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Sample records for receptors progesterone

  1. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Progesterone Receptors Mediates Proliferative Signaling in Breast Cancer. Funding period: 2012- 2017 17 CONCLUSION Progesterone receptors (PR) are...National Cancer Institute): R01 CA123763 (formerly R01 DK53825; NIH/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases). The authors have

  2. Selection of Progesterone Derivatives Specific to Membrane Progesterone Receptors.

    PubMed

    Polikarpova, A V; Maslakova, A A; Levina, I S; Kulikova, L E; Kuznetsov, Y V; Guseva, A A; Shchelkunova, T A; Zavarzin, I V; Smirnova, O V

    2017-02-01

    The search of selective agonists and antagonists of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) is a starting point for the study of progesterone signal transduction mechanisms mediated by mPRs, distinct from nuclear receptors. According to preliminary data, the ligand affinity for mPRs differs significantly from that for classical nuclear progesterone receptors (nPRs), which might indicate structural differences in the ligand-binding pocket of these proteins. In the present work, we analyzed the affinity of several progesterone derivatives for mPRs of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma BxPC3 cell line that is characterized by a high level of mPR mRNA expression and by the absence of expression of nPR mRNA. The values were compared with the affinity of these compounds for nPRs. All tested compounds showed almost no affinity for nPRs, whereas their selectivity towards mPRs was different. Derivatives with an additional 19-hydroxyl group and removed 3-keto group had the highest selectivity for mPRs. These results suggest these compounds as the most selective progesterone analogs for studying the mechanisms of progestin action via mPRs.

  3. Progesterone Modulates a Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valera, S.; Ballivet, M.; Bertrand, D.

    1992-10-01

    The major brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is assembled from two subunits termed α 4 and nα 1. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, these subunits reconstitute a functional acetylcholine receptor that is inhibited by progesterone levels similar to those found in serum. In this report, we show that the steroid interacts with a site located on the extracellular part of the protein, thus confirming that inhibition by progesterone is not due to a nonspecific perturbation of the membrane bilayer or to the activation of second messengers. Because inhibition by progesterone does not require the presence of agonist, is voltage-independent, and does not alter receptor desensitization, we conclude that the steroid is not an open channel blocker. In addition, we show that progesterone is not a competitive inhibitor but may interact with the acetylcholine binding site and that its effect is independent of the ionic permeability of the receptor.

  4. Progesterone Receptor Signaling in Uterine Myometrial Physiology and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Pin; DeMayo, Francesco J.

    2017-01-01

    Myometrium holds the structural integrity for the uterus and generates force for parturition with its primary component, the smooth muscle cells. The progesterone receptor mediates progesterone dependent signaling and connects to a network of pathways for regulation of contractility and inflammatory responses in myometrium. Dysfunctional progesterone signaling has been linked to pregnancy complications including preterm birth. In the present review, we summarize recent findings on modifiers and effectors of the progesterone receptor signaling. Discussions include novel conceptual discoveries and new development in legacy pathways such as the signal transducers NF-κB, ZEB, micro RNA and the unfolded protein response pathways. We also discuss the impact of progesterone receptor isoform composition and ligand accessibility in modification of the progesterone receptor genomic actions. PMID:28527571

  5. Alternative splicing and the progesterone receptor in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cork, David MW; Lennard, Thomas WJ; Tyson-Capper, Alison J

    2008-01-01

    Progesterone receptor status is a marker for hormone responsiveness and disease prognosis in breast cancer. Progesterone receptor negative tumours have generally been shown to have a poorer prognosis than progesterone receptor positive tumours. The observed loss of progesterone receptor could be through a range of mechanisms, including the generation of alternatively spliced progesterone receptor variants that are not detectable by current screening methods. Many progesterone receptor mRNA variants have been described with deletions of various whole, multiple or partial exons that encode differing protein functional domains. These variants may alter the progestin responsiveness of a tissue and contribute to the abnormal growth associated with breast cancer. Absence of specific functional domains from these spliced variants may also make them undetectable or indistinguishable from full length progesterone receptor by conventional antibodies. A comprehensive investigation into the expression profile and activity of progesterone receptor spliced variants in breast cancer is required to advance our understanding of tumour hormone receptor status. This, in turn, may aid the development of new biomarkers of disease prognosis and improve adjuvant treatment decisions. PMID:18557990

  6. Differences in the binding mechanism of RU486 and progesterone to the progesterone receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Skafar, D.F. )

    1991-11-12

    The binding mechanism of the antagonist RU486 to the progesterone receptor was compared with that of the agonists progesterone and R5020. Both progesterone and RU486 bound to the receptor with a Hill coefficient of 1.2, indicating the binding of each ligand is positive cooperative. However, when each ligand was used to compete with ({sup 3}H)progesterone for binding to the receptor at receptor concentrations near 8 nM, at which the receptor is likely a dimer, the competition curve for RU486 was significantly steeper than the curves for progesterone and R5020. This indicated that a difference in the binding mechanism of RU486 and progesterone can be detected when both ligands are present. In contrast, at receptor concentrations near 1 nM, at which the receptor is likely a monomer, the competition curves for all three ligands were indistinguishable. These results indicate that RU486 and agonists have different binding mechanisms for the receptor and further suggest that this difference may be related to site-site interactions within the receptor.

  7. Progesterone modulates the LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone-receptor independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Schander, Julieta Aylen; Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2015-12-15

    Genital tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria induce miscarriage and are one of the most common complications of human pregnancy. LPS administration to 7-day pregnant mice induces embryo resorption after 24h, with nitric oxide playing a fundamental role in this process. We have previously shown that progesterone exerts protective effects on the embryo by modulating the inflammatory reaction triggered by LPS. Here we sought to investigate whether the in vivo administration of progesterone modulated the LPS-induced nitric oxide production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant and non-pregnant mice. We found that progesterone downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone receptor-independent mechanism. Moreover, our results suggest a possible participation of glucocorticoid receptors in at least some of the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone.

  8. [Interest of selective progesterone receptor modulators in endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Merviel, P; Lourdel, E; Sanguin, S; Gagneur, O; Cabry, R; Nasreddine, A

    2013-09-01

    The SPRM (selective progesterone receptor modulators) are agonists and/or antagonists of progesterone receptor. They are responsible for anovulation, amenorrhea and a lower prostaglandin levels, which leads to an improvement in pain and regression of lesions in endometriosis. On the endometrium, a particular aspect, the progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes (PAEC), raises additional studies to verify its harmlessness. However, due to the lack of hypoestrogenism and metabolic effects with these drugs, it is very likely that the SPRM will in the near future an important place in the treatment of endometriosis.

  9. Progesterone Receptor Expression Declines in the Guinea Pig Uterus during Functional Progesterone Withdrawal and in Response to Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Toni N.; Hirst, Jonathan J.; Palliser, Hannah; Zakar, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal is essential for parturition, but the mechanism of this pivotal hormonal change is unclear in women and other mammals that give birth without a pre-labor drop in maternal progesterone levels. One possibility suggested by uterine tissue analyses and cell culture models is that progesterone receptor levels change at term decreasing the progesterone responsiveness of the myometrium, which causes progesterone withdrawal at the functional level and results in estrogen dominance enhancing uterine contractility. In this investigation we have explored whether receptor mediated functional progesterone withdrawal occurs during late pregnancy and labor in vivo. We have also determined whether prostaglandins that induce labor cause functional progesterone withdrawal by altering myometrial progesterone receptor expression. Pregnant guinea pigs were used, since this animal loses progesterone responsiveness at term and gives birth in the presence of high maternal progesterone level similarly to primates. We found that progesterone receptor mRNA and protein A and B expression decreased in the guinea pig uterus during the last third of gestation and in labor. Prostaglandin administration reduced while prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor treatment increased progesterone receptor A protein abundance. Estrogen receptor-1 protein levels remained unchanged during late gestation, in labor and after prostaglandin or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor administration. Steroid receptor levels were higher in the non-pregnant than in the pregnant uterine horns. We conclude that the decreasing expression of both progesterone receptors A and B is a physiological mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal in the guinea pig during late pregnancy and in labor. Further, prostaglandins administered exogenously or produced endogenously stimulate labor in part by suppressing uterine progesterone receptor A expression, which may cause functional progesterone withdrawal, promote

  10. Progesterone Receptor Action in Leiomyoma and Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. Julie; Sefton, Elizabeth C.; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone is a key hormone in the regulation of uterine function. In the normal physiological context, progesterone is primarily involved in remodeling of the endometrium and maintaining a quiescent myometrium. When pathologies of the uterus develop, specifically, endometrial cancer and uterine leiomyoma, response to progesterone is usually altered. Progesterone acts through mainly two isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), PRA and PRB which have been reported to exhibit different transcriptional activities. Studies examining the expression and function of the PRs in the normal endometrium and myometrium as well as in endometrial cancer and uterine leiomyoma are summarized here. The clinical use of progestins and the transcriptional activity of the PR on genes specific to endometrial cancer and leiomyoma are described. An increased understanding of the differential expression of PRs and response to progesterone in these two diseases is critical in order to develop more efficient and targeted therapies. PMID:20374701

  11. Progesterone receptor profile in the decidua and fetal membrane.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Shlomit; Shalev, Eliezer

    2007-01-01

    Whereas in most mammals the onset of labor is preceded by a rapid fall in the maternal progesterone levels, in humans and in higher primates, maternal, fetal and amniotic fluid concentrations of progesterone are sustained before the onset of labor. Therefore, the mechanism for parturition, which has been proposed for humans, is 'functional' progesterone withdrawal. This review is focused on the expression profile, activity and interaction of the progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms in the decidua and the fetal membrane during the initiation of labor. Binding of progesterone to PR induces a significant conformational change on the receptor proteins. These changes result in dimerization, increased receptor phosphorylation and binding of receptor dimers to specific hormone responsive DNA elements in the promoter of target genes. Interaction with specific co-activator proteins and general transcription factors are responsible for the formation of a productive transcription initiation complex. The PR also mediates the activation of cytoplasmic signaling pathways, participating in the induction of signal transduction pathway in the cytoplasm. Balanced expression of the two major progesterone receptors isoforms is crucial for progesterone function as uterine muscle inhibitor. Change in PR isoforms profile seems to be responsible for decidual activation. Decidua without contractions shows consistent profile with PR-B being the dominant isoform. PR-A, PR-C and two additional truncated isoforms are also detected but in significantly smaller concentration. After initiation of contractions, a sharp decline in PR-B shifts the PR-A/PR-B ratio toward PR-A dominance. This shift in the decidua towards increase expression of progesterone receptor isoform A and decrease in PR isoform B is having a pivotal role in decidual activation and initiation of labor.

