelic frequency of CD32 (rs1801274) was not different between patients and controls either in mediterranean (p = 0.51) or Galicia population (p = 0.11). Conclusions Elevated CIC are not found in most of patients with MD. Functional polymorphisms of CD16A and CD32

  17. Establishment of the first WHO International Standard for etanercept, a TNF receptor II Fc fusion protein: Report of an international collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Meenu; Bird, Chris; Dilger, Paula; Rigsby, Peter; Jia, Haiyan; Gross, Marie Emmanuelle Behr

    2017-03-10

    Etanercept, a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor Fc fusion protein is an effective treatment option in adults with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis or plaque psoriasis and paediatrics with juvenile idiotypic arthritis and plaque psoriasis. Patent expiration in Europe and intense development of various etanercept products worldwide triggered a need for an international reference standard to facilitate determination of biological activity. Therefore, three candidate preparations of etanercept were lyophilized and evaluated in a multi-centre collaborative study comprising twenty eight laboratories from 15 countries for their suitability to serve as an international standard for the bioactivity of TNF receptor II Fc fusion proteins (international nonproprietary name, Etanercept). The preparations were tested for neutralization activity against the third TNF-α international standard (IS) in different in vitro cell-based assays, e.g., cytotoxicity, apoptosis and reporter gene methods. Regardless of the assay and the amount of TNF-α IS used, potency estimates for the different preparations were very similar. An indication of the inhibitory activity of etanercept in terms of the biological activity of the TNF-α IS based on ED50 data derived from a limited number of laboratories using a cytotoxicity assay was also derived. Results indicated that the candidate preparation coded 13/204 was stable and suitable to serve as an international standard for the biological activity of etanercept. Therefore, the preparation coded 13/204 was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2015 as the WHO first International Standard for TNF receptor II Fc fusion protein (INN, etanercept) with an assigned in vitro bioactivity of 10,000IU per ampoule. It should be noted that this first-in-class international standard for a Fc fusion protein, available from the National Institute for Biological

  18. Cholera toxin and pertussis toxin regulate the Fc receptor-mediated phagocytic response of human neutrophils in a manner analogous to regulation by monoclonal antibody 1C2.

    PubMed

    Gresham, H D; Clement, L T; Volanakis, J E; Brown, E J

    1987-12-15

    Data presented in this paper indicate that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis can be markedly augmented and that this augmentation is under regulatory control. Stimulation of PMN with either a low m.w., heat-labile cytokine(s) (the culture supernatant effluent from a YM-10 Centricon unit, YM-10E), phorbol esters (phorbol dibutyrate), or the polyene antibiotic, amphotericin B, enhances Fc-mediated ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. YM-10 effluent- and amphotericin B-stimulated ingestion is completely abrogated by treating the PMN with either pertussis toxin (PT), cholera toxin (CT), or a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 1C2. However, neither toxin nor mAb 1C2 affects nonstimulated ingestion or phagocytosis stimulated by phorbol esters or synthetic diacylglycerol. Increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels by stimulation with prostaglandin E1 and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, isobutylmethylxanthine, does not mimic the effect of either toxin or mAb 1C2. In addition, toxin-mediated inhibition is not due to loss of either the Fc receptor recognized by mAb 3G8 or the antigen recognized by mAb 1C2. These data indicate that both CT and PT regulate the phagocytic response of PMN, in a manner like mAb 1C2, probably by affecting a guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein distinct from those that regulate adenylate cyclase. Since phorbol ester-stimulated ingestion is not inhibited by either PT, CT, or mAb 1C2 and phorbol esters activate protein kinase C directly, phagocytosis amplification regulated by PT, CT, and mAb 1C2 may involve protein kinase C activation.

  19. Binding of monoclonal antibody AA4 to gangliosides on rat basophilic leukemia cells produces changes similar to those seen with Fc epsilon receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The mAb AA4 binds to novel derivatives of the ganglioside Gd1b on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Some of the gangliosides are located close to the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI), and binding of mAb AA4 inhibits Fc epsilon RI-mediated histamine release. In the present study, mAb AA4 was found to bind exclusively to mast cells in all rat tissues examined. In vitro, within 1 min of mAb AA4 binding, the cells underwent striking morphologic changes. They lost their normal spindle shaped appearance, increased their ruffling, and spread over the surface of the culture dish. These changes were accompanied by a redistribution of the cytoskeletal elements, actin, tubulin, and vimentin, but only the actin was associated with the membrane ruffles. Binding of mAb AA4 also induces a rise in intracellular calcium, stimulates phosphatidyl inositol breakdown, and activates PKC. However, the extent of these changes was less than that observed when the cells were stimulated with antigen or antibody directed against the Fc epsilon RI. None of these changes associated with mAb AA4 binding were seen when the cells were exposed to nonspecific IgG, IgE, or four other anti-cell surface antibodies, nor were the changes induced by binding mAb AA4 at 4 degrees C or in the absence of extracellular calcium. Although mAb AA4 does not stimulate histamine release, it enhances the effect of the calcium ionophore A23187 mediated release. The morphological and biochemical effects produced by mAb AA4 are similar to those seen following activation of the cell through the IgE receptor. Therefore, the surface gangliosides which bind mAb AA4 may function in modulating secretory events. PMID:1370498

  20. CD97 antibody depletes granulocytes in mice under conditions of acute inflammation via a Fc receptor-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Veninga, Henrike; de Groot, Dorien M; McCloskey, Natalie; Owens, Bronwyn M; Dessing, Mark C; Verbeek, J Sjef; Nourshargh, Sussan; van Eenennaam, Hans; Boots, Annemieke M; Hamann, Jörg

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies to the pan-leukocyte adhesion-GPCR CD97 efficiently block neutrophil recruitment in mice, thereby reducing antibacterial host defense, inflammatory disease, and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization. Here, we investigated the working mechanism of the CD97 antibody 1B2. Applying sterile models of inflammation, intravital microscopy, and mice deficient for the CD97L CD55, the complement component C3, or the FcR common γ-chain, we show that 1B2 acts in vivo independent of ligand-binding interference by depleting PMN granulocytes in bone marrow and blood. Granulocyte depletion with 1B2 involved FcR but not complement activation and was associated with increased serum levels of TNF and other proinflammatory cytokines. Notably, depletion of granulocytes by CD97 antibody required acute inflammation, suggesting a mechanism of conditional, antibody-mediated granulocytopenia.

  1. Interferon-gamma and transforming growth factor-beta modulate the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production induced by Fc gamma-receptor stimulation in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rose, D M; Winston, B W; Chan, E D; Riches, D W; Henson, P M

    1997-09-08

    Engagement of receptors for the Fc region of IgG (Fc gamma R) can activate a variety of biological responses in macrophages, and these responses can be modulated either positively or negatively by co-stimulation with a variety of agents including cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). We have previously demonstrated that Fc gamma R crosslinking activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members p42MAPK, p38, and JNK. Herein, we examined the modulatory effect of IFN-gamma, TGF-beta, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) on Fc gamma R-induced MAPK activation in murine macrophages. Fc gamma R-induced activation of p42MAPK and JNK was augmented nearly two-fold by pretreatment with IFN-gamma. Conversely, TGF-beta pretreatment suppressed Fc gamma R-induced activation of p42MAPK, JNK, and p38. These modulatory effects of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta on MAPK activation correlated with changes in Fc gamma R-stimulated TNF-alpha production by these two cytokines.

  2. Effect of protein aggregates on characterization of FcRn binding of Fc-fusion therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bajardi-Taccioli, Adriana; Blum, Andrew; Xu, Chongfeng; Sosic, Zoran; Bergelson, Svetlana; Feschenko, Marina

    2015-10-01

    Recycling of antibodies and Fc containing therapeutic proteins by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is known to prolong their persistence in the bloodstream. Fusion of Fc fragment of IgG1 to other proteins is one of the strategies to improve their pharmacokinetic properties. Accurate measurement of Fc-FcRn binding provides information about the strength of this interaction, which in most cases correlates with serum half-life of the protein. It can also offer insight into functional integrity of Fc region. We investigated FcRn binding activity of a large set of Fc-fusion samples after thermal stress by the method based on AlphaScreen technology. An unexpected significant increase in FcR binding was found to correlate with formation of aggregates in these samples. Monomer purified from a thermally-stressed sample had normal FcRn binding, confirming that its Fc portion was intact. Experiments with aggregates spiked into a sample with low initial aggregation level, demonstrated strong correlation between the level of aggregates and FcRn binding. This correlation varied significantly in different methods. By introducing modifications to the assay format we were able to minimize the effects of aggregated species on FcRn binding, which should prevent masking functional changes of Fc-fusion protein. Biolayer interferometry (BLI) was used as an alternative method to measure FcRn binding. Both optimized AlphaScreen- and BLI-based assays were sensitive to structural changes in Fc portion of the molecule, such as oxidation of methionines 252 and 428, and therefore suitable for characterization of FcRn binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Four-Component Staphylococcus aureus Vaccine 4C-Staph Enhances Fcγ Receptor Expression in Neutrophils and Monocytes and Mitigates S. aureus Infection in Neutropenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Antonina; Bacconi, Marta; Sammicheli, Chiara; Galletti, Bruno; Laera, Donatello; Fontana, Maria Rita; Grandi, Guido; De Gregorio, Ennio; Bagnoli, Fabio; Nuti, Sandra; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human bacterial pathogen causing a variety of diseases. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus underlines the need for a vaccine. Defining immune correlates of protection may support the design of an effective vaccine. We used a murine Staphylococcus aureus infection model, in which bacteria were inoculated in an air pouch generated on the back of the animal. Analysis of the air-pouch content in mice immunized or not with an adjuvanted multiantigen vaccine formulation, four-component S. aureus vaccine (4C-Staph), prior to infection allowed us to measure bacteria, cytokines, and 4C-Staph-specific antibodies and to analyze host immune cells recruited to the infection site. Immunization with 4C-Staph resulted in accumulation of antigen-specific antibodies in the pouch and mitigated the infection. Neutrophils were the most abundant cells in the pouch, and they showed the upregulation of Fcγ receptor (FcγR) following immunization with 4C-Staph. Reduction of the infection was also obtained in mice immunized with 4C-Staph and depleted of neutrophils; these mice showed an increase in monocytes and macrophages. Upregulation of the FcγR and the presence of antigen-specific antibodies induced by immunization with 4C-Staph may contribute to increase bacterial opsonophagocytosis. Protection in neutropenic mice indicated that an effective vaccine could activate alternative protection mechanisms compensating for neutropenia, a condition often occurring in S. aureus-infected patients. PMID:26015481

  4. Four-component Staphylococcus aureus vaccine 4C-staph enhances Fcγ receptor expression in neutrophils and monocytes and mitigates S. aureus infection in neutropenic mice.

