Science.gov

Sample records for receptors nociceptive stimulus

  1. Decoding Subjective Intensity of Nociceptive Pain from Pre-stimulus and Post-stimulus Brain Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yiheng; Tan, Ao; Bai, Yanru; Hung, Yeung Sam; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a highly subjective experience. Self-report is the gold standard for pain assessment in clinical practice, but it may not be available or reliable in some populations. Neuroimaging data, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have the potential to be used to provide physiology-based and quantitative nociceptive pain assessment tools that complements self-report. However, existing neuroimaging-based nociceptive pain assessments only rely on the information in pain-evoked brain activities, but neglect the fact that the perceived intensity of pain is also encoded by ongoing brain activities prior to painful stimulation. Here, we proposed to use machine learning algorithms to decode pain intensity from both pre-stimulus ongoing and post-stimulus evoked brain activities. Neural features that were correlated with intensity of laser-evoked nociceptive pain were extracted from high-dimensional pre- and post-stimulus EEG and fMRI activities using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Further, we used support vector machine (SVM) to predict the intensity of pain from pain-related time-frequency EEG patterns and BOLD-fMRI patterns. Results showed that combining predictive information in pre- and post-stimulus brain activities can achieve significantly better performance in classifying high-pain and low-pain and in predicting the rating of perceived pain than only using post-stimulus brain activities. Therefore, the proposed pain prediction method holds great potential in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:27148029

  2. Nociceptive-Evoked Potentials Are Sensitive to Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus Displacements in Egocentric Coordinates

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, G.; Stubbs, M. T.; Djeugam, B.; Liang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Feature selection has been extensively studied in the context of goal-directed behavior, where it is heavily driven by top-down factors. A more primitive version of this function is the detection of bottom-up changes in stimulus features in the environment. Indeed, the nervous system is tuned to detect fast-rising, intense stimuli that are likely to reflect threats, such as nociceptive somatosensory stimuli. These stimuli elicit large brain potentials maximal at the scalp vertex. When elicited by nociceptive laser stimuli, these responses are labeled laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). Although it has been shown that changes in stimulus modality and increases in stimulus intensity evoke large LEPs, it has yet to be determined whether stimulus displacements affect the amplitude of the main LEP waves (N1, N2, and P2). Here, in three experiments, we identified a set of rules that the human nervous system obeys to identify changes in the spatial location of a nociceptive stimulus. We showed that the N2 wave is sensitive to: (1) large displacements between consecutive stimuli in egocentric, but not somatotopic coordinates; and (2) displacements that entail a behaviorally relevant change in the stimulus location. These findings indicate that nociceptive-evoked vertex potentials are sensitive to behaviorally relevant changes in the location of a nociceptive stimulus with respect to the body, and that the hand is a particularly behaviorally important site. PMID:27419217

  3. Modification of formalin-induced nociception by different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Farzin, Davood; Nosrati, Farnaz

    2007-01-15

    The present study evaluated the effects of different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on the nociceptive response in the mouse formalin test. Intracerebroventricular (20-40 microg/mouse i.c.v.) or subcutaneous (1-10 mg/kg s.c.) injection of HTMT (H(1) receptor agonist) elicited a dose-related hyperalgesia in the early and late phases. Conversely, intraperitoneal (20 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) injection of dexchlorpheniramine (H(1) receptor antagonist) was antinociceptive in both phases. At a dose ineffective per se, dexchlorpheniramine (10 mg/kg i.p.) antagonized the hyperalgesia induced by HTMT (40 mug/mouse i.c.v. or 10 mg/kg s.c.). Dimaprit (H(2) receptor agonist, 30 mg/kg i.p.) and ranitidine (H(2) receptor antagonist, 20 and 40 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the nociceptive responses in the early and late phases. No significant change in the antinociceptive activity was found following the combination of dimaprit (30 mg/kg i.p.) with ranitidine (10 mg/kg i.p.). The antinociceptive effect of dimaprit (30 mg/kg i.p.) was prevented by naloxone (5 mg/kg i.p.) in the early phase or by imetit (H(3) receptor agonist, 25 mg/kg i.p.) in both early and late phases. The histamine H(3) receptor agonist imetit was hyperalgesic following i.p. administration of 50 mg/kg. Imetit-induced hyperalgesia was completely prevented by treatment with a dose ineffective per se of thioperamide (H(3) receptor antagonist, 5 mg/kg i.p.). The results suggest that histamine H(1) and H(3) receptor activations increase sensitivity to nociceptive stimulus in the formalin test.

  4. Effects of the mas-related gene (Mrg) C receptor agonist BAM6-22 on nociceptive reflex activity in naive, monoarthritic and mononeuropathic rats after intraplantar and intrathecal administration.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Wolfgang; Alique, Matilde; Herrero, Juan Fernando

    2016-01-05

    MrgC receptors are selectively expressed on peripheral and central terminals of small calibre nociceptive fibres. Peptide agonists of the MrgC receptor were reported to modulate nociceptive transmission exerting either pro- or antinociceptive effects depending on site of action and pain model used. Here, we investigated the effect of intraplantar and intrathecal administration of the selective MrgC receptor agonist BAM6-22 on mechanically and electrically evoked nociceptive reflex activity as a uniform readout measure in naïve, monoarthritic and mononeuropathic rats. In naïve rats, intraplantar BAM6-22 enhanced, whereas intrathecal BAM6-22 did not modulate mechanically-evoked nociceptive reflex activity. In monoarthritic rats, intraplantar BAM6-22 had no effect, whereas intrathecal BAM6-22 inhibited mechanically evoked nociceptive reflex activity. In mononeuropathic rats, BAM6-22 reduced mechanically evoked nociceptive reflex activity after both intraplantar and intrathecal administration. BAM6-22 did not modulate electrically evoked nociceptive reflex activity in any condition. Thus, the results of the present investigation confirm and add to previous studies demonstrating that site of action, (patho)-physiological state and stimulus modality determine the effect quality of MrgC receptor agonists. It still needs to be explored how concurrent activation of peripheral and spinal MrgC receptors modulates nociceptive processing under conditions of both acute and chronic pain to evaluate the therapeutic potential of putative small molecule MrgC receptor agonists as innovative analgesics.

  5. Contribution of peripheral vanilloid receptor to the nociception induced by injection of spermine in mice.

    PubMed

    Gewehr, Camila; da Silva, Mariane Arnoldi; dos Santos, Gabriela Trevisan; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; de Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Pazini, Andréia Martini; Guerra, Gustavo Petri; Rubin, Maribel A; Ferreira, Juliano

    2011-10-01

    Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are important endogenous regulators of ion channels, such as vanilloid (TRPV1), glutamatergic (NMDA or AMPA/kainate) and acid-sensitive (ASIC) receptors. In the present study, we have investigated the possible nociceptive effect induced by polyamines and the mechanisms involved in this nociception in vivo. The subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of capsaicin (as positive control), spermine, spermidine or putrescine produced nociception with ED(50) of 0.16 (0.07-0.39)nmol/paw, 0.4 (0.2-0.7) μmol/paw, 0.3 (0.1-0.9) μmol/paw and 3.2 (0.9-11.5) μmol/paw, respectively. The antagonists of NMDA (MK801, 1 nmol/paw), AMPA/kainate (DNQX, 1 nmol/paw) or ASIC receptors (amiloride, 100 nmol/paw) failed to reduce the spermine-trigged nociception. However, the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine or SB366791 (1 nmol/paw) reduced spermine-induced nociception, with inhibition of 81 ± 10 and 68 ± 9%, respectively. The previous desensitization with resiniferatoxin (RTX) largely reduced the spermine-induced nociception and TRPV1 expression in the sciatic nerve, with reductions of 82 ± 9% and 67 ± 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of spermine (100 nmol/paw) and RTX (0.005 fmol/paw), in doses which alone were not capable of inducing nociception, produced nociceptive behaviors. Moreover, different concentrations of spermine (3-300 μM) enhanced the specific binding of [(3)H]-RTX to TRPV1 receptor. Altogether, polyamines produce spontaneous nociceptive effect through the stimulation of TRPV1, but not of ionotropic glutamate or ASIC receptors.

  6. Sigma-1 Receptor Agonism Promotes Mechanical Allodynia After Priming the Nociceptive System with Capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Entrena, J M; Sánchez-Fernández, C; Nieto, F R; González-Cano, R; Yeste, S; Cobos, E J; Baeyens, J M

    2016-11-25

    Sigma-1 receptor antagonists promote antinociception in several models of pain, but the effects of sigma-1 agonists on nociception (particularly when the nociceptive system is primed) are not so well characterized; therefore we evaluated the effects of sigma-1 agonists on pain under different experimental conditions. The systemic administration of the selective sigma-1 agonists (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084, as well as the nonselective sigma-1 agonist carbetapentane (used clinically as an antitussive drug), did not alter sensitivity to mechanical stimulation under baseline conditions. However, they greatly promoted secondary mechanical allodynia after priming the nociceptive system with capsaicin. These effects of sigma-1 agonists were consistent in terms potency with the affinities of these drugs for sigma-1 receptors, were reversed by sigma-1 antagonists, and were not observed in sigma-1 knockout mice, indicating that they are sigma-1-mediated. Repeated systemic treatment with PRE-084 induced proallodynic effects even 24 h after treatment completion, but only after the nociceptive system was primed. However, neither the presence of this drug in the organism nor changes in sigma-1 receptor expression in areas involved in pain processing explains its long-term effects, suggesting that sustained sigma-1 agonism induces plastic changes in the nociceptive system that promote nociception.

  7. Sigma-1 Receptor Agonism Promotes Mechanical Allodynia After Priming the Nociceptive System with Capsaicin

    PubMed Central

    Entrena, J. M.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Nieto, F. R.; González-Cano, R.; Yeste, S.; Cobos, E. J.; Baeyens, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor antagonists promote antinociception in several models of pain, but the effects of sigma-1 agonists on nociception (particularly when the nociceptive system is primed) are not so well characterized; therefore we evaluated the effects of sigma-1 agonists on pain under different experimental conditions. The systemic administration of the selective sigma-1 agonists (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084, as well as the nonselective sigma-1 agonist carbetapentane (used clinically as an antitussive drug), did not alter sensitivity to mechanical stimulation under baseline conditions. However, they greatly promoted secondary mechanical allodynia after priming the nociceptive system with capsaicin. These effects of sigma-1 agonists were consistent in terms potency with the affinities of these drugs for sigma-1 receptors, were reversed by sigma-1 antagonists, and were not observed in sigma-1 knockout mice, indicating that they are sigma-1-mediated. Repeated systemic treatment with PRE-084 induced proallodynic effects even 24 h after treatment completion, but only after the nociceptive system was primed. However, neither the presence of this drug in the organism nor changes in sigma-1 receptor expression in areas involved in pain processing explains its long-term effects, suggesting that sustained sigma-1 agonism induces plastic changes in the nociceptive system that promote nociception. PMID:27886264

  8. Oxidative damage and sensitivity to nociceptive stimulus and opioids in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Atul; Ratka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to aging and may cause alterations in pain and analgesia. Knowledge about effects of oxidative stress on the opioid system is very limited. This project was designed to determine the relationship between age-related oxidative damage and opioid antinocicpetion. Three age groups of male Fischer 344 rats were tested for pain sensitivity and responses to morphine and fentanyl using the hot plate method. Oxidative stress markers in various brain regions were measured. With advancing age, nociceptive threshold and antinociceptive effects of opioids decreased significantly. There was a significant negative correlation between morphine antinociception and protein oxidation in cortex, striatum, and midbrain (r2 = 0.73, 0.87, and 0.77, respectively), and lipid peroxidation in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum (r2 = 0.73, 0.61 and 0.71, respectively). Similar correlation was observed between oxidative stress markers and fentanyl antinociception. These findings demonstrate that the age-related increase in oxidative damage in brain is associated with a significant decrease in the antinociceptive effects of opioids. PMID:17997197

  9. Adenosine A1 Receptors in Mouse Pontine Reticular Formation Modulate Nociception Only in the Presence of Systemic Leptin

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sarah L.; Watson, Christopher J.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Human obesity is associated with increased leptin levels and pain, but the specific brain regions and neurochemical mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. This study used adult male C57BL/6J (B6, n = 14) mice and leptin-deficient, obese B6.Cg-Lepob/J (obese, n = 10) mice to evaluate the hypothesis that nociception is altered by systemic leptin levels and by adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine reticular formation. Nociception was quantified as paw withdrawal latency (PWL) in s after onset of a thermal stimulus. PWL was converted to percent maximum possible effect (%MPE). After obtaining baseline PWL measures, the pontine reticular formation was microinjected with saline (control), three concentrations of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-p-sulfophenyladenosine (SPA), or super-active mouse leptin receptor antagonist (SMLA) followed by SPA 15 min later, and PWL was again quantified. In obese, leptin-deficient mice, nociception was quantified before and during leptin replacement via subcutaneous osmotic pumps. SPA was administered into the pontine reticular formation of leptin-replaced mice and PWL testing was repeated. During baseline (before vehicle or SPA administration), PWL was significantly (p = 0.0013) lower in leptin-replaced obese mice than in B6 mice. Microinjecting SPA into the pontine reticular formation of B6 mice caused a significant (p = 0.0003) concentration-dependent increase in %MPE. SPA also significantly (p < 0.05) increased %MPE in B6 mice and in leptin-replaced obese mice, but not in leptin-deficient obese mice. Microinjection of the mouse super-active leptin antagonist (SMLA) into the pontine reticular formation before SPA did not alter PWL. The results show for the first time that pontine reticular formation administration of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist SPA produced antinociception only in the presence of systemic leptin. The concentration-response data support the interpretation that adenosine A1 receptors

  10. Oxysophocarpine induces anti-nociception and increases the expression of GABAAα1 receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tingting; Li, Yuxiang; Wang, Haiyan; Xu, Yaqiong; Ma, Lin; Sun, Tao; Ma, Hanxiang; Yu, Jianqiang

    2013-06-01

    Oxysophocarpine (OSC) is an alkaloid extracted from Siphocampylus verticillatus. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-nociceptive effects of OSC through systemic and intracerebroventricular administration in mice. Moreover, to evaluate its effectiveness and mechanism of action, this study investigated whether OSC altered the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid type A α1 (GABAAα1) receptors in the central nervous system. Thermal and chemical behavioral models of nociception were used to assess the anti‑nociceptive action of OSC. The warm water tail-flick test, the hot‑plate test, acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin‑induced pain were used in mice. OSC was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Results showed that OSC (80 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the tail withdrawal threshold with a peak effect of 25.46% maximal possible effect (MPE) at 60 min (P﹤0.01). Additionally, OSC (80 mg/kg) increased the positive staining of GABAAα1 receptors in cells. In conclusion, OSC administration is suggested to have anti-nociceptive effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems. The involvement of GABAA receptors in the anti-nociceptive activity of OSC is currently being investigated.

  11. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal nociception in a sex-different manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Xing, Bo; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Lei, Gang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Ya; Chen, Teng; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2016-09-26

    Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test. This test was performed at different temperatures including 52°C, 55°C, and 58°C. The von Frey hair test was applied to evaluate mechanical pain. And persistent pain produced by peripheral tissue injury and inflammation was modeled by formalin test. In the hot-plate test, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, D3RKO mice generally exhibited longer latencies at each of the three temperatures. Specially, male D3RKO mice showed hypoalgesia compared with male WT mice when the temperature was 55°C, while for the female mice, there was a statistical difference between genotypes when the test condition was 52°C. In the von Frey hair test, both male and female D3RKO mice exhibited hypoalgesia. In the formalin test, the male D3RKO mice displayed a similar nociceptive behavior as their sex-matched WT littermates, whereas significantly depressed late-phase formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors were observed in the female mutants. These findings indicated that the D3 receptor affects nociceptive behaviors in a sex-specific manner and that its absence induces more analgesic behavior in the female knockout mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Contribution of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptors to the anti-nociceptive and hypothermic effects of dipyrone.

    PubMed

    Ertin, Ismet Hande; Gunduz, Ozgur; Ulugol, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Dipyrone is one of the most commonly used non-opioid analgesic and antipyretic drug. Its anti-nociceptive and hypothermic effects have long been suspected to be centrally mediated. The involvement of the most recently discovered opioid peptide, nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), and its receptor (NOP) in pain transmission is controversial. It appears to be pro-nociceptive when administered supra-spinally, but exerts anti-nociceptive effects when injected spinally or systemically. Investigation of the role of the N/OFQ system in paracetamol-induced anti-nociception and hypothermia led us to determine its role in the anti-nociceptive and hypothermic effects of dipyrone. Material and Methods Hot-plate and tail-flick tests were used to assess nociception, and a rectal thermometer was used to measure rectal temperature in mice. Mice injected with dipyrone (150, 300, 600 mg/kg, i.p.) displayed dose-related anti-nociception and hypothermia. The NOP receptor antagonist JTC-801 (3 mg/kg, i.p.), at a dose that exerted no effect when used alone, alleviated dipyrone-induced anti-nociception but did not reverse dipyrone-induced hypothermia. We conclude that NOP receptors participate in the anti-nociceptive, but not in the hypothermic, effects of dipyrone.

  13. Identification of oxytocin receptor in the dorsal horn and nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Moreno-López, Y; Martínez-Lorenzana, G; Condés-Lara, M; Rojas-Piloni, G

    2013-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) secreted by the hypothalamo-spinal projection exerts antinociceptive effects in the dorsal horn. Electrophysiological evidence indicates that OT could exert these effects by activating OT receptors (OTR) directly on dorsal horn neurons and/or primary nociceptive afferents in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, little is known about the identity of the dorsal horn and DRG neurons that express the OTR. In the dorsal horn, we found that the OTR is expressed principally in neurons cell bodies. However, neither spino-thalamic dorsal horn neurons projecting to the contralateral thalamic ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) and posterior nuclear group (Po) nor GABaergic dorsal horn neurons express the OTR. The OTR is not expressed in skin nociceptive terminals or in dorsal horn nociceptive fibers. In the DRG, however, the OTR is expressed predominantly in non-peptidergic C-fiber cell bodies, but not in peptidergic or mechanoreceptor afferents or in skin nociceptive terminals. Our results suggest that the antinociceptive effects of OT are mediated by direct activation of dorsal horn neurons and peripheral actions on nociceptive, non-peptidergic C-afferents in the DRG.

  14. Spinal vasopressin alleviates formalin-induced nociception by enhancing GABAA receptor function in mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fang; Qu, Zu-Wei; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Liao, Min; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2015-04-23

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a regulatory role in nociception. Intrathecal administration of AVP displays an antinociceptive effect. However, little is understood about the mechanism underlying spinal AVP analgesia. Here, we have found that spinal AVP dose dependently reduced the second, but not first, phase of formalin-induced spontaneous nociception in mice. The AVP analgesia was completely blocked by intrathecal injected SR 49059, a vasopressin-1A (V1A) receptor antagonist. However, spinal AVP failed to exert its antinociceptive effect on the second phase formalin-induced spontaneous nociception in V1A receptor knock-out (V1A-/-) mice. The AVP analgesia was also reversed by bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist. Moreover, AVP potentiated GABA-activated currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons from wild-type littermates, but not from V1A-/- mice. Our results may reveal a novel spinal mechanism of AVP analgesia by enhancing the GABAA receptor function in the spinal cord through V1A receptors.

  15. Two histamine H2 receptor antagonists, zolantidine and cimetidine, modulate nociception in cholestatic rats.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, Parisa

    2011-02-01

    Cholestasis is associated with analgesia. The histamine H(2) receptors control pain perception. The involvement of histamine H(2) receptors on modulation of nociception in a model of elevated endogenous opioid tone, cholestasis, was investigated in this study using zolantidine and cimetidine as two H(2) receptor antagonists and dimaprit as a selective H(2) receptor agonist. Cholestasis was induced by ligation of the main bile duct using two ligatures and transsection of the duct at the midpoint between them. A significant increase in tail-flick latencies was observed in cholestatic rats compared to non-cholestatic rats. Administration of zolantidine (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and cimetidine (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) in the cholestatic group significantly increased tail-flick latencies while dimaprit (10 and 20 mg/kg) injection in the cholestatic group decreased tail-flick latencies compared to the saline treated cholestatic group. Antinociception produced by injection of zolantidine and cimetidine in cholestatic rats was attenuated by co-administration of naloxone. Drug injection in non-cholestatic rats did not alter tail-flick latencies compared to the saline treated rats at any of the doses. At the doses used here, none of the drugs impaired motor coordination as revealed by the rota rod test. These data show that the histamine H(2) receptor system may be involved in the regulation of nociception during cholestasis. According to the hypothesis that increasing the nociception threshold in cholestasis may lead to a decrease in the perception of pruritus, the provision of the drugs that increase the threshold to nociception may be a novel approach to the treatment of cholestatic pruritus.

  16. CB1 receptor activation in the basolateral amygdala produces antinociception in animal models of acute and tonic nociception.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, Parisa; Parviz, Mohsen; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Javanmardi, Kazem

    2007-01-01

    1. Recent studies have suggested that the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) participates in the processing of pain information, especially noxious somatic information. Cannabinoid receptors or CB1 mRNA are expressed more in the BLA than in other nuclei of the amygdala. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether CB1 receptors in the BLA may be involved in modulating acute and/or tonic nociceptive processing. 2. Adult rats were exposed to intra-BLA microinjection of the cannabinoid receptor agonist (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo [1,2,3,-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate [WIN 55,212-2 (1, 2.5, 5 or 10 microg/side)] and subjected to the tail flick and formalin tests. 3. The rats demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in latency to withdraw from a thermal noxious stimulus in the tail flick test and a decrease in formalin-induced pain behaviours. The antinociceptive effects of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (10 microg/side) in both tests were attenuated in the presence of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist, N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3- carboxamide (AM251; 0.55 ng/side). Administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (0.55, 5.5, or 55.5 ng/side) alone did not alter the nociceptive thresholds in either test. Bilateral microinjection of the selective CB2 receptor antagonist N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR144528; 1 microg/side) had no effect on the antinociception produced by WIN 55,212-2, suggesting that the antinociceptive actions of WIN 55,212-2 are mediated by CB1 receptors. 4. The findings suggest the existence of a CB1-mediated inhibitory system in the BLA that, when activated, can diminish responsivity to acute and tonic noxious stimuli, but that normally has no tonic effect on the response threshold of these stimuli.

  17. Intracerebroventricular injection of trazodone produces 5-HT receptor subtype mediated anti-nociception at the supraspinal and spinal levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rihui; Nagata, Tomonari; Hayashi, Takayuki; Miyata, Mariko; Kawakami, Yoriko

    2004-10-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) mediated anti-nociceptive effects induced by an anti-depressant, trazodone, are related to 5-HT(1A) receptor activities at the supraspinal level. 5-HT(3) receptor activation via the descending anti-nociceptive pathways may contribute to the trazodone mediated anti-nociception at the spinal level. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of trazodone dose-dependently impaired nociceptive responses in the formalin test in mice. Six and 15 microg of trazodone inhibited the early (P<0.05 or 0.01) and the late phases of the formalin test (P<0.05 or 0.01), while 3 microg had no effect. We examined the effects of a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, a single injection of which induced hyperalgesia (P<0.05), and blocked the anti-nociceptive effects of trazodone (P<0.01) when the two were simultaneously injected i.c.v. Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of a selective 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, 3-tropanylindole-3-carboxylate hydrochloride, blocked the anti-nociceptive effects of i.c.v. trazodone (P<0.01), while WAY-100635 (i.t.) did not impair trazodone mediated anti-nociception. Trazodone mediated anti-nocicepton is related to serotonergic activity at both the supraspinal and the spinal level.

  18. Serotonin enhances urinary bladder nociceptive processing via a 5-HT3 receptor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jason D; DeWitte, Cary; Ness, Timothy J; Robbins, Meredith T

    2015-09-14

    Serotonin from the descending pain modulatory pathway is critical to nociceptive processing. Its effects on pain modulation may either be inhibitory or facilitatory, depending on the type of pain and which receptors are involved. Little is known about the role of serotonergic systems in bladder nociceptive processing. These studies examined the effect of systemic administration of the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), on normal bladder and somatic sensation in rats. ELISA was used to quantify peripheral and central changes in serotonin and its major metabolite following 5-HTP administration, and the potential role of the 5-HT3 receptor on changes in bladder sensation elicited by 5-HTP was investigated. 5-HTP produced bladder hypersensitivity and somatic analgesia. The pro-nociceptive effect of 5-HTP was attenuated by intrathecal, but not systemic, ondansetron. Peripheral increases in serotonin, its metabolism and rate of turnover were detectable within 30min of 5-HTP administration. Significant enhancement of serotonin metabolism was observed centrally. These findings suggest that 5-HTP increases serotonin, which may then affect descending facilitatory systems to produce bladder hypersensitivity via activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanisms of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-mediated spinal nociception

    PubMed Central

    Deliu, Elena; Brailoiu, G. Cristina; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Benamar, Khalid; Dun, Nae J.; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    Human and animal studies suggest estrogens are involved in the processing of nociceptive sensory information and analgesic responses in the central nervous system. Rapid pro-nociceptive estrogenic effects have been reported, some of which likely involve G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) activation. Membrane depolarization, increases in cytosolic calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are markers of neuronal activation, underlying pain sensitization in the spinal cord. Using behavioral, electrophysiological and fluorescent imaging studies, we evaluated GPER involvement in spinal nociceptive processing. Intrathecal challenging of mice with the GPER agonist G-1 results in pain-related behaviors. GPER antagonism with G15 reduces the G-1 induced response. Electrophysiological recordings from superficial dorsal horn neurons indicate neuronal membrane depolarization upon G-1 application, which is G15 sensitive. In cultured spinal sensory neurons G-1 increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces mitochondrial and cytosolic ROS accumulation. In the presence of G15, G-1 does not elicit the calcium and ROS responses, confirming specific GPER involvement in this process. Following G-1 intracellular microinjections, cytosolic calcium concentration elevates faster and with higher amplitude compared to extracellular exposure, suggesting subcellular GPER functionality. Thus, GPER activation results in spinal nociception, and the downstream mechanisms involve cytosolic calcium increase, ROS accumulation and neuronal membrane depolarization. Perspective Our results suggest that GPER modulates pain processing in spinal sensory neurons via cytosolic calcium increase and ROS accumulation. These findings extend the current knowledge on GPER involvement in physiology and disease, providing the first evidence of its pro-nociceptive effects at central levels and characterizing some of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22858342

  20. Morphine in combination with metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on schedule-controlled responding and thermal nociception.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bradford D; Zimmerman, Eric I; Picker, Mitchell J; Dykstra, Linda A

    2008-02-01

    The present study examined the interactive effects of morphine in combination with metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor antagonists on schedule-controlled responding and thermal nociception. Drug interaction data were examined with isobolographic and dose-addition analysis. Morphine, the mGlu1 receptor antagonist JNJ16259685 [(3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano-[2,3-b]quinolin-7-yl)-(cis-4-methoxycyclohexyl)-methanone], the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride], and the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 [(2S)-2-amino-2-[(1S,2S-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl]-3-(xanth-9-yl) propanoic acid] all decreased rates of schedule-controlled responding. JNJ16259685/morphine, MPEP/morphine, and LY341495/morphine mixtures produced additive effects on this endpoint. Morphine also produced dose-dependent antinociception in the assay of thermal nociception, whereas JNJ16259685, MPEP, and LY341495 failed to produce an effect. In this assay, JNJ16259685 and LY341495 potentiated the antinociceptive effects of morphine, whereas MPEP/morphine mixtures produced additive effects. These results suggest that an mGlu1 and an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, but not an mGlu5 receptor antagonist, selectively enhance the antinociceptive effects of morphine. In addition, these data confirm that the behavioral effects of drug mixtures depend on the endpoint under study.

  1. Can correlations among receptors affect the information about the stimulus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    In the context of neural information processing, it has been observed that, compared to the case of independent receptors, correlated receptors can often carry more information about the stimulus. We explore similar ideas in the context of molecular information processing, analyzing a cell with receptors whose activity is intrinsically negatively correlated because they compete for the same ligand molecules. We show analytically that, in case the involved biochemical interactions are linear, the information between the number of molecules captured by the receptors and the ligand concentration does not depend on correlations among the receptors. For a nonlinear kinetic network, correlations similarly do not change the amount of information for observation times much shorter or much longer than the characteristic time scale of ligand molecule binding and unbinding. However, at intermediate times, correlations can increase the amount of available information. This work has been supported by the James S McDonnell foundation.

  2. Caenorhabditis elegans nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are required for nociception

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emiliano; Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Husson, Steven J.; Steuer-Costa, Wagner; Gottschalk, Alexander; Schafer, William R.; Treinin, Millet

    2014-01-01

    Polymodal nociceptors sense and integrate information on injurious mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. Chemical signals either activate nociceptors or modulate their responses to other stimuli. One chemical known to activate or modulate responses of nociceptors is acetylcholine (ACh). Across evolution nociceptors express subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) family, a family of ACh-gated ion channels. The roles of ACh and nAChRs in nociceptor function are, however, poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans polymodal nociceptors, PVD, express nAChR subunits on their sensory arbor. Here we show that mutations reducing ACh synthesis and mutations in nAChR subunits lead to defects in PVD function and morphology. A likely cause for these defects is a reduction in cytosolic calcium measured in ACh and nAChR mutants. Indeed, overexpression of a calcium pump in PVD mimics defects in PVD function and morphology found in nAChR mutants. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a central role for nAChRs and ACh in nociceptor function and suggest that calcium permeating via nAChRs facilitates activity of several signaling pathways within this neuron. PMID:24518198

  3. Role of spinal GABAA receptors in pudendal inhibition of nociceptive and nonnociceptive bladder reflexes in cats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiying; Reese, Jeremy; Schwen, Zeyad; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-04-01

    Picrotoxin, an antagonist for γ-aminobutyric acid receptor subtype A (GABAA), was used to investigate the role of GABAA receptors in nociceptive and nonnociceptive reflex bladder activities and pudendal inhibition of these activities in cats under α-chloralose anesthesia. Acetic acid (AA; 0.25%) was used to irritate the bladder and induce nociceptive bladder overactivity, while saline was used to distend the bladder and induce nonnociceptive bladder activity. To modulate the bladder reflex, pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) was applied at multiple threshold (T) intensities for inducing anal sphincter twitching. AA irritation significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bladder capacity to 34.3 ± 7.1% of the saline control capacity, while PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P < 0.01) increased AA bladder capacity to 84.0 ± 7.8 and 93.2 ± 15.0%, respectively, of the saline control. Picrotoxin (0.4 mg it) did not change AA bladder capacity but completely removed PNS inhibition of AA-induced bladder overactivity. Picrotoxin (iv) only increased AA bladder capacity at a high dose (0.3 mg/kg) but significantly (P < 0.05) reduced 2T PNS inhibition at low doses (0.01-0.1 mg/kg). During saline cystometry, PNS significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 147.0 ± 7.6% at 2T and 172.7 ± 8.9% at 4T of control capacity, and picrotoxin (0.4 mg it or 0.03-0.3 mg/kg iv) also significantly (P < 0.05) increased bladder capacity. However, picrotoxin treatment did not alter PNS inhibition during saline infusion. These results indicate that spinal GABAA receptors have different roles in controlling nociceptive and nonnociceptive reflex bladder activities and in PNS inhibition of these activities.

  4. Role of spinal GABAA receptors in pudendal inhibition of nociceptive and nonnociceptive bladder reflexes in cats

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhiying; Reese, Jeremy; Schwen, Zeyad; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R.; de Groat, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Picrotoxin, an antagonist for γ-aminobutyric acid receptor subtype A (GABAA), was used to investigate the role of GABAA receptors in nociceptive and nonnociceptive reflex bladder activities and pudendal inhibition of these activities in cats under α-chloralose anesthesia. Acetic acid (AA; 0.25%) was used to irritate the bladder and induce nociceptive bladder overactivity, while saline was used to distend the bladder and induce nonnociceptive bladder activity. To modulate the bladder reflex, pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) was applied at multiple threshold (T) intensities for inducing anal sphincter twitching. AA irritation significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bladder capacity to 34.3 ± 7.1% of the saline control capacity, while PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P < 0.01) increased AA bladder capacity to 84.0 ± 7.8 and 93.2 ± 15.0%, respectively, of the saline control. Picrotoxin (0.4 mg it) did not change AA bladder capacity but completely removed PNS inhibition of AA-induced bladder overactivity. Picrotoxin (iv) only increased AA bladder capacity at a high dose (0.3 mg/kg) but significantly (P < 0.05) reduced 2T PNS inhibition at low doses (0.01–0.1 mg/kg). During saline cystometry, PNS significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 147.0 ± 7.6% at 2T and 172.7 ± 8.9% at 4T of control capacity, and picrotoxin (0.4 mg it or 0.03–0.3 mg/kg iv) also significantly (P < 0.05) increased bladder capacity. However, picrotoxin treatment did not alter PNS inhibition during saline infusion. These results indicate that spinal GABAA receptors have different roles in controlling nociceptive and nonnociceptive reflex bladder activities and in PNS inhibition of these activities. PMID:24523385

  5. Role of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels in visceral nociception and hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Takagi, Kanako; Kato, Atsumi; Ishibashi, Takuya; Mori, Yasuo; Tashima, Kimihito; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kato, Shinichi; Horie, Syunji

    2016-11-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive, Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel. TRPM2 contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that TRPM2 is important for visceral nociception and the development of visceral hypersensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the expression of TRPM2 channels and their involvement in visceral nociception in normal physiology and under pathological conditions that cause visceral hypersensitivity in rats. TRPM2 immunoreactivities were detected in the mucosa and muscle layer of the rat gastrointestinal tract. TRPM2 immunopositive cell bodies were almost completely co-localized with calretinin- and NeuN-positive cells in the myenteric plexus. We found that the majority of the TRPM2-immunoreactive cells were double-labeled with the retrograde marker fluorogold in lumbar 6/sacral 1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), indicating that TRPM2 is expressed in spinal primary afferents innervating the distal colon. Subtypes of TRPM2-immunopositive DRG neurons were labeled by the A-fiber marker NF200, the C-fiber marker IB4, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, or P2X3 receptor. We found that oral administration of the TRPM2 inhibitor econazole (30mg/kg) reduced the visceromotor response (VMR) to noxious colorectal distention (CRD) at 80mmHg in control rats. Expression of TRPM2 in the mucosa of the distal colon was increased in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis model. The VMR to CRD significantly increased in colitis model rats compared with control rats at 40, 60, and 80mmHg. Econazole restored visceral hypersensitivity to the control level. Furthermore, TRPM2-deficient mice showed significantly attenuated trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induced visceral hypersensitivity compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, TRPM2 channels contribute to visceral nociception in response to noxious stimuli under normal conditions and visceral

  6. Evidence for spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor involvement in prolonged chemical nociception in the rat.

    PubMed

    Haley, J E; Sullivan, A F; Dickenson, A H

    1990-06-04

    Subcutaneous injection of formalin into the hindpaw peripheral receptive field of deep dorsal horn multireceptive (convergent) nociceptive neurones was used to produce a prolonged (1 h) activation of the cells. This chemical noxious stimulus produced a first peak of firing which lasted 10 min followed by a second peak of prolonged activity which was monitored for 50 min. gamma-D-glutamylglycine (DGG), a non-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and quisqualate/kainate (non-NMDA) receptor antagonist was applied intrathecally both as a pretreatment and after the formalin. A complete abolition of both peaks of the formalin response was produced by DGG pretreatment (1000 micrograms) (n = 4). This dose produced profound inhibition of the acute C-fibre evoked responses of the same cells. However, no inhibitions were produced when the antagonist was applied once the formalin response had developed (n = 4). The selective NMDA receptor antagonist 5-amino-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) was administered intrathecally (250 and 500 micrograms) as a 40 min pretreatment and caused a small inhibition of the first peak but a marked dose-related reduction in the second prolonged phase (n =7). AP5 did not influence the C-fibre inputs onto the cells. The non-competitive NMDA receptor channel blockers, ketamine and MK801, were administered i.v. during the second phase of firing. Ketamine (1-8 mg/kg) caused a short-lasting but marked and dose-related inhibition of the neuronal responses to formalin (n = 11). MK801 (0.5-1 mg/kg) resulted in a prolonged inhibition of cell firing during the second phase of the response (n = 11).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-3 (TRPM3) Mediates Nociceptive-Like Responses in Hydra vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Malafoglia, Valentina; Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Scalici, Massimiliano; Lauro, Filomena; Russo, Valeria; Persichini, Tiziana; Salvemini, Daniela; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fini, Massimo; Raffaeli, William; Muscoli, Carolina; Colasanti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The ability of mammals to feel noxious stimuli lies in a heterogeneous group of primary somatosensory neurons termed nociceptors, which express specific membrane receptors, such as the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family. Here, we show that one of the most important nociceptive-like pathways is conserved in the freshwater coelenterate Hydra vulgaris, the most primitive organism possessing a nervous system. In particular, we found that H. vulgaris expresses TRPM3, a nociceptor calcium channel involved in the detection of noxious heat in mammals. Furthermore, we detected that both heat shock and TRPM3 specific agonist (i.e., pregnenolone sulfate) induce the modulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two genes activated by TRP-mediated heat painful stimuli in mammals. As expected, these effects are inhibited by a TRPM3 antagonist (i.e., mefenamic acid). Interestingly, the TRPM3 agonist and heat shock also induce the expression of nuclear transcription erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), known markers of oxidative stress; noteworthy gene expression was also inhibited by the TRPM3 antagonist. As a whole, our results demonstrate the presence of conserved molecular oxidative/nociceptive-like pathways at the primordial level of the animal kingdom.

  8. Modulation of nociceptive ion channels and receptors via protein-protein interactions: implications for pain relief

    PubMed Central

    Rouwette, Tom; Avenali, Luca; Sondermann, Julia; Narayanan, Pratibha; Gomez-Varela, David; Schmidt, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    In the last 2 decades biomedical research has provided great insights into the molecular signatures underlying painful conditions. However, chronic pain still imposes substantial challenges to researchers, clinicians and patients alike. Under pathological conditions, pain therapeutics often lack efficacy and exhibit only minimal safety profiles, which can be largely attributed to the targeting of molecules with key physiological functions throughout the body. In light of these difficulties, the identification of molecules and associated protein complexes specifically involved in chronic pain states is of paramount importance for designing selective interventions. Ion channels and receptors represent primary targets, as they critically shape nociceptive signaling from the periphery to the brain. Moreover, their function requires tight control, which is usually implemented by protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Indeed, manipulation of such PPIs entails the modulation of ion channel activity with widespread implications for influencing nociceptive signaling in a more specific way. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modulating ion channels and receptors via their PPI networks in the pursuit of relieving chronic pain. Moreover, we critically discuss the potential of targeting PPIs for developing novel pain therapies exhibiting higher efficacy and improved safety profiles. PMID:26039491

  9. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-3 (TRPM3) Mediates Nociceptive-Like Responses in Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Malafoglia, Valentina; Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Scalici, Massimiliano; Lauro, Filomena; Russo, Valeria; Persichini, Tiziana; Salvemini, Daniela; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fini, Massimo; Raffaeli, William

    2016-01-01

    The ability of mammals to feel noxious stimuli lies in a heterogeneous group of primary somatosensory neurons termed nociceptors, which express specific membrane receptors, such as the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family. Here, we show that one of the most important nociceptive-like pathways is conserved in the freshwater coelenterate Hydra vulgaris, the most primitive organism possessing a nervous system. In particular, we found that H. vulgaris expresses TRPM3, a nociceptor calcium channel involved in the detection of noxious heat in mammals. Furthermore, we detected that both heat shock and TRPM3 specific agonist (i.e., pregnenolone sulfate) induce the modulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two genes activated by TRP-mediated heat painful stimuli in mammals. As expected, these effects are inhibited by a TRPM3 antagonist (i.e., mefenamic acid). Interestingly, the TRPM3 agonist and heat shock also induce the expression of nuclear transcription erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), known markers of oxidative stress; noteworthy gene expression was also inhibited by the TRPM3 antagonist. As a whole, our results demonstrate the presence of conserved molecular oxidative/nociceptive-like pathways at the primordial level of the animal kingdom. PMID:26974325

  10. Dopamine D3 receptor dysfunction prevents anti-nociceptive effects of morphine in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Kori L; Baran, Christine A; Whitfield, Brian R; Jensen, A Marley; Clemens, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) modulates spinal reflexes, including nociceptive reflexes, in part via the D3 receptor subtype. We have previously shown that mice lacking the functional D3 receptor (D3KO) exhibit decreased paw withdrawal latencies from painful thermal stimuli. Altering the DA system in the CNS, including D1 and D3 receptor systems, reduces the ability of opioids to provide analgesia. Here, we tested if the increased pain sensitivity in D3KO might result from a modified μ-opioid receptor (MOR) function at the spinal cord level. As D1 and D3 receptor subtypes have competing cellular effects and can form heterodimers, we tested if the changes in MOR function may be mediated in D3KO through the functionally intact D1 receptor system. We assessed thermal paw withdrawal latencies in D3KO and wild type (WT) mice before and after systemic treatment with morphine, determined MOR and phosphorylated MOR (p-MOR) protein expression levels in lumbar spinal cords, and tested the functional effects of DA and MOR receptor agonists in the isolated spinal cord. In vivo, a single morphine administration (2 mg/kg) increased withdrawal latencies in WT but not D3KO, and these differential effects were mimicked in vitro, where morphine modulated spinal reflex amplitudes (SRAs) in WT but not D3KO. Total MOR protein expression levels were similar between WT and D3KO, but the ratio of pMOR/total MOR was higher in D3KO. Blocking D3 receptors in the isolated WT cord precluded morphine's inhibitory effects observed under control conditions. Lastly, we observed an increase in D1 receptor protein expression in the lumbar spinal cord of D3KO. Our data suggest that the D3 receptor modulates the MOR system in the spinal cord, and that a dysfunction of the D3 receptor can induce a morphine-resistant state. We propose that the D3KO mouse may serve as a model to study the onset of morphine resistance at the spinal cord level, the primary processing site of the nociceptive pathway.

  11. P2X3 receptors induced inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Krimon, Suzy; Araldi, Dionéia; do Prado, Filipe César; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera; Oliveira-Fusaro, Maria Cláudia G; Parada, Carlos Amílcar

    2013-11-01

    It has been described that endogenous ATP via activation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors contributes to inflammatory nociception in different models, including the formalin injected in subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. In this study, we have evaluated whether TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors, whose activation is essential to formalin-induced inflammatory nociception, are involved in the nociception induced by activation of P2X3 receptors on subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. We have also evaluated whether the activation of P2X3 receptors increases the susceptibility of primary afferent neurons to formalin action modulated by activation of TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptors. Nociceptive response intensity was measured by observing the rat's behavior and considering the number of times the animal reflexively raised its hind paw (flinches) in 60min. Local subcutaneous administration of the selective TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonists HC 030031, tropisetron and WAY 100,135, respectively, prevented the nociceptive responses induced by the administration in the same site of the non-selective P2X3 receptor agonist αβmeATP. Administration of the selective P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist A-317491 or pretreatment with oligonucleotides antisense against P2X3 receptor prevented the formalin-induced behavioral nociceptive responses during the first and second phases. Also, the co-administration of a subthreshold dose of αβmeATP with a subthreshold dose of formalin induced nociceptive behavior, which was prevented by local administration of tropisetron, HC 030031 or WAY 100, 135. These findings have demonstrated that the activation of P2X3 receptors induces inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors. Also, they suggest that inflammatory nociception is modulated by the release of endogenous ATP and P2X3 receptor activation, which in turn, increases primary afferent nociceptor susceptibility to the action of inflammatory

  12. [Activation and regulation of nociceptive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, TRPV1 and TRPA1].

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    TRP channels are well recognized for their contributions to sensory transduction, responding to a wide variety of stimuli including temperature, nociceptive stimuli, touch, osmolarity and pheromones. In particular, the involvement of TRP channels in nociception has been extensively studied following the cloning of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is described as a superficial burning pain, and it is one of the most commonly encountered neuropathic pain syndromes in clinical practice. We found that hypoxic and high glucose conditions commonly observed in diabetes potentiate TRPV1 activity without affecting TRPV1 expression both in native rat sensory neurons and HEK293 cells expressing rat TRPV1. The potentiation seems to be caused by phosphorylation of the serine residues of TRPV1 by PKC. These data indicate that PKC-dependent potentiation of TRPV1 activities under hypoxia and hyperglycemia might be involved in early diabetic neuropathy. Mechanisms for the detection of alkaline pH by sensory neurons are not well understood, although it is well accepted that acidic pH monitoring can be attributed to several ion channels, including TRPV1 and ASICs. We found that alkaline pH activates TRPA1 and that the TRPA1 activation is involved in nociception, using Ca(2+)-imaging and patch-clamp methods. In addition, intracellular alkalization activated TRPA1 at the whole-cell level, and single-channel openings were observed in the inside-out configuration. Furthermore, intraplantar injection of ammonium chloride into the mouse hind paw caused pain-related behaviors, which were not observed in TRPA1-deficient mice. These results suggest that alkaline pH causes pain sensation through activation of TRPA1.

  13. Molecular Basis Determining Inhibition/Activation of Nociceptive Receptor TRPA1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Banzawa, Nagako; Saito, Shigeru; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Kashio, Makiko; Takahashi, Kenji; Tominaga, Makoto; Ohta, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channel mainly expressed in a subset of nociceptive neurons. TRPA1 functions as a cellular sensor detecting mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimuli. Because TRPA1 is considered to be a key player in nociception and inflammatory pain, TRPA1 antagonists have been developed as analgesic agents. Recently, by utilizing species differences, we identified the molecular basis of the antagonistic action of A967079, one of the most potent mammalian TRPA1 antagonists. Here, we show a unique effect of A967079 on TRPA1 from diverse vertebrate species, i.e. it acts as an agonist but not as an antagonist for chicken and frog TRPA1s. By characterizing chimeric channels of human and chicken TRPA1s, as well as point mutants, we found that a single specific amino acid residue located within the putative fifth transmembrane domain was involved in not only the stimulatory but also the inhibitory actions of A967079. AP18, structurally related to A967079, exerted similar pharmacological properties to A967079. Our findings and previous reports on species differences in the sensitivity to TRPA1 antagonists supply useful information in the search for novel analgesic medicines targeting TRPA1. PMID:25271161

  14. Mechanisms of protease-activated receptor 2-evoked hyperexcitability of nociceptive neurons innervating the mouse colon

    PubMed Central

    Kayssi, Ahmed; Amadesi, Silvia; Bautista, Francisco; Bunnett, Nigel W; Vanner, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Agonists of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) evoke hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons by unknown mechanisms. We examined the cellular mechanisms underlying PAR2-evoked hyperexcitability of mouse colonic DRG neurons to determine their potential role in pain syndromes such as visceral hyperalgesia. Colonic DRG neurons were identified by injecting Fast Blue and DiI retrograde tracers into the mouse colon. Using immunofluorescence, we found that DiI-labelled neurons contained PAR2 immunoreactivity, confirming the presence of receptors on colonic neurons. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings of acutely dissociated neurons demonstrated that PAR2 activation with a brief application (3 min) of PAR2 agonists, SLIGRL-NH2 and trypsin, evoked sustained depolarizations (up to 60 min) which were associated with increased input resistance and a marked reduction in rheobase (50% at 30 min). In voltage clamp, SLIGRL-NH2 markedly suppressed delayed rectifier IK currents (55% at 10 min), but had no effect on the transient IA current or TTX-resistant Na+ currents. In whole-cell current-clamp recordings, the sustained excitability evoked by PAR2 activation was blocked by the PKC inhibitor, calphostin, and the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. Studies of ERK1/2 phosphorylation using confocal microscopy demonstrated that SLIGRL-NH2 increased levels of immunoreactive pERK1/2 in DRG neurons, particularly in proximity to the plasma membrane. Thus, activation of PAR2 receptors on colonic nociceptive neurons causes sustained hyperexcitability that is related, at least in part, to suppression of delayed rectifier IK currents. Both PKC and ERK1/2 mediate the PAR2-induced hyperexcitability. These studies describe a novel mechanism of sensitization of colonic nociceptive neurons that may be implicated in conditions of visceral hyperalgesia such as irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:17289784

  15. Peripheral AMPA receptors contribute to muscle nociception and c-fos activation

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yang-Hyun; Frank, Dorie; Lee, Jong-Seok; Zhang, Youping; Auh, Q-Schick; Ro, Jin Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, involvement of peripheral AMPA receptors in mediating craniofacial muscle pain was investigated. AMPA receptor subunits, GluR1 and GluR2, were predominantly expressed in small to medium size neurons but more GluR2 positive labeling were encountered in trigeminal ganglia (TG) of male Sprague Dawley rats. A greater prevalence of GluR2 is reflected by the significantly higher percentage of GluR2 than GluR1 positive masseter afferents. Nocifensive behavior and c-fos immunoreactivity were assessed from the same animals that received intramuscular mustard oil (MO) with or without NBQX, a potent AMPA/KA receptor antagonist. Masseteric MO produced nocifensive hindpaw shaking responses that peaked in the first 30 seconds and gradually diminished over a few minutes. There was a significant difference in both peak and overall MO-induced nocifensive responses between NBQX and vehicle pre-treated rats. Subsequent Fos studies also showed that peripheral NBQX pre-treatment effectively reduced the MO-induced neuronal activation in the subnucleus caudalis of the trigeminal nerve (Vc). These combined results provide compelling evidence that acute muscle nociception is mediated, in part, by peripherally located AMPA/KA receptors, and that blockade of multiple peripheral glutamate receptor subtypes may provide a more effective means of reducing muscular pain and central neuronal activation. PMID:18655811

  16. Effects of neurokinin-1 receptor agonism and antagonism in the rostral ventromedial medulla of rats with acute or persistent inflammatory nociception.

    PubMed

    Hamity, M V; White, S R; Hammond, D L

    2010-02-03

    The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), a central relay in the bulbospinal pathways that modulate nociception, contains high concentrations of substance P (Sub P) and neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors. However, the function of Sub P in the RVM is poorly understood. This study characterized the actions of Sub P in the RVM in the absence of injury and then used two NK1 receptor antagonists, L-733,060 and L-703, 606, to probe the role of endogenously released Sub P in the development and maintenance of persistent inflammatory nociception of immune or neurogenic origin. In uninjured rats, microinjection of Sub P in the RVM produced a transient thermal antinociception that was attenuated by pretreatment with L-733,060 or L-703,606. It did not alter threshold to withdrawal from tactile stimulation with von Frey filaments. Microinjection of the antagonists alone did not alter paw withdrawal latency (PWL) or threshold suggesting that Sub P is not tonically released in the RVM in the absence of injury. However, microinjection of either antagonist in the RVM was sufficient to reverse heat hyperalgesia 4 h, 4 days or 2 weeks after intraplantar (ipl) injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Antagonism of NK1 receptors in the RVM did not prevent or reverse tactile hypersensitivity induced by CFA, but did attenuate that produced by capsaicin. NK1 receptor antagonism did not prevent the development of thermal hyperalgesia, tactile hypersensitivity or spontaneous pain behaviors induced by mustard oil (MO). The results suggest that Sub P has bimodal actions in the RVM and that following inflammatory injury, it can play a critical role as a pronociceptive agent in the development and maintenance of hyperalgesia and tactile hypersensitivity. However, its actions are highly dependent on the stimulus modality and the type of injury, and this may be an additional basis for the poor efficacy of NK1 receptor antagonists in clinical trials.

  17. Periaqueductal Grey EP3 Receptors Facilitate Spinal Nociception in Arthritic Secondary Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Drake, R.A.R.; Leith, J.L.; Almahasneh, F.; Martindale, J.; Wilson, A.W.; Lumb, B.

    2016-01-01

    Descending controls on spinal nociceptive processing play a pivotal role in shaping the pain experience after tissue injury. Secondary hypersensitivity develops within undamaged tissue adjacent and distant to damaged sites. Spinal neuronal pools innervating regions of secondary hypersensitivity are dominated by descending facilitation that amplifies spinal inputs from unsensitized peripheral nociceptors. Cyclooxygenase–prostaglandin (PG) E2 signaling within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is pronociceptive in naive and acutely inflamed animals, but its contributions in more prolonged inflammation and, importantly, secondary hypersensitivity remain unknown. In naive rats, PG EP3 receptor (EP3R) antagonism in vlPAG modulated noxious withdrawal reflex (EMG) thresholds to preferential C-nociceptor, but not A-nociceptor, activation and raised thermal withdrawal thresholds in awake animals. In rats with inflammatory arthritis, secondary mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity of the hindpaw developed and was associated with spinal sensitization to A-nociceptor inputs alone. In arthritic rats, blockade of vlPAG EP3R raised EMG thresholds to C-nociceptor activation in the area of secondary hypersensitivity to a degree equivalent to that evoked by the same manipulation in naive rats. Importantly, vlPAG EP3R blockade also affected responses to A-nociceptor activation, but only in arthritic animals. We conclude that vlPAG EP3R activity exerts an equivalent facilitation on the spinal processing of C-nociceptor inputs in naive and arthritic animals, but gains in effects on spinal A-nociceptor processing from a region of secondary hypersensitivity. Therefore, the spinal sensitization to A-nociceptor inputs associated with secondary hypersensitivity is likely to be at least partly dependent on descending prostanergic facilitation from the vlPAG. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT After tissue damage, sensitivity to painful stimulation develops in undamaged areas (secondary

  18. Peripheral oxytocin receptors inhibit the nociceptive input signal to spinal dorsal horn wide-dynamic-range neurons.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, Abimael; Manzano-García, Alfredo; Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Tello-García, Irma A; Carranza, Martha; Arámburo, Carlos; Condés-Lara, Miguel

    2017-07-19

    Oxytocin (OT) has emerged as a mediator of endogenous analgesia in behavioral and electrophysiological experiments. In fact, OT receptors (OTRs) in the spinal dorsal horn participate in a selective inhibition of the neuronal activity mediated by Aδ and C fibers but not Aβ fibers. This study shows that OTRs are expressed in the terminal nerve endings and are able to inhibit nociceptive neuronal firing. Indeed, local peripheral OT blocked the first sensorial activity of Aδ and C fibers recorded in the spinal cord neurons. Furthermore, using the formalin behavioral nociceptive test, we demonstrated that only ipsilateral OTR activation inhibits pain behavior. Our data are reinforced by the fact that the OTR protein is expressed in the sciatic nerve. Consistent with this, immunofluorescence of primary afferent fibers suggest that OTRs could be located in nociceptive-specific terminals of the skin. Taken together, our results suggest that OTRs could be found in nociceptive terminals and that on activation they are able to inhibit nociceptive input.

  19. Surgical incision-induced nociception causes cognitive impairment and reduction in synaptic NMDA receptor 2B in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqin; Xin, Xin; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yiying; Yu, Buwei; Mao, Jianren; Xie, Zhongcong

    2013-11-06

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with impairments in daily functioning, and increased morbidity and mortality. However, the causes and neuropathogenesis of POCD remain largely unknown. Uncontrolled pain often occurs postoperatively. We therefore set out to determine the effects of surgical incision-induced nociception on the cognitive function and its underlying mechanisms in 3- and 9-month-old mice. The mice had surgical incision in the hindpaw and then were tested for nociceptive threshold, learning, and memory. Brain levels of NMDA receptor and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) were also assessed. We found that surgical incision-induced nociception in mice led to a decreased freezing time in the tone test (which assesses the hippocampus-independent learning and memory function), but not the context test, of Fear Conditioning System at 3 and 7 d, but not 30 d post incision in 9-month-old, but not 3-month-old mice. Consistently, the surgical incision selectively decreased synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, and increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and CDK5 in the cortex, but not hippocampus, of the mice. Finally, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics and CDK5 inhibitor, roscovitine, attenuated the surgical incision-induced reduction in the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels and learning impairment. These results suggested that surgical incision-induced nociception reduced the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B level in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice, which might lead to hippocampus-independent learning impairment, contributing to POCD. These findings call for further investigation to determine the role of surgical incision-induced nociception in POCD.

  20. Influence of intramuscular heat stimulation on modulation of nociception: complex role of central opioid receptors in descending facilitation and inhibition.

    PubMed

    You, Hao-Jun; Lei, Jing; Ye, Gang; Fan, Xiao-Li; Li, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that the threshold to activate 'silent' or inactive descending facilitation of nociception is lower than that of descending inhibition. Thus, the development of pain therapy to effectively drive descending inhibition alone, without the confounding influences of facilitation is a challenge. To address this issue we investigated the effects of intramuscular stimulation with a heating-needle on spinal nociception, assessed by measuring nociceptive paw withdrawal reflex in rats. Additionally, involvement of the thalamic 'nociceptive discriminators' (thalamic mediodorsal (MD) and ventromedial (VM) nuclei), and opioid-mediated mechanisms were further explored. Descending facilitation and inhibition were elicited by 46°C noxious heating-needle stimulation, and were regulated by thalamic MD and VM nuclei, respectively. In contrast, innocuous heating-needle stimulation at a temperature of 43°C elicited descending inhibition modulated by the thalamic VM nucleus alone. Microinjection of μ/δ/κ-opioid receptor antagonists β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride/naltrindole/nor-binaltorphimine, into the VM nucleus attenuated the 46°C intramuscular heating-needle stimulation-evoked descending inhibition, whereas treatment of the MD nucleus with β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride significantly decreased the descending facilitation. By contrast, descending inhibition evoked by 43°C heating-needle stimulation was only depressed by naltrindole, as opposed to μ- and κ-opioid receptor antagonists, which failed to influence descending inhibition. The present study reveals distinct roles of μ-opioid receptors in the function of thalamic MD and VM nuclei,which exert facilitatory and inhibitory actions on nociception. Furthermore, innocuous, but not noxious, intramuscular heating-needle stimulation targeting δ-opioid receptors is suggested to be a promising avenue for the effective inhibition of pain.

  1. Assessment of 5-HT7 Receptor Agonists Selectivity Using Nociceptive and Thermoregulation Tests in Knockout versus Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brenchat, Alex; Rocasalbas, Maria; Zamanillo, Daniel; Hamon, Michel; Vela, José Miguel; Romero, Luz

    2012-01-01

    No study has ever examined the effect of 5-HT7 receptor agonists on nociception by using 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. Basal sensitivity to noxious heat stimuli and formalin-induced nociception in both phase I and II of the formalin test did not differ in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice and paired wild-type controls. Similarly, there was no significant difference in basal body temperature between both genotypes. Subcutaneous administration of 5-HT7 receptor agonists AS-19 (10 mg/kg), E-57431 (10 mg/kg), and E-55888 (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced formalin-induced licking/biting behavior during the phase II of the test in wild-type but not in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. At these active analgesic doses, none of the three 5-HT7 receptor agonists modified the basal body temperature neither in wild-type nor in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. However, a significant decrease in body temperature was observed at a higher dose (20 mg/kg) of AS-19 and E-57431 in both genotypes. Our data strongly suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor agonists AS-19, E-57431, and E-55888 produce antinociception in the formalin test by activating 5-HT7 receptors. These results also strengthen the idea that the 5-HT7 receptor plays a role in thermoregulation, but by acting in concert with other receptors. PMID:22761612

  2. Mycobacteria Attenuate Nociceptive Responses by Formyl Peptide Receptor Triggered Opioid Peptide Release from Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Philipp; Mousa, Shaaban; Stolz, Andrea; Labuz, Dominika; Schäfer, Michael; Schaefer, Michael; Stein, Christoph; Brack, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In inflammation, pain is regulated by a balance of pro- and analgesic mediators. Analgesic mediators include opioid peptides which are secreted by neutrophils at the site of inflammation, leading to activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons. In humans, local opioids and opioid peptides significantly downregulate postoperative as well as arthritic pain. In rats, inflammatory pain is induced by intraplantar injection of heat inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum, a component of complete Freund's adjuvant. We hypothesized that mycobacterially derived formyl peptide receptor (FPR) and/or toll like receptor (TLR) agonists could activate neutrophils, leading to opioid peptide release and inhibition of inflammatory pain. In complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation, thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds of the paw were quantified (Hargreaves and Randall-Selitto methods, respectively). Withdrawal time to heat was decreased following systemic neutrophil depletion as well as local injection of opioid receptor antagonists or anti-opioid peptide (i.e. Met-enkephalin, β-endorphin) antibodies indicating an increase in pain. In vitro, opioid peptide release from human and rat neutrophils was measured by radioimmunoassay. Met-enkephalin release was triggered by Mycobacterium butyricum and formyl peptides but not by TLR-2 or TLR-4 agonists. Mycobacterium butyricum induced a rise in intracellular calcium as determined by FURA loading and calcium imaging. Opioid peptide release was blocked by intracellular calcium chelation as well as phosphoinositol-3-kinase inhibition. The FPR antagonists Boc-FLFLF and cyclosporine H reduced opioid peptide release in vitro and increased inflammatory pain in vivo while TLR 2/4 did not appear to be involved. In summary, mycobacteria activate FPR on neutrophils, resulting in tonic secretion of opioid peptides from neutrophils and in a decrease in inflammatory pain. Future therapeutic strategies may aim at selective FPR

  3. GABA acting on GABAB receptors located in a medullary pain facilitatory area enhances nociceptive behaviors evoked by intraplantar formalin injection.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isabel; Carvalho, Paulina; de Vries, Martin G; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Wilson, Steven P; Westerink, Ben H C; Tavares, Isaura

    2015-08-01

    The dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt) plays a key role in facilitation of nociceptive transmission at the spinal cord. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms involved in GABA-mediated control of the DRt focusing on the role of local GABAB receptors. First, we used in vivo microdialysis to study the release of GABA in the DRt during the course of the formalin test. An increase of GABA levels in comparison with baseline values was detected in the second phase of the test. Because we previously showed that GABAB receptors are expressed by opioidergic DRt neurons, which respond to nociceptive stimuli and inhibit spinally projecting DRt neurons involved in descending pronociception, we then interfered with local GABAB receptors using gene transfer and pharmacological approaches. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GABAB1a expression decreased nociceptive responses during the second phase of the test. Local administration of the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 35348 also decreased nociceptive responses in the second phase of the test, whereas the opposite was detected after injection of the GABAB agonist baclofen. Finally, we determined the GABAergic afferents of the DRt, namely those arising from its main brain afferents, which are located at the telencephalon and diencephalon. For that purpose, we combined retrograde tract-tracing from the DRt with immunodetection of glutamate decarboxylase, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme. The higher numbers of retrogradely labelled glutamate decarboxylase-immunoreactive neurons were located at insular, somatosensory, and motor cortices. Collectively, the results suggest that GABA acting on GABAB receptors may enhance pain facilitation from the DRt during inflammatory pain.

  4. Anti-nociception mediated by a κ opioid receptor agonist is blocked by a δ receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A M W; Roberts, K W; Pradhan, A A; Akbari, H A; Walwyn, W; Lutfy, K; Carroll, F I; Cahill, C M; Evans, C J

    2015-01-01

    The opioid receptor family comprises four structurally homologous but functionally distinct sub-groups, the μ (MOP), δ (DOP), κ (KOP) and nociceptin (NOP) receptors. As most opioid agonists are selective but not specific, a broad spectrum of behaviours due to activation of different opioid receptors is expected. In this study, we examine whether other opioid receptor systems influenced KOP-mediated antinociception. We used a tail withdrawal assay in C57Bl/6 mice to assay the antinociceptive effect of systemically administered opioid agonists with varying selectivity at KOP receptors. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to analyse the interactions of the other opioid receptors in modulating KOP-mediated antinociception. Etorphine, a potent agonist at all four opioid receptors, was not anti-nociceptive in MOP knockout (KO) mice, although etorphine is an efficacious KOP receptor agonist and specific KOP receptor agonists remain analgesic in MOP KO mice. As KOP receptor agonists are aversive, we considered KOP-mediated antinociception might be a form of stress-induced analgesia that is blocked by the anxiolytic effects of DOP receptor agonists. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with the DOP antagonist, naltrindole (10 mg·kg(-1) ), unmasked etorphine (3 mg·kg(-1) ) antinociception in MOP KO mice. Further, in wild-type mice, KOP-mediated antinociception by systemic U50,488H (10 mg·kg(-1) ) was blocked by pretreatment with the DOP agonist SNC80 (5 mg·kg(-1) ) and diazepam (1 mg·kg(-1) ). Systemic DOP receptor agonists blocked systemic KOP antinociception, and these results identify DOP receptor agonists as potential agents for reversing stress-driven addictive and depressive behaviours mediated through KOP receptor activation. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The

  5. Anti-nociception mediated by a κ opioid receptor agonist is blocked by a δ receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, A M W; Roberts, K W; Pradhan, A A; Akbari, H A; Walwyn, W; Lutfy, K; Carroll, F I; Cahill, C M; Evans, C J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The opioid receptor family comprises four structurally homologous but functionally distinct sub-groups, the μ (MOP), δ (DOP), κ (KOP) and nociceptin (NOP) receptors. As most opioid agonists are selective but not specific, a broad spectrum of behaviours due to activation of different opioid receptors is expected. In this study, we examine whether other opioid receptor systems influenced KOP-mediated antinociception. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used a tail withdrawal assay in C57Bl/6 mice to assay the antinociceptive effect of systemically administered opioid agonists with varying selectivity at KOP receptors. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to analyse the interactions of the other opioid receptors in modulating KOP-mediated antinociception. KEY RESULTS Etorphine, a potent agonist at all four opioid receptors, was not anti-nociceptive in MOP knockout (KO) mice, although etorphine is an efficacious KOP receptor agonist and specific KOP receptor agonists remain analgesic in MOP KO mice. As KOP receptor agonists are aversive, we considered KOP-mediated antinociception might be a form of stress-induced analgesia that is blocked by the anxiolytic effects of DOP receptor agonists. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with the DOP antagonist, naltrindole (10 mg·kg−1), unmasked etorphine (3 mg·kg−1) antinociception in MOP KO mice. Further, in wild-type mice, KOP-mediated antinociception by systemic U50,488H (10 mg·kg−1) was blocked by pretreatment with the DOP agonist SNC80 (5 mg·kg−1) and diazepam (1 mg·kg−1). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Systemic DOP receptor agonists blocked systemic KOP antinociception, and these results identify DOP receptor agonists as potential agents for reversing stress-driven addictive and depressive behaviours mediated through KOP receptor activation. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles

  6. The contribution of activated peripheral kappa opioid receptors (kORs) in the inflamed knee joint to anti-nociception.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sun Wook; Park, Eui Ho; Suh, Hye Rim; Ko, Duk Hwan; Kim, Yang In; Han, Hee Chul

    2016-10-01

    The systemic administration of opioids can be used for their strong analgesic effect. However, extensive activation of opioid receptors (ORs) beyond the targeted tissue can cause dysphoria, pruritus, and constipation. Therefore, selective activation of peripheral ORs present in the afferent fibers of the targeted tissue can be considered a superior strategy in opioid analgesia to avoid potential adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of peripheral kappa opioid receptors (kORs) in arthritic pain for the possible use of peripheral ORs as a target in anti-nociceptive therapy. We administered U50488 or nor-BNI/DIPPA, a selective agonist or antagonist of kOR, respectively into arthritic rat knee joints induced using 1% carrageenan. After the injection of U50488 or U50488 with nor-BNI or DIPPA into the inflamed knee joint, we evaluated nociceptive behavior as indicated by reduced weight-bearing on the ipsilateral limbs of the rat and recorded the activity of mechanosensitive afferents (MSA). In the inflamed knee joint, the intra-articular application of 1μM, 10nM, or 0.1nM U50488 resulted in a significant reduction in nociceptive behavior. In addition, 1μM and 10nM U50488 decreased MSA activity. However, in a non-inflamed knee joint, 1μM U50488 had no effect on MSA activity. Additionally, intra-articular pretreatment with 20μM nor-BNI or 10μM DIPPA significantly blocked the inhibitory effects of 1μM U50488 on nociceptive behavior and MSA activity in the inflamed knee joint. These results implicate that peripheral kORs can contribute to anti-nociceptive processing in an inflamed knee joint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Involvement of Mammalian RF-Amide Peptides and Their Receptors in the Modulation of Nociception in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Ayachi, Safia; Simonin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian RF-amide peptides, which all share a conserved carboxyl-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 sequence, constitute a family of five groups of neuropeptides that are encoded by five different genes. They act through five G-protein-coupled receptors and each group of peptide binds to and activates mostly one receptor: RF-amide related peptide group binds to NPFFR1, neuropeptide FF group to NPFFR2, pyroglutamylated RF-amide peptide group to QRFPR, prolactin-releasing peptide group to prolactin-releasing peptide receptor, and kisspeptin group to Kiss1R. These peptides and their receptors have been involved in the modulation of several functions including reproduction, feeding, and cardiovascular regulation. Data from the literature now provide emerging evidence that all RF-amide peptides and their receptors are also involved in the modulation of nociception. This review will present the current knowledge on the involvement in rodents of the different mammalian RF-amide peptides and their receptors in the modulation of nociception in basal and chronic pain conditions as well as their modulatory effects on the analgesic effects of opiates.

  8. Involvement of Mammalian RF-Amide Peptides and Their Receptors in the Modulation of Nociception in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ayachi, Safia; Simonin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian RF-amide peptides, which all share a conserved carboxyl-terminal Arg–Phe–NH2 sequence, constitute a family of five groups of neuropeptides that are encoded by five different genes. They act through five G-protein-coupled receptors and each group of peptide binds to and activates mostly one receptor: RF-amide related peptide group binds to NPFFR1, neuropeptide FF group to NPFFR2, pyroglutamylated RF-amide peptide group to QRFPR, prolactin-releasing peptide group to prolactin-releasing peptide receptor, and kisspeptin group to Kiss1R. These peptides and their receptors have been involved in the modulation of several functions including reproduction, feeding, and cardiovascular regulation. Data from the literature now provide emerging evidence that all RF-amide peptides and their receptors are also involved in the modulation of nociception. This review will present the current knowledge on the involvement in rodents of the different mammalian RF-amide peptides and their receptors in the modulation of nociception in basal and chronic pain conditions as well as their modulatory effects on the analgesic effects of opiates. PMID:25324831

  9. Presynaptic inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors by noradrenaline in nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Saikat; Elvezio, Vincent; Kaczocha, Martin; Rebecchi, Mario; Puopolo, Michelino

    2017-04-15

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor is a polymodal molecular integrator in the pain pathway expressed in Aδ- and C-fibre nociceptors and is responsible for the thermal hyperalgesia associated with inflammatory pain. Noradrenaline strongly inhibited the activity of TRPV1 channels in dorsal root ganglia neurons. The effect of noradrenaline was reproduced by clonidine and antagonized by yohimbine, consistent with contribution of α2 adrenergic receptors. The inhibitory effect of noradrenaline on TRPV1 channels was dependent on calcium influx and linked to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. In spinal cord slices, clonidine reduced the frequency of capsaicin-induced miniature EPSCs in the presence of tetrodotoxin and ω-conotoxin-MVIIC, consistent with inhibition of presynaptic TRPV1 channels by α2 adrenergic receptors. We suggest that modulation of presynaptic TRPV1 channels in nociceptive neurons by descending noradrenergic inputs may constitute a mechanism for noradrenaline to modulate incoming noxious stimuli in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor is a well-known contributor to nociceptor excitability. To address whether noradrenaline can down-regulate TRPV1 channel activity in nociceptors and reduce their synaptic transmission, the effects of noradrenaline and clonidine were tested on the capsaicin-activated current recorded from acutely dissociated small diameter (<27 μm) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and on miniature (m)EPSCs recorded from large lamina I neurons in horizontal spinal cord slices. Noradrenaline or clonidine inhibited the capsaicin-activated current by ∼60%, and the effect was reversed by yohimbine, confirming that it was mediated by activation of α2 adrenergic receptors. Similarly, clonidine reduced the frequency of capsaicin-induced mEPSCs by ∼60%. Inhibition of capsaicin-activated current by noradrenaline was mediated by GTP

  10. Behavioural and electrophysiological evidence supporting a role for group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the mediation of nociceptive inputs to the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Young, M R; Fleetwood-Walker, S M; Dickinson, T; Blackburn-Munro, G; Sparrow, H; Birch, P J; Bountra, C

    1997-11-28

    A combined study of behavioural and electrophysiological tests was carried out in order to assess the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in mediating sensory inputs to the spinal cord of the rat. In the behavioural study the responses of conscious animals, with or without carrageenan-induced inflammation, to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli were observed both before and after the intrathecal administration of mGluR antagonists L(+)-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid (L-AP3) and (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG). It was found that the mGluR antagonist (S)-CHPG was capable of increasing both mechanical threshold and thermal latency in both groups of animals, and L-AP3 did so in those with inflammation induced in their hindpaw. Following this study, the responses of single lamina III-V dorsal horn neurons to an innocuous A beta fibre brush stimulus and a noxious C fibre (mustard oil) stimulus were extracellularly recorded and the effect of ionophoretically applied drugs was examined. Cyclothiazide (CTZ), a selective antagonist at mGluR1, markedly reduced the activity evoked by mustard oil, but not that elicited by brushing of the receptive field. Activity induced in dorsal horn neurons by ionophoresing various mGluR subgroup agonists was examined. CTZ successfully inhibited the activity evoked by group I mGluR agonist 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG). In comparison to the neurons which responded to the ionophoresis of DHPG, less were activated by the selective mGluR5 agonist trans-azetidine dicarboxylic acid (t-ADA). Together these results indicate that group I mGlu receptors, in particular mGluR1, play a crucial role in mediating nociception, particularly following a sustained noxious input.