  12. Fluorescent Ligand for Human Progesterone Receptor Imaging in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We employed molecular modeling to design and then synthesize fluorescent ligands for the human progesterone receptor. Boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) or tetramethylrhodamine were conjugated to the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (Mifepristone) through an extended hydrophilic linker. The fluorescent ligands demonstrated comparable bioactivity to the parent antagonist in live cells and triggered nuclear translocation of the receptor in a specific manner. The BODIPY labeled ligand was applied to investigate the dependency of progesterone receptor nuclear translocation on partner proteins and to show that functional heat shock protein 90 but not immunophilin FKBP52 activity is essential. A tissue distribution study indicated that the fluorescent ligand preferentially accumulates in tissues that express high levels of the receptor in vivo. The design and properties of the BODIPY-labeled RU486 make it a potential candidate for in vivo imaging of PR by positron emission tomography through incorporation of 18F into the BODIPY core. PMID:23600997

  13. Progesterone receptors in the female lower urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, S.C.; Iosif, C.S.

    1987-11-01

    When female estrogenized rabbits were injected i.v. with /sup 3/H-progesterone, the tritium concentration determined after one hour was about two to three times higher in urethra, urinary bladder and vagina than in the heart. High affinity progesterone receptors (KD = 1-2 nM) could be demonstrated in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions prepared from estrogenized rabbit urethra, bladder and vagina. The cytosolic receptor concentration in both urethra and bladder was about half of that in the vagina. The concentration of nuclear receptors in urethra was not significantly different from that in the vagina, but in the bladder the concentration was only about one fourth of that in the vagina or urethra. The mean KD of cytosolic receptors from bladder was significantly higher than the corresponding values in urethra and vagina. Progesterone binding sites in the bladder had a broader hormonal specificity than those in the urethra or vagina. The present demonstration of specific progesterone receptors in the female urethra might provide a possible link between estrogen progesterone interaction and the appearance of urinary incontinence during pregnancy in women.

  14. Prognostic Significance of Single Progesterone Receptor Positivity

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ying; Ding, Xiaoyan; Xu, Binghe; Ma, Fei; Yuan, Peng; Wang, Jiayu; Zhang, Pin; Li, Qing; Luo, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Single progesterone receptor positive (PgR+), especially in form of ER−/PgR+/HER2−, is a nonnegligible phenomenon. Little is known about the characteristics and the role of single PgR positive in this phenotype. Therefore, we explore the significance of single PgR positivity by comparing ER−/PgR+/HER2− breast cancers with triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Three thousand nine hundred sixty-six cases of primary invasive breast carcinoma operated consecutively from January 2005 to May 2008 in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were examined. Two hundred forty (6%) cases were identified as ER−/PgR+/HER2− breast cancers and 348 (8.8%) cases as TNBCs. Clinicopathological characteristics and survivals were analyzed respectively and then compared between 2 subtypes. Compared with patients with TNBCs, ER−/PgR+/HER2− tumor tended to have lower tumor grade (Grade 3: 45.7% vs. 37.5%, P = 0.051) and smaller tumor size (P = 0.036). However, no differences were found between ER−/PgR+/HER2− and TNBC patients in relapse-free survival (RFS) and OS. The 5-year RFS rates were 80.7% and 77.4%, respectively (P = 0.330) and the 5-year OS rates were 88.0% and 85.2%, respectively (P = 0.290). ER−/PgR+/HER2− patients receiving adjuvant endocrine treatment had better RFS (P = 0.016) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.0001) than patients receiving no endocrine therapy. This exclusive analysis of patients with ER−/PgR+/HER2− breast cancers showed that this subtype exhibited an aggressive behavior as TNBC, suggesting that it should also be regarded as biologically distinctive group and single PgR positive itself is not a good prognostic factor. However, adjuvant endocrine therapy could still benefit this group of patients. Further investigations should be done to elucidate the underlying mechanism. PMID:26579819

  15. Progesterone receptor is not required for progesterone action in the rat corpus luteum of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Telleria, C M; Stocco, C O; Stati, A O; Deis, R P

    1999-11-01

    In this study, we investigated whether progesterone exerts a local action regulating the function of the corpus luteum of pregnancy in rats. The luteal activities of the enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), involved in progesterone biosynthesis, and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD), that catabolizes progesterone and reduces progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, were evaluated after intrabursal ovarian administration of progesterone in pregnant rats that had received a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). Luteal 3beta-HSD activity decreased and 20alpha-HSD activity increased after PGF2alpha treatment (100 microg x 2 intraperitoneally on Day 19 of pregnancy at 12:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m.) when compared with controls sacrificed at 8:00 p.m. on Day 20 of pregnancy. This effect of PGF2alpha on the luteal 3beta-HSD and 20alpha-HSD activities was abolished in animals that also received an intraovarian dose of progesterone (3 microg/ovary on Day 19 of pregnancy at 8:00-9:00 a.m.). In a second functional study, luteal cells obtained from 19-day pregnant rats responded to the synthetic progestin promegestone (R5020) in a dose-dependent manner, with an increase in the progesterone output. In addition, the glucocorticoid agent hydrocortisone did not affect progesterone accumulation in the same luteal cell culture. We also examined by immunocytochemistry the expression of progesterone receptors (PR) in the corpora lutea during pregnancy and demonstrated the absence of PR in this endocrine gland in all the days of pregnancy studied. In the same pregnant rats, positive staining for PR was observed in cells within the uteroplacental unit, such as cells of the decidua basalis and trophoblast giant cells of the junctional zone. In addition, positive PR staining was observed in the ovarian granulosa and theca cells of growing follicles, but not in corpora lutea of ovaries obtained from cycling rats at proestrus. In summary

  16. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in androgenic alopecia versus alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M L; Smoller, B R

    1998-04-01

    In some situations, hair growth is under hormonal control. Androgenic alopecia is characterized as hormonally driven hair loss in the genetically susceptible individual. During pregnancy, hair growth is increased, as estrogen appears to prolong the anagen phase. However, postpartum hair loss is common, and thus may be related to a decrease in estrogen and or progesterone levels. In contrast, alopecia areata is not considered to be under hormonal control. We compared the immunohistochemical staining characteristics of nine cases of androgenic alopecia with those of 13 cases of alopecia areata using estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) markers. Estrogen receptor positivity in the dermal papilla was found in only two of 13 cases of alopecia areata, and in one case of androgenic alopecia. Six of 13 cases of alopecia areata demonstrated focal reactivity with the progesterone marker in a similar location, while only three cases of androgenic alopecia showed positivity with this antibody. Examination of the perifollicular fibroblasts for the ER marker showed positivity in one of 13 cases of alopecia areata and in one case of androgenic alopecia. Two cases of alopecia areata revealed focal staining in this location for the PR marker, while the androgenic alopecia cases failed to stain. These results indicate that estrogen and progesterone receptor expression is not significantly increased or decreased in the pilosebaceous units or surrounding mesenchymal cells in androgenic alopecia vs. alopecia areata. Therefore, an indirectly mediated process of estrogen/progesterone control on hair growth and development must be presumed for cases of androgenic alopecia.

  17. Progesterone increases nitric oxide synthesis in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of membrane progesterone receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Progesterone exerts beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system by inducing rapid increases in nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells, but the receptors mediating these nongenomic progesterone actions remain unclear. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that progesterone binds to plasma membranes of HUVECs with the characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs). The selective mPR agonist Org OD 02-0 had high binding affinity for the progesterone receptor on HUVEC membranes, whereas nuclear PR (nPR) agonists R5020 and medroxyprogesterone acetate displayed low binding affinities. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses confirmed that mPRs are expressed in HUVECs and are localized on their plasma membranes. NO levels increased rapidly after treatment with 20 nM progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and a progesterone-BSA conjugate but not with R5020, suggesting that this progesterone action is at the cell surface and initiated through mPRs. Progesterone and Org OD 02-0 (20 nM) also significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and eNOS phosphorylation. Knockdown of mPRα expression by treatment with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the stimulatory effects of 20 nM progesterone on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of nPR was ineffective. Treatment with PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase inhibitors blocked the stimulatory effects of progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and progesterone-BSA on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and also prevented progesterone- and Org OD 02-0-induced increases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation. The results suggest that progesterone stimulation of NO production in HUVECs is mediated by mPRα and involves signaling through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways.

  18. Role of nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms in uterine pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bansari; Elguero, Sonia; Thakore, Suruchi; Dahoud, Wissam; Bedaiwy, Mohamed; Mesiano, Sam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone is a key hormonal regulator of the female reproductive system. It plays a major role to prepare the uterus for implantation and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Actions of progesterone on the uterine tissues (endometrium, myometrium and cervix) are mediated by the combined effects of two progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms, designated PR-A and PR-B. Both receptors function primarily as ligand-activated transcription factors. Progesterone action on the uterine tissues is qualitatively and quantitatively determined by the relative levels and transcriptional activities of PR-A and PR-B. The transcriptional activity of the PR isoforms is affected by specific transcriptional coregulators and by PR post-translational modifications that affect gene promoter targeting. In this context, appropriate temporal and cell-specific expression and function of PR-A and PR-B are critical for normal uterine function. METHODS Relevant studies describing the role of PRs in uterine physiology and pathology (endometriosis, uterine leiomyoma, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer and recurrent pregnancy loss) were comprehensively searched using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and critically reviewed. RESULTS Progesterone, acting through PR-A and PR-B, regulates the development and function of the endometrium and induces changes in cells essential for implantation and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. During pregnancy, progesterone via the PRs promotes myometrial relaxation and cervical closure. Withdrawal of PR-mediated progesterone signaling triggers menstruation and parturition. PR-mediated progesterone signaling is anti-mitogenic in endometrial epithelial cells, and as such, mitigates the tropic effects of estrogen on eutopic normal endometrium, and on ectopic implants in endometriosis. Similarly, ligand-activated PRs function as tumor suppressors in endometrial cancer cells through inhibition of key

  19. RIME proteomics of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    D’Santos, Clive; Taylor, Christopher; Carroll, Jason S.; Mohammed, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptors play an important role in transcriptional regulation of diverse cellular processes and is also relevant in diseases such as cancer. In breast cancer, the nuclear receptors – estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are classical markers of the disease and are used to classify breast cancer subtypes. Using a recently developed affinity purification MS technique (RIME) [1], we investigate the protein interactors of ER and PR in breast cancer cell lines upon stimulation by the ligands – estrogen and progesterone. The data is deposited at proteomeXchange (PXD002104) and is part of a publication [2] that explains the link between the two nuclear receptors and potential consequences of this in breast cancer. In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used and provide details on experimental procedures, analysis methods and analysis of raw data. The purpose of this article is to enable reproducibility of the data and provide technical recommendations on performing RIME in hormonal contexts. PMID:26543891

  20. Cellular progesterone receptor phosphorylation in response to ligands activating protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.V.; Peralta, W.D.; Greene, G.L.; Fox, C.F.

    1987-08-14

    Progesterone receptors were immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies KD68 from lysates of human breast carcinoma T47D cells labelled to steady state specific activity with /sup 32/Pi. The 120 kDa /sup 32/P-labelled progesterone receptor band was resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by autoradiography. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed serine phosphorylation, but no threonine or tyrosine phosphorylation. Treatment of the /sup 32/Pi-labelled cells with EGF, TPA or dibutyryl cAMP had no significant quantitative effect on progesterone receptor phosphorylation, though the EGF receptor and the cAMP-dependent protein kinases have been reported to catalyze phosphorylation of purified avian progesterone receptor preparations in cell free systems. Progesterone receptor phosphorylation on serine residues was increased by 2-fold in cells treated with 10 nM progesterone; EGF had no effect on progesterone-mediated progesterone receptor phosphorylation.