    PubMed

    Torre, Antonina; Bacconi, Marta; Sammicheli, Chiara; Galletti, Bruno; Laera, Donatello; Fontana, Maria Rita; Grandi, Guido; De Gregorio, Ennio; Bagnoli, Fabio; Nuti, Sandra; Bertholet, Sylvie; Bensi, Giuliano

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human bacterial pathogen causing a variety of diseases. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus underlines the need for a vaccine. Defining immune correlates of protection may support the design of an effective vaccine. We used a murine Staphylococcus aureus infection model, in which bacteria were inoculated in an air pouch generated on the back of the animal. Analysis of the air-pouch content in mice immunized or not with an adjuvanted multiantigen vaccine formulation, four-component S. aureus vaccine (4C-Staph), prior to infection allowed us to measure bacteria, cytokines, and 4C-Staph-specific antibodies and to analyze host immune cells recruited to the infection site. Immunization with 4C-Staph resulted in accumulation of antigen-specific antibodies in the pouch and mitigated the infection. Neutrophils were the most abundant cells in the pouch, and they showed the upregulation of Fcγ receptor (FcγR) following immunization with 4C-Staph. Reduction of the infection was also obtained in mice immunized with 4C-Staph and depleted of neutrophils; these mice showed an increase in monocytes and macrophages. Upregulation of the FcγR and the presence of antigen-specific antibodies induced by immunization with 4C-Staph may contribute to increase bacterial opsonophagocytosis. Protection in neutropenic mice indicated that an effective vaccine could activate alternative protection mechanisms compensating for neutropenia, a condition often occurring in S. aureus-infected patients. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Activatory and inhibitory Fcγ receptors augment rituximab-mediated internalization of CD20 independent of signaling via the cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Andrew T; Chan, Claude H T; Klein, Christian; Glennie, Martin J; Beers, Stephen A; Cragg, Mark S

    2015-02-27

    Type I anti-CD20 mAb such as rituximab and ofatumumab engage with the inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIb on the surface of B cells, resulting in immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) phosphorylation. Internalization of the CD20·mAb·FcγRIIb complex follows, the rate of which correlates with FcγRIIb expression. In contrast, although type II anti-CD20 mAb such as tositumomab and obinutuzumab also interact with and activate FcγRIIb, this interaction fails to augment the rate of CD20·mAb internalization, raising the question of whether ITIM phosphorylation plays any role in this process. We have assessed the molecular requirements for the internalization process and demonstrate that in contrast to internalization of IgG immune complexes, FcγRIIb-augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 occurs independently of the FcγRIIb ITIM, indicating that signaling downstream of FcγRIIb is not required. In transfected cells, activatory FcγRI, FcγRIIa, and FcγRIIIa augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 in a similar manner. However, FcγRIIa mediated a slower rate of internalization than cells expressing equivalent levels of the highly homologous FcγRIIb. The difference was maintained in cells expressing FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb lacking cytoplasmic domains and in which the transmembrane domains had been exchanged. This difference may be due to increased degradation of FcγRIIa, which traffics to lysosomes independently of rituximab. We conclude that the cytoplasmic domain of FcγR is not required for promoting internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20. Instead, we propose that FcγR provides a structural role in augmenting endocytosis that differs from that employed during the endocytosis of immune complexes.

  6. Improved tumor imaging and therapy via i.v. IgG-mediated time-sequential modulation of neonatal Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Jaspreet Singh; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Seshan, Surya V; Zanzonico, Pat; Henke, Erik; Nagel, Andrew; Schwartz, Jazmin; Beattie, Brad; Kappel, Barry J; Chattopadhyay, Debjit; Xiao, Jing; Sgouros, George; Larson, Steven M; Scheinberg, David A

    2007-09-01

    The long plasma half-life of IgG, while allowing for enhanced tumor uptake of tumor-targeted IgG conjugates, also results in increased background activity and normal-tissue toxicity. Therefore, successful therapeutic uses of conjugated antibodies have been limited to the highly sensitive and readily accessible hematopoietic tumors. We report a therapeutic strategy to beneficially alter the pharmacokinetics of IgG antibodies via pharmacological inhibition of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) using high-dose IgG therapy. IgG-treated mice displayed enhanced blood and whole-body clearance of radioactivity, resulting in better tumor-to-blood image contrast and protection of normal tissue from radiation. Tumor uptake and the resultant therapeutic response was unaltered. Furthermore, we demonstrated the use of this approach for imaging of tumors in humans and discuss its potential applications in cancer imaging and therapy. The ability to reduce the serum persistence of conjugated IgG antibodies after their infusion can enhance their therapeutic index, resulting in improved therapeutic and diagnostic efficacy.

  7. Improved tumor imaging and therapy via i.v. IgG–mediated time-sequential modulation of neonatal Fc receptor

    PubMed Central

    Singh Jaggi, Jaspreet; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Seshan, Surya V.; Zanzonico, Pat; Henke, Erik; Nagel, Andrew; Schwartz, Jazmin; Beattie, Brad; Kappel, Barry J.; Chattopadhyay, Debjit; Xiao, Jing; Sgouros, George; Larson, Steven M.; Scheinberg, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The long plasma half-life of IgG, while allowing for enhanced tumor uptake of tumor-targeted IgG conjugates, also results in increased background activity and normal-tissue toxicity. Therefore, successful therapeutic uses of conjugated antibodies have been limited to the highly sensitive and readily accessible hematopoietic tumors. We report a therapeutic strategy to beneficially alter the pharmacokinetics of IgG antibodies via pharmacological inhibition of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) using high-dose IgG therapy. IgG-treated mice displayed enhanced blood and whole-body clearance of radioactivity, resulting in better tumor-to-blood image contrast and protection of normal tissue from radiation. Tumor uptake and the resultant therapeutic response was unaltered. Furthermore, we demonstrated the use of this approach for imaging of tumors in humans and discuss its potential applications in cancer imaging and therapy. The ability to reduce the serum persistence of conjugated IgG antibodies after their infusion can enhance their therapeutic index, resulting in improved therapeutic and diagnostic efficacy. PMID:17717602

  8. Human FcR Polymorphism and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinrui; Gibson, Andrew W.; Kimberly, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Fc receptors play a central role in maintaining the homeostatic balance in the immune system. Our knowledge of the structure and function of these receptors and their naturally occurring polymorphisms, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and/or copy number variations, continues to expand. Through studies of their impact on human biology and clinical phenotype, the contributions of these variants to the pathogenesis, progression, and/or treatment outcome of many diseases that involve immunoglobulin have become evident. They affect susceptibility to bacterial and viral pathogens, constitute as risk factors for IgG or IgE mediated inflammatory diseases, and impact the development of many autoimmune conditions. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of these genetic variations in classical FcγRs, FcRLs, and other Fc receptors, as well as challenges in achieving an accurate and comprehensive understanding of the FcR polymorphisms and genomic architecture. PMID:25116105

  9. Human FcR polymorphism and disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinrui; Gibson, Andrew W; Kimberly, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Fc receptors play a central role in maintaining the homeostatic balance in the immune system. Our knowledge of the structure and function of these receptors and their naturally occurring polymorphisms, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and/or copy number variations, continues to expand. Through studies of their impact on human biology and clinical phenotype, the contributions of these variants to the pathogenesis, progression, and/or treatment outcome of many diseases that involve immunoglobulin have become evident. They affect susceptibility to bacterial and viral pathogens, constitute as risk factors for IgG or IgE mediated inflammatory diseases, and impact the development of many autoimmune conditions. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of these genetic variations in classical FcγRs, FcRLs, and other Fc receptors, as well as challenges in achieving an accurate and comprehensive understanding of the FcR polymorphisms and genomic architecture.

  10. Genetic association of Fc receptor-like 3 polymorphisms with susceptibility to primary biliary cirrhosis: ethnic comparative study in Japanese and Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, A; Ohira, H; Kikuchi, K; Nezu, S; Shibuya, A; Bianchi, I; Podda, M; Invernizzi, P; Takikawa, H

    2011-03-01

    A functional variant in the Fc receptor-like 3 (FCRL3) gene is associated with the susceptibility to several autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined whether the FCRL3 is associated with susceptibility to primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) by comparing the two different ethnic groups, Japanese and Italians. We enrolled 232 patients with PBC and 230 controls in Japanese, and 216 PBC and 180 controls in Italians. Minor allele frequency of fcrl3_3 (-169 T>C) in the patients with PBC and controls was 0.20 and 0.09 in Japanese and 0.24 and 0.21 in Italians, respectively. We found a significant association of fcrl3_3 with PBC only in Japanese (P = 9.64 × 10(-7) ). These findings support the presence of common FCRL3-related pathological pathways in several autoimmune diseases, especially in Asians. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Fc-fusion proteins and FcRn: structural insights for longer-lasting and more effective therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Timo; Baker, Kristi; Dumont, Jennifer A.; Peters, Robert T.; Jiang, Haiyan; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Lencer, Wayne I.; Pierce, Glenn F.; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 350 IgG-based therapeutics are approved for clinical use or are under development for many diseases lacking adequate treatment options. These include molecularly engineered biologicals comprising the IgG Fc-domain fused to various effector molecules (so-called Fc-fusion proteins) that confer the advantages of IgG, including binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) to facilitate in vivo stability, and the therapeutic benefit of the specific effector functions. Advances in IgG structure-function relationships and an understanding of FcRn biology have provided therapeutic opportunities for previously unapproachable diseases. This article discusses approved Fc-fusion therapeutics, novel Fc-fusion proteins and FcRn-dependent delivery approaches in development, and how engineering of the FcRn–Fc interaction can generate longer-lasting and more effective therapeutics. PMID:24156398

  12. Fc-fusion proteins and FcRn: structural insights for longer-lasting and more effective therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rath, Timo; Baker, Kristi; Dumont, Jennifer A; Peters, Robert T; Jiang, Haiyan; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Lencer, Wayne I; Pierce, Glenn F; Blumberg, Richard S

    2015-06-01

    Nearly 350 IgG-based therapeutics are approved for clinical use or are under development for many diseases lacking adequate treatment options. These include molecularly engineered biologicals comprising the IgG Fc-domain fused to various effector molecules (so-called Fc-fusion proteins) that confer the advantages of IgG, including binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) to facilitate in vivo stability, and the therapeutic benefit of the specific effector functions. Advances in IgG structure-function relationships and an understanding of FcRn biology have provided therapeutic opportunities for previously unapproachable diseases. This article discusses approved Fc-fusion therapeutics, novel Fc-fusion proteins and FcRn-dependent delivery approaches in development, and how engineering of the FcRn-Fc interaction can generate longer-lasting and more effective therapeutics.

  13. Crystal structure of a novel asymmetrically engineered Fc variant with improved affinity for FcγRs.

    PubMed

    Mimoto, F; Kadono, S; Katada, H; Igawa, T; Kamikawa, T; Hattori, K

    2014-03-01

    Enhancing the effector function by optimizing the interaction between Fc and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) is a promising approach to enhance the potency of anticancer monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). To date, a variety of Fc engineering approaches to modulate the interaction have been reported, such as afucosylation in the heavy chain Fc region or symmetrically introducing amino acid substitutions into the region, and there is still room to improve FcγR binding and thermal stability of the CH2 domain with these approaches. Recently, we have reported that asymmetric Fc engineering, which introduces different substitutions into each Fc region of heavy chain, can further improve the FcγR binding while maintaining the thermal stability of the CH2 domain by fine-tuning the asymmetric interface between the Fc domain and FcγR. However, the structural mechanism by which the asymmetrically engineered Fc improved FcγR binding remained unclear. In order to elucidate the mechanism, we solved the crystal structure of a novel asymmetrically engineered Fc, asym-mAb23, in complex with FcγRIIIa. Asym-mAb23 has enhanced binding affinity for both FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIa at the highest level of previously reported Fc variants. The structural analysis reveals the features of the asymmetrically engineered Fc in comparison with symmetric Fc and how each asymmetrically introduced substitution contributes to the improved interaction between asym-mAb23 and FcγRIIIa. This crystal structure could be utilized to enable us to design a more potent asymmetric Fc.