  11. The 5-HT1A Receptor and the Stimulus Effects of LSD in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, C.J.; Eckler, J.R.; Rabin, R.A.; Winter, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale It has been suggested that the 5-HT1A receptor plays a significant modulatory role in the stimulus effects of the indoleamine hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Objectives The present study sought to characterize the effects of several compounds with known affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor on the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD. Methods 12 Male F-344 rats were trained in a two-lever, fixed ratio10, food reinforced task with LSD (0.1 mg/kg; IP; 15 min pretreatment) as a discriminative stimulus. Combination and substitution tests with the 5-HT1A agonists, 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone, gepirone, and ipsapirone, with LSD-induced stimulus control were then performed. The effects of these 5-HT1A ligands were also tested in the presence of the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100,635 (0.3 mg/kg; SC; 30 min. pretreatment). Results In combination tests stimulus control by LSD was increased by all 5-HT1A receptor ligands with agonist properties. Similarly, in tests of antagonism, the increase in drug-appropriate responding caused by stimulation of the 5-HT1A receptor was abolished by administration of WAY-100,635. Conclusions These data, obtained using a drug discrimination model of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD, provide support for the hypothesis that the 5-HT1A receptor has a significant modulatory role in the stimulus effects of LSD. PMID:16025319

  12. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in neurons of trigeminal ganglion contributes to nociception induced by acute pulpitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jia-Ji; Du, Yi; Cai, Wen-Ke; Kuang, Rong; Chang, Ting; Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yong-Xiang; Sun, Chao; Li, Zhu-Yi; Kuang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Pain caused by acute pulpitis (AP) is a common symptom in clinical settings. However, its underlying mechanisms have largely remained unknown. Using AP model, we demonstrated that dental injury caused severe pulp inflammation with up-regulated serum IL-1β. Assessment from head-withdrawal reflex thresholds (HWTs) and open-field test demonstrated nociceptive response at 1 day post injury. A consistent up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) ipsilateral to the injured pulp was found; and downstream signaling components of TLR4, including MyD88, TRIF and NF-κB, and cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, were also increased. Retrograde labeling indicated that most TLR4 positve neuron in the TG innnervated the pulp and TLR4 immunoreactivity was mainly in the medium and small neurons. Double labeling showed that the TLR4 expressing neurons in the ipsilateral TG were TRPV1 and CGRP positive, but IB4 negative. Furthermore, blocking TLR4 by eritoran (TLR4 antagonist) in TGs of the AP model significantly down-regulated MyD88, TRIF, NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1β production and behavior of nociceptive response. Our findings suggest that TLR4 signaling in TG cells, particularly the peptidergic TRPV1 neurons, plays a key role in AP-induced nociception, and indicate that TLR4 signaling could be a potential therapeutic target for orofacial pain. PMID:26224622

  13. Role of descending noradrenergic system and spinal alpha2-adrenergic receptors in the effects of gabapentin on thermal and mechanical nociception after partial nerve injury in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Mitsuo; Takasu, Keiko; Kasuya, Noriyo; Shimizu, Shinobu; Honda, Motoko; Ono, Hideki

    2005-03-01

    1. To gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying the antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic actions of gabapentin, a chronic pain model was prepared by partially ligating the sciatic nerve in mice. The mice then received systemic or local injections of gabapentin combined with either central noradrenaline (NA) depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade. 2. Intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered gabapentin produced antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects that were manifested by elevation of the withdrawal threshold to a thermal (plantar test) or mechanical (von Frey test) stimulus, respectively. 3. Similar effects were obtained in both the plantar and von Frey tests when gabapentin was injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.), suggesting that it acts at both supraspinal and spinal loci. This novel supraspinal analgesic action of gabapentin was only obtained in ligated neuropathic mice, and gabapentin (i.p. and i.c.v.) did not affect acute thermal and mechanical nociception. 4. In mice in which central NA levels were depleted by 6-OHDA, the antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of i.p. and i.c.v. gabapentin were strongly suppressed. 5. The antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of systemic gabapentin were reduced by both systemic and i.t. administration of yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist. By contrast, prazosin (i.p. or i.t.), an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, did not alter the effects of gabapentin. 6. It was concluded that the antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of gabapentin are mediated substantially by the descending noradrenergic system, resulting in the activation of spinal alpha2-adrenergic receptors.

  14. Evidence for spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor involvement in prolonged chemical nociception in the rat.

    PubMed

    Haley, Jane E; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2016-08-15

    We used in vivo electrophysiology and a model of more persistent nociceptive inputs to monitor spinal cord neuronal activity in anaesthetised rats to reveal the pharmacology of enhanced pain signalling. The study showed that all responses were blocked by non-selective antagonism of glutamate receptors but a selective and preferential role of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the prolonged plastic responses was clearly seen. The work lead to many publications, initially preclinical but increasingly from patient studies, showing the importance of the NMDA receptor in central sensitisation within the spinal cord and how this could relate to persistent pain states. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue.

  15. Discriminative stimulus effects of the novel imidazoline I2 receptor ligand CR4056 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yanyan; He, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Yanan; Li, Jun-Xu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether a novel imidazoline I2 receptor ligand CR4056 could serve as a discriminative stimulus and whether it shares similar discriminative stimulus effects with other reported I2 receptor ligands. Eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 10.0 mg/kg CR4056 (i.p.) from vehicle in a two-lever food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Once rats acquired the discrimination, substitution and combination studies were conducted to elucidate the underlying receptor mechanisms. All rats acquired CR4056 discrimination after an average of 26 training sessions. Several I2 receptor ligands (phenyzoline, tracizoline, RS45041, and idazoxan, 3.2–75 mg/kg, i.p.) all occasioned > 80% CR4056-associated lever responding. Other drugs that occasioned partial or no CR4056-associated lever responding included methamphetamine, ketamine, the endogenous imidazoline ligand agmatine, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor harmane, the α2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine, the μ-opioid receptor agonists morphine and methadone, and the selective I2 receptor ligands BU224 and 2-BFI. The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101, α2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine and μ-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone failed to alter the stimulus effects of CR4056. Together, these results show that CR4056 can serve as a discriminative stimulus in rats, which demonstrates high pharmacological specificity and appears to be mediated by imidazoline I2 receptors. PMID:25308382

  16. Excitability changes of somatic and viscero-somatic nociceptive reflexes in the decerebrate-spinal rabbit: role of NMDA receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Laird, J M; de la Rubia, P G; Cervero, F

    1995-01-01

    1. Wind-up (frequency-dependent potentiation of the responses of spinal neurones to stimulation of unmyelinated afferents) and other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated phenomena have been proposed as key mechanisms underlying persistent pain states. In this study we have compared wind-up in visceral and somatic nociceptive pathways to examine the possible contribution of these mechanisms to visceral pain and hyperalgesia. 2. Experiments were performed on thirteen decerebrate spinalized rabbits. A somato-somatic (SS) reflex (evoked by stimulating skin and muscle afferents from the L2 spinal nerve) and a viscero-somatic (VS) reflex (evoked by stimulating visceral afferents in the splanchnic nerve) were recorded from the L1 spinal nerve. The reflexes consisted of an early (A fibre) and a late (C fibre) component. 3. Conditioning trains of sixteen high intensity electrical stimuli at 1 Hz were applied to the somatic or visceral nerve. These conditioning stimuli did not produce wind-up in the early component of either reflex but evoked powerful wind-up in the late SS reflex (mean percentage of baseline +/- S.E.M., 191 +/- 30%). In contrast wind-up was weak or absent in the late VS reflex (mean percentage of baseline +/- S.E.M., 21 +/- 6%). Conditioning of somatic afferents facilitated both the early and late SS reflex but strongly depressed the early and late VS reflex. Conditioning of visceral afferents had little effect on the early SS reflex, but depressed the early VS reflex and the late components of both reflexes. 4. Intravenous administration (1-10 mg kg-1) of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine dose-dependently inhibited the strong wind-up in the late SS reflex and the weak wind-up in the late VS reflex, but also dose-dependently inhibited the early and late components of both baseline reflexes. 5. We conclude that neural mechanisms other than wind-up may underlie the development of visceral pain and hyperalgesia. The present results emphasize the

  17. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  18. Adenosine A2A receptors in ventral striatum, hypothalamus and nociceptive circuitry. Implications for drug addiction, sleep and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, S.; Diamond, I.; Goldberg, S.R.; Yao, L.; Hourani, S.M.O.; Huang, Z.L.; Urade, Y.; Kitchen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of L-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other than parkinsonism, including drug addiction, sleep disorders and pain. In addition to the dorsal striatum, the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) contains a high density of A2A receptors, which presynaptically and postsynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the cortical glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens. It is currently believed that molecular adaptations of the cortico-accumbens glutamatergic synapses are involved in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Here we review recent experimental evidence suggesting that A2A antagonists could become new therapeutic agents for drug addiction. Morphological and functional studies have identified lower levels of A2A receptors in brain areas other than the striatum, such as the ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus, where adenosine plays an important role in sleep regulation. Although initially believed to be mostly dependent on A1 receptors, here we review recent studies that demonstrate that the somnogenic effects of adenosine are largely mediated by hypothalamic A2A receptors. A2A receptor antagonists could therefore be considered as a possible treatment for narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders. Finally, nociception is another adenosine-regulated neural function previously thought to mostly involve A1 receptors. Although there is some conflicting literature on the effects of agonists and antagonists, which may partly be due to the lack of selectivity of available drugs, the studies in A2A receptor knockout mice suggest that A2A receptor antagonists might have some therapeutic potential in pain states, in particular where

  19. The abnormal cannabidiol analogue O-1602 reduces nociception in a rat model of acute arthritis via the putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55.

    PubMed

    Schuelert, Niklas; McDougall, Jason J

    2011-08-01

    Cannabinoids classically act via CB₁ and CB₂ receptors to modulate nociception; however, recent findings suggest that some cannabinoids bind to atypical receptors. One such receptor is GPR55 which is activated by the abnormal cannabidiol analogue O-1602. This study investigated whether the synthetic GPR55 agonist O-1602 can alter joint nociception in a rat model of acute joint inflammation. Acute (24 h) inflammatory joint pain was induced in male Wistar rats by intra-articular injection of 2% kaolin and 2% carrageenan. Single unit extracellular recordings were made from arthritic joint afferents in response to mechanical rotation of the knee. Peripheral administration of O-1602 significantly reduced movement-evoked firing of nociceptive C fibres and this effect was blocked by the GPR55 receptor antagonist O-1918. Co-administration of the CB₁ and CB₂ antagonists (AM281 and AM630 respectively) had no effect on O-1602 responses. This study clearly shows that atypical cannabinoid receptors are involved in joint nociception and these novel targets may be advantageous for the treatment of inflammatory pain.

  20. Clonidine Reduces Nociceptive Responses in Mouse Orofacial Formalin Model: Potentiation by Sigma-1 Receptor Antagonist BD1047 without Impaired Motor Coordination.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Kang, Suk-Yun; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Hyung-Chan; Roh, Dae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Although the administration of clonidine, an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, significantly attenuates nociception and hyperalgesia in several pain models, clinical trials of clonidine are limited by its side effects such as drowsiness, hypotension and sedation. Recently, we determined that the sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1047 dose-dependently reduced nociceptive responses in a mouse orofacial formalin model. Here we examined whether intraperitoneal injection of clonidine suppressed the nociceptive responses in the orofacial formalin test, and whether co-administration with BD1047 enhances lower-dose clonidine-induced anti-nociceptive effects without the disruption of motor coordination and blood pressure. Formalin (5%, 10 µL) was subcutaneously injected into the right upper lip, and the rubbing responses with the ipsilateral fore- or hind-paw were counted for 45 min. Clonidine (10, 30 or 100 µg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 30 min before formalin injection. Clonidine alone dose-dependently reduced nociceptive responses in both the first and second phases. Co-localization for alpha-2A adrenoceptors and sigma-1 receptors was determined in trigeminal ganglion cells. Interestingly, the sub-effective dose of BD1047 (3 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the anti-nociceptive effect of lower-dose clonidine (10 or 30 µg/kg) in the second phase. In particular, the middle dose of clonidine (30 µg/kg) in combination with BD1047 produced an anti-nociceptive effect similar to that of the high-dose clonidine, but without a significant motor dysfunction or hypotension. In contrast, mice treated with the high dose of clonidine developed severe impairment in motor coordination and blood pressure. These data suggest that a combination of low-dose clonidine with BD1047 may be a novel and safe therapeutic strategy for orofacial pain management.

  1. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway are not involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold induced by plantar incision in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Norimasa; Masaki, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of all patients who undergo surgery develop postoperative pain, the mechanisms of which are not well understood by anesthesiologists. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway play an important role in regulation of pain transmission in the spinal cord. Impairment of inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord is suggested as part of the mechanism for neuropathic pain, which is one component of postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether impairment of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were anesthetized with sevoflurane and an intrathecal (IT) catheter was implanted. Six days later, a plantar incision was made. On the following day, saline, a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole), or a D2-like receptor antagonist (sulpiride) was administered intrathecally. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed by exposure to infrared radiant heat and the von Frey filament test before and after plantar incision. Plantar incision decreased both thermal latency and the mechanical nociceptive threshold. IT administration of quinpirole inhibited the nociceptive responses induced by plantar incision, but sulpiride had no effect. A D2-like receptor agonist had antinociceptive effects on the hypersensitivity response triggered by a surgical incision, but a D2-like receptor antagonist had no effect on this response. These results suggest that impairment and/or modification of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is not involved in the postoperative decrease in nociceptive threshold.

  2. The dopamine D(1) receptor agonist SKF-82958 serves as a discriminative stimulus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Haile, C N; Carey, G; Varty, G B; Coffin, V L

    2000-01-28

    We examined the discriminative stimulus effects of the high-efficacy dopamine D(1) receptor agonist (+/-)6-chloro-7, 8-dihydroxy-3-ally1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3benzazepine++ + hydrobromide (SKF-82958) in rats trained to discriminate SKF-82958 (0.03 mg/kg) from vehicle in a two-lever food-reinforced drug discrimination task. SKF-82958 produced dose-related increases in responding to the SKF-82958 appropriate lever with full substitution occurring at the training dose. Pretreatment with the dopamine D(1)/D(5) receptor antagonist (-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9, 13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo-[d]naphtho -¿2, 1-b¿azepine (SCH-39166) (0.01 mg/kg) attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of SKF-82958. Pretreatment with the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist raclopride (0.03 mg/kg) had no effect. The high-efficacy dopamine D(1) receptor agonist R(+)6chloro-7, 8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide (SKF-81297) fully substituted for SKF-82958, whereas the low-efficacy dopamine D(1) receptor agonist (+/-)1-phenyl-2,3,4, 5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol hydrochloride (SKF-38393) produced only partial substitution. The dopamine D(2) receptor agonist trans-(+/-)-4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a, 9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-propyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-g]quinoline dihydrochloride (quinpirole) and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine did not substitute fully for the SKF-82958 discriminative stimulus cue. These results demonstrate that the high-efficacy dopamine D(1) receptor agonist SKF-82958 can serve as an effective discriminative stimulus in the rat, and that these effects are mediated by a dopamine D(1)-like receptor mechanism.

  3. Effect of agmatine on spinal nociceptive reflexes: lack of interaction with alpha2-adrenoceptor or mu-opioid receptor mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, K J; Headley, P M

    1997-07-23

    Agmatine has been tested i.v. in alpha-chloralose anaesthetised rats for its effects on spinal nociceptive reflexes evoked by mechanical and electrical stimuli. Agmatine did not affect reflexes until very high doses (200 mg/kg, i.v.) which also caused complex cardiovascular disturbances. In spinally intact rats agmatine reduced reflexes; it was slightly less potent when there was carrageenan-induced hind paw inflammation. The alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole (80 microg/kg) did not significantly affect these reductions. In spinalised animals, agmatine caused a generalised increase in background firing which in animals with a non-inflamed paw was significantly reduced after atipamezole. There was no significant change in evoked responses once corrected for background activity. In all groups of animals agmatine, when administered at various doses and times prior to the mu-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl, had no effect on the ID50 of fentanyl.

  4. Discriminative stimulus effects of the imidazoline I2 receptor ligands BU224 and phenyzoline in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yanyan; Zhang, Yanan; Li, Jun-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Although imidazoline I2 receptor ligands have been used as discriminative stimuli, the role of efficacy of I2 receptor ligands as a critical determinant in drug discrimination has not been explored. This study characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of selective imidazoline I2 receptor ligands BU224 (a low-efficacy I2 receptor ligand) and phenyzoline (a higher efficacy I2 receptor ligand) in rats. Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 5.6 mg/kg BU224 or 32 mg/kg phenyzoline (i.p.) from their vehicle in a two-lever food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure, respectively. All rats acquired the discriminations after an average of 18 (BU224) and 56 (phenyzoline) training sessions, respectively. BU224 and phenyzoline completely substituted for one another symmetrically. Several I2 receptor ligands (tracizoline, CR4056, RS45041, and idazoxan) all occasioned > 80% drug-associated lever responding in both discriminations. The I2 receptor ligand 2-BFI and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmane occasioned > 80% drug-associated lever responding in rats discriminating BU224. Other drugs that occasioned partial or less substitution to BU224 cue included clonidine, methamphetamine, ketamine, morphine, methadone and agmatine. Clonidine, methamphetamine and morphine also only produced partial substitution to phenyzoline cue. Naltrexone, dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol and serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 failed to alter the discriminative stimulus effects of BU224 or phenyzoline. Combined, these results are the first to demonstrate that BU224 and phenyzoline can serve as discriminative stimuli and that the low-efficacy I2 receptor ligand BU224 shares similar discriminative stimulus effects with higher-efficacy I2 receptor ligands such as phenyzoline and 2-BFI. PMID:25617792

  5. Role of spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in pudendal inhibition of the nociceptive bladder reflex in cats.

    PubMed

    Reese, Jeremy N; Rogers, Marc J; Xiao, Zhiying; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2015-04-15

    This study examined the role of spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the nociceptive C-fiber afferent-mediated spinal bladder reflex and in the inhibtion of this reflex by pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS). In α-chloralose-anesthetized cats after spinal cord transection at the T9/T10 level, intravesical infusion of 0.25% acetic acid irritated the bladder, activated nociceptive C-fiber afferents, and induced spinal reflex bladder contractions of low amplitude (<50 cmH2O) and short duration (<20 s) at a smaller bladder capacity ∼80% of saline control capacity. PNS significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity from 85.5 ± 10.1 to 137.3 ± 14.1 or 148.2 ± 11.2% at 2T or 4T stimulation, respectively, where T is the threshold intensity for PNS to induce anal twitch. MTEP {3-[(2-methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl]pyridine; 3 mg/kg iv, a selective mGluR5 antagonist} completely removed the PNS inhibition and significantly (P < 0.05) increased bladder capacity from 71.8 ± 9.9 to 94.0 ± 13.9% of saline control, but it did not change the bladder contraction amplitude. After propranolol (3 mg/kg iv, a β1/β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist) treatment, PNS inhibition remained but MTEP significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the bladder contraction amplitude from 18.6 ± 2.1 to 6.6 ± 1.2 cmH2O and eliminated PNS inhibition. At the end of experiments, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg iv, a ganglionic blocker) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the bladder contraction amplitude from 20.9 ± 3.2 to 8.1 ± 1.5 cmH2O on average demonstrating that spinal reflexes were responsible for a major component of the contractions. This study shows that spinal mGluR5 plays an important role in the nociceptive C-fiber afferent-mediated spinal bladder reflex and in pudendal inhibition of this spinal reflex.

  6. Inflammatory nociception diminishes dopamine release and increases dopamine D2 receptor mRNA in the rat's insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The insular cortex (IC) receives somatosensory afferent input and has been related to nociceptive input. It has dopaminergic terminals and D1 (D1R) -excitatory- and D2 (D2R) -inhibitory- receptors. D2R activation with a selective agonist, as well as D1R blockade with antagonists in the IC, diminish neuropathic nociception in a nerve transection model. An intraplantar injection of carrageenan and acute thermonociception (plantar test) were performed to measure the response to inflammation (paw withdrawal latency, PWL). Simultaneously, a freely moving microdyalisis technique and HPLC were used to measure the release of dopamine and its metabolites in the IC. Plantar test was applied prior, one and three hours after inflammation. Also, mRNA levels of D1 and D2R's were measured in the IC after three hours of inflammation. Results The results showed a gradual decrease in the release of dopamine, Dopac and HVA after inflammation. The decrease correlates with a decrease in PWL. D2R's increased their mRNA expression compared to the controls. In regard of D1R's, there was a decrease in their mRNA levels compared to the controls. Conclusions Our results showed that the decreased extracellular levels of dopamine induced by inflammation correlated with the level of pain-related behaviour. These results also showed the increase in dopaminergic mediated inhibition by an increase in D2R's and a decrease in D1R's mRNA. There is a possible differential mechanism regarding the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory dopaminergic receptors triggered by inflammation. PMID:21050459

  7. H(2)S functions as a nociceptive messenger through transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) activation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, H; Takahashi, K; Miura, S; Imagawa, T; Saito, S; Tominaga, M; Ohta, T

    2012-08-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), an endogenous gasotransmitter, modulates various biological functions, including nociception. It is known that H(2)S causes neurogenic inflammation and elicits hyperalgesia. Here we show that H(2)S activates mouse transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels and elicits acute pain, using TRPA1-gene deficient mice (TRPA1(-/-)) and heterologous expression system. In wild-type mouse sensory neurons, H(2)S increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), which was inhibited by ruthenium red (a nonselective TRP channel blocker) and HC-030031 (a TRPA1 blocker). H(2)S-responsive neurons highly corresponded to TRPA1 agonist-sensitive ones. [Ca(2+)](i) responses to H(2)S were observed in neurons from transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1(-/-)) mice but not from TRPA1(-/-) mice. Heterologously expressed mouse TRPA1, but not mouse TRPV1, was activated by H(2)S. H(2)S-induced [Ca(2+)](i) responses were inhibited by dithiothreitol, a reducing agent. Analyses of the TRPA1 mutant channel revealed that two cysteine residues located in the N-terminal internal domain were responsible for the activation by H(2)S. Intraplantar injection of H(2)S into the mouse hind paw caused acute pain which was significantly less in TRPA1(-/-) mice. The [Ca(2+)](i) responses to H(2)S in sensory neurons and in heterologously expressed channels, and pain-related behavior induced by H(2)S were enhanced under acidic conditions. These results suggest that H(2)S functions as a nociceptive messenger through the activation of TRPA1 channels. TRPA1 may be a therapeutic target for H(2)S-related algesic action, especially under inflammatory conditions.

  8. [Postsynaptic reactions of cerebral cortex neurons, activated by nociceptive afferents during stimulation of the Raphe nuclei].

    PubMed

    Labakhua, T Sh; Dzhanashiia, T K; Gedevanishvili, G I; Dzhokhadze, L D; Tkemaladze, T T; Abzianidze, I V

    2012-01-01

    On cats, we studied the influence of stimulation of the Raphe nuclei (RN) on postsynaptic processes evoked in neurons of the somatosensory cortex by stimulation of nociceptive (intensive stimulation of the tooth pulp) and non-nociceptive (moderate stimulation of the ventroposteromedial--VPN--nucleus of the thalamus) afferent inputs. 6 cells, selectively excited by stimulation of nocciceptors and 9 cells, activated by both the above nociceptive and non-nociceptive influences (nociceptive and convergent neurons, respectively) were recorded intracellular. In neurons of both groups, responses to nociceptive stimulation (of sufficient intensity) looked like an EPSP-spike-IPSP (the letter of significant duration, up to 200-300 ms) compleх. Conditioning stimulation of the RN which preceded test stimulus applied to the tooth pulp or VPM nucleus by 100 to 800 ms, induced 40-60 % decrease of the IPSP amplitude only, while maхimal effect of influence, in both cases, was noted within intervals of 300-800 ms between conditioning and test stimulus. During stimulation of the RN, serotonin released via receptor and second messengers, provides postsynaptic modulation of GABAergic system, decreasing the IPSP amplitude which occurs after stimulation of both the tooth pulp and VPM thalamic nucleus. This process may be realized trough either pre- or postsynaptic mechanisms.

  9. Opiate anti-nociception is attenuated following lesion of large dopamine neurons of the periaqueductal grey: critical role for D1 (not D2) dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Flores, Juan A; El Banoua, Fadwa; Galán-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Fernandez-Espejo, Emilio

    2004-07-01

    The periaqueductal grey (PAG) area is involved in pain modulation as well as in opiate-induced anti-nociceptive effects. The PAG possess dopamine neurons, and it is likely that this dopaminergic network participates in anti-nociception. The objective was to further study the morphology of the PAG dopaminergic network, along with its role in nociception and opiate-induced analgesia in rats, following either dopamine depletion with the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine or local injection of dopaminergic antagonists. Nociceptive responses were studied through the tail-immersion (spinal reflex) and the hot-plate tests (integrated supraspinal response), establishing a cut-off time to further minimize animal suffering. Heroin and morphine were employed as opiates. Histological data indicated that the dopaminergic network of the PAG is composed of two types of neurons: small rounded cells, and large multipolar neurons. Following dopamine depletion of the PAG, large neurons (not small ones) were selectively affected by the toxin (61.9% dopamine cell loss, 80.7% reduction of in vitro dopaminergic peak), and opiate-induced analgesia in the hot-plate test (not the tail-immersion test) was reliably attenuated in lesioned rats (P < 0.01). After infusions of dopaminergic ligands into the PAG, D(1) (not D(2)) receptor antagonism attenuated opiate-induced analgesia in a dose-dependent manner in the hot-plate test. The present study provides evidence that large neurons of the dopaminergic network of the PAG participate in supraspinal (not spinal) nociceptive responses after opiates through the involvement of D(1) dopamine receptors. This dopaminergic system should be included as another network within the PAG involved in opiate-induced anti-nociception.

  10. α-Conotoxin Vc1.1 inhibits human dorsal root ganglion neuroexcitability and mouse colonic nociception via GABAB receptors.

    PubMed

    Castro, Joel; Harrington, Andrea M; Garcia-Caraballo, Sonia; Maddern, Jessica; Grundy, Luke; Zhang, Jingming; Page, Guy; Miller, Paul E; Craik, David J; Adams, David J; Brierley, Stuart M

    2017-06-01

    α-Conotoxin Vc1.1 is a small disulfide-bonded peptide from the venom of the marine cone snail Conus victoriae. Vc1.1 has antinociceptive actions in animal models of neuropathic pain, but its applicability to inhibiting human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuroexcitability and reducing chronic visceral pain (CVP) is unknown. We determined the inhibitory actions of Vc1.1 on human DRG neurons and on mouse colonic sensory afferents in healthy and chronic visceral hypersensitivity (CVH) states. In mice, visceral nociception was assessed by neuronal activation within the spinal cord in response to noxious colorectal distension (CRD). Quantitative-reverse-transcription-PCR, single-cell-reverse-transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry determined γ-aminobutyric acid receptor B (GABABR) and voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2, CaV2.3) expression in human and mouse DRG neurons. Vc1.1 reduced the excitability of human DRG neurons, whereas a synthetic Vc1.1 analogue that is inactive at GABABR did not. Human DRG neurons expressed GABABR and its downstream effector channels CaV2.2 and CaV2.3. Mouse colonic DRG neurons exhibited high GABABR, CaV2.2 and CaV2.3 expression, with upregulation of the CaV2.2 exon-37a variant during CVH. Vc1.1 inhibited mouse colonic afferents ex vivo and nociceptive signalling of noxious CRD into the spinal cord in vivo, with greatest efficacy observed during CVH. A selective GABABR antagonist prevented Vc1.1-induced inhibition, whereas blocking both CaV2.2 and CaV2.3 caused inhibition comparable with Vc1.1 alone. Vc1.1-mediated activation of GABABR is a novel mechanism for reducing the excitability of human DRG neurons. Vc1.1-induced activation of GABABR on the peripheral endings of colonic afferents reduces nociceptive signalling. The enhanced antinociceptive actions of Vc1.1 during CVH suggest it is a novel candidate for the treatment for CVP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  11. Effects of an intrathecally administered benzodiazepine receptor agonist, antagonist and inverse agonist on morphine-induced inhibition of a spinal nociceptive reflex.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, J. L.; Pieri, L.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of an intrathecally administered benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) agonist (midazolam, up to 50 micrograms), antagonist (flumazenil, Ro 15-1788, 5 micrograms) and inverse agonist (Ro 19-4603, 15 micrograms) on nociception and on morphine-induced antinociception were studied in rats. 2. By themselves, none of these compounds significantly altered pain threshold. 3. The BZR agonist midazolam enhanced the morphine-induced antinociceptive effect whereas the antagonist flumazenil did not alter it. In contrast, the BZR inverse agonist Ro 19-4603 decreased the morphine-induced antinociceptive effect. 4. Naloxone (1 mg kg-1 i.p.) completely reversed all these effects. 5. These results demonstrate that BZR agonists and inverse agonists are able to affect, by allosteric up- or down-modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA)-receptors, the transmission of nociceptive information at the spinal cord level, when this transmission is depressed by mu-opioid receptor activation. PMID:2898960

  12. Sigma-1 receptor antagonist, BD1047 reduces nociceptive responses and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in mice orofacial formalin model.

    PubMed

    Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) play a role in different types of pain and in central sensitization mechanism in spinal cord. However, it is currently unexplored whether Sig-1Rs are involved in orofacial pain processing. Here we show whether a selective Sig-1R antagonist, BD1047 reduces nociceptive responses in the mouse orofacial formalin model and the number of Fos-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). In addition, it was examined whether the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) or p38 (pp38) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), which are closely linked to pain signaling and sensitization, in TNC was modified by BD1047. The 5% formalin (10 µL) was subcutaneously injected into the right upper lip, and the rubbing responses with ipsilateral fore- or hind paw were counted for 45 min. BD1047 (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally treated 30 min before formalin injection. High dose of BD1047 (10 mg/kg) produced significant anti-nociceptive effects in the first and the second phase. The number of Fos-ir cells in ipsilateral side of TNC was also reduced by BD1047 as compared to that in saline-treated animals. In addition, the number of pp38-ir cells in ipsilateral TNC was decreased in BD1047-treated animals, whereas the number of pERK-ir cells was not modified. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Sig-1Rs play a pivotal role in the orofacial pain processing, and the pp38 signaling pathway can be associated with Sig-1R's action in TNC.

  13. The potentiating effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide on transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 activity and the electrophysiological responses of rat trigeminal neurons to nociceptive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chatchaisak, Duangthip; Connor, Mark; Srikiatkhachorn, Anan; Chetsawang, Banthit

    2017-02-15

    Growing evidence suggests that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) participates in trigeminal nociceptive responses. However, the role of CGRP in sensitization or desensitization of nociceptive transduction remains poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further investigate the CGRP-induced up-regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and the responses of trigeminal neurons to nociceptive stimuli. Rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) organ cultures and isolated trigeminal neurons were incubated with CGRP. An increase in TRPV1 levels was observed in CGRP-incubated TG organ cultures. CGRP potentiated capsaicin-induced increase in phosphorylated CaMKII levels in the TG organ cultures. The incubation of the trigeminal neurons with CGRP significantly increased the inward currents in response to capsaicin challenge, and this effect was inhibited by co-incubation with the CGRP receptor antagonist, BIBN4068BS or the inhibitor of protein kinase A, H-89. These findings reveal that CGRP acting on trigeminal neurons may play a significant role in facilitating cellular events that contribute to the peripheral sensitization of the TG in nociceptive transmission.

  14. An intracellular motif of P2X(3) receptors is required for functional cross-talk with GABA(A) receptors in nociceptive DRG neurons.

    PubMed

    Toulmé, Estelle; Blais, Dominique; Léger, Claire; Landry, Marc; Garret, Maurice; Séguéla, Philippe; Boué-Grabot, Eric

    2007-08-01

    Functional cross-talk between structurally unrelated P2X ATP receptors and members of the 'cys-loop' receptor-channel superfamily represents a recently-discovered mechanism for rapid modulation of information processing. The extent and the mechanism of the inhibitory cross-talks between these two classes of ionotropic receptors remain poorly understood, however. Both ionic and molecular coupling were proposed to explain cross-inhibition between P2X subtypes and GABA(A) receptors, suggesting a P2X subunit-dependent mechanism. We show here that cross-inhibition between neuronal P2X(3) or P2X(2+3) and GABA(A) receptors does not depend on chloride and calcium ions. We identified an intracellular QST(386-388) motif in P2X(3) subunits which is required for the functional coupling with GABA(A) receptors. Moreover the cross-inhibition between native P2X(3) and GABA receptors in cultured rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons is abolished by infusion of a peptide containing the QST motif as well as by viral expression of the main intracellular loop of GABA(A)beta3 subunits. We provide evidence that P2X(3) and GABA(A) receptors are colocalized in the soma and central processes of nociceptive DRG neurons, suggesting that specific intracellular P2X(3)-GABA(A) subunit interactions underlie a pre-synaptic cross-talk that might contribute to the regulation of sensory synaptic transmission in the spinal cord.

  15. Nociception originating from the crural fascia in rats.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Toru; Yasui, Masaya; Kubo, Asako; Abe, Masahiro; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Mizumura, Kazue

    2013-07-01

    Little is documented in the literature as to the function of muscle fascia in nociception and pain. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of presumptive nociceptive nerve fibers, to characterize fascial thin-fiber sensory receptors, and to examine the spinal projection of nociceptive input from the rat crural fascia (CF). Nerve fibers labeled with specific antibodies to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and peripherin were found to be densely distributed in the distal third of the CF. Thin-fiber receptors (Aδ- and C-fibers) responding to pinching stimuli to the CF with sharpened watchmaker's forceps, identified in vivo with the teased fiber technique from the common peroneal nerve, exist in the CF. Forty-three percent of the mechano-responsive fascial C-fibers were polymodal receptors (nociceptors) responding to mechanical, chemical (bradykinin), and heat stimuli, whereas almost all Aδ-fibers were responsive only to mechanical stimuli. Repetitive pinching stimulus to the CF induced c-Fos protein expression in the middle to medial part of superficial layers ie, laminae I-II of the spinal dorsal horn at segments L2 to L4, peaking at L3. These results clearly demonstrate the following: 1) peptidergic and non-peptidergic axons of unmyelinated C-fibers with nerve terminals are distributed in the CF; 2) peripheral afferents responding to noxious stimuli exist in the fascia, and 3) nociceptive information from the CF is mainly processed in the spinal dorsal horn at the segments L2 to L4. These results together indicate that the "muscle fascia," a tissue often overlooked in pain research, can be an important source of nociception under normal conditions.

  16. The relation between stimulus and response in olfactory receptor cells of the tiger salamander.

    PubMed Central

    Firestein, S; Picco, C; Menini, A

    1993-01-01

    1. Olfactory receptor cells were isolated from the adult tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum and the current in response to odorant stimuli was measured with the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique while odorants at known concentrations were rapidly applied for controlled exposure times. 2. Three odorants, cineole, isoamyl acetate and acetophenone, were first applied at 5 x 10(-4) M. Out of forty-nine cells tested, 53% responded to one odorant only, 22% to two odorants and 25% to all three odorants. 3. The amplitude of the current in response to a given odorant concentration was found to be dependent on the duration of the odorant stimulus and reached a saturating peak value at 1.2 s of stimulus duration. 4. The current measured at the peak of the response for odorant steps of 1.2 s as a function of odorant concentration was well described by the Hill equation for the three odorants with Hill coefficients higher than 1 and K1/2 (odorant concentration needed to activate half the maximal current) ranging from 3 x 10(-6) to 9 x 10(-5) M. 5. It is concluded that olfactory receptor cells are broadly tuned and have a low apparent affinity for odorants, integrate stimulus information over time, and have a narrow dynamic range. PMID:8254501

  17. Inflammation-induced increase in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor current in cutaneous nociceptive DRG neurons from the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-L; Albers, K M; Gold, M S

    2015-01-22

    The goals of the present study were to determine (1) the properties of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) currents in rat cutaneous dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons; (2) the impact of nAChR activation on the excitability of cutaneous DRG neurons; and (3) the impact of inflammation on the density and distribution of nAChR currents among cutaneous DRG neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study retrogradely labeled DRG neurons from naïve and complete Freund's adjuvant inflamed rats. Nicotine-evoked currents were detectable in ∼70% of the cutaneous DRG neurons, where only one of two current types, fast or slow currents based on rates of activation and inactivation, was present in each neuron. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of the fast current were consistent with nAChRs containing an α7 subunit while those of the slow current were consistent with nAChRs containing α3/β4 subunits. The majority of small diameter neurons with fast current were IB4- while the majority of small diameter neurons with slow current were IB4+. Preincubation with nicotine (1 μM) produced a transient (1 min) depolarization and increase in the excitability of neurons with fast current and a decrease in the amplitude of capsaicin-evoked current in neurons with slow current. Inflammation increased the current density of both slow and fast currents in small diameter neurons and increased the percentage of neurons with the fast current. With the relatively selective distribution of nAChR currents in putative nociceptive cutaneous DRG neurons, our results suggest that the role of these receptors in inflammatory hyperalgesia is likely to be complex and dependent on the concentration and timing of acetylcholine release in the periphery.

  18. Improgan-induced hypothermia: a role for cannabinoid receptors in improgan-induced changes in nociceptive threshold and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Salussolia, Catherine L; Nalwalk, Julia W; Hough, Lindsay B

    2007-06-04

    Improgan, a congener of the H(2) antagonist cimetidine, produces non-opioid antinociception which is blocked by the CB(1) antagonist rimonabant, implying a cannabinoid mechanism of action. Since cannabinoids produce hypothermia as well as antinociception in rodents, the present study investigated the pharmacological activity of improgan on core body temperature and nociceptive (tail flick) responses. Improgan (60, 100 and 140 microg, intraventricular [ivt]) elicited significant decreases in core temperature 3-30 min following injection with a maximal hypothermic effect of -1.3 degrees C. Pretreatment with rimonabant (50 microg, ivt) produced a statistically significant but incomplete (29-42%) antagonism of improgan hypothermia. In control experiments, the CB(1) agonist CP-55,940 (37.9 microg, ivt) induced significant decreases in core temperature (-1.8 degrees C) 3-30 min following injection. However, unlike the case with improgan, pretreatment with rimonabant completely blocked CP-55,940 hypothermia. Furthermore, CP-55,940 and improgan elicited maximal antinociception over the same time course and dose ranges, and both effects were attenuated by rimonabant. These results show that, like cannabinoid agonists in the rat, improgan produces antinociception and hypothermia which is blocked by a CB(1) antagonist. Unlike cannabinoid agonists, however, improgan does not produce locomotor inhibition at antinociceptive doses. Additional experiments were performed to determine the effect of CC12, a recently discovered improgan antagonist which lacks affinity at CB(1) receptors. Pretreatment with CC12 (183 microg, ivt) produced complete inhibition of both the antinociception and the hypothermia produced by improgan, suggesting the possible role of an unknown improgan receptor in both of these effects.

  19. Inflammation-induced increase in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor current in cutaneous nociceptive DRG neurons from the adult rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiulin; Albers, Kathryn M.; Gold, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to determine 1) the properties of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) currents in rat cutaneous DRG neurons; 2) the impact of nAChR activation on the excitability of cutaneous DRG neurons; and 3) the impact of inflammation on the density and distribution of nAChR currents among cutaneous DRG neurons. Whole cell patch clamp techniques were used to study retrogradely labeled DRG neurons from naïve and complete Freund's adjuvant inflamed rats. Nicotine-evoked currents were detectable in ~70% of the cutaneous DRG neurons, where only one of two current types, fast or slow currents based on rates of activation and inactivation, was present in each neuron. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of the fast current were consistent with nAChRs containing an α7 subunit while those of the slow current were consistent with nAChRs containing α3/β4 subunits. The majority of small diameter neurons with fast current were IB4- while the majority of small diameter neurons with slow current were IB4+. Preincubation with nicotine (1 μM) produced a transient (1 min) depolarization and increase in the excitability of neurons with fast current and a decrease in the amplitude of capsaicin-evoked current in neurons with slow current. Inflammation increased the current density of both slow and fast currents in small diameter neurons and increased the percentage of neurons with the fast current. With the relatively selective distribution of nAChR currents in putative nociceptive cutaneous DRG neurons, our results suggest that the role of these receptors in inflammatory hyperalgesia is likely to be complex and dependent on the concentration and timing of acetylcholine release in the periphery. PMID:25453771

  20. Nociceptive transmission and modulation via P2X receptors in central pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yung-Hui; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2016-05-26

    Painful sensations are some of the most frequent complaints of patients who are admitted to local medical clinics. Persistent pain varies according to its causes, often resulting from local tissue damage or inflammation. Central somatosensory pathway lesions that are not adequately relieved can consequently cause central pain syndrome or central neuropathic pain. Research on the molecular mechanisms that underlie this pathogenesis is important for treating such pain. To date, evidence suggests the involvement of ion channels, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channel P2X receptors, in central nervous system pain transmission and persistent modulation upon and following the occurrence of neuropathic pain. Several P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, have been shown to play diverse roles in the pathogenesis of central pain including the mediation of fast transmission in the peripheral nervous system and modulation of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. This review article highlights the role of the P2X family of ATP receptors in the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain and pain transmission. We discuss basic research that may be translated to clinical application, suggesting that P2X receptors may be treatment targets for central pain syndrome.

  1. Involvement of galanin and galanin receptor 2 in nociceptive modulation in anterior cingulate cortex of normal rats and rats with mononeuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng-Lin; Wang, Hong-Bo; Fu, Feng-Hua; Yu, Long-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    The present study was performed to explore the role of galanin and galanin receptor 2 in nociceptive modulation in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of normal rats and rats with mononeuropathy. Intra-ACC injection of galanin induced significant increases in hindpaw withdrawal latencies (HWLs) to thermal and mechanical stimulations in both normal rats and rats with mononeuropathy, the increased HWLs were attenuated significantly by intra-ACC injection of galanin receptor 2 antagonist M871, indicating an involvement of galanin receptor 2 in nociceptive modulation in ACC. Interestingly, the galanin-induced HWL was significant higher in rats with mononeuropathy than that in normal rats tested by Randall Selitto test. Furthermore, both the galanin mRNA expression and galanin content increased significantly in ACC in rats with mononeuropathy than that in normal rats. Moreover, both the mRNA levels of galanin receptor 2 and the content of galanin receptor 2 in ACC increased significantly in rats with mononeuropathy than that in normal rats. These results found that galanin induced antinociception in ACC in both normal rats and rats with mononeuropathy. And there may be plastic changes in the expression of galanin and galanin receptor 2 in rats with mononeuropathy, as well as in the galanin-induced antinociception. PMID:28378856

  2. Periaqueductal gray knockdown of V2, not V1a and V1b receptor influences nociception in the rat. yj6676@yahoo.com.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Chen, Jian-Min; Wang, Gen; Xu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Wen-Yan; Lin, Bao-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Our pervious study has proved that arginine vasopressin (AVP) in periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a role in antinociception. After establishing a model of local special gene knockdown, the nociceptive effect of vasopressin receptor subunit in PAG was investigated in the rat. Microinjection of short-interfering RNA (siRNA) into PAG, which targeted vasopressin receptor subtypes (V(1a), V(1b) and V(2)), locally weakened the associated mRNA expression and depressed the related receptor synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, in which the significant inhibitive effect occurred on from 7th day to 14th day following 1microg or 2microg siRNA administration. PAG knockdown of V(2) receptor gene markedly decreased pain threshold in from 6th day to 13th day after siRNA administration, whereas local knockdown of either V(1a) or V(1b) receptor gene could not influence pain threshold. The data suggest that V(2) rather than V(1a) and V(1b) receptor in PAG involves in nociception.

  3. Centrally mediated antinociceptive effects of cannabinoid receptor ligands in rat models of nociception

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Aldric; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    The endogenous nonapeptide hemopressin (HE) demonstrates potent block of the cannabinoid subtype-1 (CB1) receptor in vitro and robust antinociception in vivo. The current study evaluated the effects of centrally administered HE in mechanistically distinct pre-clinical rat models of pain—the hot plate test and the hind paw formalin test. The non-subtype selective CB receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 was tested concurrently as a positive control. In the hot plate test, neither intrathecal (i.t.) HE nor WIN 55,212-2 significantly altered the latency to respond to noxious heat. By contrast, i.t. HE and WIN 55,212-2 significantly reduced pain-related behaviors in the formalin test. Possible HE functionality as a CB1 receptor antagonist at the spinal level was evaluated in the formalin test. Intrathecal pretreatment with HE did not attenuate the antinociceptive effect of i.t. WIN 55,212-2. However, pretreatment with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant did; i.t. rimonabant pretreatment was not antinociceptive. Potential supraspinal antinociceptive activity of HE was also evaluated. Whereas intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of WIN 55,212-2 reduced pain-related behaviors in the formalin test, interestingly, i.c.v. HE increased behaviors. In the current study, an antinociceptive effect with the CB receptor ligand HE was obtained under the specific condition of tissue injury and not in the uninjured state. Thus, HE could be a useful analgesic peptide with a novel spinal mechanism of action. PMID:21958947

  4. Partial agonism: mechanisms based on ligand-receptor interactions and on stimulus-response coupling.

    PubMed

    Pliska, V

    1999-01-01

    Substances eliciting, at very high concentrations, a lower maximal response of a particular biological system than a defined standard, are defined as partial agonists. The convention rests on the definition of a standard substance that achieves a 'full' maximal response; partial agonism being, therefore, relative. Various mechanisms lie behind this phenomenon: 1. Receptor-related mechanisms: the agonist-receptor complex exists in several conformational states from which only one, or only a few, activate the cell signaling pathway. This may occur when the receptor itself, or the agonist, exists in multiple states (e.g., in the form of enantiomers or stereoisomers), or when the agonist-receptor complex changes its conformation (receptor switch: two-state model of receptor activation). Furthermore, a steric hindrance by a 'wrong-way binding' of a part of the agonist's molecules may prevent the full 'correct' occupancy of receptors. 2. Mechanisms based on the efficacy of the stimulus-response coupling. The efficacy is then proportional to the sum of probabilities that receptors in individual states activate the cell-signaling pathway. Doses (concentrations) eliciting the half maximal response (EC50), or similar response sensitivity parameters, are not included in the definition of partial agonism. However, tight correlations exist between maximal response and EC50 in many, but not all, generic groups of agonistically acting substances. These relationships are frequently linear; intercepts and slopes of these 'E, KE plots' are characteristic for individual, putative mechanisms. Dose-response curves of partial agonists are akin to those obtained for a response to a full agonist after a stepwise partial inactivation of receptors by an irreversible inhibitor. Also, the E, KE plots obtained in these instances are similar to those of partial agonists. The receptor reserve, rather vaguely defined in early reports, is therefore closely linked to the phenomenon of partial

  5. TRR469, a potent A(1) adenosine receptor allosteric modulator, exhibits anti-nociceptive properties in acute and neuropathic pain models in mice.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Targa, Martina; Romagnoli, Romeo; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2014-06-01

    A(1) adenosine receptors (ARs) have been identified as a potential target for the development of anti-nociceptive compounds. The present study explores the analgesic effects of a novel A(1)AR positive allosteric modulator, TRR469, in different models of acute and chronic pain in mice. To evaluate the allosteric enhancement, in vitro binding experiments were performed. The anti-nociceptive properties were investigated in formalin and writhing tests, and in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain model. Rotarod and catalepsy tests were used to identify potential side effects, while the functional effect of TRR469 was studied using [(3)H]-d-aspartate release from synaptosomes. TRR469 effectively inhibited nociceptive responses in the formalin and writhing tests, with effects comparable to those of the reference analgesic morphine. Isobolographic analysis of the combination of TRR469 and morphine revealed an additive interaction. TRR469 was anti-allodynic in the neuropathic pain model and did not display locomotor or cataleptic side effects. TRR469 enhanced the binding of the agonist radioligand [(3)H]-CCPA and induced a 33-fold increase of adenosine affinity in spinal cord membranes. In mouse spinal cord synaptosomes, TRR469 enhanced the inhibitory effect of A(1)AR activation on [(3)H]-d-aspartate release, a non-metabolizable analogue of glutamate. In conclusion, this research demonstrates the anti-nociceptive effect of the novel compound TRR469, one of the most potent and effective A(1)AR positive allosteric modulators so far synthesized. The use of TRR469 allows for the possibility of exploiting analgesic properties of endogenous adenosine, with a minor potential to develop the various side effects often associated with the use of direct receptor agonists.

  6. Meta-chlorophenylpiperazine attenuates formalin-induced nociceptive responses through 5-HT1/2 receptors in both normal and diabetic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, N.; Yamaguchi, I.

    1995-01-01

    1. This study was designed to investigate the effect of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP; a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonist) on the formalin-induced nociceptive responses in normal, insulin-dependent streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic and non-insulin dependent genetically diabetic (db/db) mice. 2. A subcutaneous injection of diluted formalin (1% formaldehyde in 0.9% saline, 10 microliters) under the plantar surface of the left hindpaw induced biphasic nociceptive responses, the first and second phases considered to represent acute and chronic pain, respectively. The former response in db/db mice was significantly lower than those in normal mice, and the latter responses in STZ and db/db mice were significantly lower than those in normal mice. 3. In normal mice, m-CPP (0.32-3.2 mg ml-1, p.o.) exhibited potent antinociceptive activity, dose-dependently attenuating the first and second phase; the ID50 value of the second phase was 0.4 mg kg-1. m-CPP (0.32-3.2 mg kg-1, p.o.) also dose-dependently attenuated the formalin-induced nociceptive responses in STZ-induced diabetic mice and genetically diabetic db/db mice, and the activities were comparable to those in normal mice. 4. The antinociceptive activities of m-CPP (1 mg kg-1, p.o.) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with pindolol (a 5-HT1-receptor antagonist, 1 mg kg-1, i.p.) or ketanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, 1 mg kg-1, i.p.) but were hardly affected by ICS205-930 (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 1 mg kg-1, i.p.). 5. These results suggest that m-CPP inhibits not only acute but also chronic pain transmission through 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors, and that the 5-hydroxytryptaminergic antinociceptive pathways are little affected by diabetes. PMID:8719787

  7. Peripheral NMDA and non-NMDA receptors contribute to nociception: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Wang, Y; Zhao, Z

    2000-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of peripheral administration of N-methy-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptor antagonists on C-fiber evoked responses of the spinal dorsal horn neurons in the spinalized rats. When DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) (10 mM, 1 mM, 0.1 mM, 20 microl) or 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (DNQX) (1 mM, 0.1 mM, 0.01 mM, 20 microl) was subcutaneously injected into the receptive field on the hindplantar region, C-fiber evoked responses of the dorsal horn neurons were profoundly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Three hours after subcutaneous injection of carrageenan into the ipsilateral hindpaw, NMDA and non-NMDA antagonist-induced inhibition of C-fiber evoked responses was more potent than that in the normal rat (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). In the carragenan-treated rats, DNQX-induced inhibition was stronger than AP-5-induced one (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). The results suggest that peripheral NMDA and non-NMDA receptors are involved in mediating excitation of nociceptors.

  8. Capsaicin, Nociception and Pain.

    PubMed

    Frias, Bárbara; Merighi, Adalberto

    2016-06-18

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the hot chili pepper, is known to act on the transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is involved in somatic and visceral peripheral inflammation, in the modulation of nociceptive inputs to spinal cord and brain stem centers, as well as the integration of diverse painful stimuli. In this review, we first describe the chemical and pharmacological properties of capsaicin and its derivatives in relation to their analgesic properties. We then consider the biochemical and functional characteristics of TRPV1, focusing on its distribution and biological effects within the somatosensory and viscerosensory nociceptive systems. Finally, we discuss the use of capsaicin as an agonist of TRPV1 to model acute inflammation in slices and other ex vivo preparations.

  9. Gene silencing of NR2B-containing NMDA receptor by intrathecal injection of short hairpin RNA reduces formalin-induced nociception in C57BL/6 mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rao-Xiang; Yan, Xue-Bin; Gu, Yong-Hong; Huang, Dong; Gan, Li; Han, Rui; Huang, Li-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Spinal NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NR2B) play a critical role in the formation of central sensitization and persistent pain. Previous studies show that gene silencing of the spinal NR2B subunit by small interfering RNA (siRNA) could alleviate nociception in animals. The siRNA is a 19- to 23-nt RNA duplex, which can be synthesized in vitro or derived from short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). In the present study, we investigated whether intrathecal injection of shRNAs targeting NR2B (GRIN2B shRNA) could affect nociception on formalin-induced pain in mice. Our results showed that intrathecal injection of GRIN2B shRNA could decrease NR2B mRNA and protein expression levels and hence effectively relieve formalin-induced nociception in mice, suggesting that intrathecal delivery of GRIN2B shRNA can be an efficient way to silence the target gene and provide new insights into the treatment of chronic pain.

  10. Artemin growth factor increases nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunit expression and activity in nociceptive sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Artemin (Artn), a member of the glial cell line-derived growth factor (GDNF) family, supports the development and function of a subpopulation of peptidergic, TRPV1-positive sensory neurons. Artn (enovin, neublastin) is elevated in inflamed tissue and its injection in skin causes transient thermal hyperalgesia. A genome wide expression analysis of trigeminal ganglia of mice that overexpress Artn in the skin (ART-OE mice) showed elevation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, suggesting these ion channels contribute to Artn-induced sensitivity. Here we have used gene expression, immunolabeling, patch clamp electrophysiology and behavioral testing assays to investigate the link between Artn, nicotinic subunit expression and thermal hypersensitivity. Results Reverse transcriptase-PCR validation showed increased levels of mRNAs encoding the nAChR subunits α3 (13.3-fold), β3 (4-fold) and β4 (7.7-fold) in trigeminal ganglia and α3 (4-fold) and β4 (2.8-fold) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of ART-OE mice. Sensory ganglia of ART-OE mice had increased immunoreactivity for nAChRα3 and exhibited increased overlap in labeling with GFRα3-positive neurons. Patch clamp analysis of back-labeled cutaneous afferents showed that while the majority of nicotine-evoked currents in DRG neurons had biophysical and pharmacological properties of α7-subunit containing nAChRs, the Artn-induced increase in α3 and β4 subunits resulted in functional channels. Behavioral analysis of ART-OE and wildtype mice showed that Artn-induced thermal hyperalgesia can be blocked by mecamylamine or hexamethonium. Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) inflammation of paw skin, which causes an increase in Artn in the skin, also increased the level of nAChR mRNAs in DRG. Finally, the increase in nAChRs transcription was not dependent on the Artn-induced increase in TRPV1 or TRPA1 in ART-OE mice since nAChRs were elevated in ganglia of TRPV1/TRPA1 double knockout mice. Conclusions

  11. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of the GABAB Receptor-Positive Modulator rac-BHFF: Comparison with GABAB Receptor Agonists and Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.

    2013-01-01

    GABAB receptor-positive modulators are thought to have advantages as potential medications for anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. They may have fewer side effects than GABAB receptor agonists, because selective enhancement of activated receptors could have effects different from nonselective activation of all receptors. To examine this, pigeons were trained to discriminate the GABAB receptor-positive modulator (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF) from its vehicle. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not mimicked by the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), not by diazepam, and not by alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine, whose self-administration has been reported to be attenuated by GABAB receptor-positive modulators. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not antagonized by the GABAB receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl (diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348) but were attenuated by the less efficacious GABAB receptor-positive modulator 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl)phenol (CGP7930), suggesting the possibility that rac-BHFF produces its discriminative stimulus effects by directly activating GABAB2 subunits of GABAB receptors. At a dose 10-fold lower than the training dose, rac-BHFF enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. This study provides evidence that the effects of GABAB receptor-positive modulators are not identical to those of GABAB receptor agonists. In addition, the results suggest that positive modulation of GABAB receptors does not produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of benzodiazepines, alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine. Finally, the finding that rac-BHFF enhanced effects of baclofen but not of GHB is consistent with converging evidence that the populations of GABAB receptors mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical. PMID:23275067

  12. Drosophila Nociceptive Sensitization Requires BMP Signaling via the Canonical SMAD Pathway.

    PubMed

    Follansbee, Taylor L; Gjelsvik, Kayla J; Brann, Courtney L; McParland, Aidan L; Longhurst, Colin A; Galko, Michael J; Ganter, Geoffrey K

    2017-08-30

    Nociceptive sensitization is a common feature in chronic pain, but its basic cellular mechanisms are only partially understood. The present study used the Drosophila melanogaster model system and a candidate gene approach to identify novel components required for modulation of an injury-induced nociceptive sensitization pathway presumably downstream of Hedgehog. This study demonstrates that RNAi silencing of a member of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), specifically in the Class IV multidendritic nociceptive neuron, significantly attenuated ultraviolet injury-induced sensitization. Furthermore, overexpression of Dpp in Class IV neurons was sufficient to induce thermal hypersensitivity in the absence of injury. The requirement of various BMP receptors and members of the SMAD signal transduction pathway in nociceptive sensitization was also demonstrated. The effects of BMP signaling were shown to be largely specific to the sensitization pathway and not associated with changes in nociception in the absence of injury or with changes in dendritic morphology. Thus, the results demonstrate that Dpp and its pathway play a crucial and novel role in nociceptive sensitization. Because the BMP family is so strongly conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, it seems likely that the components analyzed in this study represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of chronic pain in humans.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This report provides a genetic analysis of primary nociceptive neuron mechanisms that promote sensitization in response to injury. Drosophila melanogaster larvae whose primary nociceptive neurons were reduced in levels of specific components of the BMP signaling pathway, were injured and then tested for nocifensive responses to a normally subnoxious stimulus. Results suggest that nociceptive neurons use the BMP2/4 ligand, along with identified receptors and intracellular transducers to transition to a

  13. Effects of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine on the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L

    2014-06-01

    Preclinical drug discrimination procedures have been useful in understanding the pharmacological mechanisms of the subjective-like effects of abused drugs. Converging lines of evidence from neurochemical and behavioral studies implicate a potential role of nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors in the abuse-related effects of cocaine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the nACh receptor antagonist mecamylamine on the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in nonhuman primates. The effects of mecamylamine on the cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were also examined. Male rhesus monkeys (n = 5) were trained to discriminate 0.32 mg/kg, IM cocaine from saline in a 2-key, food-reinforced discrimination procedure. Initially, potency and time course of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects were determined for nicotine and mecamylamine alone. Test sessions were then conducted examining the effects of mecamylamine on cocaine or the cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. Curiously, mecamylamine produced partial cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects. Mecamylamine did not significantly alter the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine up to doses that significantly decreased rates of operant responding. Mecamylamine and nicotine combinations were not different than saline. These results confirm previous nonhuman primate studies of partial substitution with nicotine and extend these findings with mecamylamine. Furthermore, these results extend previous results in rats suggesting cocaine may have nACh receptor antagonist properties.

  14. Effects of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine on the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in male rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical drug discrimination procedures have been useful in understanding the pharmacological mechanisms of the subjective-like effects of abused drugs. Converging lines of evidence from neurochemical and behavioral studies implicate a potential role of nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors in the abuse-related effects of cocaine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the nACh receptor antagonist mecamylamine on the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in nonhuman primates. The effects of mecamylamine on the cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were also examined. Male rhesus monkeys (n=5) were trained to discriminate 0.32 mg/kg, IM cocaine from saline in a two-key food-reinforced discrimination procedure. Initially, potency and time course of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects were determined for nicotine and mecamylamine alone. Test sessions were then conducted examining the effects of mecamylamine on cocaine or the cocaine- like discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. Curiously, both nicotine and mecamylamine produced partial cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects. Mecamylamine did not significantly alter the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine up to doses that significantly decreased rates of operant responding. Mecamylamine and nicotine combinations were not different than saline. These results confirm previous nonhuman primate studies of partial substitution with nicotine and extend these findings with mecamylamine. Furthermore, these results extend previous results in rats suggesting cocaine may have nACh receptor antagonist properties. PMID:24548245

  15. The nonpeptide B2 receptor antagonist FR173657: inhibition of effects of bradykinin related to its role in nociception

    PubMed Central

    Griesbacher, Thomas; Amann, Rainer; Sametz, Wolfgang; Diethart, Sabine; Juan, Heinz

    1998-01-01

    The nonpeptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, FR173657 ((E)-3-(6-acetamido-3-pyridyl)-N-[N-(2, 4-dichloro-3-[(2-methyl-8-quinolinyl) oxymethyl] phenyl]-N-methylaminocarbonylmethyl] acrylamide), was tested in models involving bradykinin-induced activation of primary afferent neurones in vitro and in vivo. Bradykinin-induced contractions of the rabbit isolated iris sphincter muscle mediated by tachykinin release from trigeminal afferent neurones were inhibited in a non-competitive manner by FR173657. A pKB value of 7.9 was calculated. Effects of substance P were unaffected by FR173657. Nociceptive behavioural responses following intraplantar injection of bradykinin in unanaesthetized rats were reduced by 0.3 μmol kg−1 FR173657 s.c. (P<0.05), and completely abolished by 3 μmol kg−1 (P<0.05). Peroral administration of 5 μmol kg−1 FR173657 abolished the bradykinin effects (P<0.05); lower doses had no significant effect. Shortening by intraplantar injection of bradykinin of the paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat was abolished by 3 μmol kg−1 FR173657 s.c. (P<0.05), while 300 nmol kg−1 had an intermediate effect. Hyperalgesia induced by prostaglandin E2 remained unaffected by FR173657. Blood pressure reflexes following i.p. instillation of bradykinin in anaesthetized rats were inhibited by FR173657 s.c. with an ID50 of 1.1 μmol kg−1, while the peptidic B2 antagonist icatibant (Hoe-140; D-Arg0-[Hyp3, Thi5, D-Tic7, Oic8]-bradykinin) caused inhibition at significantly lower doses (ID50 8.5 nmol kg−1 P<0.001). Responses to hydrochloric acid i.p. remained unaffected by FR173657. FR173657 or similar nonpeptide compounds may be useful for the development of drugs for diseases involving pain induced by the release of endogenous kinins, i.e. especially in acute inflammatory conditions. PMID:9720808

  16. Nociceptive neuronal Fc-gamma receptor I is involved in IgG immune complex induced pain in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haowu; Shen, Xinhua; Chen, Zhiyong; Liu, Fan; Wang, Tao; Xie, Yikuan; Ma, Chao

    2017-03-02

    Antigen-specific immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by pain and hyperalgesia. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Fc-gamma-receptor type I (FcγRI) is expressed in a subpopulation of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and can be directly activated by IgG immune complex (IgG-IC). In this study we investigated whether neuronal FcγRI contributes to antigen-specific pain in the naïve and rheumatoid arthritis model rats. In vitro calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp recordings in dissociated DRG neurons revealed that only the small-, but not medium- or large-sized DRG neurons responded to IgG-IC. Accordingly, in vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that intradermal injection of IgG-IC into the peripheral receptive field could sensitize only the C- (but not A-) type sensory neurons and evoke action potential discharges. Pain-related behavioral tests showed that intradermal injection of IgG-IC dose-dependently produced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the hindpaw of rats. These behavioral effects could be alleviated by localized administration of non-specific IgG or an FcγRI antibody, but not by mast cell stabilizer or histamine antagonist. In a rat model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) produced by methylated bovine serum albumin, FcγRI were found upregulated exclusively in the small-sized DRG neurons. In vitro calcium imaging revealed that significantly more small-sized DRG neurons responded to IgG-IC in the AIA rats, although there was no significant difference between the AIA and control rats in the magnitude of calcium changes in the DRG neurons. Moreover, in vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that C-nociceptive neurons in the AIA rats exhibited a greater incidence of action potential discharges and stronger responses to mechanical stimuli after IgG-IC was injected to the receptive fields. These results suggest that FcγRI expressed in the peripheral nociceptors might be directly activated

  17. Characterization of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of a NOP Receptor Agonist Ro 64-6198 in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Zelenock, Kathy A.; Lindsey, Angela M.; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C.; Prinssen, Eric P.; Wichmann, Jürgen; Woods, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP) agonists have been reported to produce antinociceptive effects in rhesus monkeys with comparable efficacy to μ-opioid receptor (MOP) agonists, but without their limiting side effects. There are also known to be species differences between rodents and nonhuman primates (NHPs) in the behavioral effects of NOP agonists. The aims of this study were the following: 1) to determine if the NOP agonist Ro 64-6198 could be trained as a discriminative stimulus; 2) to evaluate its pharmacological selectivity as a discriminative stimulus; and 3) to establish the order of potency with which Ro 64-6198 produces discriminative stimulus effects compared with analgesic effects in NHPs. Two groups of rhesus monkeys were trained to discriminate either fentanyl or Ro 64-6198 from vehicle. Four monkeys were trained in the warm-water tail-withdrawal procedure to measure antinociception. Ro 64-6198 produced discriminative stimulus effects that were blocked by the NOP antagonist J-113397 and not by naltrexone. The discriminative stimulus effects of Ro 64-6198 partially generalized to diazepam, but not to fentanyl, SNC 80, ketocyclazocine, buprenorphine, phencyclidine, or chlorpromazine. Fentanyl produced stimulus effects that were blocked by naltrexone and not by J-113397, and Ro 64-6198 did not produce fentanyl-appropriate responding in fentanyl-trained animals. In measures of antinociception, fentanyl, but not Ro 64-6198, produced dose-dependent increases in tail-withdrawal latency. Together, these results demonstrate that Ro 64-6198 produced stimulus effects in monkeys that are distinct from other opioid receptor agonists, but may be somewhat similar to diazepam. In contrast to previous findings, Ro 64-6198 did not produce antinociception in the majority of animals tested even at doses considerably greater than those that produced discriminative stimulus effects. PMID:26801398

  18. Annexin 1 exerts anti-nociceptive effects after peripheral inflammatory pain through formyl-peptide-receptor-like 1 in rat dorsal root ganglion.

    PubMed

    Pei, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, F; Su, T; Wei, H; Tian, J; Li, M; Shi, J

    2011-12-01

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) has analgesic effects in inflammatory pain. We aimed to investigate the anti-nociceptive role of ANXA1, at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) level, through an interaction with formyl-peptide-receptor-like 1 (FPR2/ALX). Inflammatory pain was evoked by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 50 μl) into the hindpaw of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The distribution of ANXA1 and FPR2/ALX in L4/5 DRGs was evaluated by immunofluorescence. The expression of ANXA1 was measured by western blot. The involvement of FPR2/ALX in the anti-nociception of ANXA1 was investigated by thermal (irradiant heat) and mechanical (von Frey filament) pain tests with intrathecal (i.t.) ANXA1-derived peptide (Anxa1(2-26)), FPR2/ALX agonist 5(S)-6(R)-7-trihydroxyheptanoic-acid-methyl-ester (BML-111), and antagonist N-t-Boc-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe (Boc1). ANXA1 and FPR2/ALX localized in the satellite glial cells and neurones in L4/5 DRGs. CFA treatment (n=20) increased ANXA1 expression in L4/5 DRGs within 7 days (P<0.01). I.T. Anxa1(2-26) (20 and 100 µg µl(-1)) and BML-111 (10 and 100 nmol) reduced CFA-induced thermal and mechanical nociception within 48 h (n=40) (P<0.05). However, i.t. Boc1 10 µg intensified inflammatory pain (P<0.05) and reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of Anxa1(2-26) (n=25) (P<0.05). Moreover, ANXA1 expression increased in L4/5 DRGs after i.t. Anxa1(2-26) (20 µg µl(-1)) (P<0.05) and BML-111 (10 nmol) (P<0.01) but decreased after i.t. Boc1 (10 and 100 µg) alone (P<0.01) or Boc1 (10 µg) co-injection with Anxa1(2-26) (20 µg µl(-1)) (P<0.05). Endogenous ANXA1 expression at the DRG level is involved in CFA-induced inflammatory pain, and i.t. ANXA1 20 µg µl(-1) produces its anti-nociceptive effect through FPR2/ALX.

  19. Stress Induces a Shift Towards Striatum-Dependent Stimulus-Response Learning via the Mineralocorticoid Receptor.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Susanne; Klumpers, Floris; Schröder, Tobias Navarro; Oplaat, Krista T; Krugers, Harm J; Oitzl, Melly S; Joëls, Marian; Doeller, Christian F; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-12-21

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this shift is still unclear, previous evidence in rodents points towards cortisol interacting with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to affect amygdala functioning. The amygdala is in turn assumed to orchestrate the stress-induced shift in memory processing. However, an integrative study testing these mechanisms in humans is lacking. Therefore, we combined functional neuroimaging of a spatial memory task, stress-induction, and administration of an MR-antagonist in a full-factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled between-subjects design in 101 healthy males. We demonstrate that stress-induced increases in cortisol lead to enhanced stimulus-response learning, accompanied by increased amygdala activity and connectivity to the striatum. Importantly, this shift was prevented by an acute administration of the MR-antagonist spironolactone. Our findings support a model in which the MR and the amygdala play an important role in the stress-induced shift towards habit memory systems, revealing a fundamental mechanism of adaptively allocating neural resources that may have implications for stress-related mental disorders.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 21 December 2016; doi:10.1038/npp.2016.262.