  1. Progesterone-induced activation of membrane-bound progesterone receptors in murine macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Reese, Joshua; Zhou, Ying; Hirsch, Emmet

    2015-02-01

    Parturition is an inflammatory process mediated to a significant extent by macrophages. Progesterone (P4) maintains uterine quiescence in pregnancy, and a proposed functional withdrawal of P4 classically regulated by nuclear progesterone receptors (nPRs) leads to labor. P4 can affect the functions of macrophages despite the reported lack of expression of nPRs in these immune cells. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of the activation of the putative membrane-associated PR on the function of macrophages (a key cell for parturition) and discuss the implications of these findings for pregnancy and parturition. In murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7), activation of mPRs by P4 modified to be active only extracellularly by conjugation to BSA (P4BSA, 1.0×10(-7) mol/l) caused a pro-inflammatory shift in the mRNA expression profile, with significant upregulation of the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 (Ptgs2)), Il1B, and Tnf and downregulation of membrane progesterone receptor alpha (Paqr7) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr). Pretreatment with PD98059, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, significantly reduced P4BSA-induced expression of mRNA of Il1B, Tnf, and Ptgs2. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by H89 blocked P4BSA-induced expression of Il1B and Tnf mRNA. P4BSA induced rapid phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and CREB (a downstream target of PKA). This phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with PD98059 and H89, respectively, revealing that MEK1/2 and PKA are two of the components involved in mPR signaling. Taken together, these results indicate that changes in membrane progesterone receptor alpha expression and signaling in macrophages are associated with the inflammatory responses; and that these changes might contribute to the functional withdrawal of P4 related to labor.

  2. 3D models of lamprey progesterone receptor complexed with progesterone, 7α-hydroxy-progesterone and 15α-hydroxy-progesterone.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael E; Asnaashari, Paiyuam; Chang, David J; McDonnell, Sunsanee

    2011-01-01

    Sea lamprey, a basal vertebrate, contains a progesterone receptor [PR]. An unusual property of lamprey is that gonadotropin-releasing hormone induces synthesis of 15α-hydroxy-progesterone [15α-OH-P] instead of progesterone. There also is indirect evidence for 7α-OH-P in lamprey serum. To determine if there is a structural basis for the binding of 7α-OH-P and 15α-OH-P to lamprey PR, we constructed 3D models of the lamprey PR complexed with progesterone, 7α-OH-P and 15α-OH-P. These 3D models reveal that Met-277 in lamprey PR has a specific interaction with the 15α-hydroxyl on 15α-OH-P and with Met-192, which also contacts the 15α-hydroxyl group. We also find that 7α-OH-P has favorable contacts with side-chains in lamprey PR. BLAST searches reveal that Met-277 on lamprey PR is unique among vertebrate PRs. This unique site on lamprey PR could be a target for compounds to control reproduction in sea lamprey, an environmental pest in Lake Michigan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Progesterone suppresses triple-negative breast cancer growth and metastasis to the brain via membrane progesterone receptor α.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Hongwei; Hu, Yan; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Yufei; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Peng; Xia, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Progesterone plays an important role in mammary epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Evidence from experimental and clinical studies indicates that progesterone is a risk factor for breast cancer under certain conditions through binding nuclear progesterone receptor (PR). These mechanisms, however, are not applicable to triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) due to the lack of PR in these cancers. In this study, we demonstrate that membrane progesterone receptor α (mPRα) is expressed in TNBC tissues and the expression level of mPRα is negatively associated with the TNM stage. We found that progesterone suppressed the growth, migration and invasion of mPRα+ human TNBC cells in vitro, which was neither mediated by PR nor by PR membrane component 1 (PGRMCl). Notably, these effects exerted by progesterone were significantly blocked by shRNA specific to mPRα. Moreover, the knockdown of mPRα expression impaired the inhibitory effects of progesterone on mPRα+ tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These data collectively indicate that progesterone suppresses TNCB growth and metastasis via mPRα, which provides evidence of the anti-neoplastic effects of progesterone-mPRα pathway in the treatment of human TNBC.

  4. Progesterone through progesterone receptors affects survival and metabolism of pig sperm.

    PubMed

    De Amicis, F; Santoro, M; Guido, C; Sisci, D; Bruno, R; Carpino, A; Aquila, S

    2012-11-01

    Progesterone receptors (PR) through interaction with the specific ligand progesterone (PRG), play a central coordinate role in different reproductive events. In this study conventional PR were identified in boar spermatozoa by Western blotting. Immunofluorescence techniques indicate that PR are located at sperm acrosomal region, suggesting a possible role in the oocyte fertilization events. Treatment with 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) enhanced viability and induced cholesterol efflux, serine and tyrosine phosphorylation, p-Bcl2, p-Akt that are known hallmarks of capacitation in sperm. The analysis of the triglyceride contents, lipase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities, as well as the G6PDH activity, was conducted so as to address whether there was an increase in energy expenditure via 17-OHP through the PR. Taken together these results, particularly the 17-OHP action on boar sperm lipid and glucose metabolism, give emphasis to the role of PR in sperm physiology within the oviductal environment. Moreover the present study highlights, the effect of PRG via PR on boar sperm survival, renewing the role of this hormone in male reproduction as candidate for boar fertility. Thus the present research contributes to further elucidating the role of progesterone on the physiological regulation of the most relevant spermatozoa functions for a successful fertilization.

  5. Pregnancy without progesterone in horses defines a second endogenous biopotent progesterone receptor agonist, 5α-dihydroprogesterone

    PubMed Central

    Scholtz, Elizabeth L.; Krishnan, Shweta; Ball, Barry A.; Corbin, C. Jo; Moeller, Benjamin C.; Stanley, Scott D.; McDowell, Karen J.; Hughes, Austin L.; McDonnell, Donald P.; Conley, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most widely accepted axioms of mammalian reproductive biology is that pregnancy requires the (sole) support of progesterone, acting in large measure through nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine and cervical tissues, without which pregnancy cannot be established or maintained. However, mares lack detectable progesterone in the latter half of pregnancy. Instead of progesterone, several (mainly 5α-reduced) pregnanes are elevated and have long been speculated to provide progestational support in lieu of progesterone itself. To the authors' knowledge, evidence for the bioactivity of a second potent endogenously synthesized pregnane able to support pregnancy in the absence of progesterone has never before been reported. The 5α-reduced progesterone metabolite dihydroprogesterone (DHP) was shown in vivo to stimulate endometrial growth and progesterone-dependent gene expression in the horse at subphysiological concentrations and to maintain equine pregnancy in the absence of luteal progesterone in the third and fourth weeks postbreeding. Results of in vitro studies indicate that DHP is an equally potent and efficacious endogenous progestin in the horse but that the PR evolved with increased agonistic potency for DHP at the expense of potency toward progesterone based on comparisons with human PR responses. Sequence analysis and available literature indicate that the enzyme responsible for DHP synthesis, 5α-reductase type 1, also adapted primarily to metabolize progesterone and thereby to serve diverse roles in the physiology of pregnancy in mammals. Our confirmation that endogenously synthesized DHP is a biopotent progestin in the horse ends decades of speculation, explaining how equine pregnancies survive without measurable circulating progesterone in the last 4 to 5 mo of gestation. PMID:24550466

  6. Pregnancy without progesterone in horses defines a second endogenous biopotent progesterone receptor agonist, 5α-dihydroprogesterone.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Elizabeth L; Krishnan, Shweta; Ball, Barry A; Corbin, C Jo; Moeller, Benjamin C; Stanley, Scott D; McDowell, Karen J; Hughes, Austin L; McDonnell, Donald P; Conley, Alan J

    2014-03-04

    One of the most widely accepted axioms of mammalian reproductive biology is that pregnancy requires the (sole) support of progesterone, acting in large measure through nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine and cervical tissues, without which pregnancy cannot be established or maintained. However, mares lack detectable progesterone in the latter half of pregnancy. Instead of progesterone, several (mainly 5α-reduced) pregnanes are elevated and have long been speculated to provide progestational support in lieu of progesterone itself. To the authors' knowledge, evidence for the bioactivity of a second potent endogenously synthesized pregnane able to support pregnancy in the absence of progesterone has never before been reported. The 5α-reduced progesterone metabolite dihydroprogesterone (DHP) was shown in vivo to stimulate endometrial growth and progesterone-dependent gene expression in the horse at subphysiological concentrations and to maintain equine pregnancy in the absence of luteal progesterone in the third and fourth weeks postbreeding. Results of in vitro studies indicate that DHP is an equally potent and efficacious endogenous progestin in the horse but that the PR evolved with increased agonistic potency for DHP at the expense of potency toward progesterone based on comparisons with human PR responses. Sequence analysis and available literature indicate that the enzyme responsible for DHP synthesis, 5α-reductase type 1, also adapted primarily to metabolize progesterone and thereby to serve diverse roles in the physiology of pregnancy in mammals. Our confirmation that endogenously synthesized DHP is a biopotent progestin in the horse ends decades of speculation, explaining how equine pregnancies survive without measurable circulating progesterone in the last 4 to 5 mo of gestation.

  7. Role of nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms in uterine pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bansari; Elguero, Sonia; Thakore, Suruchi; Dahoud, Wissam; Bedaiwy, Mohamed; Mesiano, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone is a key hormonal regulator of the female reproductive system. It plays a major role to prepare the uterus for implantation and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Actions of progesterone on the uterine tissues (endometrium, myometrium and cervix) are mediated by the combined effects of two progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms, designated PR-A and PR-B. Both receptors function primarily as ligand-activated transcription factors. Progesterone action on the uterine tissues is qualitatively and quantitatively determined by the relative levels and transcriptional activities of PR-A and PR-B. The transcriptional activity of the PR isoforms is affected by specific transcriptional coregulators and by PR post-translational modifications that affect gene promoter targeting. In this context, appropriate temporal and cell-specific expression and function of PR-A and PR-B are critical for normal uterine function. Relevant studies describing the role of PRs in uterine physiology and pathology (endometriosis, uterine leiomyoma, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer and recurrent pregnancy loss) were comprehensively searched using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and critically reviewed. Progesterone, acting through PR-A and PR-B, regulates the development and function of the endometrium and induces changes in cells essential for implantation and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. During pregnancy, progesterone via the PRs promotes myometrial relaxation and cervical closure. Withdrawal of PR-mediated progesterone signaling triggers menstruation and parturition. PR-mediated progesterone signaling is anti-mitogenic in endometrial epithelial cells, and as such, mitigates the tropic effects of estrogen on eutopic normal endometrium, and on ectopic implants in endometriosis. Similarly, ligand-activated PRs function as tumor suppressors in endometrial cancer cells through inhibition of key cellular signaling pathways

  8. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K.