  14. Antibody uptake into neurons occurs primarily via clathrin-dependent Fcγ receptor endocytosis and is a prerequisite for acute tau protein clearance.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Erin E; Gu, Jiaping; Sait, Hameetha B R; Sigurdsson, Einar M

    2013-12-06

    Tau immunotherapy is effective in transgenic mice, but the mechanisms of Tau clearance are not well known. To this end, Tau antibody uptake was analyzed in brain slice cultures and primary neurons. Internalization was rapid (<1 h), saturable, and substantial compared with control mouse IgG. Furthermore, temperature reduction to 4 °C, an excess of unlabeled mouse IgG, or an excess of Tau antibodies reduced uptake in slices by 63, 41, and 62%, respectively (p = 0.002, 0.04, and 0.005). Uptake strongly correlated with total and insoluble Tau levels (r(2) = 0.77 and 0.87 and p = 0.002 and 0.0002), suggesting that Tau aggregates influence antibody internalization and/or retention within neurons. Inhibiting phagocytosis did not reduce uptake in slices or neuronal cultures, indicating limited microglial involvement. In contrast, clathrin-specific inhibitors reduced uptake in neurons (≤ 78%, p < 0.0001) and slices (≤ 35%, p = 0.03), demonstrating receptor-mediated endocytosis as the primary uptake pathway. Fluid phase endocytosis accounted for the remainder of antibody uptake in primary neurons, based on co-staining with internalized dextran. The receptor-mediated uptake is to a large extent via low affinity FcγII/III receptors and can be blocked in slices (43%, p = 0.04) and neurons (53%, p = 0.008) with an antibody against these receptors. Importantly, antibody internalization appears to be necessary for Tau reduction in primary neurons. Overall, these findings clarify that Tau antibody uptake is primarily receptor-mediated, that these antibodies are mainly found in neurons with Tau aggregates, and that their intracellular interaction leads to clearance of Tau pathology, all of which have major implications for therapeutic development of this approach.

  15. Herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G Fc receptor activity depends on a complex of two viral glycoproteins, gE and gI

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.C.; Ligas, M.W. ); Frame, M.C.; Cross, A.M.; Stow, N.D. )

    1988-04-01

    Evidence was recently presented that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc receptors are composed of a complex containing a previously described glycoprotein, gE, and a novel virus-induced polypeptide, provisionally named g70. Using a monoclonal antibody designated 3104, which recognizes g70, in conjunction with antipeptide sera and virus mutants unable to express g70 or gE, the authors have mapped the gene encoding g70 to the US7 open reading frame of HSV-1 adjacent to the gE gene. Therefore, g70 appears to be identical to a recently described polypeptide which was named gI. Under mildly denaturing conditions, monoclonal antibody 3104 precipitated both gI and gE from extracts of HSV-1-infected cells. In addition, rabbit IgG precipitated the gE-gI complex from extracts of cells transfected with a fragment of HSV-1 DNA containing the gI, gE, and US9 genes. Cells infected with mutant viruses which were unable to express gE or gI did not bind radiolabeled IgG; however, cells coinfected with two viruses, one unable to express gE and the other unable to express gI, bound levels of IgG approaching those observed with wild-type viruses. These results further support the hypothesis that gE and gI form a complex which binds IgG by the Fc domain and that neither polypeptide alone can bind IgG.

  16. Inhibition of immunoglobulin E synthesis through Fc gammaRII (CD32) by a mechanism independent of B-cell receptor co-cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Hren, Andrea; Mudde, Geert C; Woisetschläger, Maximilian

    2005-07-01

    The inhibitory effect on antibody production by immune complexes has been shown to depend on co-ligation of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) with the low-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Fc gammaRIIb, CD32). Here we report that immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis, induced in a BCR-independent manner by interleukin-4 (IL-4) and anti-CD40 antibody, was inhibited by CD32 ligation. The observed effect was specific for CD32 as, first, antibodies directed against other B-cell surface structures had no inhibitory effect, and, second, treatment with anti-CD32 of cells that had been in culture for 2 days was ineffective owing to the down-regulation of CD32 expression. IgE inhibition was also observed in cells stimulated by IL-4/CD40 F(ab')(2) or IL-4 plus soluble CD40 ligand, demonstrating that co-cross-linking of CD32 and CD40 was not necessary to induce inhibition. Mechanistic studies into the IgE class switch process demonstrated that IL-4/anti-CD40-induced IgE germline gene transcription and B-cell proliferation were not affected by CD32 ligation. The data demonstrate that the negative regulatory role of the CD32 molecule is not restricted to BCR-induced B-cell activation, but is also functional on other B-cell activation pathways mediated by CD40 and IL-4.

  17. Liposomes containing NY‑ESO‑1/tetanus toxoid and adjuvant peptides targeted to human dendritic cells via the Fc receptor for cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luis J; Rueda, Felix; Simón, Lorena; Cordobilla, Begoña; Albericio, Fernando; Domingo, Joan C

    2014-04-01

    To improve the immunological response against tumors, a vaccine based on nanoliposomes targeted to the Fcg-receptor was developed to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Using human dendritic cells in vitro, a fragment of the TAA NY-ESO-1 combined with a T-helper peptide from the tetanus toxoid encapsulated in nanoliposomes was evaluated. In addition, peptides Palm-IL-1 and MAP-IFN-g were coadministered as adjuvants to enhance the immunological response. Coadministration of Palm-IL-1 or MAP-IFN-g peptide adjuvants and the hybrid NY-ESO-1-tetanus toxoid (soluble or encapsulated in nanoliposomes without targeting) increased immunogenicity. However, the most potent immunological response was obtained when the peptide adjuvants were encapsulated in liposomes targeted to human dendritic cells via the Fc receptor. This targeted vaccine strategy is a promising tool to activate and deliver antigens to dendritic cells, thus improving immunotherapeutic response in situations in which the immune system is frequently compromised, as in advanced cancers.

  18. Registration of 'FC1028', 'FC1037, 'FC1038' and, 'FC1036' multigerm sugarbeet germplasm with multiple disease resistances

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    FC1028’, ‘FC1036’, ‘FC1037’, and ‘FC1038’ (PI 665053, PI 665054, PI 665055, PI 665056) sugarbeet germplasms (Beta vulgaris L.) were released from 20111027, 09-FC1036, 20111025, and 04-FC1038 seed lots, respectively, and tested under the designations 04-FC1028; 05-, 06-, 07-, 08-, 09-FC1036; 04-FC10...

  19. Activin Decoy Receptor ActRIIB:Fc Lowers FSH and Therapeutically Restores Oocyte Yield, Prevents Oocyte Chromosome Misalignments and Spindle Aberrations, and Increases Fertility in Midlife Female SAMP8 Mice.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Lee, Se-Jin; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2016-03-01

    Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) (age ≥ 35) have increased rates of infertility, miscarriages, and trisomic pregnancies. Collectively these conditions are called "egg infertility." A root cause of egg infertility is increased rates of oocyte aneuploidy with age. AMA women often have elevated endogenous FSH. Female senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) has increased rates of oocyte spindle aberrations, diminished fertility, and rising endogenous FSH with age. We hypothesize that elevated FSH during the oocyte's FSH-responsive growth period is a cause of abnormalities in the meiotic spindle. We report that eggs from SAMP8 mice treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for the period of oocyte growth have increased chromosome and spindle misalignments. Activin is a molecule that raises FSH, and ActRIIB:Fc is an activin decoy receptor that binds and sequesters activin. We report that ActRIIB:Fc treatment of midlife SAMP8 mice for the duration of oocyte growth lowers FSH, prevents egg chromosome and spindle misalignments, and increases litter sizes. AMA patients can also have poor responsiveness to FSH stimulation. We report that although eCG lowers yields of viable oocytes, ActRIIB:Fc increases yields of viable oocytes. ActRIIB:Fc and eCG cotreatment markedly reduces yields of viable oocytes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated FSH contributes to egg aneuploidy, declining fertility, and poor ovarian response and that ActRIIB:Fc can prevent egg aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve ovarian response. Future studies will continue to examine whether ActRIIB:Fc works via FSH and/or other pathways and whether ActRIIB:Fc can prevent aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve stimulation responsiveness in AMA women.

  20. Activin Decoy Receptor ActRIIB:Fc Lowers FSH and Therapeutically Restores Oocyte Yield, Prevents Oocyte Chromosome Misalignments and Spindle Aberrations, and Increases Fertility in Midlife Female SAMP8 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Amelia C. L.; Lee, Se-Jin; Chaffin, Charles L.; Merchenthaler, István

    2016-01-01

    Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) (age ≥ 35) have increased rates of infertility, miscarriages, and trisomic pregnancies. Collectively these conditions are called “egg infertility.” A root cause of egg infertility is increased rates of oocyte aneuploidy with age. AMA women often have elevated endogenous FSH. Female senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) has increased rates of oocyte spindle aberrations, diminished fertility, and rising endogenous FSH with age. We hypothesize that elevated FSH during the oocyte's FSH-responsive growth period is a cause of abnormalities in the meiotic spindle. We report that eggs from SAMP8 mice treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for the period of oocyte growth have increased chromosome and spindle misalignments. Activin is a molecule that raises FSH, and ActRIIB:Fc is an activin decoy receptor that binds and sequesters activin. We report that ActRIIB:Fc treatment of midlife SAMP8 mice for the duration of oocyte growth lowers FSH, prevents egg chromosome and spindle misalignments, and increases litter sizes. AMA patients can also have poor responsiveness to FSH stimulation. We report that although eCG lowers yields of viable oocytes, ActRIIB:Fc increases yields of viable oocytes. ActRIIB:Fc and eCG cotreatment markedly reduces yields of viable oocytes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated FSH contributes to egg aneuploidy, declining fertility, and poor ovarian response and that ActRIIB:Fc can prevent egg aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve ovarian response. Future studies will continue to examine whether ActRIIB:Fc works via FSH and/or other pathways and whether ActRIIB:Fc can prevent aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve stimulation responsiveness in AMA women. PMID:26713784

  1. Effect of individual Fc methionine oxidation on FcRn binding: Met252 oxidation impairs FcRn binding more profoundly than Met428 oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuan; Ji, Junyan A; Veeravalli, Karthik; Wang, Y John; Zhang, Taylor; Mcgreevy, William; Zheng, Kai; Kelley, Robert F; Laird, Michael W; Liu, Jun; Cromwell, Mary

    2015-02-01

    The long serum half-lives of mAbs are conferred by pH-dependent binding of IgG-Fc to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). The Fc region of human IgG1 has three conserved methionine residues, Met252, Met358, and Met428. Recent studies showed oxidation of these Met residues impairs FcRn binding and consequently affects pharmacokinetics of therapeutic antibodies. However, the quantitative effect of individual Met oxidation on Fc-FcRn binding has not been addressed. This information is valuable for defining critical quality attributes. In the present study, two sets of homodimeric site-directed IgG1 mutations were generated to understand how individual Fc Met oxidation affects FcRn binding. The first approach used Met to Leu mutants to block site-specific Met oxidation. In the other approach, Met to Gln mutants were designed to mimic site-specific Met oxidation. Both mutagenesis approaches show that either Met252 or Met428 oxidation alone significantly impairs Fc-FcRn binding. Met252 oxidation has a more deleterious effect on FcRn binding than M428 oxidation, whereas Met428 oxidation has a bigger destabilization effect on the thermal stability. Our results also show that Met358 oxidation does not affect FcRn binding. In addition, our study suggests that Met to Gln mutation may serve as an important tool to understand Met oxidation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Aspergillus Cell Wall Chitin Induces Anti- and Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human PBMCs via the FcReceptor/Syk/PI3K Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Becker, K. L.; Aimanianda, V.; Wang, X.; Gresnigt, M. S.; Ammerdorffer, A.; Jacobs, C. W.; Gazendam, R. P.; Joosten, L. A. B.; Netea, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chitin is an important cell wall component of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, of which hundreds are inhaled on a daily basis. Previous studies have shown that chitin has both anti- and proinflammatory properties; however the exact mechanisms determining the inflammatory signature of chitin are poorly understood, especially in human immune cells. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with chitin from Aspergillus fumigatus. Transcription and production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) were measured from the cell culture supernatant by quantitative PCR (qPCR) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Chitin induced an anti-inflammatory signature characterized by the production of IL-1Ra in the presence of human serum, which was abrogated in immunoglobulin-depleted serum. Fc-γ-receptor-dependent recognition and phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized chitin was identified as a novel IL-1Ra-inducing mechanism by chitin. IL-1Ra production induced by chitin was dependent on Syk kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. In contrast, costimulation of chitin with the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) ligands lipopolysaccharide, Pam3Cys, or muramyl dipeptide, but not β-glucan, had synergistic effects on the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In conclusion, chitin can have both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, depending on the presence of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and immunoglobulins, thus explaining the various inflammatory signatures reported for chitin. PMID:27247234

  3. IFN-gamma and prostaglandin E2 inhibit IL-4-induced expression of Fc epsilon R2/CD23 on B lymphocytes through different mechanisms without altering binding of IL-4 to its receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Galizzi, J.P.; Cabrillat, H.; Rousset, F.; Menetrier, C.; de Vries, J.E.; Banchereau, J.