  20. Activation of Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Inhibits the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Alcohol via Selective Activity Within the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Cannady, Reginald; Grondin, Julie JM; Fisher, Kristen R; Hodge, Clyde W; Besheer, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes (mGlu2/3) regulate a variety of alcohol-associated behaviors, including alcohol reinforcement, and relapse-like behavior. To date, the role of mGlu2/3 receptors in modulating the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol has not been examined. Given that the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs are determinants of abuse liability and can influence drug seeking, we examined the contributions of mGlu2/3 receptors in modulating the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. In male Long-Evans rats trained to discriminate between alcohol (1 g/kg, IG) and water, the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 (0.3–10 mg/kg) did not produce alcohol-like stimulus effects. However, pretreatment with LY379268 (1 and 3 mg/kg; in combination with alcohol) inhibited the stimulus effects of alcohol (1 g/kg). Systemic LY379268 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) was associated with increases in neuronal activity within the amygdala, but not the nucleus accumbens, as assessed by c-Fos immunoreactivity. Intra-amygdala activation of mGlu2/3 receptors by LY379268 (6 μg) inhibited the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol, without altering response rate. In contrast, intra-accumbens LY379268 (3 μg) profoundly reduced response rate; however, at lower LY379268 doses (0.3, 1 μg), the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol and response rate were not altered. These data suggest that amygdala mGlu2/3 receptors have a functional role in modulating the discriminative stimulus properties of alcohol and demonstrate differential motor sensitivity to activation of mGlu2/3 receptors in the amygdala and the accumbens. Understanding the neuronal mechanisms that underlie the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol may prove to be important for future development of pharmacotherapies for treating alcoholism. PMID:21734651

  1. A General Odorant Background Affects the Coding of Pheromone Stimulus Intermittency in Specialist Olfactory Receptor Neurones

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angela; Party, Virginie; Prešern, Janez; Blejec, Andrej; Renou, Michel

    2011-01-01

    In nature the aerial trace of pheromone used by male moths to find a female appears as a train of discontinuous pulses separated by gaps among a complex odorant background constituted of plant volatiles. We investigated the effect of such background odor on behavior and coding of temporal parameters of pheromone pulse trains in the pheromone olfactory receptor neurons of Spodoptera littoralis. Effects of linalool background were tested by measuring walking behavior towards a source of pheromone. While velocity and orientation index did drop when linalool was turned on, both parameters recovered back to pre-background values after 40 s with linalool still present. Photo-ionization detector was used to characterize pulse delivery by our stimulator. The photo-ionization detector signal reached 71% of maximum amplitude at 50 ms pulses and followed the stimulus period at repetition rates up to 10 pulses/s. However, at high pulse rates the concentration of the odorant did not return to base level during inter-pulse intervals. Linalool decreased the intensity and shortened the response of receptor neurons to pulses. High contrast (>10 dB) in firing rate between pulses and inter-pulse intervals was observed for 1 and 4 pulses/s, both with and without background. Significantly more neurons followed the 4 pulses/s pattern when delivered over linalool; at the same time the information content was preserved almost to the control values. Rapid recovery of behavior shows that change of perceived intensity is more important than absolute stimulus intensity. While decreasing the response intensity, background odor preserved the temporal parameters of the specific signal. PMID:22028879

  2. Nociceptive tolerance is improved by bradykinin receptor B1 antagonism and joint morphology is protected by both endothelin type A and bradykinin receptor B1 antagonism in a surgical model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Endothelin-1, a vasoconstrictor peptide, influences cartilage metabolism mainly via endothelin receptor type A (ETA). Along with the inflammatory nonapeptide vasodilator bradykinin (BK), which acts via bradykinin receptor B1 (BKB1) in chronic inflammatory conditions, these vasoactive factors potentiate joint pain and inflammation. We describe a preclinical study of the efficacy of treatment of surgically induced osteoarthritis with ETA and/or BKB1 specific peptide antagonists. We hypothesize that antagonism of both receptors will diminish osteoarthritis progress and articular nociception in a synergistic manner. Methods Osteoarthritis was surgically induced in male rats by transection of the right anterior cruciate ligament. Animals were subsequently treated with weekly intra-articular injections of specific peptide antagonists of ETA and/or BKB1. Hind limb nociception was measured by static weight bearing biweekly for two months post-operatively. Post-mortem, right knee joints were analyzed radiologically by X-ray and magnetic resonance, and histologically by the OARSI histopathology assessment system. Results Single local BKB1 antagonist treatment diminished overall hind limb nociception, and accelerated post-operative recovery after disease induction. Both ETA and/or BKB1 antagonist treatments protected joint radiomorphology and histomorphology. Dual ETA/BKB1 antagonism was slightly more protective, as measured by radiology and histology. Conclusions BKB1 antagonism improves nociceptive tolerance, and both ETA and/or BKB1 antagonism prevents joint cartilage degradation in a surgical model of osteoarthritis. Therefore, they represent a novel therapeutic strategy: specific receptor antagonism may prove beneficial in disease management. PMID:21575197

  3. Peripheral group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) regulate prostaglandin E2-mediated sensitization of capsaicin responses and thermal nociception.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongni; Gereau, Robert W

    2002-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are present on the peripheral terminals of primary sensory neurons, suggesting that they might be involved in nociception. In this study, we investigated the modulation of nociception by peripheral group II mGluRs and the molecular basis of this modulation. Subcutaneous injection of a group II mGluR agonist, 2R,4R 4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (APDC), did not alter thermal sensitivity but blocked prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced thermal hyperalgesia. This effect was blocked by (2s)-2-amino-2-[(1s,2s)-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl]-3-(xanth-9-yl) propanoic acid, a selective group II mGluR antagonist. In cultured primary sensory neurons, APDC blocked PGE2-induced potentiation of capsaicin responses, which was abolished when neurons were pretreated with pertussis toxin. Similar potentiating effects induced by forskolin but not 8-bromo-cAMP were also blocked by the activation of group II mGluRs. These results indicate that peripheral group II mGluRs act via inhibition of adenylyl cyclase to reverse the sensitization of capsaicin receptors and the thermal hyperalgesia induced by PGE2, and suggest that peripheral group II mGluRs might be targeted for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory pain states.

  4. GABAB receptors in the NTS mediate the inhibitory effect of trigeminal nociceptive inputs on parasympathetic reflex vasodilation in the rat masseter muscle.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hisayoshi; Izumi, Hiroshi

    2012-03-15

    The present study was designed to examine whether trigeminal nociceptive inputs are involved in the modulation of parasympathetic reflex vasodilation in the jaw muscles. This was accomplished by investigating the effects of noxious stimulation to the orofacial area with capsaicin, and by microinjecting GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor agonists or antagonists into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), on masseter hemodynamics in urethane-anesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the cervical vagus nerve (cVN) in sympathectomized animals bilaterally increased blood flow in the masseter muscle (MBF). Increases in MBF evoked by cVN stimulation were markedly reduced following injection of capsaicin into the anterior tongue in the distribution of the lingual nerve or lower lip, but not when injected into the skin of the dorsum of the foot. Intravenous administration of either phentolamine or propranolol had no effect on the inhibitory effects of capsaicin injection on the increases of MBF evoked by cVN stimulation, which were largely abolished by microinjecting the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen into the NTS. Microinjection of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP-35348 into the NTS markedly attenuated the capsaicin-induced inhibition of MBF increase evoked by cVN stimulation, while microinjection of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline did not. Our results indicate that trigeminal nociceptive inputs inhibit vagal-parasympathetic reflex vasodilation in the masseter muscle and suggest that the activation of GABA(B) rather than GABA(A) receptors underlies the observed inhibition in the NTS.

  5. Current concepts of nociception: nociceptive molecular sensors in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun Wook; Oh, Uhtaek

    2007-10-01

    A large number of channels that are in some way linked to sensory transduction including nociception have been discovered in recent years. This review summarizes newly discovered channels that are implicated in nociception. Furthermore, details are discussed with emphasis on their possible application to clinical use as analgesics. Studies with null mutant animals deficient in these channel genes reveal that the channels are indeed implicated in physiological as well as pathological nociception. Many transient receptor potential channels are thermosensors that detect cold, warm and hot temperatures. These channels are activated not only by natural chemicals such as capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, but by various inflammatory signaling pathways. The acid-sensing ion channel and P2X channel that detect extracellular acidosis and ATP are also implicated in some types of pain. Voltage-gated sodium or calcium channels draw attention because of their involvement in neuropathic pain.

  6. Involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes in the discriminative stimulus properties of mescaline.

    PubMed

    Appel, J B; Callahan, P M

    1989-01-02

    In order to further evaluate the extent to which particular 5-HT receptor subtypes (5-HT1, 5-HT2) might be involved in the behavioral effects of hallucinogenic drugs, rats were trained to discriminate mescaline (10 mg/kg i.p.) from saline and were given substitution (generalization) and combination (antagonism) tests with putatively selective serotonergic and related neuroactive compounds. The mescaline cue generalized to relatively high doses of the 5-HT2 agonists, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), LSD and psilocybin; the extent of generalization to 5-HT1 agonists (8-hydroxy-2-[diethylamino]tetralin (8-OHDPAT), RU-24969 and 8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino]tetralin (TFMPP] was unclear. Combinations of the training drug and sufficiently high doses of 5-HT2 antagonists (ketanserin, LY-53857, pirenperone) were followed by saline-lever responding; less selective central 5-HT (metergoline), and DA (SCH-23390, haloperidol) antagonists, did not block the mescaline cue. These data suggest that 5-HT2 receptors are involved in the stimulus properties of mescaline.

  7. Groups II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors differentially modulate brief and prolonged nociception in primate STT cells.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, V; Chen, P S; Willis, W D

    2000-12-01

    The heterogeneous family of G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) provides excitatory and inhibitory controls of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in the nervous system. Eight mGluR subtypes have been cloned and are classified in three subgroups. Group I mGluRs can stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis and activate protein kinase C whereas group II (mGluR2 and 3) and group III (mGluR4, 6, 7, and 8) mGluRs share the ability to inhibit cAMP formation. The present study examined the roles of groups II and III mGluRs in the processing of brief nociceptive information and capsaicin-induced central sensitization of primate spinothalamic tract (STT) cells in vivo. In 11 anesthetized male monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), extracellular recordings were made from 21 STT cells in the lumbar dorsal horn. Responses to brief (15 s) cutaneous stimuli of innocuous (brush), marginally and distinctly noxious (press and pinch, respectively) intensity were recorded before, during, and after the infusion of group II and group III mGluR agonists into the dorsal horn by microdialysis. Different concentrations were applied for at least 20 min each (at 5 microliter/min) to obtain cumulative concentration-response relationships. Values in this paper refer to the drug concentrations in the microdialysis fibers; actual concentrations in the tissue are about three orders of magnitude lower. The agonists were also applied at 10-25 min after intradermal capsaicin injection. The group II agonists (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG1, 1 microM-10 mM, n = 6) and (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4, 6-dicarboxylate (LY379268; 1 microM-10 mM, n = 6) had no significant effects on the responses to brief cutaneous mechanical stimuli (brush, press, pinch) or on ongoing background activity. In contrast, the group III agonist L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (LAP4, 0. 1 microM-10 mM, n = 6) inhibited the responses to cutaneous mechanical stimuli in a

  8. Evidence for the participation of peripheral α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors in GABAA agonists-induced nociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Hernández, Mariana; Feria-Morales, Luis Alberto; Torres-López, Jorge Elías; Cervantes-Durán, Claudia; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Rocha-González, Héctor Isaac

    2014-07-05

    The activation of GABAA receptor by γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in primary afferent fibers produces depolarization. In normal conditions this depolarization causes a reduction in the release of neurotransmitters. Therefore, this depolarization remains inhibitory. However, previous studies have suggested that in inflammatory pain, GABA shifts its signaling from inhibition to excitation by an increased GABA-induced depolarization. The contribution of peripheral α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors to the inflammatory pain is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible pronociceptive role of peripheral α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors in the formalin test. Formalin (0.5%) injection into the dorsum of the right hind paw produced flinching behavior in rats. Ipsilateral local peripheral pre-treatment (-10min) with exogenous GABA (0.003-0.03µg/paw) or common GABAA receptor agonists muscimol (0.003-0.03µg/paw), diazepam (0.017-0.056µg/paw) or phenobarbital (1-100µg/paw) significantly increased 0.5% formalin-induced nociceptive behavior. The pronociceptive effects of GABA (0.03µg/paw), muscimol (0.03µg/paw), diazepam (0.056µg/paw) and phenobarbital (100µg/paw) were prevented by either the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (0.01-0.1µg/paw) or selective α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptor inverse agonist L-655,708 (0.017-0.17µg/paw). The α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptor protein was expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and dorsal spinal cord of naïve rats. The formalin injection did not modify α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptor expression. Overall, these results suggest that peripheral α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors play a pronociceptive role in the rat formalin test.

  9. Discriminative stimulus effects of the GABAB receptor-positive modulator rac-BHFF: comparison with GABAB receptor agonists and drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Koek, Wouter; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C

    2013-03-01

    GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators are thought to have advantages as potential medications for anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. They may have fewer side effects than GABA(B) receptor agonists, because selective enhancement of activated receptors could have effects different from nonselective activation of all receptors. To examine this, pigeons were trained to discriminate the GABA(B) receptor-positive modulator (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF) from its vehicle. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not mimicked by the GABA(B) receptor agonists baclofen and γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), not by diazepam, and not by alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine, whose self-administration has been reported to be attenuated by GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not antagonized by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl (diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348) but were attenuated by the less efficacious GABA(B) receptor-positive modulator 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl)phenol (CGP7930), suggesting the possibility that rac-BHFF produces its discriminative stimulus effects by directly activating GABA(B2) subunits of GABA(B) receptors. At a dose 10-fold lower than the training dose, rac-BHFF enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. This study provides evidence that the effects of GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators are not identical to those of GABA(B) receptor agonists. In addition, the results suggest that positive modulation of GABA(B) receptors does not produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of benzodiazepines, alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine. Finally, the finding that rac-BHFF enhanced effects of baclofen but not of GHB is consistent with converging evidence that the populations of GABA(B) receptors mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical.

  10. Discriminative stimulus effects of benzodiazepine (BZ)(1) receptor-selective ligands in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Lance R; Gerak, Lisa R; Carter, Lawrence; Ma, Chunrong; Cook, James M; France, Charles P

    2002-02-01

    Drug discrimination was used to examine the effects of benzodiazepine (BZ)(1) receptor-selective ligands in rhesus monkeys. In diazepam-treated (5.6 mg/kg, p.o.) monkeys discriminating the nonselective BZ antagonist flumazenil (0.32 mg/kg, s.c.), the BZ(1)-selective antagonist beta-carboline-3-carboxylate-t-butyl ester (beta-CCt) substituted for flumazenil. The onset of action of beta-CCt was delayed with a dose of 5.6 mg/kg beta-CCt substituting for flumazenil 2 h after injection. In monkeys discriminating the nonselective BZ agonist midazolam (0.56 mg/kg, s.c.), the BZ(1)-selective agonists zaleplon (ED(50) = 0.78 mg/kg) and zolpidem (ED(50) = 1.73 mg/kg) substituted for midazolam. The discriminative stimulus effects of midazolam, zaleplon, and zolpidem were antagonized by beta-CCt (1.0-5.6 mg/kg, s.c.), and the effects of zaleplon and zolpidem were also antagonized by flumazenil (0.01-0.32 mg/kg, s.c.). Schild analyses supported the notion of a simple, competitive interaction between beta-CCt and midazolam (slope = -1.08; apparent pA(2) = 5.41) or zaleplon (slope = -1.57; apparent pA(2) = 5.49) and not between beta-CCt and zolpidem. Schild analyses also were consistent with a simple, competitive interaction between flumazenil and zaleplon (slope = -1.03; apparent pA(2) = 7.45) or zolpidem (slope = -1.11; apparent pA(2) = 7.63). These results suggest that the same BZ receptor subtype(s) mediate(s) the effects of midazolam, zolpidem, and zaleplon under these conditions and that selective binding of BZ ligands does not necessarily confer selective effects in vivo.

  11. The role of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICS) in proton sensitivity of subpopulations of primary nociceptive neurons in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Leffler, A; Mönter, B; Koltzenburg, M

    2006-05-12

    A local elevation of H+-ion concentrations often occurs in inflammation and usually evokes pain by excitation of primary nociceptive neurons. Expression patterns and functional properties of the capsaicin receptor and acid-sensing ion channels suggest that they may be the main molecular substrates underlying this proton sensitivity. Here, we asked how the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICS) contribute to the proton response in subpopulations of nociceptive neurons from adult rats and mice (wildtype C57/Bl6, Balb/C and TRPV1-null). In cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons, whole cell patch clamp recordings showed that the majority of capsaicin-sensitive rat dorsal root ganglion neurons displayed large proton-evoked inward currents with transient ASIC-like properties. In contrast, the prevalence of ASIC-like currents was smaller in both mouse wildtype strains and more frequent in capsaicin-insensitive neurons. Transient ASIC-like currents were more frequent in both species among isolectin B4-negative neurons. A significantly reduced proton response was observed for dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons in TRPV1 deficient mice. Unmyelinated, but not thin myelinated nociceptors recorded extracellularly from TRPV1-null mutants showed a profound reduction of proton sensitivity. Together these findings indicate that there are significant differences between rat and mouse in the contribution of TRPV1 and ASIC subunits to proton sensitivity of sensory neurons. In both species ASIC subunits are more prevalent in the isolectin B4-negative neurons, some of which may represent thin myelinated nociceptors. However, the main acid-sensor in isolectin B4-positive and isolectin B4-negative unmyelinated nociceptors in mice is TRPV1.

  12. Antinociceptive effects of a new sigma-1 receptor antagonist (N-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethyl)-2-(1-naphthyloxy)acetamide) in two types of nociception.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel; Melo-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Medina-López, José Raúl; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam; Schepmann, Dirk; Wünsch, Bernhard; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-15

    Pain has become an active clinical challenge due its etiological heterogeneity, symptoms and mechanisms of action. In the search for new pharmacological therapeutic alternatives, sigma receptors have been proposed as drug targets. This family consists of sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors. The sigma-1 system is involved in nociception through its chaperone activity. Additionally, it has been shown that agonist to these receptors promote related sensitisation and pain hypersensitisation, suggesting the possible use of antagonists for sigma-1 receptors as an alternative therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of a new sigma-1 receptor antagonist N-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethyl)-2-(1-naphthyloxy)acetamida (NMIN) in two types of pain (arthritic and neuropathic) and to compare its efficacy and potency with reference drugs. The antinociceptive effects of NMIN were quantitatively evaluated using the pain-induced functional impairment model in the rat and the acetone test in a rat model of neuropathic pain. NMIN (sigma-1 receptor affinity of 324nM) did not show any antinociceptive activity in the arthritic pain model but showed a dose-dependent anti-allodynic effect in neuropathic pain. NMIN showed a similar efficacy compared to the effects obtained with morphine and the sigma-1 antagonist BD-1063. However, these reference drugs showed increased potency compared with NMIN. Our results suggest that sigma-1 receptors may play an important direct role in neuropathic pain but not in arthritic pain, supporting the hypothesis that NMIN may be useful for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  13. NMDA Receptors Mediate Stimulus-Timing-Dependent Plasticity and Neural Synchrony in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Stefanescu, Roxana A.; Shore, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory information relayed by auditory nerve fibers and somatosensory information relayed by granule cell parallel fibers converge on the fusiform cells (FCs) of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the first brain station of the auditory pathway. In vitro, parallel fiber synapses on FCs exhibit spike-timing-dependent plasticity with Hebbian learning rules, partially mediated by the NMDA receptor (NMDAr). Well-timed bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation, in vivo equivalent of spike-timing-dependent plasticity, can induce stimulus-timing-dependent plasticity (StTDP) of the FCs spontaneous and tone-evoked firing rates. In healthy guinea pigs, the resulting distribution of StTDP learning rules across a FC neural population is dominated by a Hebbian profile while anti-Hebbian, suppressive and enhancing LRs are less frequent. In this study, we investigate in vivo, the NMDAr contribution to FC baseline activity and long term plasticity. We find that blocking the NMDAr decreases the synchronization of FC- spontaneous activity and mediates differential modulation of FC rate-level functions such that low, and high threshold units are more likely to increase, and decrease, respectively, their maximum amplitudes. Three significant alterations in mean learning-rule profiles were identified: transitions from an initial Hebbian profile towards (1) an anti-Hebbian; (2) a suppressive profile; and (3) transitions from an anti-Hebbian to a Hebbian profile. FC units preserving their learning rules showed instead, NMDAr-dependent plasticity to unimodal acoustic stimulation, with persistent depression of tone-evoked responses changing to persistent enhancement following the NMDAr antagonist. These results reveal a crucial role of the NMDAr in mediating FC baseline activity and long-term plasticity which have important implications for signal processing and auditory pathologies related to maladaptive plasticity of dorsal cochlear nucleus circuitry. PMID:26622224

  14. Dual Modulation of Nociception and Cardiovascular Reflexes during Peripheral Ischemia through P2Y1 Receptor-Dependent Sensitization of Muscle Afferents.

    PubMed

    Queme, Luis F; Ross, Jessica L; Lu, Peilin; Hudgins, Renita C; Jankowski, Michael P

    2016-01-06

    Numerous musculoskeletal pain disorders are based in dysfunction of peripheral perfusion and are often comorbid with altered cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction/exercise. We have recently found in mice that 24 h peripheral ischemia induced by a surgical occlusion of the brachial artery (BAO) induces increased paw-guarding behaviors, mechanical hypersensitivity, and decreased grip strength. These behavioral changes corresponded to increased heat sensitivity as well as an increase in the numbers of chemosensitive group III/IV muscle afferents as assessed by an ex vivo forepaw muscles/median and ulnar nerves/dorsal root ganglion (DRG)/spinal cord (SC) recording preparation. Behaviors also corresponded to specific upregulation of the ADP-responsive P2Y1 receptor in the DRGs. Since group III/IV muscle afferents have separately been associated with regulating muscle nociception and exercise pressor reflexes (EPRs), and P2Y1 has been linked to heat responsiveness and phenotypic switching in cutaneous afferents, we sought to determine whether upregulation of P2Y1 was responsible for the observed alterations in muscle afferent function, leading to modulation of muscle pain-related behaviors and EPRs after BAO. Using an afferent-specific siRNA knockdown strategy, we found that inhibition of P2Y1 during BAO not only prevented the increased mean blood pressure after forced exercise, but also significantly reduced alterations in pain-related behaviors. Selective P2Y1 knockdown also prevented the increased firing to heat stimuli and the BAO-induced phenotypic switch in chemosensitive muscle afferents, potentially through regulating membrane expression of acid sensing ion channel 3. These results suggest that enhanced P2Y1 in muscle afferents during ischemic-like conditions may dually regulate muscle nociception and cardiovascular reflexes. Our current results suggest that P2Y1 modulates heat responsiveness and chemosensation in muscle afferents to play a key role in

  15. GABAergic neurons of the medial septum play a nodal role in facilitation of nociception-induced affect

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Seok Ting; Lee, Andy Thiam Huat; Foo, Fang Chee; Ng, Lynn; Low, Chian-Ming; Khanna, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the functional details of the influence of medial septal region (MSDB) on spectrum of nociceptive behaviours by manipulating intraseptal GABAergic mechanisms. Results showed that formalin-induced acute nociception was not affected by intraseptal microinjection of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, or on selective lesion of septal GABAergic neurons. Indeed, the acute nociceptive responses were dissociated from the regulation of sensorimotor behaviour and generation of theta-rhythm by the GABAergic mechanisms in MSDB. The GABAergic lesion attenuated formalin-induced unconditioned cellular response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and blocked formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA), and as well as the contextual fear induced on conditioning with brief footshock. The effects of lesion on nociceptive-conditioned cellular responses were, however, variable. Interestingly, the lesion attenuated the conditioned representation of experimental context in dorsal hippocampus field CA1 in the F-CPA task. Collectively, the preceding suggests that the MSDB is a nodal centre wherein the GABAergic neurons mediate nociceptive affect-motivation by regulating cellular mechanisms in ACC that confer an aversive value to the noxious stimulus. Further, in conjunction with a modulatory influence on hippocampal contextual processing, MSDB may integrate affect with context as part of associative learning in the F-CPA task. PMID:26487082

  16. GABAergic neurons of the medial septum play a nodal role in facilitation of nociception-induced affect.

    PubMed

    Ang, Seok Ting; Lee, Andy Thiam Huat; Foo, Fang Chee; Ng, Lynn; Low, Chian-Ming; Khanna, Sanjay

    2015-10-21

    The present study explored the functional details of the influence of medial septal region (MSDB) on spectrum of nociceptive behaviours by manipulating intraseptal GABAergic mechanisms. Results showed that formalin-induced acute nociception was not affected by intraseptal microinjection of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, or on selective lesion of septal GABAergic neurons. Indeed, the acute nociceptive responses were dissociated from the regulation of sensorimotor behaviour and generation of theta-rhythm by the GABAergic mechanisms in MSDB. The GABAergic lesion attenuated formalin-induced unconditioned cellular response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and blocked formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA), and as well as the contextual fear induced on conditioning with brief footshock. The effects of lesion on nociceptive-conditioned cellular responses were, however, variable. Interestingly, the lesion attenuated the conditioned representation of experimental context in dorsal hippocampus field CA1 in the F-CPA task. Collectively, the preceding suggests that the MSDB is a nodal centre wherein the GABAergic neurons mediate nociceptive affect-motivation by regulating cellular mechanisms in ACC that confer an aversive value to the noxious stimulus. Further, in conjunction with a modulatory influence on hippocampal contextual processing, MSDB may integrate affect with context as part of associative learning in the F-CPA task.

  17. Differential involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptors in the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Munzar, Patrik; Justinova, Zuzana; Kutkat, Scott W; Goldberg, Steven R

    2002-02-01

    Involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptors in the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine versus methamphetamine was studied in Sprague Dawley rats (n=10) trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg cocaine, i.p., from saline under a fixed-ratio 10 (FR10) schedule of food presentation. The ability of (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist, and ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, to either substitute for or block the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine, or to shift the cocaine dose-response curve, was evaluated. DOI (0.18-1.0 mg/kg) partially substituted for the training dose of 10 mg/kg cocaine, but only at doses that decreased rates of responding. At the highest dose of DOI tested (1.0 mg/kg), there was about 65% cocaine-appropriate responding. Substitution of DOI for cocaine and DOI-induced decreases in rates of responding were completely reversed by ketanserin (3.0 mg/kg). Ketanserin (3.0 mg/kg) also produced a significant shift to the right of the cocaine dose-response curve and antagonized increases in rates of responding produced by lower doses of cocaine. Ketanserin (1.0-10.0 mg/kg), however, did not block the discriminative-stimulus effects of the training dose of cocaine. When DOI (0.3 mg/kg) was co-administered with different doses of cocaine, there was a slight leftward shift in the cocaine dose-response curve, which was not significant and appeared to reflect simple additive effects of DOI and cocaine. In contrast, the same dose of DOI (0.3 mg/kg) produced a marked and highly significant shift to the left of the methamphetamine (0.18-1.0 mg/kg) dose-response curve in the same subjects and the effects of DOI and methamphetamine were clearly more than additive. The present findings provide new evidence that there is some serotonergic modulation of cocaine's discriminative-stimulus actions, which appears to involve stimulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. However, involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptor activity in the

  18. Calcium-permeable presynaptic kainate receptors involved in excitatory short-term facilitation onto somatostatin interneurons during natural stimulus patterns.

    PubMed

    Sun, H Y; Bartley, A F; Dobrunz, L E

    2009-02-01

    Schaffer collateral synapses in hippocampus show target-cell specific short-term plasticity. Using GFP-expressing Inhibitory Neuron (GIN) transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a subset of somatostatin-containing interneurons (SOM interneurons), we previously showed that Schaffer collateral synapses onto SOM interneurons in stratum (S.) radiatum have unusually large (up to 6-fold) paired-pulse facilitation. This results from a low initial release probability and the enhancement of facilitation by synaptic activation of presynaptic kainate receptors. Here we further investigate the properties of these kainate receptors and examine their effects on short-term facilitation during physiologically derived stimulation patterns, using excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded in S. radiatum interneurons during Schaffer collateral stimulation in acute slices from juvenile GIN mice. We find that GluR5 and GluR6 antagonists decrease short-term facilitation at Schaffer collateral synapses onto SOM interneurons with no additive effects, suggesting that the presynaptic kainate receptors are heteromers containing both GluR5 and GluR6 subunits. The calcium-permeable receptor antagonist 1-napthyl acetyl spermine (NASPM) both mimics and occludes the effect of the kainate receptor antagonists, indicating that the presynaptic kainate receptors are calcium permeable. Furthermore, Schaffer collateral synapses onto SOM interneurons show up to 11-fold short-term facilitation during physiologically derived stimulus patterns, in contrast to other interneurons that have less than 1.5-fold facilitation. Blocking the kainate receptors reduces facilitation in SOM interneurons by approximately 50% during the physiologically derived patterns and reduces the dynamic range. Activation of calcium-permeable kainate receptors containing GluR5/GluR6 causes a dramatic increase in short-term facilitation during physiologically derived stimulus patterns, a mechanism

  19. Nociceptive trigeminocervical reflexes in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Mariano; Coppola, Gianluca; Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Di Fabio, Roberto; Padua, Luca; Sandrini, Giorgio; Pierelli, Francesco

    2010-09-01

    Electrical stimulation of the supraorbital trigeminal nerve branch induces trigeminocervical reflex responses (TCRs) in the neck muscles. The purpose of this study was to elicit more nociceptive TCR responses through preferential activation of the nociceptive afferents with a concentric surface electrode. We recorded TCRs in 10 healthy subjects using both a standard (sTCR) and a nociceptive (nTCR) concentric surface electrode. We compared the baseline parameters, stimulus intensity/response, recovery, and habituation curves recorded for the two types of electrode, and assessed the effects of local anaesthesia. Compared with the sTCRs, nTCRs showed a significantly longer latency of the late reflex component, as well as lower pain and higher reflex thresholds. They also showed a different recovery cycle and stimulus intensity/response curve, but similar habituation rate. Local anaesthesia attenuated by 85% the late reflex response to stimulation by the concentric electrode, and by only 15% the response to standard electrode stimulation. The differences observed stimulating with these two electrode types may be due to their different activation of the afferent fibres. If this study were extended to patients affected by primary headaches, TCR monitoring could emerge as a sensitive tool for detecting changes in nociceptive transmission at the level of trigeminocervical complex. 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 4-oxo-2-nonenal (4-ONE): evidence of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1-dependent and -independent nociceptive and vasoactive responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Graepel, Rabea; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Aubdool, Aisah A; Andersson, David A; Bevan, Stuart; Brain, Susan D

    2011-04-01

    This study explores the in vivo effects of the proposed transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonist 4-oxo-2-nonenal (4-ONE). Pharmacological inhibitors and genetically modified mice were used to investigate the ability of 4-ONE to act via TRPA1 receptors and possible mechanisms involving transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). We hypothesized that 4-ONE activates sensory nerves, via TRPA1 or possibly TRPV1, and thus triggers mechanical hyperalgesia, edema formation, and vasodilatation in mice. An automated dynamic plantar aesthesiometer was used to determine hind paw withdrawal thresholds, and a laser Doppler flowmeter was used to measure skin blood flow. Edema formation was determined by measuring paw weights and thickness. 4-ONE (10 nmol) triggers unilateral mechanical hyperalgesia, edema formation, and vasodilatation in mice and is shown here to exhibit TRPA1-dependent and -independent effects. Neurogenic vasodilatation and mechanical hyperalgesia at 0.5 h postinjection were significantly greater in TRPA1 wild-type (WT) mice compared with TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice. Edema formation throughout the time course as well as mechanical hyperalgesia from 1 to 4 h postinjection were similar in WT and TRPA1 KO mice. Studies involving TRPV1 KO mice revealed no evidence of TRPV1 involvement or interactions between TRPA1 and TRPV1 in mediating the in vivo effects of 4-ONE. Previously, 4-ONE was shown to be a potent TRPA1 agonist in vitro. We demonstrate its ability to mediate vasodilatation and certain nociceptive effects in vivo. These data indicate the potential of TRPA1 as an oxidant sensor for vasodilator responses in vivo. However, 4-ONE also triggers TRPA1-independent effects that relate to edema formation and pain.

  1. Quantifying cerebral contributions to pain beyond nociception

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Schmidt, Liane; Krishnan, Anjali; Jepma, Marieke; Roy, Mathieu; Lindquist, Martin A.; Atlas, Lauren Y.; Wager, Tor D.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral processes contribute to pain beyond the level of nociceptive input and mediate psychological and behavioural influences. However, cerebral contributions beyond nociception are not yet well characterized, leading to a predominant focus on nociception when studying pain and developing interventions. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with machine learning to develop a multivariate pattern signature—termed the stimulus intensity independent pain signature-1 (SIIPS1)—that predicts pain above and beyond nociceptive input in four training data sets (Studies 1–4, N=137). The SIIPS1 includes patterns of activity in nucleus accumbens, lateral prefrontal and parahippocampal cortices, and other regions. In cross-validated analyses of Studies 1–4 and in two independent test data sets (Studies 5–6, N=46), SIIPS1 responses explain variation in trial-by-trial pain ratings not captured by a previous fMRI-based marker for nociceptive pain. In addition, SIIPS1 responses mediate the pain-modulating effects of three psychological manipulations of expectations and perceived control. The SIIPS1 provides an extensible characterization of cerebral contributions to pain and specific brain targets for interventions. PMID:28195170

  2. Transcranial low-level laser therapy (810 nm) temporarily inhibits peripheral nociception: photoneuromodulation of glutamate receptors, prostatic acid phophatase, and adenosine triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Pires de Sousa, Marcelo Victor; Ferraresi, Cleber; Kawakubo, Masayoshi; Kaippert, Beatriz; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Photobiomodulation or low-level light therapy has been shown to attenuate both acute and chronic pain, but the mechanism of action is not well understood. In most cases, the light is applied to the painful area, but in the present study we applied light to the head. We found that transcranial laser therapy (TLT) applied to mouse head with specific parameters (810 nm laser, 300  mW/cm2, 7.2 or 36  J/cm2) decreased the reaction to pain in the foot evoked either by pressure (von Frey filaments), cold, or inflammation (formalin injection) or in the tail (evoked by heat). The pain threshold increasing is maximum around 2 h after TLT, remains up to 6 h, and is finished 24 h after TLT. The mechanisms were investigated by quantification of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), immunofluorescence, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of brain tissues. TLT increased ATP and prostatic acid phosphatase (an endogenous analgesic) and reduced the amount of glutamate receptor (mediating a neurotransmitter responsible for conducting nociceptive information). There was no change in the concentration of tubulin, a constituent of the cytoskeleton, and the H&E staining revealed no tissue damage. PMID:26835486

  3. Anti-nociceptive action of peripheral mu-opioid receptors by G-beta-gamma protein-mediated inhibition of TRPM3 channels.

    PubMed

    Dembla, Sandeep; Behrendt, Marc; Mohr, Florian; Goecke, Christian; Sondermann, Julia; Schneider, Franziska M; Schmidt, Marlene; Stab, Julia; Enzeroth, Raissa; Leitner, Michael G; Nuñez-Badinez, Paulina; Schwenk, Jochen; Nürnberg, Bernd; Cohen, Alejandro; Philipp, Stephan E; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Bünemann, Moritz; Oliver, Dominik; Zakharian, Eleonora; Schmidt, Manuela; Oberwinkler, Johannes

    2017-08-15

    Opioids, agonists of µ-opioid receptors (µORs), are the strongest pain killers clinically available. Their action includes a strong central component, which also causes important adverse effects. However, µORs are also found on the peripheral endings of nociceptors and their activation there produces meaningful analgesia. The cellular mechanisms downstream of peripheral µORs are not well understood. Here we show in neurons of murine dorsal root ganglion cells that pro-nociceptive TRPM3 channels, present in the peripheral parts of nociceptors, are strongly inhibited by µOR activation, much more than other TRP channels in the same compartment, like TRPV1 and TRPA1. Inhibition of TRPM3 channels occurs via a short signaling cascade involving Gβγ proteins, which form a complex with TRPM3. Accordingly, activation of peripheral µORs in vivo strongly attenuates TRPM3-dependent pain. Our data establish TRPM3 inhibition as important consequence of peripheral µOR activation indicating that pharmacologically antagonizing TRPM3 may be a useful analgesic strategy.

  4. Discriminative stimulus effects of NMDA, AMPA and mGluR5 glutamate receptor ligands in methamphetamine-trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Wooters, Thomas E.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate contributes to the reinforcing and stimulant effects of methamphetamine, yet its potential role in the interoceptive stimulus properties of methamphetamine is unknown. In the current study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline in a standard operant discrimination task. The effects of methamphetamine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel blockers MK-801 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) and ketamine (1.0-10.0 mg/kg, i.p.), the low-affinity NMDA antagonist memantine (1.0-10 mg/kg, i.p.), the polyamine site NMDA receptor antagonist ifenprodil (1-10 mg/kg), the α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 1-10 mg/kg, i.p.), and the metabotropic 5 (mGluR5) receptor antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP; 1-10 mg/kg) given alone were determined in substitution tests. The effects of MK-801 (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg), ketamine (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), ifenprodil (5.6 mg/kg), CNQX (5.6 mg/kg) and MPEP (5.6 mg/kg) were also tested in combination with methamphetamine to assess for alterations in the methamphetamine cue. In substitution tests, none of the test drugs generalized to the methamphetamine cue. However, ketamine and ifenprodil produced significant leftward shifts in the methamphetamine dose-response curve; pretreatment with 3 mg/kg of ketamine, for example, decreased the ED50 value for methamphetamine by half. These results suggest that blockade of the NMDA receptor augments the interoceptive stimulus properties of methamphetamine. PMID:21836462

  5. Activation of spinal group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in rats evokes local glutamate release and spontaneous nociceptive behaviors: effects of 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Lorrain, Daniel S; Correa, Lucia; Anderson, Jeffery; Varney, Mark

    2002-07-26

    Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine ((RS)-3,5-DHPG) to rats produces an immediate display of spontaneous nociceptive behaviors (SNBs) persisting for up to 10 h after injection (NeuroReport 7 (1996) 2743). The mechanisms underlying these behavioral effects are not entirely understood but may include enhanced release of glutamate within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The current experiments used microdialysis in awake moving animals to test: (1), whether i.t. (S)-3,5-DHPG increases the local release of glutamate at doses that also induce SNBs; and (2), whether the effects on glutamate release (as well as SNBs) can be blocked by pretreatment with the mGluR5 selective antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with a microdialysis probe inserted into the i.t. space of the spinal cord (J. Neurosci. Methods 62 (1995) 43) and then tested under i.t. drug conditions (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM (S)-3,5-DHPG) following a 2-3 day recovery period. As predicted, local application of (S)-3,5-DHPG via the microdialysis probe increased the release of glutamate in a dose-dependent manner. Significant SNBs were also noted in the 0.1 and 1 mM groups in a manner paralleling the onset and duration of the glutamate response. Pretreatment with MPEP (55 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) blocked glutamate release to the 0.1 mM dose of (S)-3,5-DHPG, and also decreased the proportion of animals displaying SNBs in this dose group. No effects of MPEP were seen against the higher dose of (S)-3,5-DHPG (1 mM). These results suggest that stimulation of spinal mGluR5 leads to glutamate release within the spinal cord, a response that may in part account for the nociceptive behaviors evoked by i.t. (S)-3,5-DHPG.

  6. A potent and selective calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, MK-8825, inhibits responses to nociceptive trigeminal activation: Role of CGRP in orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Romero-Reyes, Marcela; Pardi, Vanessa; Akerman, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are orofacial pains within the trigeminal distribution, which involve the masticatory musculature, the temporomandibular joint or both. Their pathophysiology remains unclear, as inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved, and clinically TMD presents pain and sometimes limitation of function, but often appears without gross indications of local inflammation, such as visible edema, redness and increase in temperature. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been implicated in other pain disorders with trigeminal distribution, such as migraine, of which TMD shares a significant co-morbidity. CGRP causes activation and sensitization of trigeminal primary afferent neurons, independent of any inflammatory mechanisms, and thus may also be involved in TMD. Here we used a small molecule, selective CGRP receptor antagonist, MK-8825, to dissect the role of CGRP in inducing spontaneous nociceptive facial grooming behaviors, neuronal activation in the trigeminal nucleus, and systemic release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in a mouse model of acute orofacial masseteric muscle pain that we have developed, as a surrogate of acute TMD. We show that CFA masseteric injection causes significant spontaneous orofacial pain behaviors, neuronal activation in the trigeminal nucleus, and release of interleukin-6 (IL-6). In mice pre-treated with MK-8825 there is a significant reduction in these spontaneous orofacial pain behaviors. Also, at 2 and 24h after CFA injection the level of Fos immunoreactivity in the trigeminal nucleus, used as a marker of neuronal activation, was much lower on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides after pre-treatment with MK-8825. There was no effect of MK-8825 on the release of IL-6. These data suggest that CGRP may be involved in TMD pathophysiology, but not via inflammatory mechanisms, at least in the acute stage. Furthermore, CGRP receptor antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of TMD, as they

  7. Lateral inhibition during nociceptive processing.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Alexandre S; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole K; Coghill, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    Spatial summation of pain (SSP) is the increase of perceived intensity that occurs as the stimulated area increases. Spatial summation of pain is subadditive in that increasing the stimulus area produces a disproportionately small increase in the perceived intensity of pain. A possible explanation for subadditive summation may be that convergent excitatory information is modulated by lateral inhibition. To test the hypothesis that lateral inhibition may limit SSP, we delivered different patterns of noxious thermal stimuli to the abdomens of 15 subjects using a computer-controlled CO2 laser. Lines (5 mm wide) of variable lengths (4, 8 cm) were compared with 2-point stimuli delivered at the same position/separation as the length of lines. When compared with one-point control stimuli, 2-point stimulus patterns produced statistically significant SSP, while no such summation was detected during line stimulus patterns. Direct comparison of pain intensity evoked by 2-point pattern stimuli with line pattern stimuli revealed that 2-point patterns were perceived as significantly more painful, despite the fact that the 2-point pattern stimulated far smaller areas of skin. Thus, the stimulation of the skin region between the endpoints of the lines appears to produce inhibition. These findings indicate that lateral inhibition limits SSP and is an intrinsic component of nociceptive information processing. Disruption of such lateral inhibition may contribute substantially to the radiation of some types of chronic pain.

  8. Dorsolateral frontal cortex and peripheral muscarinic receptors participation in the discriminative stimulus properties of scopolamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Aguayo-DelCastillo, Alejandra; Vélazquez-Martínez, David N; Sánchez-Castillo, Hugo; Casasola, César

    2013-08-01

    Organisms are capable of making decisions based on their ability to discriminate between different stimuli. This principle is fundamental for the adaptation of organisms to their environment, by emitting appropriate behaviors based on a previously acquired discriminative process. The present study analyzed the participation of the peripheral nervous system, the M₁ muscarinic receptor subtype, as well as the contribution of the dorsolateral frontal cortex to discrimination process using scopolamine as discriminative stimulus. Male Wistar rats were trained to discriminate between scopolamine (1.0 mg/kg) and saline injections (i.p.) using a two-lever operant procedure. Once discrimination was acquired, generalization curves for scopolamine, methylscopolamine, pirenzepine, dorsolateral frontal cortex lesion and control conditions were obtained. Results showed that rats were able to discriminate and generalize its responses to different doses of scopolamine but not for methylscopolamine or pirenzepine, thus the data suggest that discriminative properties of scopolamine are processed in CNS and that the M₁ receptor does not participate in this process. Dorsolateral frontal cortex lesion did not produce any statistically significant difference in the generalization curve, which suggests that a system different from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be responsible for the control of stimulus produced by scopolamine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Physiology of nociception].

    PubMed

    Guirimand, F; Le Bars, D

    1996-01-01

    Nociception is related to the mechanisms elicited by stimuli threatening the integrity of the organism. At the peripheral level, unmyelinated C fibres (C polymodal nociceptores) or fine myelinated A delta fibres are excited by noxious stimulation, directly or indirectly by inflammatory processes. Nociceptive afferent fibres terminate in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord where informations are integrated and controlled. These first synapses are modulated by excitatory amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and many peptides (substance P, CGRP, CCK, endogenous opiods). The majority of ascending pathways involved in nociception are located in the ventrolateral controlateral quadrant of the cord (spinorelicular and spinothalamic tracts). Many supraspinal sites are activated following nociceptive stimuli, with relays in the reticular formation of the brain stem (including the subnucleus reticularis dorsalis), the ponto-mesencephalic regions (periaqueducal gray matter and parabrachial area) and thalamic sites. Amygdala and hypothamic targets could be involved in motivational reactions and neuroendocrine adaptations to a noxious event. The cingular, insular and somatosensory cortices also receive nociceptive informations. Nociceptive signals are modulated at all levels of their transmission; the more extensively studied controls are located at the spinal level. Segmental controls are inhibitory effects produced by non-noxious mechanical stimuli. Spinal signals can also be inhibited following activation of bulbopinal descending inhibitor pathways and release of serotonin, norepinephrine and, indirectly, endogenous opiods. Inhibitory controls triggered by noxious stimuli could facilitate the extraction of the nociceptive tone of informations having priority over other stimuli.

  10. Activation of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors suppresses neuropathic nociception evoked by the chemotherapeutic agent vincristine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, E J; Makriyannis, A; Hohmann, A G

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: The ability of cannabinoids to suppress mechanical hypersensitivity (mechanical allodynia) induced by treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent vincristine was evaluated in rats. Sites of action were subsequently identified. Experimental approach: Mechanical hypersensitivity developed over the course of ten daily injections of vincristine relative to groups receiving saline at the same times. Effects of the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2, the receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN55,212-3, the CB2-selective agonist (R,S)-AM1241, the opiate agonist morphine and vehicle on chemotherapy-induced neuropathy were evaluated. WIN55,212-2 was administered intrathecally (i.t.) or locally in the hindpaw to identify sites of action. Pharmacological specificity was established using competitive antagonists for CB1 (SR141716) or CB2 receptors (SR144528). Key results: Systemic administration of WIN55,212-2, but not WIN55,212-3, suppressed vincristine-evoked mechanical allodynia. A leftward shift in the dose-response curve was observed following WIN55,212-2 relative to morphine treatment. The CB1 (SR141716) and CB2 (SR144528) antagonists blocked the anti-allodynic effects of WIN55,212-2. (R,S)-AM1241 suppressed vincristine-induced mechanical hypersensitivity through a CB2 mechanism. Both cannabinoid agonists suppressed vincristine-induced mechanical hypersensitivity without inducing catalepsy. Spinal sites of action are implicated in cannabinoid modulation of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. WIN55,212-2, but not WIN55,212-3, administered i.t. suppressed vincristine-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity at doses that were inactive following local hindpaw administration. Spinal coadministration of both the CB1 and CB2 antagonists blocked the anti-allodynic effects of WIN55,212-2. Conclusions and implications: Cannabinoids suppress the maintenance of vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia through activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors. These anti-allodynic effects

  11. Spinal 5-HT3 receptor mediates nociceptive effect on central neuropathic pain; possible therapeutic role for tropisetron

    PubMed Central

    Nasirinezhad, Farinaz; Hosseini, Marjan; Karami, Zohre; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Janzadeh, Autosa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To test the analgesic effect of 5-HT-3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron, in a clip compression injury model of spinal cord pain in rats. Methods Four weeks post compression of the spinal cord at lumbar level, tropisetron was administered intrathecally at 100 μg and 150 μg dosages. Behavioral tests were assessed before administration. Fifteen minutes after injection, behavioral tests were repeated. Randall-Sellitto and plantar test was used for mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively. Mechanical and cold allodynia were evaluated by Von Frey filament and acetone droplets, respectively. The analgesic effect of tropisetron was compared with intrathecal administration of salicylate. Locomotor score was evaluated by Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test every week after spinal cord injury. Results Intrathecal administration of tropisetron, decreased hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, but not cold allodynia were observed after compression of the spinal cord. Conclusion Blockade of 5-HT-3 receptors by tropisetron at the spinal level induces an antinociceptive effect on chronic central neuropathic pain and suggests that this compound may have potential clinical utility for the management of central neuropathic pain, particularly in patients with hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia. PMID:26338446

  12. Nociception attenuates parasympathetic but not sympathetic baroreflex via NK1 receptors in the rat nucleus tractus solitarii

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Anthony E; Boscan, Pedro; Paton, Julian F R

    2003-01-01

    Somatic noxious stimulation can evoke profound cardiovascular responses by altering activity in the autonomic nervous system. This noxious stimulation attenuates the cardiac vagal baroreflex, a key cardiovascular homeostatic reflex. This attenuation is mediated via NK1 receptors expressed on GABAergic interneurones within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). We have investigated the effect of noxious stimulation and exogenous substance P (SP) on the sympathetic component of the baroreflex. We recorded from the sympathetic chain in a decerebrate, artificially perfused rat preparation. Noxious hindlimb pinch was without effect on the sympathetic baroreflex although the cardiac vagal baroreflex gain was decreased (56%, P < 0.01). Bilateral NTS microinjection of SP (500 fmol) produced a similar selective attenuation of the cardiac vagal baroreflex gain (62%, P < 0.005) without effect on the sympathetic baroreflex. Recordings from the cardiac sympathetic and vagal nerves confirmed the selectivity of the SP inhibition. Control experiments using a GABAA receptor agonist, isoguvacine, indicated that both components of the baroreflex (parasympathetic and sympathetic) could be blocked from the NTS injection site. The NTS microinjection of a NK1 antagonist (CP-99,994) in vivo attenuated the tachycardic response to hindlimb pinch. Our data suggest that noxious pinch releases SP within the NTS to selectively attenuate the cardiac vagal, but not the sympathetic, component of the baroreflex. This selective withdrawal of the cardiac vagal baroreflex seems to underlie the pinch-evoked tachycardia seen in vivo. Further, these findings confirm that baroreflex sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways diverge, and can be independently controlled, within the NTS. PMID:12813142

  13. Aversive stimulus properties of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY 161503 in rats.

    PubMed

    Mosher, T M; Smith, J G; Greenshaw, A J

    2006-09-01

    Serotonin2C (5-HT2C) receptors may influence motivation and reward through effects on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system. Previous work from this laboratory indicated that 5-HT2C receptor stimulation does not induce place conditioning when animals are tested in a drug-free state, but does result in decreased locomotor activity and increased frequency thresholds for electrical self-stimulation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The present study was conducted to determine whether the 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY 161503 may induce place conditioning in a state-dependent manner and also whether this compound will induce gustatory avoidance conditioning in the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm. The effects of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY 161503 in the place conditioning and CTA (two-bottle choice test) paradigms were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Administration of WAY 161503 (3.0 mg/kg) induced a state-dependent conditioned place aversion and a CTA to saccharin. The differential state dependency of 5-HT2C receptor agonists' effects in place conditioning (state dependent) and CTA (non-state dependent) is consistent with the activation of different brain systems in these two paradigms. The state-dependent effects in place conditioning underscore the need to include controls for state dependency in studies of 5-HT receptor related compounds.

  14. Involvement of the glutamatergic system in the nociception induced intrathecally for a TRPA1 agonist in rats.

    PubMed

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Trevisan, G; Rossato, M F; da Silva, C R; Guerra, G P; Villarinho, J G; Rigo, F K; Dalmolin, G D; Gomez, M V; Rubin, M A; Ferreira, J

    2012-10-11

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is expressed in peripheral and spinal terminals of sensory neurons, jointly to the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1). A relevant peripheral role of TRPA1 receptor has been implicated in a variety of processes, including the detection of noxious cold, and diverse painful stimulus, but the functional role of TRPA1 receptor in nociceptive transmission at spinal cord in vivo is poorly known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the glutamatergic system is involved in the transmission of nociceptive stimulus induced for a TRPA1 agonist in the rat spinal cord. We observed that cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist, on spinal cord synaptosomes leads to an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and a rapid release of glutamate, but was not able to change the specific [(3)H]-glutamate binding. In addition, spinally administered cinnamaldehyde produced heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in rats. This behavior was reduced by the co-injection (i.t.) of camphor (TRPA1 antagonist) or MK-801 (N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist) to cinnamaldehyde. Besides, the pretreatment with resiniferatoxin (RTX), a potent TRPV1 agonist, abolished the cinnamaldehyde-induced heat hyperalgesia. Here, we showed that intrathecal RTX results in a decrease in TRPA1 and TRPV1 immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglion. Collectively, our results demonstrate the pertinent participation of spinal TRPA1 in the possible enhancement of glutamatergic transmission of nociceptive signals leading to increase of the hypersensitivity, here observed as heat hyperalgesia. Then the modulation of spinal TRPA1 might be a valuable target in painful conditions associated with central pain hypersensitivity.

  15. In vivo stimulus-induced vasodilation occurs without IP3 receptor activation and may precede astrocytic calcium increase

    PubMed Central

    Nizar, Krystal; Uhlirova, Hana; Tian, Peifang; Saisan, Payam A.; Cheng, Qun; Reznichenko, Lidia; Weldy, Kimberly L.; Steed, Tyler C.; Sridhar, Vishnu B.; MacDonald, Christopher L.; Cui, Jianxia; Gratiy, Sergey L.; Sakadžić, Sava; Boas, David A.; Beka, Thomas I.; Einevoll, Gaute T.; Chen, Ju; Masliah, Eliezer; Dale, Anders M.; Silva, Gabriel A.; Devor, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-dependent release of vasoactive gliotransmitters is widely assumed to trigger vasodilation associated with rapid increases in neuronal activity. Inconsistent with this hypothesis, intact stimulus-induced vasodilation was observed in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) type-2 receptor (R2) knockout (KO) mice, in which the primary mechanism of astrocytic calcium increase – the release of calcium from intracellular stores following activation of an IP3-dependent pathway – is lacking. Further, our results in wild type (WT) mice indicate that in vivo onset of astrocytic calcium increase in response to sensory stimulus could be considerably delayed relative to the simultaneously measured onset of arteriolar dilation. Delayed calcium increases in WT mice were observed in both astrocytic cell bodies and perivascular endfeet. Thus, astrocytes may not play a role in the initiation of blood flow response, at least not via calcium-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, an increase in astrocytic intracellular calcium was not required for normal vasodilation in the IP3R2-KO animals. PMID:23658179

  16. Sensory TRP channels: the key transducers of nociception and pain.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Aaron D; Shepherd, Andrew J; Mohapatra, Durga P

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral detection of nociceptive and painful stimuli by sensory neurons involves a complex repertoire of molecular detectors and/or transducers on distinct subsets of nerve fibers. The majority of such molecular detectors/transducers belong to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels, which comprise both specific receptors for distinct nociceptive stimuli, as well as for multiple stimuli. This chapter discusses the classification, distribution, and functional properties of individual TRP channel types that have been implicated in various nociceptive and/or painful conditions.

  17. Effects of direct- and indirect-acting serotonin receptor agonists on the antinociceptive and discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Xu; Koek, Wouter; Rice, Kenner C; France, Charles P

    2011-04-01

    Serotonergic (5-HT) systems modulate pain, and drugs acting on 5-HT systems are used with opioids to treat pain. This study examined the effects of 5-HT receptor agonists on the antinociceptive and discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in monkeys. Morphine increased tail-withdrawal latency in a dose-related manner; 5-HT receptor agonists alone increased tail-withdrawal latency at 50 °C but not 55 °C water. The antinociceptive effects of morphine occurred with smaller doses when monkeys received an indirect-acting (fenfluramine) or direct acting (8-OH-DPAT, F13714, buspirone, quipazine, DOM, and 2C-T-7) agonist. The role of 5-HT receptor subtypes in these interactions was confirmed with selective 5-HT(1A) (WAY100635) and 5-HT(2A) (MDL100907) receptor antagonists. None of the 5-HT drugs had morphine-like discriminative stimulus effects; however, fenfluramine and 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine and this attenuation was prevented by MDL100907. The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists did not alter the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine. Thus, 5-HT receptor agonists increase the potency of morphine in an assay of antinociception, even under conditions where 5-HT agonists are themselves without effect (ie, 55 °C water), without increasing (and in some cases decreasing) the potency of morphine in a drug discrimination assay. Whereas 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists increase the potency of morphine for antinociception at doses that have no effect on the rate of operant responding, 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists increase the potency of morphine only at doses that eliminate operant responding. These data suggest that drugs acting selectively on 5-HT receptor subtypes could help to improve the use of opioids for treating pain.

  18. Peripheral prostaglandin E2 prolongs the sensitization of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons possibly by facilitating the synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking of EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    St-Jacques, Bruno; Ma, Weiya

    2014-11-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a well-known pain mediator enriched in inflamed tissues, plays a pivotal role in the genesis of chronic pain conditions such as inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PGE2-prolonged sensitization of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) may contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that facilitating synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking of EP receptors contribute to PGE2-prolonged nociceptor sensitization. Intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of a stabilized PGE2 analog, 16,16 dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2), in a dose- and time-dependent manner, not only elicited primary tactile allodynia which lasted for 1d, but also prolonged tactile allodynia evoked by a subsequent i.pl. injection of dmPGE2 from 1d to 4d. Moreover, the duration of tactile allodynia was progressively prolonged following multiple sequential i.pl. injections of dmPGE2. Co-injection of the selective EP1 or EP4 receptor antagonist, the inhibitors of cAMP, PKA, PKC, PKCε or PLC as well as an interleukin-6 (IL-6) neutralizing antiserum differentially blocked primary tactile allodynia elicited by the 1st dmPGE2 and the prolonged tactile allodynia evoked by the 2nd dmPGE2, suggesting the involvement of these signaling events in dmPGE2-induced nociceptor activation and sensitization. Co-injection of a selective COX2 inhibitor or two EP4 antagonists prevented or shortened inflammagen-prolonged nociceptor sensitization. I.pl. injection of dmPGE2 or carrageenan time-dependently increased EP4 levels in L4-6 DRG neurons and peripheral nerves. EP4 was expressed in almost half of IB4-binding nociceptors of L4-6 DRG. Taken together, our data suggest that stimulating the synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking to increase EP4 availability at the axonal terminals of nociceptors is likely a novel mechanism underlying PGE2-prolonged nociceptor

  19. Quantitative analysis of receptor tyrosine kinase-effector coupling at functionally relevant stimulus levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Simin; Bhave, Devayani; Chow, Jennifer M; Riera, Thomas V; Schlee, Sandra; Rauch, Simone; Atanasova, Mariya; Cate, Richard L; Whitty, Adrian

    2015-04-17

    A major goal of current signaling research is to develop a quantitative understanding of how receptor activation is coupled to downstream signaling events and to functional cellular responses. Here, we measure how activation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase on mouse neuroblastoma cells by the neurotrophin artemin (ART) is quantitatively coupled to key downstream effectors. We show that the efficiency of RET coupling to ERK and Akt depends strongly on ART concentration, and it is highest at the low (∼100 pM) ART levels required for neurite outgrowth. Quantitative discrimination between ERK and Akt pathway signaling similarly is highest at this low ART concentration. Stimulation of the cells with 100 pM ART activated RET at the rate of ∼10 molecules/cell/min, leading at 5-10 min to a transient peak of ∼150 phospho-ERK (pERK) molecules and ∼50 pAkt molecules per pRET, after which time the levels of these two signaling effectors fell by 25-50% while the pRET levels continued to slowly rise. Kinetic experiments showed that signaling effectors in different pathways respond to RET activation with different lag times, such that the balance of signal flux among the different pathways evolves over time. Our results illustrate that measurements using high, super-physiological growth factor levels can be misleading about quantitative features of receptor signaling. We propose a quantitative model describing how receptor-effector coupling efficiency links signal amplification to signal sensitization between receptor and effector, thereby providing insight into design principles underlying how receptors and their associated signaling machinery decode an extracellular signal to trigger a functional cellular outcome.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Effector Coupling at Functionally Relevant Stimulus Levels*♦

    PubMed Central

    Li, Simin; Bhave, Devayani; Chow, Jennifer M.; Riera, Thomas V.; Schlee, Sandra; Rauch, Simone; Atanasova, Mariya; Cate, Richard L.; Whitty, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of current signaling research is to develop a quantitative understanding of how receptor activation is coupled to downstream signaling events and to functional cellular responses. Here, we measure how activation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase on mouse neuroblastoma cells by the neurotrophin artemin (ART) is quantitatively coupled to key downstream effectors. We show that the efficiency of RET coupling to ERK and Akt depends strongly on ART concentration, and it is highest at the low (∼100 pm) ART levels required for neurite outgrowth. Quantitative discrimination between ERK and Akt pathway signaling similarly is highest at this low ART concentration. Stimulation of the cells with 100 pm ART activated RET at the rate of ∼10 molecules/cell/min, leading at 5–10 min to a transient peak of ∼150 phospho-ERK (pERK) molecules and ∼50 pAkt molecules per pRET, after which time the levels of these two signaling effectors fell by 25–50% while the pRET levels continued to slowly rise. Kinetic experiments showed that signaling effectors in different pathways respond to RET activation with different lag times, such that the balance of signal flux among the different pathways evolves over time. Our results illustrate that measurements using high, super-physiological growth factor levels can be misleading about quantitative features of receptor signaling. We propose a quantitative model describing how receptor-effector coupling efficiency links signal amplification to signal sensitization between receptor and effector, thereby providing insight into design principles underlying how receptors and their associated signaling machinery decode an extracellular signal to trigger a functional cellular outcome. PMID:25635057

  1. Role of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGluR1 in brief nociception and central sensitization of primate STT cells.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, V; Chen, P S; Willis, W D

    1999-07-01

    G-protein coupled metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are important modulators of synaptic transmission in the mammalian CNS and have been implicated in various forms of neuroplasticity and nervous system disorders. Increasing evidence also suggests an involvement of mGluRs in nociception and pain behavior although the contribution of individual mGluR subtypes is not yet clear. Subtypes mGluR1 and mGluR5 are classified as group I mGluRs and share the ability to stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis and activate protein kinase C. The present study examined the role of group I mGluRs in nociceptive processing and capsaicin-induced central sensitization of primate spinothalamic tract (STT) cells in vivo. In 10 anesthetized male monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) extracellular recordings were made from 20 STT cells in the lumbar dorsal horn. Responses to brief (15 s) cutaneous stimuli of innocuous (BRUSH) and barely and substantially noxious (PRESS and PINCH, respectively) intensity were recorded before, during, and after the infusion of group I mGluR agonists and antagonists into the dorsal horn by microdialysis. Cumulative concentration-response relationships were obtained by applying different concentrations for at least 20 min each (at 5 microl/min). The actual concentrations reached in the tissue are 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than those in the microdialysis fibers (values in this paper refer to the latter). The group I antagonists were also applied at 10-25 min after capsaicin injection. S-DHPG, a group I agonist at both mGluR1 and mGluR5, potentiated the responses to innocuous and noxious stimuli (BRUSH > PRESS > PINCH) at low concentrations (10-100 microM; n = 5) but had inhibitory effects at higher concentrations (1-10 mM; n = 5). The mGluR5 agonist CHPG (1 microM-100 mM; n = 5) did not potentiate but inhibited all responses (10-100 mM; n = 5). AIDA (1 microM-100 mM), a mGluR1-selective antagonist, dose-dependently depressed the responses to PINCH and

  2. Effector pathway-dependent relative efficacy at serotonin type 2A and 2C receptors: evidence for agonist-directed trafficking of receptor stimulus.

    PubMed

    Berg, K A; Maayani, S; Goldfarb, J; Scaramellini, C; Leff, P; Clarke, W P

    1998-07-01

    There are many examples of a single receptor coupling directly to more than one cellular signal transduction pathway. Although traditional receptor theory allows for activation of multiple cellular effectors by agonists, it predicts that the relative degree of activation of each effector pathway by an agonist (relative efficacy) must be the same. In the current experiments, we demonstrate that agonists at the human serotonin2A (5-HT2A) and 5-HT2C receptors activate differentially two signal transduction pathways independently coupled to the receptors [phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation and phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) release]. The relative efficacies of agonists differed depending on which signal transduction pathway was measured. Moreover, relative to 5-HT, some 5-HT2C agonists (e.g., 3-trifluoromethylphenyl-piperazine) preferentially activated the PLC-IP pathway, whereas others (e.g., lysergic acid diethylamide) favored the PLA2-AA pathway. In contrast, when two dependent responses were measured (IP accumulation and calcium mobilization), agonist relative efficacies were not different. These data strongly support the hypothesis termed "agonist-directed trafficking of receptor stimulus" recently proposed by Kenakin [Trends Pharmacol Sci 16:232-238 (1995)]. Concentration-response curves to 5-HT2C agonists were fit well by a three-state model of receptor activation, suggesting that two active receptor states may be sufficient to explain pathway-dependent agonist efficacy. Rational drug design that optimizes preferential effector activity within a group of receptor-selective drugs holds the promise of increased selectivity in clinically useful agents.

  3. Resolvin D1 attenuates activation of sensory transient receptor potential channels leading to multiple anti-nociception

    PubMed Central

    Bang, S; Yoo, S; Yang, TJ; Cho, H; Kim, YG; Hwang, SW

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential ion channels (thermoTRPs) expressed in primary sensory neurons and skin keratinocytes play a crucial role as peripheral pain detectors. Many natural and synthetic ligands have been found to act on thermoTRPs, but little is known about endogenous compounds that inhibit these TRPs. Here, we asked whether resolvin D1 (RvD1), a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid molecule is able to affect the TRP channel activation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We examined the effect of RvD1 on the six thermoTRPs using Ca2+ imaging and whole cell electrophysiology experiments using the HEK cell heterologous expression system, cultured sensory neurons and HaCaT keratinocytes. We also checked changes in agonist-specific acute licking/flicking or flinching behaviours and TRP-related mechanical and thermal pain behaviours using Hargreaves, Randall-Selitto and von Frey assay systems with or without inflammation. KEY RESULTS RvD1 inhibited the activities of TRPA1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 at nanomolar and micromolar levels. Consistent attenuations in agonist-specific acute pain behaviours by immediate peripheral administration with RvD1 were also observed. Furthermore, local pretreatment with RvD1 significantly reversed mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in inflamed tissues. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS RvD1 was a novel endogenous inhibitor for several sensory TRPs. The results of our behavioural studies suggest that RvD1 has an analgesic potential via these TRP-related mechanisms. PMID:20880407

  4. Monitoring of nociception, reality or fiction?

    PubMed

    Abad-Gurumeta, A; Ripollés-Melchor, J; Casans-Francés, R; Calvo-Vecino, J M

    There are currently various projects underway that attempt to monitor the nociceptive responses caused by surgical stress and ensure patients the best analgesic conditions. The systemic response to surgical stress has repercussions in the postoperative period, such as worse pain control, delayed recovery, greater complications, longer stay in resuscitation and hospital units, and increased healthcare costs. However, treatment with higher doses of opioids than necessary may lead to slower awakening, increased drowsiness and adverse effects, as well as situations of postoperative opioid-induced hyperalgesia. There are 2 large groups of nociceptive monitoring according to the origin of the theoretical objective of monitoring response to the stimulus, that may derive from changes in the electroencephalogram or the response of the autonomic nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The anoctamin family channel subdued mediates thermal nociception in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jang, Wijeong; Kim, Ji Young; Cui, Shanyu; Jo, Juyeon; Lee, Byoung-Cheol; Lee, Yeonwoo; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Park, Chul-Seung; Kim, Changsoo

    2015-01-23

    Calcium-permeable and thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediate the nociceptive transduction of noxious temperature in Drosophila nociceptors. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we find that Subdued, a calcium-activated chloride channel of the Drosophila anoctamin family, functions in conjunction with the thermo-TRPs in thermal nociception. Genetic analysis with deletion and the RNAi-mediated reduction of subdued show that subdued is required for thermal nociception in nociceptors. Further genetic analysis of subdued mutant and thermo-TRP mutants show that they interact functionally in thermal nociception. We find that Subdued expressed in heterologous cells mediates a strong chloride conductance in the presence of both heat and calcium ions. Therefore, our analysis suggests that Subdued channels may amplify the nociceptive neuronal firing that is initiated by thermo-TRP channels in response to thermal stimuli.

  6. Relation between stimulus and response in frog olfactory receptor neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lánský, Petr; Duchamp, André; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2003-09-01

    The spiking activity of receptor neurons was recorded extracellularly in the frog olfactory epithelium in response to four odourants applied at precisely controlled concentrations. A set of criteria was formulated to define the spikes in the response. Four variables - latency, duration, number of interspike intervals and frequency - were determined to quantify the responses. They were studied at the single neuron, neuron population and ciliary membrane levels. The dose-response curves were determined using specific functions and their characteristics were evaluated. The characteristic molar concentrations at threshold or at maximum duration and the characteristics of variables, e.g. minimum latency or maximum frequency, have asymmetric histograms with peaks close to the origin and long tails. Dynamic ranges have even more asymmetric histograms, so that a significant fraction of neurons presents a much wider range than their one-decade peak. From these histograms, response properties of the whole neuron population can be inferred. In general, location along the concentration axis (thresholds), width (dynamic ranges) and heights of dose-response curves are independent, which explains the diversity of curves, prevents their global categorization and supports the qualitative coding of odourants. No evidence for odourant-independent types of neurons was found. Finally, receptor activation and ciliary membrane conductance were reconstructed in the framework of a model based on firing data, known mucus biochemical and neuron morpho-electrical characteristics. It is in agreement with independent determinations of Kd of odourant-receptor interaction and of conductance characteristics, and describes their statistical distributions in the neuron population.

  7. Dopamine D4 receptor involvement in the discriminative stimulus effects in rats of LSD, but not the phenethylamine hallucinogen DOI.

    PubMed

    Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Chemel, Benjamin R; Nichols, David E

    2009-04-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) differs from other types of hallucinogens in that it possesses direct dopaminergic effects. The exact nature of this component has not been elucidated. The present study sought to characterize the effects of several dopamine D(4) agonists and antagonists on the discriminative stimulus effect of LSD at two pretreatment times and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), a selective 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a two-lever, fixed ratio (FR) 50, food-reinforced task with LSD-30 (0.08 mg/kg, i.p., 30-min pretreatment time), LSD-90 (0.16 mg/kg, i.p., 90-min pretreatment time), and DOI (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., 30-min pretreatment time) as discriminative stimuli. Substitution and combination tests with the dopamine D(4) agonists, ABT-724 and WAY 100635, were performed in all groups. Combination tests were run using the dopamine D(4) antagonists A-381393 and L-745,870 and two antipsychotic drugs, clozapine and olanzapine. WAY 100635 produced full substitution in LSD-90 rats, partial substitution in LSD-30 rats, and saline appropriate responding in DOI-trained rats. ABT-724 partially mimicked the LSD-90 and LSD-30 cues, but produced no substitution in DOI-trained rats. In combination tests, both agonists shifted the dose-response curve of LSD leftward, most potently for the LSD-90 cue. The D(4) antagonists significantly attenuated both the LSD-90 and LSD-30 cue, but had no effect on the DOI cue. Dopamine D(4) receptor activation plays a significant modulatory role in the discriminative stimulus effects in LSD-90-trained rats, most markedly for the later temporal phase of LSD, but has no effect on the cue produced by DOI.

  8. The role of Drosophila Piezo in mechanical nociception.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Coste, Bertrand; Chadha, Abhishek; Cook, Boaz; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2012-02-19

    Transduction of mechanical stimuli by receptor cells is essential for senses such as hearing, touch and pain. Ion channels have a role in neuronal mechanotransduction in invertebrates; however, functional conservation of these ion channels in mammalian mechanotransduction is not observed. For example, no mechanoreceptor potential C (NOMPC), a member of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family, acts as a mechanotransducer in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans; however, it has no orthologues in mammals. Degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) family members are mechanotransducers in C. elegans and potentially in D. melanogaster; however, a direct role of its mammalian homologues in sensing mechanical force has not been shown. Recently, Piezo1 (also known as Fam38a) and Piezo2 (also known as Fam38b) were identified as components of mechanically activated channels in mammals. The Piezo family are evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins. It is unknown whether they function in mechanical sensing in vivo and, if they do, which mechanosensory modalities they mediate. Here we study the physiological role of the single Piezo member in D. melanogaster (Dmpiezo; also known as CG8486). Dmpiezo expression in human cells induces mechanically activated currents, similar to its mammalian counterparts. Behavioural responses to noxious mechanical stimuli were severely reduced in Dmpiezo knockout larvae, whereas responses to another noxious stimulus or touch were not affected. Knocking down Dmpiezo in sensory neurons that mediate nociception and express the DEG/ENaC ion channel pickpocket (ppk) was sufficient to impair responses to noxious mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, expression of Dmpiezo in these same neurons rescued the phenotype of the constitutive Dmpiezo knockout larvae. Accordingly, electrophysiological recordings from ppk-positive neurons revealed a Dmpiezo-dependent, mechanically activated current. Finally, we found that Dmpiezo

  9. Peripheral and central alterations affecting spinal nociceptive processing and pain at adulthood in rats exposed to neonatal maternal deprivation.