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  9. Role of Progesterone Receptor Isoforms in Regulation of Cell Adhesion and Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0507 TITLE: Role of Progesterone Receptor Isoforms in Regulation of Cell Adhesion and Apoptosis PRINCIPAL...1 Jun 01 - 31 May 02) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Progesterone Receptor Isoforms in Regulation of Cell Adhesion and Apoptosis 6. AUTHOR(S...information) Progesterone receptors (PR) and estrogen receptors (ER) are important prognostic indicators in breast cancer. We believe that PR, in addition to

  10. The Relationship Among HOXA10, Estrogen Receptor α, Progesterone Receptor, and Progesterone Receptor B Proteins in Rectosigmoid Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ricardo Mendes Alves; da Rocha, André Monteiro; Cogliati, Bruno; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Taylor, Hugh S.; da Motta, Eduardo Leme Alves; Serafini, Paulo Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Very few studies have evaluated the expression of homeobox A10 (HOXA10) and steroid (estrogen and progesterone) receptors exclusively in deep endometriosis. Conclusions drawn from studies evaluating peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis are usually generalized to explain the pathogenesis of the disease as a whole. We aimed to evaluate the expression of HOXA10, estrogen receptor α (ER-α), progesterone receptor (PR), and PR-B in rectosigmoid endometriosis (RE), a typical model of deep disease. Methods: We used RE samples from 18 consecutive patients to construct tissue microarray blocks. Nine patients each were operated during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. We quantified the expressions of proteins by immunohistochemistry using the modified Allred score. Result: The HOXA10 was expressed in the stroma of nodules during the secretory phase in 5 of the 18 patients. Expression of ER-α (in 16 of 18 patients), PR (in 17 of 18 patients), and PR-B (17 of 18 patients) was moderate to strong in the glands and stroma of nodules during both phases. Expression of both PR (P = .023) and PR-B (P = .024) was significantly greater during the secretory phase. Conclusion: The HOXA10 is expressed in RE, where it likely imparts the de novo identity of endometriotic lesions. The ER-α, PR, and PR-B are strongly expressed in RE, which differs from previous studies investigating peritoneal and ovarian lesions. This suggests different routes of pathogenesis for each of the 3 types of endometriosis. PMID:25217304

  11. The putative roles of nuclear and membrane-bound progesterone receptors in the female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (CL) is a key regulator of normal cyclical reproductive functions in the females of mammalian species. The physiological effects of progesterone are mediated by the canonical genomic pathway after binding of progesterone to its specific nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), which acts as a ligand-activated transcription factor and has two main isoforms, PGRA and PGRB. These PGR isoforms play different roles in the cell; PGRB acts as an activator of progesterone-responsive genes, while PGRA can inhibit the activity of PGRB. The ratio of these isoforms changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and it corresponds to the different levels of progesterone signaling occurring in the reproductive tract. Progesterone exerts its effects on cells also by a non-genomic mechanism by the interaction with the progesterone-binding membrane proteins including the progesterone membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2, and the membrane progestin receptors (mPRs). These receptors rapidly activate the appropriate intracellular signal transduction pathways, and subsequently they can initiate specific cell responses or modulate genomic cell responses. The diversity of progesterone receptors and their cellular actions enhances the role of progesterone as a factor regulating the function of the reproductive system and other organs. This paper deals with the possible involvement of nuclear and membrane-bound progesterone receptors in the function of target cells within the female reproductive tract.

  12. Progesterone acts via progesterone receptors A and B to regulate breast cancer resistance protein expression.

    PubMed

    Vore, Mary; Leggas, Markos

    2008-03-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2) is an ATP-dependent efflux multidrug transporter that belongs to the G family of half-transporters that consist of six transmembrane-spanning domains and must homodimerize to form the active membrane transporter. It is expressed in the apical plasma membrane domain of the small intestine, endothelium, and liver, where it has been shown to play an important role in limiting drug absorption and distribution and in enhancing drug clearance, respectively. BCRP is also expressed in the apical membrane of mammary alveolar epithelia, where it mediates efflux of substrates into milk, and in the placental syncytiotro-phoblasts, where it reduces fetal exposure to these substrates. BCRP substrates include numerous drugs (topotecan, nitrofurantoin, cimetidine) as well as food carcinogens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and the vitamins riboflavin and folic acid. BCRP expression is regulated by a number of nuclear transcription factors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Hif-1. This issue of Molecular Pharmacology includes a study (p. 845) now conclusively demonstrating that progesterone acts via the progesterone A and B receptors to regulate BCRP expression in a placental cell line.

  13. Progesterone suppresses the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells irrespective of their progesterone receptor status - a short report.

    PubMed

    Godbole, Mukul; Tiwary, Kanishka; Badwe, Rajendra; Gupta, Sudeep; Dutt, Amit

    2017-08-01

    Pre-operative progesterone treatment of breast cancer has been shown to confer survival benefits to patients independent of their progesterone receptor (PR) status. The underlying mechanism and the question whether such an effect can also be observed in PR negative breast cancer cells remain to be resolved. We performed proteome profiling of PR-positive and PR-negative breast cancer cells in response to progesterone using a phospho-kinase array platform. Western blotting was used to validate the results. Cell-based phenotypic assays were conducted using PR-positive and PR-negative breast cancer cells to assess the effect of progesterone. We found that progesterone induces de-phosphorylation of 12 out of 43 kinases tested, which are mostly involved in cellular invasion and migration regulation. Consistent with this observation, we found through cell-based phenotypic assays that progesterone inhibits the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells independent of their PR status. Our results indicate that progesterone can inhibit breast cancer cell invasion and migration mediated by the de-phosphorylation of kinases. This inhibition appears to be independent of the PR status of the breast cancer cells. In a broader context, our study may provide a basis for an association between progesterone treatment and recurrence reduction in breast cancer patients, thereby providing a lead for modelling a randomized in vitro study.

  14. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  15. Intracellular Progesterone Receptor Mediates the Increase in Glioblastoma Growth Induced by Progesterone in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Germán-Castelán, Liliana; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Joaquín; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2016-08-01

    Progesterone (P) is a steroid hormone involved in the development of several types of cancer including astrocytomas, the most common and malignant brain tumors. We undertook this study to investigate the effects of P on the growth and infiltration of a tumor caused by the xenotransplant of U87 cells derived from a human astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma) in the cerebral cortex of male rats and the participation of intracellular progesterone receptor (PR) on these effects. Eight weeks after the implantation of U87 cells in the cerebral cortex, we administered phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) to silence the expression of PR. This treatment lasted 15 days and was administered at the site of glioblastoma cells implantation using Alzet osmotic pumps. Vehicle (propylene glycol) or P4 (400 μg/100 g) was subcutaneously injected for 14 days starting 1 day after the beginning of ODN administration. We observed that P significantly increased glioblastoma tumor area and infiltration length as compared with vehicle, whereas PR antisense ODNs blocked these effects. P, through the interaction with PR, increases the area and infiltration of a brain tumor formed from the xenotransplant of human glioblastoma-derived U87 cells in the cerebral cortex of the rat. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Triterpenes from Alisma orientalis act as androgen receptor agonists, progesterone receptor antagonists, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Ru

    2014-08-01

    Alisma orientalis, a well-known traditional medicine, exerts numerous pharmacological effects including anti-diabetes, anti-hepatitis, and anti-diuretics but its bioactivity is not fully clear. Androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are three members of nuclear receptor superfamily that has been widely targeted for developing treatments for essential diseases including prostate cancer and breast cancer. In this study, two triterpenes, alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate from Alisma orientalis were determined whether they may act as androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulators. Indeed, in the transient transfection reporter assays, alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate transactivated AR in dose-dependent manner, while they transrepressed the transactivation effects exerted by agonist-activated PR and GR. Through molecular modeling docking studies, they were shown to respectively interact with AR, PR, or GR ligand binding pocket fairly well. All these results indicate that alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate from Alisma orientalis might possess therapeutic effects through their modulation of AR, PR, and GR pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 increases depression-like behavior in mice without affecting locomotor ability.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Ethan H; Scibelli, Angela C; Finn, Deborah A

    2011-07-01

    Progesterone withdrawal has been proposed as an underlying factor in premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression. Progesterone withdrawal induces forced swim test (FST) immobility in mice, a depression-like behavior, but the contribution of specific receptors to this effect is unclear. The role of progesterone's GABA(A) receptor-modulating metabolite allopregnanolone in depression- and anxiety-related behaviors has been extensively documented, but little attention has been paid to the role of progesterone receptors. We administered the classic progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU-38486) and the specific progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 to mice that had been primed with progesterone for five days, and found that both compounds induced FST immobility reliably, robustly, and in a dose-dependent fashion. Although CDB-4124 increased FST immobility, it did not suppress initial activity in a locomotor test. These findings suggest that decreased progesterone receptor activity contributes to depression-like behavior in mice, consistent with the hypothesis that progesterone withdrawal may contribute to the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased DNA Methylations at the Progesterone Receptor Promoter A Induce Functional Progesterone Withdrawal in Human Parturition.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Chen, Cheng; Luo, Hui; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Ni, Bing; Chang, Qing

    2014-07-01

    The functional interaction of progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PRA and PRB regulates myometrial transition from the resting state to excitation-contraction to initiate parturition. However, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for maintenance and functional alteration of the PRA and PRB expression levels during human pregnancy and term labor, respectively, remain unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether and how epigenetic DNA modifications, specifically methylations, at the PRs' promoter regions contribute to the differential expression of PRA and PRB in laboring term myometrium of humans. Comparative analysis of PRA and PRB messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels and accompanying changes in their promoters' methylation status was carried out using human myometrial samples from women undergoing singleton, term deliveries by cesarean section, either in the absence of labor (designated as NIL for not-in-labor) or in active labor (designated as IL for in labor). The PRA gene expression was shown to be elevated significantly during labor, while PRB gene expression was unaltered, and this differential expression was accompanied by decreased DNA methylation at the PRA promoter and not at the PRB promoter. In addition, labor-related decreased mRNA expression of the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) family members DNMT1 and DNMT3a was found, however whether the increased expression of DNMTs directly supports the functional withdrawal of progesterone needs further investigation. Collectively, these data indicate that DNA methylation might represent an important epigenetic mechanism of labor-related differential expression of PRs, thereby mediating the biological process of functional PR withdrawal at term for parturition. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Modulation of Progesterone Receptor Isoform Expression in Pregnant Human Myometrium

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. Regulation of myometrial progesterone receptor (PR) expression is an unresolved issue central to understanding the mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal and initiation of labor in women. Objectives. To determine whether pregnant human myometrium undergoes culture-induced changes in PR isoform expression ex situ and, further, to determine if conditions approaching the in vivo environment stabilise PR isoform expression in culture. Methods. Term nonlaboring human myometrial tissues were cultured under specific conditions: serum supplementation, steroids, stretch, cAMP, PMA, PGF2α, NF-κB inhibitors, or TSA. Following 48 h culture, PR-T, PR-A, and PR-B mRNA levels were determined using qRT-PCR. PR-A/PR-B ratios were calculated. Results. PR-T and PR-A expression and the PR-A/PR-B ratio significantly increased in culture. Steroids prevented the culture-induced increase in PR-T and PR-A expression. Stretch blocked the effects of steroids on PR-T and PR-A expression. PMA further increased the PR-A/PR-B ratio, while TSA blocked culture-induced increases of PR-A expression and the PR-A/PR-B ratio. Conclusion. Human myometrial tissue in culture undergoes changes in PR gene expression consistent with transition toward a laboring phenotype. TSA maintained the nonlaboring PR isoform expression pattern. This suggests that preserving histone and/or nonhistone protein acetylation is critical for maintaining the progesterone dependent quiescent phenotype of human myometrium in culture. PMID:28540297