    1988-09-15

    Human rIL-4 specifically induces the expression of the low affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon R2/CD23) on normal B cells and on the Burkitt lymphoma cell line Jijoye. IL-4 does not induce the generation of the second messenger cAMP in Jijoye cells. PGE2 (at 10(-7) M) was found to inhibit by 50% the IL-4 mediated Fc epsilon R2/CD23 induction on Jijoye cells. The PGE2 half maximum inhibitory concentration (1 nM) was comparable to that inducing a half maximal increase of intracellular cAMP (4nM PGE2). 8-bromo-cAMP (10(-3) M), forskolin (10(-5) M), and cholera toxin (100 ng/ml), which increase intracellular cAMP levels, also inhibited by 40 to 80% the IL-4 induced Fc epsilon R2/CD23 expression on Jijoye cells. PGE2 8-bromo-cAMP, forskolin, and cholera toxin also inhibited the IL-4-induced Fc epsilon R2/CD23 expression on normal B lymphocytes. Taken together these data suggest that PGE2 inhibits the IL-4 induced Fc epsilon R2/CD23 through an increase of intracellular cAMP. In contrast, IFN-gamma, which strongly inhibits IL-4-mediated Fc epsilon R2/CD23 expression on Jijoye cells, did not increase intracellular cAMP levels and thus probably acts through another mechanism. IFN-gamma and PGE2 did not inhibit binding of IL-4 to its receptor. It could be excluded that IFN-gamma and PGE2 were acting via an alteration/desensitization of the IL-4R inasmuch as 24 h pre-incubation of Jijoye cells with these agents affected neither the affinity of 125I-IL-4 for its receptor (Kd = 0.8 to 1.5 x 10(-10) M) nor the maximal number of binding sites per Jijoye cells (Bmax = 390 to 550). Furthermore, IFN-gamma and PGE2 did not affect the internalization and degradation of 125I-IL-4. These data demonstrate that PGE2 and IFN-gamma inhibit the IL-4-mediated induction of Fc epsilon R2/CD23 on B lymphocytes via different mechanisms that do not alter the interaction of IL-4 with its receptor.

  4. Registration of FC1018, FC1019, FC1020, and FC1022, Sugarbeet Multigerm Pollinator Germplasms with Disease Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    FC1018’, ‘FC1019’, ‘FC1020’, and ‘FC1022’ (PI 658059, PI 658060, PI 658061, PI 658062, respectively) sugarbeet germplasm (Beta vulgaris L.) were released in 2009 from 05-FC1018, 05-FC1019, 07-/08-FC1020 and 05-FC101022 seed lots, respectively, and tested under those designations. They were develo...

  5. Quantitative evaluation of fucose reducing effects in a humanized antibody on Fcγ receptor binding and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activities

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Shan; Quarmby, Valerie; Gao, Xiaoying; Ying, Yong; Lin, Linda; Reed, Chae; Fong, Chris; Lau, Wendy; Qiu, Zhihua J.; Shen, Amy; Vanderlaan, Martin; Song, An

    2012-01-01

    The presence or absence of core fucose in the Fc region N-linked glycans of antibodies affects their binding affinity toward FcγRIIIa as well as their antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. However, the quantitative nature of this structure-function relationship remains unclear. In this study, the in vitro biological activity of an afucosylated anti-CD20 antibody was fully characterized. Further, the effect of fucose reduction on Fc effector functions was quantitatively evaluated using the afucosylated antibody, its “regular” fucosylated counterpart and a series of mixtures containing varying proportions of “regular” and afucosylated materials. Compared with the “regular” fucosylated antibody, the afucosylated antibody demonstrated similar binding interactions with the target antigen (CD20), C1q and FcγRIa, moderate increases in binding to FcγRIIa and IIb, and substantially increased binding to FcγRIIIa. The afucosylated antibodies also showed comparable complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity but markedly increased ADCC activity. Based on EC50 values derived from dose-response curves, our results indicate that the amount of afucosylated glycan in antibody samples correlate with both FcγRIIIa binding activity and ADCC activity in a linear fashion. Furthermore, the extent of ADCC enhancement due to fucose depletion was not affected by the FcγRIIIa genotype of the effector cells. PMID:22531441

  6. Quantitative evaluation of fucose reducing effects in a humanized antibody on Fcγ receptor binding and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activities.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shan; Quarmby, Valerie; Gao, Xiaoying; Ying, Yong; Lin, Linda; Reed, Chae; Fong, Chris; Lau, Wendy; Qiu, Zhihua J; Shen, Amy; Vanderlaan, Martin; Song, An

    2012-01-01

    The presence or absence of core fucose in the Fc region N-linked glycans of antibodies affects their binding affinity toward FcγRIIIa as well as their antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. However, the quantitative nature of this structure-function relationship remains unclear. In this study, the in vitro biological activity of an afucosylated anti-CD20 antibody was fully characterized. Further, the effect of fucose reduction on Fc effector functions was quantitatively evaluated using the afucosylated antibody, its "regular" fucosylated counterpart and a series of mixtures containing varying proportions of "regular" and afucosylated materials. Compared with the "regular" fucosylated antibody, the afucosylated antibody demonstrated similar binding interactions with the target antigen (CD20), C1q and FcγRIa, moderate increases in binding to FcγRIIa and IIb, and substantially increased binding to FcγRIIIa. The afucosylated antibodies also showed comparable complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity but markedly increased ADCC activity. Based on EC 50 values derived from dose-response curves, our results indicate that the amount of afucosylated glycan in antibody samples correlate with both FcγRIIIa binding activity and ADCC activity in a linear fashion. Furthermore, the extent of ADCC enhancement due to fucose depletion was not affected by the FcγRIIIa genotype of the effector cells.

  7. Structural analysis of Fc/FcγR complexes: a blueprint for antibody design.

    PubMed

    Caaveiro, Jose M M; Kiyoshi, Masato; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-11-01

    The number of studies and the quality of the structural data of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) has rapidly increased in the last few years. Upon critical examination of the literature, we have extracted general conclusions that could explain differences in affinity and selectivity of FcγRs for immunoglobulin G (IgG) based on structural considerations. FcγRs employ a little conserved asymmetric surface of domain D2 composed of two distinct subsites to recognize the well-conserved lower hinge region of IgG1-Fc. The extent of the contact interface with the antibody in subsite 1 of the receptor (but not in subsite 2), the geometrical complementarity between antibody and receptor, and the number of polar interactions contribute decisively toward strengthening the binding affinity of the antibody for the receptor. In addition, the uncertain role of the N-linked glycan of IgG for the binding and effector responses elicited by FcγRs is discussed. The available data suggest that not only the non-covalent interactions between IgG and FcγRs but also their dynamic features are essential for the immune response elicited through these receptors. We believe that the integration of structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic data will be critical for the design and validation of the next generation of therapeutic antibodies with enhanced effector capabilities.

  8. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism by the murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2-Fc fusion protein exacerbates histoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Deepe, George S

    2007-06-01

    Treatment of some inflammatory conditions with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists is efficacious, but such treatments are associated with infections with intracellular pathogens, including Histoplasma capsulatum. We explored protective immunity to H. capsulatum in mice given a fusion protein consisting of TNF-alpha receptor 2 (TNFR2) bound to the Fc portion of mouse IgG1. Intraperitoneal administration of this inhibitor exacerbated primary or secondary pulmonary infection at dosages ranging from 1 to 5 mg/kg. All mice with primary infection given the inhibitor succumbed to infection within 10-21 days of treatment. In secondary histoplasmosis, mice receiving 1, but not 5, mg/kg survived treatment. Fungal burden was increased even if treatment with the inhibitor was initiated after the onset of infection. The inflammatory response of the lungs of mice given the inhibitor did not differ from that of mice given control vehicle. Susceptibility was not associated with major alterations in cytokines known to protect or exacerbate infection. However, expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) was depressed early in primary infection. These results demonstrate that antagonism of endogenous TNF-alpha by this fusion protein modulates susceptibility. Impaired immunity is not a result of altered cytokine responses or changes in the inflammation and may not be demonstrable in other murine strains.

  9. Fcγ and Complement Receptors and Complement Proteins in Neutrophil Activation in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Contribution to Pathogenesis and Progression and Modulation by Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Paoliello-Paschoalato, Adriana Balbina; Marchi, Larissa Fávaro; de Andrade, Micássio Fernandes; Kabeya, Luciana Mariko; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Lucisano-Valim, Yara Maria

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a highly disabling disease that affects all structures of the joint and significantly impacts on morbidity and mortality in RA patients. RA is characterized by persistent inflammation of the synovial membrane lining the joint associated with infiltration of immune cells. Eighty to 90% of the leukocytes infiltrating the synovia are neutrophils. The specific role that neutrophils play in the onset of RA is not clear, but recent studies have evidenced that they have an important participation in joint damage and disease progression through the release of proteolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokines, and neutrophil extracellular traps, in particular during frustrated phagocytosis of immune complexes (ICs). In addition, the local and systemic activation of the complement system contributes to the pathogenesis of RA and other IC-mediated diseases. This review discusses (i) the participation of Fcγ and complement receptors in mediating the effector functions of neutrophils in RA; (ii) the contribution of the complement system and ROS-dependent and ROS-independent mechanisms to joint damage in RA; and (iii) the use of plant extracts, dietary compounds, and isolated natural compounds in the treatment of RA, focusing on modulation of the effector functions of neutrophils and the complement system activity and/or activation. PMID:26346244

  10. Sotatercept, a soluble activin receptor type 2A IgG-Fc fusion protein for the treatment of anemia and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Raje, Noopur; Vallet, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    Sotatercept (ACE-011), under development by Acceleron Pharma Inc in collaboration with Celgene Corp, is a chimeric protein containing the extracellular domain of the activin receptor 2A (ACVR2A) fused to the Fc domain of human IgG1. Sotatercept contains the binding site of ACVR2A and interferes with downstream signaling cascades, in particular the SMAD pathway, by sequestering activin. The murine counterpart of sotatercept, referred to as RAP-011, has been extensively evaluated in preclinical studies, in particular in models of cancer- and osteoporosis-related bone loss, and the developing companies envisage that sotatercept may also have potential for the treatment of cancer and cancer-related bone loss. In a phase I clinical trial in postmenopausal females, sotatercept increased hematocrit levels, and, in a phase II trial in patients with multiple myeloma, a trend toward improvement in osteolytic lesions as well as antitumor activity was observed. At the time of publication, phase II trials in patients with anemia were ongoing. Future clinical development will rely on an evaluation of the benefits and complications of sotatercept administration, focusing in particular on suppression of ovarian function and increases in hematocrit levels without a consequent risk of hypertension and thrombosis.

  11. Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities of Env-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies Generated from Volunteers Receiving the DNA Prime-Protein Boost HIV Vaccine DP6-001.