    PubMed

    Juif, Pierre-Eric; Salio, Chiara; Zell, Vivien; Melchior, Meggane; Lacaud, Adrien; Petit-Demouliere, Nathalie; Ferrini, Francesco; Darbon, Pascal; Hanesch, Ulrike; Anton, Fernand; Merighi, Adalberto; Lelièvre, Vincent; Poisbeau, Pierrick

    2016-08-01

    The nociceptive system of rodents is not fully developed and functional at birth. Specifically, C fibers transmitting peripheral nociceptive information establish synaptic connections in the spinal cord already during the embryonic period that only become fully functional after birth. Here, we studied the consequences of neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD, 3 h/day, P2-P12) on the functional establishment of C fiber-mediated neurotransmission in spinal cord and of pain-related behavior. In vivo recording revealed that C fiber-mediated excitation of spinal cord neurons could be observed at P14 only in control but not in NMD rats. NMD was associated with a strong alteration in the expression of growth factors controlling C nociceptor maturation as well as two-pore domain K+ channels known to set nociceptive thresholds. In good agreement, C-type sensory neurons from NMD animals appeared to be hypoexcitable but functionally connected to spinal neurons, especially those expressing TRPV1 receptors. In vivo and in vitro recordings of lamina II spinal neurons at P14 revealed that the NMD-related lack of C fiber-evoked responses resulted from an inhibitory barrage in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Eventually, C-type sensory-spinal processing could be recovered after a delay of about 10 days in NMD animals. However, animals remained hypersensitive to noxious stimulus up to P100 and this might be due to an excessive expression of Nav1.8 transcripts in DRG neurons. Together, our data provide evidence for a deleterious impact of perinatal stress exposure on the maturation of the sensory-spinal nociceptive system that may contribute to the nociceptive hypersensitivity in early adulthood.

  10. The paradox of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine: an indoleamine hallucinogen that induces stimulus control via 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Winter, J C; Filipink, R A; Timineri, D; Helsley, S E; Rabin, R A

    2000-01-01

    Stimulus control was established in rats trained to discriminate either 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (3 mg/kg) or (-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (0.56 mg/kg) from saline. Tests of antagonism of stimulus control were conducted using the 5-HT1A antagonists (+/-)-pindolol and WAY-100635, and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist pirenperone. In rats trained with 5-MeO-DMT, pindolol and WAY-100635 both produced a significant degree of antagonism of stimulus control, but pirenperone was much less effective. Likewise, the full generalization of 5-MeO-DMT to the selective 5-HT1A agonist [+/-]-8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin was blocked by WAY-100635, but unaffected by pirenperone. In contrast, the partial generalization of 5-MeO-DMT to the 5-HT2 agonist DOM was completely antagonized by pirenperone, but was unaffected by WAY-100635. Similarly, in rats trained with (-)-DOM, pirenperone completely blocked stimulus control, but WAY-100635 was inactive. The results obtained in rats trained with (-)-DOM and tested with 5-MeO-DMT were more complex. Although the intraperitoneal route had been used for both training drugs, a significant degree of generalization of (-)-DOM to 5-MeO-DMT was seen only when the latter drug was administered subcutaneously. Furthermore, when the previously effective dose of pirenperone was given in combination with 5-MeO-DMT (s.c.), complete suppression of responding resulted. However, the combination of pirenperone and WAY-100635 given prior to 5-MeO-DMT restored responding in (-)-DOM-trained rats, and provided evidence of antagonism of the partial substitution of 5-MeO-DMT for (-)-DOM. The present data indicate that 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control is mediated primarily by interactions with 5-HT1A receptors. In addition, however, the present findings suggest that 5-MeO-DMT induces a compound stimulus that includes an element mediated by interactions with a 5-HT2 receptors. The latter component is not essential for 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus

  11. 5-HT2A receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the stimulus effects of hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Richard A; Regina, Meredith; Doat, Mireille; Winter, J C

    2002-05-01

    The role of 5-HT2A-mediated stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the discriminative effects of hallucinogens was investigated in PC12 cells stably expressing the rat 5-HT2A receptor (PC12-5-HT2A cells). The hallucinogenic compounds, D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), (-)2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), psilocybin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (MDMT) and N,N-diethyltryptamine (DET), all caused a concentration-dependent increase in the generation of [3H]inositol phosphates. The nonhallucinogenic compounds, 6-fluoro-N,N-diethyltryptamine (6-F-DET), lisuride and quipazine, also displayed significant efficacy in stimulating phosphoinositide hydrolysis, while 2-bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL), which is not a hallucinogen, did not alter inositol phosphate generation. The beta-carbolines, harmaline and harmane, also did not alter phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Comparison of these results with previous drug discrimination studies indicated the apparent lack of correlation between the degree of substitution in LSD- and DOM-trained animals and efficacy in stimulating phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The present study indicates that 5-HT2A-mediated stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis does not appear to be the sole critical signaling mechanism involved in the discriminative effects of hallucinogens.

  12. Nociceptive primary afferents: they have a mind of their own

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Nociceptive primary afferents have three surprising properties: they are highly complex in their expression of neurotransmitters and receptors and most probably participate in autocrine and paracrine interactions; they are capable of exerting tonic and activity-dependent inhibitory control over incoming nociceptive input; they can generate signals in the form of dorsal root reflexes that are transmitted antidromically out to the periphery and these signals can result in neurogenic inflammation in the innervated tissue. Thus, nociceptive primary afferents are highly complicated structures, capable of modifying input before it is ever transmitted to the central nervous system and capable of altering the tissue they innervate. PMID:24879874

  13. Tracking of nociceptive thresholds using adaptive psychophysical methods.

    PubMed

    Doll, Robert J; Buitenweg, Jan R; Meijer, Hil G E; Veltink, Peter H

    2014-03-01

    Psychophysical thresholds reflect the state of the underlying nociceptive mechanisms. For example, noxious events can activate endogenous analgesic mechanisms that increase the nociceptive threshold. Therefore, tracking thresholds over time facilitates the investigation of the dynamics of these underlying mechanisms. Threshold tracking techniques should use efficient methods for stimulus selection and threshold estimation. This study compares, in simulation and in human psychophysical experiments, the performance of different combinations of adaptive stimulus selection procedures and threshold estimation methods. Monte Carlo simulations were first performed to compare the bias and precision of threshold estimates produced by three different stimulus selection procedures (simple staircase, random staircase, and minimum entropy procedure) and two estimation methods (logistic regression and Bayesian estimation). Logistic regression and Bayesian estimations resulted in similar precision only when the prior probability distributions (PDs) were chosen appropriately. The minimum entropy and simple staircase procedures achieved the highest precision, while the random staircase procedure was the least sensitive to different procedure-specific settings. Next, the simple staircase and random staircase procedures, in combination with logistic regression, were compared in a human subject study (n = 30). Electrocutaneous stimulation was used to track the nociceptive perception threshold before, during, and after a cold pressor task, which served as the conditioning stimulus. With both procedures, habituation was detected, as well as changes induced by the conditioning stimulus. However, the random staircase procedure achieved a higher precision. We recommend using the random staircase over the simple staircase procedure, in combination with logistic regression, for nonstationary threshold tracking experiments.

  14. Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Ferre, Sergi; Segal, Pavan N; Antoniou, Katerina; Solinas, Marcello; Pappas, Lara A; Highkin, Jena L; Hockemeyer, Jorg; Munzar, Patrik; Goldberg, Steven R

    2003-12-01

    Adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. We have recently reported that nonselective adenosine receptor antagonists (caffeine and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine) can partially substitute for the discriminative-stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In the present study, by using more selective compounds, we investigated the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of both cocaine and methamphetamine. The effects of the A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT; 1.3-23.7 mg/kg) and the A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680; 0.03-0.18 mg/kg) and antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(3-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthin phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3; 1-56 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate either 1 mg/kg methamphetamine or 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. The A1 and A2A receptor antagonists (CPT and MSX-3) both produced high levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for either methamphetamine or cocaine and significantly shifted dose-response curves of both psychostimulants to the left. Unexpectedly, the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 also produced drug-appropriate responding (although at lower levels) when substituted for the cocaine-training stimulus, and both CGS 21680 and the A1 receptor agonist CPA significantly shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the left. In contrast, both agonists did not produce significant levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for the methamphetamine-training stimulus and failed to shift the methamphetamine dose-response curve. Therefore, adenosine A1 and A2A receptors appear to play important but differential roles in the modulation of the

  15. Comparison of the discriminative-stimulus effects of SKF 38393 with those of other dopamine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Desai, R I; Terry, P; Katz, J L

    2003-05-01

    The dopamine D(1)-like receptor agonists have traditionally been defined molecularly by their efficacy in stimulating adenylyl cyclase. However, evidence correlating the effectiveness of these drugs in behavioral assays and their effectiveness biochemically has not been forthcoming. The present study compared the discriminative-stimulus effects of the D(1)-like partial agonist SKF 38393 with several other D(1)-like agonists, an indirect agonist, cocaine, and a D(2)-like agonist, quinpirole. Rats were trained under a fixed-ratio 30-response schedule to discriminate SKF 38393 (5.6 mg/kg) from vehicle. Under this schedule, 30 consecutive responses on one of two keys were reinforced with food presentation after a pre-session injection of 5.6 mg/kg SKF 38393, and 30 consecutive responses on the alternative key were reinforced after saline injection. When daily performances were stable, substitution patterns for several compounds were assessed during test sessions in which 30 consecutive responses on either key were reinforced. Quinpirole and cocaine each produced saline-appropriate responding. In contrast, the D(1)-like agonists, SKF 75670 and SKF 77434, fully substituted for SKF 38393. Curiously, SKF 82958, which is considered a full agonist based on adenylyl cyclase assays, was less effective in substituting for SKF 38393 (maximum drug-appropriate responding 66%) than was the partial agonist SKF 75670. The present results suggest that second messenger effects other than stimulation of adenylyl cyclase may play an important role in the behavioral effects of dopamine D(1)-like agonists.

  16. What’s Coming Near? The Influence of Dynamical Visual Stimuli on Nociceptive Processing

    PubMed Central

    De Paepe, Annick L.; Crombez, Geert; Legrain, Valéry

    2016-01-01

    Objects approaching us may pose a threat, and signal the need to initiate defensive behavior. Detecting these objects early is crucial to either avoid the object or prepare for contact most efficiently. This requires the construction of a coherent representation of our body, and the space closely surrounding our body, i.e. the peripersonal space. This study, with 27 healthy volunteers, investigated how the processing of nociceptive stimuli applied to the hand is influenced by dynamical visual stimuli either approaching or receding from the hand. On each trial a visual stimulus was either approaching or receding the participant’s left or right hand. At different temporal delays from the onset of the visual stimulus, a nociceptive stimulus was applied either at the same or the opposite hand, so that it was presented when the visual stimulus was perceived at varying distances from the hand. Participants were asked to respond as fast as possible at which side they perceived a nociceptive stimulus. We found that reaction times were fastest when the visual stimulus appeared near the stimulated hand. Moreover, investigating the influence of the visual stimuli along the continuous spatial range (from near to far) showed that approaching lights had a stronger spatially dependent effect on nociceptive processing, compared to receding lights. These results suggest that the coding of nociceptive information in a peripersonal frame of reference may constitute a safety margin around the body that is designed to protect it from potential physical threat. PMID:27224421

  17. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists and their role in mechanical, thermal and nociceptive sensations as assessed using animal models

    PubMed Central

    Klein, AH; Trannyguen, Minh; Joe, Christopher L.; Iodi, Carstens M.; Carstens, E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The present paper summarizes research using animal models to investigate the roles of thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in somatosensory functions including touch, temperature and pain. We present new data assessing the effects of eugenol and carvacrol, agonists of the warmth-sensitive TRPV3, on thermal, mechanical and pain sensitivity in rats. Methods Thermal sensitivity was assessed using a thermal preference test, which measured the amount of time the animal occupied one of two adjacent thermoelectric plates set at different temperatures. Pain sensitivity was assessed as an increase in latency of hindpaw withdrawal away from a noxious thermal stimulus directed to the plantar hindpaw (Hargreaves test). Mechanical sensitivity was assessed by measuring the force exerted by an electronic von Frey filament pressed against the plantar surface that elicited withdrawal. Results Topical application of eugenol and carvacrol did not significantly affect thermal preference, although there was a trend toward avoidance of the hotter surface in a 30 vs. 45°C preference test for rats treated with 1 or 10% eugenol and carvacrol. Both eugenol and carvacrol induced a concentration-dependent increase in thermal withdrawal latency (analgesia), with no significant effect on mechanosensitivity. Conclusions The analgesic effect of eugenol and carvacrol is consistent with previous studies. The tendency for these chemicals to increase the avoidance of warmer temperatures suggests a possible role for TRPV3 in warmth detection, also consistent with previous studies. Additional roles of other thermosensitive TRP channels (TRPM8 TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM3, TRPM8, TRPA1, TRPC5) in touch, temperature and pain are reviewed. PMID:26388966

  18. Facilitation of a nociceptive flexion reflex in man by nonnoxious radiant heat produced by a laser.

    PubMed

    Plaghki, L; Bragard, D; Le Bars, D; Willer, J C; Godfraind, J M

    1998-05-01

    Electromyographic recordings were made in healthy volunteers from the knee-flexor biceps femoris muscle of the nociceptive RIII reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the cutaneous sural nerve. The stimulus intensity was adjusted to produce a moderate pricking-pain sensation. The test responses were conditioned by a nonnoxious thermal (stimulus applied to the receptive field of the sural nerve. This stimulus was delivered by a CO2 laser stimulator and consisted of a 100-ms pulse of heat with a beam diameter of 20 mm. Its power was 22.7 +/- 4.2 W (7.2 mJ/mm2), and it produced a sensation of warmth. The maximum surface temperature reached at the end of the period of stimulation was calculated to be 7 degrees C above the actual reference temperature of the skin (32 degrees C). The interval between the laser (conditioning) and electrical (test) stimuli was varied from 50 to 3, 000 ms in steps of 50 ms. It was found that the nociceptive flexion reflex was facilitated by the thermal stimulus; this modulation occurred with particular conditioning-test intervals, which peaked at 500 and 1,100 ms with an additional late, long-lasting phase between 1,600 and 2,300 ms. It was calculated that the conduction velocities of the cutaneous afferent fibers responsible for facilitating the RIII reflex, fell into three ranges: one corresponding to A delta fibers (3.2 m/s) and two in the C fiber range (1.3 and 0.7 m/s). It is concluded that information emanating from warm receptors and nociceptors converges. In this respect, the present data show, for the first time, that in man, conditioning nonnociceptive warm thermoreceptive A delta and C fibers results in an interaction at the spinal level with a nociceptive reflex. This interaction may constitute a useful means whereby signals add together to trigger flexion reflexes in defensive reactions and other basic motor behaviors. It also may contribute to hyperalgesia in inflammatory processes. The methodology used

  19. Molecular basis determining inhibition/activation of nociceptive receptor TRPA1 protein: a single amino acid dictates species-specific actions of the most potent mammalian TRPA1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Banzawa, Nagako; Saito, Shigeru; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Kashio, Makiko; Takahashi, Kenji; Tominaga, Makoto; Ohta, Toshio

    2014-11-14

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channel mainly expressed in a subset of nociceptive neurons. TRPA1 functions as a cellular sensor detecting mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimuli. Because TRPA1 is considered to be a key player in nociception and inflammatory pain, TRPA1 antagonists have been developed as analgesic agents. Recently, by utilizing species differences, we identified the molecular basis of the antagonistic action of A967079, one of the most potent mammalian TRPA1 antagonists. Here, we show a unique effect of A967079 on TRPA1 from diverse vertebrate species, i.e. it acts as an agonist but not as an antagonist for chicken and frog TRPA1s. By characterizing chimeric channels of human and chicken TRPA1s, as well as point mutants, we found that a single specific amino acid residue located within the putative fifth transmembrane domain was involved in not only the stimulatory but also the inhibitory actions of A967079. AP18, structurally related to A967079, exerted similar pharmacological properties to A967079. Our findings and previous reports on species differences in the sensitivity to TRPA1 antagonists supply useful information in the search for novel analgesic medicines targeting TRPA1.

  20. Analysis of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in frogs and lizards illuminates both nociceptive heat and chemical sensitivities and coexpression with TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in ancestral vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeru; Nakatsuka, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Kenji; Fukuta, Naomi; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Ohta, Toshio; Tominaga, Makoto

    2012-08-31

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP vanilloid 1 (V1) perceive noxious temperatures and chemical stimuli and are involved in pain sensation in mammals. Thus, these two channels provide a model for understanding how different genes with similar biological roles may influence the function of one another during the course of evolution. However, the temperature sensitivity of TRPA1 in ancestral vertebrates and its evolutionary path are unknown as its temperature sensitivities vary among different vertebrate species. To elucidate the functional evolution of TRPA1, TRPA1s of the western clawed (WC) frogs and green anole lizards were characterized. WC frog TRPA1 was activated by heat and noxious chemicals that activate mammalian TRPA1. These stimuli also activated native sensory neurons and elicited nocifensive behaviors in WC frogs. Similar to mammals, TRPA1 was functionally co-expressed with TRPV1, another heat- and chemical-sensitive nociceptive receptor, in native sensory neurons of the WC frog. Green anole TRPA1 was also activated by heat and noxious chemical stimulation. These results suggest that TRPA1 was likely a noxious heat and chemical receptor and co-expressed with TRPV1 in the nociceptive sensory neurons of ancestral vertebrates. Conservation of TRPV1 heat sensitivity throughout vertebrate evolution could have changed functional constraints on TRPA1 and influenced the functional evolution of TRPA1 regarding temperature sensitivity, whereas conserving its noxious chemical sensitivity. In addition, our results also demonstrated that two mammalian TRPA1 inhibitors elicited different effect on the TRPA1s of WC frogs and green anoles, which can be utilized to clarify the structural bases for inhibition of TRPA1.

  1. Analysis of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in Frogs and Lizards Illuminates Both Nociceptive Heat and Chemical Sensitivities and Coexpression with TRP Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in Ancestral Vertebrates*

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Shigeru; Nakatsuka, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Kenji; Fukuta, Naomi; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Ohta, Toshio; Tominaga, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP vanilloid 1 (V1) perceive noxious temperatures and chemical stimuli and are involved in pain sensation in mammals. Thus, these two channels provide a model for understanding how different genes with similar biological roles may influence the function of one another during the course of evolution. However, the temperature sensitivity of TRPA1 in ancestral vertebrates and its evolutionary path are unknown as its temperature sensitivities vary among different vertebrate species. To elucidate the functional evolution of TRPA1, TRPA1s of the western clawed (WC) frogs and green anole lizards were characterized. WC frog TRPA1 was activated by heat and noxious chemicals that activate mammalian TRPA1. These stimuli also activated native sensory neurons and elicited nocifensive behaviors in WC frogs. Similar to mammals, TRPA1 was functionally co-expressed with TRPV1, another heat- and chemical-sensitive nociceptive receptor, in native sensory neurons of the WC frog. Green anole TRPA1 was also activated by heat and noxious chemical stimulation. These results suggest that TRPA1 was likely a noxious heat and chemical receptor and co-expressed with TRPV1 in the nociceptive sensory neurons of ancestral vertebrates. Conservation of TRPV1 heat sensitivity throughout vertebrate evolution could have changed functional constraints on TRPA1 and influenced the functional evolution of TRPA1 regarding temperature sensitivity, whereas conserving its noxious chemical sensitivity. In addition, our results also demonstrated that two mammalian TRPA1 inhibitors elicited different effect on the TRPA1s of WC frogs and green anoles, which can be utilized to clarify the structural bases for inhibition of TRPA1. PMID:22791718

  2. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 - a polymodal nociceptive receptor - plays a crucial role in formaldehyde-induced skin inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Haruki; Endo, Takumi; Shimouchi, Ayumi; Saito, Asaka; Tominaga, Makoto; Yamashita, Hirotaka; Nagai, Hiroichi; Inagaki, Naoki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is irritating to the skin and is the main cause of sick building syndrome. However, the cutaneous reaction induced by long-term FA exposure has not been fully investigated. In our previous study, we demonstrated that repeated painting of 2% - 10% FA on mouse ears caused marked ear swelling and increased mRNA expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and neurotrophins in the ear. TRPV1 is reported to be involved in neurogenic inflammation; therefore, in the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in FA-induced skin inflammation using TRPV1 gene-knockout mice. Mice were painted with 5% FA once a week for 5 weeks, and ear swelling and mRNA expression were investigated. Ear swelling and increased expression of neurotrophins mRNA by FA provocation in wild-type mice were attenuated by disruption of the TRPV1 gene. Furthermore, painting with a threshold dose of capsaicin, which does not induce ear swelling in intact mice, caused marked ear swelling after painting the ear 5 times with FA, indicating that inflamed tissues after FA application are hypersensitive to various ligands of TRPV1 in mice. These results demonstrated that neurogenic inflammation via TRPV1 and neurotrophins could be involved in FA-induced dermatitis.

  3. POTENTIAL SEROTONIN 5-HT1A AND DOPAMINE D4 RECEPTOR MODULATION OF THE DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS EFFECTS OF AMPHETAMINE IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the dopaminergic system underlies the behavioral effects of (+)-amphetamine, and plays the major role in its discriminative stimulus properties. Although serotonin receptors modulate dopamine levels in the brain, and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptor agonists do not mimic (+)-amphetamine, pretreatment with 5-HT2A/2C agonists significantly potentiates the (+)-amphetamine cue. Further, 5-HT2 antagonists do not modify the discriminative stimulus effect of (+)-amphetamine, but 5-HT1A antagonists have never been tested in (+)-amphetamine-trained rats. The present study sought to characterize the effects of the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635 on (+)-amphetamine-induced discriminative stimulus effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a two-lever, fixed ratio (FR) 50, food-reinforced task with (+)-amphetamine sulfate (1.0 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min pretreatment time) as the discriminative stimulus. Substitution and combination tests with WAY 100635 were then performed. WAY 100635 did not produce substitution in amphetamine-trained rats, but significantly increased behavioral disruption. In combination tests 0.4 and 5.4 mg/kg doses of WAY 100635 potentiated the amphetamine cue. We suggest that low doses of WAY 100635 potentiated the (+)-amphetamine cue by blockade of 5-HT1A receptors, but stimulation of the dopamine D4 receptor by higher doses of WAY 100635 may be responsible for potentiation of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. The high percentage of behavioral disruption in substitution tests might suggest that rats trained to discriminate (+)-amphetamine from saline show behavioral sensitization that is not detectable by the drug discrimination assay but may be expressed as hyperactivity and stereotypic behavior that disrupts operant behavior. PMID:21814134

  4. ZBTB20 regulates nociception and pain sensation by modulating TRP channel expression in nociceptive sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ren, An-Jing; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Anjun; Ma, Xianhua; Liang, Qing; Cao, Dongmei; Wood, John N; He, David Z; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Yuan, Wen-Jun; Xie, Zhifang; Zhang, Weiping J

    2014-11-05

    In mammals, pain sensation is initiated by the detection of noxious stimuli through specialized transduction ion channels and receptors in nociceptive sensory neurons. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are the key sensory transducers that confer nociceptors distinct sensory modalities. However, the regulatory mechanisms about their expression are poorly defined. Here we show that the zinc-finger protein ZBTB20 regulates TRP channels expression in nociceptors. ZBTB20 is highly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia. Disruption of ZBTB20 in nociceptors led to a marked decrease in the expression levels of TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 and the response of calcium flux and whole-cell currents evoked by their respective specific agonists. Phenotypically, the mice lacking ZBTB20 specifically in nociceptors showed a defect in nociception and pain sensation in response to thermal, mechanical and inflammatory stimulation. Our findings point to ZBTB20 as a critical regulator of nociception and pain sensation by modulating TRP channels expression in nociceptors.

  5. Roles of phosphotase 2A in nociceptive signal processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Lei, Yongzhong; Fang, Li; Mu, Yonggao; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Xuan

    2013-09-08

    Multiple protein kinases affect the responses of dorsal horn neurons through phosphorylation of synaptic receptors and proteins involved in intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the consequences of this modulation may be spinal central sensitization. In contrast, the phosphatases catalyze an opposing reaction of de-phosphorylation, which may also modulate the functions of crucial proteins in signaling nociception. This is an important mechanism in the regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways in nociceptive neurons. Accumulated evidence has shown that phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a serine/threonine specific phosphatase, is implicated in synaptic plasticity of the central nervous system and central sensitization of nociception. Therefore, targeting protein phosphotase 2A may provide an effective and novel strategy for the treatment of clinical pain. This review will characterize the structure and functional regulation of neuronal PP2A and bring together recent advances on the modulation of PP2A in targeted downstream substrates and relevant multiple nociceptive signaling molecules.

  6. Muscarinic receptor antagonism in the basolateral amygdala blocks acquisition of cocaine-stimulus association in a model of relapse to cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    See, R E; McLaughlin, J; Fuchs, R A

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated a critical role for the basolateral amygdala complex in the reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behavior produced by drug-paired cues. In the current study, we utilized a model of the acquisition and expression of cocaine-stimulus associative pairing in order to study the role of cholinergic input to the basolateral amygdala in mediating conditioned-cued reinstatement. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were first trained daily to self-administer i.v. cocaine on a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, scopolamine, was directly infused into the basolateral amygdala prior to: a) classically conditioned pairing of a tone+light stimulus with cocaine infusions (acquisition), or b) testing of conditioned-cued reinstatement following a period of withdrawal from cocaine and extinction of cocaine-paired lever responding. Infusion of scopolamine just prior to the classical conditioning trial produced a dose-dependent disruption of cocaine-seeking behavior maintained by cocaine-paired cues during the reinstatement test. In contrast, infusion of scopolamine prior to the reinstatement test had no effect on conditioned-cued reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. These results indicate a crucial role for cholinergic innervation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the basolateral amygdala during the formation, but not the expression, of stimulus-reward associations that mediate cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior.

  7. Nociceptive Afferent Activity Alters the SI RA Neuron Response to Mechanical Skin Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Favorov, O.V.; Li, Y.; Lee, J.; Quibrera, P.M.; Tommerdahl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Procedures that reliably evoke cutaneous pain in humans (i.e., 5–7 s skin contact with a 47–51 °C probe, intradermal algogen injection) are shown to decrease the mean spike firing rate (MFR) and degree to which the rapidly adapting (RA) neurons in areas 3b/1 of squirrel monkey primary somatosensory cortex (SI) entrain to a 25-Hz stimulus to the receptive field center (RFcenter) when stimulus amplitude is “near-threshold” (i.e., 10–50 μm). In contrast, RA neuron MFR and entrainment are either unaffected or enhanced by 47–51 °C contact or intradermal algogen injection when the amplitude of 25-Hz stimulation is 100–200 μm (suprathreshold). The results are attributed to an “activity dependence” of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) action on the GABAA receptors of RA neurons. The nociceptive afferent drive triggered by skin contact with a 47–51 °C probe or intradermal algogen is proposed to activate nociresponsive neurons in area 3a which, via corticocortical connections, leads to the release of GABA in areas 3b/1. It is hypothesized that GABA is hyperpolarizing/inhibitory and suppresses stimulus-evoked RA neuron MFR and entrainment whenever RA neuron activity is low (as when the RFcenter stimulus is weak/near-threshold) but is depolarizing/excitatory and augments MFR and entrainment when RA neuron activity is high (when the stimulus is strong/suprathreshold). PMID:20308203

  8. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)2A receptors in rat anterior cingulate cortex mediate the discriminative stimulus properties of d-lysergic acid diethylamide.

    PubMed

    Gresch, Paul J; Barrett, Robert J; Sanders-Bush, Elaine; Smith, Randy L

    2007-02-01

    d-Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), an indoleamine hallucinogen, produces profound alterations in mood, thought, and perception in humans. The brain site(s) that mediates the effects of LSD is currently unknown. In this study, we combine the drug discrimination paradigm with intracerebral microinjections to investigate the anatomical localization of the discriminative stimulus of LSD in rats. Based on our previous findings, we targeted the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to test its involvement in mediating the discriminative stimulus properties of LSD. Rats were trained to discriminate systemically administered LSD (0.085 mg/kg s.c.) from saline. Following acquisition of the discrimination, bilateral cannulae were implanted into the ACC (AP, +1.2 mm; ML, +/-1.0 mm; DV, -2.0 mm relative to bregma). Rats were tested for their ability to discriminate varying doses of locally infused LSD (0.1875, 0.375, and 0.75 microg/side) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (n = 3-7). LSD locally infused into ACC dose-dependently substituted for systemically administered LSD, with 0.75 microg/side LSD substituting completely (89% correct). Systemic administration of the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist R-(+)-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenylethyl)]-4-piperidine-methanol (M100907; 0.4 mg/kg) blocked the discriminative cue of LSD (0.375 microg/side) infused into ACC (from 68 to 16% drug lever responding). Furthermore, M100907 (0.5 microg/microl/side) locally infused into ACC completely blocked the stimulus effects of systemic LSD (0.04 mg/kg; from 80 to 12% on the LSD lever). Taken together, these data indicate that 5-HT(2A) receptors in the ACC are a primary target mediating the discriminative stimulus properties of LSD.

  9. Thermal nociception in adult Drosophila: behavioral characterization and the role of the painless gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, S Y; Cang, C L; Liu, X F; Peng, Y Q; Ye, Y Z; Zhao, Z Q; Guo, A K

    2006-11-01

    Nociception, warning of injury that should be avoided, serves an important protective function in animals. In this study, we show that adult Drosophila avoids noxious heat by a jump response. To quantitatively analyze this nociceptive behavior, we developed two assays. In the CO2 laser beam assay, flies exhibit this behavior when a laser beam heats their abdomens. The consistency of the jump latency in this assay meets an important criterion for a good nociceptive assay. In the hot plate assay, flies jump quickly to escape from a hot copper plate (>45 degrees C). Our results demonstrate that, as in mammals, the latency of the jump response is inversely related to stimulus intensity, and innoxious thermosensation does not elicit this nociceptive behavior. To explore the genetic mechanisms of nociception, we examined several mutants in both assays. Abnormal nociceptive behavior of a mutant, painless, indicates that painless, a gene essential for nociception in Drosophila larvae, is also required for thermal nociception in adult flies. painless is expressed in certain neurons of the peripheral nervous system and thoracic ganglia, as well as in the definite brain structures, the mushroom bodies. However, chemical or genetic insults to the mushroom bodies do not influence the nociceptive behavior, suggesting that different painless-expressing neurons play diverse roles in thermal nociception. Additionally, no-bridge(KS49), a mutant that has a structural defect in the protocerebral bridge, shows defective response to noxious heat. Thus, our results validate adult Drosophila as a useful model to study the genetic mechanisms of thermal nociception.

  10. Effects of the serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor ligands on the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Magdalena; McCreary, Andrew C; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Malgorzata

    2007-10-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that serotonergic (5-HT) 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors or their pharmacological stimulation modulated the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in male Wistar rats. To this end the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist R-(+)-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-4-piperidinemethanol (M100,907; 0.5-1 mg/kg, i.p.), the functional 5-HT2A receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI; 0.1-1 mg/kg, s.c.), the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist 6-chloro-5-methyl-1-{[2-(2-methylpyrid-3-yloxy)pyrid-5-yl]carbamoyl}indoline (SB 242,084; 0.25-1 mg/kg, i.p.) and the 5-HT2C receptor agonists (S)-2-chloro-5-fluoro-indol-1-yl)-1-methylethylamine fumarate (Ro 60-0175; 0.3-1 mg/kg, s.c.) and (7bR, 10aR)-1,2,3,4,8,9,10,10a-octahydro-7bH-cyclopenta-[b][1,4]diazepino[6,7,1hi]indole (WAY 163,909; 0.75-1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were used. Additionally, the effects of the selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype agonist 5-iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5-IA; 0.01 mg/kg, s.c.) were investigated. In rats trained to discriminate (-)-nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.) from saline in a two-lever, water-reinforced fixed ratio 10 task, substitutions were not observed with 5-HT2 receptor ligands (<32% nicotine-lever responding), conversely 5-IA induced a full substitution (100% nicotine-lever responding). In combination studies, fixed doses of M100,907 (0.5-1 mg/kg) or SB 242,084 (0.25-1 mg/kg) did not alter the dose-response curve of nicotine, while DOI (0.3 mg/kg), Ro 60-0175 (1 mg/kg) and WAY 163,909 (1 and 1.5 mg/kg) attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. The decrease in the expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine produced by DOI was blocked by M100,907 (1 mg/kg), but not by SB 242,084 (1 mg/kg), while that evoked by Ro 60-0175 or WAY 163,909 was blocked by SB 242,084 (1 mg/kg), but not by M100,907 (1 mg/kg). Further studies showed that

  11. Differential effects of GABA in modulating nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive synapses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Summers, T; Peterson, W; Miiller, E; Burrell, B D

    2015-07-09

    GABA (γ-amino-butyric acid) -mediated signaling is normally associated with synaptic inhibition due to ionotropic GABA receptors that gate an inward Cl(-) current, hyperpolarizing the membrane potential. However, there are also situations where ionotropic GABA receptors trigger a Cl(-) efflux that results in depolarization. The well-characterized central nervous system of the medicinal leech was used to study the functional significance of opposing effects of GABA at the synaptic circuit level. Specifically, we focused on synapses made by the nociceptive N cell and the non-nociceptive P (pressure) cell that converge onto a common postsynaptic target. It is already known that GABA hyperpolarizes the P cell, but depolarizes the N cell and that inhibition of ionotropic GABA receptors by bicuculline (BIC) has opposing effects on the synapses made by these two inputs; enhancing P cell synaptic transmission, but depressing N cell synapses. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the opposing effects of GABA were due to differences in Cl(-) homeostasis between the two presynaptic neurons. VU 0240551 (VU), an inhibitor of the Cl(-) exporter K-Cl co-transporter isoform 2 (KCC2), attenuated GABA-mediated hyperpolarization of the non-nociceptive afferent while bumetanide (BUM), an inhibitor of the Cl(-) importer Na-K-Cl co-transporter isoform 1 (NKCC1), reduced GABA-mediated depolarization of the nociceptive neuron. VU treatment also enhanced P cell synaptic signaling, similar to the previously observed effects of BIC and consistent with the idea that GABA inhibits synaptic signaling at the presynaptic level. BUM treatment depressed N cell synapses, again similar to what is observed following BIC treatment and suggests that GABA has an excitatory effect on these synapses. The opposing effects of GABA could also be observed at the behavioral level with BIC and VU increasing responsiveness to non-nociceptive stimulation while BIC and BUM decreased responsiveness

  12. Pregabalin alters nociceptive behavior and expression level of P2X3 receptor in the spinal dorsal horn in a rat model induced by chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianfeng; Fu, Peng; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shuzhen; Cui, Donghong

    2013-12-01

    P2X3 receptors are present in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and play an essential role in the regulation of nociception and pain. Pregabalin (PGB) has been used as a new antiepileptic drug in the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, it is unclear whether PGB-induced analgesia was associated with the P2X3 receptor in SDH. Here, rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 per group), including 2 sham operation groups, which was treated by normal saline (Sham + NS group) or PGB (Sham + PGB group), other 2 groups with chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion, a normal saline-treated CCD group (CCD+NS group), and a PGB-treated CCD group (CCD + PGB group). A rat model of neuropathic pain was used by compressing the right L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia. Each group was evaluated using the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT). The mRNA and protein levels of the P2X3 receptor in the ipsilateral SDH were measured by RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence on 14 day after CCD operation. CCD rats showed the highest mechanical hyperalgesia and the lowest pain threshold in the four groups. Simultaneously, CCD rats showed higher P2X3 mRNA and protein expression in ipsilateral side of the SDH than the sham operation rats. However, the MWT was increased and expression of P2X3 mRNA and protein in the ipsilateral SDH in CCD rats was decreased 3 days after PGB treatment. Thus, PGB may partially reverse mechanical hyperalgesia in CCD rats by inhibiting P2X3 receptor expression in the ipsilateral SDH.

  13. Cortical responses to salient nociceptive and not nociceptive stimuli in vegetative and minimal conscious state

    PubMed Central

    de Tommaso, Marina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzillotti, Crocifissa; Ricci, Katia; Buonocunto, Francesca; Livrea, Paolo; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Questions regarding perception of pain in non-communicating patients and the management of pain continue to raise controversy both at a clinical and ethical level. The aim of this study was to examine the cortical response to salient visual, acoustic, somatosensory electric non-nociceptive and nociceptive laser stimuli and their correlation with the clinical evaluation. Methods: Five Vegetative State (VS), 4 Minimally Conscious State (MCS) patients and 11 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. Evoked responses were obtained by 64 scalp electrodes, while delivering auditory, visual, non-noxious electrical and noxious laser stimulation, which were randomly presented every 10 s. Laser, somatosensory, auditory and visual evoked responses were identified as a negative-positive (N2-P2) vertex complex in the 500 ms post-stimulus time. We used Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R) and Coma Recovery Scale (CRS-R) for clinical evaluation of pain perception and consciousness impairment. Results: The laser evoked potentials (LEPs) were recognizable in all cases. Only one MCS patient showed a reliable cortical response to all the employed stimulus modalities. One VS patient did not present cortical responses to any other stimulus modality. In the remaining participants, auditory, visual and electrical related potentials were inconstantly present. Significant N2 and P2 latency prolongation occurred in both VS and MCS patients. The presence of a reliable cortical response to auditory, visual and electric stimuli was able to correctly classify VS and MCS patients with 90% accuracy. Laser P2 and N2 amplitudes were not correlated with the CRS-R and NCS-R scores, while auditory and electric related potentials amplitude were associated with the motor response to pain and consciousness recovery. Discussion: pain arousal may be a primary function also in vegetative state patients while the relevance of other stimulus modalities may indicate the degree of cognitive and motor

  14. Stimulus Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Stimulus funds unquestionably have helped many schools keep going through tough times, but for many institutions, the tough times aren't going away anytime soon. That is why, a little more than a year after Congress passed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and began allocating billions of dollars in aid across the nation, the so-called…

  15. A classification of opiate receptors that mediate antinociception in animals.

    PubMed Central

    Tyers, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    1 To investigate the opiate receptors that mediate antinociception, the activity profiles of opioid analgesic drugs have been determined against different nociceptive stimuli in the mouse and rat. 2 In tests that employ heat as the nociceptive stimulus, mu-opiate receptor agonists, such as morphine, pethidine and dextropropoxyphene, had steep and parallel dose-response curves and were capable of achieving maximum effects. In addition, the antinociceptive potency ratios of these drugs in heat tests were similar to those for analgesia in man. 3 The kappa-agonists, such as ethylketazocine, nalorphine, Mr2034 and pentazocine, were essentially inactive against heat nociception except at doses that caused sedation and motor incapacitation. 4 In the writhing and paw pressure tests both mu- and kappa-agonists produced steep and parallel dose-response curves. 5 It is concluded that both mu- and kappa-opiate receptors mediate antinociception in animals and that the interactions of analgesic drugs with these receptors may be classified in terms of their antinociceptive activities against qualitatively different nociceptive stimuli. PMID:6249436

  16. Ethanol attenuates sensory stimulus-evoked responses in cerebellar granule cells via activation of GABA(A) receptors in vivo in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guang; Liu, Heng; Jin, Juan; Hong, Lan; Lan, Yan; Chu, Chun-Ping; Qiu, De-Lai

    2014-02-21

    Acute alcohol intoxication affects cerebellar motor regulation possibly by altering the transfer and integration of external information in cerebellar cortical neurons, resulting in a dysfunction of cerebellar motor regulation or a cerebellar atexia. However, the synaptic mechanisms of ethanol induced impairments of sensory information processing in cerebellar cortical neurons are not fully understand. In the present study, we used electrophysiological and pharmacological methods to study the effects of ethanol on the sensory stimulation-evoked responses in cerebellar granule cells (GCs) in vivo in urethane anesthetized mice. Air-puff stimulation of the ipsilateral whisker-pad evoked stimulus-on (P1) and stimulus-off responses (P2) in GCs of cerebellar Crus II. Cerebellar surface perfusion of ethanol did not alter the onset latency of the sensory stimulation-evoked responses, but reversible reduced the amplitude of P1 and P2. The ethanol-induced reduction of the GCs sensory responses was concentration-dependent. In the presence of ethanol, the mean half-width, area under curve, rise Tau and decay Tau of P1 were significantly decreased. Blockade of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors activity induced an increase in amplitude of P1, and abolished the ethanol induced inhibition of the GCs sensory responses. These results indicate that ethanol inhibits the tactile evoked responses in cerebellar GCs through enhancement of GABA(A) receptors activity.

  17. The relationship between nociceptive brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behaviour in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Caroline; Goksan, Sezgi; Poorun, Ravi; Brotherhood, Kelly; Mellado, Gabriela Schmidt; Moultrie, Fiona; Rogers, Richard; Adams, Eleri; Slater, Rebeccah

    2015-07-31

    Measuring infant pain is complicated by their inability to describe the experience. While nociceptive brain activity, reflex withdrawal and facial grimacing have been characterised, the relationship between these activity patterns has not been examined. As cortical and spinally mediated activity is developmentally regulated, it cannot be assumed that they are predictive of one another in the immature nervous system. Here, using a new experimental paradigm, we characterise the nociceptive-specific brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behavioural activity following graded intensity noxious stimulation and clinical heel lancing in 30 term infants. We show that nociceptive-specific brain activity and nociceptive reflex withdrawal are graded with stimulus intensity (p < 0.001), significantly correlated (r = 0.53, p = 0.001) and elicited at an intensity that does not evoke changes in clinical pain scores (p = 0.55). The strong correlation between reflex withdrawal and nociceptive brain activity suggests that movement of the limb away from a noxious stimulus is a sensitive indication of nociceptive brain activity in term infants. This could underpin the development of new clinical pain assessment measures.

  18. The relationship between nociceptive brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behaviour in newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Caroline; Goksan, Sezgi; Poorun, Ravi; Brotherhood, Kelly; Mellado, Gabriela Schmidt; Moultrie, Fiona; Rogers, Richard; Adams, Eleri; Slater, Rebeccah

    2015-01-01

    Measuring infant pain is complicated by their inability to describe the experience. While nociceptive brain activity, reflex withdrawal and facial grimacing have been characterised, the relationship between these activity patterns has not been examined. As cortical and spinally mediated activity is developmentally regulated, it cannot be assumed that they are predictive of one another in the immature nervous system. Here, using a new experimental paradigm, we characterise the nociceptive-specific brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behavioural activity following graded intensity noxious stimulation and clinical heel lancing in 30 term infants. We show that nociceptive-specific brain activity and nociceptive reflex withdrawal are graded with stimulus intensity (p < 0.001), significantly correlated (r = 0.53, p = 0.001) and elicited at an intensity that does not evoke changes in clinical pain scores (p = 0.55). The strong correlation between reflex withdrawal and nociceptive brain activity suggests that movement of the limb away from a noxious stimulus is a sensitive indication of nociceptive brain activity in term infants. This could underpin the development of new clinical pain assessment measures. PMID:26228435

  19. Endogenous mammalian RF-amide peptides, including PrRP, kisspeptin and 26RFa, modulate nociception and morphine analgesia via NPFF receptors.

    PubMed

    Elhabazi, Khadija; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Schmitt, Martine; Bihel, Frédéric; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Bucher, Bernard; Becker, Jérôme A J; Sorg, Tania; Meziane, Hamid; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Ilien, Brigitte; Simonin, Frédéric

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian RF-amide peptides are encoded by five different genes and act through five different G protein-coupled receptors. RF-amide-related peptides-1 and -3, neuropeptides AF and FF, Prolactin releasing peptides, Kisspeptins and RFa peptides are currently considered endogenous peptides for NPFF1, NPFF2, GPR10, GPR54 and GPR103 receptors, respectively. However, several studies suggest that the selectivity of these peptides for their receptors is low and indicate that expression patterns for receptors and their corresponding ligands only partially overlap. In this study, we took advantage of the cloning of the five human RF-amide receptors to systematically examine their affinity for and their activation by all human RF-amide peptides. Binding experiments, performed on membranes from CHO cells expressing GPR10, GPR54 and GPR103 receptors, confirmed their high affinity and remarkable selectivity for their cognate ligands. Conversely, NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors displayed high affinity for all RF-amide peptides. Moreover, GTPγS and cAMP experiments showed that almost all RF-amide peptides efficiently activate NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors. As NPFF is known to modulate morphine analgesia, we undertook a systematic analysis in mice of the hyperalgesic and anti morphine-induced analgesic effects of a representative set of endogenous RF-amide peptides. All of them induced hyperalgesia and/or prevented morphine analgesia following intracerebroventricular administration. Importantly, these effects were prevented by administration of RF9, a highly selective NPFF1/NPFF2 antagonist. Altogether, our results show that all endogenous RF-amide peptides display pain-modulating properties and point to NPFF receptors as essential players for these effects.

  20. Taste modulation of nociception differently affects chronically stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Fontella, Fernanda Urruth; Nunes, Marcele Leon; Crema, Leonardo M; Balk, Rodrigo S; Dalmaz, Carla; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    Stress responses cover a wide range of physiological changes, including alterations in the perception of and response to pain. Animals submitted to repeated stress present altered nociception and this effect is part of this process of adaptation; in addition pleasant and unpleasant experiences with tastes and odors have been shown to affect distinct behavioral aspects, such as pain perception. The aim of the present study is to verify the responses of repeatedly stressed rats (1 h of daily immobilization during 40 days) to pleasant and unpleasant tastes on nociception, when compared to control animals. An increase in the tail-flick latency (TFL) was observed 5 min after exposure to a sweet taste in the control group, whereas no effect was observed in chronically stressed animals. When submitted to an unpleasant taste (5% acetic acid), the chronically stressed group presented an increase in TFL, whereas no effect was observed in the control group. In conclusion, chronically stressed animals present different nociceptive responses to sweet and acid tastes; although control animals suitably respond to a sweet stimulus, stressed animals seem to be more apt to react to the unpleasant stimulus.

  1. Tolerance to morphine analgesia: evidence for stimulus intensity as a key factor and complete reversal by a glycine site-specific NMDA antagonist.

    PubMed

    Adam, Frédéric; Bonnet, Francis; Le Bars, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are widely involved in opioid tolerance. However, it is less clear whether NMDA receptor antagonists reverse already-established tolerance and whether the intensity of the nociceptive stimulus influences morphine tolerance. Three days after implantation of morphine or control pellets the effects of i.v. morphine and pre-administration of saline or (+)-HA966 (a glycine site-specific NMDA receptor antagonist), were studied on the C-fibre reflex elicited by a wide range of stimulus intensities. Morphine both increased the threshold and decreased the slope of the recruitment curve in the "non-tolerant" group of animals. In the "morphine-tolerant" group, the threshold did not change but the gain of the stimulus-response curve decreased. The expression of tolerance to morphine depended on the intensity of the stimulus, being maximal when threshold stimulus intensities were used but considerably less with supra-threshold stimulation. As expected, a single treatment with (+)-HA966, potentiated morphine antinociception in "non-tolerant" rats. However, in "morphine-tolerant" rats (+)-HA966 reversed established morphine tolerance and increased the antinociceptive effects of morphine. These results suggest that (+)-HA966 interfered with expression of morphine tolerance, and offered an encouraging therapeutic approach for pain management in opioid abusers.

  2. Activation of the Cl− Channel ANO1 by Localized Calcium Signals in Nociceptive Sensory Neurons Requires Coupling with the IP3 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Shah, Shihab; Liu, Yani; Zhang, Huiran; Lees, Meredith; Fu, Zhaojun; Lippiat, Jonathan D.; Beech, David J.; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Zhang, Hailin; Gamper, Nikita

    2014-01-01

    We report that ANO1 (also known as TMEM16A) Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in small neurons from dorsal root ganglia are preferentially activated by particular pools of intracellular Ca2+. These ANO1 channels can be selectively activated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, but not by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. This ability to discriminate between Ca2+ pools was achieved by the tethering of ANO1-containing plasma membrane domains, which also contained GPCRs such as bradykinin receptor-2 and protease-activated receptor-2, to juxtamembrane regions of the endoplasmic reticulum. Interaction of the C-terminus and the first intracellular loop of ANO1 with IP3R1 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1) contributed to the tethering. Disruption of membrane microdomains blocked the ANO1 and IP3R1 interaction and resulted in the loss of coupling between GPCR signaling and ANO1. The junctional signaling complex enabled ANO1-mediated excitation in response to specific Ca2+ signals rather than to global changes in intracellular Ca2+. PMID:23982204

  3. Monitoring the nociception level: a multi-parameter approach.

    PubMed

    Ben-Israel, Nir; Kliger, Mark; Zuckerman, Galit; Katz, Yeshayahu; Edry, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an objective index for nociception level (NoL) of patients under general anesthesia, based on a combination of multiple physiological parameters. Twenty-five patients scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled. For clinical reference of NoL, the combined index of stimulus and analgesia was defined as a composite of the surgical stimulus level and a scaled effect-site concentration of opioid. The physiological parameters heart rate, heart rate variability (0.15-0.4 Hz band power), plethysmograph wave amplitude, skin conductance level, number of skin conductance fluctuations, and their time derivatives, were extracted. Two techniques to incorporate these parameters into a single index representing the NoL have been proposed: NoLlinear, based on an ordinary linear regression, and NoLnon-linear, based on a non-linear Random Forest regression. NoLlinear and NoLnon-linear significantly increased after moderate to severe noxious stimuli (Wilcoxon rank test, p < 0.01), while the individual parameters only partially responded. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that NoL index based on both techniques better discriminated noxious and non-noxious surgical events [area under curve (AUC) = 0.97] compared with individual parameters (AUC = 0.56-0.74). NoLnon-linear better ranked the level of nociception compared with NoLlinear (R = 0.88 vs. 0.77, p < 0.01). These results demonstrate the superiority of multi-parametric approach over any individual parameter in the evaluation of nociceptive response. In addition, advanced non-linear technique may have an advantage over ordinary linear regression for computing NoL index. Further research will define the usability of the NoL index as a clinical tool to assess the level of nociception during general anesthesia.

  4. TRPA1, substance P, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine interact in an interdependent way to induce nociception.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Luana; Lavoranti, Maria Isabel; de Oliveira Borges, Mariana; Miksza, Alana Farias; Sardi, Natalia Fantin; Martynhak, Bruno Jacson; Tambeli, Claudia H; Parada, Carlos Amílcar

    2017-04-01

    Although TRPA1, SP, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) have recognized contribution to nociceptive mechanisms, little is known about how they interact with each other to mediate inflammatory pain in vivo. In this study we evaluated whether TRPA1, SP, histamine and 5-HT interact, in an interdependent way, to induce nociception in vivo. The subcutaneous injection of the TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) into the rat's hind paw induced a dose-dependent and short lasting behavioral nociceptive response that was blocked by the co-administration of the TRPA1 antagonist, HC030031, or by the pretreatment with antisense ODN against TRPA1. AITC-induced nociception was significantly decreased by the co-administration of selective antagonists for the NK1 receptor for substance P, the H1 receptor for histamine and the 5-HT1A or 3 receptors for 5-HT. Histamine- or 5-HT-induced nociception was decreased by the pretreatment with antisense ODN against TRPA1. These findings suggest that AITC-induced nociception depends on substance P, histamine and 5-HT, while histamine- or 5-HT-induced nociception depends on TRPA1. Most important, AITC interact in a synergistic way with histamine, 5-HT or substance P, since their combination at non-nociceptive doses induced a nociceptive response much higher than that expected by the sum of the effect of each one alone. This synergistic effect is dependent on the H1, 5-HT1A or 3 receptors. Together, these findings suggest a self-sustainable cycle around TRPA1, no matter where the cycle is initiated each step is achieved and even subeffective activation of more than one step results in a synergistic activation of the overall cycle.

  5. Genetic evidence for involvement of multiple effector systems in alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor inhibition of stimulus-secretion coupling.

    PubMed

    Lakhlani, P P; Lovinger, D M; Limbird, L E

    1996-07-01

    The alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor (alpha 2AAR), via its interaction with the pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/G(o) class of G proteins, modulates multiple effector systems, including inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and Ca2+ channels and activation of K+ channels. Mutation of a membrane-embedded aspartate residue, highly conserved among G protein-coupled receptors, in the alpha 2AAR to asparagine (D79N alpha 2AAR) results in selective uncoupling of the receptor to K+ currents but retention of inhibition of cAMP production and of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ currents when expressed in AtT20 anterior pituitary cells in culture. It is known that attenuation of cAMP synthesis alone cannot account for alpha 2AAR suppression of stimulus-secretion coupling; thus, the D79N alpha 2AAR provides a unique tool with which to assess the relative contribution of K+ current activation and Ca2+ current suppression in mediating the cellular responses of alpha 2AAR. The wild-type alpha 2AAR suppresses basal and secretagogue-evoked adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release in a manner indistinguishable from response to the endogenous somatostatin receptor. In contrast, the D79N alpha 2AAR does not attenuate basal ACTH release and is only partially effective in suppressing ACTH secretion evoked by the secretagogue isoproterenol. Regulation of ACTH release evoked by 8-bromo-cAMP, which bypasses receptor regulation of cAMP synthesis, suggests that attenuation of cAMP production, although not sufficient for inhibition of ACTH secretion, nevertheless participates in a functionally relevant manner. Taken together, the present findings indicate that alpha 2AAR-mediated suppression of neuropeptide secretion requires concomitant regulation of K+ and Ca2+ currents in parallel with attenuation of cAMP production.

  6. A stimulus-specific role for CREB-binding protein (CBP) in T cell receptor-activated tumor necrosis factor gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falvo, James V.; Brinkman, Brigitta M. N.; Tsytsykova, Alla V.; Tsai, Eunice Y.; Yao, Tso-Pang; Kung, Andrew L.; Goldfeld, Anne E.

    2000-04-01

    The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)/p300 family of coactivator proteins regulates gene transcription through the integration of multiple signal transduction pathways. Here, we show that induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) gene expression in T cells stimulated by engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) or by virus infection requires CBP/p300. Strikingly, in mice lacking one copy of the CBP gene, TNF- gene induction by TCR activation is inhibited, whereas virus induction of the TNF- gene is not affected. Consistent with these findings, the transcriptional activity of CBP is strongly potentiated by TCR activation but not by virus infection of T cells. Thus, CBP gene dosage and transcriptional activity are critical in TCR-dependent TNF-α gene expression, demonstrating a stimulus-specific requirement for CBP in the regulation of a specific gene.

  7. Role of TRPV1 in nociception and edema induced by monosodium urate crystals in rats.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, Carin; Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; de Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Ferreira, Juliano

    2011-08-01

    Gout is characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Despite being one of the most painful forms of arthritis, gout and the mechanisms responsible for its acute attacks are poorly understood. In the present study, we found that MSU caused dose-related nociception (ED(50) [ie, the necessary dose of MSU to elicit 50% of the response relative to the control value]=0.04 [95% confidence interval 0.01-0.11]mg/paw) and edema (ED(50)=0.08 [95% confidence interval 0.04-0.16]mg/paw) when injected into the hind paw of rats. Treatment with the selective TRPV1 receptor (also known as capsaicin receptor and vanilloid receptor-1) antagonists SB366791 or AMG9810 largely prevented nociceptive and edematogenic responses to MSU. Moreover, the desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive afferent fibers as well as pretreatment with the tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist RP 67580 also significantly prevented MSU-induced nociception and edema. Once MSU was found to induce mast cell stimulation, we investigated the participation of these cells on MSU effects. Prior degranulation of mast cells by repeated treatment with the compound 48/80 decreased MSU-induced nociception and edema or histamine and serotonin levels in the injected tissue. Moreover, pretreatment with the mast cell membrane stabilizer cromolyn effectively prevented nociceptive and edematogenic responses to MSU. MSU induced a release of histamine, serotonin, and tryptase in the injected tissue, confirming mast cell degranulation. Furthermore, the antagonism of histaminergic H1 and serotoninergic receptors decreased the edema, but not the nociception of MSU. Finally, the prevention of the tryptase activity was capable of largely reducing both MSU-induced nociception and edema. Collectively, the present findings demonstrate that MSU produces nociceptive and edematogenic responses mediated by TRPV1 receptor activation and mast cell degranulation. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of

  8. Chronic low-level administration of diquat increases the nociceptive response to gastric distension in rats: role of mast cells and tachykinin receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Anton, P M; Theodorou, V; Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

    2001-05-01

    Dietary factors can modulate visceral sensitivity and are suggested to interact with neuroimmune pathways. To determine whether daily low-level exposure to a food contaminant (diquat) alters sensitivity to gastric distension (GD) and the role of mast cells and tachykinin receptors activation, two series of experiments were conducted in eight groups of eight male Wistar rats (200-250 g) receiving daily doses of either diquat (0.1 mg/kg per day orally) or water for 21 days. In the first series, rats were sacrificed at the end of treatments and the gastric mucosal mast cell (MMC) number was histologically quantified. In the second series, after 21 days of treatment the cardiovascular depressor (CVD) response and corresponding gastric volumes were recorded under GD (from 10 to 40 mmHg). Doxantrazole (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)), a mast cell stabilizer, and SR 140333 (1 mg/kg i.p.) and MEN 11420 (0.1 mg/kg intravenously), respectively NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonists, were administered before GD. Before and after GD, blood samples were taken to measure blood histamine and the gastric MMC number was determined after sacrifice. Diquat treatment increased the MMC number. In diquat-treated rats, GD increased the CVD response and blood histamine level and induced MMC degranulation. Doxantrazole did not modify the hypersensitivity to GD but prevented mast cell degranulation. Both NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonists blocked the enhanced CVD response induced by diquat and prevented mast cell degranulation. None of the drugs had any effect in control animals. Prolonged exposure to a food contaminant at doses possibly found in food increases gastric sensitivity to distension, activates tachykinin receptors and results in MMC degranulation after GD.

  9. Attenuation of nicotine's discriminative stimulus effects in rats and its locomotor activity effects in mice by serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Batman, Angela M; Munzar, Patrik; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2005-05-01

    Reports have indicated that administration of nicotine inhibits, while withdrawal of chronically administered nicotine augments effects of serotonergic 5HT2A/2C agonists. It was our objective to determine whether 5HT2A/2C agonists can modulate the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats or its locomotor activity effects in mice. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg nicotine base from saline in a two-lever, fixed-ratio (FR10), food-reinforced, operant-conditioning task during daily (Monday-Friday) 15-min experimental sessions. After characterizing a dose-response curve for nicotine, we tested the ability of the 5HT(2A/2C) agonists (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane HCL (DOI; 0.18-1.0 mg/kg) and 1-(4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOB; 0.1-1.0 mg/kg), the 5HT2C agonist 6-chloro-2-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine hydrochloride (MK 212; 0.1 mg/kg-1.0 mg/kg), and the 5HT1A agonist (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 0.01 mg/kg-1.0 mg/kg) to modulate nicotine's discriminative stimulus effects. After finding that DOI was able to attenuate the percentage nicotine lever responding (%NLR), we tested for it to also reverse nicotine's effects on locomotor activity in mice. The 5HT2A/2C agonists-in particular DOI-dose dependently attenuated %NLR. The effects of DOI were reversed by the 5HT2A/2C antagonist ketanserin. MK 212 and 8-OH-DPAT had irregular effects among rats and only reduced %NLR to below 50% levels at doses markedly suppressing responding. DOI also dose dependently blocked nicotine's acute rate-lowering locomotor activity effects. These results indicate that activation of serotonin 5HT2A/2C receptors can blunt the discriminative stimulus and locomotor activity effects of nicotine and presents the possibility that activation of these receptors might also be able to attenuate other effects of nicotine.

  10. Stimulus transmission in the auditory receptor organs of the foreleg of bushcrickets (Tettigoniidae) I. The role of the tympana.

    PubMed

    Bangert, M; Kalmring, K; Sickmann, T; Stephen, R; Jatho, M; Lakes-Harlan, R

    1998-01-01

    The auditory organs of the tettigoniid are located just below the femoral tibial joint in the forelegs. Structurally each auditory organ consists of a tonotopically organized crista acustica and intermediate organ and associated sound conducting structures; an acoustic trachea and two lateral tympanic membranes located at the level of the receptor complex. The receptor cells and associated satellite structures are located in a channel filled with hemolymph fluid. The vibratory response characteristics of the tympanic membranes generated by sound stimulation over the frequency range 2-40 kHz have been studied using laser vibrometry. The acoustic trachea was found to be the principal structure through which sound energy reached the tympana. The velocity of propagation down the trachea was observed to be independent of the frequency and appreciably lower than the velocity of sound in free space. Structurally the tympana are found to be partially in contact with the air in the trachea and with the hemolymph in the channel containing the receptor cells. The two tympana were found to oscillate in phase, with a broad band frequency response, have linear coherent response characteristics and small time constant. Higher modes of vibration were not observed. Measurements of the pattern of vibration of the tympana showed that these structures vibrate as hinged flaps rather than vibrating stretched membranes. These findings, together with the morphology of the organ and physiological data from the receptor cells, suggest the possibility of an impedance matching function for the tympana in the transmission of acoustic energy to the receptor cells in the tettigoniid ear.

  11. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of dental nociception.

    PubMed

    Chung, G; Jung, S J; Oh, S B

    2013-11-01

    Due, in part, to the unique structure of the tooth, dental pain is initiated via distinct mechanisms. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of inflammatory tooth pain and discuss 3 hypotheses proposed to explain dentinal hypersensitivity: The first hypothesis, supported by functional expression of temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential channels, emphasizes the direct transduction of noxious temperatures by dental primary afferent neurons. The second hypothesis, known as hydrodynamic theory, attributes dental pain to fluid movement within dentinal tubules, and we discuss several candidate cellular mechanical transducers for the detection of fluid movement. The third hypothesis focuses on the potential sensory function of odontoblasts in the detection of thermal or mechanical stimuli, and we discuss the accumulating evidence that supports their excitability. We also briefly update on a novel strategy for local nociceptive anesthesia via nociceptive transducer molecules in dental primary afferents with the potential to specifically silence pain fibers during dental treatment. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of dental pain would greatly enhance the development of therapeutics that target dental pain.

  12. CD73 Controls Extracellular Adenosine Generation in the Trigeminal Nociceptive Nerves.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Ma, L; Zhang, S; Ren, Y; Dirksen, R T

    2017-06-01

    Purinergic signaling is involved in pain generation and modulation in the nociceptive sensory nervous system. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) induces pain via activation of ionotropic P2X receptors while adenosine mediates analgesia via activation of metabotropic P1 receptors. These purinergic signaling are determined by ecto-nucleotidases that control ATP degradation and adenosine generation. Using enzymatic histochemistry, we detected ecto-AMPase activity in dental pulp, trigeminal ganglia (TG) neurons, and their nerve fibers. Using immunofluorescence staining, we confirmed the expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) in trigeminal nociceptive neurons and their axonal fibers, including the nociceptive nerve fibers projecting into the brainstem. In addition, we detected the existence of CD73 and ecto-AMPase activity in the nociceptive lamina of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (TSNC) in the brainstem. Furthermore, we demonstrated that incubation with specific anti-CD73 serum significantly reduced the ecto-AMPase activity in the nociceptive lamina in the brainstem. Our results indicate that CD73 might participate in nociceptive modulation by affecting extracellular adenosine generation in the trigeminal nociceptive pathway. Disruption of TG neuronal ecto-nucleotidase expression and axonal terminal localization under certain circumstances such as chronic inflammation, oxidant stress, local constriction, and injury in trigeminal nerves may contribute to the pathogenesis of orofacial neuropathic pain.

  13. Involvement of spinal glutamate in nociceptive behavior induced by intrathecal administration of hemokinin-1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Chizuko; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2016-03-23

    The most recently identified tachykinin, hemokinin-1, was cloned from mouse bone marrow. While several studies indicated that hemokinin-1 is involved in pain and inflammation, the physiological functions of hemokinin-1 are not fully understood. Our previous research demonstrated that the intrathecal (i.t.) administration of hemokinin-1 (0.00625-1.6 nmol) dose-dependently induced nociceptive behaviors, consisting of scratching, biting and licking in mice, which are very similar with the nociceptive behaviors induced by the i.t. administration of substance P. Low-dose (0.0125 nmol) hemokinin-1-induced nociceptive behavior was inhibited by a specific NK1 receptor antagonist; however, high-dose (0.1 nmol) hemokinin-1-induced nociceptive behavior was not affected. In the present study, we found that the nociceptive behaviors induced by hemokinin-1 (0.1 nmol) were inhibited by the i.t. co-administration of MK-801 or D-APV, which are NMDA receptor antagonists. Moreover, we measured glutamate in the extracellular fluid of the mouse spinal cord using microdialysis. The i.t. administration of hemokinin-1 produced a significant increase in glutamate in the spinal cord, which was significantly reduced by co-administration with NMDA receptor antagonists. These results suggest that hemokinin-1-induced nociceptive behaviors may be mediated by the NMDA receptor in the spinal cord.

  14. Inflammatory Pain Reduces C Fiber Activity-Dependent Slowing in a Sex-Dependent Manner, Amplifying Nociceptive Input to the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Barry; Lukito, Veny; Wilson, Kirsten L.

    2017-01-01

    C fibers display activity-dependent slowing (ADS), whereby repetitive stimulation (≥1 Hz) results in a progressive slowing of action potential conduction velocity, which manifests as a progressive increase in response latency. However, the impact of ADS on spinal pain processing has not been explored, nor whether ADS is altered in inflammatory pain conditions. To investigate, compound action potentials were made, from dorsal roots isolated from rats with or without complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) hindpaw inflammation, in response to electrical stimulus trains. CFA inflammation significantly reduced C fiber ADS at 1 and 2 Hz stimulation rates. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in the spinal cord slice preparation with attached dorsal roots also demonstrated that CFA inflammation reduced ADS in the monosynaptic C fiber input to lamina I neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing neurons (1–10 Hz stimulus trains) without altering the incidence of synaptic response failures. When analyzed by sex, it was revealed that females display a more pronounced ADS that is reduced by CFA inflammation to a level comparable with males. Cumulative ventral root potentials evoked by long and short dorsal root stimulation lengths, to maximize and minimize the impact of ADS, respectively, demonstrated that reducing ADS facilitates spinal summation, and this was also sex dependent. This finding correlated with the behavioral observation of increased noxious thermal thresholds and enhanced inflammatory thermal hypersensitivity in females. We propose that sex/inflammation-dependent regulation of C fiber ADS can, by controlling the temporal relay of nociceptive inputs, influence the spinal summation of nociceptive signals contributing to sex/inflammation-dependent differences in pain sensitivity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The intensity of a noxious stimulus is encoded by the frequency of action potentials relayed by nociceptive C fibers to the spinal cord. C fibers conduct successive action

  15. Inflammatory Pain Reduces C Fiber Activity-Dependent Slowing in a Sex-Dependent Manner, Amplifying Nociceptive Input to the Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Allen C; McCormick, Barry; Lukito, Veny; Wilson, Kirsten L; Torsney, Carole

    2017-07-05

    C fibers display activity-dependent slowing (ADS), whereby repetitive stimulation (≥1 Hz) results in a progressive slowing of action potential conduction velocity, which manifests as a progressive increase in response latency. However, the impact of ADS on spinal pain processing has not been explored, nor whether ADS is altered in inflammatory pain conditions. To investigate, compound action potentials were made, from dorsal roots isolated from rats with or without complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) hindpaw inflammation, in response to electrical stimulus trains. CFA inflammation significantly reduced C fiber ADS at 1 and 2 Hz stimulation rates. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in the spinal cord slice preparation with attached dorsal roots also demonstrated that CFA inflammation reduced ADS in the monosynaptic C fiber input to lamina I neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing neurons (1-10 Hz stimulus trains) without altering the incidence of synaptic response failures. When analyzed by sex, it was revealed that females display a more pronounced ADS that is reduced by CFA inflammation to a level comparable with males. Cumulative ventral root potentials evoked by long and short dorsal root stimulation lengths, to maximize and minimize the impact of ADS, respectively, demonstrated that reducing ADS facilitates spinal summation, and this was also sex dependent. This finding correlated with the behavioral observation of increased noxious thermal thresholds and enhanced inflammatory thermal hypersensitivity in females. We propose that sex/inflammation-dependent regulation of C fiber ADS can, by controlling the temporal relay of nociceptive inputs, influence the spinal summation of nociceptive signals contributing to sex/inflammation-dependent differences in pain sensitivity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The intensity of a noxious stimulus is encoded by the frequency of action potentials relayed by nociceptive C fibers to the spinal cord. C fibers conduct successive action potentials

  16. Fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake, potentiates morphine analgesia without altering its discriminative stimulus properties or affinity for opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, M.D.; Lochner, M.A.; Bemis, K.G.; Hymson, D.L.

    1985-06-17

    The analgesic effect of morphine in the rat tail jerk assay was enhanced by the serotonin uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Tail jerk latency was not affected by fluoxetine alone. Morphine's affinity for opioid receptors labeled in vitro with /sup 3/H-naloxone or /sup 3/H-D-Ala/sup 2/-D-Leu/sup 5/-enkephalin was not altered by fluoxetine, which has no affinity for these sites at concentrations as high as 1000 nM. In rats trained to discriminate morphine from saline, fluoxetine at doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg were recognized as saline. Increasing the fluoxetine dose to 20 mg/kg did not result in generalization to either saline or morphine. The dose response curve for morphine generalization was not significantly altered by fluoxetine doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg. Those rats treated with the combination of morphine and 20 mg/kg of fluoxetine did not exhibit saline or morphine appropriate responding. Fluoxetine potentiates the analgesic properties of morphine without enhancing its affinity for opioid receptors or its discriminative stimulus properties. 30 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Brain kinin B1 receptor is upregulated by the oxidative stress and its activation leads to stereotypic nociceptive behavior in insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Dias, Jenny Pena; Gariépy, Helaine De Brito; Ongali, Brice; Couture, Réjean

    2015-07-01

    Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is virtually absent under physiological condition, yet it is highly expressed in models of diabetes mellitus. This study aims at determining: (1) whether B1R is induced in the brain of insulin-resistant rat through the oxidative stress; (2) the consequence of B1R activation on stereotypic nocifensive behavior; (3) the role of downstream putative mediators in B1R-induced behavioral activity. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 10% D-glucose in their drinking water or tap water (controls) for 4 or 12 weeks, combined either with a standard chow diet or a diet enriched with α-lipoic acid (1 g/kg feed) for 4 weeks. The distribution and density of brain B1R binding sites were assessed by autoradiography. Behavioral activity evoked by i.c.v. injection of the B1R agonist Sar-[D-Phe(8)]-des-Arg(9)-BK (10 μg) was measured before and after i.c.v. treatments with selective antagonists (10 μg) for kinin B1 (R-715, SSR240612), tachykinin NK1 (RP-67580) and glutamate NMDA (DL-AP5) receptors or with the inhibitor of NOS (L-NNA). Results showed significant increases of B1R binding sites in various brain areas of glucose-fed rats that could be prevented by the diet containing α-lipoic acid. The B1R agonist elicited head scratching, grooming, sniffing, rearing, digging, licking, face washing, wet dog shake, teeth chattering and biting in glucose-fed rats, which were absent after treatment with α-lipoic acid or antagonists/inhibitors. Data suggest that kinin B1R is upregulated by the oxidative stress in the brain of insulin-resistant rats and its activation causes stereotypic nocifensive behavior through the release of substance P, glutamate and NO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistent Nociception Triggered by Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) Is Mediated by TRPV1 and Oxidative Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Michael A; Ruparel, Shivani; Green, Dustin P; Chen, Paul B; Por, Elaine D; Jeske, Nathaniel A; Gao, Xiaoli; Flores, Eric R; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2015-06-03

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is elevated in certain chronic pain conditions and is a sufficient stimulus to cause lasting pain in humans, but the actual mechanisms underlying the persistent effects of NGF remain incompletely understood. We developed a rat model of NGF-induced persistent thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia to determine the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and oxidative mechanisms in the persistent effects of NGF. Persistent thermal hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia require de novo protein translation and are mediated by TRPV1 and oxidative mechanisms. By comparing effects after systemic (subcutaneous), spinal (intrathecal) or hindpaw (intraplantar) injections of test compounds, we determined that TRPV1 and oxidation mediate persistent thermal hypersensitivity via peripheral and spinal sites of action and mechanical allodynia via only a spinal site of action. Therefore, NGF-evoked thermal and mechanical allodynia are mediated by spatially distinct mechanisms. NGF treatment evoked sustained increases in peripheral and central TRPV1 activity, as demonstrated by increased capsaicin-evoked nocifensive responses, increased calcitonin gene-related peptide release from hindpaw skin biopsies, and increased capsaicin-evoked inward current and membrane expression of TRPV1 protein in dorsal root ganglia neurons. Finally, we showed that NGF treatment increased concentrations of linoleic and arachidonic-acid-derived oxidized TRPV1 agonists in spinal cord and skin biopsies. Furthermore, increases in oxidized TRPV1-active lipids were reduced by peripheral and spinal injections of compounds that completely blocked persistent nociception. Collectively, these data indicate that NGF evokes a persistent nociceptive state mediated by increased TRPV1 activity and oxidative mechanisms, including increased production of oxidized lipid TRPV1 agonists.