  20. Progesterone attenuates Aβ(25-35)-induced neuronal toxicity via JNK inactivation and progesterone receptor membrane component 1-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yabin; Chen, Zesha; Han, Xiaolei; Wu, Honghai; Yu, Yang; Wu, Jie; Liu, Sha; Hou, Yanning

    2015-11-01

    Progesterone, which acts as a neurosteroid in nervous system, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in different experiments in vitro and in vivo. Our previous study demonstrates that progesterone exerts neuroprotections in Alzheimer's disease-like rats. Present study attempted to evaluate the protective effects of progesterone on Aβ-treated neurons and potential mechanisms involved in neuroprotection. Results showed that treatment with progesterone protected primary cultured rat cortical neurons against Aβ(25-35)-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we observed that progesterone alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction by rescuing mitochondrial membrane potential under Aβ challenge. Moreover, progesterone could also attenuate Bax/Bcl-2 proteins ratio upregulation and inhibit the activation of caspase-3 in Aβ-treated neurons. These indicate that progesterone attenuates Aβ(25-35)-induced neuronal toxicity by inhibiting mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathway. Both classic progesterone receptors (classic PR) and progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a special progesterone membrane receptor, are broadly expressed throughout the brain. The protective effect of progesterone was partially abolished by PGRMC1 inhibitor AG205 rather than classic PR antagonist RU486 in this study. Additionally, progesterone protected neurons by inhibiting Aβ-induced activation of JNK, which was an upstream signaling component in Aβ-induced mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathway. But this process was independent of PGRMC1. Taken together, these results suggest that progesterone exerts a protective effect against Aβ(25-35)-induced insults at least in part by two complementary pathways: (1) progesterone receptor membrane component 1-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and (2) blocking Aβ-induced JNK activation. The present study provides new insights into the mechanism by which progesterone brings neuroprotection. This article is part of a

  1. Structural and Functional Analysis of Domains of the Progesterone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Krista K.; Roemer, Sarah C.; Churchill, Mair E.A.; Edwards, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are multi-domain proteins composed of conserved well-structured regions, such as ligand (LBD) and DNA binding domains (DBD), plus other naturally unstructured regions including the amino-terminal domain (NTD) and the hinge region between the LBD and DBD. The hinge is more than just a flexible region between the DBD and LBD and is capable of binding co-regulatory proteins and the minor groove of DNA flanking hormone response elements. Because the hinge can directly participate in DNA binding it has also been termed the carboxyl terminal extension (CTE) of the DNA binding domain. The CTE and NTD are dynamic regions of the receptor that can adopt multiple conformations depending on the environment of interacting proteins and DNA. Both regions have important regulatory roles for multiple receptor functions that are related to the ability of the CTE and NTD to form multiple active conformations. This review focuses on studies of the CTE and NTD of progesterone receptor (PR), as well as related work with other steroid/nuclear receptors. PMID:21803119

  2. Inhibition of oxytocin receptor function by direct binding of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Grazzini, E; Guillon, G; Mouillac, B; Zingg, H H

    1998-04-02

    The steroid hormone progesterone (P4) is essential for establishing and maintaining pregnancy in mammals. One of its functions includes maintenance of uterine quiescence by decreasing uterine sensitivity to the uterotonic peptide hormone oxytocin. Although it is generally held that steroid hormones such as P4 act at a genomic level by binding to nuclear receptors and modulating the expression of specific target genes, we show here that the effect of P4 on uterine sensitivity to oxytocin involves direct, non-genomic action of P4 on the uterine oxytocin receptor (OTR), a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. P4 inhibits oxytocin binding to OTR-containing membranes in vitro, binds with high affinity to recombinant rat OTR expressed in CHO cells, and suppresses oxytocin-induced inositol phosphate production and calcium mobilization. These effects are highly steroid- and receptor-specific, because binding and signalling functions of the closely related human OTR are not affected by P4 itself but by the P4 metabolite 5beta-dihydroprogesterone. Our findings provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between a steroid hormone and a G-protein-coupled receptor and define a new level of crosstalk between the peptide- and steroid-hormone signalling pathways.

  3. Structural and functional analysis of domains of the progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Hill, Krista K; Roemer, Sarah C; Churchill, Mair E A; Edwards, Dean P

    2012-01-30

    Steroid hormone receptors are multi-domain proteins composed of conserved well-structured regions, such as ligand (LBD) and DNA binding domains (DBD), plus other naturally unstructured regions including the amino-terminal domain (NTD) and the hinge region between the LBD and DBD. The hinge is more than just a flexible region between the DBD and LBD and is capable of binding co-regulatory proteins and the minor groove of DNA flanking hormone response elements. Because the hinge can directly participate in DNA binding it has also been termed the carboxyl terminal extension (CTE) of the DNA binding domain. The CTE and NTD are dynamic regions of the receptor that can adopt multiple conformations depending on the environment of interacting proteins and DNA. Both regions have important regulatory roles for multiple receptor functions that are related to the ability of the CTE and NTD to form multiple active conformations. This review focuses on studies of the CTE and NTD of progesterone receptor (PR), as well as related work with other steroid/nuclear receptors.

  4. Control of Endothelin-A Receptor Expression by Progesterone Is Enhanced by Synergy With Gata2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanping; Knutsen, Gregory R.; Brown, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    The endothelin-A receptor (Ednra) is involved in several physiological, pathological, and developmental pathways. Known for its function in vasoconstriction after being activated by endothelin-1, Ednra also controls cephalic neural crest cell development and appears to play a role in several pathologies, including cancer and periodontitis. However, the mechanisms regulating Ednra expression have not been identified despite its important functions. In this study, we investigated the role progesterone plays in Ednra gene expression in vivo and in vitro. In mice, pregnancy promotes Ednra expression in the heart, kidney, lung, uterus, and placenta, and the up-regulation is mediated by progesterone. We determined that the conserved region between −5.7 and −4.2 kb upstream of the mouse Ednra gene is necessary for the progesterone response. We also found that progesterone mediates Ednra activation through progesterone receptor B activation by its recruitment to PRE6, one of the 6 progesterone response elements found in that locus. However, gene activation by means of a GATA2 site was also necessary for the progesterone response. The Gata2 transcription factor enhances the progesterone response mediated by the progesterone receptor B. Together these results indicate that progesterone regulates Ednra expression by synergizing with Gata2 activity, a previously unknown mechanism. This mechanism may have an impact on pathologies involving the endothelin signaling. PMID:23592430

  5. Nuclear progesterone receptor expression in the human fetal membranes and decidua at term before and after labor.

    PubMed

    Merlino, Amy; Welsh, Toni; Erdonmez, Tan; Madsen, Gemma; Zakar, Tamas; Smith, Roger; Mercer, Brian; Mesiano, Sam

    2009-04-01

    To explore how progesterone affects human pregnancy, we identified the progesterone target cells within the fetal membranes (amnion, chorion, and decidua) at term by assessing the extent of expression and localization of the nuclear progesterone receptors, progesterone receptor-A and progesterone receptor-B. Fetal membranes (separated into amnion and chorion-decidua) were obtained after term cesarean deliveries performed before (n = 7) and after (n = 7) labor onset. Nuclear progesterone receptor expression was determined by the abundance of nuclear progesterone receptor mRNAs (by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and proteins (by western blotting). Localization of nPRs was determined by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone receptor-A and progesterone receptor-B mRNA and protein levels were highest in the chorion-decidua and did not change in association with labor. Nuclear progesterone receptor mRNAs and proteins were barely detectable in amnion. Nuclear progesterone receptor immunostaining was detected only in the nucleus of decidual cells. These findings suggest that the decidua, and not the amnion and chorion, is a direct target for nuclear progesterone receptor-mediated progesterone actions during human pregnancy.

  6. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 regulates hepcidin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Rhee, David K; Malhotra, Rajeev; Mayeur, Claire; Hurst, Liam A; Ager, Emily; Shelton, Georgia; Kramer, Yael; McCulloh, David; Keefe, David; Bloch, Kenneth D; Bloch, Donald B; Peterson, Randall T

    2016-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated by the membrane iron exporter ferroportin and its regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin. The hepcidin/ferroportin axis is considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases of iron overload or deficiency. Here, we conducted a chemical screen in zebrafish to identify small molecules that decrease ferroportin protein levels. The chemical screen led to the identification of 3 steroid molecules, epitiostanol, progesterone, and mifepristone, which decrease ferroportin levels by increasing the biosynthesis of hepcidin. These hepcidin-inducing steroids (HISs) did not activate known hepcidin-inducing pathways, including the BMP and JAK/STAT3 pathways. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) was required for HIS-dependent increases in hepcidin biosynthesis, as PGRMC1 depletion in cultured hepatoma cells and zebrafish blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Neutralizing antibodies directed against PGRMC1 attenuated the ability of HISs to induce hepcidin gene expression. Inhibiting the kinases of the SRC family, which are downstream of PGRMC1, blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Furthermore, HIS treatment increased hepcidin biosynthesis in mice and humans. Together, these data indicate that PGRMC1 regulates hepcidin gene expression through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. These studies have identified drug candidates and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases of abnormal iron metabolism.