    PubMed

    Costa, Matthew R; Pollara, Justin; Edwards, Regina Whitney; Seaman, Michael S; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Montefiori, David C; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2016-11-15

    HIV-1 is able to elicit broadly potent neutralizing antibodies in a very small subset of individuals only after several years of infection, and therefore, vaccines that elicit these types of antibodies have been difficult to design. The RV144 trial showed that moderate protection is possible and that this protection may correlate with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. Our previous studies demonstrated that in an HIV vaccine phase I trial, the DP6-001 trial, a polyvalent Env DNA prime-protein boost formulation could elicit potent and broadly reactive, gp120-specific antibodies with positive neutralization activities. Here we report on the production and analysis of HIV-1 Env-specific human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) isolated from vaccinees in the DP6-001 trial. For this initial report, 13 hMAbs from four vaccinees in the DP6-001 trial showed broad binding to gp120 proteins of diverse subtypes both autologous and heterologous to vaccine immunogens. Equally cross-reactive Fc receptor-mediated functional activities, including ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activities, were present with both immune sera and isolated MAbs, confirming the induction of nonneutralizing functional hMAbs by the DNA prime-protein boost vaccination. Elicitation of broadly reactive hMAbs by vaccination in healthy human volunteers confirms the value of the polyvalent formulation in this HIV vaccine design.

  12. Roles for the High Affinity IgE Receptor, FcεRI, of Human Basophils in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Allergic Asthma: Disease Promotion, Protection or Both?

    PubMed

    Youssef, Lama A; Schuyler, Mark; Wilson, Bridget S; Oliver, Janet M

    2010-01-01

    The role of basophils, the rarest of blood granulocytes, in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma is still incompletely understood. Indirect evidence generated over many decades is consistent with a role for basophils in disease promotion. Recent improvements in procedures to purify and analyze very small numbers of human cells have generally supported this view, but have also revealed new complexities. This chapter focuses on our analyses of Fcε R1 function in basophils in the context of understanding and treating human allergic asthma. In long-term studies, we demonstrated that asthmatic subjects have higher circulating numbers of basophils than non-atopic non-asthmatic subjects and that their basophils show higher rates of both basal and anti-IgE or antigen-stimulated histamine release. These results hint at a direct role for basophils in promoting asthma. Supporting this interpretation, the non-releaser phenotype that we linked to the excessive proteolysis of Syk via the ubiquitin/proteasomal pathway is less common in basophils from asthmatic than non-asthmatic donors. The discovery of a basophil-specific pathway regulating Syk levels presents a clear opportunity for therapy. Another route to therapy was revealed by evidence that basophil FcεRI signaling can be downregulated by co-crosslinking the ITAM-containing IgE receptor, FcγRI, to the ITIM-containing IgG receptor, FcγRIIB. Based on this discovery, hybrid co-crosslinking fusion proteins are being engineered as potential therapies targeting basophils. A third distinguishing property of human basophils is their high dependence on IgE binding to stabilize membrane FcεRI. The circulating IgE scavenging mAb, Omalizumab, reduces FcεRI expression in basophils from asthmatics by over 95% and produces a substantial impairment of IL-4, IL-8 and IL-13 production in response to the crosslinking of residual cell surface IgE-FcεRI. A search for small molecule inhibitors that similarly impair high affinity Ig

  13. Deletion or inhibition of Fc gamma receptor 2B (CD32) prevents FVIII-specific activation of memory B cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Werwitzke, Sonja; Vollack, Nadine; von Hornung, Marcus; Kalippke, Katy; Kutzschbach, Julia; Trummer, Arne; Ganser, Arnold; Tiede, Andreas

    2015-11-25

    Development of inhibitory antibodies against factor VIII (FVIII) is a severe complication of replacement therapy in haemophilia A. Patients with inhibitors are treated with high FVIII doses in the context of immune tolerance therapy (ITT). Data from haemophilia A mouse model suggest that high FVIII concentrations prevent the formation of antibody secreting cells (ASCs) from memory B cells (MBCs) by inducing apoptosis. Fc gamma receptor 2B (CD32) is an important regulator of B cell function, mediating inhibitory signals after cross-linking with the B cell receptor. Here, the role of CD32 in the regulation of FVIII-specific MBCs was investigated using F8-/- and F8-/-CD32-/- knockout mice and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The initial immune response was similar between F8-/- and F8-/-CD32-/- mice, including concentration of anti-FVIII antibodies and number of FVIII-specific ASCs in spleen and bone marrow. In contrast, formation of ASCs from MBCs upon rhFVIII re-stimulation in vitro was abolished in F8-/-CD32-/- mice, whereas FVIII/anti-FVIII immune complexes significantly enhanced ASC formation in F8-/- mice. Inhibition of CD32 by mAbs or F(ab)2 fragments prevented ASC formation in a dose-dependent manner. Transfer of B cell-depleted splenocytes using CD45R (B220) depletion from CD32-competent mice did not restore ASC formation in F8-/-CD32-/- cells confirming that CD32 is required on B cells. We conclude that CD32 is a crucial regulator of FVIII-specific B cells and is required for the differentiation of MBCs into ASCs. Inhibition of CD32 could potentially improve the efficacy of FVIII in the context of ITT.

  14. Significant Association Between Fc Receptor-Like 3 Polymorphisms (-1901A>G and -658C>T) and Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) Susceptibility in the Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinling; Yu, Tao; Yan, Qichang; Wang, Wei; Meng, Nan; Li, Xuejiao; Luo, Yahong

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder. In pathogenesis, NMO-immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) selectively binds to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and resulted in neuritis, myelitis, and brain lesion. Fc receptor-like 3 (FCRL3) gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin receptor superfamily, which plays an important part in regulating immune activities. This study aimed at investigating the association between FCRL3 polymorphisms and NMO susceptibility and, hopefully, to contribute to the development of novel methods for diagnosis and treatment of NMO. We selected 150 NMO patients and 300 healthy controls from the Chinese population. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified with reference to CBI-dbSNP and HapMap databases. DNA were extracted and amplified. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied to determine the polymorphisms. χ (2), odds ratio (OR), and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were presented to evaluate genotype distribution and association between SNPs and NMO susceptibility. Six out of 15 SNPs were selected according to the filter. No significant altered genotype distribution was observed concerning -11G>C, -166C>T, -219G>C, and -1629C>G polymorphisms. The G allele of -1901A>G variation was demonstrated to be more frequent in patients compared with controls (P < 0.001). The T allele of -658C>T polymorphism was significantly more prevalent in NMO patients than controls (P = 0.009). In summary, the study revealed that the G allele in -1901A>G polymorphism and T allele in -658C>T polymorphism are genetic risk factors for NMO in the Chinese population. Further research is needed to account for different ethnicities and clarify the mechanisms behind, which might contribute to the elucidation of novel diagnosis methods.

  15. Fc-receptor-mediated intracellular delivery of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protects against redox-induced apoptosis through a nitric oxide dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Vouldoukis, I.; Sivan, V.; Vozenin, M. C.; Kamaté, C.; Calenda, A.; Mazier, D.; Dugas, B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using specific antibodies against bovine Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1, SOD1) we demonstrated that anti-SOD antibodies (IgG1) are able to promote the intracellular translocation of the antioxidant enzyme. The transduction signalling mediated by IgG1 immune complexes are known to promote a concomitant production of superoxide and nitric oxide leading to the production of peroxynitrites and cell death by apoptosis. The Fc-mediated intracellular delivery of SOD1 thus limited the endogenous production of superoxide. It was thus of interest to confirm that in the absence of superoxide anion, the production of nitric oxide protected cells against apoptosis. Study in greater detail clearly stated that under superoxide anion-free conditions, nitric oxide promoted the cell antioxidant armature and thus protected cells against redox-induced apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The murine macrophage cell-lines J774 A1 were preactivated or not with interferon-gamma and were then stimulated by IgG1 immune complexes (IC), free SOD1 or SOD1 IC and superoxide anion, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production was evaluated. The redox consequences of these activation processes were also evaluated on mitochondrial respiration and apoptosis as well as on the controlled expression of the cellular antioxidant armature. RESULTS: We demonstrated that SOD1 IC induced a Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR)-dependent intracellular delivery of the antioxidant enzyme in IFN-gamma activated murine macrophages (the J774 AI cell line). The concomitant stimulation of the FcyR and the translocation of the SOD1 in the cytoplasm of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages not only reduced the production of superoxide anion but also induced the expression of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the related NO production. This inducing effect in the absence of superoxide anion production reduced mitochondrial damages and cell death by

  16. Decreased Fc receptor expression on innate immune cells is associated with impaired antibody-mediated cellular phagocytic activity in chronically HIV-1 infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Tonelli, Andrew; Berger, Christoph T; Ackerman, Margaret E; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Liu, Qingquan; Sips, Magdalena; Toth, Ildiko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Ghebremichael, Musie; Alter, Galit

    2011-07-05

    In addition to neutralization, antibodies mediate other antiviral activities including antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as well as complement deposition. While it is established that progressive HIV infection is associated with reduced ADCC and ADCP, the underlying mechanism for this loss of function is unknown. Here we report considerable changes in FcR expression over the course of HIV infection on both mDCs and monocytes, including elevated FcγRI expression in acute HIV infection and reduced expression of FcγRII and FcγRIIIa in chronic HIV infection. Furthermore, selective blockade of FcγRII alone was associated with a loss in ADCP activity, suggesting that FcγRII plays a central role in modulating ADCP. Overall, HIV infection is associated with a number of changes in FcR expression on phagocytic cells that are associated with changes in their ability to respond to antibody-opsonized targets, potentially contributing to a failure in viral clearance in progressive HIV-1 infection.

  17. IgG Fc variant cross-reactivity between human and rhesus macaque FcγRs.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Austin W; Miles, Adam R; Chan, Ying N; Osei-Owusu, Nana Y; Ackerman, Margaret E

    2017-01-05

    Non-human primate (NHP) studies are often an essential component of antibody development efforts before human trials. Because the efficacy or toxicity of candidate antibodies may depend on their interactions with Fcγ receptors (FcγR) and their resulting ability to induce FcγR-mediated effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell-meditated cytotoxicity and phagocytosis (ADCP), the evaluation of human IgG variants with modulated affinity toward human FcγR is becoming more prevalent in both infectious disease and oncology studies in NHP. Reliable translation of these results necessitates analysis of the cross-reactivity of these human Fc variants with NHP FcγR. We report evaluation of the binding affinities of a panel of human IgG subclasses, Fc amino acid point mutants and Fc glycosylation variants against the common allotypes of human and rhesus macaque FcγR by applying a high-throughput array-based surface plasmon resonance platform. The resulting data indicate that amino acid variation present in rhesus FcγRs can result in disrupted, matched, or even increased affinity of IgG Fc variants compared with human FcγR orthologs. These observations emphasize the importance of evaluating species cross-reactivity and developing an understanding of the potential limitations or suitability of representative in vitro and in vivo models before human clinical studies when either efficacy or toxicity may be associated with FcγR engagement.