  19. Differential magnetic field effects on heart rate and nociception in anosmic pigeons.

    PubMed

    Del Seppia, Cristina; Mencacci, Resi; Luschi, Paolo; Varanini, Maurizio; Ghione, Sergio

    2012-05-01

    Several studies have shown that exposure to altered magnetic fields affects nociception by suppressing stress-induced hypoalgesia, and that this effect is reduced or abolished if the treatment is performed in the absence of light. This raises the question as to whether other sources of sensory stimuli may also modulate these magnetic effects. We investigated the possible role of olfaction in the magnetically induced effects on sensitivity to nociceptive stimuli and heart rate (HR) in restraint-stressed homing pigeons exposed to an Earth-strength, irregularly varying (<1 Hz) magnetic field. The magnetic treatment decreased the nociceptive threshold in normally smelling birds and an opposite effect was observed in birds made anosmic by nostril plugging. Conversely, no differential effect of olfactory deprivation was observed on HR, which was reduced by the magnetic treatment both in smelling and anosmic pigeons. The findings highlight an important role of olfactory environmental information in the mediation of magnetic effects on nociception, although the data cannot be interpreted unambiguously because of the lack of an additional control group of olfactory-deprived, non-magnetically exposed pigeons. The differential effects on a pigeon's sensitivity to nociceptive stimulus and HR additionally indicate that the magnetic stimuli affect nociception and the cardiovascular system in different ways.

  20. The C. elegans D2-Like Dopamine Receptor DOP-3 Decreases Behavioral Sensitivity to the Olfactory Stimulus 1-Octanol

    PubMed Central

    Ezak, Meredith J.; Ferkey, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    We previously found that dopamine signaling modulates the sensitivity of wild-type C. elegans to the aversive odorant 1-octanol. C. elegans lacking the CAT-2 tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme, which is required for dopamine biosynthesis, are hypersensitive in their behavioral avoidance of dilute concentrations of octanol. Dopamine can also modulate the context-dependent response of C. elegans lacking RGS-3 function, a negative regulator of Gα signaling. rgs-3 mutant animals are defective in their avoidance of 100% octanol when they are assayed in the absence of food (E. coli bacterial lawn), but their response is restored when they are assayed in the presence of food or exogenous dopamine. However, it is not known which receptor might be mediating dopamine's effects on octanol avoidance. Herein we describe a role for the C. elegans D2-like receptor DOP-3 in the regulation of olfactory sensitivity. We show that DOP-3 is required for the ability of food and exogenous dopamine to rescue the octanol avoidance defect of rgs-3 mutant animals. In addition, otherwise wild-type animals lacking DOP-3 function are hypersensitive to dilute octanol, reminiscent of cat-2 mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DOP-3 function in the ASH sensory neurons is sufficient to rescue the hypersensitivity of dop-3 mutant animals, while dop-3 RNAi knockdown in ASH results in octanol hypersensitivity. Taken together, our data suggest that dopaminergic signaling through DOP-3 normally acts to dampen ASH signaling and behavioral sensitivity to octanol. PMID:20209143

  1. Perceptual learning to discriminate the intensity and spatial location of nociceptive stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Flavia; Dolgevica, Karina; Steckelmacher, James; Haggard, Patrick; Friston, Karl; Iannetti, Giandomenico D.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate discrimination of the intensity and spatial location of nociceptive stimuli is essential to guide appropriate behaviour. The ability to discriminate the attributes of sensory stimuli is continuously refined by practice, even throughout adulthood - a phenomenon called perceptual learning. In the visual domain, perceptual learning to discriminate one of the features that define a visual stimulus (e.g., its orientation) can transfer to a different feature of the same stimulus (e.g., its contrast). Here, we performed two experiments on 48 volunteers to characterize perceptual learning in nociception, which has been rarely studied. We investigated whether learning to discriminate either the intensity or the location of nociceptive stimuli (1) occurs during practice and is subsequently maintained, (2) requires feedback on performance, and (3) transfers to the other, unpractised stimulus feature. First, we found clear evidence that perceptual learning in discriminating both the intensity and the location of nociceptive stimuli occurs, and is maintained for at least 3 hours after practice. Second, learning occurs only when feedback is provided during practice. Finally, learning is largely confined to the feature for which feedback was provided. We discuss these effects in a predictive coding framework, and consider implications for future studies. PMID:27996022

  2. Behavioral changes in brain-injured critical care adults with different levels of consciousness during nociceptive stimulation: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Roulin, Marie-José; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie

    2014-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the frequency of behaviors observed during rest, a non-nociceptive procedure, and a nociceptive procedure in brain-injured intensive care unit (ICU) patients with different levels of consciousness (LOC). Second, it examined the inter-rater reliability and discriminant and concurrent validity of the behavioral checklist used. The non-nociceptive procedure involved calling the patient and shaking his/her shoulder. The nociceptive procedure involved turning the patient. The frequency of behaviors was recorded using a behavioral checklist. Patients with absence of movement, or stereotyped flexion or extension responses to a nociceptive stimulus displayed more behaviors during turning (median 5.5, range 0-14) than patients with localized responses (median 4, range 0-10) or able to self-report their pain (median 4, range 0-10). Face flushing, clenched teeth, clenched fist, and tremor were more frequent in patients with absence of movement, or stereotyped responses to a nociceptive stimulus. The reliability of the checklist was supported by a high intra-class correlation coefficient (0.77-0.92), and the internal consistency was acceptable in all three groups (KR 20, 0.71-0.85). Discriminant validity was supported as significantly more behaviors were observed during nociceptive stimulation than at rest. Concurrent validity was confirmed as checklist scores were correlated to the patients' self-reports of pain (r s = 0.53; 95 % CI 0.21-0.75). Brain-injured patients reacted significantly more during a nociceptive stimulus and the number of observed behaviors was higher in patients with a stereotyped response.

  3. Nociception at the diabetic foot, an uncharted territory

    PubMed Central

    Chantelau, Ernst A

    2015-01-01

    The diabetic foot is characterised by painless foot ulceration and/or arthropathy; it is a typical complication of painless diabetic neuropathy. Neuropathy depletes the foot skin of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings of the afferent A-delta and C-fibres, which are mostly nociceptors and excitable by noxious stimuli only. However, some of them are cold or warm receptors whose functions in diabetic neuropathy have frequently been reported. Hence, it is well established by quantitative sensory testing that thermal detection thresholds at the foot skin increase during the course of painless diabetic neuropathy. Pain perception (nociception), by contrast, has rarely been studied. Recent pilot studies of pinprick pain at plantar digital skinfolds showed that the perception threshold was always above the upper limit of measurement of 512 mN (equivalent to 51.2 g) at the diabetic foot. However, deep pressure pain perception threshold at musculus abductor hallucis was beyond 1400 kPa (equivalent to 14 kg; limit of measurement) only in every fifth case. These discrepancies of pain perception between forefoot and hindfoot, and between skin and muscle, demand further study. Measuring nociception at the feet in diabetes opens promising clinical perspectives. A critical nociception threshold may be quantified (probably corresponding to a critical number of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings), beyond which the individual risk of a diabetic foot rises appreciably. Staging of diabetic neuropathy according to nociception thresholds at the feet is highly desirable as guidance to an individualised injury prevention strategy. PMID:25897350

  4. Nociception at the diabetic foot, an uncharted territory.

    PubMed

    Chantelau, Ernst A

    2015-04-15

    The diabetic foot is characterised by painless foot ulceration and/or arthropathy; it is a typical complication of painless diabetic neuropathy. Neuropathy depletes the foot skin of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings of the afferent A-delta and C-fibres, which are mostly nociceptors and excitable by noxious stimuli only. However, some of them are cold or warm receptors whose functions in diabetic neuropathy have frequently been reported. Hence, it is well established by quantitative sensory testing that thermal detection thresholds at the foot skin increase during the course of painless diabetic neuropathy. Pain perception (nociception), by contrast, has rarely been studied. Recent pilot studies of pinprick pain at plantar digital skinfolds showed that the perception threshold was always above the upper limit of measurement of 512 mN (equivalent to 51.2 g) at the diabetic foot. However, deep pressure pain perception threshold at musculus abductor hallucis was beyond 1400 kPa (equivalent to 14 kg; limit of measurement) only in every fifth case. These discrepancies of pain perception between forefoot and hindfoot, and between skin and muscle, demand further study. Measuring nociception at the feet in diabetes opens promising clinical perspectives. A critical nociception threshold may be quantified (probably corresponding to a critical number of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings), beyond which the individual risk of a diabetic foot rises appreciably. Staging of diabetic neuropathy according to nociception thresholds at the feet is highly desirable as guidance to an individualised injury prevention strategy.

  5. An examination of NMDA receptor contribution to conditioned responding evoked by the conditional stimulus effects of nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jennifer E.; Walker, Andrew W.; Polewan, Robert J.; Bevins, Rick A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Research using a drug discriminated goal-tracking (DGT) task showed that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel blocker MK-801 (dizocilpine) reduced the nicotine-evoked conditioned response (CR). Objectives Given the unknown mechanism of the effect, Experiment 1 replicated the MK-801 results and included tests with NMDA receptor ligands. Experiments 2a and 2b tested whether MK-801 pretreatment blocked DGT via a state-dependency effect. Methods In Experiment 1, adult male Sprague–Dawley rats received intermittent access to liquid sucrose following nicotine (0.4 mg base/kg); no sucrose was delivered on intermixed saline sessions. Conditioning was indicated by increased anticipatory dipper entries (goal-tracking) on nicotine compared to saline sessions. Antagonism and/or substitution tests were conducted with MK-801, phencyclidine, CGP 39551, d-CPPene (SDZ EAA 494), Ro 25,6981, L-701,324, ACPC, and NMDA. In Experiment 2a, rats received nicotine and sucrose on every session—no intermixed saline sessions without sucrose. Tests combined MK-801 or the non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, mecamylamine with either nicotine or saline. Experiment 2b had sucrose delivered on saline sessions and no sucrose on intermixed nicotine sessions followed by MK-801 antagonism tests of the saline CS. Results MK-801 and phencyclidine dose-dependently attenuated the CR in Experiment 1. Ro-25,6981 enhanced the CR, but did not substitute for nicotine. Other ligands showed inconsistent effects. In Experiment 2a, MK-801 pretreatment reduced goal-tracking when given before nicotine and saline test sessions; mecamylamine pretreatment had no effect. In Experiment 2b, MK-801 dose-dependently attenuated the saline-evoked CR. Conclusions Combined, the results suggest that MK-801 blocks discriminated goal-tracking by virtue of state-changing properties. PMID:20859617

  6. Centralization of noxious stimulus-induced analgesia (NSIA) is related to activity at inhibitory synapses in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Tambeli, Claudia H; Levine, Jon D; Gear, Robert W

    2009-06-01

    The duration of noxious stimulus-induced antinociception (NSIA) has been shown to outlast the pain stimulus that elicited it, however, the mechanism that determines the duration of analgesia is unknown. We evaluated the role of spinal excitatory and inhibitory receptors (NMDA, mGluR(5), mu-opioid, GABA(A), and GABA(B)), previously implicated in NSIA initiation, in its maintenance. As in our previous studies, the supraspinal trigeminal jaw-opening reflex (JOR) in the rat was used for nociceptive testing because of its remoteness from the region of drug application, the lumbar spinal cord. NSIA was reversed by antagonists for two inhibitory receptors (GABA(B) and mu-opioid) but not by antagonists for either of the two excitatory receptors (NMDA and mGluR(5)), indicating that NSIA is maintained by ongoing activity at inhibitory synapses in the spinal cord. Furthermore, spinal administration of the GABA(B) agonist baclofen mimicked NSIA in that it could be blocked by prior injection of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2) (CTAP) in nucleus accumbens. CTAP also blocked baclofen antinociception when administered in the spinal cord. We conclude that analgesia induced by noxious stimulation is maintained by activity in spinal inhibitory receptors.

  7. Dopamine and NMDA systems modulate long-term nociception in the rat anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    López-Avila, Alberto; Coffeen, Ulises; Ortega-Legaspi, J Manuel; del Angel, Rosendo; Pellicer, Francisco

    2004-09-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a key role in pain processing. It has been reported that increased activity of glutamatergic projections into the ACC intensifies nociception; whereas dopaminergic projections inhibit it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of dopaminergic and NMDA systems of the ACC in the modulation of long-term nociception elicited by sciatic denervation in the rat. Score, onset and incidence of long-term nociception were measured by the autotomy behavior. The effects of a single microinjection into the ACC of different doses of dopamine (100 nM, 100 microM and 100 mM), a NMDA receptor antagonist (MK801 200 nM and 9.34 mM) and amantadine, a dopamine agonist and NMDA receptor antagonist (10, 100 and 1000 microM) were tested on long-term nociception. Dopamine diminished autotomy behavior in an inverse dose-dependent manner, with dopamine 100 nM as most effective concentration. MK801 and amantadine elicited a significant reduction on autotomy score. Prior injections of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists blocked the antinociceptive effects of amantadine on long-term nociceptive behavior. The present study suggests an interaction between dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems within the ACC in the genesis and maintenance of long-term nociception.

  8. Mapping nociceptive stimuli in a peripersonal frame of reference: evidence from a temporal order judgment task.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Annick L; Crombez, Geert; Spence, Charles; Legrain, Valéry

    2014-04-01

    The ability to localize nociceptive stimuli on the body surface is essential for an organism to respond appropriately to potential physical threats. This ability not only requires a representation of the space of the observer׳s body, but also of the external space with respect to their body. Therefore, localizing nociceptive stimuli requires coordinating multiple senses into an integrated frame of reference. The peripersonal frame of reference allows for the coding of the position of somatosensory stimuli on the body surface and the position of stimuli occurring close to the body (e.g., visual stimuli). Intensively studied for touch, this topic has been largely ignored when it comes to nociception. Here, we investigated, using a temporal order judgment task, whether the spatial perception of nociceptive stimuli is coordinated with that of proximal visual stimuli into an integrated representation of peripersonal space. Participants judged which of two nociceptive stimuli, one presented to either hand, had been presented first. Each pair of nociceptive stimuli was preceded by lateralized visual cues presented either unilaterally or bilaterally, and either close to, or far from, the participant׳s body. The perception of nociceptive stimuli was biased in favor of the stimulus delivered on the hand adjacent to the unilateral visual cue, especially when the cue was presented near the participant׳s hand. These results therefore suggest that a peripersonal frame of reference is used to map the position of nociceptive stimuli in multisensory space. We propose that peripersonal space constitutes a kind of margin of safety around the body to alert an organism to possible threats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Glutamate and capsaicin effects on trigeminal nociception I: Activation and peripheral sensitization of deep craniofacial nociceptive afferents.

    PubMed

    Lam, David K; Sessle, Barry J; Hu, James W

    2009-01-28

    We have examined the effect of the peripheral application of glutamate and capsaicin to deep craniofacial tissues in influencing the activation and peripheral sensitization of deep craniofacial nociceptive afferents. The activity of single trigeminal nociceptive afferents with receptive fields in deep craniofacial tissues were recorded extracellularly in 55 halothane-anesthetized rats. The mechanical activation threshold (MAT) of each afferent was assessed before and after injection of 0.5 M glutamate (or vehicle) and 1% capsaicin (or vehicle) into the receptive field. A total of 68 afferents that could be activated by blunt noxious mechanical stimulation of the deep craniofacial tissues (23 masseter, 5 temporalis, 40 temporomandibular joint) were studied. When injected alone, glutamate and capsaicin activated and induced peripheral sensitization reflected as MAT reduction in many afferents. Following glutamate injection, capsaicin-evoked activity was greater than that evoked by capsaicin alone, whereas following capsaicin injection, glutamate-evoked responses were similar to glutamate alone. These findings indicate that peripheral application of glutamate or capsaicin may activate or induce peripheral sensitization in a subpopulation of trigeminal nociceptive afferents innervating deep craniofacial tissues, as reflected in changes in MAT and other afferent response properties. The data further suggest that peripheral glutamate and capsaicin receptor mechanisms may interact to modulate the activation and peripheral sensitization in some deep craniofacial nociceptive afferents.

  10. Stereotypical Escape Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans Allows Quantification of Effective Heat Stimulus Level.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kawai; Mohammadi, Aylia; Ryu, William S; Nemenman, Ilya

    2016-12-01

    A goal of many sensorimotor studies is to quantify the stimulus-behavioral response relation for specific organisms and specific sensory stimuli. This is especially important to do in the context of painful stimuli since most animals in these studies cannot easily communicate to us their perceived levels of such noxious stimuli. Thus progress on studies of nociception and pain-like responses in animal models depends crucially on our ability to quantitatively and objectively infer the sensed levels of these stimuli from animal behaviors. Here we develop a quantitative model to infer the perceived level of heat stimulus from the stereotyped escape response of individual nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans stimulated by an IR laser. The model provides a method for quantification of analgesic-like effects of chemical stimuli or genetic mutations in C. elegans. We test ibuprofen-treated worms and a TRPV (transient receptor potential) mutant, and we show that the perception of heat stimuli for the ibuprofen treated worms is lower than the wild-type. At the same time, our model shows that the mutant changes the worm's behavior beyond affecting the thermal sensory system. Finally, we determine the stimulus level that best distinguishes the analgesic-like effects and the minimum number of worms that allow for a statistically significant identification of these effects.

  11. Stereotypical Escape Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans Allows Quantification of Effective Heat Stimulus Level

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kawai; Mohammadi, Aylia; Ryu, William S.; Nemenman, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    A goal of many sensorimotor studies is to quantify the stimulus-behavioral response relation for specific organisms and specific sensory stimuli. This is especially important to do in the context of painful stimuli since most animals in these studies cannot easily communicate to us their perceived levels of such noxious stimuli. Thus progress on studies of nociception and pain-like responses in animal models depends crucially on our ability to quantitatively and objectively infer the sensed levels of these stimuli from animal behaviors. Here we develop a quantitative model to infer the perceived level of heat stimulus from the stereotyped escape response of individual nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans stimulated by an IR laser. The model provides a method for quantification of analgesic-like effects of chemical stimuli or genetic mutations in C. elegans. We test ibuprofen-treated worms and a TRPV (transient receptor potential) mutant, and we show that the perception of heat stimuli for the ibuprofen treated worms is lower than the wild-type. At the same time, our model shows that the mutant changes the worm’s behavior beyond affecting the thermal sensory system. Finally, we determine the stimulus level that best distinguishes the analgesic-like effects and the minimum number of worms that allow for a statistically significant identification of these effects. PMID:28027302

  12. Nociception and Conditioned Fear in Rats: Strains Matter

    PubMed Central

    Schaap, Manon W. H.; van Oostrom, Hugo; Doornenbal, Arie; van 't Klooster, José; Baars, Annemarie M.; Arndt, Saskia S.; Hellebrekers, Ludo J.

    2013-01-01

    When using rats in pain research, strain-related differences in outcomes of tests for pain and nociception are acknowledged. However, very little is known about the specific characteristics of these strain differences. In this study four phylogenetically distant inbred rat strains, i.e. Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Fawn Hooded (FH), Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis (LE), were investigated in different tests related to pain and nociception. During Pavlovian fear conditioning, the LE and WKY showed a significantly longer duration of freezing behaviour than the FH and BN. Additionally, differences in c-Fos expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and amygdala between rat strains during retrieval and expression of conditioned fear were found. For example, the BN did not show recruitment of the basolateral amygdala, whereas the WKY, FH and LE did. During the hot plate test, the WKY and LE showed a lower thermal threshold compared to the BN and FH. In a follow-up experiment, the two most contrasting strains regarding behaviour during the hot plate test and Pavlovian fear conditioning (i.e. FH and WKY) were selected and the hot plate test, Von Frey test and somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) were investigated. During the Von Frey test, the WKY showed a lower mechanical threshold compared to the FH. When measuring the SEP, the FH appeared to be less reactive to increasing stimulus intensities when considering both peak amplitudes and latencies. Altogether, the combined results indicate various differences between rat strains in Pavlovian fear conditioning, nociception related behaviours and nociceptive processing. These findings demonstrate the necessity of using multiple rat strains when using tests including noxious stimuli and suggest that the choice of rat strains should be considered. When selecting a strain for a particular study it should be considered how this strain behaves during the tests used in that study. PMID:24376690

  13. Vagal afferent nerves with nociceptive properties in guinea-pig oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shaoyong; Undem, Bradley J; Kollarik, Marian

    2005-01-01

    Some vagal afferent nerves are thought to mediate autonomic responses evoked by noxious oesophageal stimuli and participate in the perception of pain originating in the oesophagus. However, the vagal nociceptive nerve phenotypes implicated in this function have yet to be identified. In this study, nociceptive fibres were defined by the capacity to discriminate noxious mechanical stimuli (wide range of oesophageal distension with pressure up to 100 mmHg) and detect noxious chemical stimuli (the activators of capsaicin receptor TRPV1). Using immunohistochemical techniques with retrogradely labelled oesophagus-specific neurones and performing extracellular recordings from the isolated vagally innervated oesophagus, we show that in the guinea-pig, the vagus nerves supply the oesophagus with a large population of nociceptive-like afferent nerve fibres. Vagal nociceptive-like fibres in the guinea-pig oesophagus are derived from two embryonically distinct sources: neurones situated in the nodose vagal ganglia and neurones situated in the jugular vagal ganglia. Nodose (placode-derived) nociceptive-like fibres are exclusively C-fibres sensitive to a P2X receptors agonist and rarely express the neuropeptide substance P. In contrast, jugular (neural crest-derived) nociceptive-like fibres include both A-fibres and C-fibres, are insensitive to P2X receptors agonist and mostly express substance P. The non-nociceptive vagal tension mechanoreceptors are distinguished from nociceptors by their saturable response to oesophageal distension and by the lack of TRPV1. These tension mechanoreceptors are exclusively A-fibres arising from the nodose ganglion. We conclude that the vagus nerves supply the guinea-pig oesophagus with nociceptors in addition to tension mechanoreceptors. The vagal nociceptive-like fibres in the oesophagus comprise two distinct subtypes dictated by the ganglionic location of their cell bodies. PMID:15649987

  14. Vagal afferent nerves with nociceptive properties in guinea-pig oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaoyong; Undem, Bradley J; Kollarik, Marian

    2005-03-15

    Some vagal afferent nerves are thought to mediate autonomic responses evoked by noxious oesophageal stimuli and participate in the perception of pain originating in the oesophagus. However, the vagal nociceptive nerve phenotypes implicated in this function have yet to be identified. In this study, nociceptive fibres were defined by the capacity to discriminate noxious mechanical stimuli (wide range of oesophageal distension with pressure up to 100 mmHg) and detect noxious chemical stimuli (the activators of capsaicin receptor TRPV1). Using immunohistochemical techniques with retrogradely labelled oesophagus-specific neurones and performing extracellular recordings from the isolated vagally innervated oesophagus, we show that in the guinea-pig, the vagus nerves supply the oesophagus with a large population of nociceptive-like afferent nerve fibres. Vagal nociceptive-like fibres in the guinea-pig oesophagus are derived from two embryonically distinct sources: neurones situated in the nodose vagal ganglia and neurones situated in the jugular vagal ganglia. Nodose (placode-derived) nociceptive-like fibres are exclusively C-fibres sensitive to a P2X receptors agonist and rarely express the neuropeptide substance P. In contrast, jugular (neural crest-derived) nociceptive-like fibres include both A-fibres and C-fibres, are insensitive to P2X receptors agonist and mostly express substance P. The non-nociceptive vagal tension mechanoreceptors are distinguished from nociceptors by their saturable response to oesophageal distension and by the lack of TRPV1. These tension mechanoreceptors are exclusively A-fibres arising from the nodose ganglion. We conclude that the vagus nerves supply the guinea-pig oesophagus with nociceptors in addition to tension mechanoreceptors. The vagal nociceptive-like fibres in the oesophagus comprise two distinct subtypes dictated by the ganglionic location of their cell bodies.

  15. Recovery of cellular E-cadherin precedes replenishment of estrogen receptor and estrogen-dependent proliferation of breast cancer cells rescued from a death stimulus.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Claudia; Rossini, Gian Paolo

    2002-08-01

    Loss of estrogen-responsiveness and impaired E-cadherin expression/function has been linked to increased metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. In this study, we report that proliferation of breast cancer cells can resume following removal of a toxic stimulus causing severe impairment of cell adhesion and estrogen responsiveness. This type of response was induced by okadaic acid (OA) in MCF-7 cells, and was accompanied by an almost complete block of DNA synthesis, loss of cell-cell contact and cell detachment from culture dishes, loss of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and E-cadherin, whereas only a weak, if any, inhibition of protein synthesis could be observed. These responses were detected in MCF-7 cells after a 1-day treatment with 50 nM OA, and could be reversed if OA-treated cells were recovered in a culture medium devoid of the toxin, so that rescued cells resumed growth 8-12 days after replating. By pulse-chase experiments, we found that protein synthesis was not significantly affected in rescued cells, whose DNA synthesis, instead, was almost completely blocked during the first days of MCF-7 cell rescue from OA treatment. We also analyzed E-cadherin, mitogen activated protein kinase isoforms ERK1 and ERK2, Bcl-2 and BAX proteins during the rescue of MCF-7 cells from OA-induced cell death, and found that their expression followed temporally defined patterns. Cellular levels of E-cadherin returned to control levels within the first days of the rescue, followed by ER, ERK1, and ERK2, and finally by Bcl-2 and BAX proteins. Under our experimental conditions, restoration of cell adhesion did not require a functional ER system, but recovery of a normal ER pool accompanied resumption of estrogen-dependent proliferation of OA-treated MCF-7 cells.

  16. Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) transport modulates the secretory response to the Fcepsilon receptor stimulus of mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rumpel, E; Pilatus, U; Mayer, A; Pecht, I

    2000-01-01

    Immunological stimulation of rat mucosal-type mast cells (RBL-2H3 line) by clustering of their Fcepsilon receptors (FcepsilonRI) causes a rapid and transient increase in free cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ion concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) because of its release from intracellular stores. This is followed by a sustained elevated [Ca(2+)](i), which is attained by Ca(2+) influx. Because an FcepsilonRI-induced increase in the membrane permeability for Na(+) ions has also been observed, and secretion is at least partially inhibited by lowering of extracellular sodium ion concentrations ([Na(+)](o)), the operation of a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger has been considered. We found significant coupling between the Ca(2+) and Na(+) ion gradients across plasma membranes of RBL-2H3 cells, which we investigated employing (23)Na-NMR, (45)Ca(2+), (85)Sr(2+), and the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent probe indo-1. The reduction in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](o)) provoked a [Na(+)](i) increase, and a decrease in [Na(+)](o) results in a Ca(2+) influx as well as an increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Mediator secretion assays, monitoring the released beta-hexosaminidase activity, showed in the presence of extracellular sodium a sigmoidal dependence on [Ca(2+)](o). However, the secretion was not affected by varying [Ca(2+)](o) as [Na(+)](o) was lowered to 0.4 mM, while it was almost completely inhibited at [Na(+)](o) = 136 mM and [Ca(2+)](o) < 0.05 mM. Increasing [Na(+)](o) caused the secretion to reach a minimum at [Na(+)](o) = 20 mM, followed by a steady increase to its maximum value at 136 mM. A parallel [Na(+)](o) dependence of the Ca(2+) fluxes was observed: Antigen stimulation at [Na(+)](o) = 136 mM caused a pronounced Ca(2+) influx. At [Na(+)](o) = 17 mM only a slight Ca(2+) efflux was detected, whereas at [Na(+)](o) = 0.4 mM no Ca(2+) transport across the cell membrane could be observed. Our results clearly indicate that the [Na(+)](o) dependence of the secretory response to Fcepsilon

  17. Intraplantar injection of tetrahydrobiopterin induces nociception in mice.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Arafat; Ali, Sawsan; Wilsbech, Signe; Bjerrum, Ole J; Møller, Lisbeth B

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is implicated in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. After injury/inflammation, the biosynthesis of BH4 is markedly increased in sensory neurons, and the pharmacological and genetic inhibition of BH4 shows analgesic effects in pre-clinical animal pain models. Intrathecal injections of BH4 have been shown to induce and enhance pain-like behaviours in rats, suggesting that under chronic pain conditions BH4 may act by facilitating central sensitisation. So far it is unknown whether BH4 acts on peripheral sites of the somatosensory system or whether BH4 per se provokes nociceptive pain behaviours. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the acute nociceptive effects of intraplantar injection of BH4. BH4 was found to induce dose-dependent licking/biting of the paw lasting 5 min, which was not observed following an injection of biopterin (inactive BH4 metabolite). Paw swelling, measured as paw thickness and weight, was not observed after BH4 injection. To explore possible mechanisms of action of BH4, the effect of local pre-treatment with indomethacin, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, Nω-nitro-L-arginine, capsazepine and ruthenium red was tested. Morphine served as a positive control. Intraplantar pre-injection of morphine dose-dependently inhibited BH4-induced nociception, while none of the other compounds showed any statistical significant antinociception. These results suggest that BH4 exhibits nociceptive properties at peripheral sites of the somatosensory system, proposing an as yet unexplored involvement of BH4 in peripheral nociceptive processes. However, this appears not to be mediated through nitric oxide and prostaglandin release or by activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1.

  18. Mechanisms Involved in the Nociception Triggered by the Venom of the Armed Spider Phoneutria nigriventer

    PubMed Central

    Gewehr, Camila; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Trevisan, Gabriela; Dalmolin, Gerusa Duarte; Rigo, Flávia Karine; de Castro Júnior, Célio José; Cordeiro, Marta Nascimento; Ferreira, Juliano; Gomez, Marcus V.

    2013-01-01

    Background The frequency of accidental spider bites in Brazil is growing, and poisoning due to bites from the spider genus Phoneutria nigriventer is the second most frequent source of such accidents. Intense local pain is the major symptom reported after bites of P. nigriventer, although the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms involved in nociception triggered by the venom of Phoneutria nigriventer (PNV). Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty microliters of PNV or PBS was injected into the mouse paw (intraplantar, i.pl.). The time spent licking the injected paw was considered indicative of the level of nociception. I.pl. injection of PNV produced spontaneous nociception, which was reduced by arachnid antivenin (ArAv), local anaesthetics, opioids, acetaminophen and dipyrone, but not indomethacin. Boiling or dialysing the venom reduced the nociception induced by the venom. PNV-induced nociception is not dependent on glutamate or histamine receptors or on mast cell degranulation, but it is mediated by the stimulation of sensory fibres that contain serotonin 4 (5-HT4) and vanilloid receptors (TRPV1). We detected a kallikrein-like kinin-generating enzyme activity in tissue treated with PNV, which also contributes to nociception. Inhibition of enzymatic activity or administration of a receptor antagonist for kinin B2 was able to inhibit the nociception induced by PNV. PNV nociception was also reduced by the blockade of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ channels, acid-sensitive ion channels (ASIC) and TRPV1 receptors. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that both low- and high-molecular-weight toxins of PNV produce spontaneous nociception through direct or indirect action of kinin B2, TRPV1, 5-HT4 or ASIC receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels present in sensory neurons but not in mast cells. Understanding the mechanisms involved in nociception caused by PNV are of interest not only for

  19. Parthenolide inhibits nociception and neurogenic vasodilatation in the trigeminovascular system by targeting the TRPA1 channel.

    PubMed

    Materazzi, Serena; Benemei, Silvia; Fusi, Camilla; Gualdani, Roberta; De Siena, Gaetano; Vastani, Nisha; Andersson, David A; Trevisan, Gabriela; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Wei, Xiaomei; Dussor, Gregory; Pollastro, Federica; Patacchini, Riccardo; Appendino, Giovanni; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Nassini, Romina

    2013-12-01

    Although feverfew has been used for centuries to treat pain and headaches and is recommended for migraine treatment, the mechanism for its protective action remains unknown. Migraine is triggered by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from trigeminal neurons. Peptidergic sensory neurons express a series of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, including the ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel. Recent findings have identified agents either inhaled from the environment or produced endogenously that are known to trigger migraine or cluster headache attacks, such as TRPA1 simulants. A major constituent of feverfew, parthenolide, may interact with TRPA1 nucleophilic sites, suggesting that feverfew's antimigraine effect derives from its ability to target TRPA1. We found that parthenolide stimulates recombinant (transfected cells) or natively expressed (rat/mouse trigeminal neurons) TRPA1, where it, however, behaves as a partial agonist. Furthermore, in rodents, after initial stimulation, parthenolide desensitizes the TRPA1 channel and renders peptidergic TRPA1-expressing nerve terminals unresponsive to any stimulus. This effect of parthenolide abrogates nociceptive responses evoked by stimulation of peripheral trigeminal endings. TRPA1 targeting and neuronal desensitization by parthenolide inhibits CGRP release from trigeminal neurons and CGRP-mediated meningeal vasodilatation, evoked by either TRPA1 agonists or other unspecific stimuli. TRPA1 partial agonism, together with desensitization and nociceptor defunctionalization, ultimately resulting in inhibition of CGRP release within the trigeminovascular system, may contribute to the antimigraine effect of parthenolide.

  20. Parthenolide inhibits nociception and neurogenic vasodilatation in the trigeminovascular system by targeting TRPA1 channel

    PubMed Central

    Materazzi, Serena; Benemei, Silvia; Fusi, Camilla; Gualdani, Roberta; De Siena, Gaetano; Vastani, Nisha; Andersson, David A.; Trevisan, Gabriela; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Wei, Xiaomei; Dussor, Gregory; Pollastro, Federica; Patacchini, Riccardo; Appendino, Giovanni; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Nassini, Romina

    2013-01-01

    While feverfew has been used for centuries to treat pain and headaches and is recommended for migraine treatment, the mechanism for its protective action remains unknown. Migraine is triggered by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from trigeminal neurons. Peptidergic sensory neurons, express a series of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, including the ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel. Recent findings have identified agents either inhaled from the environment or produced endogenously, which are known to trigger migraine or cluster headache attacks, as TRPA1 simulants. A major constituent of feverfew, parthenolide, may interact with TRPA1 nucleophilic sites, suggesting that feverfew antimigraine effect derives from its ability to target TRPA1. We found that parthenolide stimulates recombinant (transfected cells) or natively expressed (rat/mouse trigeminal neurons) TRPA1, where it, however, behaves as a partial agonist. Furthermore, in rodents, after initial stimulation, parthenolide desensitizes the TRPA1 channel, and renders peptidergic, TRPA1-expressing nerve terminals unresponsive to any stimulus. This effect of parthenolide abrogates nociceptive responses evoked by stimulation of peripheral trigeminal endings. TRPA1 targeting and neuronal desensitization by parthenolide inhibits CGRP release from trigeminal neurons and CGRP-mediated meningeal vasodilatation, evoked by either TRPA1 agonists or other unspecific stimuli. TRPA1 partial agonism, together with desensitization and nociceptor defunctionalization, ultimately resulting in inhibition of CGRP release within the trigeminovascular system, may contribute to the antimigraine effect of parthenolide. PMID:23933184

  1. Characterisation of chemosensory trigeminal receptors in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss: responses to chemical irritants and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Mettam, Jessica J; McCrohan, Catherine R; Sneddon, Lynne U

    2012-02-15

    Trigeminally innervated, mechanically sensitive chemoreceptors (M) were previously identified in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but it is not known whether these receptors are responsive only to noxious, chemical irritants or have a general chemosensory function. This study aimed to characterise the stimulus-response properties of these receptors in comparison with polymodal nociceptors (P). Both P and M gave similar response profiles to acetic acid concentrations. The electrophysiological properties were similar between the two different afferent types. To determine whether the receptors have a nociceptive function, a range of chemical stimulants was applied to these receptors, including non-noxious stimuli such as ammonium chloride, bile, sodium bicarbonate and alarm pheromone, and potentially noxious chemical irritants such as acetic acid, carbon dioxide, low pH, citric acid, citric acid phosphate buffer and sodium chloride. Only irritant stimuli evoked a response, confirming their nociceptive function. All receptor afferents tested responded to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the form of mineral water or soda water. The majority responded to 1% acetic acid, 2% citric acid, citric acid phosphate buffer (pH 3) and 5.0 mol l(-1) NaCl. CO(2) receptors have been characterised in the orobranchial cavity and gill arches in fish; however, this is the first time that external CO(2) receptors have been identified on the head of a fish. Because the fish skin is in constant contact with the aqueous environment, contaminants with a low pH or hypercapnia may stimulate the nociceptive system in fish.

  2. (-)-α-Bisabolol reduces orofacial nociceptive behavior in rodents.

    PubMed

    Melo, Luana Torres; Duailibe, Mariana Araújo Braz; Pessoa, Luciana Moura; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira; Vieira-Neto, Antonio Eufrásio; de Vasconcellos Abdon, Ana Paula; Campos, Adriana Rolim

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the anti-nociceptive effect of oral and topical administration of (-)-α-bisabolol (BISA) in rodent models of formalin- or cinnamaldehyde-induced orofacial pain and to explore the inhibitory mechanisms involved. Orofacial pain was induced by injecting 1.5% formalin into the upper lip of mice (20 μL) or into the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats (50 μL). In another experiment, orofacial pain was induced with cinnamaldehyde (13.2 μg/lip). Nociceptive behavior was proxied by time (s) spent rubbing the injected area and by the incidence of head flinching. BISA (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg p.o. or 50, 100, or 200 mg/mL topical) or vehicle was administered 60 min before pain induction. The two formulations (lotion and syrup) were compared with regard to efficacy. The effect of BISA remained after incorporation into the formulations, and nociceptive behavior decreased significantly in all tests. The high binding affinity observed for BISA and TRPA1 in the molecular docking study was supported by in vivo experiments in which HC-030031 (a TRPA1 receptor antagonist) attenuated pain in a manner qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that of BISA. Blockers of opioid receptors, NO synthesis, and K(+) ATP channels did not affect orofacial pain, nor inhibit the effect of BISA. In conclusion, BISA had a significant anti-nociceptive effect on orofacial pain. The effect may in part be due to TRPA1 antagonism. The fact that the effect of BISA remained after incorporation into oral and topical formulations suggests that the compound may be a useful adjuvant in the treatment of orofacial pain.

  3. Operant nociception in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Brian D; Bergman, Jack

    2014-09-01

    The effective management of pain is a longstanding public health concern. Morphine-like opioids have long been front-line analgesics, but produce undesirable side effects that can limit their application. Slow progress in the introduction of novel improved medications for pain management over the last 5 decades has prompted a call for innovative translational research, including new preclinical assays. Most current in vivo procedures (eg, tail flick, hot plate, warm water tail withdrawal) assay the effects of nociceptive stimuli on simple spinal reflexes or unconditioned behavioral reactions. However, clinical treatment goals may include the restoration of previous behavioral activities, which can be limited by medication-related side effects that are not measured in such procedures. The present studies describe an apparatus and procedure to study the disruptive effects of nociceptive stimuli on voluntary behavior in nonhuman primates, and the ability of drugs to restore such behavior through their analgesic actions. Squirrel monkeys were trained to pull a cylindrical thermode for access to a highly palatable food. Next, sessions were conducted in which the temperature of the thermode was increased stepwise until responding stopped, permitting the determination of stable nociceptive thresholds. Tests revealed that several opioid analgesics, but not d-amphetamine or Δ(9)-THC, produced dose-related increases in threshold that were antagonist sensitive and efficacy dependent, consistent with their effects using traditional measures of antinociception. Unlike traditional reflex-based measures, however, the results also permitted the concurrent evaluation of response disruption, providing an index with which to characterize the behavioral selectivity of antinociceptive drugs.

  4. Alfaxalone Anaesthesia Facilitates Electrophysiological Recordings of Nociceptive Withdrawal Reflexes in Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, James; Murrell, Jo; Knazovicky, David; Harris, John; Kelly, Sara; Knowles, Toby G.; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis represents a welfare issue for affected dogs (Canis familiaris), but is also considered very similar to human osteoarthritis and has therefore been proposed as a model of disease in humans. Central sensitisation is recognized in human osteoarthritis sufferers but identification in dogs is challenging. Electromyographic measurement of responses to nociceptive stimulation represents a potential means of investigating alterations in central nociceptive processing, and has been evaluated in conscious experimental dogs, but is likely to be aversive. Development of a suitable anaesthetic protocol in experimental dogs, which facilitated electrophysiological nociceptive withdrawal reflex assessment, may increase the acceptability of using the technique in owned dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Seven purpose bred male hound dogs underwent electromyographic recording sessions in each of three states: acepromazine sedation, alfaxalone sedation, and alfaxalone anaesthesia. Electromyographic responses to escalating mechanical and electrical, and repeated electrical, stimuli were recorded. Subsequently the integral of both early and late rectified responses was calculated. Natural logarithms of the integral values were analysed within and between the three states using multi level modeling. Alfaxalone increased nociceptive thresholds and decreased the magnitude of recorded responses, but characteristics of increasing responses with increasing stimulus magnitude were preserved. Behavioural signs of anxiety were noted in two out of seven dogs during recordings in the acepromazine sedated state. There were few significant differences in response magnitude or nociceptive threshold between the two alfaxalone states. Following acepromazine premedication, induction of anaesthesia with 1–2 mg kg-1 alfaxalone, followed by a continuous rate infusion in the range 0.075–0.1 mg kg-1 min-1 produced suitable conditions to enable

  5. Brain measures of nociception using near-infrared spectroscopy in patients undergoing routine screening colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Lino; Aasted, Christopher M; Boas, David A; George, Edward; Yücel, Meryem A; Kussman, Barry D; Kelsey, Peter; Borsook, David

    2016-04-01

    Colonoscopy is an invaluable tool for the screening and diagnosis of many colonic diseases. For most colonoscopies, moderate sedation is used during the procedure. However, insufflation of the colon produces a nociceptive stimulus that is usually accompanied by facial grimacing/groaning while under sedation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a nociceptive signal elicited by colonic insufflation could be measured from the brain. Seventeen otherwise healthy patients (age 54.8 ± 9.1; 6 female) undergoing routine colonoscopy (ie, no history of significant medical conditions) were monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Moderate sedation was produced using standard clinical protocols for midazolam and meperidine, titrated to effect. Near-infrared spectroscopy data captured during the procedure was analyzed offline to evaluate the brains' responses to nociceptive stimuli evoked by the insufflation events (defined by physician or observing patients' facial responses). Analysis of NIRS data revealed a specific, reproducible prefrontal cortex activity corresponding to times when patients grimaced. The pattern of the activation is similar to that previously observed during nociceptive stimuli in awake healthy individuals, suggesting that this approach may be used to evaluate brain activity evoked by nociceptive stimuli under sedation, when there is incomplete analgesia. Although some patients report recollection of procedural pain after the procedure, the effects of repeated nociceptive stimuli in surgical patients may contribute to postoperative changes including chronic pain. The results from this study indicate that NIRS may be a suitable technology for continuous nociceptive afferent monitoring in patients undergoing sedation and could have applications under sedation or anesthesia.

  6. Effects of Aging on Current Vocalization Threshold in Mice Measured by a Novel Nociception Assay

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Julia C.; Besch, Virginia G.; Hergen, Adrienne; Kakareka, John; Pohida, Thomas; Melzer, Jonathan M.; Koziol, Deloris; Wesley, Robert; Quezado, Zenaide M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related changes in nociception have been extensively studied in the past decades. However, it remains unclear whether in addition to the increased incidence of chronic illness, age-related changes in nociception contribute to increased prevalence of pain in the elderly. Although a great deal of evidence suggests that nociception thresholds increase with aging, other studies yield disparate results. The aim of this investigation was to longitudinally determine the effect of aging on nociception. Methods The authors developed a nociception assay for mice using electrical stimuli at 2,000, 250, and 5 Hz that reportedly stimulate Aβ, Aδ, and C sensory nerve fibers, respectively. A system was designed to automate a method that elicits and detects pain-avoiding behavior in mice. Using a Latin square design, the authors measured current vocalization thresholds serially over the course of mice’s life span. Results For 2,000-Hz (Aβ), 250-Hz (Aδ), and 5-Hz (C) electrical stimuli, current vocalization thresholds first decreases and then increases with aging following a U-shaped pattern (P < 0.001). In addition, average current vocalization thresholds at youth and senescence are significantly higher than those at middle age for the 250-Hz (Aδ) and 5-Hz (C fiber) electrical stimulus (P < 0.05). Conclusions Using a novel and noninjurious nociception assay, the authors showed that over the life span of mice, current vocalization threshold to electrical stimuli changes in a U-shaped pattern. The findings support the notion that age-related changes in nociception are curvilinear, and to properly study and treat pain, the age of subjects should be considered. PMID:16871071

  7. Alfaxalone Anaesthesia Facilitates Electrophysiological Recordings of Nociceptive Withdrawal Reflexes in Dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Hunt, James; Murrell, Jo; Knazovicky, David; Harris, John; Kelly, Sara; Knowles, Toby G; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis represents a welfare issue for affected dogs (Canis familiaris), but is also considered very similar to human osteoarthritis and has therefore been proposed as a model of disease in humans. Central sensitisation is recognized in human osteoarthritis sufferers but identification in dogs is challenging. Electromyographic measurement of responses to nociceptive stimulation represents a potential means of investigating alterations in central nociceptive processing, and has been evaluated in conscious experimental dogs, but is likely to be aversive. Development of a suitable anaesthetic protocol in experimental dogs, which facilitated electrophysiological nociceptive withdrawal reflex assessment, may increase the acceptability of using the technique in owned dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Seven purpose bred male hound dogs underwent electromyographic recording sessions in each of three states: acepromazine sedation, alfaxalone sedation, and alfaxalone anaesthesia. Electromyographic responses to escalating mechanical and electrical, and repeated electrical, stimuli were recorded. Subsequently the integral of both early and late rectified responses was calculated. Natural logarithms of the integral values were analysed within and between the three states using multi level modeling. Alfaxalone increased nociceptive thresholds and decreased the magnitude of recorded responses, but characteristics of increasing responses with increasing stimulus magnitude were preserved. Behavioural signs of anxiety were noted in two out of seven dogs during recordings in the acepromazine sedated state. There were few significant differences in response magnitude or nociceptive threshold between the two alfaxalone states. Following acepromazine premedication, induction of anaesthesia with 1-2 mg kg-1 alfaxalone, followed by a continuous rate infusion in the range 0.075-0.1 mg kg-1 min-1 produced suitable conditions to enable assessment

  8. Sympathetic β-adrenergic mechanism in pudendal inhibition of nociceptive and non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity

    PubMed Central

    Kadow, Brian T.; Lyon, Timothy D.; Zhang, Zhaocun; Lamm, Vladimir; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R.; de Groat, William C.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the hypogastric nerve and β-adrenergic mechanisms in the inhibition of nociceptive and non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity induced by pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS). In α-chloralose-anesthetized cats, non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity was induced by slowly infusing saline into the bladder, whereas nociceptive reflex bladder activity was induced by replacing saline with 0.25% acetic acid (AA) to irritate the bladder. PNS was applied at multiple threshold (T) intensities for inducing anal sphincter twitching. During saline infusion, PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 184.7 ± 12.6% and 214.5 ± 10.4% of the control capacity. Propranolol (3 mg/kg iv) had no effect on PNS inhibition, but 3-[(2-methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP; 1–3 mg/kg iv) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the inhibition. During AA irritation, the control bladder capacity was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to ∼22% of the saline control capacity. PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 406.8 ± 47% and 415.8 ± 46% of the AA control capacity. Propranolol significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the bladder capacity to 276.3% ± 53.2% (at 2T PNS) and 266.5 ± 72.4% (at 4T PNS) of the AA control capacity, whereas MTEP (a metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor antagonist) removed the residual PNS inhibition. Bilateral transection of the hypogastric nerves produced an effect similar to that produced by propranolol. This study indicates that hypogastric nerves and a β-adrenergic mechanism in the detrusor play an important role in PNS inhibition of nociceptive but not non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity. In addition to this peripheral mechanism, a central nervous system mechanism involving metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors also has a role in PNS inhibition. PMID:27170683

  9. Sympathetic β-adrenergic mechanism in pudendal inhibition of nociceptive and non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity.

    PubMed

    Kadow, Brian T; Lyon, Timothy D; Zhang, Zhaocun; Lamm, Vladimir; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the role of the hypogastric nerve and β-adrenergic mechanisms in the inhibition of nociceptive and non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity induced by pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS). In α-chloralose-anesthetized cats, non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity was induced by slowly infusing saline into the bladder, whereas nociceptive reflex bladder activity was induced by replacing saline with 0.25% acetic acid (AA) to irritate the bladder. PNS was applied at multiple threshold (T) intensities for inducing anal sphincter twitching. During saline infusion, PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 184.7 ± 12.6% and 214.5 ± 10.4% of the control capacity. Propranolol (3 mg/kg iv) had no effect on PNS inhibition, but 3-[(2-methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP; 1-3 mg/kg iv) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the inhibition. During AA irritation, the control bladder capacity was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to ∼22% of the saline control capacity. PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 406.8 ± 47% and 415.8 ± 46% of the AA control capacity. Propranolol significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the bladder capacity to 276.3% ± 53.2% (at 2T PNS) and 266.5 ± 72.4% (at 4T PNS) of the AA control capacity, whereas MTEP (a metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor antagonist) removed the residual PNS inhibition. Bilateral transection of the hypogastric nerves produced an effect similar to that produced by propranolol. This study indicates that hypogastric nerves and a β-adrenergic mechanism in the detrusor play an important role in PNS inhibition of nociceptive but not non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity. In addition to this peripheral mechanism, a central nervous system mechanism involving metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors also has a role in PNS inhibition. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Lumbosacral spinal cord somatosensory evoked potentials for quantification of nociception in horses.

    PubMed

    van Loon, J P A M; van Oostrom, H; Doornenbal, A; Hellebrekers, L J

    2010-04-01

    There is a need for objective evaluation and quantification of the efficacy of analgesic drugs and analgesic techniques in horses. To determine whether lumbosacral spinal cord somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) can be a useful and reliable tool to assess nociception in equines. SSEPs and electromyograms (EMG) from the epaxial muscles were recorded simultaneously, following electrical stimulation applied to the distal hindlimb in lightly anaesthetised Shetland ponies (n=7). In order to validate the model, the effect of increasing stimulus intensity was documented and the conduction velocities (CV) of the stimulated nerves were calculated. The effect of epidurally applied methadone (0.4 mg/kg bwt) in a randomised, crossover design was investigated. Two distinct complexes (N1P1 and N2P2) were identified in the SSEP waveform. Based on their latency and conduction velocity and the depressant effect of epidurally applied methadone, the SSEP N2P2 was ascribed to nociceptive Adelta-afferent stimulation. The SSEP N1P1 originated from non-nociceptive Abeta-afferent stimulation and was not influenced by epidurally applied methadone. The nociceptive Adelta component of the SSEP, the N2P2 complex, is presented as a valid and quantitative parameter of spinal nociceptive processing in the horse. Validation of the equine SSEP model enables the analgesic effects of new analgesics/analgesic techniques to be quantified and analgesia protocols for caudal epidural analgesia in equidae improved.

  11. Drosophila caspase activity is required independently of apoptosis to produce active TNF/Eiger during nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Jo, Juyeon; Im, Seol Hee; Babcock, Daniel T; Iyer, Srividya C; Gunawan, Felona; Cox, Daniel N; Galko, Michael J

    2017-05-11

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is required for inflammatory nociceptive (pain) sensitization in Drosophila and vertebrates. Nociceptive sensitization in Drosophila larvae following UV-induced tissue damage is accompanied by epidermal apoptosis and requires epidermal-derived TNF/Eiger and the initiator caspase, Dronc. Major gaps remain regarding TNF function in sensitization, including the relationship between apoptosis/tissue damage and TNF production, the downstream signaling in this context, and the target genes that modulate nociceptive behaviors. Here, apoptotic cell death and thermal nociceptive sensitization are genetically and procedurally separable in a Drosophila model of UV-induced nociceptive sensitization. Activation of epidermal Dronc induces TNF-dependent but effector caspase-independent nociceptive sensitization in the absence of UV. In addition, knockdown of Dronc attenuated nociceptive sensitization induced by full-length TNF/Eiger but not by a constitutively soluble form. UV irradiation induced TNF production in both in vitro and in vivo, but TNF secretion into hemolymph was not sufficient to induce thermal nociceptive sensitization. Downstream mediators of TNF-induced sensitization included two TNF receptor-associated factors, a p38 kinase, and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B. Finally, sensory neuron-specific microarray analysis revealed downstream TNF target genes induced during thermal nociceptive sensitization. One of these, enhancer of zeste (E(z)), functions downstream of TNF during thermal nociceptive sensitization. Our findings suggest that an initiator caspase is involved in TNF processing/secretion during nociceptive sensitization, and that TNF activation leads to a specific downstream signaling cascade and gene transcription required for sensitization. These findings have implications for both the evolution of inflammatory caspase function following tissue damage signals and the action of TNF during sensitization

  12. Is temporal summation of pain and spinal nociception altered during normal aging?

    PubMed

    Marouf, Rafik; Piché, Mathieu; Rainville, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the effect of normal aging on temporal summation (TS) of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII). Two groups of healthy volunteers, young and elderly, received transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied to the right sural nerve to assess pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII-reflex). Stimulus intensity was adjusted individually to 120% of RIII-reflex threshold, and shocks were delivered as a single stimulus or as a series of 5 stimuli to assess TS at 5 different frequencies (0.17, 0.33, 0.66, 1, and 2 Hz). This study shows that robust TS of pain and RIII-reflex is observable in individuals aged between 18 and 75 years and indicates that these effects are comparable between young and older individuals. These results contrast with some previous findings and imply that at least some pain regulatory processes, including TS, may not be affected by normal aging, although this may vary depending on the method.

  13. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) signaling modulates acute and tonic nociception

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Eugene L.; Petrus, Emily; Usdin, Ted B.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) synthesizing neurons at the caudal border of the thalamus and in the lateral pons project to areas rich in its receptor, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). These areas include many involved in processing nociceptive information. Here we examined the potential role of TIP39 signaling in nociception using a PTH2R antagonist (HYWH) and mice with deletion of TIP39's coding sequence or PTH2R null mutation. Intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of HYWH significantly inhibited nociceptive responses in tail-flick and hot-plate tests and attenuated the nociceptive response to hindpaw formalin injection. TIP39-KO and PTH2R-KO had increased response latency in the 55 °C hot-plate test and reduced responses in the hindpaw formalin test. The tail-flick test was not affected in either KO line. Thermal hypoalgesia in KO mice was dose-dependently reversed by systemic administration of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist rimonabant, which did not affect nociception in wild-type (WT). Systemic administration of the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 did not affect nociception in KO mice at a dose effective in WT. WT mice administered HYWH icv, and both KOs, had significantly increased stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Rimonabant blocked the increased SIA in TIP39-KO, PTH2R-KO or after HYWH infusion. CB1 and FAAH mRNA were decreased and increased, respectively, in the basolateral amygdala of TIP39-KO mice. These data suggest that TIP39 signaling modulates nociception, very likely by inhibiting endocannabinoid circuitry at a supraspinal level. We infer a new central mechanism for endocannabinoid regulation, via TIP39 acting on the PTH2R in discrete brain regions. PMID:20696160

  14. Edema and Nociception Induced by Philodryas patagoniensis Venom in Mice: A Pharmacological Evaluation with Implications for the Accident Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Priscila Hess; Rocha, Marisa M T; Kuniyoshi, Alexandre Kazuo; Portaro, Fernanda Calheta Vieira; Gonçalves, Luís Roberto C

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms involved in the genesis of edema and nociception induced by Philodryas patagoniensis venom (PpV) injected into the footpad of mice. PpV induced dose-related edema and nociceptive effects. Pretreatment of mice with cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin), but not with cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor (celecoxib) markedly inhibited both effects. Pretreatments with H1 receptor antagonist (promethazine) or with dual histamine-serotonin inhibitor (cyproheptadine) failed in inhibiting both effects. In groups pretreated with captopril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) the edema was unaltered, but nociception was clearly increased, suggesting the participation of kinins in the pathophysiology of the nociception but not of the edema-forming effect of PpV. When PpV was treated with EDTA, the nociception was similar to the one induced by untreated venom, but edema was markedly reduced. We concluded that PpV-induced edema and nociception have cyclooxygenase eicosanoids as the main mediators and no participation of vasoactive amines. Kinins seem to participate in nociception but not in edema induced by PpV. The results also suggest that metalloproteinases are the main compounds responsible for the edema, but not for the nociception induced by this venom. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Pro-nociceptive role of peripheral galanin in inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Zhou, Shengtai; Du, Junhui; Yamani, Ammar; Grady, James J; Castañeda-Hernandez, Gilberto; Carlton, Susan M

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the peripheral function of galanin (GAL) in capsaicin (CAP)-induced inflammatory pain. Intraplantar GAL (0.1 ng/microl) alone does not produce nociceptive behaviors. However, ipsilateral but not contralateral GAL at low doses (0.1 ng/microl) significantly increases CAP-evoked nociceptive behaviors approximately twofold. This effect is attributed to activation of peripheral GAL receptor 2 (GalR2) because a selective GalR2 agonist (AR-M1896) mimics the pro-nociceptive actions of GAL. Recording from nociceptors confirms that GAL does not modify activity of nociceptors but markedly enhances CAP-induced excitation of these fibers. CAP produces a discharge rate of 0.15+/-0.05 impulses/s which increases to 0.54+/-0.17 impulses/s following CAP+GAL. Immunohistochemical studies indicate GalR2 are highly expressed (65.8%) in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. Also, 44.5% GalR2-positive DRG neurons label for the capsaicin receptor (vanilloid receptor 1, VR1) while 61.7% of VR1-positive DRG neurons label for GalR2; 28.1% of total DRG neurons are double-labeled supporting the hypothesis that GAL-induced effects are mediated by GalR2 on capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents. Furthermore, 68.0% unmyelinated and 23.1% myelinated digital nerve axons label for GalR2, indicating the receptor is transported out to the periphery. Immunostaining for GAL peptide in digital nerves labels 46.4% unmyelinated and 27.1% myelinated axons, suggesting that afferents are a major source of ligand for peripheral GalR2. These results suggest that peripheral GAL has an excitatory role in inflammatory pain, likely mediated by peripheral GalR2 and that GAL can modulate VR1 function.

  16. Application of calibrated forceps for assessing mechanical nociception with high time resolution in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwadani, Hideki; Kanmura, Yuichi; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the basic physiological mechanisms of pain and the anti-nociceptive effects of analgesics, development of pain assays in mice is critical due to the advances of genetic manipulation techniques. The von Frey hairs/Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments test (von Frey test) has long been applied to examine mechanical nociception in mice. Though the von Frey test is a well-established and standardized method, it is inappropriate to assess a rapid change in the nociceptive threshold because voluntary resting/sleeping states are necessary to examine the response. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of calibrated forceps to determine the mechanical nociceptive threshold in mice. Repeated daily measurements of the threshold over 5 days indicated that the device obtained stable and reliable values. Furthermore, repeated measurements with 5 minute intervals revealed that the device detected the rapid change of the threshold induced by remifentanil, a short-acting μ-receptor agonist. These results indicate that the calibrated forceps are well-suited for measuring the mechanical nociceptive threshold in mice, and are useful in assessing the effects of short-acting analgesics on mechanical nociception. PMID:28212389

  17. Forebrain medial septum region facilitates nociception in a rat formalin model of inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy Thiam-Huat; Ariffin, Mohammed Zacky; Zhou, Mingyi; Ye, Jenn Zhou; Moochhala, Shabbir M; Khanna, Sanjay

    2011-11-01

    The medial septum is anatomically and functionally linked to the hippocampus, a region implicated in nociception. However, the role of medial septum in nociception remains unclear. To investigate the role of the region in nociception in rats, muscimol, a GABA agonist, or zolpidem, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA(A) receptors, was microinjected into medial septum to attenuate the activity of neurons in the region. Electrophysiological studies in anesthetized rats indicated that muscimol evoked a stronger and longer-lasting suppression of medial septal-mediated activation of hippocampal theta field activity than zolpidem. Similarly, microinjection of muscimol (1 or 2 μg/0.5 μl) into the medial septum of awake rats suppressed both licking and flinching behaviors in the formalin test of inflammatory pain, whereas only the latter behavior was affected by zolpidem (8 or 12 μg/0.5 μl) administered into the medial septum. Interestingly, both drugs selectively attenuated nociceptive behaviors in the second phase of the formalin test that are partly driven by central plasticity. Indeed, muscimol reduced the second phase behaviors by 30% to 60%, which was comparable to the reduction seen with systemic administration of a moderate dose of the analgesic morphine. The reduction was accompanied by a decrease in formalin-induced expression of spinal c-Fos protein that serves as an index of spinal nociceptive processing. The drug effects on nociceptive behaviors were without overt sedation and were distinct from the effects observed after septal lateral microinjections. Taken together, these findings suggest that the activation of medial septum is pro-nociceptive and facilitates aspects of central neural processing underlying nociception.

  18. Transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces nociceptive threshold in rats.

    PubMed

    Ambriz-Tututi, Mónica; Sánchez-González, Violeta; Drucker-Colín, René

    2012-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a procedure that uses magnetic fields to stimulate or inhibit nerve cells in the brain noninvasively. TMS induces an electromagnetic current in the underlying cortical neurons. Varying frequencies and intensities of TMS increase or decrease excitability in the cortical area directly targeted. It has been suggested that TMS has potential in the treatment of some neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, and depression. Initial case reports and open label trials reported by several groups support the use of TMS in pain treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of TMS on the nociceptive threshold in the rat. The parameters used were a frequency of 60 Hz and an intensity of 2 and 6 mT for 2 hr twice per day. After 5 days of TMS treatment, rats were evaluated for mechanical, chemical, and cold stimulation. We observed a significant reduction in the nociceptive threshold in TMS-treated rats but not in sham-treated rats in all behavioral tests evaluated. When TMS treatment was stopped, a slow recovery to normal mechanic threshold was observed. Interestingly, i.c.v. MK-801 or CNQX administration reverted the TMS-induced pronociception. The results suggest that high-frequency TMS can alter the nociceptive threshold and produce allodynia in the rats; results suggest the involvement of NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors on TMS-induced allodynia in the rat.

  19. The influence of gender and sex steroids on craniofacial nociception.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Brian E

    2007-02-01

    Several pain conditions localized to the craniofacial region show a remarkable sex-related difference in their prevalence. These conditions include temporomandibular disorders and burning mouth syndrome as well as tension-type, migraine, and cluster headaches. The mechanisms that underlie sex-related differences in the prevalence of these craniofacial pain conditions remain obscure and likely involve both physiological and psychosocial factors. In terms of physiological factors relevant to the development of headache, direct evidence of sex-related differences in the properties of dural afferent fibers or durally activated second-order trigeminal sensory neurons has yet to be provided. There is, however, evidence for sex-related differences in the response properties of afferent fibers and second-order trigeminal sensory neurons that convey nociceptive input from other craniofacial tissues associated with sex-related differences in chronic pain conditions, such as those that innervate the masseter muscle and temporomandibular joint. Further, modulation of craniofacial nociceptive input by opioidergic receptor mechanisms appears to be dependent on biological sex. Research into mechanisms that may contribute to sex-related differences in trigeminal nociceptive processing has primarily focused on effect of the female sex hormone estrogen, which appears to alter the excitability of trigeminal afferent fibers and sensory neurons to noxious stimulation of craniofacial tissues. This article discusses current knowledge of potential physiological mechanisms that could contribute to sex-related differences in certain craniofacial pain conditions.

  20. The zebrafish as a model for nociception studies.

    PubMed

    Malafoglia, Valentina; Bryant, Bruce; Raffaeli, William; Giordano, Antonio; Bellipanni, Gianfranco

    2013-10-01

    Nociception is the sensory mechanism used to detect cues that can harm an organism. The understanding of the neural networks and molecular controls of the reception of pain remains an ongoing challenge for biologists. While we have made significant progress in identifying a number of molecules and pathways that are involved in transduction of noxious stimuli, from the skin through the sensory receptor cell and from this to the spinal cord on into the central nervous system, we still lack a clear understanding of the perceptual processes, the responses to pain and the regulation of pain perception. Mice and rat animal models have been extensively used for nociception studies. However, the study of pain and noiception in these organisms can be rather laborious, costly and time consuming. Conversely, the use of Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans may be affected by the large evolutionary distance between these animals and humans. We outline here the reasons why zebrafish presents a new and attractive model for studying pain reception and responses and the most interesting findings in the study of nociception that have been obtained using the zebrafish model.

  1. Quantification of Nociceptive Escape Response in C.elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Kawai; Mohammadi, Aylia; Ryu, William; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-03-01

    Animals cannot rank and communicate their pain consciously. Thus in pain studies on animal models, one must infer the pain level from high precision experimental characterization of behavior. This is not trivial since behaviors are very complex and multidimensional. Here we explore the feasibility of C.elegans as a model for pain transduction. The nematode has a robust neurally mediated noxious escape response, which we show to be partially decoupled from other sensory behaviors. We develop a nociceptive behavioral response assay that allows us to apply controlled levels of pain by locally heating worms with an IR laser. The worms' motions are captured by machine vision programming with high spatiotemporal resolution. The resulting behavioral quantification allows us to build a statistical model for inference of the experienced pain level from the behavioral response. Based on the measured nociceptive escape of over 400 worms, we conclude that none of the simple characteristics of the response are reliable indicators of the laser pulse strength. Nonetheless, a more reliable statistical inference of the pain stimulus level from the measured behavior is possible based on a complexity-controlled regression model that takes into account the entire worm behavioral output. This work was partially supported by NSF grant No. IOS/1208126 and HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.

  2. Nociceptive TRP Channels: Sensory Detectors and Transducers in Multiple Pain Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Mickle, Aaron D.; Shepherd, Andrew J.; Mohapatra, Durga P.

    2016-01-01

    Specialized receptors belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ligand-gated ion channels constitute the critical detectors and transducers of pain-causing stimuli. Nociceptive TRP channels are predominantly expressed by distinct subsets of sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Several of these TRP channels are also expressed in neurons of the central nervous system, and in non-neuronal cells that communicate with sensory nerves. Nociceptive TRPs are activated by specific physico-chemical stimuli to provide the excitatory trigger in neurons. In addition, decades of research has identified a large number of immune and neuromodulators as mediators of nociceptive TRP channel activation during injury, inflammatory and other pathological conditions. These findings have led to aggressive targeting of TRP channels for the development of new-generation analgesics. This review summarizes the complex activation and/or modulation of nociceptive TRP channels under pathophysiological conditions, and how these changes underlie acute and chronic pain conditions. Furthermore, development of small-molecule antagonists for several TRP channels as analgesics, and the positive and negative outcomes of these drugs in clinical trials are discussed. Understanding the diverse functional and modulatory properties of nociceptive TRP channels is critical to function-based drug targeting for the development of evidence-based and efficacious new generation analgesics. PMID:27854251

  3. Forebrain Mechanisms of Nociception and Pain: Analysis through Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Kenneth L.

    1999-07-01

    Pain is a unified experience composed of interacting discriminative, affective-motivational, and cognitive components, each of which is mediated and modulated through forebrain mechanisms acting at spinal, brainstem, and cerebral levels. The size of the human forebrain in relation to the spinal cord gives anatomical emphasis to forebrain control over nociceptive processing. Human forebrain pathology can cause pain without the activation of nociceptors. Functional imaging of the normal human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) shows synaptically induced increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in several regions specifically during pain. We have examined the variables of gender, type of noxious stimulus, and the origin of nociceptive input as potential determinants of the pattern and intensity of rCBF responses. The structures most consistently activated across genders and during contact heat pain, cold pain, cutaneous laser pain or intramuscular pain were the contralateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex, the bilateral thalamus and premotor cortex, and the cerebellar vermis. These regions are commonly activated in PET studies of pain conducted by other investigators, and the intensity of the brain rCBF response correlates parametrically with perceived pain intensity. To complement the human studies, we developed an animal model for investigating stimulus-induced rCBF responses in the rat. In accord with behavioral measures and the results of human PET, there is a progressive and selective activation of somatosensory and limbic system structures in the brain and brainstem following the subcutaneous injection of formalin. The animal model and human PET studies should be mutually reinforcing and thus facilitate progress in understanding forebrain mechanisms of normal and pathological pain.

  4. Acute estrogen surge enhances inflammatory nociception without altering spinal Fos expression.

    PubMed

    Ralya, Andrew; McCarson, Kenneth E

    2014-07-11

    Chronic pain is a major neurological disorder that can manifest differently between genders or sexes. The complex actions of sex hormones may underlie these differences; previous studies have suggested that elevated estrogen levels can enhance pain perception. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that acute, activational effects of estradiol (E2) increase persistent inflammatory nociception, and anatomically where this modulation occurs. Spinal expression of Fos is widely used as a marker of nociceptive activation. This study used formalin-evoked nociception in ovariectomized (OVX) adult female rats and measured late-phase hindlimb flinching and Fos expression in the spinal cord, and their modification by acute estrogen supplementation similar to a proestrus surge. Six days after ovariectomy, female rats were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10μg/kg E2 or vehicle. Twenty-four hours later, 50μL of 1.25% or 100μL of 5% formalin was injected into the right hindpaw; hindlimb flinches were counted, and spinal cords removed 2h after formalin injection. The numbers of Fos-expressing neurons in sections of the lumbar spinal cord were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Formalin-induced inflammation produced a dose-dependent increase in late-phase hindlimb flinching, and E2 pretreatment increased flinching following 5%, but not 1.25% formalin injection. Despite the modification of behavior by E2, the number of spinal Fos-positive neurons was not altered by E2 pretreatment. These findings demonstrate that an acute proestrus-like surge in serum estrogen can produce a stimulus-intensity-dependent increase in inflammation-evoked nociceptive behavior. However, the lack of effect on spinal Fos expression suggests that this enhancement of nociceptive signaling by estrogen is independent of changes in peripheral activation of, expression of the immediate early gene Fos by, or signal throughput of spinal nociceptive neurons.

  5. Inhibitory control of nociceptive responses of trigeminal spinal nucleus cells by somatosensory corticofugal projection in rat.

    PubMed

    Malmierca, E; Martin, Y B; Nuñez, A

    2012-09-27

    The caudal division of the trigeminal spinal nucleus (Sp5C) is an important brainstem relay station of orofacial pain transmission. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of cortical electrical stimulation on nociceptive responses in Sp5C neurons. Extracellular recordings were performed in the Sp5C nucleus by tungsten microelectrodes in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Nociceptive stimulation was produced by application of capsaicin cream on the whisker pad or by constriction of the infraorbital nerve. Capsaicin application evoked a long-lasting increase in the spontaneous firing rate from 1.4±0.2 to 3.4±0.6 spikes/s. Non-noxious tactile responses from stimuli delivered to the receptive field (RF) center decreased 5 min. after capsaicin application (from 2.3±0.1 to 1.6±0.1 spikes/stimulus) while responses from the whisker located at the RF periphery increased (from 1.3±0.2 to 2.0±0.1 spikes/stimulus under capsaicin). Electrical train stimulation of the primary (S1) or secondary (S2) somatosensory cortical areas reduced the increase in the firing rate evoked by capsaicin. Also, S1, but not S2, cortical stimulation reduced the increase in non-noxious tactile responses from the RF periphery. Inhibitory cortical effects were mediated by the activation of GABAergic and glycinergic neurons because they were blocked by bicuculline or strychnine. The S1 and S2 cortical stimulation also inhibited Sp5C neurons in animals with constriction of the infraorbital nerve. Consequently, the corticofugal projection from S1 and S2 cortical areas modulates nociceptive responses of Sp5C neurons and may control the transmission of nociceptive sensory stimulus.