  7. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 regulates hepcidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Rhee, David K.; Malhotra, Rajeev; Mayeur, Claire; Hurst, Liam A.; Ager, Emily; Shelton, Georgia; Kramer, Yael; McCulloh, David; Keefe, David; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Bloch, Donald B.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated by the membrane iron exporter ferroportin and its regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin. The hepcidin/ferroportin axis is considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases of iron overload or deficiency. Here, we conducted a chemical screen in zebrafish to identify small molecules that decrease ferroportin protein levels. The chemical screen led to the identification of 3 steroid molecules, epitiostanol, progesterone, and mifepristone, which decrease ferroportin levels by increasing the biosynthesis of hepcidin. These hepcidin-inducing steroids (HISs) did not activate known hepcidin-inducing pathways, including the BMP and JAK/STAT3 pathways. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) was required for HIS-dependent increases in hepcidin biosynthesis, as PGRMC1 depletion in cultured hepatoma cells and zebrafish blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Neutralizing antibodies directed against PGRMC1 attenuated the ability of HISs to induce hepcidin gene expression. Inhibiting the kinases of the SRC family, which are downstream of PGRMC1, blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Furthermore, HIS treatment increased hepcidin biosynthesis in mice and humans. Together, these data indicate that PGRMC1 regulates hepcidin gene expression through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. These studies have identified drug candidates and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases of abnormal iron metabolism. PMID:26657863

  8. Progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 increases depression-like behavior in mice without affecting locomotor ability

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Ethan H.; Scibelli, Angela C.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal has been proposed as an underlying factor in premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression. Progesterone withdrawal induces forced swim test (FST) immobility in mice, a depression-like behavior, but the contribution of specific receptors to this effect is unclear. The role of progesterone’s GABAA receptor-modulating metabolite allopregnanolone in depression- and anxiety-related behaviors has been extensively documented, but little attention has been paid to the role of progesterone receptors. We administered the classic progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU-38486) and the specific progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 to mice that had been primed with progesterone for five days, and found that both compounds induced FST immobility reliably, robustly, and in a dose-dependent fashion. Although CDB-4124 increased FST immobility, it did not suppress initial activity in a locomotor test. These findings suggest that decreased progesterone receptor activity contributes to depression-like behavior in mice, consistent with the hypothesis that progesterone withdrawal may contribute to the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. PMID:21163582

  9. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Cléciton Braga; Gomes-Braga, Francisca das Chagas Sheyla Almeida; Costa-Silva, Danylo Rafhael; Escórcio-Dourado, Carla Solange; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Conde, Airton Mendes; da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Maria; Sousa, Emerson Brandão; da Rocha Barros, Lorena; Martins, Luana Mota; Facina, Gil; da-Silva, Benedito Borges

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: “estrogen receptor beta” OR “estrogen receptor alpha” OR “estrogen receptor antagonists” OR “progesterone receptors” OR “astrocytoma” OR “glioma” OR “glioblastoma”. Among the 111 articles identified, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. The majority of reports showed the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas. Overall, higher tumor grades were associated with decreased estrogen receptor expression and increased progesterone receptor expression. PMID:27626480

  10. Infertility associated with the absence of endometrial progesterone receptors in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Dockweiler, J C; Cossic, B; Donnelly, C G; Gilbert, R O; Buckles, E; Cheong, S H

    2017-02-01

    A three-year-old intact female Old English sheepdog was presented for evaluation of infertility. A uterine biopsy was performed during dioestrus, and the microscopic appearance was inconsistent with progesterone stimulation; the glands were sparse, simple and failed to show coiling, while the glandular epithelium was cuboidal instead of columnar. There was very little evidence of glandular activity. Due to the inappropriate appearance of the glands for the stage of the cycle, immunohistochemistry for progesterone receptors was performed. No progesterone receptor-positive immunoreactivity was identified in the endometrial luminal epithelium, glandular epithelium or stroma. Weak intranuclear immunoreactivity was identified within the smooth muscle cells of the myometrium. The absence of progesterone receptors within the endometrial glands is the most likely explanation for the abnormal appearance of the endometrium and for this bitch's infertility. To our knowledge, this is the first report of endometrial progesterone receptor absence in a bitch. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Estrogen receptor-beta, estrogen receptor-alpha, and progesterone resistance in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Bulun, Serdar E; Cheng, You-Hong; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Xue, Qing; Attar, Erkut; Trukhacheva, Elena; Tokunaga, Hideki; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Yin, Ping; Luo, Xia; Lin, Zhihong; Imir, Gonca; Thung, Stephen; Su, Emily J; Kim, J Julie

    2010-01-01

    Loss of progesterone signaling in the endometrium may be a causal factor in the development of endometriosis, and progesterone resistance is commonly observed in women with this disease. In endometriotic stromal cells, the levels of progesterone receptor (PR), particularly the PR-B isoform, are significantly decreased, leading to a loss of paracrine signaling. PR deficiency likely underlies the development of progesterone resistance in women with endometriosis who no longer respond to progestin therapy. Here we review the complex epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms leading to PR deficiency. The initial event may involve deficient methylation of the estrogen receptor (ER)beta promoter resulting in pathologic overexpression of ERbeta in endometriotic stromal cells. We speculate that alterations in the relative levels of ERbeta and ERalpha in endometrial tissue dictate E2-regulated PR expression, such that a decreased ERalpha-tauomicron-ERbeta ratio may result in suppression of PR. In this review, we propose a molecular model that may be responsible for changes in ERbeta and ERalpha leading to PR loss and progesterone resistance in endometriosis.

  12. Progesterone receptor in the reproductive system of the female of Octopus vulgaris: characterization and immunolocalization.

    PubMed

    Di Cosmo, A; Paolucci, M; Di Cristo, C; Botte, V; Ciarcia, G

    1998-08-01

    In this study for the first time we have characterized a progesterone receptor in the reproductive system of the female of Octopus vulgaris. Scatchard analysis revealed that one binding component with high affinity and low capacity for the ligand was present only in the nuclear extract. Competition experiments showed that the progesterone receptor was strictly specific for progesterone. DNA-cellulose binding and DEAE-Sephacel both confirmed the presence of one 3H-progesterone binding component which eluted at a salt concentration of 0.14 +/- 0.05 M NaCl and 0.15 +/- 0.05 M NaCl respectively. By using monoclonal antibodies against chicken progesterone receptor (subunits A and B), we have localized on Western Blot one band of about 70 kDa. Immunoreactivity for progesterone binding molecules has been localized in the nuclei of the follicle cells of the ovary, of the proximal portion of the oviduct and of the outer region of the nidimental gland. These data, taken together, provide evidence that in Octopus vulgaris the progesterone receptor has biochemical and immunohistochemical characteristics resembling those of progesterone receptor in vertebrates.

  13. Progesterone generates cancer stem cells through membrane progesterone receptor-triggered signaling in basal-like human mammary cells.

    PubMed

    Vares, Guillaume; Sai, Sei; Wang, Bing; Fujimori, Akira; Nenoi, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Tetsuo

    2015-07-01

    Ionizing radiation and cumulative exposure to steroid hormones are known risk factors for breast cancer. There is increasing evidence that breast tumors are driven by a subpopulation of tumor-initiating cancer stem cells (CSCs). In MCF10A non-cancerous basal-like PR(-) cells, progesterone treatment and X-rays generated ALDH(+) and CD44(+)/CD24(-) CSCs. Here, we report that in irradiated MCF10A cells, progesterone activated the PI3K/Akt pathway via membrane progesterone receptor (mPR). Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway counteracted the generation of CSCs by progesterone and irradiation. The stimulation of PI3K/Akt via mPR resulted in the inactivation of FOXO transcriptional activity, the upregulation of snail and slug expression and a downregulation of miR-29 expression, which led to increased levels of KLF4, a transcription factor required for breast CSC maintenance. Stabilization of miR-29 expression impeded the generation of CSCs, while its inhibition alone was sufficient to generate CSCs. This study provides a new mechanistic basis for progesterone and radiation-induced breast cancer risk in basal cells. In addition, the elucidation of new pathways and miRNA regulations involved in CSC generation and maintenance may open the door to potential novel anti-CSC strategies.

  14. The Role of Progesterone and a Novel Progesterone Receptor, Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1, in the Inflammatory Response of Fetal Membranes to Ureaplasma parvum Infection.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liping; Ransom, Carla E; Nazzal, Matthew K; Allen, Terrence K; Li, Yi-Ju; Truong, Tracy; Potts, Lauren C; Seed, Patrick C; Murtha, Amy P

    2016-01-01

    Ureaplasma parvum (U. parvum) is gaining recognition as an important pathogen for chorioamnionitis and preterm premature rupture of membranes. We aimed to investigate the roles of progesterone (P4) and a novel progesterone receptor, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), in the response of fetal membranes to U. parvum. Fetal membrane cells (amnion, chorion and decidua) were isolated and confirmed to be free of Mycoplasmataceae. Cells were treated with U. parvum (5x106 CFU), and adherence was quantified by qPCR. Amnion and chorion cells were transfected with scrambled siRNA or validated PGRMC1 siRNA for 72h. Cells were then treated with U. parvum for 4h with or without pretreatment with P4 (10-7 M) or ethanol for 1h. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) mRNA expression were quantified by qRT-PCR. Culture medium was harvested and analyzed for IL-8 and prostaglandin (PGE2) secretion by ELISA and MMP9 activity by zymography. U. parvum had a mean adherence of 15.0±0.6%, 16.9± 3.7% and 4.7±0.3% in cultured amnion, chorion and decidua cells, respectively. Exposure to U. parvum elicited significant inflammatory responses including induction of IL-8, COX-2, PGE2 and MMP9. A possible role of PGRMC1 was identified in the inhibition of U. parvum-stimulated COX-2 and MMP9 mRNA expression in chorion cells and MMP9 activity in amnion cells. On the other hand, it might enhance the U. parvum-stimulated IL-8 protein secretion in amnion cells. P4, mediated through PGRMC1, significantly inhibited U. Parvum-induced MMP9 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA expression in chorion cells. P4 appeared to attenuate U. parvum induced IL-8 mRNA expression in chorion cells, but this P4 effect might not mediated through PGRMC1. In summary, U. parvum preferentially adheres to and induces inflammatory responses in chorion and amnion cells. P4 and PGRMC1 appear to differentially modulate the inflammatory responses induced by U. parvum among amnion and

  15. The Role of Progesterone and a Novel Progesterone Receptor, Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1, in the Inflammatory Response of Fetal Membranes to Ureaplasma parvum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liping; Ransom, Carla E.; Nazzal, Matthew K.; Allen, Terrence K.; Li, Yi-Ju; Truong, Tracy; Potts, Lauren C.; Seed, Patrick C.; Murtha, Amy P.

    2016-01-01

    Ureaplasma parvum (U. parvum) is gaining recognition as an important pathogen for chorioamnionitis and preterm premature rupture of membranes. We aimed to investigate the roles of progesterone (P4) and a novel progesterone receptor, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), in the response of fetal membranes to U. parvum. Fetal membrane cells (amnion, chorion and decidua) were isolated and confirmed to be free of Mycoplasmataceae. Cells were treated with U. parvum (5x106 CFU), and adherence was quantified by qPCR. Amnion and chorion cells were transfected with scrambled siRNA or validated PGRMC1 siRNA for 72h. Cells were then treated with U. parvum for 4h with or without pretreatment with P4 (10−7 M) or ethanol for 1h. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) mRNA expression were quantified by qRT-PCR. Culture medium was harvested and analyzed for IL-8 and prostaglandin (PGE2) secretion by ELISA and MMP9 activity by zymography. U. parvum had a mean adherence of 15.0±0.6%, 16.9± 3.7% and 4.7±0.3% in cultured amnion, chorion and decidua cells, respectively. Exposure to U. parvum elicited significant inflammatory responses including induction of IL-8, COX-2, PGE2 and MMP9. A possible role of PGRMC1 was identified in the inhibition of U. parvum-stimulated COX-2 and MMP9 mRNA expression in chorion cells and MMP9 activity in amnion cells. On the other hand, it might enhance the U. parvum-stimulated IL-8 protein secretion in amnion cells. P4, mediated through PGRMC1, significantly inhibited U. Parvum-induced MMP9 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA expression in chorion cells. P4 appeared to attenuate U. parvum induced IL-8 mRNA expression in chorion cells, but this P4 effect might not mediated through PGRMC1. In summary, U. parvum preferentially adheres to and induces inflammatory responses in chorion and amnion cells. P4 and PGRMC1 appear to differentially modulate the inflammatory responses induced by U. parvum among amnion and

  16. Characterization of the hormone responsive element involved in the regulation of the progesterone receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Savouret, J F; Bailly, A; Misrahi, M; Rauch, C; Redeuilh, G; Chauchereau, A; Milgrom, E

    1991-01-01

    The transcription of the progesterone receptor gene is induced by estrogens and decreased by progestins. Studies were performed to define the regions of the gene and the molecular mechanisms involved. No hormonal regulation could be observed using 5' flanking regions of the gene up to -2762 in front of a heterologous gene. Estrogen and progestin regulation could be observed only when using fragments of the gene extending down to +788. Progressive deletions from the 5' and 3' ends, site-directed mutagenesis and DNase protection experiments with purified estrogen receptor suggested that the biologically active estrogen responsive element (ERE) is present at +698/+723, overlapping the initiation of translation. An oligonucleotide was synthesized bearing this ERE and shown to impart estrogen inducibility to a heterologous gene. Its regulation by anti-estrogens corresponded to that of the in situ progesterone receptor gene since tamoxifen was a partial agonist whereas ICI 164384 was a full antagonist. This ERE also mediated down-regulation by progestins in the presence of the progesterone receptor, even though it has no progesterone receptor binding ability. DNase footprinting showed that this effect was not due to a decrease of estrogen receptor affinity for the ERE in the presence of progesterone receptor. Finally, use of deletion mutants of the progesterone receptor showed that the steroid binding and the DNA binding domains were necessary for down-regulation whereas deletions of various parts of the N-terminal domain were without effect. Images PMID:2050123

  17. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer.