  18. Structure of FcγRI in complex with Fc reveals the importance of glycan recognition for high-affinity IgG binding

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinghua; Chu, Jonathan; Zou, Zhongcheng; Hamacher, Nels B.; Rixon, Mark W.; Sun, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Fc gamma receptor I (FcγRI) contributes to protective immunity against bacterial infections, but exacerbates certain autoimmune diseases. The sole high-affinity IgG receptor, FcγRI plays a significant role in immunotherapy. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of its high-affinity IgG binding, we determined the crystal structure of the extracellular domains of human FcγRI in complex with the Fc domain of human IgG1. FcγRI binds to the Fc in a similar mode as the low-affinity FcγRII and FcγRIII receptors. In addition to many conserved contacts, FcγRI forms additional hydrogen bonds and salt bridges with the lower hinge region of Fc. Unique to the high-affinity receptor-Fc complex, however, is the conformation of the receptor D2 domain FG loop, which enables a charged KHR motif to interact with proximal carbohydrate units of the Fc glycans. Both the length and the charge of the FcγRI FG loop are well conserved among mammalian species. Ala and Glu mutations of the FG loop KHR residues showed significant contributions of His-174 and Arg-175 to antibody binding, and the loss of the FG loop–glycan interaction resulted in an ∼20- to 30-fold decrease in FcγRI affinity to all three subclasses of IgGs. Furthermore, deglycosylation of IgG1 resulted in a 40-fold loss in FcγRI binding, demonstrating involvement of the receptor FG loop in glycan recognition. These results highlight a unique glycan recognition in FcγRI function and open potential therapeutic avenues based on antibody glycan engineering or small molecular glycan mimics to target FcγRI for certain autoimmune diseases. PMID:25561553

  19. Expression Profile of Human Fc Receptor-Like 1, 2, and 4 Molecules in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Rostamzadeh, D; Dabbaghmanesh, M H; Shabani, M; Hosseini, A; Amirghofran, Z

    2015-08-01

    Recently identified Fc receptor-like (FCRL) molecules are new members of the immunoglobulin superfamily dominantly expressed by B cells. Although FCRL expression patterns have been studied in normal and malignant cells, their biological functions and roles remain to be clearly identified in humans. Research has particularly focused on FCRL gene polymorphisms in autoimmune diseases, however, their involvement in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is an interesting field for investigation. In the present study, we have investigated the gene expression profiles of FCRL1, 2, and 4 in 2 common thyroid diseases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD). FCRL1, 2, and 4 expressions were determined in peripheral blood samples of 55 HT patients, 40 GD patients and equal numbers of normal subjects by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed downregulation of FCRL1 and upregulation of FCRL2 transcripts in both HT and GD groups compared to healthy counterparts. Overexpression of FCRL4 was observed only in GD patients compared to controls. A significant correlation was observed between all FCRL gene expression levels in HT patients. Only FCRL2 and 4 had a correlation in GD patients. In addition, FCRL1, 2, and 4 gene expressions showed no correlations with the level of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) or anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibody from patients' sera. In conclusion, expressions of activating or inhibitory FCRL1, 2, and 4 showed significant alterations in HT and GD patients compared to healthy subjects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Effects of prostaglandin E{sub 2} on the subcellular localization of Epac-1 and Rap1 proteins during Fc{gamma}-receptor-mediated phagocytosis in alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Thomas G.; Serezani, Carlos H.; Carstens, Jennifer K.; Peters-Golden, Marc; Aronoff, David M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated a central role for the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) in the inhibition of Fc{gamma}-receptor-mediated phagocytosis and bacterial killing by prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) in macrophages. However, the subcellular localization of Epac, and its primary target Rap1, has yet to be determined in primary macrophages. Therefore, we used immunofluorescent techniques and phagosome isolation to localize Epac-1 and Rap1 in alveolar macrophages. Epac-1 was predominantly expressed on punctate and tubular membranes throughout the cell body; on the plasma membrane; and co-localized with microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). Rap1 was abundant on punctate membranes, less abundant on plasma membrane, and also found on MTOCs. Following PGE{sub 2} treatment, Epac-1, but not Rap1, accumulated on the nuclear envelope and disappeared from MTOCs. By immunofluorescent microscopy, both Epac-1 and Rap1 were seen to associate with phagosomes containing IgG-opsonized beads, but this association appeared weak, as we failed to observe such interactions in phagosomes isolated from cells at various time points after bead ingestion. Strikingly, however, Epac-1, but not Rap1, appeared to accumulate on maturing phagosomes, but only after PGE{sub 2} treatment (or treatment with a selective Epac-1 agonist). This association was confirmed in isolated phagosome preparations. The changes in Epac-1 localization were too slow to account for the inhibitory effects of PGE{sub 2} on phagocytosis. However, the appearance of Epac-1 on late phagosomes following PGE{sub 2} treatment might be important for suppressing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and inhibiting the killing of intraphagosomal pathogens. The absence of Rap1 on late phagosomes suggests that the effect of Epac-1 might not require Rap1.

  1. Trastuzumab triggers phagocytic killing of high HER2 cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by interaction with Fcγ receptors on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Fan, Xuejun; Deng, Hui; Brezski, Randall J; Rycyzyn, Michael; Jordan, Robert E; Strohl, William R; Zou, Quanming; Zhang, Ningyan; An, Zhiqiang

    2015-05-01

    Trastuzumab has been used for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer for more than a decade, but the mechanisms of action for the therapy are still being actively investigated. Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells is well recognized as one of the key mechanisms of action for trastuzumab, but trastuzumab-mediated Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) has not been established. In this study, we demonstrate that macrophages, by way of phagocytic engulfment, can mediate ADCP and cancer cell killing in the presence of trastuzumab. Increased infiltration of macrophages in the tumor tissue was associated with enhanced efficacy of trastuzumab whereas depletion of macrophages resulted in reduced antitumor efficacy in mouse xenograft tumor models. Among the four mouse FcγRs, FcγRIV exhibits the strongest binding affinity to trastuzumab. Knockdown of FcγRIV in mouse macrophages reduced cancer cell killing and ADCP activity triggered by trastuzumab. Consistently, an upregulation of FcγRIV expression by IFN-γ triggered an increased ADCP activity by trastuzumab. In an analogous fashion, IFN-γ priming of human macrophages increased the expression of FcγRIII, the ortholog of murine FcγRIV, and increased trastuzumab-mediated cancer cell killing. Thus, in two independent systems, the results indicated that activation of macrophages in combination with trastuzumab can serve as a therapeutic strategy for treating high HER2 breast cancer by boosting ADCP killing of cancer cells.

  2. Heteroantibody-mediated cytotoxicity: antibody to the high affinity Fc receptor for IgG mediates cytotoxicity by human monocytes that is enhanced by interferon-gamma and is not blocked by human IgG.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Guyre, P M; Anderson, C L; Fanger, M W

    1986-12-01

    An IgG1 monoclonal antibody, 32.2, raised against the 72,000 dalton monocyte high affinity Fc receptor, was used to examine the role of this receptor in ADCC. This antibody did not inhibit the binding of human IgG1 to monocytes or to the U937 cell line, nor did it block or stimulate their killing of IgG-coated chicken erythrocytes (CE). Whole 32.2 or its Fab fragments were cross-linked to Fab fragments of rabbit anti-CE by using the agent SPDP. The resulting heteroantibodies (32.2 X Fab anti-CE) mediated monocyte and U937 cytotoxicity against CE, whereas an anti-HLA X anti-CE reagent did not. Both FcR expression and heteroantibody-mediated cytotoxicity were increased by culturing monocytes or U937 with IFN-gamma. Although IgG-mediated ADCC was significantly inhibited by 40 micrograms/ml human IgG1, cytotoxicity mediated by 32.2 X Fab anti-CE was not blocked by 2 mg/ml human IgG1, suggesting that such cytotoxicity might not be blocked by IgG in vivo. These data indicate the potential of 32.2 heteroantibodies in analysis of FcR function and in therapy.

  3. Modification of the Fc Region of a Human Anti-oncostatin M Monoclonal Antibody for Higher Affinity to FcRn Receptor and Extension of Half-life in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nnane, Ivo P; Han, Chao; Jiao, Qun; Tam, Susan H; Davis, Hugh M; Xu, Zhenhua

    2017-01-28

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of anti-oncostatin M (OSM) IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, CNTO 1119 and its Fc variant (CNTO 8212), which incorporates the LS(Xtend) mutation to extend terminal half-life (T1/2 ), after a single intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) administration in cynomolgus monkeys, and to predict human PK. In study 1, single doses of CNTO 1119 and CNTO 8212 were administered IV or SC at 3 mg/kg to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 3 per group). In study 2, single doses of CNTO 8212 were administered IV at 1, 5 or 20 mg/kg, or SC at 5 mg/kg to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 5 per group). Serial blood samples were collected for assessment of serum concentrations of CNTO 1119 and/or CNTO 8212. A two-compartment population PK model with first-order elimination was utilized to simultaneously describe the serum concentrations of CNTO 1119 and CNTO 8212 over time after IV and SC administration in cynomolgus monkeys. The typical population PK parameter estimates for CNTO 1119 in cynomolgus monkeys were clearance (CL) = 2.81 mL/day/kg, volume of distribution of central compartment (V1 ) = 31.3 mL/kg, volume of distribution of peripheral compartment (V2 ) = 23.3 mL/kg, absolute bioavailability (F) = 0.84 and T1/2 = 13.4 days. In comparison, the typical population PK parameter estimates for CNTO 8212 in cynomolgus monkeys were CL = 1.41 mL/day/kg, V1 = 39.8 mL/kg, V2 = 32.6 mL/kg, F = 0.75 and T1/2 = 35.7 days. The mean CL of CNTO 8212 was ~50% lower compared with that for CNTO 1119 in cynomolgus monkeys. The overall volume of distribution (V1 +V2 ) for CNTO 8212 was about 32% larger compared with that for CNTO 1119, but generally similar to the vascular volume in cynomolgus monkeys. The T1/2 of CNTO 8212 was significantly (p < 0.05) longer by about 2.7-fold than that for CNTO 1119 in cynomolgus monkeys. Thus, the modification of the Fc portion of an anti-OSM IgG1 mAb for higher FcRn binding affinity resulted in lower systemic clearance and

  4. Fc gamma receptor IIIb polymorphism and systemic lupus erythematosus: association with disease susceptibility and identification of a novel FCGR3B*01 variant.

    PubMed

    Santos, V C; Grecco, M; Pereira, K M C; Terzian, C C N; Andrade, L E C; Silva, N P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between Fc gamma receptor IIIb polymorphism and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus and clinical traits of the disease. Genomic DNA was obtained from 303 consecutive systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 300 healthy blood donors from the southeastern region of Brazil. The polymorphic region of the FCGR3B gene was sequenced and the alleles FCGR3B*01, FCGR3B*02 and FCGR3B*03 were analyzed. The FCGR3B*01 allele was more frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (43.1%) while the FCGR3B*02 allele prevailed among controls (63.7%) (P = 0.001). The FCGR3B*03 allele was found equally in both groups. The FCGR3B*01/*01 (20.7%) and FCGR3B*01/*02 (41.1%) genotypes were more frequent among systemic lupus erythematosus patients (P = 0.028 and P = 0.012, respectively) while the FCGR3B*02/*02 genotype was more frequent in controls (45.5%) (P < 0.001). One variant of the FCGR3B*01 allele previously described in Germany was found in only one control. A new variant of the FCGR3B*01 allele with two substitutions (A227G/G277A) was found in one control. Three variants of the FCGR3B*02 allele previously described in African-Americans, Brazilians, Chinese and Japanese were found in ten 10 patients and two controls. In addition, several single nucleotide polymorphisms at non-polymorphic positions were identified in both patients and controls. Susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus was associated with the FCGR3B*01 allele, as well as with the FCGR3B*01/*01 and FCGR3B*01/*02 genotypes. No association was found between FCGR3B genotypes and clinical manifestations, disease severity or the presence of autoantibodies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Alterations of Fc gamma receptor I and Toll-like receptor 4 mediate the antiinflammatory actions of microglia and astrocytes after adrenaline-induced blood-brain barrier opening in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Na; Qin, Xu-Jun; Kuang, Fang; Wu, Rui; Duan, Xiao-Li; Ju, Gong; Wang, Bai-Ren

    2008-12-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening occurs under many physiological and pathological conditions. BBB opening will lead to the leakage of large circulating molecules into the brain parenchyma. These invasive molecules will induce immune responses. Microglia and astrocytes are the two major cell types responsible for immune responses in the brain, and Fc gamma receptor I (FcgammaRI) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are the two important receptors mediating these processes. Data suggest that activation of the FcgammaRI pathway mediates antiinflammatory processes, whereas activation of TLR4 pathway leads to proinflammatory activities. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that BBB opening could lead to alterations in FcgammaRI and TLR4 pathways in microglia and astrocytes, thus limiting excessive inflammation in the brain. The transient BBB opening was induced by adrenaline injection through a caudal vein in Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that the FcgammaRI pathway was significantly activated in both microglia and astrocytes, as exhibited by the up-regulation of FcgammaRI and its key downstream molecule Syk, as well as the increased production of the effector cytokines, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-4. Interestingly, after transient BBB opening, TLR4 expression was also increased. However, the expression of MyD88, the central adapter of the TLR4 pathway, was significantly inhibited, with decreased production of the effector cytokines IL-12a and IL-1beta. These results indicate that, after transient BBB opening, FcgammaRI-mediated antiinflammatory processes were activated, whereas TLR4-mediated proinflammatory activities were inhibited in microglia and astrocytes. This may represent an important neuroprotective mechanism of microglia and astrocytes that limits excessive inflammation after BBB opening.