  6. Inflammation enhances Y1 receptor signaling, neuropeptide Y-mediated inhibition of hyperalgesia, and substance P release from primary afferent neurons

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Bradley K.; Fu, Weisi; Kuphal, Karen E.; Stiller, Carl-Olav; Winter, Michelle K.; Chen, Wenling; Corder, Gregory F.; Urban, Janice H.; McCarson, Kenneth E.; Marvizon, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is present in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn and inhibits spinal nociceptive processing, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-hyperalgesic actions are unclear. We hypothesized that NPY acts at neuropeptide Y1 receptors in dorsal horn to decrease nociception by inhibiting substance P (SP) release, and that these effects are enhanced by inflammation. To evaluate SP release, we used microdialysis and neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) internalization in rat. NPY decreased capsaicin-evoked SP-like immunoreactivity in microdialysate of the dorsal horn. NPY also decreased non-noxious stimulus (paw brush)-evoked NK1R internalization (as well as mechanical hyperalgesia and mechanical and cold allodynia) after intraplantar injection of carrageenan. Similarly, in rat spinal cord slices with dorsal root attached, [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY inhibited dorsal root stimulus-evoked NK1R internalization. In rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, Y1 receptors colocalized extensively with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). In dorsal horn neurons, Y1 receptors were extensively expressed and this may have masked detection of terminal co-localization with CGRP or SP. To determine whether the pain inhibitory actions of Y1 receptors are enhanced by inflammation, we administered [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY after intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rat. We found that [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY reduced paw clamp-induced NK1R internalization in CFA rats but not uninjured controls. To determine the contribution of increased Y1 receptor-G protein coupling, we measured [35S]GTPγS binding simulated by [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY in mouse dorsal horn. CFA inflammation increased the affinity of Y1 receptor G-protein coupling. We conclude that Y1 receptors contribute to the anti-hyperalgesic effects of NPY by mediating inhibition of SP release, and that Y1 receptor signaling in the dorsal horn is enhanced during inflammatory nociception. PMID:24184981

  7. Effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior in male rats: role of μ-agonist efficacy and noxious stimulus intensity.

    PubMed

    Altarifi, Ahmad A; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, S Stevens

    2015-02-01

    Pain is associated with stimulation of some behaviors and depression of others, and μ-opioid receptor agonists are among the most widely used analgesics. This study used parallel assays of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats to compare antinociception profiles for six μ-agonists that varied in efficacy at μ-opioid receptors (from highest to lowest: methadone, fentanyl, morphine, hydrocodone, buprenorphine, and nalbuphine). Intraperitoneal injection of diluted lactic acid served as an acute noxious stimulus to either stimulate stretching or depress operant responding maintained by electrical stimulation in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). All μ-agonists blocked both stimulation of stretching and depression of ICSS produced by 1.8% lactic acid. The high-efficacy agonists methadone and fentanyl were more potent at blocking acid-induced depression of ICSS than acid-stimulated stretching, whereas lower-efficacy agonists displayed similar potency across assays. All μ-agonists except morphine also facilitated ICSS in the absence of the noxious stimulus at doses similar to those that blocked acid-induced depression of ICSS. The potency of the low-efficacy μ-agonist nalbuphine, but not the high-efficacy μ-agonist methadone, to block acid-induced depression of ICSS was significantly reduced by increasing the intensity of the noxious stimulus to 5.6% acid. These results demonstrate sensitivity of acid-induced depression of ICSS to a range of clinically effective μ-opioid analgesics and reveal distinctions between opioids based on efficacy at the μ-receptor. These results also support the use of parallel assays of pain-stimulated and -depressed behaviors to evaluate analgesic efficacy of candidate drugs.

  8. Caloric vestibular stimulation modulates nociceptive evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Haggard, Patrick; Bottini, Gabriella; Iannetti, Gian Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation has been reported to alleviate central pain. Clinical and physiological studies confirm pervasive interactions between vestibular signals and somatosensory circuits, including nociception. However, the neural mechanisms underlying vestibular-induced analgesia remain unclear, and previous clinical studies cannot rule out explanations based on alternative, non-specific effects such as distraction or placebo. To investigate how vestibular inputs influence nociception, we combined caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) with psychophysical and electrocortical responses elicited by nociceptive-specific laser stimulation in humans (laser-evoked potentials, LEPs). Cold-water CVS applied to the left ear resulted in significantly lower subjective pain intensity for experimental laser pain to the left hand immediately after CVS, relative both to before CVS, and to 1 hour after CVS. This transient reduction in pain perception was associated with reduced amplitude of all LEP components, including the early N1 wave reflecting the first arrival of nociceptive input to primary somatosensory cortex. We conclude that cold left ear CVS elicits a modulation of both nociceptive processing and pain perception. The analgesic effect induced by CVS could be mediated by either subcortical gating of the ascending nociceptive input, or by direct modulation of the primary somatosensory cortex. PMID:26282602

  9. Caloric vestibular stimulation modulates nociceptive evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Haggard, Patrick; Bottini, Gabriella; Iannetti, Gian Domenico

    2015-12-01

    Vestibular stimulation has been reported to alleviate central pain. Clinical and physiological studies confirm pervasive interactions between vestibular signals and somatosensory circuits, including nociception. However, the neural mechanisms underlying vestibular-induced analgesia remain unclear, and previous clinical studies cannot rule out explanations based on alternative, non-specific effects such as distraction or placebo. To investigate how vestibular inputs influence nociception, we combined caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) with psychophysical and electrocortical responses elicited by nociceptive-specific laser stimulation in humans (laser-evoked potentials, LEPs). Cold water CVS applied to the left ear resulted in significantly lower subjective pain intensity for experimental laser pain to the left hand immediately after CVS, relative both to before CVS and to 1 h after CVS. This transient reduction in pain perception was associated with reduced amplitude of all LEP components, including the early N1 wave reflecting the first arrival of nociceptive input to primary somatosensory cortex. We conclude that cold left ear CVS elicits a modulation of both nociceptive processing and pain perception. The analgesic effect induced by CVS could be mediated either by subcortical gating of the ascending nociceptive input, or by direct modulation of the primary somatosensory cortex.

  10. Anti-nociceptive effect of stigmasterol in mouse models of acute and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Cristiani Isabel Banderó; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Tonello, Raquel; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; da Silva Brum, Evelyne; Ferreira, Juliano; Trevisan, Gabriela

    2017-08-18

    Stigmasterol is a common sterol found in plants, but the anti-nociceptive effect of this compound and its mechanism of action are not fully explored. Thus, in the present study, the anti-nociceptive effect of stigmasterol was investigated in acute and chronic models of pain and its mechanism of action. We used adult male albino Swiss mice (25-35 g) to observe the anti-nociceptive effect of stigmasterol in acetic-acid writhing test or in complete Freund's adjuvant injection, surgical incision in hind paw, or partial sciatic nerve ligation. Moreover, we investigate the involvement of opioid receptors (naloxone, 2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) in stigmasterol anti-nociceptive effect and stigmasterol action on acetylcholinesterase activity. Some possible adverse effects caused by stigmasterol were also investigated. Stigmasterol (0.3-3 mg/kg, orally) exhibited an anti-nociceptive effect on acetic-acid-induced writhing test. Furthermore, it markedly attenuated the mechanical allodynia caused by surgical incision (after acute treatment with stigmasterol, preventive and curative effects were observed) and partial sciatic nerve ligation (after acute treatment with stigmasterol) and complete Freund's adjuvant (after acute or repeated treatment with stigmasterol). The anti-nociceptive effect of stigmasterol was not reversed by naloxone. Moreover, stigmasterol did not alter in vitro acetylcholinesterase activity in spinal cord or brain samples. Also, stigmasterol did not cause gastric ulcers or alter the gastrointestinal transit of mice. Taken together, these results support the potential anti-nociceptive effect of stigmasterol in different models of pain.

  11. Cognitive aspects of nociception and pain: bridging neurophysiology with cognitive psychology.

    PubMed

    Legrain, V; Mancini, F; Sambo, C F; Torta, D M; Ronga, I; Valentini, E

    2012-10-01

    The event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by nociceptive stimuli are largely influenced by vigilance, emotion, alertness, and attention. Studies that specifically investigated the effects of cognition on nociceptive ERPs support the idea that most of these ERP components can be regarded as the neurophysiological indexes of the processes underlying detection and orientation of attention toward the eliciting stimulus. Such detection is determined both by the salience of the stimulus that makes it pop out from the environmental context (bottom-up capture of attention) and by its relevance according to the subject's goals and motivation (top-down attentional control). The fact that nociceptive ERPs are largely influenced by information from other sensory modalities such as vision and proprioception, as well as from motor preparation, suggests that these ERPs reflect a cortical system involved in the detection of potentially meaningful stimuli for the body, with the purpose to respond adequately to potential threats. In such a theoretical framework, pain is seen as an epiphenomenon of warning processes, encoded in multimodal and multiframe representations of the body, well suited to guide defensive actions. The findings here reviewed highlight that the ERPs elicited by selective activation of nociceptors may reflect an attentional gain apt to bridge a coherent perception of salient sensory events with action selection processes.

  12. Roles of prefrontal cortex and paraventricular thalamus in affective and mechanical components of visceral nociception.

    PubMed

    Jurik, Angela; Auffenberg, Eva; Klein, Sabine; Deussing, Jan M; Schmid, Roland M; Wotjak, Carsten T; Thoeringer, Christoph K

    2015-12-01

    Visceral pain represents a major clinical challenge in the management of many gastrointestinal disorders, eg, pancreatitis. However, cerebral neurobiological mechanisms underlying visceral nociception are poorly understood. As a representative model of visceral nociception, we applied cerulein hyperstimulation in C57BL6 mice to induce acute pancreatitis and performed a behavioral test battery and c-Fos staining of brains. We observed a specific pain phenotype and a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), the periaqueductal gray, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Using neuronal tracing, we observed projections of the PVT to cortical layers of the mPFC with contacts to inhibitory GABAergic neurons. These inhibitory neurons showed more activation after cerulein treatment suggesting thalamocortical "feedforward inhibition" in visceral nociception. The activity of neurons in pancreatitis-related pain centers was pharmacogenetically modulated by designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs, selectively and cell type specifically expressed in target neurons using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer. Pharmacogenetic inhibition of PVT but not periaqueductal gray neurons attenuated visceral pain and induced an activation of the descending inhibitory pain pathway. Activation of glutamatergic principle neurons in the mPFC, but not inhibitory neurons, also reversed visceral nociception. These data reveal novel insights into central pain processing that underlies visceral nociception and may trigger the development of novel, potent centrally acting analgesic drugs.

  13. Anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide on zymosan-induced experimental articular incapacitation.

    PubMed

    Vale, Mariana L; Cunha, Fernando Q; Brito, Gerly A C; Benevides, Verônica M; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Poole, Stephen; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2006-05-01

    The anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide on zymosan-induced articular knee joint incapacitation in rats was investigated. Thalidomide (5-45 mg/kg), given 30 min before but not 2 h after the intra-articular injection of zymosan, inhibited the nociceptive response in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, thalidomide pretreatment significantly reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, -68.4%) in the exudate of zymosan-injected joints, but not those of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, CINC-1 or interleukin-10. The expression of TNF-alpha, determined by immunohistochemical staining, in synovial tissues obtained from articular joints injected with zymosan was also inhibited by thalidomide pretreatment. The anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide was not reversed by the co-administration of an opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, suggesting that endogenous opioids do not mediate the anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide in this model. In conclusion, the anti-nociceptive activity of thalidomide in zymosan-induced articular incapacitation is associated with the inhibition of TNF-alpha by resident synovial cells.

  14. FGF13 Selectively Regulates Heat Nociception by Interacting with Nav1.7.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Dong, Fei; Yang, Qing; Yang, Pai-Feng; Wu, Ruiqi; Wu, Qing-Feng; Wu, Dan; Li, Chang-Lin; Zhong, Yan-Qing; Lu, Ying-Jin; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Xu, Fu-Qiang; Chen, Limin; Bao, Lan; Zhang, Xu

    2017-02-22

    The current knowledge about heat nociception is mainly confined to the thermosensors, including the transient receptor potential cation channel V1 expressed in the nociceptive neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG). However, the loss of thermosensors only partially impairs heat nociception, suggesting the existence of undiscovered mechanisms. We found that the loss of an intracellular fibroblast growth factor (FGF), FGF13, in the mouse DRG neurons selectively abolished heat nociception. The noxious heat stimuli could not evoke the sustained action potential firing in FGF13-deficient DRG neurons. Furthermore, FGF13 interacted with the sodium channel Nav1.7 in a heat-facilitated manner. FGF13 increased Nav1.7 sodium currents and maintained the membrane localization of Nav1.7 during noxious heat stimulation, enabling the sustained firing of action potentials. Disrupting the FGF13/Nav1.7 interaction reduced the heat-evoked action potential firing and nociceptive behavior. Thus, beyond the thermosensors, the FGF13/Nav1.7 complex is essential for sustaining the transmission of noxious heat signals.

  15. Neuronal NTPDase3 Mediates Extracellular ATP Degradation in Trigeminal Nociceptive Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lihua; Trinh, Thu; Ren, Yanfang; Dirksen, Robert T.; Liu, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    ATP induces pain via activation of purinergic receptors in nociceptive sensory nerves. ATP signaling is terminated by ATP hydrolysis mediated by cell surface-localized ecto-nucleotidases. Using enzymatic histochemical staining, we show that ecto-ATPase activity is present in mouse trigeminal nerves. Using immunofluorescence staining, we found that ecto-NTPDase3 is expressed in trigeminal nociceptive neurons and their projections to the brainstem. In addition, ecto-ATPase activity and ecto-NTPDase3 are also detected in the nociceptive outermost layer of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that incubation with anti-NTPDase3 serum reduces extracellular ATP degradation in the nociceptive lamina of both the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and the spinal cord dorsal horn. These results are consistent with neuronal NTPDase3 activity modulating pain signal transduction and transmission by affecting extracellular ATP hydrolysis within the trigeminal nociceptive pathway. Thus, disruption of trigeminal neuronal NTPDase3 expression and localization to presynaptic terminals during chronic inflammation, local constriction and injury may contribute to the pathogenesis of orofacial neuropathic pain. PMID:27706204

  16. The place escape/avoidance paradigm: a novel method to assess nociceptive processing.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Perry N; McNabb, Christopher T

    2012-03-01

    This paper summarizes a behavioral paradigm that was developed as a novel method to dissociate the multidimensional pain experience in rodents. The place escape/avoidance paradigm (PEAP) is based on the assumption that if animals escape and/or avoid a noxious stimulus, then the stimulus is aversive to the animal. Data is presented showing that when animals are placed in a specific environmental condition, they will perform purposeful behavior to escape and/or avoid the noxious stimulus. Additional data is presented to demonstrate the validity of the behavioral paradigm and how the paradigm has been used to test the hypothesis that the affective/motivational dimension of pain can be dissociated and studied independent of sensory pain processing. The behavioral paradigm highlights the emerging trend in the area of pain research and management towards developing more realistic behavioral paradigms to assess nociceptive processing in rodent models of chronic pain.

  17. Effects of nicotine in combination with drugs described as positive allosteric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators in vitro: discriminative stimulus and hypothermic effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Megan J; de Moura, Fernando B; Koek, Wouter; McMahon, Lance R

    2016-09-05

    Some drugs that are positive allosteric nAChR modulators in vitro, desformylflustrabromine (dFBr), PNU-120596 and LY 2087101, have not been fully characterized in vivo. These drugs were examined for their capacity to share or modify the hypothermic and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (1mg/kg s.c.) in male C57Bl/6J mice. Nicotine, dFBr, and PNU-120596 produced significant hypothermia, whereas LY 2087101 (up to 100mg/kg) did not. Nicotine dose-dependently increased nicotine-appropriate responding and decreased response rate; the respective ED50 values were 0.56mg/kg and 0.91mg/kg. The modulators produced no more than 38% nicotine-appropriate responding up to doses that disrupted operant responding. Rank order potency was the same for hypothermia and rate-decreasing effects: nicotine>dFBr>PNU-120596=LY 2087101. Mecamylamine and the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, but not the α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine, antagonized the hypothermic effects of nicotine. In contrast, mecamylamine did not antagonize the hypothermic effects of the modulators. The combined discriminative stimulus effects of DFBr and nicotine were synergistic, whereas the combined hypothermic effects of nicotine with either dFBr or PNU-120596 were infra-additive. PNU-120596 did not modify the nicotine discriminative stimulus, and LY 2087101 did not significantly modify either effect of nicotine. Positive modulation of nicotine at nAChRs by PNU-120596 and LY 2087101 in vitro does not appear to confer enhancement of the nAChR-mediated hypothermic or discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. However, dFBr appears to be a positive allosteric modulator of some behavioral effects of nicotine at doses of dFBr smaller than the doses producing unwanted effects (e.g. hypothermia) through non-nAChR mechanisms.

  18. Systemic blood pressure alters cortical blood flow and neurovascular coupling during nociceptive processing in the primary somatosensory cortex of the rat.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae; Bois, Suzie; Guillemot, Jean-Paul; Leblond, Hugues; Piché, Mathieu

    2017-02-20

    Inference on nociceptive and pain-related processes from functional magnetic resonance imaging is made with the assumption that the coupling of neuronal activity and cerebral hemodynamic changes is stable. However, since nociceptive stimulation is associated with increases in systemic arterial pressure, it is essential to determine whether this coupling remains the same during different levels of nociception and pain. The main objective of the present study was to compare the amplitude of local field potentials (LFP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the primary somatosensory cortex during nociceptive electrical stimulation of the contralateral or ipsilateral forepaw in isoflurane-anesthetized rats, while manipulating mean arterial pressure (MAP). MAP changes induced by nociceptive stimulation were manipulated by transecting the spinal cord at the upper thoracic segments (T1-T2), which interrupts sympathetic pathways and prevents nociception-related MAP increases, while sensory pathways between the forepaws and the brain remain intact. Intensity-dependent increases in MAP and CBF were observed and these effects were abolished or significantly decreased after spinal transection (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). In contrast, the intensity-dependent changes in LFP amplitude were decreased for the contralateral stimulation but increased for the ipsilateral stimulation after spinal transection (p<0.05). Thus, neurovascular coupling was altered differently by stimulus-induced MAP changes, depending on stimulus intensity and location. This demonstrates that CBF changes evoked by nociceptive processing do not always match neuronal activity, which may lead to inaccurate estimation of neuronal activity from hemodynamic changes. These results have important implications for neuroimaging of nociceptive and pain-related processes.

  19. Spinal nociceptin inhibits AMPA-induced nociceptive behavior and Fos expression in rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Luis; Lastra, Ana; Villanueva, Noemí; Hidalgo, Agustín; Baamonde, Ana

    2003-02-01

    The effects of intrathecal nociceptin (NOCI) on the nociceptive behavior (biting, scratching and licking; BSL) and the spinal Fos expression induced by intrathecal administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, 4 microg/rat) or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA, 2 microg/rat) were studied. Coadministration of NOCI (3 and 10 nmol/rat) with NMDA did not modify the NMDA-induced BSL or Fos expression. In contrast, NOCI (0.1-3 nmol/rat) dose-dependently inhibited the BSL behavior induced by AMPA. Furthermore, coadministration of NOCI (3 and 10 nmol/rat) significantly reduced the AMPA-induced expression of Fos protein in the superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn. In order to test whether classical or opioid receptor-like type 1 (ORL1) receptors are involved in the inhibitions by NOCI of AMPA-evoked BSL, the corresponding antagonists were assayed. The administration of the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (10 mg/kg i.p.), did not modify the NOCI-induced inhibition of AMPA-evoked BSL. However, the selective ORL1 receptor antagonist, [N-Phe(1)]nociceptin-(1-13)-NH(2) (90 nmol/rat i.t.), completely prevented the NOCI-mediated inhibition of the nociceptive responses evoked by AMPA. In conclusion, NOCI, acting at ORL1 receptors can, at least in part, induce spinal analgesia by blocking the nociceptive responses produced through the stimulation of AMPA receptors.

  20. Role of NHE1 in Nociception.

    PubMed

    Torres-López, Jorge Elías; Guzmán-Priego, Crystell Guadalupe; Rocha-González, Héctor Isaac; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular pH is a fundamental parameter to cell function that requires tight homeostasis. In the absence of any regulation, excessive acidification of the cytosol would have the tendency to produce cellular damage. Mammalian Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) are electroneutral Na(+)-dependent proteins that exchange extracellular Na(+) for intracellular H(+). To date, there are 9 identified NHE isoforms where NHE1 is the most ubiquitous member, known as the housekeeping exchanger. NHE1 seems to have a protective role in the ischemia-reperfusion injury and other inflammatory diseases. In nociception, NHE1 is found in neurons along nociceptive pathways, and its pharmacological inhibition increases nociceptive behavior in acute pain models at peripheral and central levels. Electrophysiological studies also show that NHE modulates electrical activity of primary nociceptive terminals. However, its role in neuropathic pain still remains controversial. In humans, NHE1 may be responsible for inflammatory bowel diseases since its expression is reduced in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The purpose of this work is to provide a review of the evidence about participation of NHE1 in the nociceptive processing.

  1. Attenuation of thermal nociception and hyperalgesia by VR1 blockers

    PubMed Central

    García-Martínez, Carolina; Humet, Marc; Planells-Cases, Rosa; Gomis, Ana; Caprini, Marco; Viana, Felix; De la Peña, Elvira; Sanchez-Baeza, Francisco; Carbonell, Teresa; De Felipe, Carmen; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Belmonte, Carlos; Messeguer, Angel; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Vanilloid receptor subunit 1 (VR1) appears to play a critical role in the transduction of noxious chemical and thermal stimuli by sensory nerve endings in peripheral tissues. Thus, VR1 antagonists are useful compounds to unravel the contribution of this receptor to pain perception, as well as to induce analgesia. We have used a combinatorial approach to identify new, nonpeptidic channel blockers of VR1. Screening of a library of trimers of N-alkylglycines resulted in the identification of two molecules referred to as DD161515 {N-[2-(2-(N-methylpyrrolidinyl)ethyl]glycyl]-[N-[2,4-dichlorophenethyl]glycyl]-N-(2,4-dichlorophenethyl)glycinamide} and DD191515 {[N-[3-(N,N-diethylamino)propyl]glycyl]-[N-[2,4-dichlorophenethyl]glycyl]-N-(2,4-dichlorophenethyl)glycinamide} that selectively block VR1 channel activity with micromolar efficacy, rivaling that characteristic of vanilloid-related inhibitors. These compounds appear to be noncompetitive VR1 antagonists that recognize a receptor site distinct from that of capsaicin. Intraperitoneal administration of both trialkylglycines into mice significantly attenuated thermal nociception as measured in the hot plate test. It is noteworthy that these compounds eliminated pain and neurogenic inflammation evoked by intradermal injection of capsaicin into the animal hindpaw, as well as the thermal hyperalgesia induced by tissue irritation with nitrogen mustard. In contrast, responses to mechanical stimuli were not modified by either compound. Modulation of sensory nerve fibers excitability appears to underlie the peptoid analgesic activity. Collectively, these results indicate that blockade of VR1 activity attenuates chemical and thermal nociception and hyperalgesia, supporting the tenet that this ionotropic receptor contributes to chemical and thermal sensitivity and pain perception in vivo. These trialkylglycine-based, noncompetitive VR1 antagonists may likely be developed into analgesics to treat inflammatory pain. PMID:11854530

  2. Endogenous inhibition of pain and spinal nociception in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Palit, Shreela; Bartley, Emily J; Kuhn, Bethany L; Kerr, Kara L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L; Rhudy, Jamie L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is characterized by severe affective and physical symptoms, such as increased pain, during the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The mechanisms underlying hyperalgesia in women with PMDD have yet to be identified, and supraspinal pain modulation has yet to be examined in this population. The present study assessed endogenous pain inhibitory processing by examining conditioned pain modulation (CPM, a painful conditioning stimulus inhibiting pain evoked by a test stimulus at a distal body site) of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a spinally-mediated withdrawal reflex) during the mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Methods Participants were regularly-cycling women (14 without PMDD; 14 with PMDD). CPM was assessed by delivering electrocutaneous test stimuli to the sural nerve before, during, and after a painful conditioning ischemia task. Participants rated their pain to electrocutaneous stimuli, and NFR magnitudes were measured. A linear mixed model analysis was used to assess the influence of group and menstrual phase on CPM. Results Compared with controls, women with PMDD experienced greater pain during the late-luteal phase and enhanced spinal nociception during the ovulation phase, both of which were independent of CPM. Both groups showed CPM inhibition of pain that did not differ by menstrual phase. Only women with PMDD evidenced CPM inhibition of NFR. Conclusion Endogenous modulation of pain and spinal nociception is not disrupted in women with PMDD. Additionally, greater NFR magnitudes during ovulation in PMDD may be due to tonically-engaged descending mechanisms that facilitate spinal nociception, leading to enhanced pain during the premenstrual phase. PMID:26929663

  3. Stimulus Reporting Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Faced with their first reporting deadlines for economic-stimulus aid to education, school districts are toiling over how every stimulus penny has been spent so far and how many jobs have been saved--numbers that will be scrutinized not just by the public, but by government auditors as well. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, passed by…

  4. Stimulus Reporting Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Faced with their first reporting deadlines for economic-stimulus aid to education, school districts are toiling over how every stimulus penny has been spent so far and how many jobs have been saved--numbers that will be scrutinized not just by the public, but by government auditors as well. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, passed by…

  5. Opioid receptor trafficking and interaction in nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Bao, L; Li, S

    2015-01-01

    Opiate analgesics such as morphine are often used for pain therapy. However, antinociceptive tolerance and dependence may develop with long-term use of these drugs. It was found that μ-opioid receptors can interact with δ-opioid receptors, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance can be reduced by blocking δ-opioid receptors. Recent studies have shown that μ- and δ-opioid receptors are co-expressed in a considerable number of small neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. The interaction of μ-opioid receptors with δ-opioid receptors in the nociceptive afferents is facilitated by the stimulus-induced cell-surface expression of δ-opioid receptors, and contributes to morphine tolerance. Further analysis of the molecular, cellular and neural circuit mechanisms that regulate the trafficking and interaction of opioid receptors and related signalling molecules in the pain pathway would help to elucidate the mechanism of opiate analgesia and improve pain therapy. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24611685

  6. Nociceptive Local Field Potentials Recorded from the Human Insula Are Not Specific for Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Liberati, Giulia; Klöcker, Anne; Safronova, Marta M.; Ferrão Santos, Susana; Ribeiro Vaz, Jose-Geraldo; Raftopoulos, Christian; Mouraux, André

    2016-01-01

    The insula, particularly its posterior portion, is often regarded as a primary cortex for pain. However, this interpretation is largely based on reverse inference, and a specific involvement of the insula in pain has never been demonstrated. Taking advantage of the high spatiotemporal resolution of direct intracerebral recordings, we investigated whether the human insula exhibits local field potentials (LFPs) specific for pain. Forty-seven insular sites were investigated. Participants received brief stimuli belonging to four different modalities (nociceptive, vibrotactile, auditory, and visual). Both nociceptive stimuli and non-nociceptive vibrotactile, auditory, and visual stimuli elicited consistent LFPs in the posterior and anterior insula, with matching spatial distributions. Furthermore, a blind source separation procedure showed that nociceptive LFPs are largely explained by multimodal neural activity also contributing to non-nociceptive LFPs. By revealing that LFPs elicited by nociceptive stimuli reflect activity unrelated to nociception and pain, our results confute the widespread assumption that these brain responses are a signature for pain perception and its modulation. PMID:26734726

  7. Nociception, pain, negative moods and behavior selection

    PubMed Central

    Baliki, Marwan N.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the brain adapts with pain, as well as imparts risk for developing chronic pain. Within this context we revisit the concepts for nociception, acute and chronic pain, and negative moods relative to behavior selection. We redefine nociception as the mechanism protecting the organism from injury; while acute pain as failure of avoidant behavior; and a mesolimbic threshold process that gates the transformation of nociceptive activity to conscious pain. Adaptations in this threshold process are envisioned to be critical for development of chronic pain. We deconstruct chronic pain into four distinct phases, each with specific mechanisms; and outline current state of knowledge regarding these mechanisms: The limbic brain imparting risk, while mesolimbic learning processes reorganizing the neocortex into a chronic pain state. Moreover, pain and negative moods are envisioned as a continuum of aversive behavioral learning, which enhance survival by protecting against threats. PMID:26247858

  8. Nociception, Pain, Negative Moods, and Behavior Selection.

    PubMed

    Baliki, Marwan N; Apkarian, A Vania

    2015-08-05

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the brain adapts with pain, as well as imparts risk for developing chronic pain. Within this context, we revisit the concepts for nociception, acute and chronic pain, and negative moods relative to behavior selection. We redefine nociception as the mechanism protecting the organism from injury, while acute pain as failure of avoidant behavior, and a mesolimbic threshold process that gates the transformation of nociceptive activity to conscious pain. Adaptations in this threshold process are envisioned to be critical for development of chronic pain. We deconstruct chronic pain into four distinct phases, each with specific mechanisms, and outline current state of knowledge regarding these mechanisms: the limbic brain imparting risk, and the mesolimbic learning processes reorganizing the neocortex into a chronic pain state. Moreover, pain and negative moods are envisioned as a continuum of aversive behavioral learning, which enhance survival by protecting against threats.

  9. Divergent role for CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the modulation of visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Nijsen, M; Ongenae, N; Meulemans, A; Coulie, B

    2005-06-01

    Both anti- and pro-nociceptive effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) treatment on visceral pain have been reported. Here, this dual action of CRF was differentiated by selective (in)activation of the CRF1 and CRF2 receptor prior to a visceral pain stimulus. Visceral pain was evaluated out of behavioural and visceromotor (abdominal electromyogram) responses to duodenal distension in the freely moving rat. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) CRF (50 microg kg-1) increased the distension-induced visceromotor and behavioural pain response. The pro-nociceptive effects of CRF on the behavioural response were attenuated by a selective CRF1 (CP-154526; 20 mg kg-1) but not a selective CRF2 [antiSauvagine30 (aSVG30); 100 microg kg-1] antagonist. Selective activation of the CRF2 receptor by stresscopin-related peptide (SRP; i.p. 25 microg kg-1) reduced the distension-induced visceromotor and behavioural response. Intrathecal injection of CRF (2 microg 10 microL-1) or SRP (20 microg 10 microL-1) decreased the distension-induced visceromotor and behavioural response. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecal CRF on the behavioural response were attenuated by aSVG30 (20 microg 10 microL-1) but not with CP-154526 (10 microg 10 microL-1). These findings indicate that the CRF1 receptor is involved in pro-nociception of visceral pain, whereas the CRF2 receptor is mainly involved in antinociception. This divergent role of the CRF subreceptors may explain the bimodal effects of CRF treatment on visceral nociception.

  10. Neuropeptidergic Signaling and Active Feeding State Inhibit Nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Marina; Walker, Denise S; Beets, Isabel; Swoboda, Peter; Schafer, William R

    2016-03-16

    Food availability and nutritional status are important cues affecting behavioral states. Here we report that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, a cascade of dopamine and neuropeptide signaling acts to inhibit nociception in food-poor environments. In the absence of food, animals show decreased sensitivity and increased adaptation to soluble repellents sensed by the polymodal ASH nociceptors. The effects of food on adaptation are affected by dopamine and neuropeptide signaling; dopamine acts via the DOP-1 receptor to decrease adaptation on food, whereas the neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 act to increase adaptation off food. NPR-1 and NPR-2 function cell autonomously in the ASH neurons to increase adaptation off food, whereas the DOP-1 receptor controls neuropeptide release from interneurons that modulate ASH activity indirectly. These results indicate that feeding state modulates nociception through the interaction of monoamine and neuropeptide signaling pathways.

  11. Specific features of the planarian Dugesia tigrina regeneration and mollusk Helix albescens nociception under weak electromagnetic shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temur'yants, N. A.; Demtsun, N. A.; Kostyuk, A. S.; Yarmolyuk, N. S.

    2012-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that weak electromagnetic shielding stimulates regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina, the stimulating intensity being dependent on both the initial state of the animals, which is determined by season, and their functional asymmetry. As has been shown, the effect of a weak electromagnetic field induces phasic changes in the nociceptive sensitivity of the mollusk Helix albescens: an increase in the sensitivity to a thermal stimulus is replaced by the development of the hypalgesic effect.

  12. Mechanisms involved in abdominal nociception induced by either TRPV1 or TRPA1 stimulation of rat peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Hoffmeister, Carin; Oliveira, Sara M; Silva, Cássia R; Matheus, Filipe C; Mello, Gláucia C; Antunes, Edson; Prediger, Rui D S; Ferreira, Juliano

    2013-08-15

    Abdominal pain is a frequent symptom of peritoneal cavity irritation, but little is known about the role of the receptors for irritant substances, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), in this painful condition. Thus, we investigated the abdominal nociception caused by peritoneal stimulation with TRPV1 (capsaicin) and TRPA1 (allyl isothiocyanate, AITC) agonists and their mechanisms in rats. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either capsaicin or AITC (0.03-10 mg/kg) induced short-term (up to 20 min) and dose-dependent abdominal nociception, and also produced c-fos expression in spinal afferents of the dorsal horn. TRPV1 antagonism prevented (94 ± 4% inhibition) nociception induced by capsaicin but not by AITC. In contrast, the TRPA1 antagonism almost abolished AITC-induced nociception (95 ± 2% inhibition) without altering the capsaicin response. Moreover, nociception induced by either capsaicin or AITC was reduced by the desensitisation of TRPV1-positive sensory fibres with resiniferatoxin (73 ± 18 and 76 ± 15% inhibitions, respectively) and by the NK1 receptor antagonist aprepitant (56 ± 5 and 53 ± 8% inhibitions, respectively). Likewise, the i.p. injections of capsaicin or AITC increased the content of substance P in the peritoneal fluid. Nevertheless, neither the mast cell membrane stabiliser cromoglycate, nor the H1 antagonist promethazine, nor depletion of peritoneal macrophages affected abdominal nociception induced either by capsaicin or AITC. Accordingly, neither capsaicin nor AITC increased the histamine content in the peritoneal fluid or provoked peritoneal mast cell degranulation in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that TRPV1 and TRPA1 stimulation in the peritoneum produces abdominal nociception that is mediated by sensory fibres activation.

  13. Brainstem facilitations and descending serotonergic controls contribute to visceral nociception but not pregabalin analgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Sikandar, Shafaq; Bannister, Kirsty; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2012-06-21

    Pro-nociceptive ON-cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) facilitate nociceptive processing and contribute to descending serotonergic controls. We use RVM injections of neurotoxic dermorphin-saporin (Derm-SAP) in rats to evaluate the role of putative ON-cells, or μ-opioid receptor-expressing (MOR) neurones, in visceral pain processing. Our immunohistochemistry shows that intra-RVM Derm-SAP locally ablates a substantial proportion of MOR and serotonergic cells. Given the co-localization of these neuronal markers, some RVM ON-cells are serotonergic. We measure visceromotor responses in the colorectal distension (CRD) model in control and Derm-SAP rats, and using the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron, we demonstrate pro-nociceptive serotonergic modulation of visceral nociception and a facilitatory drive from RVM MOR cells. The α(2)δ calcium channel ligand pregabalin produces state-dependent analgesia in neuropathy and osteoarthritis models relating to injury-specific interactions with serotonergic facilitations from RVM MOR cells. Although RVM MOR cells mediate noxious mechanical visceral input, we show that their presence is not a permissive factor for pregabalin analgesia in acute visceral pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immobilization contributes to exaggerated neuropeptide signaling, inflammatory changes, and nociceptive sensitization after fracture in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Li, Xiang-Qi; Clark, J. David; Kingery, Wade S.

    2014-01-01

    A tibia fracture cast immobilized for 4 weeks can induce exaggerated substance P (SP) and CGRP signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hindlimbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Four weeks of hindlimb cast immobilization can also induce nociceptive and vascular changes resembling CRPS. To test our hypothesis that immobilization alone could cause exaggerated neuropeptide signaling and inflammatory changes we tested 5 cohorts of rats; 1) controls, 2) tibia fracture and hindlimb casted, 3) hindlimb casted, no fracture, 4) tibia fracture with intrameduallary pinning, no cast, and 5) tibia fracture with intrameduallary pinning and hindlimb casting. After 4 weeks the casts were removed and hindlimb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, sciatic nerve neuropeptide content, cutaneous and spinal cord inflammatory mediator levels, and spinal c-Fos activation were measured. After fracture with casting there was allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased sciatic nerve SP and CGRP, increased skin NK1 receptors and keratinocyte proliferation, increased in inflammatory mediator expression in the hindpaw skin (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NGF) and cord (IL-1β, NGF), and increased spinal c-Fos activation. These same changes were observed after cast immobilization alone, except spinal IL-1β levels were not increased. Treating cast only rats with an NK1 receptor antagonist inhibited development of nociceptive and inflammatory changes. Four weeks after fracture with pinning all nociceptive and vascular changes had resolved and there were no increases in neuropeptide signaling or inflammatory mediator expression. PMID:25063543

  15. Increased nociceptive input rapidly modulates spinal GABAergic transmission through endogenously released glutamate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Stimulation of nociceptive primary afferents elicits pain by promoting glutamatergic transmission in the spinal cord. Little is known about how increased nociceptive input controls GABAergic tone in the spinal dorsal horn. In this study, we determined how increased nociceptive inflow affects GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) of lamina II neurons by using whole cell recordings in rat spinal cord slices. Bath application of capsaicin for 3 min induced a long-lasting inhibition of sIPSCs in 50% of the neurons tested. In the other half of the neurons, capsaicin either increased the frequency of sIPSCs (34.6%) or had no effect on sIPSCs (15.4%). The GABA(A) current elicited by puff application of GABA was not altered by capsaicin. Capsaicin did not inhibit sIPSCs in rats treated with intrathecal pertussis toxin. Also, capsaicin failed to inhibit sIPSCs in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists or in the presence of both LY341495 and CPPG (group II and group III metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, respectively). However, when LY341495 or CPPG was used alone, capsaicin still decreased the frequency of sIPSCs in some neurons. Additionally, bradykinin significantly inhibited sIPSCs in a population of lamina II neurons and this inhibitory effect was also abolished by LY341495 and CPPG. Our study provides novel information that stimulation of nociceptive primary afferents rapidly suppresses GABAergic input to many dorsal horn neurons through endogenous glutamate and activation of presynaptic group II and group III metabotropic glutamate receptors. These findings extend our understanding of the microcircuitry of the spinal dorsal horn involved in nociception.

  16. Neurotrophin selectivity in organizing topographic regeneration of nociceptive afferents.

    PubMed

    Kelamangalath, Lakshmi; Tang, Xiaoqing; Bezik, Kathleen; Sterling, Noelle; Son, Young-Jin; Smith, George M

    2015-09-01

    Neurotrophins represent some of the best candidates to enhance regeneration. In the current study, we investigated the effects of artemin, a member of the glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, on sensory axon regeneration following a lumbar dorsal root injury and compared these effects with that observed after either NGF or GDNF expression in the rat spinal cord. Unlike previously published data, artemin failed to induce regeneration of large-diameter myelinated sensory afferents when expressed within either the spinal cord or DRG. However, artemin or NGF induced regeneration of calcitonin gene related peptide positive (CGRP(+)) axons only when expressed within the spinal cord. Accordingly, artemin or NGF enhanced recovery of only nociceptive behavior and showed a cFos distribution similar to the topography of regenerating axons. Artemin and GDNF signaling requires binding to different co-receptors (GFRα3 or GFRα1, respectively) prior to binding to the signaling receptor, cRet. Approximately 70% of DRG neurons express cRet, but only 35% express either co-receptor. To enhance artemin-induced regeneration, we co-expressed artemin with either GFRα3 or GDNF. Co-expression of artemin and GFRα3 only slightly enhanced regeneration of IB4(+) non-peptidergic nociceptive axons, but not myelinated axons. Interestingly, this co-expression also disrupted the ability of artemin to produce topographic targeting and lead to significant increases in cFos immunoreactivity within the deep dorsal laminae. This study failed to demonstrate artemin-induced regeneration of myelinated axons, even with co-expression of GFRα3, which only promoted mistargeted regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. NEUROTROPHIN SELECTIVITY IN ORGANIZING TOPOGRAPHIC REGENERATION OF NOCICEPTIVE AFFERENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kelamangalath, Lakshmi; Tang, Xiaoqing; Bezik, Kathleen; Sterling, Noelle; Son, Young-Jin; Smith, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophins represent some of the best candidates to enhance regeneration. In the current study, we investigated the effects of artemin, a member of the glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, on sensory axon regeneration following a lumbar dorsal root injury and compared these effects with that observed after either NGF or GDNF expression in the rat spinal cord. Unlike previously published data, artemin failed to induce regeneration of large-diameter myelinated sensory afferents when expressed within either the spinal cord or DRG. However, artemin or NGF induced regeneration of calcitonin gene related peptide positive (CGRP+) axons only when expressed within the spinal cord. Accordingly, artemin or NGF enhanced recovery of only nociceptive behavior and showed a cFos distribution similar to the topography of regenerating axons. Artemin and GDNF signaling requires binding to different co-receptors (GFRα3 or GFRα1, respectively) prior to binding to the signaling receptor, cRet. Approximately 70% of DRG neurons express cRet, but only 35% express either co-receptor. To enhance artemin-induced regeneration, we co-expressed artemin with either GFRα3 or GDNF. Co-expression of artemin and GFRα3 only slightly enhanced regeneration of IB4+ non-peptidergic nociceptive axons, but not myelinated axons. Interestingly, this co-expression also disrupted the ability of artemin to produce topographic targeting and lead to significant increases in cFos immunoreactivity within the deep dorsal laminae. This study failed to demonstrate artemin-induced regeneration of myelinated axons, even with co-expression of GFR-α3, which only promoted mistargeted regeneration. PMID:26054884

  18. Investigation of Van Gogh-like 2 mRNA regulation and localisation in response to nociception in the brain of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Reilly, Siobhan C; Kipar, Anja; Hughes, David J; Quinn, John P; Cossins, Andrew R; Sneddon, Lynne U

    2009-11-20

    The Van Gogh-like 2 (vangl2) gene is typically associated with planar cell polarity pathways, which is essential for correct orientation of epithelial cells during development. The encoded protein of this gene is a transmembrane protein and is highly conserved through evolution. Van Gogh-like 2 was selected for further study on the basis of consistent regulation after a nociceptive stimulus in adult common carp and rainbow trout in a microarray study. An in situ hybridisation was conducted in the brain of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio), 1.5 and 3 h after a nociceptive stimulus comprising of an acetic acid injection to the lips of the fish and compared with a saline-injected control. The vangl2 gene was expressed in all brain regions, and particularly intensely in neurons of the telencephalon and in ependymal cells. In the cerebellum, a greater number (P=0.018) of Purkinje cells expressed vangl2 after nociception (n=7) compared with controls (n=5). This regulation opens the possibility that vangl2 is involved in nociceptive processing in the adult fish brain and may be a novel target for central nociception in vertebrates.

  19. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  20. Stimulus responsive nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darren Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  1. The Stimulus test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Christofek, L.; Rapidis, P.; Reinhard, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    The Stimulus Test Stand was originally constructed and assembled for testing the SVX2 ASIC readout and then upgraded for SVX3 ASIC prototyping and testing. We have modified this system for SVX4 ASIC [1] prototype testing. We described the individual components below. Additional details for other hardware for SVX4 testing can be found in reference [2]. We provide a description of the Stimulus Test Stand used for prototype testing of the SVX4 chip.

  2. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment including a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  3. Effects of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists on the discriminative stimulus effects of methylendioxypyrovalerone and mephedrone in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Eric L; Burroughs, Rachel L; Baker, Lisa E

    2017-10-01

    Psychopharmacology research has amassed substantial evidence for similarities between synthetic cathinones and other commonly abused psychostimulants. Few studies have utilized drug discrimination methods to investigate synthetic cathinones, and the precise neurochemical substrates underlying their interoceptive effects have not been examined. The present study assessed the involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone (MEPH) in rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine. Eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.5 mg/kg D-amphetamine (AMPH) from saline. Dose-response curves were then generated with AMPH (0.0-1.0 mg/kg), MDPV (0.0-1.0 mg/kg), and MEPH (0.0-2.0 mg/kg). Subsequently, Sch 39166 (0.3 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg) were administered in combination with select doses of MDPV and MEPH. Both MDPV and MEPH produced full substitution for AMPH. Sch 39166 produced a downward shift in the MDPV and MEPH dose-response curves and haloperidol produced similar results with MDPV. These preliminary findings indicate that MDPV and MEPH produce interoceptive stimuli that are similar to those produced by AMPH and that D1 and D2 dopamine receptors contribute to these effects. Additional studies are warranted to investigate the contribution of other receptor mechanisms involved in the interoceptive stimuli produced by synthetic cathinones.

  4. Spinal cord compression injury in lysophosphatidic acid 1 receptor-null mice promotes maladaptive pronociceptive descending control.

    PubMed

    Suardíaz, M; Galan-Arriero, I; Avila-Martin, G; Estivill-Torrús, G; de Fonseca, F R; Chun, J; Gómez-Soriano, J; Bravo-Esteban, E; Taylor, J

    2016-02-01

    Although activation of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPA1) is known to mediate pronociceptive effects in peripheral pain models, the role of this receptor in the modulation of spinal nociception following spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. In this study, LPA1 regulation of spinal excitability mediated by supraspinal descending antinociceptive control systems was assessed following SCI in both wild-type (WT) and maLPA1-null receptor mice. The effect of a T8 spinal compression in WT and maLPA1-null mice was assessed up to 1 month after SCI using histological, immunohistochemical and behavioural techniques analysis including electrophysiological recording of noxious toes-Tibialis Anterior (TA) stimulus-response reflex activity. The effect of a T3 paraspinal transcutaneous electrical conditioning stimulus on TA noxious reflex temporal summation was also assessed. Histological analysis demonstrated greater dorsolateral funiculus damage after SCI in maLPA1-null mice, without a change in the stimulus-response function of the TA noxious reflex when compared to WT mice. While T3 conditioning stimulation in the WT group inhibited noxious TA reflex temporal summation after SCI, this stimulus strongly excited TA reflex temporal summation in maLPA1-null mice. The functional switch from descending inhibition to maladaptive facilitation of central excitability of spinal nociception demonstrated in maLPA1-null mice after SCI was unrelated to a general change in reflex activity. These data suggest that the LPA1 receptor is necessary for inhibition of temporal summation of noxious reflex activity, partly mediated via long-tract descending modulatory systems acting at the spinal level. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  5. Effects of insular stimulation on thermal nociception.

    PubMed

    Denis, D J; Marouf, R; Rainville, P; Bouthillier, A; Nguyen, D K

    2016-05-01

    Electrical stimulation used for brain mapping in the postero-superior insula can evoke pain. The effects of prolonged high frequency insular stimulation on pain thresholds are unknown. Prolonged high frequency insular stimulation, by virtue of its inhibitory properties on networks, could decrease thermal nociception. Epileptic subjects had electrodes implanted in the insular cortex for the purpose of epileptic focus resection. Thermal and pressure nociceptive thresholds were tested bilaterally on the forearm on two consecutive days. Randomly assigned double-blind high frequency (150 Hz) insular stimulation took place for 10 min before pain testing either on the first day or on the second day. Six subjects (three females; mean age of 35 years) were included. Insular stimulation increased heat pain threshold on the ipsilateral (p = 0.003; n = 6) and contralateral sides (p = 0.047; n = 6). Differences in cold pain threshold did not reach statistical significance (ipsilateral: p = 0.341, contralateral: p = 0.143; n = 6), but one subject had a profound decrease in both heat and cold pain responses. Pressure pain threshold was not modified by insular stimulation (ipsilateral: p = 0.1123; contralateral: p = 0.1192; n = 6). Two of the three subjects who had a postero-superior operculo-insulectomy developed central pain with contralateral thermal nociceptive deficit. High frequency inhibitory postero-superior insular stimulation may have the potential to decrease thermal nociception. Together with previous studies, our data support the notion that the integrity of this brain region is necessary for thermal but not pressure nociceptive processing. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  6. Opiates Modulate Noxious Chemical Nociception through a Complex Monoaminergic/Peptidergic Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Holly; Ortega, Amanda; Law, Wenjing; Hapiak, Vera; Summers, Philip; Clark, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect noxious stimuli, process the nociceptive signal, and elicit an appropriate behavioral response is essential for survival. In Caenorhabditis elegans, opioid receptor agonists, such as morphine, mimic serotonin, and suppress the overall withdrawal from noxious stimuli through a pathway requiring the opioid-like receptor, NPR-17. This serotonin- or morphine-dependent modulation can be rescued in npr-17-null animals by the expression of npr-17 or a human κ opioid receptor in the two ASI sensory neurons, with ASI opioid signaling selectively inhibiting ASI neuropeptide release. Serotonergic modulation requires peptides encoded by both nlp-3 and nlp-24, and either nlp-3 or nlp-24 overexpression mimics morphine and suppresses withdrawal. Peptides encoded by nlp-3 act differentially, with only NLP-3.3 mimicking morphine, whereas other nlp-3 peptides antagonize NLP-3.3 modulation. Together, these results demonstrate that opiates modulate nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans through a complex monoaminergic/peptidergic cascade, and suggest that this model may be useful for dissecting opiate signaling in mammals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Opiates are used extensively to treat chronic pain. In Caenorhabditis elegans, opioid receptor agonists suppress the overall withdrawal from noxious chemical stimuli through a pathway requiring an opioid-like receptor and two distinct neuropeptide-encoding genes, with individual peptides from the same gene functioning antagonistically to modulate nociception. Endogenous opioid signaling functions as part of a complex, monoaminergic/peptidergic signaling cascade and appears to selectively inhibit neuropeptide release, mediated by a α-adrenergic-like receptor, from two sensory neurons. Importantly, receptor null animals can be rescued by the expression of the human κ opioid receptor, and injection of human opioid receptor ligands mimics exogenous opiates, highlighting the utility of this model for dissecting opiate

  7. Intrastriatal chromospheres' transplant reduces nociception in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Paz, Alejandra; Drucker-Colín, René; Milán-Aldaco, Diana; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Ambriz-Tututi, Mónica

    2017-09-08

    The present study evaluates the possible antinociceptive effect of chromosphere transplants in rats injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a model of Parkinson's disease. Male adult Wistar rats received 40μg/0.5μl of 6-OHDA or 0.5μl of vehicle into the left substantia nigra (SNc). Rats were evaluated for mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and formalin. Rats with altered nociceptive threshold were transplanted with chromospheres. After transplant, rats were evaluated every week. Our results confirm that 6-OHDA injection into rat's SNc reduces mechanical, thermal, and chemical thresholds. Interestingly, chromospheres' transplant reverted 6-OHDA-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. The antinociceptive effect induced by chromospheres was dopamine D2- and opioid-receptor dependent since sulpiride or naltrexone reverted its effect. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nociceptor-enriched genes required for normal thermal nociception

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Ken; Mauthner, Stephanie E.; Wang, Yu; Skene, J.H. Pate; Tracey, W. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Here, we describe a targeted reverse genetic screen for thermal nociception genes in Drosophila larvae. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analyses of nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons we identified 275 nociceptor-enriched genes. We then tested the function of the enriched genes with nociceptor-specific RNAi and thermal nociception assays. Tissue-specific RNAi targeted against 14 genes caused insensitive thermal nociception while targeting of 22 genes caused hypersensitive thermal nociception. Previously uncategorized genes were named for heat resistance (ie. boilerman, fire dancer, oven mitt, trivet, thawb and bunker gear) or heat sensitivity (firelighter, black match, eucalyptus, primacord, jet fuel, detonator, gasoline, smoke alarm, and jetboil). Insensitive nociception phenotypes were often associated with severely reduced branching of nociceptor neurites and hyperbranched dendrites were seen in two of the hypersensitive cases. Many genes that we identified are conserved in mammals. PMID:27346357

  9. Nociceptor-Enriched Genes Required for Normal Thermal Nociception.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Ken; Mauthner, Stephanie E; Wang, Yu; Skene, J H Pate; Tracey, W Daniel

    2016-07-12

    Here, we describe a targeted reverse genetic screen for thermal nociception genes in Drosophila larvae. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analyses of nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons, we identified 275 nociceptor-enriched genes. We then tested the function of the enriched genes with nociceptor-specific RNAi and thermal nociception assays. Tissue-specific RNAi targeted against 14 genes caused insensitive thermal nociception while targeting of 22 genes caused hypersensitive thermal nociception. Previously uncategorized genes were named for heat resistance (i.e., boilerman, fire dancer, oven mitt, trivet, thawb, and bunker gear) or heat sensitivity (firelighter, black match, eucalyptus, primacord, jet fuel, detonator, gasoline, smoke alarm, and jetboil). Insensitive nociception phenotypes were often associated with severely reduced branching of nociceptor neurites and hyperbranched dendrites were seen in two of the hypersensitive cases. Many genes that we identified are conserved in mammals.

  10. Effects of chlorpheniramine and ranitidine on the visceral nociception induced by acetic acid in rats: role of opioid system.

    PubMed

    Zanboori, A; Tamaddonfard, E; Mojtahedein, A

    2008-10-15

    In this study, effects of chlorpheniramine (H1-receptor blocker), ranitidine (H2-receptor blocker), morphine (an opioid agonist) and naloxone (an opioid antagonist) in separate and combined treatments were investigated on the visceral nociception in rats. Visceral nociception was induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (1 mL, 1%). The latency time to the beginning of the first abdominal wall contraction (first writhe) was measured and the numbers of writhes were counted for 1 h after acetic acid injection. Intraperitoneal injections of chlorpheniramine and ranitidine significantly (p < 0.05) increased the latency time to the beginning of the first writhe and also significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the numbers of writhes. The same results were obtained after subcutaneous injection of morphine. Subcutaneous injection of naloxone did not change the intensity of visceral nociception, but significantly (p < 0.05) prevented the morphine-induced antinociception. Intraperitoneal injection of chlorpheniramine significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the morphine-induced analgesia, but did not reverse the effect of naloxone on nociceptive responses. Intraperitoneal injection of ranitidine, with no effect on the morphine-induced antinociception, significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the effect of naloxone on pain responses. These results suggest that both chlorpheniramine and ranitidine exert antinociceptive effect in the visceral nociception. In addition, morphine through a naloxone-dependent mechanism produces visceral antinociception. Moreover, the endogenous opioid system may participate in the chlorpheniramine- but not in the ranitidine-induced antinociception.

  11. Distinct interactions of cannabidiol and morphine in three nociceptive behavioral models in mice.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, Harshini; Tallarida, Ronald J; Reichenbach, Zachary W; Tuma, Ronald F; Ward, Sara J; Walker, Ellen A

    2015-04-01

    Cannabinoid and opioid agonists can display overlapping behavioral effects and the combination of these agonists is known to produce enhanced antinociception in several rodent models of acute and chronic pain. The present study investigated the antinociceptive effects of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD) and the µ-opioid agonist morphine, both alone and in combination, using three behavioral models in mice, to test the hypothesis that combinations of morphine and CBD would produce synergistic effects. The effects of morphine, CBD, and morphine/CBD combinations were assessed in the following assays: (a) acetic acid-stimulated stretching; (b) acetic acid-decreased operant responding for palatable food; and (c) hot plate thermal nociception. Morphine alone produced antinociceptive effects in all three models of acute nociception, whereas CBD alone produced antinociception only in the acetic acid-stimulated stretching assay. The nature of the interactions between morphine and CBD combinations were assessed quantitatively based on the principle of dose equivalence. Combinations of CBD and morphine produced synergistic effects in reversing acetic acid-stimulated stretching behavior, but subadditive effects in the hot plate thermal nociceptive assay and the acetic acid-decreased operant responding for palatable food assay. These results suggest that distinct mechanisms of action underlie the interactions between CBD and morphine in the three different behavioral assays and that the choice of appropriate combination therapies for the treatment of acute pain conditions may depend on the underlying pain type and stimulus modality.

  12. New method for quantification and statistical analysis of nociceptive reflex receptive fields in humans.

    PubMed

    Neziri, Alban Y; Curatolo, Michele; Bergadano, Alessandra; Petersen-Felix, Steen; Dickenson, Anthony; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Andersen, Ole K

    2009-03-30

    A method for quantifying nociceptive withdrawal reflex receptive fields in human volunteers and patients is described. The reflex receptive field (RRF) for a specific muscle denotes the cutaneous area from which a muscle contraction can be evoked by a nociceptive stimulus. The method is based on random stimulations presented in a blinded sequence to 10 stimulation sites. The sensitivity map is derived by interpolating the reflex responses evoked from the 10 sites. A set of features describing the size and location of the RRF is presented based on statistical analysis of the sensitivity map within every subject. The features include RRF area, volume, peak location and center of gravity. The method was applied to 30 healthy volunteers. Electrical stimuli were applied to the sole of the foot evoking reflexes in the ankle flexor tibialis anterior. The RRF area covered a fraction of 0.57+/-0.06 (S.E.M.) of the foot and was located on the medial, distal part of the sole of the foot. An intramuscular injection into flexor digitorum brevis of capsaicin was performed in one spinal cord injured subject to attempt modulation of the reflex receptive field. The RRF area, RRF volume and location of the peak reflex response appear to be the most sensitive measures for detecting modulation of spinal nociceptive processing. This new method has important potential applications for exploring aspects of central plasticity in volunteers and patients. It may be utilized as a new diagnostic tool for central hypersensitivity and quantification of therapeutic interventions.

  13. The effect of distraction strategies on pain perception and the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex).

    PubMed

    Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Kreusch, Annette; Albers, Christoph; Sommer, Jens; Marziniak, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Distraction from pain reduces pain perception, and imaging studies have suggested that this may at least partially be mediated by activation of descending pain inhibitory systems. Here, we used the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex) to directly quantify the effects of different distraction strategies on basal spinal nociception and its temporal summation. Twenty-seven healthy subjects participated in 3 distraction tasks (mental imagery, listening to preferred music, spatial discrimination of brush stimuli) and, in a fourth task, concentrated on the painful stimulus. Results show that all 3 distraction tasks reduced pain perception, but only the brush task also reduced the RIII reflex. The concentration-on-pain task increased both pain perception and the RIII reflex. The extent of temporal summation of pain perception and the extent of temporal summation of the RIII reflex were not affected by any of the tasks. These results suggest that some, but not all, forms of pain reduction by distraction rely on descending pain inhibition. In addition, pain reduction by distraction seems to preferentially affect mechanisms of basal nociceptive transmission, not of temporal summation. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of the human nociceptive flexion reflex by pleasant and unpleasant odors.

    PubMed

    Bartolo, Michelangelo; Serrao, Mariano; Gamgebeli, Zurab; Alpaidze, Marina; Perrotta, Armando; Padua, Luca; Pierelli, Francesco; Nappi, Giuseppe; Sandrini, Giorgio

    2013-10-01

    The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR), a defensive response that allows withdrawal from a noxious stimulus, is a reliable index of spinal nociception in humans. It has been shown that various kinds of stimuli (emotional, visual, auditory) can modulate the transmission and perception of pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, by means of the NWR, the modulatory effect on the spinal circuitry of olfactory stimuli with different emotional valence. The magnitude of the NWR elicited by electrical stimulation of the sural nerve was measured while 18 subjects (9 women, 9 men) smelled pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral odors. The NWR was conditioned by odor probe with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 500 ms and 1,500 ms. The magnitude of NWR was significantly greater after the unpleasant odor probe (P <.001) and reduced following the pleasant odor probe (P<.001) at both ISIs. A significant effect of olfactory stimuli on subjective pain ratings were found at both ISIs for pleasant vs unpleasant odors (P<.000), and for both pleasant and unpleasant odors vs neutral and basal conditions (P<.000). No statistical differences in subjective pain ratings at different ISIs were found. Consistent with the notion that NWR magnitude and pain perception can be modulated by stimuli with different emotional valence, these results show that olfactory stimuli, too, can modulate spinal nociception in humans.

  15. Effects of opioid blockade on nociceptive flexion reflex thresholds and nociceptive responding in hypertensive and normotensive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Louisa; Ring, Christopher; France, Christopher R.; McIntyre, David; Martin, Una

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension and risk for hypertension have been associated with reduced pain sensitivity. It has been hypothesised that endogenous opioids contribute to this hypertensive hypoalgesia. The nociceptive flexion reflex can be used as a tool to investigate modulation of nociceptive transmission at spinal level. The current study employed a double-blind placebo-controlled design to compare the effects of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and placebo on nociceptive flexion reflex thresholds and nociceptive responding in unmedicated patients with essential hypertension and normotensive individuals. Neither nociceptive flexion reflex thresholds nor nociceptive responding differed between hypertensives and normotensives during placebo or naltrexone. These data provide no support for the hypothesis that essential hypertension is characterised by higher levels endogenous opioids in the central nervous system and reveal no association between blood pressure status and nociceptive flexion reflex responses. PMID:18436318

  16. Nociceptive Processing by Anterior Cingulate Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Bai-Chuang; Sikes, Robert W.; Vogt, Brent A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the cingulate cortex is frequently activated in acute human pain studies, postsynaptic responses are not known nor are links between nociceptive afferents, neuronal responses, and outputs to other structures. Intracellular potentials were recorded from neurobiotin-injected, pyramidal neurons in anterior cingulate area 24b following noxious stimulation of the sciatic nerve in anesthetized rabbits. Layer IIIc pyramids had extensive and horizontally oriented basal dendrites in layer IIIc where nociceptive afferents terminate. They had the longest excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs; 545 ms) that were modulated with hyperpolarizing currents. Pyramids in layer V had an intermediate tuft of oblique apical dendrites in layer IIIc that were 150–350 μm from somata in layer Va and 351–550 μm in layer Vb. Although average EPSP durations were short in layers II–IIIab (222 ± 31), Va (267 ± 65), and Vb (159 ± 31), there were five neurons in layers IIIab–Va that had EPSP durations lasting >300 ms (548 ± 63 ms). Neurons in layers IIIc, Va, and Vb had the highest amplitude EPSPs (6.25, 6.84 ± 0.58, and 6.4 ± 0.47 mV, respectively), whereas those in layers II–IIIab were 5 ± 0.56 mV. Nociceptive responses in layer Vb were complex and some had initial inhibitory postsynaptic potentials with shorter-duration EPSPs. Layers II–IIIab had dye-coupled pyramids and EPSPs in these layers had short durations (167 ± 33 ms) compared with those in layers IIIc–Va (487 ± 28 ms). In conclusion there are two populations of anterior cingulate cortex pyramids with EPSPs of significantly different durations, although their dendritic morphologies do not predict EPSP duration. Short-duration EPSPs are thalamic-mediated, nociceptive responses lasting ≤200 ms. Longer, “integrative” EPSPs are >350 ms and are likely modulated by intracortical axon collateral discharges. These findings suggest that links between nociception and projections to cortical and motor

  17. Oxytocin receptor blockade reduces acquisition but not retrieval of taste aversion and blunts responsiveness of amygdala neurons to an aversive stimulus.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Pawel K; Waas, Joseph R; Brooks, Lydia L; Herisson, Florence; Levine, Allen S

    2013-12-01

    When gastrointestinal sickness induced by toxin injection is associated with exposure to novel food, the animal acquires a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Malaise is accompanied by a surge in oxytocin release and in oxytocin neuronal activity; however, it is unclear whether oxytocin is a key facilitator of aversion or merely its marker. Herein we investigated whether blockade of the oxytocin receptor with the blood-brain barrier penetrant oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899 is detrimental for the acquisition and/or retrieval of lithium chloride (LiCl)-dependent CTA to a saccharin solution in mice. We also examined whether L-368,899 given prior to LiCl affects neuronal activity defined through c-Fos immunohistochemistry in select brain sites facilitating CTA acquisition. L-368,899 given prior to LiCl caused a 30% increase in saccharin solution intake in a two-bottle test, but when the antagonist was administered before the two-bottle test, it failed to diminish the retrieval of an existing CTA. LiCl administration increased c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract and basolateral and central (CNA) nuclei of the amygdala. L-368,899 injected before LiCl reduced the number of c-Fos positive CNA neurons and brought it down to levels similar to those observed in mice treated only with L-368,899. We conclude that oxytocin is one of the key components in acquisition of LiCl-induced CTA and the aversive response can be alleviated by the oxytocin receptor blockade. Oxytocin receptor antagonism blunts responsiveness of CNA to peripherally injected LiCl. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in nociceptive reflex facilitation during carrageenan-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Herrero, J F; Cervero, F

    1996-04-22

    Facilitation of neuronal responses induced by repetitive electrical stimulation of C-fibres (wind-up) is thought to be a substrate of hyperalgesia. There is little information on how these responses are in turn modified during hyperalgesia, and the extent to which hyperalgesic states also induce a facilitation of the neuronal responses mediated by A-fibres. The current study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of peripheral inflammation and stimulus presentation on the facilitation of nociceptive reflexes. Flexor reflexes, recorded as single motor units, were evoked in rats by cycles of low and high frequency electrical stimulation with pulse durations of 0.2, 0.5 and 2 ms. Responses were studied in control and inflammatory conditions, using the carrageenan-induced mono-arthritis model. The results show that the facilitation of late (C-fibre mediated) responses was proportional to the pulse duration of stimulation, as well as to the stimulation frequency. Facilitation was always higher when animals were subjected to inflammation. In inflammatory conditions, facilitation of reflexes was observed not only for late (C-fibre mediated) but also for early (A-fibre mediated) reflex responses. However, the facilitation of these early responses was not proportional to the intensity of stimulation. Thus, in arthritic animals, late (C-fibre mediated) flexion reflexes elicited from the skin, are facilitated and early (A-fibre mediated) reflexes are not only facilitated but, in addition, show a novel wind-up phenomenon.

  19. Stimulus control: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The second part of my tutorial stresses the systematic importance of two parameters of discrimination training: (a) the magnitude of the physical difference between the positive and the negative stimulus (disparity) and (b) the magnitude of the difference between the positive stimulus, in particular, and the background stimulation (salience). It then examines the role these variables play in such complex phenomena as blocking and overshadowing, progressive discrimination training, and the transfer of control by fading. It concludes by considering concept formation and imitation, which are important forms of application, and recent work on equivalence relations. PMID:22478222

  20. Differential effects of stress on escape and reflex responses to nociceptive thermal stimuli in the rat.

    PubMed

    King, C D; Devine, D P; Vierck, C J; Rodgers, J; Yezierski, R P

    2003-10-17

    Acute stress has been shown to increase latencies of nociceptive reflexes, and this effect is considered evidence for stress-induced analgesia. However, tests for nociception that rely on motivated operant escape assess cerebral processing of pain and could be modulated independent of reflex responses. We therefore compared the effects of an acute stressor (restraint) on escape responses and lick/guard reflexes to stimulation of the paws by a thermally regulated floor. Testing sessions included a pre-test exposure to 36 degrees C, followed by a test trial in which either escape from 44 or 36 degrees C or reflex responses to 44 degrees C were observed. Behavioral responses to stress were assessed during a three day period, with baseline testing on day 1, post-stress or control testing on day 2, and evaluation of long-term stress effects on day 3. On day 2, half the animals received 15 min of restraint stress, followed by 15-min pre-test and test trials. Licking and guarding responses to thermal stimulation during 44 degrees C test trials were significantly reduced by restraint stress, confirming previously reported stress effects on nociceptive reflexes. In contrast, learned escape responses to the same thermal stimulus were significantly enhanced after stress. The increase in operant sensitivity suggests that acute restraint, a form of psychological stress, produces hyperalgesia for a level of thermal stimulation that preferentially activates C nociceptors. These results are discussed in relation to studies involving physical or psychological forms of stress, different nociceptive stimuli, and assessment strategies used to evaluate thermal pain sensitivity.

  1. Neural mechanisms of cutaneous nociceptive pain.

    PubMed

    Koltzenburg, M

    2000-09-01

    Acute mechanical, thermal, and chemically induced pains in the skin are signalled by a set of specific nociceptive afferents, which encode the magnitude of the perceived pain by their discharge intensity. After tissue injury or inflammation, a number of changes in the properties of the primary afferent occur parallel to profound changes in the central nervous system. Primary hyperalgesia (within the area of tissue injury) is best explained by changes of the properties of primary nociceptive afferents, whereas secondary hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity outside the area of tissue injury) critically requires functional changes in the central nervous system. Collectively, these changes are the basis for the many forms of hyperalgesia that can present clinically as incident pain. Knowledge of the various types of hyperalgesia and their underlying mechanisms is required for better treatment of this challenging aspect of chronic pain.

  2. Effects of inducible nitric oxide synthase blockade within the periaqueductal gray on cardiovascular responses during mechanical, heat, and cold nociception.

    PubMed

    Chaitoff, Kevin A; Toner, Francis; Tedesco, Anthony; Maher, Timothy J; Ally, Ahmmed

    2012-02-01

    We have examined the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) within the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray mater (dlPAG) on cardiovascular responses during mechanical, thermal, and cold nociception in anesthetized rats. Mechanical stimulus was applied by a unilateral hindpaw pinch for 10 s that increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Bilateral microdialysis of a selective iNOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AGN; 10 μM), into the dlPAG for 30 min augmented MAP and HR responses during a mechanical stimulation. The cardiovascular responses recovered following discontinuation of the drug. Heat stimulus was generated by immersing one hindpaw metatarsus in a water bath at 52°C for 10 s, and this increased MAP and HR. Administration of AGN into the PAG potentiated these cardiovascular responses. Cardiovascular responses recovered following discontinuation of the drug. In contrast, application of a cold stimulus by immersing one hindpaw at 10°C for 10 s resulted in depressor and bradycardic responses. A second cold stimulus resulted in a response that was not significantly different from that prior to or after recovery from the AGN infusion. These results demonstrate that iNOS within the dlPAG plays a differential role in modulating cardiovascular responses during mechanical-, heat-, and cold-mediated nociception.

  3. Is temporal summation of pain and spinal nociception altered during normal aging?

    PubMed Central

    Marouf, Rafik; Piché, Mathieu; Rainville, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study examines the effect of normal aging on temporal summation (TS) of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII). Two groups of healthy volunteers, young and elderly, received transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied to the right sural nerve to assess pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII-reflex). Stimulus intensity was adjusted individually to 120% of RIII-reflex threshold, and shocks were delivered as a single stimulus or as a series of 5 stimuli to assess TS at 5 different frequencies (0.17, 0.33, 0.66, 1, and 2 Hz). This study shows that robust TS of pain and RIII-reflex is observable in individuals aged between 18 and 75 years and indicates that these effects are comparable between young and older individuals. These results contrast with some previous findings and imply that at least some pain regulatory processes, including TS, may not be affected by normal aging, although this may vary depending on the method. PMID:26058038

  4. Hypergravity modulates behavioral nociceptive responses in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumei, Y.; Shimokawa, R.; Toda, K.; Kawauchi, Y.; Makita, K.; Terasawa, M.; Ohya, K.; Shimokawa, H.