    PubMed

    Grimm, M; Biegner, T; Teriete, P; Hoefert, S; Krimmel, M; Munz, A; Reinert, S

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC.

  18. Sensorimotor development in neonatal progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Willing, Jari; Wagner, Christine K

    2014-01-01

    Early exposure to steroid hormones can permanently and dramatically alter neural development. This is best understood in the organizational effects of hormones during development of brain regions involved in reproductive behaviors or neuroendocrine function. However, recent evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones play a vital role in shaping brain regions involved in cognitive behavior such as the cerebral cortex. The most abundantly expressed steroid hormone receptor in the developing rodent cortex is the progesterone receptor (PR). In the rat, PR is initially expressed in the developmentally-critical subplate at E18, and subsequently in laminas V and II/III through the first three postnatal weeks (Quadros et al. [2007] J Comp Neurol 504:42-56; Lopez & Wagner [2009]: J Comp Neurol 512:124-139), coinciding with significant periods of dendritic maturation, the arrival of afferents and synaptogenesis. In the present study, we investigated PR expression in the neonatal mouse somatosensory cortex. Additionally, to investigate the potential role of PR in developing cortex, we examined sensorimotor function in the first two postnatal weeks in PR knockout mice and their wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (HZ) counterparts. While the three genotypes were similar in most regards, PRKO and HZ mice lost the rooting reflex 2-3 days earlier than WT mice. These studies represent the first developmental behavioral assessment of PRKO mice and suggest PR expression may play an important role in the maturation of cortical connectivity and sensorimotor integration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cloning and initial characterization of nuclear and membrane progesterone receptors in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both native progestagens and synthetic progestins have important effects on reproduction that are mediated through progesterone receptors (PRs). They regulate gamete maturation and can serve as precursors for other steroid hormones in vertebrates and act as reproductive pheromone...

  20. Cloning and initial characterization of nuclear and membrane progesterone receptors in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both native progestagens and synthetic progestins have important effects on reproduction that are mediated through progesterone receptors (PRs). They regulate gamete maturation and can serve as precursors for other steroid hormones in vertebrates and act as reproductive pheromone...

  1. Tracking Progesterone Receptor-Mediated Actions in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Todd P.; Lange, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian steroid hormones contribute to breast cancer initiation and progression primarily through the actions of their nuclear transcription factors, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and progesterone receptors (PRs). These receptors are important drivers of the luminal A and B subtypes of breast cancer, where estrogen-blocking drugs have been effective endocrine therapies for patients with these tumors. However, many patients do not respond, or become resistant to treatment. When endocrine therapies fail, the luminal subtypes of breast cancer are more difficult to treat because these subtypes are among the most heterogeneous in terms of mutation diversity and gene expression profiles. Recent evidence suggests that progestin and PR actions may be important drivers of luminal breast cancers. Clinical trial data has demonstrated that hormone replacement therapy with progestins drives invasive breast cancer and results in greater mortality. PR transcriptional activity is dependent upon cross-talk with growth factor signaling pathways that alter PR phosphorylation, acetylation, or SUMOylation as mechanisms for regulating PR target gene selection required for increased cell proliferation and survival. Site-specific PR phosphorylation is the primary driver of gene-selective PR transcriptional activity. However, PR phosphorylation and heightened transcriptional activity is coupled to rapid PR protein degradation; the range of active PR detected in tumors is likely to be dynamic. Thus, PR target gene signatures may provide a more accurate means of tracking PR’s contribution to tumor progression rather than standard clinical protein-based (IHC) assays. Further development of antiprogestin therapies should be considered along side antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. PMID:24291072

  2. Distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptors isoforms in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background 70–80% of sporadic endometrial carcinomas are defined as endometrioid carcinoma (EC). Early-stage, well differentiated endometrial carcinomas usually retain expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR, respectively), as advanced stage, poorly differentiated tumors often lack one or both of these receptors. Well-described EC prognosis includes tumor characteristics, such as depth of myometrial invasion. Therefore, in the current study, we evaluated the expression profile of ER and PR isoforms, including ER-α, PR-A and PR–B, in correlation to EC tumor histological depth. Methods Using immunohistochemistry and image analysis software, the expression of ER-α, PR-A, PR–B and Ki67 was assessed in endometrial stroma and epithelial glands of superficial, deep and extra-tumoral sections of 15 paraffin embedded EC specimens, and compared to 5 biopsies of non-malignant endometrium. Results Expression of PR-A and ER-α was found to be lower in EC compared to nonmalignant tissue, as the stromal expression was dramatically reduced compared to epithelial cells. Expression ratios of both receptors were significantly high in superficial and deep portions of EC; in non-tumoral portion of EC were close to the ratios of nonmalignant endometrium. PR-B expression was low in epithelial glands of EC superficial and deep portions, and high in the extra-tumoral region. Elevated PR-B expression was found in stroma of EC, as well. Conclusions The ratio of ER-α and PR-A expression in the epithelial glands and the stroma of EC biopsies may serve as an additional parameter in the histological evaluation of EC tumor. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1155060506119016 PMID:24684970

  3. Rational design of orally-active, pyrrolidine-based progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Scott K.; Washburn, David G.; Frazee, James S.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Hoang, Tram H.; Lapinski, Leahann; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Glace, Lindsay E.; Trizna, Walter; Williams, Shawn P.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Laping, Nicholas J.

    2010-09-03

    Using the X-ray crystal structure of an amide-based progesterone receptor (PR) partial agonist bound to the PR ligand binding domain, a novel PR partial agonist class containing a pyrrolidine ring was designed. Members of this class of N-alkylpyrrolidines demonstrate potent and highly selective partial agonism of the progesterone receptor, and one of these analogs was shown to be efficacious upon oral dosing in the OVX rat model of estrogen opposition.

  4. Membrane progesterone receptors: evidence for neuroprotective, neurosteroid signaling and neuroendocrine functions in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei

    2012-01-01

    Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are novel G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor family (PAQR) that mediate a variety of rapid cell surface-initiated progesterone actions in the reproductive system involving activation of intracellular signaling pathways (i.e. nonclassical actions). The mPRs are highly expressed in the brain, but research on their neural functions has only been conducted in a single neuronal cell line, GT1-7 cells, which have negligible nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) expression. GT1-7 cells express mPRα and mPRβ on their plasma membranes which is associated with the presence of high-affinity, specific [(3)H]-progesterone receptor binding. The neurosteroid, allopregnanolone, is an effective ligand for recombinant mPRα with a relative binding affinity of 7.6% that of progesterone. Allopregnanolone acts as a potent mPR agonist on GT1-7 cells, mimicking the progesterone-induced decrease in cAMP accumulation and its antiapoptotic actions at low nanomolar concentrations. The decrease in cAMP levels is associated with rapid progesterone-induced downregulation of GnRH pulsatile secretion from perifused GT1-7 cells. The recent suggestion that mPRs are alkaline ceramidases and mediate sphingolipid signaling is not supported by empirical evidence that TNFα does not bind to mPRs overexpressed in human cells and that exogenous sphingomyelinase is ineffective in mimicking progestin actions through mPRs to induce meiotic maturation of fish oocytes. Taken together, these recent studies indicate that mPRs mediate neuroprotective effects of progesterone and allopregnanolone and are also the likely intermediaries in progesterone-induced inhibition of pulsatile GnRH secretion in GT1-7 cells. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O'Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  6. Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators for contraception

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) are under development to address limitations of current hormonal methods that affect use and effectiveness. This method would be appropriate for use in women with contraindications to, or preferences to avoid, estrogens. A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) also eliminates the need for daily dosing, and therefore might improve the effectiveness of contraception. The principle contraceptive effect of SPRMs is the suppression of ovulation. One limiting factor of chronic SPRM administration is the development of benign endometrial thickening characterized as PRM-associated endometrial changes. Ulipristal acetate is approved for use as an emergency contraceptive pill, but no SPRM is approved for regular contraception. The Population Council is developing an ulipristal acetate CVR for regular contraception. The CVR studied is of a matrix design composed of micronized UPA mixed in a silicone rubber matrix The target product is a ring designed for continuous use over 3 months delivering near steady-state drug levels that will suppress ovulation. Results from Phase 1–2 studies demonstrate that suppression of ovulation occurs with UPA levels above 6–7 ng/mL. PMID:23040126

  7. Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators for contraception.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2013-03-01

    Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) is under development to address the limitations of current hormonal methods that affect use and effectiveness. This method would be appropriate for use in women with contraindications to, or preferences to avoid, estrogens. A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) also eliminates the need for daily dosing and therefore might improve the effectiveness of contraception. The principal contraceptive effect of SPRMs is the suppression of ovulation. One limiting factor of chronic SPRM administration is the development of benign endometrial thickening characterized as PRM-associated endometrial changes. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is approved for use as an emergency contraceptive pill, but no SPRM is approved for regular contraception. The Population Council is developing an ulipristal acetate CVR for regular contraception. The CVR studied is of a matrix design composed of micronized UPA mixed in a silicone rubber matrix The target product is a ring designed for continuous use over 3 months delivering near steady-state drug levels that will suppress ovulation. Results from Phase 1 and 2 studies demonstrate that suppression of ovulation occurs with UPA levels above 6-7 ng/mL.