  6. Induction of Fc epsilon receptors on normal murine T cells and IgE binding factor(s) by cross-linked IgE or IgE-pulsed adherent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Firer, M A; Eshhar, Z

    1986-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficiency and extent of induction by monomeric versus cross-linked IgE of specific receptors for IgE on normal murine splenic T cells (Fc epsilon R-T), and to study the ability of IgE-pulsed splenic adherent cells to induce receptors for IgE on T cells. Chemically cross-linked IgE was found to be both more effective and more efficient than monomeric IgE in inducing Fc epsilon R-T as measured by the ability of IgE-pulsed T cells to form specific rosettes with IgE-sensitized trinitrophenylated sheep red blood cells (TNP-SRBC). This phenomenon was dependent on both DNA and protein synthesis, suggesting that induction caused the production of new IgE receptors. It was also found that cross-linked but not monomeric IgE-pulsed normal murine adherent cells as well as their cell-free products could actively induce significant levels of specific Fc epsilon R-T. Both cross-linked IgE-pulsed T cells and adherent cells released IgE binding factor(s). These materials were capable of specifically inhibiting the binding of IgE to rat basophilic leukaemic cells (RBL) in vitro and to rat tissue mast cells in vivo. Collectively, these data provide further evidence to suggest that polymerized forms of IgE and adherent cells play important roles in the regulation of IgE responses. Images Figure 3 PMID:2937716

  7. Comparative analysis of biological activities of Der p I-derived peptides on Fc epsilon receptor-bearing cells from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-sensitive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Jeannin, P; Pestel, J; Bossus, M; Lassalle, P; Tartar, A; Tonnel, A B

    1993-01-01

    The ability of four uncoupled synthetic peptides (p52-71, p117-133, p176-187, p188-199) derived from Der p I, a major allergen from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) to stimulate Fc epsilon R+ cells from Dpt-sensitive patients was comparatively analysed. Each free peptide may specifically stimulate basophils (Fc epsilon RI+ cells) and platelets (Fc epsilon RII+ cells) from patients with significant levels of anti-Der p I IgE antibodies; p52-71 and p117-133 appear the best cell stimulation inducers. Both concentration-dependent biological activities of Der p I-peptide on Fc epsilon R+ cells are enhanced by coupling peptide to a carrier (as human serum albumin). Interestingly each Der p I-sensitive patient tested presents an individual pattern of response to peptide. Thus, from our results it appears that different Der p I sequences could be involved in the immune response to Der p I. PMID:7682161

  8. Increment in Drug Loading on an Antibody-Drug Conjugate Increases Its Binding to the Human Neonatal Fc Receptor in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Brachet, Guillaume; Respaud, Renaud; Arnoult, Christophe; Henriquet, Corinne; Dhommée, Christine; Viaud-Massuard, Marie-Claude; Heuze-Vourc'h, Nathalie; Joubert, Nicolas; Pugnière, Martine; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie

    2016-04-04

    Antibody-drug conjugates, such as brentuximab vedotin (BTXv), are an innovative category of monoclonal antibodies. BTXv is bioconjugated via the chemical reduction of cysteine residues involved in disulfide bonds. Species of BTXv containing zero, two, four, six, or eight vedotin molecules per antibody coexist in the stock solution. We investigated the influence of drug loading on the binding of the antibody to FcRn, a major determinant of antibody pharmacokinetics in humans. We developed a hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) method for separating the different species present in the stock solution of BTXv, and we purified and characterized the collected species before use. We assessed the binding of these different species to FcRn in a cellular assay based on flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance. HIC separated the different species of BTXv and allowed their collection at adequate levels of purity. Physicochemical characterization showed that species with higher levels of drug loading tended to form more aggregates. FcRn binding assays showed that the most conjugated species, particularly those with saturated loading, interacted more strongly than unconjugated BTXv with the FcRn.

  9. Developing the IVIG biomimetic, hexa-Fc, for drug and vaccine applications.

    PubMed

    Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Andersen, Jan Terje; Fuchs, Anja; Wilson, Timothy J; Mekhaiel, David; Colonna, Marco; He, Jianfeng; Shao, Zhifeng; Mitchell, Daniel A; Wu, Gang; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart; Lloyd, Katy A; Moore, Shona C; Sandlie, Inger; Blundell, Patricia A; Pleass, Richard J

    2015-04-27

    The remarkable clinical success of Fc-fusion proteins has driven intense investigation for even more potent replacements. Using quality-by-design (QbD) approaches, we generated hexameric-Fc (hexa-Fc), a ~20 nm oligomeric Fc-based scaffold that we here show binds low-affinity inhibitory receptors (FcRL5, FcγRIIb, and DC-SIGN) with high avidity and specificity, whilst eliminating significant clinical limitations of monomeric Fc-fusions for vaccine and/or cancer therapies, in particular their poor ability to activate complement. Mass spectroscopy of hexa-Fc reveals high-mannose, low-sialic acid content, suggesting that interactions with these receptors are influenced by the mannose-containing Fc. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provides insight into the mechanisms of hexa-Fc interaction with these receptors and reveals an unexpected orientation of high-mannose glycans on the human Fc that provides greater accessibility to potential binding partners. Finally, we show that this biosynthetic nanoparticle can be engineered to enhance interactions with the human neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) without loss of the oligomeric structure, a crucial modification for these molecules in therapy and/or vaccine strategies where a long plasma half-life is critical.

  10. High synovial expression of the inhibitory FcγRIIb in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Sofia E; Engström, Marianne; Jacob, Uwe; Ulfgren, Ann-Kristin; Kleinau, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Activating Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) have been identified as having important roles in the inflammatory joint reaction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and murine models of arthritis. However, the role of the inhibitory FcγRIIb in the regulation of the synovial inflammation in RA is less known. Here we have investigated synovial tissue from RA patients using a novel monoclonal antibody (GB3) specific for the FcγRIIb isoform. FcγRIIb was abundantly expressed in synovia of RA patients, in sharp contrast to the absence or weak staining of FcγRIIb in synovial biopsies from healthy volunteers. In addition, the expression of FcγRI, FcγRII and FcγRIII was analyzed in synovia obtained from early and late stages of RA. Compared with healthy synovia, which expressed FcγRII, FcγRIII but not FcγRI, all activating FcγRs were expressed and significantly up-regulated in RA, regardless of disease duration. Macrophages were one of the major cell types in the RA synovium expressing FcγRIIb and the activating FcγRs. Anti-inflammatory treatment with glucocorticoids reduced FcγR expression in arthritic joints, particularly that of FcγRI. This study demonstrates for the first time that RA patients do not fail to up-regulate FcγRIIb upon synovial inflammation, but suggests that the balance between expression of the inhibitory FcγRIIb and activating FcγRs may be in favour of the latter throughout the disease course. Anti-inflammatory drugs that target activating FcγRs may represent valuable therapeutics in this disease. PMID:17521421

  11. Fc gamma receptor IIa-H131R polymorphism and malaria susceptibility in sympatric ethnic groups, Fulani and Dogon of Mali.

    PubMed

    Maiga, B; Dolo, A; Touré, O; Dara, V; Tapily, A; Campino, S; Sepulveda, N; Corran, P; Rockett, K; Clark, T G; Blomberg, M Troye; Doumbo, O K

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously shown that there are some interethnic differences in susceptibility to malaria between two sympatric ethnic groups of Mali, the Fulani and the Dogon. The lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria seen in the Fulani has not been fully explained by genetic polymorphisms previously known to be associated with malaria resistance, including haemoglobin S (HbS), haemoglobin C (HbC), alpha-thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Given the observed differences in the distribution of FcγRIIa allotypes among different ethnic groups and with malaria susceptibility that have been reported, we analysed the rs1801274-R131H polymorphism in the FcγRIIa gene in a study of Dogon and Fulani in Mali (n = 939). We confirm that the Fulani have less parasite densities, less parasite prevalence, more spleen enlargement and higher levels of total IgG antibodies (anti-CSP, anti-AMA1, anti-MSP1 and anti-MSP2) and more total IgE (P < 0.05) compared with the Dogon ethnic group. Furthermore, the Fulani exhibit higher frequencies of the blood group O (56.5%) compared with the Dogon (43.5%) (P < 0.001). With regard to the FcγRIIa polymorphism and allele frequency, the Fulani group have a higher frequency of the H allele (Fulani 0.474, Dogon 0.341, P < 0.0001), which was associated with greater total IgE production (P = 0.004). Our findings show that the FcγRIIa polymorphism might have an implication in the relative protection seen in the Fulani tribe, with confirmatory studies required in other malaria endemic settings. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandanavian Society of Immunology (SSI).

  12. Fc gamma Receptor IIa-H131R Polymorphism and Malaria Susceptibility in Sympatric Ethnic Groups, Fulani and Dogon of Mali

    PubMed Central

    Maiga, B; Dolo, A; Touré, O; Dara, V; Tapily, A; Campino, S; Sepulveda, N; Corran, P; Rockett, K; Clark, T G; Troye Blomberg, M; Doumbo, O K

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously shown that there are some interethnic differences in susceptibility to malaria between two sympatric ethnic groups of Mali, the Fulani and the Dogon. The lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria seen in the Fulani has not been fully explained by genetic polymorphisms previously known to be associated with malaria resistance, including haemoglobin S (HbS), haemoglobin C (HbC), alpha-thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Given the observed differences in the distribution of FcγRIIa allotypes among different ethnic groups and with malaria susceptibility that have been reported, we analysed the rs1801274-R131H polymorphism in the FcγRIIa gene in a study of Dogon and Fulani in Mali (n = 939). We confirm that the Fulani have less parasite densities, less parasite prevalence, more spleen enlargement and higher levels of total IgG antibodies (anti-CSP, anti-AMA1, anti-MSP1 and anti-MSP2) and more total IgE (P < 0.05) compared with the Dogon ethnic group. Furthermore, the Fulani exhibit higher frequencies of the blood group O (56.5%) compared with the Dogon (43.5%) (P < 0.001). With regard to the FcγRIIa polymorphism and allele frequency, the Fulani group have a higher frequency of the H allele (Fulani 0.474, Dogon 0.341, P < 0.0001), which was associated with greater total IgE production (P = 0.004). Our findings show that the FcγRIIa polymorphism might have an implication in the relative protection seen in the Fulani tribe, with confirmatory studies required in other malaria endemic settings. PMID:24117665