    Hypergravity (2G) exposure elevated the nociceptive threshold (pain suppression) concomitantly with evoked neuronal activity in the hypothalamus. Young Wistar male rats were exposed to 2G by centrifugal rotation for 10 min. Before and after 2G exposure, the nociceptive threshold was measured as the withdrawal reflex by using the von Frey type needle at a total of 8 sites of each rat (nose, four quarters, upper and lower back, tail), and then rats were sacrificed. Fos expression was examined immunohistochemically in the hypothalamic slices of the 2G-treated rats. When rats were exposed to 2G hypergravity, the nociceptive threshold was significantly elevated to approximately 150 to 250% of the 1G baseline control levels in all the examination sites. The 2G hypergravity remarkably induced Fos expression in the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. The analgesic effects of 2G hypergravity were attenuated by naloxone pretreatment. Data indicate that hypergravity induces analgesic effects in rats, mediated through hypothalamic neuronal activity in the endogenous opioid system and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  5. A pro-nociceptive phenotype unmasked in mice lacking fatty-acid amide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Lawrence M; Slivicki, Richard A; Leishman, Emma; Cornett, Ben; Mackie, Ken; Bradshaw, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the major enzyme responsible for degradation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of FAAH (FAAH KO) produces antinociception in preclinical pain models that is largely attributed to anandamide-induced activation of cannabinoid receptors. However, FAAH metabolizes a wide range of structurally related, biologically active lipid signaling molecules whose functions remain largely unknown. Some of these endogenous lipids, including anandamide itself, may exert pro-nociceptive effects under certain conditions. In our study, FAAH KO mice exhibited a characteristic analgesic phenotype in the tail flick test and in both formalin and carrageenan models of inflammatory nociception. Nonetheless, intradermal injection of the transient receptor potential channel V1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin increased nocifensive behavior as well as mechanical and heat hypersensitivity in FAAH KO relative to wild-type mice. This pro-nociceptive phenotype was accompanied by increases in capsaicin-evoked Fos-like immunoreactive (FLI) cells in spinal dorsal horn regions implicated in nociceptive processing and was attenuated by CB1 (AM251) and TRPV1 (AMG9810) antagonists. When central sensitization was established, FAAH KO mice displayed elevated levels of anandamide, other fatty-acid amides, and endogenous TRPV1 agonists in both paw skin and lumbar spinal cord relative to wild-type mice. Capsaicin decreased spinal cord 2-AG levels and increased arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 levels in both spinal cord and paw skin irrespective of genotype. Our studies identify a previously unrecognized pro-nociceptive phenotype in FAAH KO mice that was unmasked by capsaicin challenge. The heightened nociceptive response was mediated by CB1 and TRPV1 receptors and accompanied by enhanced spinal neuronal activation. Moreover, genetic deletion of FAAH has a profound impact on the peripheral and central lipidome. Thus, genetic

  6. A pro-nociceptive phenotype unmasked in mice lacking fatty-acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lawrence M; Slivicki, Richard A; Leishman, Emma; Cornett, Ben; Mackie, Ken; Bradshaw, Heather; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2016-01-01

    Fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the major enzyme responsible for degradation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of FAAH (FAAH KO) produces antinociception in preclinical pain models that is largely attributed to anandamide-induced activation of cannabinoid receptors. However, FAAH metabolizes a wide range of structurally related, biologically active lipid signaling molecules whose functions remain largely unknown. Some of these endogenous lipids, including anandamide itself, may exert pro-nociceptive effects under certain conditions. In our study, FAAH KO mice exhibited a characteristic analgesic phenotype in the tail flick test and in both formalin and carrageenan models of inflammatory nociception. Nonetheless, intradermal injection of the transient receptor potential channel V1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin increased nocifensive behavior as well as mechanical and heat hypersensitivity in FAAH KO relative to wild-type mice. This pro-nociceptive phenotype was accompanied by increases in capsaicin-evoked Fos-like immunoreactive (FLI) cells in spinal dorsal horn regions implicated in nociceptive processing and was attenuated by CB1 (AM251) and TRPV1 (AMG9810) antagonists. When central sensitization was established, FAAH KO mice displayed elevated levels of anandamide, other fatty-acid amides, and endogenous TRPV1 agonists in both paw skin and lumbar spinal cord relative to wild-type mice. Capsaicin decreased spinal cord 2-AG levels and increased arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 levels in both spinal cord and paw skin irrespective of genotype. Our studies identify a previously unrecognized pro-nociceptive phenotype in FAAH KO mice that was unmasked by capsaicin challenge. The heightened nociceptive response was mediated by CB1 and TRPV1 receptors and accompanied by enhanced spinal neuronal activation. Moreover, genetic deletion of FAAH has a profound impact on the peripheral and central lipidome. Thus, genetic

  7. Pharmacological specificity of the discriminative stimulus properties of 2-amino-4,5-(1,2-cyclohexyl)-7-phosphono-heptanoic acid (NPC 12626), a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Bobelis, D J; Balster, R L

    1993-02-01

    A drug discrimination based upon the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist 2-amino-4,5-(1,2-cyclohexyl)-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (NPC 12626) was assessed for pharmacological specificity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 20 mg/kg i.p. of NPC 12626 from saline under a standard two-lever fixed ratio 32 schedule of food reinforcement. Stimulus generalization tests were conducted to examine the similarities and differences between NPC 12626, its active (2R,4R,5S) enantiomer NPC 17742, other competitive and noncompetitive NMDA antagonists and a number of drugs representative of other classes. During test sessions, the competitive NMDA antagonists NPC 12626, CGS 19755, [1-(cis-2-carboxypiperidine-4-yl)- methyl-1-phosphonic acid], NPC 17742, CSP 37849 [DL-(E)-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pen-tenoic acid] and CPPene [D-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid] all completely substituted for the training dose of NPC 12626 with ED50 values of 18.1, 2.3, 2.1, 0.8 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, drugs that failed to substitute for NPC 12626 included (+)-amphetamine, baclofen, chlorpromazine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, dizocilpine (MK-801), imipramine, (-)-ketocyclazocine, L-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, methocarbamol, morphine, muscimol, phenytoin, physostigmine and valproate. These results provide evidence that the NPC 12626 discriminative stimulus is unique and specific, shared fully only by its active enantiomer NPC 17742 and other competitive NMDA antagonists. This specificity provides further support for the hypothesis of NMDA receptor mediation of NPC 12626 discrimination, and suggests that this is a useful model to evaluate behavioral effects of competitive NMDA antagonists.

  8. Interests and Stimulus Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, George B.; Donnenwerth, Gregory V.

    1969-01-01

    Examines relationships between Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) and vocational interests measured by the Kuder and Strong Vocational Interest Blank, among alcoholics and undergraduates. Results support construct validity of the SSS and provide further evidence of modes of expression of stimulus-seeking needs in personality. (Author/CJ)

  9. Reflections on Stimulus Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    The topic of stimulus control is too broad and complex to be traceable here. It would probably take a two-semester course to cover just the highlights of that field's evolution. The more restricted topic of equivalence relations has itself become so broad that even an introductory summary requires more time than we have available. An examination…

  10. Increased nociceptive sensitivity and nociceptin/orphanin FQ levels in a rat model of PTSD

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical studies indicate that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently shares co-morbidity with chronic pain. Although in animals acute stress-induced antinociception is well documented, the effect of PTSD-like stress on nociceptive sensitivity is unclear. Though a few studies measured nociceptive responses at a single time point, no studies have examined changes in nociceptive sensitivity over time following exposure to PTSD-like stress. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), an endogenous ligand for the N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor, modulates various biological functions in the central nervous system that are affected by PTSD, including nociceptive sensitivity, stress and anxiety, learning and memory. Results The present study examined thermal and mechanical nociceptive sensitivity in male Sprague Dawley rats between 7 and 28 days after single-prolonged stress (SPS), an established animal model for PTSD. Rat paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT) to von Frey and paw withdrawal latencies (PWL) to radiant heat stimuli, respectively, dramatically decreased as early as 7 days after initiation of SPS and lasted the length of the study, 28 days. In addition, N/OFQ levels increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; on days 9, 14 and 28) and serum (day 28), while levels of circulating corticosterone (CORT) decreased 28 days after initiation of SPS. SPS exposure induced anxiety-like behavior and enhanced inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as previously reported for this model. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that SPS induces the development of persistent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia that is accompanied by increased N/OFQ content in the CSF, and eventually, in serum. These findings suggest a link between N/OFQ and the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia in a rat model of PTSD. PMID:23082795

  11. Norepinephrine-induced nociception and vasoconstrictor hypersensitivity in rats with chronic post-ischemia pain

    PubMed Central

    Xanthos, Dimitris N.; Bennett, Gary J.; Coderre, Terence J.

    2015-01-01

    Painful hypersensitivity to norepinephrine (NE) has been reported in various chronic pain conditions that exhibit sympathetically-maintained pain (SMP), particularly CRPS-I and II. We investigated the parallels between the nociceptive and vascular sensitivity to NE in rats with chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP), an animal model of CRPS-I induced by hind paw ischemia-reperfusion injury. Intradermal injections of NE to the affected hind paw induced dose-dependent nociceptive behaviours in CPIP rats, but not sham animals. These behaviours were blocked by α1- and α 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, or a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Using laser Doppler flowmetry, we detected vasoconstrictor hypersensitivity in the ipsilateral CPIP hind paw, as compared to responses in sham animals or the contralateral hind paw. The vasoconstrictor hypersensitivity was also attenuated by adrenergic antagonists. Intradermal injection of [Arg8] vasopressin (AVP) or the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor, L-NIO, to the affected paw also induced nociceptive behaviours in CPIP rats, but not sham rats. These results suggest CPIP rats display abnormal nociceptive responses to adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstrictive agents. Furthermore, the nociceptive responses to NE in CPIP rats are paralleled by enhanced vasoconstrictive responses to NE, and are relieved by α-adrenergic antagonists or a vasodilator. We conclude that persistent tissue ischemia and hypersensitivity to sympathetic vasoconstriction are important mechanisms for pain in CPIP rats, and that either reducing vasoconstriction or enhancing vasodilatation may be effective methods of relieving the pain of CRPS-I. PMID:18079061

  12. Enhanced nociception in Angelman syndrome model mice.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Eric S; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Aita, Megumi; Simon, Jeremy M; Philpot, Benjamin D; Zylka, Mark J

    2017-09-20

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutation or deletion of the maternal UBE3A allele. The maternal UBE3A allele is expressed in nearly all neurons of the brain and spinal cord, whereas the paternal UBE3A allele is repressed by an extremely long antisense transcript (UBE3A-ATS). Little is known about expression of UBE3A in the peripheral nervous system, where loss of maternal UBE3A might contribute to AS phenotypes. Here we sought to examine maternal and paternal Ube3a expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and to evaluate whether nociceptive responses were affected in AS model mice (global deletion of maternal Ube3a allele; Ube3a(m-/p+) ). We found that most large-diameter proprioceptive and mechanosensitive DRG neurons expressed maternal Ube3a and paternal Ube3a-ATS In contrast, most small-diameter neurons expressed Ube3a biallelically and had low to undetectable levels of Ube3a-ATS Analysis of single-cell DRG transcriptomes further suggested that Ube3a is expressed monoallelically in myelinated large-diameter neurons and biallelically in unmyelinated small-diameter neurons. Behavioral responses to some noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli were enhanced in male and female AS model mice; however, nociceptive responses were not altered by the conditional deletion of maternal Ube3a in the DRG. These data suggest that the enhanced nociceptive responses in AS model mice are due to loss of maternal Ube3a in the central, but not peripheral, nervous system. Our study provides new insights into sensory processing deficits associated with AS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTAngelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss or mutation of the maternal UBE3A allele. While sensory processing deficits are frequently associated with AS, it is currently unknown if Ube3a is expressed in peripheral sensory neurons or if maternal deletion of Ube3a affects somatosensory responses. Here, we found that Ube3a is primarily

  13. Early tolerance to the hypophagic effect of the cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716 does not impede blockade of an orexigenic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Antonello E; Giordani, Claudio; Bonomo, Sara M; Cella, Silvano G; Müller, Eugenio E

    2006-08-07

    The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 (Rimonabant) is known to reduce food intake by central and peripheral mechanisms. Recently, SR141716 has been reported to block the orexigenic effect of ghrelin, a potent orexigenic peptide produced by the stomach. This study investigated whether in rats, made tolerant to the hypophagic effect of SR141716, the drug was still capable to block the orexigenic activity of another non-natural (hypothalamic) peptide, i.e., the growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP) hexarelin, a ghrelin mimetic. In the acute experiments, each dose of SR141716 (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) reduced food intake with respect to vehicle-treated rats, whereas hexarelin (160 microg/kg s.c.) markedly stimulated feeding. All doses of SR141716 were capable to reduce the orexigenic effect of the GHRP. A 15-day administration of SR141716 (10 mg/kg i.p.) reduced both food intake and body weight. Tolerance to the hypophagic effect of SR141716 developed within 5 days, but in contrast, body weight remained markedly below that of vehicle-treated group throughout the entire treatment period. Interestingly, despite development of tolerance to its hypophagic effect, SR141716 was capable to suppress the orexigenic effect of repeated hexarelin challenge tests performed throughout the chronic experiments. In conclusion, the results of the present study confirm and broaden the existence of a functional relationship between ghrelin and endocannabinoids in the control of food intake, and bespeak the ability of a CB1 receptor antagonist to suppress orexia caused by stimuli alien to direct stimulation of the cannabinoid system.

  14. Activation of TRESK channels by the inflammatory mediator lysophosphatidic acid balances nociceptive signalling.

    PubMed

    Kollert, Sina; Dombert, Benjamin; Döring, Frank; Wischmeyer, Erhard

    2015-07-30

    In dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons TRESK channels constitute a major current component of the standing outward current IKSO. A prominent physiological role of TRESK has been attributed to pain sensation. During inflammation mediators of pain e.g. lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are released and modulate nociception. We demonstrate co-expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in DRG neurons. Heterologous expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in Xenopus oocytes revealed augmentation of basal K(+) currents upon LPA application. In DRG neurons nociception can result from TRPV1 activation by capsaicin or LPA. Upon co-expression in Xenopus oocytes LPA simultaneously increased both depolarising TRPV1 and hyperpolarising TRESK currents. Patch-clamp recordings in cultured DRG neurons from TRESK[wt] mice displayed increased IKSO after application of LPA whereas under these conditions IKSO in neurons from TRESK[ko] mice remained unaltered. Under current-clamp conditions LPA application differentially modulated excitability in these genotypes upon depolarising pulses. Spike frequency was attenuated in TRESK[wt] neurons and, in contrast, augmented in TRESK[ko] neurons. Accordingly, excitation of nociceptive neurons by LPA is balanced by co-activation of TRESK channels. Hence excitation of sensory neurons is strongly controlled by the activity of TRESK channels, which therefore are good candidates for the treatment of pain disorders.

  15. Activation of TRESK channels by the inflammatory mediator lysophosphatidic acid balances nociceptive signalling

    PubMed Central

    Kollert, Sina; Dombert, Benjamin; Döring, Frank; Wischmeyer, Erhard

    2015-01-01

    In dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons TRESK channels constitute a major current component of the standing outward current IKSO. A prominent physiological role of TRESK has been attributed to pain sensation. During inflammation mediators of pain e.g. lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are released and modulate nociception. We demonstrate co-expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in DRG neurons. Heterologous expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in Xenopus oocytes revealed augmentation of basal K+ currents upon LPA application. In DRG neurons nociception can result from TRPV1 activation by capsaicin or LPA. Upon co-expression in Xenopus oocytes LPA simultaneously increased both depolarising TRPV1 and hyperpolarising TRESK currents. Patch-clamp recordings in cultured DRG neurons from TRESK[wt] mice displayed increased IKSO after application of LPA whereas under these conditions IKSO in neurons from TRESK[ko] mice remained unaltered. Under current-clamp conditions LPA application differentially modulated excitability in these genotypes upon depolarising pulses. Spike frequency was attenuated in TRESK[wt] neurons and, in contrast, augmented in TRESK[ko] neurons. Accordingly, excitation of nociceptive neurons by LPA is balanced by co-activation of TRESK channels. Hence excitation of sensory neurons is strongly controlled by the activity of TRESK channels, which therefore are good candidates for the treatment of pain disorders. PMID:26224542

  16. Infusion of Gabrα6 siRNA into the trigeminal ganglia increased the myogenic orofacial nociceptive response of ovariectomized rats treated with 17β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Kramer, P R; Bellinger, L L

    2014-10-10

    High levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) have been found to reduce inflammatory temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain. A search for genes effected by a high concentration of estradiol showed an increase in GABAA receptor subunit alpha 6 (Gabrα6) in the trigeminal ganglia (TG). Blockade of Gabrα6 expression in the TG increases masseter muscle nociception in male rats, but the relationship between estradiol's effect on nociception and Gabrα6 expression remains unclear in females. To address this knowledge gap we hypothesized that reducing Gabrα6 expression in the TG will increase the orofacial nociceptive response of ovariectomized female rats treated with estradiol. To administer hormone osmotic pumps were placed in rats that dispensed a low diestrus plasma concentration of 17β-estradiol, in addition, 17β-estradiol was injected to produce a high proestrus plasma concentration of estradiol. A ligature was then placed around the masseter tendon to induce a nociceptive response; a model for TMJ muscle pain. Gabrα6 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was later infused into the TG and the nociceptive response was measured using von Frey filaments and a meal duration assay. GABAA receptor expression was measured in the TG and trigeminal nucleus caudalis and upper cervical region (Vc-C1). Ligature significantly increased the nociceptive response but a high proestrus concentration of 17β-estradiol attenuated this response. Gabrα6 siRNA infusion decreased Gabrα6 expression in the TG and Vc-C1 but increased the nociceptive response after 17β-estradiol treatment. The results suggest estradiol decreased the orofacial nociceptive response, in part, by causing an increase in Gabrα6 expression.

  17. Stimulus Variables and Interpersonal Attraction: The Stimulus Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffitt, William

    In interpersonal attraction, studies and judgment research evaluation of a stimulus is often a function of the context within which the stimulus appears. The first experiment was designed to examine "contrast effects" (shifts in the rated value of a stimulus away from the contextual values) when all attitudinal information was received from two…

  18. DNIC-mediated analgesia produced by a supramaximal electrical or a high-dose formalin conditioning stimulus: roles of opioid and α2-adrenergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) can be produced by different types of conditioning stimuli, but the analgesic properties and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to differentiate the induction of DNIC analgesia between noxious electrical and inflammatory conditioning stimuli. Methods First, rats subjected to either a supramaximal electrical stimulation or an injection of high-dose formalin in the hind limb were identified to have pain responses with behavioral evidence and spinal Fos-immunoreactive profiles. Second, suppression of tail-flick latencies by the two noxious stimuli was assessed to confirm the presence of DNIC. Third, an opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone) and an α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist (yohimbine) were injected, intraperitoneally and intrathecally respectively, before conditioning noxious stimuli to test the involvement of descending inhibitory pathways in DNIC-mediated analgesia. Results An intramuscular injection of 100 μl of 5% formalin produced noxious behaviors with cumulative pain scores similar to those of 50 μl of 2% formalin in the paw. Both electrical and chemical stimulation significantly increased Fos expression in the superficial dorsal horns, but possessed characteristic distribution patterns individually. Both conditioning stimuli prolonged the tail-flick latencies indicating a DNIC response. However, the electrical stimulation-induced DNIC was reversed by yohimbine, but not by naloxone; whereas noxious formalin-induced analgesia was both naloxone- and yohimbine-reversible. Conclusions It is demonstrated that DNIC produced by different types of conditioning stimuli can be mediated by different descending inhibitory controls, indicating the organization within the central nervous circuit is complex and possibly exhibits particular clinical manifestations. PMID:20302612

  19. Stimulus Recognition and Associative Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.; Evans, Annabel

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of this experiment was to investigate the relationship between stimulus recognition and various learning conditions which were designed to affect both stimulus encoding and associative learning in a paired-associate task. (Authors)

  20. Privileged crosstalk between TRPV1 channels and mitochondrial calcium shuttling machinery controls nociception.

    PubMed

    Nita, Iulia I; Caspi, Yaki; Gudes, Sagi; Fishman, Dimitri; Lev, Shaya; Hersfinkel, Michal; Sekler, Israel; Binshtok, Alexander M

    2016-12-01

    The nociceptive noxious heat-activated receptor - TRPV1, conducts calcium and sodium, thus producing a depolarizing receptor potential, leading to activation of nociceptive neurons. TRPV1-mediated calcium and sodium influx is negatively modulated by calcium, via calcium-dependent desensitization of TRPV1 channels. A mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter - MCU, controls mitochondrial Ca(2+) entry while a sodium/calcium transporter - NCLX shapes calcium and sodium transients by mediating sodium entry into and removing calcium from the mitochondria. The functional interplay between TRPV1, MCU and NCLX, in controlling the cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium and sodium transients and subsequently the nociceptive excitability, is poorly understood. Here, we used cytosolic and mitochondrial fluorescent calcium and sodium imaging together with electrophysiological recordings of TRPV1-induced currents in HEK293T cells and nociceptor-like dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, while modulating NCLX or MCU expression using specific small interfering RNA (siNCLX). We show that the propagation of the TRPV1-induced cytosolic calcium and sodium fluxes into mitochondria is dependent on coordinated activity of NCLX and MCU. Thus, knocking-down of NCLX triggers down regulation of MCU dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. This in turn decreases rate and amplitude of TRPV1-mediated cytosolic calcium, which inhibits capsaicin-induced inward current and neuronal firing. TRPV1-mediated currents were fully rescued by intracellular inclusion of the fast calcium chelator BAPTA. Finally, NCLX controls capsaicin-induced cell death, by supporting massive mitochondrial Ca(2+) shuttling. Altogether, our results suggest that NCLX, by regulating cytosolic and mitochondrial ionic transients, modulates calcium-dependent desensitization of TRPV1 channels, thereby, controlling nociceptive signaling.

  1. Influence of nociception and stress-induced antinociception on genetic variation in isoflurane anesthetic potency among mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Mogil, Jeffrey S; Smith, Shad B; O'Reilly, Meghan K; Plourde, Gilles

    2005-10-01

    Genetic background influences anesthetic potency to suppress motor response to noxious stimulation (minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) as well as nociceptive sensitivity in unmedicated animals. However, the influence on MAC of baseline sensitivity to the noxious stimuli used to assess MAC has virtually never been studied. The authors assessed room air nociceptive sensitivity and isoflurane MAC in multiple mouse strains. Isoflurane requirement for loss of righting response (MACLORR) was also measured. One outbred and 10 inbred mouse strains were tested for latency to respond (in room air) to a tail clip (either 500 g or 2,000 g). Naive mice of the same 11 strains were tested for isoflurane MAC and MACLORR. To assess the role of opioid-mediated stress-induced antinociception, mice were also tested for nociceptive sensitivity after injection of naloxone (10 mg/kg) or saline. Robust strain differences were observed for all measures. The authors found that tail-clip latency (using a 500-g or 2,000-g clip, respectively) correlated significantly with MAC (r = -0.76 and -0.58, respectively) but not MACLORR (r = -0.10 and -0.26). Naloxone produced strain-dependent reductions in open air tail-clip latencies, and these reductions were also strongly correlated with MAC (r = -0.67 and -0.71). The authors suggest that genetic variability in isoflurane MAC (but not MACLORR) may reflect genetic variability in the underlying sensitivity to the noxious stimulus being used to measure MAC. This variable sensitivity to nociception in the awake state is at least partially mediated by endogenous antinociceptive mechanisms activated by the tail-clip stimulus itself.

  2. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Study design Descriptive, prospective cohort. Animals Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Methods Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Results Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p < 0.04 for all). Correlations between repeated measures increased from the first to the second week. Conclusions and Clinical relevance Repeatability was acceptable only during the second week of testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and

  3. The primary somatosensory cortex and the insula contribute differently to the processing of transient and sustained nociceptive and non-nociceptive somatosensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li; Zhang, Li; Chen, Rui; Yu, Hongbo; Li, Hong; Mouraux, André

    2015-11-01

    Transient nociceptive stimuli elicit consistent brain responses in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (S1, S2), the insula and the anterior and mid-cingulate cortex (ACC/MCC). However, the functional significance of these responses, especially their relationship with sustained pain perception, remains largely unknown. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we characterize the differential involvement of these brain regions in the processing of sustained nociceptive and non-nociceptive somatosensory input. By comparing the spatial patterns of activity elicited by transient (0.5 ms) and long-lasting (15 and 30 s) stimuli selectively activating nociceptive or non-nociceptive afferents, we found that the contralateral S1 responded more strongly to the onset of non-nociceptive stimulation as compared to the onset of nociceptive stimulation and the sustained phases of nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimulation. Similarly, the anterior insula responded more strongly to the onset of nociceptive stimulation as compared to the onset of non-nociceptive stimulation and the sustained phases of nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimulation. This suggests that S1 is specifically sensitive to changes in incoming non-nociceptive input, whereas the anterior insula is specifically sensitive to changes in incoming nociceptive input. Second, we found that the MCC responded more strongly to the onsets as compared to the sustained phases of both nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimulation, suggesting that it could be involved in the detection of change regardless of sensory modality. Finally, the posterior insula and S2 responded maximally during the sustained phase of non-nociceptive stimulation but not nociceptive stimulation, suggesting that these regions are preferentially involved in processing non-nociceptive somatosensory input.

  4. Estimation and Identifiability of Model Parameters in Human Nociceptive Processing Using Yes-No Detection Responses to Electrocutaneous Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Meijer, Hil G E; Buitenweg, Jan R; van Gils, Stephan A

    2016-01-01

    Healthy or pathological states of nociceptive subsystems determine different stimulus-response relations measured from quantitative sensory testing. In turn, stimulus-response measurements may be used to assess these states. In a recently developed computational model, six model parameters characterize activation of nerve endings and spinal neurons. However, both model nonlinearity and limited information in yes-no detection responses to electrocutaneous stimuli challenge to estimate model parameters. Here, we address the question whether and how one can overcome these difficulties for reliable parameter estimation. First, we fit the computational model to experimental stimulus-response pairs by maximizing the likelihood. To evaluate the balance between model fit and complexity, i.e., the number of model parameters, we evaluate the Bayesian Information Criterion. We find that the computational model is better than a conventional logistic model regarding the balance. Second, our theoretical analysis suggests to vary the pulse width among applied stimuli as a necessary condition to prevent structural non-identifiability. In addition, the numerically implemented profile likelihood approach reveals structural and practical non-identifiability. Our model-based approach with integration of psychophysical measurements can be useful for a reliable assessment of states of the nociceptive system.

  5. Estimation and Identifiability of Model Parameters in Human Nociceptive Processing Using Yes-No Detection Responses to Electrocutaneous Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Meijer, Hil G. E.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; van Gils, Stephan A.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy or pathological states of nociceptive subsystems determine different stimulus-response relations measured from quantitative sensory testing. In turn, stimulus-response measurements may be used to assess these states. In a recently developed computational model, six model parameters characterize activation of nerve endings and spinal neurons. However, both model nonlinearity and limited information in yes-no detection responses to electrocutaneous stimuli challenge to estimate model parameters. Here, we address the question whether and how one can overcome these difficulties for reliable parameter estimation. First, we fit the computational model to experimental stimulus-response pairs by maximizing the likelihood. To evaluate the balance between model fit and complexity, i.e., the number of model parameters, we evaluate the Bayesian Information Criterion. We find that the computational model is better than a conventional logistic model regarding the balance. Second, our theoretical analysis suggests to vary the pulse width among applied stimuli as a necessary condition to prevent structural non-identifiability. In addition, the numerically implemented profile likelihood approach reveals structural and practical non-identifiability. Our model-based approach with integration of psychophysical measurements can be useful for a reliable assessment of states of the nociceptive system. PMID:27994563

  6. The development of the nociceptive brain.

    PubMed

    Verriotis, Madeleine; Chang, Pishan; Fitzgerald, Maria; Fabrizi, Lorenzo

    2016-12-03

    This review addresses the fundamental question of how we first experience pain, at the beginning of our lives. The brain is activated by peripheral tissue damaging stimulation from birth, but unlike other sensory systems, the pain system in healthy individuals cannot rely upon prolonged activity-dependent shaping through repeated noxious stimulation. Considering the importance of pain, remarkably little is known about when and how nociceptive cortical network activity characteristic of the mature adult brain develops. We begin this review by considering the underlying framework of connections in the infant brain. Since this developing brain connectome is necessary, if not sufficient, for pain experience, we discuss the structural and functional development of cortical and subcortical networks that contribute to this network. We then review specific information on the development of nociceptive processing in the infant brain, considering evidence from neurophysiological and hemodynamic measures separately, as the two are not always consistent. Finally we highlight areas that require further research and discuss how information gained from laboratory animal models will greatly increase our understanding in this area. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inverted Perceptual Judgment of Nociceptive Stimuli at Threshold Level following Inconsistent Cues

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Carmen; Dimova, Violeta; Bu, Julia; Parnham, Michael J.; Oertel, Bruno G.; Lötsch, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Objective The perception of pain is susceptible to modulation by psychological and contextual factors. It has been shown that subjects judge noxious stimuli as more painful in a respective suggestive context, which disappears when the modifying context is resolved. However, a context in which subjects judge the painfulness of a nociceptive stimulus in exactly the opposite direction to that of the cues has never been shown so far. Methods Nociceptive stimuli (300 ms intranasal gaseous CO2) at the individual pain threshold level were applied after a visual cue announcing the stimulus as either “no pain”, merely a “stimulus”, or “pain”. Among the stimuli at threshold level, other CO2 stimuli that were clearly below or above pain threshold were randomly interspersed. These were announced beforehand in 12 subjects randomly with correct or incorrect cues, i.e., clearly painful or clearly non-painful stimuli were announced equally often as not painful or painful. By contrast, in a subsequent group of another 12 subjects, the stimuli were always announced correctly with respect to the evoked pain. Results The random and often incorrect announcement of stimuli clearly below or above pain threshold caused the subjects to rate the stimuli at pain-threshold level in the opposite direction of the cue, i.e., when the stimuli were announced as “pain” significantly more often than as non-painful and vice versa (p < 10-4). By contrast, in the absence of incongruence between announcement and perception of the far-from-threshold stimuli, stimuli at pain threshold were rated in the cued direction. Conclusions The present study revealed the induction of associations incongruent with a given message in the perception of pain. We created a context of unreliable cues whereby subjects perceived the stimulus opposite to that suggested by a prior cue, i.e., potentially nociceptive stimuli at pain threshold level that were announced as painful were judged as non-painful and

  8. A role for PPARα in the medial prefrontal cortex in formalin-evoked nociceptive responding in rats.

    PubMed

    Okine, B N; Rea, K; Olango, W M; Price, J; Herdman, S; Madasu, M K; Roche, M; Finn, D P

    2014-03-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor, PPARα, and its endogenous ligands, are involved in pain modulation. PPARα is expressed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a key brain region involved in both the cognitive-affective component of pain and in descending modulation of pain. However, the role of PPARα in the mPFC in pain responding has not been investigated. Here, we investigated the effects of pharmacological modulation of PPARα in the rat mPFC on formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour and the impact of formalin-induced nociception on components of PPARα signalling in the mPFC. The effects of intra-mPFC microinjection of a PPARα agonist (GW7647) or a PPARα antagonist (GW6471) on formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour in rats were studied. Quantitative real-time PCR and LC-MS/MS were used to study the effects of intraplantar injection of formalin on PPARα mRNA expression and levels of endogenous ligands, respectively, in the mPFC. Intra-mPFC administration of GW6471, but not GW7647, resulted in delayed onset of the early second phase of formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour. Furthermore, formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour was associated with significant reductions in mPFC levels of endogenous PPARα ligands (N-palmitoylethanolamide and N-oleoylethanolamide) and a 70% reduction in PPARα mRNA but not protein expression. These data suggest that endogenous ligands may act at PPARα in the mPFC to play a facilitatory/permissive role in second phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour in rats. This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Disentangling the nature of the nicotine stimulus.

    PubMed

    Bevins, Rick A; Barrett, Scott T; Polewan, Robert J; Pittenger, Steven T; Swalve, Natashia; Charntikov, Sergios

    2012-05-01

    Learning involving interoceptive stimuli likely plays an important role in many diseases and psychopathologies. Within this area, there has been extensive research investigating the interoceptive stimulus effects of abused drugs. In this pursuit, behavioral pharmacologists have taken advantage of what is known about learning processes and adapted the techniques to investigate the behavioral and receptor mechanisms of drug stimuli. Of particular interest is the nicotine stimulus and the use of the two-lever operant drug discrimination task and the Pavlovian drug discriminated goal-tracking task. There is strong concordance between the two methods when using "standard" testing protocols that minimize learning on test days. For example, ABT-418, nornicotine, and varenicline all fully evoked nicotine-appropriate responding. Notably, research from our laboratory with the discriminated goal-tracking task has used an alternative testing protocol. This protocol assesses stimulus substitution based on how well extinction learning using a non-nicotine ligand transfers back to the nicotine stimulus. These findings challenge conclusions based on more "standard" testing procedures (e.g., ABT-418 is not nicotine-like). As a starting point, we propose Thurstone scaling as a quantitative method for more precisely comparing transfer of extinction across doses, experiments, and investigators. We close with a discussion of future research directions and potential implications of the research for understanding interoceptive stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Descending effect on spinal nociception by amygdaloid glutamate varies with the submodality of noxious test stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bourbia, Nora; Sagalajev, Boriss; Pertovaara, Antti

    2014-06-06

    Amygdala has an important role in the processing of primary emotions, such as fear. Additionally, amygdala is involved in processing and modulation of pain. While the amygdala, particularly its central nucleus (CeA), has been shown to contribute to pain control, the descending pain regulation by the CeA is still only partly characterized. Here heat and mechanical nociception was tested in both hind limbs of healthy rats with a chronic guide cannula for microinjection of glutamate into the CeA of the left or right hemisphere. The aim was to assess whether the descending pain regulatory effect by glutamate in the amygdala varies with the submodality or the body side of nociceptive testing, brain hemisphere or the amygdaloid glutamate receptor. Motor performance was assessed with the Rotarod test. Amygdaloid glutamate, independent of the treated hemisphere, produced a dose-related heat and mechanical antinociception that varied with the submodality of testing. Heat antinociception was short lasting (minutes), bilateral and not reversed by blocking the amygdaloid NMDA receptor with MK-801. In contrast, mechanical antinociception lasted longer (>20 min), was predominantly contralateral and reversed by blocking the amygdaloid NMDA receptor. At an antinociceptive dose, amygdaloid glutamate failed to influence motor performance. The results indicate that independent of the brain hemisphere, the spatial extent and duration of the descending antinociceptive effect induced by amygdaloid glutamate varies with the amygdaloid glutamate receptor and the submodality of pain.

  11. Novel trigeminal slice preparation method for studying mechanisms of nociception transmission.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Mikiko; Fujiwara, Naoshi; Seo, Kenji

    2017-07-15

    The trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) plays a critical role in transmission and modulation of nociceptive afferent inputs, and exhibits a similar layer construction to the spinal dorsal horn. However, afferent inputs enter the brainstem and project to a separately located nucleus. It has previously been difficult to record responses of the Vc to afferent fiber activation in a brainstem slice preparation. The aim of the present study was to establish a novel brainstem slice preparation method to study trigeminal nociceptive transmission mechanisms. Thirty adult 6-7-week-old C57/BL6J male mice were included in the study. Obliquely sliced brainstem sections at a thickness of 600μm, which included the Vc and the root entry zone to the brainstem, were prepared. The Vc response to electrical stimulation of afferent fibers was observed as a change in intracellular calcium concentration by fluorescence intensity response. Electrical stimulation of afferent inputs to the trigeminal nerve increased fluorescent intensity in the Vc, which was completely diminished by tetrodotoxin and significantly suppressed by the AMPA/kainate antagonist CNQX (paired t-test, P<0.001), although the non-competitive NMDA antagonist (+)-MK801 maleate resulted in no changes. These results suggested a glutamate receptor-mediated response. This brainstem slice preparation will be useful for investigating nociceptive transmission mechanisms of the trigeminal nerve. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Whole body static magnetic field exposure increases thermal nociceptive threshold in the snail, Helix pomatia.

    PubMed

    László, J F; Hernádi, L

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the effect of homogeneous and inhomogeneous static magnetic field (SMF) exposure on the thermal nociceptive threshold of snail in the hot plate test (43 °C). Both homogeneous (hSMF) and inhomogeneous (iSMF) SMF increased the thermo-nociceptive threshold: 40.2%, 29.2%, or 41.7% after an exposure of 20, 30, or 40 min hSMF by p < 0.001, p < 0.0001, or p < 0.001, and 32.7% or 46.2% after an exposure of 20 or 40 min iSMF by p < 0.05 or p < 0.0001. These results suggest that SMF has an antinociceptive effect in snail. On the other hand, naloxone as an atypical opioid antagonist in an amount of 1 μg/g was found to significantly decrease the thermo-nociceptive threshold (41.9% by p < 0.002), which could be antagonized by hSMF exposure implying that hSMF exerts its antinociceptive effect partly via opioid receptors.

  13. Psychophysics of a Nociceptive Test in the Mouse: Ambient Temperature as a Key Factor for Variation

    PubMed Central

    Pincedé, Ivanne; Pollin, Bernard; Meert, Theo; Plaghki, Léon; Le Bars, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background The mouse is increasingly used in biomedical research, notably in behavioral neurosciences for the development of tests or models of pain. Our goal was to provide the scientific community with an outstanding tool that allows the determination of psychophysical descriptors of a nociceptive reaction, which are inaccessible with conventional methods: namely the true threshold, true latency, conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers that trigger the response and latency of the central decision-making process. Methodology/Principal Findings Basically, the procedures involved heating of the tail with a CO2 laser, recording of tail temperature with an infrared camera and stopping the heating when the animal reacted. The method is based mainly on the measurement of three observable variables, namely the initial temperature, the heating rate and the temperature reached at the actual moment of the reaction following random variations in noxious radiant heat. The initial temperature of the tail, which itself depends on the ambient temperature, very markedly influenced the behavioral threshold, the behavioral latency and the conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers but not the latency of the central decision-making. Conclusions/Significance We have validated a psychophysical approach to nociceptive reactions for the mouse, which has already been described for rats and Humans. It enables the determination of four variables, which contribute to the overall latency of the response. The usefulness of such an approach was demonstrated by providing new fundamental findings regarding the influence of ambient temperature on nociceptive processes. We conclude by challenging the validity of using as “pain index" the reaction time of a behavioral response to an increasing heat stimulus and emphasize the need for a very careful control of the ambient temperature, as a prevailing environmental source of variation, during any behavioral testing of mice. PMID:22629325

  14. Development of mechanical and thermal nociceptive threshold testing devices in unrestrained birds (broiler chickens).

    PubMed

    Hothersall, B; Caplen, G; Nicol, C J; Taylor, P M; Waterman-Pearson, A E; Weeks, C A; Murrell, J C

    2011-09-30

    Behavioural signs of pain are difficult to quantify and interpret in animals. Nociceptive threshold testing is therefore a useful method for examining the perception and processing of noxious stimuli underlying pain states. Devices were developed to measure response thresholds to quantified, ramped mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli applied to the leg or keel of unrestrained birds. Up to 9N mechanical force was delivered via a single round-ended 2mm pin using a pneumatic actuator at 0.4Ns(-1). Heat was applied through a small copper element at 0.8°Cs(-1) to a maximum of 50°C. The repeatability and reliability of threshold measures were validated using 10-12 broiler chickens (aged 49-66 days) per site and modality. Mechanical threshold, or skin and threshold temperature, were recorded over three sessions across a 36h period. Both stimulus types elicited clear, reproducible behavioural responses. Mechanical threshold means and 95% confidence intervals were 3.0 (2.8-3.2)N for keel and 2.0 (1.8-2.1)N for leg sites. Keel thermal tests gave a mean skin temperature of 39.3 (39.1-39.5)°C, and threshold of 46.8 (46.6-47.1)°C. Leg skin temperature was 35.7 (35.6-35.9)°C and threshold 42.5 (42.2-42.8)°C. Threshold measures were consistent within and across sessions and birds showed individual repeatability across tests within sessions. Individual birds' mechanical keel thresholds were also repeatable across sessions. The apparatus gave reliable, reproducible measurements of thresholds to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli. The range recorded was comparable with previously published nociceptor thresholds in dissected chicken nerve filament fibres, and the method appears suitable for studying nociceptive processes in broiler chickens.

  15. Effects of nociceptive stimuli on the pulmonary circulation in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Houfflin-Debarge, V; Delelis, A; Jaillard, S; Larrue, B; Deruelle, P; Ducloy, A S; Puech, F; Storme, L

    2005-02-01

    The fetus is able to exhibit a stress response to painful events, and stress hormones have been shown to modulate pulmonary vascular tone. At birth, the increased level of stress hormones plays a significant role in the adaptation to postnatal life. We therefore hypothesized that pain may alter pulmonary circulation in the perinatal period. The hemodynamic response to subcutaneous injection of formalin, which is used in experimental studies as nociceptive stimulus, was evaluated in chronically prepared, fetal lambs. Fetal lambs were operated on at 128 days gestation. Catheters were placed into the ascending aorta, superior vena cava, and main pulmonary artery. An ultrasonic flow transducer was placed around the left pulmonary artery. Three subcutaneous catheters were placed in the lambs' limb. The hemodynamic responses to subcutaneous injection of formalin, to formalin after fetal analgesia by sufentanil, and to sufentanil alone were recorded. Cortisol and catecholamine concentrations were also measured. Pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR) increased by 42% (P < 0.0001) after formalin injection. Cortisol increased by 54% (P = 0.05). During sufentanil infusion, PVR did not change significantly after formalin. Cortisol increased by 56% (P < 0.05). PVR did not change during sufentanil infusion. Norepinephrine levels did not change during any of the protocols. Our results indicate that nociceptive stimuli may increase the pulmonary vascular tone. This response is not mediated by an increase in circulating catecholamine levels. Analgesia prevents this effect. We speculate that this pulmonary vascular response to nociceptive stimulation may explain some hypoxemic events observed in newborn infants during painful intensive care procedures.

  16. Substance P spinal signaling induces glial activation and nociceptive sensitization after fracture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Wu; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Shi, Xiaoyou; Sun, Yuan; Wei, Tzuping; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-01-01

    Tibia fracture in rodents induces substance P (SP)-dependent keratinocyte activation and inflammatory changes in the hindlimb, similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In animal pain models spinal glial cell activation results in nociceptive sensitization. This study tested the hypothesis that limb fracture triggers afferent C-fiber SP release in the dorsal horn, resulting in chronic glia activation and central sensitization. At 4 weeks after tibia fracture and casting in rats, the cast was removed and hind paw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema were measured, then the antinociceptive effects of microglia (minocycline) or astrocyte (LAA) inhibitors or an SP receptor antagonist (LY303870) were tested. Immunohistochemistry and PCR were used to evaluate microglia and astrocyte activation in the dorsal horn. Similar experiments were performed in intact rats after brief sciatic nerve electric stimulation at C-fiber intensity. Microglia and astrocytes were chronically activated at 4 weeks after fracture and contributed to the maintenance of hind paw allodynia and unweighting. Furthermore, LY303870 treatment initiated at 4 weeks after fracture partially reversed both spinal glial activation and nociceptive sensitization. Similarly, persistent spinal microglial activation and hind paw nociceptive sensitization were observed at 48 hours after sciatic nerve C-fiber stimulation and this effect was inhibited by treatment with minocycline, LAA, or LY303870. These data support the hypothesis that C-fiber afferent SP signaling chronically supports spinal neuroglia activation after limb fracture and that glial activation contributes to the maintenance of central nociceptive sensitization in CRPS. Treatments inhibiting glial activation and spinal inflammation may be therapeutic for CRPS. PMID:26386297

  17. CGRPα within the Trpv1-Cre population contributes to visceral nociception.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Nick J; Magnúsdóttir, Elin I; Jakobsson, Jon; Kestell, Garreth; Nan Chen, Bao; Morris, David; Brookes, Simon J H; Lagerstrom, Malin C

    2017-09-28

    The role of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP) in visceral and somatic nociception is incompletely understood. CGRPα is highly expressed in sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and particularly in neurons that also express the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (Trpv1). Therefore, we investigated changes in visceral and somatic nociception following deletion of CGRPα from the Trpv1-Cre population using the Cre/lox system. In control mice, acetic acid injection (0.6%,i.p.) caused significant immobility (time stationary) - an established indicator of visceral pain. In CGRPα-mCherry(lx/lx);Trpv1-Cre mice the duration of immobility was significantly less than controls and the distance CGRPα-mCherry(lx/lx);Trpv1-Cre mice travelled over 20 minutes following acetic acid was significantly greater than controls. However, following acetic acid injection, there was no difference between genotypes in the writhing reflex, number of abdominal licks, or forepaw wipes of the cheek. CGRPα-mCherry(lx/lx);Trpv1-Cre mice developed more pronounced inflammation-induced heat hypersensitivity above baseline values, compared to controls. However, analyses of noxious acute heat or cold transmission revealed no difference between genotypes. Also, odour avoidance test, odour preference test and buried food test for olfaction revealed no differences between genotypes. Our findings suggest that CGRPα-mediated transmission within the Trpv1-Cre population plays a significant role in visceral nociceptive pathways underlying voluntary movement. Monitoring changes in movement over time is a sensitive parameter to identify differences in visceral nociception, compared to writhing reflexes, abdominal licks, or forepaw wipes of the cheek that were unaffected by deletion of CGRPα- from Trpv1-Cre population and likely utilize different mechanisms. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

  18. Identification of multisegmental nociceptive afferents that modulate locomotor circuits in the neonatal mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Mandadi, Sravan; Hong, Peter; Tran, Michelle A; Bráz, Joao M; Colarusso, Pina; Basbaum, Allan I; Whelan, Patrick J

    2013-08-15

    Compared to proprioceptive afferent collateral projections, less is known about the anatomical, neurochemical, and functional basis of nociceptive collateral projections modulating lumbar central pattern generators (CPG). Quick response times are critical to ensure rapid escape from aversive stimuli. Furthermore, sensitization of nociceptive afferent pathways can contribute to a pathological activation of motor circuits. We investigated the extent and role of collaterals of capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive sacrocaudal afferent (nSCA) nerves that directly ascend several spinal segments in Lissauer's tract and the dorsal column and regulate motor activity. Anterograde tracing demonstrated direct multisegmental projections of the sacral dorsal root 4 (S4) afferent collaterals in Lissauer's tract and in the dorsal column. Subsets of the traced S4 afferent collaterals expressed transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), which transduces a nociceptive response to capsaicin. Electrophysiological data revealed that S4 dorsal root stimulation could evoke regular rhythmic bursting activity, and our data suggested that capsaicin-sensitive collaterals contribute to CPG activation across multiple segments. Capsaicin's effect on S4-evoked locomotor activity was potent until the lumbar 5 (L5) segments, and diminished in rostral segments. Using calcium imaging we found elevated calcium transients within Lissauer's tract and dorsal column at L5 segments when compared to the calcium transients only within the dorsal column at the lumbar 2 (L2) segments, which were desensitized by capsaicin. We conclude that lumbar locomotor networks in the neonatal mouse spinal cord are targets for modulation by direct multisegmental nSCA, subsets of which express TRPV1 in Lissauer's tract and the dorsal column. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:2870-2887, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Control of somatic membrane potential in nociceptive neurons and its implications for peripheral nociceptive transmission

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaona; Hao, Han; Gigout, Sylvain; Huang, Dongyang; Yang, Yuehui; Li, Li; Wang, Caixue; Sundt, Danielle; Jaffe, David B.; Zhang, Hailin; Gamper, Nikita

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral sensory ganglia contain somata of afferent fibres conveying somatosensory inputs to the central nervous system. Growing evidence suggests that the somatic/perisomatic region of sensory neurons can influence peripheral sensory transmission. Control of resting membrane potential (Erest) is an important mechanism regulating excitability, but surprisingly little is known about how Erest is regulated in sensory neuron somata or how changes in somatic/perisomatic Erest affect peripheral sensory transmission. We first evaluated the influence of several major ion channels on Erest in cultured small-diameter, mostly capsaicin-sensitive (presumed nociceptive) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The strongest and most prevalent effect on Erest was achieved by modulating M channels, K2P and 4-aminopiridine-sensitive KV channels, while hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated, voltage-gated Na+, and T-type Ca2+ channels to a lesser extent also contributed to Erest. Second, we investigated how varying somatic/perisomatic membrane potential, by manipulating ion channels of sensory neurons within the DRG, affected peripheral nociceptive transmission in vivo. Acute focal application of M or KATP channel enhancers or a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel blocker to L5 DRG in vivo significantly alleviated pain induced by hind paw injection of bradykinin. Finally, we show with computational modelling how somatic/perisomatic hyperpolarization, in concert with the low-pass filtering properties of the t-junction within the DRG, can interfere with action potential propagation. Our study deciphers a complement of ion channels that sets the somatic Erest of nociceptive neurons and provides strong evidence for a robust filtering role of the somatic and perisomatic compartments of peripheral nociceptive neuron. PMID:25168672

  20. Cycloheximide: No Ordinary Bitter Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Formaker, Bradley K.; Frank, Marion E.

    2007-01-01

    Cycloheximide (CyX), a toxic antibiotic with a unique chemical structure generated by the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus, has emerged as a primary focus of studies on mammalian bitter taste. Rats and mice avoid it at concentrations well below the thresholds for most bitter stimuli and T2R G-protein-coupled receptors specific for CyX with appropriate sensitivity are identified for those species. Like mouse and rat, golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, also detected and rejected micromolar levels of CyX, although 1 mM CyX failed to activate the hamster chorda tympani nerve. Hamsters showed an initial tolerance for 500 μM CyX, but after that, avoidance of CyX dramatically increased, plasticity not reported for rat or mouse. As the hamster lineage branches well before division of the mouse-rat lineage in evolutionary time, differences between hamster and mouse-rat reactions to CyX are not surprising. Furthermore, unlike hamster LiCl-induced learned aversions, the induced CyX aversion neither specifically nor robustly generalized to other non-ionic bitter stimuli; and unlike adverse reactions to other chemosensory stimuli, aversions to CyX were not mollified by adding a sweetener. Thus, CyX is unlike other bitter stimuli. The gene for the high-affinity CyX receptor is a member of a cluster of 5 orthologous T2R genes that are likely rodent specific; this “CyX clade” is found in the mouse, rat and probably hamster, but not in the human or rabbit genome. The rodent CyX-T2R interaction may be one of multiple lineage-specific stimulus-receptor interactions reflecting a response to a particular environmental toxin. The combination of T2R multiplicity, species divergence and gene duplication results in diverse ligands for multiple species-specific T2R receptors, which confounds definition of ‘bitter’ stimuli across species. PMID:17400304

  1. Annexin A2 Regulates TRPA1-Dependent Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Avenali, Luca; Narayanan, Pratibha; Rouwette, Tom; Cervellini, Ilaria; Sereda, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is essential for vertebrate pain. Even though TRPA1 activation by ligands has been studied extensively, the molecular machinery regulating TRPA1 is only poorly understood. Using an unbiased proteomics-based approach we uncovered the physical association of Annexin A2 (AnxA2) with native TRPA1 in mouse sensory neurons. AnxA2 is enriched in a subpopulation of sensory neurons and coexpressed with TRPA1. Furthermore, we observe an increase of TRPA1 membrane levels in cultured sensory neurons from AnxA2-deficient mice. This is reflected by our calcium imaging experiments revealing higher responsiveness upon TRPA1 activation in AnxA2-deficient neurons. In vivo these findings are associated with enhanced nocifensive behaviors specifically in TRPA1-dependent paradigms of acute and inflammatory pain, while heat and mechanical sensitivity as well as TRPV1-mediated pain are preserved in AnxA2-deficient mice. Our results support a model whereby AnxA2 limits the availability of TRPA1 channels to regulate nociceptive signaling in vertebrates. PMID:25355205

  2. Annexin A2 regulates TRPA1-dependent nociception.

    PubMed

    Avenali, Luca; Narayanan, Pratibha; Rouwette, Tom; Cervellini, Ilaria; Sereda, Michael; Gomez-Varela, David; Schmidt, Manuela

    2014-10-29

    The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is essential for vertebrate pain. Even though TRPA1 activation by ligands has been studied extensively, the molecular machinery regulating TRPA1 is only poorly understood. Using an unbiased proteomics-based approach we uncovered the physical association of Annexin A2 (AnxA2) with native TRPA1 in mouse sensory neurons. AnxA2 is enriched in a subpopulation of sensory neurons and coexpressed with TRPA1. Furthermore, we observe an increase of TRPA1 membrane levels in cultured sensory neurons from AnxA2-deficient mice. This is reflected by our calcium imaging experiments revealing higher responsiveness upon TRPA1 activation in AnxA2-deficient neurons. In vivo these findings are associated with enhanced nocifensive behaviors specifically in TRPA1-dependent paradigms of acute and inflammatory pain, while heat and mechanical sensitivity as well as TRPV1-mediated pain are preserved in AnxA2-deficient mice. Our results support a model whereby AnxA2 limits the availability of TRPA1 channels to regulate nociceptive signaling in vertebrates.

  3. Primidone inhibits TRPM3 and attenuates thermal nociception in vivo.

    PubMed

    Krügel, Ute; Straub, Isabelle; Beckmann, Holger; Schaefer, Michael

    2017-01-12

    The melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel TRPM3 is a nonselective cation channel expressed in nociceptive neurons and activated by heat. Since TRPM3-deficient mice show inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia, pharmacological inhibition of TRPM3 may exert antinociceptive properties. Fluorometric Ca influx assays and a compound library containing approved or clinically tested drugs were used to identify TRPM3 inhibitors. Biophysical properties of channel inhibition were assessed using electrophysiological methods. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, the tetracyclic antidepressant maprotiline and the anticonvulsant primidone were identified as highly efficient TRPM3 blockers with half-maximal inhibition at 0.6-6 µM and marked specificity for TRPM3. Most prominently, primidone was biologically active to suppress TRPM3 activation by pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) and heat at concentrations markedly lower than plasma concentrations commonly used in antiepileptic therapy. Primidone blocked PregS-induced [Ca]i influx through TRPM3 by allosteric modulation, and reversibly inhibited atypical inwardly rectifying TRPM3 currents induced by co-application of PregS and clotrimazole. In vivo, analgesic effects of low doses of primidone were demonstrated in mice, applying PregS- and heat-induced pain models, including inflammatory hyperalgesia. Thus, applying the approved drug at concentrations that are lower than those needed to induce anticonvulsive effects offers a shortcut for studying physiological and pathophysiological roles of TRPM3 in vivo.

  4. Respiratory hypoalgesia? Breath-holding, but not respiratory phase modulates nociceptive flexion reflex and pain intensity.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Hassan; Van de Broek, Karlien; Plaghki, Léon; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2016-03-01

    Several observations suggest that respiratory phase (inhalation vs. exhalation) and post-inspiratory breath-holds could modulate pain and the nociceptive reflex. This experiment aimed to investigate the role of both mechanisms. Thirty-two healthy participants received supra-threshold electrocutaneous stimulations to elicit both the Nociceptive Flexion Reflex (NFR) and pain, either during spontaneous inhalations or exhalations, or during three types of instructed breath-holds: following exhalation, at mid-inhalation and at full-capacity inhalation. Whether the electrocutaneous stimulus was applied during inhalation or exhalation did not affect the NFR or pain. Self-reported pain was reduced and the NFR was increased during breath-holding compared to spontaneous breathing. Whereas the type of breath-hold did not impact on self-reported pain, breath-holds at full-capacity inhalation and following exhalation were associated with a lower NFR amplitude compared to breath-holds at mid-inhalation. The present findings confirm that breath-holding can modulate pain (sensitivity) and suggest that both attentional distraction and changes in vagal activity may underlie the observed effects.

  5. Distinct brain systems mediate the effects of nociceptive input and self-regulation on pain.

    PubMed

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Roy, Mathieu; Buhle, Jason T; Wager, Tor D

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive self-regulation can strongly modulate pain and emotion. However, it is unclear whether self-regulation primarily influences primary nociceptive and affective processes or evaluative ones. In this study, participants engaged in self-regulation to increase or decrease pain while experiencing multiple levels of painful heat during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) imaging. Both heat intensity and self-regulation strongly influenced reported pain, but they did so via two distinct brain pathways. The effects of stimulus intensity were mediated by the neurologic pain signature (NPS), an a priori distributed brain network shown to predict physical pain with over 90% sensitivity and specificity across four studies. Self-regulation did not influence NPS responses; instead, its effects were mediated through functional connections between the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pathway was unresponsive to noxious input, and has been broadly implicated in valuation, emotional appraisal, and functional outcomes in pain and other types of affective processes. These findings provide evidence that pain reports are associated with two dissociable functional systems: nociceptive/affective aspects mediated by the NPS, and evaluative/functional aspects mediated by a fronto-striatal system.

  6. Hargreaves does not evaluate nociception following a surgical laparotomy in Xenopus leavis frogs.

    PubMed

    Vachon, P

    2014-10-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effectiveness of the Hargreaves test for the evaluation of nociception in frogs, more precisely to determine if cutaneous thresholds to a radiant heat stimulus would increase with analgesics following an abdominal laparotomy performed under general anaesthesia. Non breeding female Xenopus leavis frogs (3 groups (non-anaesthetized, anaesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222), with or without an abdominal laparotomy) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hargreaves test. Cutaneous thresholds were evaluated at baseline and following anaesthetic recovery (over 8 h) at six different body locations. Increased reaction times were observed in the gular area only at 1 h post-recovery following a MS222 bath immersion in frogs with (p < 0.02) and without the abdominal laparotomy (p < 0.002). In conclusion, the Hargreaves test does not provide an adequate test to evaluate nociception induced by an abdominal laparotomy and consequently cannot be used to evaluate analgesics in X. leavis frogs.

  7. Use of the Operant Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) to Measure Changes in Nociceptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ethan M.; Mills, Richard; Nolan, Todd A.; Jenkins, Alan C.; Mustafa, Golam; Lloyd, Chris; Caudle, Robert M.; Neubert, John K.

    2013-01-01

    We present an operant system for the detection of pain in awake, conscious rodents. The Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) assesses pain behaviors in a more clinically relevant way by not relying on reflex-based measures of nociception. Food fasted, hairless (or shaved) rodents are placed into a Plexiglas chamber which has two Peltier-based thermodes that can be programmed to any temperature between 7 °C and 60 °C. The rodent is trained to make contact with these in order to access a reward bottle. During a session, a number of behavioral pain outcomes are automatically recorded and saved. These measures include the number of reward bottle activations (licks) and facial contact stimuli (face contacts), but custom measures like the lick/face ratio (total number of licks per session/total number of contacts) can also be created. The stimulus temperature can be set to a single temperature or multiple temperatures within a session. The OPAD is a high-throughput, easy to use operant assay which will lead to better translation of pain research in the future as it includes cortical input instead of relying on spinal reflex-based nociceptive assays. PMID:23792907

  8. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner. PMID:26690128

  9. Spinal modulation of nociception by music.

    PubMed

    Roy, M; Lebuis, A; Hugueville, L; Peretz, I; Rainville, P

    2012-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the capacity of music to modulate pain. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In order to assess the involvement of descending modulatory mechanisms in the modulation of pain by music, we evaluated the effects of musical excerpts conveying different emotions (pleasant-stimulating, pleasant-relaxing, unpleasant-stimulating) on the spinally mediated nociceptive flexion reflex (or RIII), as well as on pain ratings and skin conductance responses. The RIII reflex and pain ratings were increased during the listening of unpleasant music compared with pleasant music, suggesting the involvement of descending pain-modulatory mechanisms in the effects of musical emotions on pain. There were no significant differences between the pleasant-stimulating and pleasant-relaxing musical condition, indicating that the arousal of music had little influence on pain processing. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  10. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception.

    PubMed

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-04

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner.

  11. [Analgesia Nociception Index for perioperative analgesia monitoring in spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Turan, Guldem; Ar, Arzu Yıldırım; Kuplay, Yıldız Yigit; Demiroluk, Oznur; Gazi, Mustafa; Akgun, Nur; Celikoglu, Erhan

    The Analgesia Nociception Index is an index used to measure the levels of pain, sympathetic system activity and heart rate variability during general anesthesia. In our study, Analgesia Nociception Index monitoring in two groups who had undergone spinal stabilization surgery and were administered propofol-remifentanil (Total Intravenous Anesthesia) and sevoflurane-remifentanyl anesthesia was compared regarding its significance for prediction of postoperative early pain. BIS and Analgesia Nociception Index monitoring were conducted in the patients together with standard monitoring. During induction, fentanyl 2μg.kg(-1), propofol 2.5mg.kg(-1) and rocuronium 0.6mg.kg(-1) were administered. During maintenance, 1.0 MAC sevoflurane+remifentanil 0.05-0.3μg.kg(-1).min(-1) and propofol 50-150μg.kg(-1).min+remifentanil 0.05-0.3μg.kg(-1).min(-1) were administered in Group S and Group T, respectively. Hemodynamic parameters, BIS and Analgesia Nociception Index values were recorded during surgery and 30min postoperatively. Postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) values at 30minutes were recorded. While no difference was found between mean Analgesia Nociception Index at all times of measurement in both groups, Analgesia Nociception Index measurements after administration of perioperative analgesic drug were recorded to be significantly higher compared to baseline values in both groups. There was correlation between mean values of Analgesia Nociception Index and VAS after anesthesia. Analgesia Nociception Index is a valuable parameter for monitoring of perioperative and postoperative analgesia. In spine surgery, similar analgesia can be provided in both Total Intravenous Anesthesia with remifentanil and sevoflurane administration. Analgesia Nociception Index is efficient for prediction of the need for analgesia during the early postoperative period, and therefore is the provision of patient comfort. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por

  12. [The effect of electroacupuncture on the neuronal responses of the oral trigeminal nucleus in the cat during nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimulation].

    PubMed

    Dolgikh, V G; Reshetniak, V K

    1989-12-01

    Effects of electroacupuncture (EAP) on the responses of different functional types of neurons of the oral trigeminal nucleus (OTN) by nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimulation were studied in acute experiments on adult cats. It was demonstrated that the main part of neurons of the OTN is a wide dynamic range of neurons. Characteristic feature of the OTN is neurons with low-threshold pulp afferent input. EAP inhibit nociceptive responses of neurons (preferentially nonspecific neurons), while responses to non-nociceptive stimulation are not changed at all. The results are discussed from the point of view that OTN takes part in nociceptive and non-nociceptive reactions.

  13. An altered spinal serotonergic system contributes to increased thermal nociception in an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gaztelumendi, Antonio; Rojo, María Luisa; Pazos, Angel; Díaz, Alvaro

    2014-06-01

    The olfactory bulbectomized (OB) rat, an animal model of chronic depression with comorbid anxiety, exhibits a profound dysregulation of the brain serotonergic signalling, a neurotransmission system involved in pain transmission and modulation. We here report an increased nociceptive response of OB rats in the tail flick test which is reverted after chronic, but not acute, administration of fluoxetine. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated down-regulation of 5-HT transporters ([(3)H]citalopram binding) and decreased functionality of 5-HT1A receptors (8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding) in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord in OB rats. Acute administration of fluoxetine (5-40 mg/kg i.p.) did not modify tail flick latencies in OB rats. However, chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day s.c., 14 days; osmotic minipumps) progressively attenuated OB-associated thermal hyperalgesia, and a total normalization of the nociceptive response was achieved at the end of the treatment with the antidepressant. In these animals, autoradiographic studies revealed further down-regulation of 5-HT transporters and normalization in the functionality of 5-HT1A receptors on the spinal cord. On the other hand, acute morphine (0.5-10 mg/kg s.c.) produced a similar analgesic effect in OB and sham and OB rats, and no changes were detected in the density ([(3)H]DAMGO binding) and functionality (DAMGO-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding) of spinal μ-opioid receptors in OB rats before and after chronic fluoxetine. Our findings demonstrate the participation of the spinal serotonergic system in the increased thermal nociception exhibited by the OB rat and the antinociceptive effect of chronic fluoxetine in this animal model of depression.

  14. Cellular and subcellular localization of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in rat nociceptive structures: physiological relevance.

    PubMed

    Reaux-Le Goazigo, Annabelle; Rivat, Cyril; Kitabgi, Patrick; Pohl, Michel; Melik Parsadaniantz, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    Initial studies implicated the chemokine CXC motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its cognate CXC motif receptor 4 (CXCR4) in pain modulation. However, there has been no description of the distribution, transport and axonal sorting of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in rat nociceptive structures, and their direct participation in nociception modulation has not been demonstrated. Here, we report that acute intrathecal administration of CXCL12 induced mechanical hypersensitivity in naive rats. This effect was prevented by a CXCR4-neutralizing antibody. To determine the morphological basis of this behavioural response, we used light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry to map CXCL12- and CXCR4-immunoreactive elements in dorsal root ganglia, lumbar spinal cord, sciatic nerve and skin. Light microscopy analysis revealed CXCL12 and CXCR4 immunoreactivity in calcitonin gene related peptide-containing peptidergic primary sensory neurons, which were both conveyed to central and peripheral sensory nerve terminals. Electron microscopy clearly demonstrated CXCL12 and CXCR4 immunoreactivity in primary sensory nerve terminals in the dorsal horn; both were sorted into small clear vesicles and large dense-core vesicles. This suggests that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are trafficked from nerve cell bodies to the dorsal horn. Double immunogold labelling for CXCL12 and calcitonin gene related peptide revealed partial vesicular colocalization in axonal terminals. We report, for the first time, that CXCR4 receptors are mainly located on the neuronal plasma membrane, where they are present at pre-synaptic and post-synaptic sites of central terminals. Receptor inactivation experiments, behavioural studies and morphological analyses provide strong evidence that the CXCL12/CXCR4 system is involved in modulation of nociceptive signalling.

  15. Activity-dependent dephosphorylation of paxillin contributed to nociceptive plasticity in spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Tai; Zheng, Rui; Suo, Zhan-Wei; Liu, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Zi-Yang; Ma, Zheng-An; Xue, Ye; Xue, Man; Yang, Xian; Hu, Xiao-Dong

    2016-03-01

    The enzymatic activity of protein tyrosine kinase Src is subjected to the regulation by C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Aberrant Src activation in the spinal cord dorsal horn is pivotal for the induction and development of nociceptive behavioral sensitization. In this study, we found that paxillin, one of the well-characterized cell adhesion components involved in cell migration and survival, integrated CSK and PTPs' signaling to regulate Src-dependent nociceptive plasticity. Paxillin localized at excitatory glutamatergic synapses in the spinal dorsal horn of mice, and the phosphorylation of Tyr118 on paxillin was necessary to associate with and target CSK at synapses. After peripheral tissue injury, the enhanced neuronal activity stimulated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype glutamate receptors, which initiated PTPs' signaling to catalyze Tyr118 dephosphorylation. The reduced Tyr118 phosphorylation disrupted paxillin interaction with CSK, leading to the dispersal of CSK out of synapses. With the loss of CSK-mediated inhibition, Src activity was persistently increased. The active Src potentiated the synaptic transmission specifically mediated by GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors. The active Src also facilitated the induction of long-term potentiation of C fiber-evoked field potentials and exaggerated painful responses. In complete Freund's adjuvant-injected mice, viral expression of phosphomimicking paxillin mutant to resume CSK synaptic localization repressed Src hyperactivity. Meanwhile, this phosphomimicking paxillin mutant blunted NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and alleviated chronic inflammatory pain. These data showed that PTPs-mediated dephosphorylation of paxillin at Tyr118 was involved in the modification of nociceptive plasticity through CSK-Src signaling.

  16. Understanding the mechanisms through which spatial attention acts on nociception.

    PubMed

    Torta, Diana M E

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that spatial attention can influence the magnitude of brain responses to nociceptive inputs. In their recent article (Franz M, Nickel MM, Ritter A, Miltner WH, Weiss T. J Neurophysiol 113: 2760-2768, 2015), Franz and colleagues expand this observation by showing that spatial attention is further able to modify the chronometry of nociceptive processing by modulating the latency and temporal jitter of the recorded responses. The mechanisms through which attention could possibly modulate nociceptive processing are discussed here, with a particular focus on novel findings and future perspectives.

  17. Altered Nociceptive Neuronal Circuits After Neonatal Peripheral Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, M. A.; Ling, Qing-Dong; Hohmann, Andrea G.; Peng, Yuan Bo; Tachibana, Toshiya

    2000-07-01

    Nociceptive neuronal circuits are formed during embryonic and postnatal times when painful stimuli are normally absent or limited. Today, medical procedures for neonates with health risks can involve tissue injury and pain for which the long-term effects are unknown. To investigate the impact of neonatal tissue injury and pain on development of nociceptive neuronal circuitry, we used an animal model of persistent hind paw peripheral inflammation. We found that, as adults, these animals exhibited spinal neuronal circuits with increased input and segmental changes in nociceptive primary afferent axons and altered responses to sensory stimulation.

  18. Neural Correlates of Stimulus Reportability

    PubMed Central

    Hulme, Oliver J.; Friston, Karl F.; Zeki, Semir

    2012-01-01

    Most experiments on the “neural correlates of consciousness” employ stimulus reportability as an operational definition of what is consciously perceived. The interpretation of such experiments therefore depends critically on understanding the neural basis of stimulus reportability. Using a high volume of fMRI data, we investigated the neural correlates of stimulus reportability using a partial report object detection paradigm. Subjects were presented with a random array of circularly arranged disc-stimuli and were cued, after variable delays (following stimulus offset), to report the presence or absence of a disc at the cued location, using variable motor actions. By uncoupling stimulus processing, decision, and motor response, we were able to use signal detection theory to deconstruct the neural basis of stimulus reportability. We show that retinotopically specific responses in the early visual cortex correlate with stimulus processing but not decision or report; a network of parietal/temporal regions correlates with decisions but not stimulus presence, whereas classical motor regions correlate with report. These findings provide a basic framework for understanding the neural basis of stimulus reportability without the theoretical burden of presupposing a relationship between reportability and consciousness. PMID:18823251

  19. Stimulus effects on local preference: stimulus-response contingencies, stimulus-food pairing, and stimulus-food correlation.

    PubMed

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a procedure in which concurrent-schedule food ratios changed unpredictably across seven unsignaled components after 10 food deliveries. Additional green-key stimulus presentations also occurred on the two alternatives, sometimes in the same ratio as the component food ratio, and sometimes in the inverse ratio. In eight experimental conditions, we varied the contingencies surrounding these additional stimuli: In two conditions, stimulus onset and offset were noncontingent; in another two, stimulus onset was noncontingent, and offset was response contingent. In four conditions, both stimulus onset and offset were contingent, and in two of these conditions the stimulus was simultaneously paired with food delivery. Sensitivity to component food ratios was significantly higher when stimulus onset was response contingent compared to when it was noncontingent. Choice changes following food delivery were similar in all eight conditions. Choice changes following stimuli were smaller than those following food, and directionally were completely determined by the food-ratio:stimulus-ratio correlation, not by the stimulus contingency nor by whether the stimulus was paired with food or not. These results support the idea that conditional reinforcers may best be viewed as signals for next-food location rather than as stimuli that have acquired hedonic value, at least when the signals are differential with respect to future conditions.

  20. Nociception and inflammatory hyperalgesia evaluated in rodents using infrared laser stimulation after Trpv1 gene knockout or resiniferatoxin lesion

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kendall; Lebovitz, Evan E.; Keller, Jason M.; Mannes, Andrew J.; Nemenov, Michael I.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    TRPV1 is expressed in a subpopulation of myelinated Aδ and unmyelinated C-fibers. TRPV1+ fibers are essential for the transmission of nociceptive thermal stimuli and for the establishment and maintenance of inflammatory hyperalgesia. We have previously shown that high-power, short-duration pulses from an infrared diode laser are capable of predominantly activating cutaneous TRPV1+ Aδ-fibers. Here we show that stimulating either subtype of TRPV1+ fiber in the paw during carrageenan-induced inflammation or following hind-paw incision elicits pronounced hyperalgesic responses, including prolonged paw guarding. The ultrapotent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) dose-dependently deactivates TRPV1+ fibers and blocks thermal nociceptive responses in baseline or inflamed conditions. Injecting sufficient doses of RTX peripherally renders animals unresponsive to laser stimulation even at the point of acute thermal skin damage. In contrast, Trpv1−/− mice, which are generally unresponsive to noxious thermal stimuli at lower power settings, exhibit withdrawal responses and inflammation-induced sensitization using high-power, short duration Aδ stimuli. In rats, systemic morphine suppresses paw withdrawal, inflammatory guarding, and hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent fashion using the same Aδ stimuli. The qualitative intensity of Aδ responses, the leftward shift of the stimulus-response curve, the increased guarding behaviors during carrageenan inflammation or after incision, and the reduction of Aδ responses with morphine suggest multiple roles for TRPV1+ Aδ fibers in nociceptive processes and their modulation of pathological pain conditions. PMID:24434730

  1. Steady-state evoked potentials to study the processing of tactile and nociceptive somatosensory input in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Colon, E; Legrain, V; Mouraux, A

    2012-10-01

    The periodic presentation of a sensory stimulus induces, at certain frequencies of stimulation, a sustained electroencephalographic response of corresponding frequency, known as steady-state evoked potentials (SS-EP). In visual, auditory and vibrotactile modalities, studies have shown that SS-EP reflect mainly activity originating from early, modality-specific sensory cortices. Furthermore, it has been shown that SS-EP have several advantages over the recording of transient event-related brain potentials (ERP), such as a high signal-to-noise ratio, a shorter time to obtain reliable signals, and the capacity to frequency-tag the cortical activity elicited by concurrently presented sensory stimuli. Recently, we showed that SS-EP can be elicited by the selective activation of skin nociceptors and that nociceptive SS-EP reflect the activity of a population of neurons that is spatially distinct from the somatotopically-organized population of neurons underlying vibrotactile SS-EP. Hence, the recording of SS-EP offers a unique opportunity to study the cortical representation of nociception and touch in humans, and to explore their potential crossmodal interactions. Here, (1) we review available methods to achieve the rapid periodic stimulation of somatosensory afferents required to elicit SS-EP, (2) review previous studies that have characterized vibrotactile and nociceptive SS-EP, (3) discuss the nature of the recorded signals and their relationship with transient event-related potentials and (4) outline future perspectives and potential clinical applications of this technique.