  13. Elucidating the interplay between IgG-Fc valency and FcγR activation for the design of immune complex inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Daniel F; Lansing, Jonathan C; Rutitzky, Laura; Kurtagic, Elma; Prod'homme, Thomas; Choudhury, Amit; Washburn, Nathaniel; Bhatnagar, Naveen; Beneduce, Christopher; Holte, Kimberly; Prenovitz, Robert; Child, Matthew; Killough, Jason; Tyler, Steven; Brown, Julia; Nguyen, Stephanie; Schwab, Inessa; Hains, Maurice; Meccariello, Robin; Markowitz, Lynn; Wang, Jing; Zouaoui, Radouane; Simpson, Allison; Schultes, Birgit; Capila, Ishan; Ling, Leona; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Manning, Anthony M; Bosques, Carlos J

    2016-11-16

    Autoantibody immune complex (IC) activation of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) is a common pathogenic hallmark of multiple autoimmune diseases. Given that the IC structural features that elicit FcγR activation are poorly understood and the FcγR system is highly complex, few therapeutics can directly block these processes without inadvertently activating the FcγR system. To address these issues, the structure activity relationships of an engineered panel of multivalent Fc constructs were evaluated using sensitive FcγR binding and signaling cellular assays. These studies identified an Fc valency with avid binding to FcγRs but without activation of immune cell effector functions. These observations directed the design of a potent trivalent immunoglobulin G-Fc molecule that broadly inhibited IC-driven processes in a variety of immune cells expressing FcγRs. The Fc trimer, Fc3Y, was highly efficacious in three different animal models of autoimmune diseases. This recombinant molecule may represent an effective therapeutic candidate for FcγR-mediated autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. The three complementarity-determining region-like loops in the second extracellular domain of human Fc alpha/mu receptor contribute to its binding of IgA and IgM.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Liping; Zhang, Wei

    2013-05-01

    The Fc alpha/mu receptor (Fcα/μR, CD351) is a receptor that has dual specificity for IgA and IgM. Its second extracellular domain (EC2) has an Ig variable region-like structure and is predicted to be the ligand binding domain. EC2 is homologous to the first Ig-like domain (D1) of polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) and has three complementarity-determining region (CDR)-like loops. A peptide that includes the CDR1-like loop region has been found to be responsible for IgA and IgM binding. However, whether the CDR2- and CDR3-like loops of EC2 contribute to ligand binding has remained unclear. In this work, we made three chimaeric receptors composed of the hFcα/μR backbone but having the CDR1-, CDR2- and CDR3-like loops of EC2 replaced by their counterpart loops from human pIgR D2, which itself does not bind IgA or IgM. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analysis showed that substitution of either the CDR1- or the CDR2-like loop abrogated IgA and IgM binding, indicating that both the CDR1- and the CDR2-like loops were important for ligand binding. In comparison, substitution of CDR3-like loop resulted in significant loss of IgM binding but has only a small negative effect on IgA binding. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis of the three CDR-like loops showed that residues Val29, Arg31, Asn54, Gln55, Glu98, Asn99 and Asn100 were involved in both IgA and IgM binding, and substitution of Glu98 within the CDR3-like loop increased IgA binding but decreased IgM binding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Asymmetrical Fc Engineering Greatly Enhances Antibody-dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Effector Function and Stability of the Modified Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Wang, Wei; Razinkov, Vladimir; Sekirov, Laura; Leng, Esther; Sweet, Heather; Foltz, Ian; Howard, Monique; Rousseau, Anne-Marie; Kozlosky, Carl; Fanslow, William; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is mediated through the engagement of the Fc segment of antibodies with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) on immune cells upon binding of tumor or viral antigen. The co-crystal structure of FcγRIII in complex with Fc revealed that Fc binds to FcγRIII asymmetrically with two Fc chains contacting separate regions of the FcγRIII by utilizing different residues. To fully explore this asymmetrical nature of the Fc-FcγR interaction, we screened more than 9,000 individual clones in Fc heterodimer format in which different mutations were introduced at the same position of two Fc chains using a high throughput competition AlphaLISA® assay. To this end, we have identified a panel of novel Fc variants with significant binding improvement to FcγRIIIA (both Phe-158 and Val-158 allotypes), increased ADCC activity in vitro, and strong tumor growth inhibition in mice xenograft human tumor models. Compared with previously identified Fc variants in conventional IgG format, Fc heterodimers with asymmetrical mutations can achieve similar or superior potency in ADCC-mediated tumor cell killing and demonstrate improved stability in the CH2 domain. Fc heterodimers also allow more selectivity toward activating FcγRIIA than inhibitory FcγRIIB. Afucosylation of Fc variants further increases the affinity of Fc to FcγRIIIA, leading to much higher ADCC activity. The discovery of these Fc variants will potentially open up new opportunities of building the next generation of therapeutic antibodies with enhanced ADCC effector function for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases. PMID:24311787

  16. Asymmetrical Fc engineering greatly enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) effector function and stability of the modified antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Wang, Wei; Razinkov, Vladimir; Sekirov, Laura; Leng, Esther; Sweet, Heather; Foltz, Ian; Howard, Monique; Rousseau, Anne-Marie; Kozlosky, Carl; Fanslow, William; Yan, Wei

    2014-02-07

    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is mediated through the engagement of the Fc segment of antibodies with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) on immune cells upon binding of tumor or viral antigen. The co-crystal structure of FcγRIII in complex with Fc revealed that Fc binds to FcγRIII asymmetrically with two Fc chains contacting separate regions of the FcγRIII by utilizing different residues. To fully explore this asymmetrical nature of the Fc-FcγR interaction, we screened more than 9,000 individual clones in Fc heterodimer format in which different mutations were introduced at the same position of two Fc chains using a high throughput competition AlphaLISA® assay. To this end, we have identified a panel of novel Fc variants with significant binding improvement to FcγRIIIA (both Phe-158 and Val-158 allotypes), increased ADCC activity in vitro, and strong tumor growth inhibition in mice xenograft human tumor models. Compared with previously identified Fc variants in conventional IgG format, Fc heterodimers with asymmetrical mutations can achieve similar or superior potency in ADCC-mediated tumor cell killing and demonstrate improved stability in the CH2 domain. Fc heterodimers also allow more selectivity toward activating FcγRIIA than inhibitory FcγRIIB. Afucosylation of Fc variants further increases the affinity of Fc to FcγRIIIA, leading to much higher ADCC activity. The discovery of these Fc variants will potentially open up new opportunities of building the next generation of therapeutic antibodies with enhanced ADCC effector function for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases.

  17. Evidence That Formation of Vimentin·Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Complex Mediates Mast Cell Activation following FcϵRI/CC Chemokine Receptor 1 Cross-talk*

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Masako; Kuo, Chuan-Hui; Borman, Satty K.; Richardson, Ricardo Micheler; Inoko, Akihito; Inagaki, Masaki; Collins, Andrea; Schneider, Klaus; Ono, Santa Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence points to cross-talk between FcϵRI and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells. Here, we propose that vimentin, a protein comprising type III intermediate filament, participates in such cross-talk for CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) production in mast cells, which is a mechanism for allergic inflammation. Co-stimulation via FcϵRI, using IgE/antigen, and CCR1, using recombinant CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), increased expression of phosphorylated, disassembled, and soluble vimentin in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells expressing human CCR1 (RBL-CCR1 cells) and bone marrow-derived murine mast cells, both models of mucosal type mast cells. Furthermore, co-stimulation enhanced production of CCL2 as well as phosphorylation of MAPK. Treating the cells with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, but not with MEK inhibitor PD98058, reduced CCL2 production, suggesting that p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2, plays a critical role in the chemokine production. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that vimentin interacts with phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs in the co-simulated cells. Preventing disassembly of the vimentin by aggregating vimentin filaments using β,β′-iminodipropionitrile reduced the interaction of vimentin with phosphorylated MAPKs as well as CCL2 production in the cells. Taken together, disassembled vimentin interacting with phosphorylated p38 MAPK could mediate CCL2 production in mast cells upon FcϵRI and CCR1 activation. PMID:22613718

  18. Calcium Mobilization and Enhanced Natural Killer Function in Large Granular Lymphocytes Result from Cross-Linking the CD2 E-Rosette and CD16 Fc-Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    were used In a short-term Cr-release assay as effector cclls at an E:T ratio of 100: 1114.151. The CD32 -negative V 2669 cl 13 melanoma cell line was...Antibodies tested wecre 9-1 (CD2. 1gW); 9.6 (CD2, lgG2a); 35.1 (CD2, IgG2a); Fc-2 Fig. 2. Pc dependence of CD32 -induced calcium mobilization (D1,lGb n

  19. Understanding the Genomic Structure of Copy‐Number Variation of the Low‐Affinity Fcγ Receptor Region Allows Confirmation of the Association of FCGR3B Deletion with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari, Raheleh; Zuccherato, Luciana W; Tischler, German; Chihota, Belinda; Ozturk, Hasret; Saleem, Sara; Tarazona‐Santos, Eduardo; Machado, Lee R

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fcγ receptors are a family of cell–surface receptors that are expressed by a host of different innate and adaptive immune cells, and mediate inflammatory responses by binding the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G. In humans, five low‐affinity receptors are encoded by the genes FCGR2A, FCGR2B, FCGR2C, FCGR3A, and FCGR3B, which are located in an 82.5‐kb segmental tandem duplication on chromosome 1q23.3, which shows extensive copy‐number variation (CNV). Deletions of FCGR3B have been suggested to increase the risk of inflammatory diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we identify the deletion breakpoints of FCGR3B deletion alleles in the UK population and endogamous native American population, and show that some but not all alleles are likely to be identical‐by‐descent. We also localize a duplication breakpoint, confirming that the mechanism of CNV generation is nonallelic homologous recombination, and identify several alleles with gene conversion events using fosmid sequencing data. We use information on the structure of the deletion alleles to distinguish FCGR3B deletions from FCGR3A deletions in whole‐genome array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data. Reanalysis of published aCGH data using this approach supports association of FCGR3B deletion with increased risk of RA in a large cohort of 1,982 cases and 3,271 controls (odds ratio 1.61, P = 2.9×10−3). PMID:27995740

  20. B Cell-Based Seamless Engineering of Antibody Fc Domains

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Akiho; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2016-01-01

    Engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) enables us to obtain mAbs with additional functions. In particular, modifications in antibody’s Fc (fragment, crystallizable) region can provide multiple benefits such as added toxicity by drug conjugation, higher affinity to Fc receptors on immunocytes, or the addition of functional modules. However, the generation of recombinant antibodies requires multiple laborious bioengineering steps. We previously developed a technology that enables rapid in vitro screening and isolation of specific mAb-expressing cells from the libraries constructed with chicken B-cell line DT40 (referred to as the ‘ADLib system’). To upgrade this ADLib system with the ability to generate customized mAbs, we developed a novel and rapid engineering technology that enables seamless exchanges of mAbs’ Fc domains after initial selections of mAb-producing clones by the ADLib system, using a gene-replacement unit for recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). In this system, Cre-recombinase recognition sites were inserted into the Fc region of the active DT40 IgM allele, allowing the replacement of the Fc domain by the sequences of interest upon co-transfection of a Cre recombinase and a donor DNA, enabling the rapid exchange of Fc regions. Combining this method with the ADLib system, we demonstrate rapid Fc engineering to generate fluorescent antibodies and to enhance affinity to Fc receptors. PMID:27907066

  1. Influence of FcγRIIIb polymorphism on its ability to cooperate with FcγRIIa and CR3 in mediating the oxidative burst of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Urbaczek, Ana Carolina; Toller-Kawahisa, Juliana Escher; Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Costa, Paulo Inácio; Faria, Carolina Maria Quinello G