  2. The ankyrin repeat domain of the TRPA protein painless is important for thermal nociception but not mechanical nociception.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Richard Y; Stearns, Nancy A; Tracey, W Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila TRPA channel Painless is required for the function of polymodal nociceptors which detect noxious heat and noxious mechanical stimuli. These functions of Painless are reminiscent of mammalian TRPA channels that have also been implicated in thermal and mechanical nociception. A popular hypothesis to explain the mechanosensory functions of certain TRP channels proposes that a string of ankyrin repeats at the amino termini of these channels acts as an intracellular spring that senses force. Here, we describe the identification of two previously unknown Painless protein isoforms which have fewer ankyrin repeats than the canonical Painless protein. We show that one of these Painless isoforms, that essentially lacks ankyrin repeats, is sufficient to rescue mechanical nociception phenotypes of painless mutant animals but does not rescue thermal nociception phenotypes. In contrast, canonical Painless, which contains Ankyrin repeats, is sufficient to largely rescue thermal nociception but is not capable of rescuing mechanical nociception. Thus, we propose that in the case of Painless, ankryin repeats are important for thermal nociception but not for mechanical nociception.

  3. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice…

  4. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice…

  5. Shaping visual space perception through bodily sensations: Testing the impact of nociceptive stimuli on visual perception in peripersonal space with temporal order judgments

    PubMed Central

    Filbrich, Lieve; Alamia, Andrea; Blandiaux, Séverine; Burns, Soline; Legrain, Valéry

    2017-01-01

    Coordinating spatial perception between body space and its external surrounding space is essential to adapt behaviors to objects, especially when they are noxious. Such coherent multisensory representation of the body extended into external space is conceptualized by the notion of peripersonal reference frame, mapping the portion of space in which somatic and extra-somatic inputs interact closely. Studies on crossmodal interactions between nociception and vision have been scarce. Here we investigated how the perception of visual stimuli, especially those surrounding the body, can be impacted by a nociceptive and potentially harmful stimulus inflicted on a particular body part. In two temporal order judgment tasks, participants judged which of two lateralized visual stimuli, presented either near or far from the body, had been presented first. Visual stimuli were preceded by nociceptive stimuli, either applied unilaterally (on one single hand) or bilaterally (on both hands simultaneously). In Experiment 1 participants’ hands were always placed next to the visual stimuli presented near the trunk, while in Experiment 2 they could also be placed next to the visual stimuli presented far from the trunk. In Experiment 1, the presence of unilateral nociceptive stimuli prioritized the perception of visual stimuli presented in the same side of space as the stimulated hand, with a significantly larger effect when visual stimuli were presented near the body than when presented farther away. Experiment 2 showed that these visuospatial biases were related to the spatial congruency between the hand on which nociceptive stimuli were applied and the visual stimuli, independently of the relative distance of both the stimulated hand and the visual stimuli from the trunk. Indeed, nociceptive stimuli mostly impacted the perception of the closest visual stimuli. It is hypothesized that these crossmodal interactions may rely on representations of the space directly surrounding specific

  6. Increased Brain Neurotensin and NTSR2 Lead to Weak Nociception in NTSR3/Sortilin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Devader, Christelle; Moreno, Sébastien; Roulot, Morgane; Deval, Emmanuel; Dix, Thomas; Morales, Carlos R.; Mazella, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) elicits numerous pharmacological effects through three different receptors (NTSR1, NTSR2, and NTSR3 also called sortilin). Pharmacological approaches and generation of NTSR1 and NTSR2-deficient mice allowed to determine the NT-induced antipsychotic like behavior, the inhibitory of weak fear memory and the nociceptive signaling in a rat formalin tonic pain model to NTSR1. Conversely, the effects of NT on thermal and tonic nociceptions were mediated by NTSR2. However, the role of NTSR3/sortilin on the neurotensinergic system was not investigated. Here, by using C57Bl/6J mouse model in which the gene coding for NTSR3/sortilin has been inactivated, we observed a modification of the expression of both NTSR2 and NT itself. Quantitative PCR and protein expression using Western blot analyses and AlphaLisa™ technology resulted in the observation that brain NTSR2 as well as brain and blood NT were 2-fold increased in KO mice leading to a resistance of these mice to thermal and chemical pain. These data confirm that NTSR3/sortilin interacts with other NT receptors (i.e., NTSR2) and that its deletion modifies also the affinity of this receptor to NT. PMID:27932946

  7. Gene expression profiling of melanocortin system in neuropathic rats supports a role in nociception.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Massimiliano; Campanella, Marilena; Tarozzo, Glauco; Fredduzzi, Silva; Corradini, Laura; Forlani, Angelo; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Reggiani, Angelo

    2003-10-21

    The melanocortin (MC) system is involved in several biological functions. Its possible role in nociception has recently attracted attention in the field. Published data suggest that melanocortin antagonists are analgesic and agonists are hyperalgesic. Gene expression information about the MC system components (receptor, agonist and antagonist) in pain relevant areas is at present limited. To deepen our knowledge, we studied the expression of MC system components in nai;ve, sham and neuropathic rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. MC4 receptor, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) transcripts were detected in both spinal cord and DRG, whereas MC3 receptor was detected only in the spinal cord. To study the relationship between the MC system and chronic pain, we used the chronic constriction injury model and gene expression analysis was performed in rats showing both tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. MC4 and POMC transcript were upregulated in the spinal cord of neuropathic rats, whereas MC3 and AgRP expression were unaffected. Thus, this study demonstrates for the first time the presence of AgRP in the spinal cord and DRG, suggesting that it could play a role in the regulation of MC system activity. In addition, the upregulation of POMC and MC4, in parallel with the presence of tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, further supports the idea of MC system involvement in nociception.

  8. Inhibition of nociceptive responses after systemic administration of amidated kyotorphin

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, MMB; Pinto, A; Pinto, M; Heras, M; Martins, I; Correia, A; Bardaji, E; Tavares, I; Castanho, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Kyotorphin (KTP; L-Tyr-L-Arg), an endogenous neuropeptide, is potently analgesic when delivered directly to the central nervous system. Its weak analgesic effects after systemic administration have been explained by inability to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and detract from the possible clinical use of KTP as an analgesic. In this study, we aimed to increase the lipophilicity of KTP by amidation and to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of a new KTP derivative (KTP-amide – KTP-NH2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We synthesized KTP-NH2. This peptide was given systemically to assess its ability to cross the BBB. A wide range of pain models, including acute, sustained and chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain, were used to characterize analgesic efficacies of KTP-NH2. Binding to opioid receptors and toxicity were also measured. KEY RESULTS KTP-NH2, unlike its precursor KTP, was lipophilic and highly analgesic following systemic administration in several acute and chronic pain models, without inducing toxic effects or affecting motor responses and blood pressure. Binding to opioid receptors was minimal. KTP-NH2 inhibited nociceptive responses of spinal neurons. Its analgesic effects were prevented by intrathecal or i.p. administration of naloxone. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Amidation allowed KTP to show good analgesic ability after systemic delivery in acute and chronic pain models. The indirect opioid-mediated actions of KTP-NH2 may explain why this compound retained its analgesic effects although the usual side effects of opioids were absent, which is a desired feature in next-generation pain medications. PMID:21366550

  9. Inhibition of nociceptive responses after systemic administration of amidated kyotorphin.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M M B; Pinto, A; Pinto, M; Heras, M; Martins, I; Correia, A; Bardaji, E; Tavares, I; Castanho, M

    2011-07-01

    Kyotorphin (KTP; L-Tyr-L-Arg), an endogenous neuropeptide, is potently analgesic when delivered directly to the central nervous system. Its weak analgesic effects after systemic administration have been explained by inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and detract from the possible clinical use of KTP as an analgesic. In this study, we aimed to increase the lipophilicity of KTP by amidation and to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of a new KTP derivative (KTP-amide - KTP-NH(2) ). We synthesized KTP-NH(2) . This peptide was given systemically to assess its ability to cross the BBB. A wide range of pain models, including acute, sustained and chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain, were used to characterize analgesic efficacies of KTP-NH(2) . Binding to opioid receptors and toxicity were also measured. KTP-NH(2) , unlike its precursor KTP, was lipophilic and highly analgesic following systemic administration in several acute and chronic pain models, without inducing toxic effects or affecting motor responses and blood pressure. Binding to opioid receptors was minimal. KTP-NH(2) inhibited nociceptive responses of spinal neurons. Its analgesic effects were prevented by intrathecal or i.p. administration of naloxone. Amidation allowed KTP to show good analgesic ability after systemic delivery in acute and chronic pain models. The indirect opioid-mediated actions of KTP-NH(2) may explain why this compound retained its analgesic effects although the usual side effects of opioids were absent, which is a desired feature in next-generation pain medications. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Correlations among stimuli affect stimulus matching and stimulus liking.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Dióghenes; Tonneau, François

    2016-09-01

    Human subjects were exposed to AB, AC stimulus pairs and then to matching-to-sample tests of stimulus equivalence (B-A, C-A, B-C, C-B) or to a task in which stimulus compounds (BA, CA, BC, CB) were rated for attractiveness. Matching-to-sample tests revealed emergent B-A, C-A, B-C, and C-B choices, replicating previous results in the literature. The mean proportion of correct, emergent choices increased as a function of exposure to the AB, AC pairs. On the rating task, the liking scores of all stimulus compounds also increased as a function of exposure to the AB, AC pairs. After limited exposure to these pairs, however, the liking scores of the BC and CB compounds were negative. These findings are discussed in relation to perceptual and associative perspectives on the behavioral effects of stimulus correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Peripheral and Central Determinants of a Nociceptive Reaction: An Approach to Psychophysics in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, Kay; Plaghki, Léon; Le Bars, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Background The quantitative end-point for many behavioral tests of nociception is the reaction time, i.e. the time lapse between the beginning of the application of a stimulus, e.g. heat, and the evoked response. Since it is technically impossible to heat the skin instantaneously by conventional means, the question of the significance of the reaction time to radiant heat remains open. We developed a theoretical framework, a related experimental paradigm and a model to analyze in psychophysical terms the “tail-flick” responses of rats to random variations of noxious radiant heat. Methodology/Principal Findings A CO2 laser was used to avoid the drawbacks associated with standard methods of thermal stimulation. Heating of the skin was recorded with an infrared camera and was stopped by the reaction of the animal. For the first time, we define and determine two key descriptors of the behavioral response, namely the behavioral threshold (Tβ) and the behavioral latency (Lβ). By employing more than one site of stimulation, the paradigm allows determination of the conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers that trigger the response (V) and an estimation of the latency (Ld) of the central decision-making process. Ld (∼130 ms) is unaffected by ambient or skin temperature changes that affect the behavioral threshold (∼42.2–44.9°C in the 20–30°C range), behavioral latency (<500 ms), and the conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers that trigger the response (∼0.35–0.76 m/s in the 20–30°C range). We propose a simple model that is verified experimentally and that computes the variations in the so-called “tail-flick latency” (TFL) caused by changes in either the power of the radiant heat source, the initial temperature of the skin, or the site of stimulation along the tail. Conclusions/Significance This approach enables the behavioral determinations of latent psychophysical (Tβ, Lβ, Ld) and neurophysiological (V) variables that have been

  12. Inhibition of acute nociceptive responses in rats after i.c.v. injection of Thr6-bradykinin, isolated from the venom of the social wasp, Polybia occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Mortari, M R; Cunha, A O S; Carolino, R O G; Coutinho-Netto, J; Tomaz, J C; Lopes, N P; Coimbra, N C; Dos Santos, W F

    2007-07-01

    In this work, a neuroactive peptide from the venom of the neotropical wasp Polybia occidentalis was isolated and its anti-nociceptive effects were characterized in well-established pain induction models. Wasp venom was analysed by reverse-phase HPLC and fractions screened for anti-nociceptive activity. The structure of the most active fraction was identified by electron-spray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and it was further assessed in two tests of anti-nociceptive activity in rats: the hot plate and tail flick tests. The most active fraction contained a peptide whose structure was Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Thr-Pro-Phe-Arg-OH, which corresponds to that of Thr(6)-BK, a bradykinin analogue. This peptide was given by i.c.v. injection to rats. In the tail flick test, Thr(6)-BK induced anti-nociceptive effects, approximately twice as potent as either morphine or bradykinin also given i.c.v. The anti-nociceptive activity of Thr(6)-BK peaked at 30 min after injection and persisted for 2 h, longer than bradykinin. The primary mode of action of Thr(6)-BK involved the activation of B(2) bradykinin receptors, as anti-nociceptive effects of Thr(6)-BK were antagonized by a selective B(2) receptor antagonist. Our data indicate that Thr(6)-BK acts through B(2) bradykinin receptors in the mammalian CNS, evoking antinociceptive behaviour. This activity is remarkably different from that of bradykinin, despite the structural similarities between both peptides. In addition, due to the increased metabolic stability of Thr(6)-BK, relative to that of bradykinin, this peptide could provide a novel tool in the investigation of kinin pathways involved with pain.

  13. Heat-evoked vasodilatation in human hairy skin: axon reflexes due to low-level activity of nociceptive afferents.

    PubMed Central

    Magerl, W; Treede, R D

    1996-01-01

    1. Spreading vasodilatation of the axon reflex type was evoked by contact heat stimulation of the hairy skin in the human forearm (13.3 cm2 stimulus area) and was detected by laser Doppler flowmetry at 8, 19 and 30 mm distance. 2. From a base temperature of 35 degrees C, rapidly rising short heat stimuli (4 degrees C s-1, 2 s plateau) elicited vasodilatation at an average threshold of 39.4 degrees C. For slowly rising sustained heat stimuli (64 s duration) the average threshold was 39.6 degrees C (n.s.) Laser Doppler flowmetry revealed a rapid onset within about 4 s, a long duration of several minutes beyond the end of the stimulus, and a rapid spread of vasodilatation to remote skin areas. These characteristics are typical for vasodilatation by an axon reflex of nociceptive afferents. 3. Axon reflex thresholds matched the lower range of C fibre nociceptor heat thresholds. Thermal stimuli that were adjusted to elicit about half-maximal phasic responses in warm fibres (steps from 30 to 35 degrees C), but were below the range of C fibre nociceptor thresholds, did not cause any vasodilatation. 4. Pain thresholds were higher than axon reflex thresholds for both rapidly and slowly rising heat stimuli and strongly depended on the stimulus pattern (40.1 degrees C for rapidly rising stimuli and > 43 degrees C for slowly rising stimuli). This observation is consistent with recent reports that the phasic response of nociceptive afferents is essential to overcome the summation requirements at central synapses. 5. In conclusion, axon reflex vasodilatation in response to heat stimuli in the hairy skin of humans is elicited by activation of heat-sensitive nociceptors, even in the absence of a conscious perception of heat pain. The dissociation of pain and vasodilatation thresholds supports the concept of two operating ranges of primary nociceptive afferents. Warm fibres do not contribute to axon reflex vasodilatation in the hairy skin of the human forearm. Release of vasoactive

  14. Stimulus control and associative learning.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B A

    1984-01-01

    Interest in operant research on stimulus control has declined at the same time that much interest has burgeoned in nonoperant areas. Several examples of this shift toward traditional learning theory are considered, all of which have sponsored theoretical approaches that attempt to characterize the underlying associative units. These theoretical approaches are defended on the grounds that they have generated a deeper understanding of a variety of often puzzling phenomena. My projection is that future research will be determined even more strongly by theories about the structure of associations. Particular issues for which such discussion will have major impact include (1) whether conditional stimulus control is qualitatively different than simpler forms of stimulus control, (2) whether stimulus control is organized hierarchically, and (3) the origin of categories of stimulus equivalence. PMID:6520579

  15. Enhanced Chronic Pain Management Utilizing Chemokine Receptor Antagonists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    treatment; Analgesia; Nociception; Antinociception; Inflammation ; Chemokines; Chemokine receptor antagonists; Opioid analgesics; Animal models of pain...multiplex quantitative analysis of protein levels of these molecules. 2. KEYWORDS: Pain treatment; Analgesia; Nociception; Antinociception; Inflammation ...with a circulating water bath (Model 9500, Fisher Scientific; Pittsburgh, PA). Rats were held over the bath with their tails submerged

  16. Intra-neural electrical stimulation of cutaneous nociceptive fibres in humans: effects of different pulse patterns on magnitude of pain.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, L E; Jørum, E; Holm, E; Torebjörk, H E

    1992-09-01

    A study was performed to elucidate how different impulse frequencies and impulse patterns in cutaneous nociceptive fibres influence the subjective magnitude of pain. Groups of nociceptive A delta and C fibres were co-activated by electrical intraneural stimulation at constant intensity in cutaneous fascicles of the peroneal nerve in healthy human subjects. The resulting pain sensations were rated on a modified visual analogue scale. Five-second trains were administered randomly at irregular intervals of at least 30 s. Five of the stimulus patterns had regular interpulse intervals, corresponding to frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 10 and 15 Hz, and three other patterns were constructed to mimic to some extent the initially phasic and subsequently slowly adapting discharge patterns which may be encountered in recordings from human nociceptors. The results from these experiments using stimulation frequencies within physiological discharge ranges for human nociceptors indicate that the subjective magnitude of pain increases monotonously as a function of stimulus frequency, and that patterns mimicking nociceptor discharges in response to natural stimuli give rise to greater peak magnitudes of pain than artificial regular patterns with a corresponding number of impulses.

  17. Heterosynaptic long-term depression of craniofacial nociception: divergent effects on pain perception and blink reflex in man.

    PubMed

    Yekta, Sareh Said; Lamp, Susanne; Ellrich, Jens

    2006-04-01

    Noxious low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of presynaptic nerve fibers induces long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission. In vitro studies suggest a sole homosynaptic effect. Consequently, the present study addressed the hypothesis that LTD of craniofacial nociception in man is mediated by a homosynaptic mechanism. Nociceptive supraorbital afferents were excited by electric pulses via a concentric electrode in ten healthy volunteers. The electrically evoked bilateral blink reflex (BR) was recorded from both orbicularis oculi muscles by surface electrodes. The BR was evoked in blocks of ten electric stimuli each (0.1 Hz) with an interblock interval of 8 min. Conditioning noxious LFS (1 Hz, 20 min) was applied via concentric electrode either to the same site as BR test stimuli (ipsilateral) or to the corresponding contralateral forehead area (contralateral). LFS and test stimulus intensities corresponded to about threefold the pain threshold. After three baseline stimulus blocks, either conditioning ipsilateral or contralateral LFS were applied or stimulation was interrupted for 20 min as a control task. Afterwards, test stimulation blocks were continued for 40 min. Each volunteer participated in all three sessions on different days. Noxious LFS induced LTD of the BR independently from the side of conditioning stimulation. Pain perception decreased after ipsilateral LFS but not after contralateral LFS. The bilateral effect of noxious LFS on the BR provides evidence for heterosynaptic LTD based on bilateral projections of supraorbital nerve afferents onto spinal trigeminal nuclei. The divergent effect on pain perception may be due to a preferential contralateral projection of nociceptive afferents onto reflex interneurons but not onto trigeminothalamic projection neurons.

  18. Psilocybin-induced stimulus control in the rat.

    PubMed

    Winter, J C; Rice, K C; Amorosi, D J; Rabin, R A

    2007-10-01

    Although psilocybin has been trained in the rat as a discriminative stimulus, little is known of the pharmacological receptors essential for stimulus control. In the present investigation rats were trained with psilocybin and tests were then conducted employing a series of other hallucinogens and presumed antagonists. An intermediate degree of antagonism of psilocybin was observed following treatment with the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, M100907. In contrast, no significant antagonism was observed following treatment with the 5-HT(1A/7) receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, or the DA D(2) antagonist, remoxipride. Psilocybin generalized fully to DOM, LSD, psilocin, and, in the presence of WAY-100635, DMT while partial generalization was seen to 2C-T-7 and mescaline. LSD and MDMA partially generalized to psilocybin and these effects were completely blocked by M-100907; no generalization of PCP to psilocybin was seen. The present data suggest that psilocybin induces a compound stimulus in which activity at the 5-HT(2A) receptor plays a prominent but incomplete role. In addition, psilocybin differs from closely related hallucinogens such as 5-MeO-DMT in that agonism at 5-HT(1A) receptors appears to play no role in psilocybin-induced stimulus control.

  19. Psilocybin-induced stimulus control in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Winter, J.C.; Rice, K.C.; Amorosi, D.J.; Rabin, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Although psilocybin has been trained in the rat as a discriminative stimulus, little is known of the pharmacological receptors essential for stimulus control. In the present investigation rats were trained with psilocybin and tests were then conducted employing a series of other hallucinogens and presumed antagonists. An intermediate degree of antagonism of psilocybin was observed following treatment with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907. In contrast, no significant antagonism was observed following treatment with the 5-HT1A/7 receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, or the DA D2 antagonist, remoxipride. Psilocybin generalized fully to DOM, LSD, psilocin, and, in the presence of WAY-100635, DMT while partial generalization was seen to 2C-T-7 and mescaline. LSD and MDMA partially generalized to psilocybin and these effects were completely blocked by M-100907; no generalization of PCP to psilocybin was seen. The present data suggest that psilocybin induces a compound stimulus in which activity at the 5-HT2A receptor plays a prominent but incomplete role. In addition, psilocybin differs from closely related hallucinogens such as 5-MeO-DMT in that agonism at 5-HT1A receptors appears to play no role in psilocybin-induced stimulus control. PMID:17688928

  20. Learned control over spinal nociception reduces supraspinal nociception as quantified by late somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Bäumler, Maximilian; Feller, Moritz; Krafft, Stefanie; Sommer, Jens; Straube, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We have recently shown that subjects can learn to use cognitive-emotional strategies to suppress their spinal nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex) under visual RIII feedback and proposed that this reflects learned activation of descending pain inhibition. Here, we investigated whether learned RIII suppression also affects supraspinal nociception and whether previous relaxation training increases success. Subjects were trained over 3 sessions to reduce their RIII size by self-selected cognitive-emotional strategies. Two groups received true RIII feedback (with or without previous relaxation training) and a sham group received false feedback (15 subjects per group). RIII reflexes, late somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and F-waves were recorded and pain intensity ratings collected. Both true feedback groups achieved significant (P < 0.01) but similar RIII suppression (to 79% ± 21% and 70% ± 17% of control). Somatosensory evoked potential amplitude (100-150 milliseconds after stimulation) was reduced in parallel with the RIII size (r = 0.57, P < 0.01). In the sham group, neither RIII size nor SEP amplitude was significantly reduced during feedback training. Pain intensity was significantly reduced in all 3 groups and also correlated with RIII reduction (r = 0.44, P < 0.01). F-wave parameters were not affected during RIII suppression. The present results show that learned RIII suppression also affects supraspinal nociception as quantified by SEPs, although effects on pain ratings were less clear. Lower motor neuron excitability as quantified by F-waves was not affected. Previous relaxation training did not significantly improve RIII feedback training success.

  1. Effects of Anethole in Nociception Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Ames, Franciele Queiroz; Otani, Fernando; de Oliveira, Rubia Maria Weffort; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antinociceptive activity of anethole (anethole 1-methoxy-4-benzene (1-propenyl)), major compound of the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum), in different experimental models of nociception. The animals were pretreated with anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) one hour before the experiments. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of anethole, the open field test was conducted. Anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) showed an antinociceptive effect in the writhing model induced by acetic acid, in the second phase of the formalin test (125 and 250 mg/kg) in the test of glutamate (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg), and expresses pain induced by ACF (250 mg/kg). In contrast, anethole was not able to increase the latency time on the hot plate and decrease the number of flinches during the initial phase of the formalin test in any of the doses tested. It was also demonstrated that anethole has no association with sedative effects. Therefore, these data showed that anethole, at all used doses, has no sedative effect and has an antinociceptive effect. This effect may be due to a decrease in the production/release of inflammatory mediators. PMID:25506382

  2. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Nociception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Takahiro; Adams, David J.

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are a large and functionally diverse group of membrane ion channels ubiquitously expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. VGCCs contribute to various physiological processes and transduce electrical activity into other cellular functions. This chapter provides an overview of biophysical properties of VGCCs, including regulation by auxiliary subunits, and their physiological role in neuronal functions. Subsequently, then we focus on N-type calcium (Cav2.2) channels, in particular their diversity and specific antagonists. We also discuss the role of N-type calcium channels in nociception and pain transmission through primary sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons (nociceptors). It has been shown that these channels are expressed predominantly in nerve terminals of the nociceptors and that they control neurotransmitter release. To date, important roles of N-type calcium channels in pain sensation have been elucidated genetically and pharmacologically, indicating that specific N-type calcium channel antagonists or modulators are particularly useful as therapeutic drugs targeting chronic and neuropathic pain.

  3. Effects of anethole in nociception experimental models.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Ames, Franciele Queiroz; Otani, Fernando; de Oliveira, Rubia Maria Weffort; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antinociceptive activity of anethole (anethole 1-methoxy-4-benzene (1-propenyl)), major compound of the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum), in different experimental models of nociception. The animals were pretreated with anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) one hour before the experiments. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of anethole, the open field test was conducted. Anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) showed an antinociceptive effect in the writhing model induced by acetic acid, in the second phase of the formalin test (125 and 250 mg/kg) in the test of glutamate (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg), and expresses pain induced by ACF (250 mg/kg). In contrast, anethole was not able to increase the latency time on the hot plate and decrease the number of flinches during the initial phase of the formalin test in any of the doses tested. It was also demonstrated that anethole has no association with sedative effects. Therefore, these data showed that anethole, at all used doses, has no sedative effect and has an antinociceptive effect. This effect may be due to a decrease in the production/release of inflammatory mediators.

  4. Persistent inflammatory pain decreases the antinociceptive effects of the mu opioid receptor agonist DAMGO in the locus coeruleus of male rats.

    PubMed

    Jongeling, Amy C; Johns, Malcolm E; Murphy, Anne Z; Hammond, Donna L

    2009-01-01

    Persistent inflammatory nociception increases levels of endogenous opioids with affinity for delta opioid receptors in the ventromedial medulla and enhances the antinociceptive effects of the mu opioid receptor (MOPr) agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) [Hurley, R.W., Hammond, D.L., 2001. Contribution of endogenous enkephalins to the enhanced analgesic effects of supraspinal mu opioid receptor agonists after inflammatory injury. J. Neurosci. 21, 2536-2545]. It also increases levels of endogenous opioids that act at MOPr elsewhere in the CNS [Zangen, A., Herzberg, U., Vogel, Z., Yadid, G., 1998. Nociceptive stimulus induces release of endogenous beta-endorphin in the rat brain. Neuroscience 85, 659-662]. This study tested the hypothesis that a sustained release of endogenous opioids leads to a downregulation of MOPr in the locus coeruleus (LC) and induces a state of endogenous opioid tolerance. Four days after injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the left hindpaw of the rat, both the magnitude and duration of the antinociception produced by microinjection of DAMGO in the right LC were reduced. Saturation isotherms demonstrated a 50% decrease in MOPr B(max) in homogenates of the LC from CFA-treated rats; K(d) was unchanged. Receptor autoradiography revealed that this decrease was bilateral. The decreased efficacy of DAMGO in CFA-treated rats most likely results from a decreased number of MOPr in the LC. Microinjection of the MOPr antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP) in the LC did not exacerbate hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hindpaw or produce hyperalgesia in the contralateral hindpaw of CFA-treated rats. The downregulation in MOPr is therefore unlikely to result from the induction of endogenous opioid tolerance in the LC. These results indicate that persistent inflammatory nociception alters the antinociceptive actions of MOPr agonists in the CNS by diverse mechanisms that are nucleus specific and likely to have

  5. Understanding smell--the olfactory stimulus problem.

    PubMed

    Auffarth, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. The core questions in olfaction are hence the so-called stimulus problem, which refers to the understanding of the stimulus, and the structure-activity and structure-odor relationships, which refer to the molecular basis of smell. It is widely accepted that the recognition of odorants by receptors is governed by the detection of physico-chemical properties and that the physical space is highly complex. Not surprisingly, ideas differ about how odor stimuli should be classified and about the very nature of information that the brain extracts from odors. Even though there are many measures for smell, there is none that accurately describes all aspects of it. Here, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of olfaction. We argue that an approach to olfactory function where information processing is emphasized could contribute to a high degree to our understanding of smell as a perceptual phenomenon emerging from neural computations. Further, we argue that combined analysis of the stimulus, biology, physiology, and behavior and perception can provide new insights into olfactory function. We hope that the reader can use this review as a competent guide and overview of research activities in olfactory physiology, psychophysics, computation, and psychology. We propose avenues for research, particularly in the systematic characterization of receptive fields and of perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of endogenous molecules in modulating pain through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1).

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Simon, Sidney A; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    Pain is a physiological response to a noxious stimulus that decreases the quality of life of those sufferring from it. Research aimed at finding new therapeutic targets for the treatment of several maladies, including pain, has led to the discovery of numerous molecular regulators of ion channels in primary afferent nociceptive neurons. Among these receptors is TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), a member of the TRP family of ion channels. TRPV1 is a calcium-permeable channel, which is activated or modulated by diverse exogenous noxious stimuli such as high temperatures, changes in pH, and irritant and pungent compounds, and by selected molecules released during tissue damage and inflammatory processes. During the last decade the number of endogenous regulators of TRPV1's activity has increased to include lipids that can negatively regulate TRPV1, as is the case for cholesterol and PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate) while, in contrast, other lipids produced in response to tissue injury and ischaemic processes are known to positively regulate TRPV1. Among the latter, lysophosphatidic acid activates TRPV1 while amines such as N-acyl-ethanolamines and N-acyl-dopamines can sensitize or directly activate TRPV1. It has also been found that nucleotides such as ATP act as mediators of chemically induced nociception and pain and gases, such as hydrogen sulphide and nitric oxide, lead to TRPV1 activation. Finally, the products of lipoxygenases and omega-3 fatty acids among other molecules, such as divalent cations, have also been shown to endogenously regulate TRPV1 activity. Here we provide a comprehensive review of endogenous small molecules that regulate the function of TRPV1. Acting through mechanisms that lead to sensitization and desensitization of TRPV1, these molecules regulate pathways involved in pain and nociception. Understanding how these compounds modify TRPV1 activity will allow us to comprehend how some pathologies are associated with

  7. The role of endogenous molecules in modulating pain through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Simon, Sidney A; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Pain is a physiological response to a noxious stimulus that decreases the quality of life of those sufferring from it. Research aimed at finding new therapeutic targets for the treatment of several maladies, including pain, has led to the discovery of numerous molecular regulators of ion channels in primary afferent nociceptive neurons. Among these receptors is TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), a member of the TRP family of ion channels. TRPV1 is a calcium-permeable channel, which is activated or modulated by diverse exogenous noxious stimuli such as high temperatures, changes in pH, and irritant and pungent compounds, and by selected molecules released during tissue damage and inflammatory processes. During the last decade the number of endogenous regulators of TRPV1's activity has increased to include lipids that can negatively regulate TRPV1, as is the case for cholesterol and PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate) while, in contrast, other lipids produced in response to tissue injury and ischaemic processes are known to positively regulate TRPV1. Among the latter, lysophosphatidic acid activates TRPV1 while amines such as N-acyl-ethanolamines and N-acyl-dopamines can sensitize or directly activate TRPV1. It has also been found that nucleotides such as ATP act as mediators of chemically induced nociception and pain and gases, such as hydrogen sulphide and nitric oxide, lead to TRPV1 activation. Finally, the products of lipoxygenases and omega-3 fatty acids among other molecules, such as divalent cations, have also been shown to endogenously regulate TRPV1 activity. Here we provide a comprehensive review of endogenous small molecules that regulate the function of TRPV1. Acting through mechanisms that lead to sensitization and desensitization of TRPV1, these molecules regulate pathways involved in pain and nociception. Understanding how these compounds modify TRPV1 activity will allow us to comprehend how some pathologies are associated with

  8. Interferon alpha inhibits spinal cord synaptic and nociceptive transmission via neuronal-glial interactions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chien-Cheng; Gao, Yong-Jing; Luo, Hao; Berta, Temugin; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Ji, Ru-Rong; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that interferons (IFNs), such as type-I IFN (IFN-α) and type-II IFN (IFN-γ) are produced by immune cells to elicit antiviral effects. IFNs are also produced by glial cells in the CNS to regulate brain functions. As a proinflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ drives neuropathic pain by inducing microglial activation in the spinal cord. However, little is known about the role of IFN-α in regulating pain sensitivity and synaptic transmission. Strikingly, we found that IFN-α/β receptor (type-I IFN receptor) was expressed by primary afferent terminals in the superficial dorsal horn that co-expressed the neuropeptide CGRP. In the spinal cord IFN-α was primarily expressed by astrocytes. Perfusion of spinal cord slices with IFN-α suppressed excitatory synaptic transmission by reducing the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSCs). IFN-α also inhibited nociceptive transmission by reducing capsaicin-induced internalization of NK-1 and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in superficial dorsal horn neurons. Finally, spinal (intrathecal) administration of IFN-α reduced inflammatory pain and increased pain threshold in naïve rats, whereas removal of endogenous IFN-α by a neutralizing antibody induced hyperalgesia. Our findings suggest a new form of neuronal-glial interaction by which IFN-α, produced by astrocytes, inhibits nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. PMID:27670299

  9. Melatonin reduces formalin-induced nociception and tactile allodynia in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Arreola-Espino, Rosaura; Urquiza-Marín, Héctor; Ambriz-Tututi, Mónica; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia Ivonne; Caram-Salas, Nadia L; Rocha-González, Héctor I; Mixcoatl-Zecuatl, Teresa; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2007-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to assess the antinociceptive and antiallodynic effect of melatonin as well as its possible mechanism of action in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) injection caused hyperglycemia within 1 week. Formalin-evoked flinching was increased in diabetic rats as compared to non-diabetic rats. Oral administration of melatonin (10-300 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced flinching behavior in diabetic rats. In addition, K-185 (a melatonin MT(2) receptor antagonist, 0.2-2 mg/kg, s.c.) completely blocked the melatonin-induced antinociception in diabetic rats, whereas that naltrexone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, s.c.) and naltrindole (a selective delta opioid receptor antagonist, 0.5 mg/kg, s.c.), but not 5'-guanidinonaltrindole (a selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, s.c.), partially reduced the antinociceptive effect of melatonin. Given alone K-185, naltrexone, naltrindole or 5'-guanidinonaltrindole did not modify formalin-induced nociception in diabetic rats. Four to 8 weeks after diabetes induction, tactile allodynia was observed in the streptozotocin-injected rats. On this condition, oral administration of melatonin (75-300 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced tactile allodynia in diabetic rats. Both antinociceptive and antiallodynic effects were not related to motor changes as melatonin did not modify number of falls in the rotarod test. Results indicate that melatonin is able to reduce formalin-induced nociception and tactile allodynia in streptozotocin-injected rats. In addition, data suggest that melatonin MT(2) and delta opioid receptors may play an important role in these effects.

  10. Teleantagonism: A pharmacodynamic property of the primary nociceptive neuron

    PubMed Central

    Funez, Mani I.; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Duarte, Djane B.; Sachs, Daniela; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Lorenzetti, Berenice B.; Parada, Carlos A.; Ferreira, Sérgio H.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work from our group showed that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of substances such as glutamate, NMDA, or PGE2 induced sensitization of the primary nociceptive neuron (PNN hypernociception) that was inhibited by a distal intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of either morphine or dipyrone. This pharmacodynamic phenomenon is referred to in the present work as “teleantagonism”. We previously observed that the antinociceptive effect of i.t. morphine could be blocked by injecting inhibitors of the NO signaling pathway in the paw (i.pl.), and this effect was used to explain the mechanism of opioid-induced peripheral analgesia by i.t. administration. The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether this teleantagonism phenomenon was specific to this biochemical pathway (NO) or was a general property of the PNNs. Teleantagonism was investigated by administering test substances to the two ends of the PNN (i.e., to distal and proximal terminals; i.pl. plus i.t. or i.t. plus i.pl. injections). We found teleantagonism when: (i) inhibitors of the NO signaling pathway were injected distally during the antinociception induced by opioid agonists; (ii) a nonselective COX inhibitor was tested against PNN sensitization by IL-1β; (iii) selective opioid-receptor antagonists tested against antinociception induced by corresponding selective agonists. Although the dorsal root ganglion seems to be an important site for drug interactions, the teleantagonism phenomenon suggests that, in PNNs, a local sensitization spreads to the entire cell and constitutes an intriguing and not yet completely understood pharmacodynamic property of this group of neurons. PMID:18799742

  11. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  12. Looking at the hand modulates the brain responses to nociceptive and non-nociceptive somatosensory stimuli but does not necessarily modulate their perception.

    PubMed Central

    Torta, DM; Legrain, V; Mouraux, A

    2017-01-01

    Looking at the hand can reduce the perception of pain and the magnitude of the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by nociceptive stimuli delivered onto the hand, whereas it can increase that of tactile ERPs. These differences could be related to the use of different experimental designs. Importantly, most studies on the effects of vision on pain have relied on a mirror to create the illusion that the reflected hand is a direct view of the stimulated hand. Here, we compared the effects of direct vs. mirror vision of the hand vs. an object on the perception and ERPs elicited by non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli. We did not observe any significant effect of vision on the perceived intensity. Vision of the hand reduced the nociceptive N240, and enhanced the non-nociceptive P200. Our results confirm that vision of the body differentially affects nociceptive and non-nociceptive processing, but question the robustness of visual analgesia. PMID:25917217

  13. Larval defense against attack from parasitoid wasps requires nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jessica L; Tsubouchi, Asako; Tracey, W Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps are a fierce predator of Drosophila larvae. Female Leptopilina boulardi (LB) wasps use a sharp ovipositor to inject eggs into the bodies of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The wasp then eats the Drosophila larva alive from the inside, and an adult wasp ecloses from the Drosophila pupal case instead of a fly. However, the Drosophila larvae are not defenseless as they may resist the attack of the wasps through somatosensory-triggered behavioral responses. Here we describe the full range of behaviors performed by the larval prey in immediate response to attacks by the wasps. Our results suggest that Drosophila larvae primarily sense the wasps using their mechanosensory systems. The range of behavioral responses included both "gentle touch" like responses as well as nociceptive responses. We found that the precise larval response depended on both the somatotopic location of the attack, and whether or not the larval cuticle was successfully penetrated during the course of the attack. Interestingly, nociceptive responses are more likely to be triggered by attacks in which the cuticle had been successfully penetrated by the wasp. Finally, we found that the class IV neurons, which are necessary for mechanical nociception, were also necessary for a nociceptive response to wasp attacks. Thus, the class IV neurons allow for a nociceptive behavioral response to a naturally occurring predator of Drosophila.

  14. Larval Defense against Attack from Parasitoid Wasps Requires Nociceptive Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jessica L.; Tsubouchi, Asako; Tracey, W. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps are a fierce predator of Drosophila larvae. Female Leptopilina boulardi (LB) wasps use a sharp ovipositor to inject eggs into the bodies of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The wasp then eats the Drosophila larva alive from the inside, and an adult wasp ecloses from the Drosophila pupal case instead of a fly. However, the Drosophila larvae are not defenseless as they may resist the attack of the wasps through somatosensory-triggered behavioral responses. Here we describe the full range of behaviors performed by the larval prey in immediate response to attacks by the wasps. Our results suggest that Drosophila larvae primarily sense the wasps using their mechanosensory systems. The range of behavioral responses included both “gentle touch” like responses as well as nociceptive responses. We found that the precise larval response depended on both the somatotopic location of the attack, and whether or not the larval cuticle was successfully penetrated during the course of the attack. Interestingly, nociceptive responses are more likely to be triggered by attacks in which the cuticle had been successfully penetrated by the wasp. Finally, we found that the class IV neurons, which are necessary for mechanical nociception, were also necessary for a nociceptive response to wasp attacks. Thus, the class IV neurons allow for a nociceptive behavioral response to a naturally occurring predator of Drosophila. PMID:24205297

  15. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    PubMed Central

    Sigurðardóttir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice matching-to-sample tasks. Tests confirmed that six equivalence classes had formed. Without further training, plural forms of the stimuli were presented in tests for all matching performances. All participants demonstrated virtually errorless performances. In Experiment 2, classifications of the nouns used in Experiment 1 were brought under contextual control. Three nouns were feminine and three were masculine. The match-to-sample training taught participants to select a comparison of the same number as the sample (i.e., singular or plural) in the presence of contextual stimulus A regardless of noun gender. Concurrently, in the presence of contextual stimulus B, participants were taught to select a comparison of the same gender as the sample (i.e., feminine or masculine), regardless of number. Generalization was assessed using a card-sorting test. All participants eventually sorted the cards correctly into gender and number stimulus classes. When printed words used in training were replaced by their picture equivalents, participants demonstrated almost errorless performances. PMID:22754102

  16. Central neural alterations predominate in an insect model of nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Tabuena, Dennis R; Solis, Allan; Geraldi, Ken; Moffatt, Christopher A; Fuse, Megumi

    2017-04-01

    Many organisms respond to noxious stimuli with defensive maneuvers. This is noted in the hornworm, Manduca sexta, as a defensive strike response. After tissue damage, organisms typically display sensitized responses to both noxious or normally innocuous stimuli. To further understand this phenomenon, we used novel in situ and in vitro preparations based on paired extracellular nerve recordings and videography to identify central and peripheral nerves responsible for nociception and sensitization of the defensive behavior in M. sexta. In addition, we used the in vivo defensive strike response threshold assayed with von Frey filaments to examine the roles that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels play in this nociceptive sensitization using the inhibitors MK-801 and AP5 (NMDAR), and ivabradine and ZD7288 (HCN). Using our new preparations, we found that afferent activity evoked by noxious pinch in these preparations was conveyed to central ganglia by axons in the anterior- and lateral-dorsal nerve branches, and that sensitization induced by tissue damage was mediated centrally. Furthermore, sensitization was blocked by all inhibitors tested except the inactive isomer L-AP5, and reversed by ivabradine both in vivo and in vitro. Our findings suggest that M. sexta's sensitization occurs through central signal amplification. Due to the relatively natural sensitization method and conserved molecular actions, we suggest that M. sexta may be a valuable model for studying the electrophysiological properties of nociceptive sensitization and potentially related conditions such as allodynia and hyperalgesia in a comparative setting that offers unique experimental advantages. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1176-1191, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. De novo expression of neurokinin-1 receptors by spinoparabrachial lamina I pyramidal neurons following a peripheral nerve lesion.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Abeer W; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo

    2013-06-01

    Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn is a major site of integration and transmission to higher centers of nociceptive information from the periphery. One important primary afferent population that transmits such information to the spinal cord expresses substance P (SP). These fibers terminate in contact with lamina I projection neurons that express the SP receptor, also known as the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1r). Three types of lamina I projection neurons have been described: multipolar, fusiform, and pyramidal. Most neurons of the first two types are thought to be nociceptive and express the NK-1r, whereas most pyramidal neurons are nonnociceptive and do not express the NK-1r. In this immunocytochemical and behavioral study, we induced a neuropathic pain-like condition in the rat by means of a polyethylene cuff placed around in the sciatic nerve. We document that this lesion led to a de novo expression of NK-1r on pyramidal neurons as well as a significant increase in SP-immunoreactive innervation onto these neurons. These phenotypic changes were evident at the time of onset of neuropathic pain-related behavior. Additionally, we show that, after a noxious stimulus (intradermal capsaicin injection), these NK-1r on pyramidal neurons were internalized, providing evidence that these neurons become responsive to peripheral noxious stimulation. We suggest that the changes following nerve lesion in the phenotype and innervation pattern of pyramidal neurons are of significance for neuropathic pain and/or limb temperature regulation.

  18. Modulation of visceral nociception, inflammation and gastric mucosal injury by cinnarizine.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E

    2007-01-01

    The effect of cinnarizine, a drug used for the treatment of vertigo was assessed in animal models of visceral nociception, inflammation and gastric mucosal injury. Cinnarizine (1.25-20 mg/kg, s.c.) caused dose-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constrictions evoked by i.p. injection of acetic acid by 38.7-99.4%. This effect of cinnarizine (2.5 mg/kg) was unaffected by co-administration of the centrally acting dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, sulpiride, haloperidol or metoclopramide, the peripherally acting D2 receptor antagonist domperidone, but increased by the D2 receptor agonist bromocryptine and by the non-selective dopamine receptor antagonist chlorpromazine. The antinociception caused by cinnarizine was naloxone insenstive, but enhanced by propranolol, atropine and by yohimbine. The antinociceptive effect of cinnarizine was prevented by co-treatment with the adenosine receptor blocker theophylline or by the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP)) blocker glibenclamide. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reversed the baclofen-induced antinociception. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reduced immobility time in the Porsolt's forced-swimming test by 24%. Cinnarizine inhibited the paw oedema response to carrageenan and reduced gastric mucosal lesions caused by indomethacin in rats. It is suggested that cinnarizine exerts anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and gastric protective properties. The mechanism by which cinnarizine modulates pain transmission is likely to involve adenosine receptors and K(ATP) channels.

  19. Inflammatory nociception responses do not vary with age, but diminish with the pain history

    PubMed Central

    Simón-Arceo, Karina; Contreras, Bernardo; León-Olea, Martha; Coffeen, Ulises; Jaimes, Orlando; Pellicer, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Some of the relevant factors that must be considered when dealing with old age include its growing numbers in the general population and pain contention in this age group. In this sense, it is important to study whether antinociceptive responses change with age. To elucidate this point, persistent pain in animals is the preferred model. In addition, the response to inflammatory pain in the same individual must be explored along its lifetime. Male Wistar rats were infiltrated with carrageenan (50 μl intraplantar) and tested 3 h and 24 h after injection using thermal (plantar test) and mechanociceptive tests (von Frey). The rats were divided into the following groups: (a) young rats infiltrated for the first time at 12 weeks of age and re-infiltrated at 15 and 17 weeks; (b) adult rats infiltrated for the first time at 28 weeks of age and re-infiltrated at 44 and 56 weeks; and (c) old rats infiltrated for the first time at 56 weeks of age and re-infiltrated at 72 weeks. The rats tested for the first time at 12 and 56 weeks of age showed hyperalgesia due to carrageenan infiltration at 3 h and 24 h after injection. This result showed that old rats maintain the same antialgesic response due to inflammation. However, when the injection was repeated in the three age groups, the latency to the thermal and mechanociceptive responses at 3 h is increased when compared to animals exposed for the first time to inflammation. The response to thermal and mechanociception in old rats is the same as in young animals as long as the nociceptive stimulus is not repeated. The repetition of the stimulus produces changes compatible with desensitization of the response and evidences the significance of algesic stimulus repetition in the same individual rather than the age of the individual. PMID:25120479

  20. Pro-neurotrophins, sortilin, and nociception

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Gary R; Nykjaer, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling is important in the development and functional maintenance of nociceptors, but it also plays a central role in initiating and sustaining heat and mechanical hyperalgesia following inflammation. NGF signaling in pain has traditionally been thought of as primarily engaging the classic high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase receptor TrkA to initiate sensitization events. However, the discovery that secreted proforms of nerve NGF have biological functions distinct from the processed mature factors raised the possibility that these proneurotrophins (proNTs) may have distinct function in painful conditions. ProNTs engage a novel receptor system that is distinct from that of mature neurotrophins, consisting of sortilin, a type I membrane protein belonging to the VPS10p family, and its co-receptor, the classic low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Here, we review how this new receptor system may itself function with or independently of the classic TrkA system in regulating inflammatory or neuropathic pain. PMID:24494677

  1. Modulatory Mechanism of Nociceptive Neuronal Activity by Dietary Constituent Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Mamoru; Takehana, Shiori; Sekiguchi, Kenta; Kubota, Yoshiko; Shimazu, Yoshihito

    2016-01-01

    Changes to somatic sensory pathways caused by peripheral tissue, inflammation or injury can result in behavioral hypersensitivity and pathological pain, such as hyperalgesia. Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol found in red wine and various food products, is known to have several beneficial biological actions. Recent reports indicate that resveratrol can modulate neuronal excitability, including nociceptive sensory transmission. As such, it is possible that this dietary constituent could be a complementary alternative medicine (CAM) candidate, specifically a therapeutic agent. The focus of this review is on the mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of resveratrol on nociceptive neuronal activity associated with pain relief. In addition, we discuss the contribution of resveratrol to the relief of nociceptive and/or pathological pain and its potential role as a functional food and a CAM. PMID:27727178

  2. Nicotine dependence produces hyperalgesia: role of corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptors (CRF1Rs) in the central amygdala (CeA).

    PubMed

    Baiamonte, Brandon A; Valenza, Marta; Roltsch, Emily A; Whitaker, Annie M; Baynes, Brittni B; Sabino, Valentina; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2014-02-01

    Because tobacco use has a large negative health and financial impact on society, it is critical to identify the factors that drive excessive use. These factors include the aversive withdrawal symptoms that manifest upon cessation of tobacco use, and may include increases in nociceptive processing. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signalling in the central amygdala (CeA) has been attributed an important role in: (1) central processing of pain, (2) excessive nicotine use that results in nicotine dependence, and (3) in mediating the aversive symptoms that manifest following cessation of tobacco exposure. Here, we describe three experiments in which the main hypothesis was that CRF/CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) signalling in the CeA mediates nicotine withdrawal-induced increases in nociceptive sensitivity in rats that are dependent on nicotine. In Experiment 1, nicotine-dependent rats withdrawn from chronic intermittent (14-h/day) nicotine vapor exhibited decreased hind paw withdrawal latencies in response to a painful thermal stimulus in the Hargreaves test, and this effect was attenuated by systemic administration of the CRF1R antagonist, R121919. In Experiment 2, nicotine-dependent rats withdrawn from nicotine vapor exhibited robust increases in mRNA for CRF and CRF1Rs in CeA. In Experiment 3, intra-CeA administration of R121919 reduced thermal nociception only in nicotine-dependent rats. Collectively, these results suggest that nicotine dependence increases CRF/CRF1R signalling in the CeA that mediates withdrawal-induced increases in sensitivity to a painful stimulus. Future studies will build on these findings by exploring the hypothesis that nicotine withdrawal-induced reduction in pain thresholds drive excessive nicotine use via CRF/CRF1R signalling pathways.

  3. Carving Executive Control at Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, but Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and 2 different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC's relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict),…

  4. Carving Executive Control at Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, but Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and 2 different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC's relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict),…

  5. Perinatal effect of methamphetamine on nociception in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamotová, A; Hrubá, L; Schutová, B; Rokyta, R; Šlamberová, R

    2011-02-01

    Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant drug which causes the release of monoamine neurotransmitters. Although drugs of abuse are known to have analgesic effects, there is a lack of evidence regarding the effect of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine on nociception in adulthood. Adult Wistar rats whose mothers had received daily exposure to methamphetamine (5 mg/kg; s.c.) or saline, during gestation or gestation and lactation periods, were examined for: (1) gender differences in nociception; (2) an association between nociception and gross-motor behavior in the plantar test; (3) effects of cross-fostering on nociception; and (4) analgesic effects of an acute injection of methamphetamine (1 mg/kg s.c.). Nociception was tested using the plantar test on postnatal days 85-90. Prenatal methamphetamine increased sensitivity to pain on forelimbs (p<0.0001) and hind limbs (p<0.05) in females only. Prenatal methamphetamine treated male rats fostered by adoptive injection stressed mothers had higher sensitivity to pain than prenatally injection stressed rats fostered by methamphetamine treated mothers (p<0.05). Acute methamphetamine induced analgesia faster in prenatally methamphetamine exposed rats than in controls. In all groups, analgesia increased in the cranio-caudal direction (p<0.0001). From our behavioral data it can be concluded that exposure to methamphetamine during the prenatal period completely dissociates the relationship between nociception and intensity of overall behavior observed in intact animals in adulthood. Thus, our results indicate that perinatal exposure to psychostimulants may have long-term impact on several functions related to dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of juvenile exposure to predator odor on adolescent and adult anxiety and pain nociception.

    PubMed

    Post, Ryan J; Dahlborg, Kaitlyn M; O'Loughlin, Lauren E; Bloom, Christopher M

    2014-05-28

    Clinical researchers have tracked patients with early life trauma and noted generalized anxiety disorder, unipolar depression, and risk-taking behaviors developing in late adolescence and into early adulthood. Animal models provide an opportunity to investigate the neural and developmental processes that underlie the relationship between early stress and later abnormal behavior. The present model used repeated exposure to 2,3,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a component of fox feces, as an unconditioned fear-eliciting stimulus in order to induce stress in juvenile rats aged postnatal day (PND) 23 through 27. After further physical maturation characteristic of the adolescent stage (PND 42), animals were tested using an elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety and plantar test (Hargreaves method) for pain to assess any lingering effects of the juvenile stress. To assess how an additional stress later in life affects anxiety and pain nociception, PND 43 rats were exposed to inescapable shock (0.8mA) and again tested on EPM and plantar test. A final testing period was conducted in the adult (PND 63) rats to assess resulting changes in adult behaviors. TMT-exposed rats were significantly more anxious in adolescence than controls, but this difference disappeared after exposure to the secondary stressor. In adulthood, but not in adolescence, TMT-exposed rats demonstrated lower pain sensitivity than controls. These results suggest that early life stress can play a significant role in later anxiety and pain nociception, and offer insight into the development and manifestation of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders.

  7. Anti-nociceptive effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in nucleus raphe magnus of rats: an effect attenuated by naloxone.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Brodda-Jansen, G; Lundeberg, T; Yu, L C

    2000-08-04

    The present study investigated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on nociception in nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the interaction between CGRP and opioid peptides in NRM of rats. CGRP-like immunoreactivity was found at a concentration of 6.0+/-0. 77 pmol/g in NRM tissue of ten samples of rats, suggesting that it may contribute to physiological responses orchestrated by the NRM. The hindpaw withdrawal latency (HWL) to thermal and mechanical stimulation increased significantly after intra-NRM administration of 0.5 or 1 nmol of CGRP in rats, but not 0.25 nmol. The anti-nociceptive effect induced by CGRP was antagonized by following intra-NRM injection of 1 nmol of the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP8-37. Furthermore, the CGRP-induced anti-nociceptive effect was attenuated by following intra-NRM administration of 6 nmol of naloxone. The results indicate that CGRP and its receptors play an important role in anti-nociception, and there is a possible interaction between CGRP and opioid peptides in NRM of rats.

  8. Validation of a thermal threshold nociceptive model in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Couture, Émilie L; Monteiro, Beatriz P; Aymen, Jessica; Troncy, Eric; Steagall, Paulo V

    2017-05-01

    To validate a thermal threshold (TT) nociceptive model in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) and to document TT changes after administration of morphine. A two-part randomized, blinded, controlled, experimental study. Five adult bearded dragons (242-396 g). A TT device delivered a ramped nociceptive stimulus (0.6 °C second(-1)) to the medial thigh until a response (leg kick/escape behavior) was observed or maximum (cut-off) temperature of 62 °C was reached. In phase I, period 1, six TT readings were determined at 20 minute intervals for evaluation of repeatability. Two of these readings were randomly assigned to be sham to assess specificity of the behavioral response. The same experiment was repeated 2 weeks later (period 2) to test reproducibility. In phase II, animals were administered either intramuscular morphine (10 mg kg(-1)) or saline 0.9%. TTs (maximum 68 °C) were determined before and 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after treatment administration. Data were analyzed using one-way anova (temporal changes and repeatability) and paired t tests (reproducibility and treatment comparisons) using Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05). Mean TT values were 57.4 ± 3.8 °C and 57.3 ± 4.3 °C for periods 1 and 2, respectively. Data were repeatable within each period (p = 0.83 and p = 0.07, respectively). Reproducibility between periods was remarkable (p = 0.86). False-positive responses during sham testing were 10%. TTs were significantly increased after morphine administration at 2, 4 and 8 hours compared with baseline, and at 2 and 4 hours compared with saline 0.9%. The highest TT was 67.7 ± 0.7 °C at 4 hours after morphine administration. Testing was repeatable, reproducible and well tolerated in bearded dragons. TT nociceptive testing detected morphine administration and may be suitable for studying opioid regimens in bearded dragons. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and

  9. Frutalin reduces acute and neuropathic nociceptive behaviours in rodent models of orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Marina B M V; de Melo Júnior, José de Maria A; Santos, Sacha Aubrey A R; Melo, Luana T M; Leite, Laura Hévila I; Vieira-Neto, Antonio E; Moreira, Renato de A; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina de O; Campos, Adriana R

    2016-08-25

    Orofacial pain is a highly prevalent clinical condition, yet difficult to control effectively with available drugs. Much attention is currently focused on the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of lectins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of frutalin (FTL) using rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic orofacial pain. Acute pain was induced by formalin, glutamate or capsaicin (orofacial model) and hypertonic saline (corneal model). In one experiment, animals were pretreated with l-NAME and naloxone to investigate the mechanism of antinociception. The involvement of the lectin domain in the antinociceptive effect of FTL was verified by allowing the lectin to bind to its specific ligand. In another experiment, animals pretreated with FTL or saline were submitted to the temporomandibular joint formalin test. In yet another, animals were submitted to infraorbital nerve transection to induce chronic pain, followed by induction of thermal hypersensitivity using acetone. Motor activity was evaluated with the rotarod test. A molecular docking was performed using the TRPV1 channel. Pretreatment with FTL significantly reduced nociceptive behaviour associated with acute and neuropathic pain, especially at 0.5 mg/kg. Antinociception was effectively inhibited by l-NAME and d-galactose. In line with in vivo experiments, docking studies indicated that FTL may interact with TRPV1. Our results confirm the potential pharmacological relevance of FTL as an inhibitor of orofacial nociception in acute and chronic pain mediated by TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPM8 receptor.

  10. Decreased Nociceptive Sensitization in Mice Lacking the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein: Role of mGluR1/5 and mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Price, Theodore J.; Rashid, Md Harunor; Millecamps, Magali; Sanoja, Raul; Entrena, Jose M.; Cervero, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation is caused by silencing of the gene (FMR1) that encodes the RNA-binding protein (FMRP) that influences translation in neurons. A prominent feature of the human disorder is self-injurious behavior, suggesting an abnormality in pain processing. Moreover, FMRP regulates group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1/5)-dependent plasticity, which is known to contribute to nociceptive sensitization. We demonstrate here, using the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mouse, that FMRP plays an important role in pain processing because Fmr1 KO mice showed (1) decreased (∼50%) responses to ongoing nociception (phase 2, formalin test), (2) a 3 week delay in the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced allodynia, and (3) a near absence of wind-up responses in ascending sensory fibers after repetitive C-fiber stimulation. We provide evidence that the behavioral deficits are related to a mGluR1/5- and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated mechanism because (1) spinal mGluR5 antagonism failed to inhibit the second phase of the formalin test, and we observed a marked reduction in nociceptive response to an intrathecal injection of an mGluR1/5 agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) in Fmr1 KO mice; (2) peripheral DHPG injection had no effect in KO mice yet evoked thermal hyperalgesia in wild types; and (3) the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin inhibited formalin- and DHPG-induced nociception in wild-type but not Fmr1 KO mice. These experiments show that translation regulation via FMRP and mTOR is an important feature of nociceptive plasticity. These observations also support the hypothesis that the persistence of self-injurious behavior observed in fragile X mental retardation patients could be related to deficits in nociceptive sensitization. PMID:18094233

  11. Quantification of a contact stimulus by diapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomata, Takuya; Okuyama, Takeshi; Teraoka, Hiromi; Murakami, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a development of a sensor system for measurement of a contact stimulus which diapers give to infants. A polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) film and a strain gauge are used as the sensor receptors. The PVDF is a kind of piezoelectric material. The sensor consists of a surface contact layer, a PVDF film, a strain gauge and an aluminum plate. First, in order to investigate the sensor performance, the sensor was located on a silicone plate and the upper part of the sensor was rubbed with an acrylic artificial finger. The finger enabled the measurement to carry out at a constant speed and force. Next, the sensor was attached on an infant dummy and the sensor outputs were measured under conditions with and without diapers. By comparison of the output under two different conditions, it was confirmed that there is a clearly difference between the two conditions. It was found that the developed sensor system has the possibility to quantify a contact stimulus which diapers give infants.

  12. Quantification of a contact stimulus by diapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomata, Takuya; Okuyama, Takeshi; Teraoka, Hiromi; Murakami, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a development of a sensor system for measurement of a contact stimulus which diapers give to infants. A polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) film and a strain gauge are used as the sensor receptors. The PVDF is a kind of piezoelectric material. The sensor consists of a surface contact layer, a PVDF film, a strain gauge and an aluminum plate. First, in order to investigate the sensor performance, the sensor was located on a silicone plate and the upper part of the sensor was rubbed with an acrylic artificial finger. The finger enabled the measurement to carry out at a constant speed and force. Next, the sensor was attached on an infant dummy and the sensor outputs were measured under conditions with and without diapers. By comparison of the output under two different conditions, it was confirmed that there is a clearly difference between the two conditions. It was found that the developed sensor system has the possibility to quantify a contact stimulus which diapers give infants.

  13. Neonatal tissue damage facilitates nociceptive synaptic input to the developing superficial dorsal horn via NGF-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Baccei, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue injury during a critical period of early life can facilitate spontaneous glutamatergic transmission within developing pain circuits in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord. However, the extent to which neonatal tissue damage strengthens nociceptive synaptic input to specific subpopulations of SDH neurons, as well as the mechanisms underlying this distinct form of synaptic plasticity, remains unclear. Here we use in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from rodent spinal cord slices to demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury selectively potentiates high-threshold primary afferent input to immature lamina II neurons. In addition, the increase in the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) after hindpaw incision was prevented by neonatal capsaicin treatment, suggesting that early tissue injury enhances glutamate release from nociceptive synapses. This occurs in a widespread manner within the developing SDH, as incision elevated mEPSC frequency in both GABAergic and presumed glutamatergic lamina II neurons of Gad-GFP transgenic mice. The administration of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) into the rat hindpaw mimicked the effects of early tissue damage on excitatory synaptic function, while blocking trkA receptors in vivo abolished the changes in both spontaneous and primary afferent-evoked glutamatergic transmission following incision. These findings illustrate that neonatal tissue damage can alter the gain of developing pain pathways by activating NGF-dependent signaling cascades which modify synaptic efficacy at the first site of nociceptive processing within the CNS. PMID:21550171

  14. Quantitative assessment of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in healthy, non-medicated experimental sheep.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Helene; Zeiter, Stephan; Andersen, Ole K; Wieling, Ronald; Spadavecchia, Claudia

    2014-04-22

    This study aimed to characterize the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and to define the nociceptive threshold in 25 healthy, non-medicated experimental sheep in standing posture. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal lateral digital nerves of the right thoracic and the pelvic limb was performed and surface-electromyography (EMG) from the deltoid (all animals) and the femoral biceps (18 animals) or the peroneus tertius muscles (7 animals) was recorded. The behavioural reaction following each stimulation was scored on a scale from 0 (no reaction) to 5 (strong whole body reaction). A train-of-five 1ms constant-current pulse was used and current intensity was stepwise increased until NWR threshold intensity was reached. The NWR threshold intensity (It) was defined as the minimal stimulus intensity able to evoke a reflex with a minimal Root-Mean-Square amplitude (RMSA) of 20μV, a minimal duration of 10ms and a minimal reaction score of 1 (slight muscle contraction of the stimulated limb) within the time window of 20 to 130ms post-stimulation. Based on this value, further stimulations were performed below (0.9It) and above threshold (1.5It and 2It). The stimulus-response curve was described. Data are reported as medians and interquartile ranges. At the deltoid muscle It was 4.4mA (2.9-5.7) with an RMSA of 62μV (30-102). At the biceps femoris muscle It was 7.0mA (4.0-10.0) with an RMSA of 43μV (34-50) and at the peroneus tertius muscle It was 3.4mA (3.1-4.4) with an RMSA of 38μV (32-46). Above threshold, RMSA was significantly increased at all muscles. Below threshold, RMSA was only significantly smaller than at It for the peroneus tertius muscle but not for the other muscles. Data achieved in this study serve as reference for experimental or clinical applications of the conscious sheep model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exercise as an anabolic stimulus for bone.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles H; Robling, Alexander G

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical loading provides an anabolic stimulus for bone. More importantly, the mechanosensing apparatus in bone directs osteogenesis to where it is most needed for improving bone strength. The biological processes involved in bone mechanotransduction are poorly understood and further investigation of the molecular mechanisms might uncover drug targets for osteoporosis. Several pathways are emerging from current research, including membrane ion channels, ATP signaling, and second messengers such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Some key molecular targets include the L-type calcium channel (alpha 1C isoform), a gadolinium-sensitive stretch-activated channel, P2Y(2) and P2X(7) purinergic receptors, EP(2) and EP(4) prostanoid receptors, and the parathyroid hormone receptor. One characteristic of the mechanosensing apparatus that has only recently been studied is the important role of desensitization. Experimental protocols that insert "rest" periods to reduce the effects of desensitization can double anabolic responses to mechanical loading. A drug therapy that suppresses desensitization pathways may provide an effective means to build bone strength.

  16. Nociception and inflammatory hyperalgesia evaluated in rodents using infrared laser stimulation after Trpv1 gene knockout or resiniferatoxin lesion.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kendall; Lebovitz, Evan E; Keller, Jason M; Mannes, Andrew J; Nemenov, Michael I; Iadarola, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    TRPV1 is expressed in a subpopulation of myelinated Aδ and unmyelinated C-fibers. TRPV1+ fibers are essential for the transmission of nociceptive thermal stimuli and for the establishment and maintenance of inflammatory hyperalgesia. We have previously shown that high-power, short-duration pulses from an infrared diode laser are capable of predominantly activating cutaneous TRPV1+ Aδ-fibers. Here we show that stimulating either subtype of TRPV1+ fiber in the paw during carrageenan-induced inflammation or following hind-paw incision elicits pronounced hyperalgesic responses, including prolonged paw guarding. The ultrapotent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) dose-dependently deactivates TRPV1+ fibers and blocks thermal nociceptive responses in baseline or inflamed conditions. Injecting sufficient doses of RTX peripherally renders animals unresponsive to laser stimulation even at the point of acute thermal skin damage. In contrast, Trpv1-/- mice, which are generally unresponsive to noxious thermal stimuli at lower power settings, exhibit withdrawal responses and inflammation-induced sensitization using high-power, short duration Aδ stimuli. In rats, systemic morphine suppresses paw withdrawal, inflammatory guarding, and hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent fashion using the same Aδ stimuli. The qualitative intensity of Aδ responses, the leftward shift of the stimulus-response curve, the increased guarding behaviors during carrageenan inflammation or after incision, and the reduction of Aδ responses with morphine suggest multiple roles for TRPV1+ Aδ fibers in nociceptive processes and their modulation of pathological pain conditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Thermal nociception as a measure of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug effectiveness in broiler chickens with articular pain.

    PubMed

    Caplen, Gina; Baker, Laurence; Hothersall, Becky; McKeegan, Dorothy E F; Sandilands, Victoria; Sparks, Nick H C; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Murrell, Joanna C

    2013-12-01

    Pain associated with poultry lameness is poorly understood. The anti-nociceptive properties of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were evaluated using threshold testing in combination with an acute inflammatory arthropathy model. Broilers were tested in six groups (n=8 per group). Each group underwent a treatment (saline, meloxicam (3 or 5mg/kg) or carprofen (15 or 25mg/kg)) and a procedure (Induced (arthropathy-induction) or sham (sham-handling)) prior to testing. Induced groups had Freund's complete adjuvant injected intra-articularly into the left intertarsal joint (hock). A ramped thermal stimulus (1°C/s) was applied to the skin of the left metatarsal. Data were analysed using random-intercept multi-level models. Saline-induced birds had a significantly higher skin temperature (± SD) than saline-sham birds (37.6 ± 0.8°C vs. 36.5 ± 0.5°C; Z=-3.47, P<0.001), consistent with an inflammatory response. Saline was associated with significantly lower thermal thresholds (TT) than analgesic treatment (meloxicam: Z=2.72, P=0.007; carprofen: Z=2.58, P=0.010) in induced birds. Saline-induced birds also had significantly lower TT than saline-sham birds (Z=-2.17, P=0.030). This study found direct evidence of an association between inflammatory arthropathies and thermal hyperalgesia, and showed that NSAID treatment maintained baseline thermal sensitivity (via anti-nociception). Quantification of nociceptive responsiveness in a predictable broiler pain model identified thermal anti-hyperalgesic properties of two NSAIDs, which suggested that therapeutically effective treatment was provided at the doses administered. Such validation of analgesic strategies will increase the understanding of pain associated with specific natural broiler lameness types.

  18. A study of the reliability of the Nociception Coma Scale.

    PubMed

    Riganello, F; Cortese, M D; Arcuri, F; Candelieri, A; Guglielmino, F; Dolce, G; Sannita, W G; Schnakers, C

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the reliability of the Nociception Coma Scale which has recently been developed to assess nociception in non-communicative, severely brain-injured patients. Prospective cross-sequential study. Semi-intensive care unit and long-term brain injury care. Forty-four patients diagnosed as being in a vegetative state (n=26) or in a minimally conscious state (n=18). Patients were assessed by two experts (rater A and rater B) on two consecutive weeks to measure inter-rater agreement and test-retest reliability. Total scores and subscores of the Nociception Coma Scale. We performed a total of 176 assessments. The inter-rater agreement was moderate for the total scores (k = 0.57) and fair to substantial for the subscores (0.33 ≤ k ≤ 0.62) on week 2. The test-retest reliability was substantial for the total scores (k = 0.66) and moderate to almost perfect for the subscores (0.53 ≤ k ≤ 0.96) for rater A. The inter-rater agreement was weaker on week 1, whereas the test-retest reliability was lower for the least experienced rater (rater B). This study provides further evidence of the psychometric qualities of the Nociception Coma Scale. Future studies should assess the impact of practical experience and background on administration and scoring of the scale. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Comparison of trigeminal and spinal modulation of pain and nociception.

    PubMed

    Rehberg, Benno; Baars, Jan H; Kotsch, Julia; Koppe, Peter; von Dincklage, Falk

    2012-06-01

    Modulation of pain and nociception by noxious counterstimulation, also called "diffuse noxious inhibitory controls" or DNIC-like effect, is often used in studies of pain disorders. It can be elicited in the trigeminal and spinal innervation areas, but no study has previously compared effects in both innervation areas. Therefore, we performed a study comparing DNIC-like effects on the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) and the nociceptive blink reflex as well as the respective pain sensations. In 50 healthy volunteers, the blink reflex elicited with a concentric electrode and the NFR were recorded before and after immersion of the contralateral hand in cold water. Responses were recorded as the subjective pain sensation and the reflex size. The cold water immersion of the contralateral hand elicited a reduction of both subjective pain sensation and reflex amplitude following the stimulation of both reflexes. However, there were no strong correlations between the individual reductions of both subjective pain sensation and reflex amplitude for both reflexes, and neither when results of the two reflexes were compared with each other. The dissociation between DNIC-like effects on pain and on nociception, which had been found previously already for the NFR, implies that both effects need to be studied separately.

  20. Tests and models of nociception and pain in rodents.

    PubMed

    Barrot, M

    2012-06-01

    Nociception and pain is a large field of both neuroscience and medical research. Over time, various tests and models were developed in rodents to provide tools for fundamental and translational research on the topic. Tests using thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli, measures of hyperalgesia and allodynia, models of inflammatory or neuropathic pain, constitute a toolbox available to researchers. These tests and models allowed rapi