  8. Selective progesterone receptor modulator development and use in the treatment of leiomyomata and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Chwalisz, Kristof; Perez, Maria Claudia; Demanno, Deborah; Winkel, Craig; Schubert, Gerd; Elger, Walter

    2005-05-01

    Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) represent a new class of progesterone receptor ligands. SPRMs exert clinically relevant tissue-selective progesterone agonist, antagonist, or mixed agonist/antagonist effects on various progesterone target tissues in vivo. Asoprisnil (J867) is the first SPRM to reach an advanced stage of clinical development for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids and endometriosis. Asoprisnil belongs to the class of 11beta-benzaldoxime-substituted estratrienes that exhibit partial progesterone agonist/antagonist effects with high progesterone receptor specificity in animals and humans. Asoprisnil has no antiglucocorticoid activity in humans at therapeutic doses. It exhibits endometrial antiproliferative effects on the endometrium and breast in primates. Unlike progesterone antagonists, asoprisnil does not induce labor in relevant models of pregnancy and parturition. It induces amenorrhea primarily by targeting the endometrium. In human subjects with uterine fibroids, asoprisnil suppressed both the duration and intensity of uterine bleeding in a dose-dependent manner and reduced tumor volume in the absence of estrogen deprivation. In subjects with endometriosis, asoprisnil was effective in reducing nonmenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea. Asoprisnil may, therefore, provide a novel, tissue-selective approach to control endometriosis-related pain. SPRMs have the potential to become a novel treatment of uterine fibroids and endometriosis.

  9. Protective actions of progesterone in the cardiovascular system: potential role of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) in mediating rapid effects.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei

    2013-06-01

    The protective functions of progesterone in the cardiovascular system have received little attention even though evidence has accumulated that progesterone lowers blood pressure, inhibits coronary hyperactivity and has powerful vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. One possible reason why potential beneficial actions of progesterone on cardiovascular functions have not been extensively studied is that divergent effects to those of progesterone have been observed in many clinical trials with synthetic progestins such as medroxyprogesterone acetate which are associated with increased risk of coronary disease. Evidence that progesterone exerts protective effects on cardiovascular functions is briefly reviewed. The finding that progesterone administration decreases blood vessel vasoconstriction in several animal models within a few minutes suggests that rapid, nongenomic progesterone mechanisms are of physiological importance in regulating vascular tone. Rapid activation of second messenger pathways by progesterone has been observed in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, resulting in alterations in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and calcium influx, respectively. Both nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) and novel membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are candidates for the intermediaries in these rapid, cell-surface initiated progesterone actions in endothelial and smooth muscle vascular cells. PRs have been detected in both cell types. New data are presented showing mPRα, mPRβ and mPRγ are also present in human endothelial and smooth muscle vascular cells. Preliminary evidence suggests mPRs mediate rapid progestin signaling in these endothelial cells, resulting in down-regulation of cAMP production and increased nitric oxide synthesis. The role of mPRs in progesterone regulation of cardiovascular functions warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone does not lower serum progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF) in the presence of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Check, J H; DiAntonio, G; DiAntonio, A; Duroseau, M

    2016-01-01

    To determine if mifepristone can lower serum levels of a progesterone (P) induced immunomodulatory protein believed to be needed for the fetus to escape immune surveillance. A female volunteer had her serum P induced blocking factor (PIBF) increased by ingestion of oral micronized P. While remaining on P mifepristone, 200 mg/day was given for six days when another serum PIBF level was obtained. The serum PIBF was 273 ng/ml after five days of oral micronized P. It increased further to 737 ng/ml despite taking six days of 200 mg mifepristone. The mechanism for inducing abortion by mifepristone does not seem to be related to decreasing serum levels of PIBF. This does not eliminate the possibility that the mechanism involves reducing the intracytoplasmic PIBF levels.

  11. Loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions induce preterm cellular and structural remodeling of the cervix and premature birth.

    PubMed

    Yellon, Steven M; Dobyns, Abigail E; Beck, Hailey L; Kurtzman, James T; Garfield, Robert E; Kirby, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    A decline in serum progesterone or antagonism of progesterone receptor function results in preterm labor and birth. Whether characteristics of premature remodeling of the cervix after antiprogestins or ovariectomy are similar to that at term was the focus of the present study. Groups of pregnant rats were treated with vehicle, a progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone or mifepristone), or ovariectomized on day 17 postbreeding. As expected, controls given vehicle delivered at term while rats delivered preterm after progesterone receptor antagonist treatment or ovariectomy. Similar to the cervix before term, the preterm cervix of progesterone receptor antagonist-treated rats was characterized by reduced cell nuclei density, decreased collagen content and structure, as well as a greater presence of macrophages per unit area. Thus, loss of nuclear progesterone receptor-mediated actions promoted structural remodeling of the cervix, increased census of resident macrophages, and preterm birth much like that found in the cervix at term. In contrast to the progesterone receptor antagonist-induced advance in characteristics associated with remodeling, ovariectomy-induced loss of systemic progesterone did not affect hypertrophy, extracellular collagen, or macrophage numbers in the cervix. Thus, the structure and macrophage census in the cervix appear sufficient for premature ripening and birth to occur well before term. With progesterone receptors predominantly localized on cells other than macrophages, the findings suggest that interactions between cells may facilitate the loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions as part of a final common mechanism that remodels the cervix in certain etiologies of preterm and with parturition at term.

  12. Photoaffinity labeling of the progesterone receptor from human endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, C.L.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.

    1985-11-01

    A nude mouse model for the growth of human endometrial carcinoma and hormonal modulation of the progesterone receptor (PR) was established previously. This study describes the effect of 17 beta-estradiol and tamoxifen (TAM) on growth rate and PR concentration in a hormonally responsive human endometrial tumor (EnCa 101) grown in this experimental system and presents the first characterization of human endometrial carcinoma PR. EnCa 101 was transplanted subcutaneously into ovariectomized, BALB/c, nu/nu athymic mice and grown under 17 beta-estradiol-stimulated, TAM-stimulated, and control conditions. Both 17 beta-estradiol and TAM increased the growth rate of EnCa 101 in nude mice, and a parallel increase in the cytosol PR concentration was observed. PR was partially purified by phosphocellulose and DEAE cellulose chromatography, and the DEAE eluate was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and photoaffinity labeling with (17 alpha-methyl-TH)promegestone ((TH)R5020). Two PR-negative tumors (EnCa K and EnCa V) were also examined in parallel. Photolabeling and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of EnCa 101 grown in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol or TAM revealed incorporation of (3H)R5020 into proteins of molecular weight approximately 116,000 and 85,000. Labeled proteins of molecular weight 66,000, 45,000, and 35,000 were also observed. No incorporation of (TH)R5020 was observed in EnCa 101 grown in the absence of estrogen, nor was any observed in EnCa K or EnCa V.

  13. Recent advances in structure of progestins and their binding to progesterone receptors.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Marisa; Heuze, Yvonne; Sánchez, Araceli; Garrido, Mariana; Bratoeff, Eugene

    2015-02-01

    The role of progesterone in women's cancers as well as the knowledge of the progesterone receptor (PR) structure has prompted the design of different therapies. The aim of this review is to describe the basic structure of PR agonists and antagonists as well as the recent treatments for illness associated with the progesterone receptor. The rational design for potent and effective drugs for the treatment of female cancer must consider the structural changes of the androgen and progestogen skeleton which are an indicator of their activity as progestins or antiprogestins. The presence of a hydroxyl group at C-17 in the progesterone skeleton brings about a loss of progestational activity whereas acetylation induces a progestational effect. The incorporation of an ethynyl functional group to the testosterone framework results in a loss of androgenic activity with a concomitant enhancement of the progestational effect. On the other hand, an ester function at C-3 of dehydroepiandrosterone skeleton induces partial antagonism to the PR.

  14. Progesterone receptor isoform functions in normal breast development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kariagina, Anastasia; Aupperlee, Mark D; Haslam, Sandra Z

    2008-01-01

    Progesterone acting through two isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), PRA and PRB, regulates proliferation and differentiation in the normal mammary gland in mouse, rat, and human. Progesterone and PR have also been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of human breast cancer. The focus of this review is recent advances in understanding the role of the PR isoform-specific functions in the normal breast and in breast cancer. Also discussed is information obtained from rodent studies and their relevance to our understanding of the role of progestins in breast cancer etiology.

  15. Progesterone Receptor Isoform Functions in Normal Breast Development and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kariagina, Anastasia; Aupperlee, Mark D.; Haslam, Sandra Z.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone acting through two isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), PRA and PRB, regulates proliferation and differentiation in the normal mammary gland in mouse, rat and human. Progesterone and PR have also been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of human breast cancer. The focus of this review is on recent advances in understanding the role of the PR isoform specific functions in the normal breast and in breast cancer. Also discussed is information obtained from rodent studies and their relevance to our understanding of the role of progestins in breast cancer etiology. PMID:18197783

  16. Nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms and their functions in the female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, R; Kowalik, M K; Kotwica, J

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone (P4), which is produced by the corpus luteum (CL), creates proper conditions for the embryo implantation, its development, and ensures proper conditions for the duration of pregnancy. Besides the non-genomic activity of P4 on target cells, its main physiological effect is caused through genomic action by the progesterone nuclear receptor (PGR). This nuclear progesterone receptor occurs in two specific isoforms, PGRA and PGRB. PGRA isoform acts as an inhibitor of transcriptional action of PGRB. The inactive receptor is connected with chaperone proteins and attachment of P4 causes disconnection of chaperones and unveiling of DNA binding domain (DBD). After receptor dimerization in the cells' nucleus and interaction with hormone response element (HRE), the receptor coactivators are connected and transcription is initiated. The ratio of these isoforms changes during the estrous cycle and reflects the different levels of P4 effect on the reproductive system. Both isoforms, PGRA and PGRB, also show a different response to the P4 receptor antagonist activity. Connection of the antagonist to PGRA can block PGRB, but acting through the PGRB isoform, P4 receptor antagonist may undergo conversion to a strongly receptor agonist. A third isoform, PGRC, has also been revealed. This isoform is the shortest and does not have transcriptional activity. Alternative splicing and insertion of additional exons may lead to the formation of different PGR isoforms. This paper summarizes the available data on the progesterone receptor isoforms and its regulatory action within the female reproductive system.

  17. Regulation of uterine progesterone receptors by the nonsteroidal anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhar, Y.; Armstrong, D.T. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors have recently reported that the anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide causes delayed implantation and exhibits antideciduogenic activity in the rat. The present experiments were conducted to examine whether hydroxyflutamide binds to the uterine progesterone receptors and/or alters the progesterone binding sites in the uterus. Cytosol and nuclear fractions from decidualized rat uterus were incubated with (3H)-R5020 without or with increasing concentrations of radioinert R5020, RU486, dihydrotestosterone, or hydroxyflutamide. From the log-dose inhibition curves, the relative binding affinity of both hydroxyflutamide and dihydrotestosterone was less than 0.1% and 2%, compared with R5020 (100%) for displacing (3H)-R5020 bound to uterine cytosol and nuclear fractions, respectively. Injection of estradiol-17 beta (1 microgram/rat) to ovariectomized prepubertal rats induced a 1.85-fold increase in uterine weight by 24 h. Hydroxyflutamide at 2.5 or 5.0 mg did not significantly alter the estrogen-induced increase in uterine weight. Compared to vehicle alone, estrogen induced an approximately 5-fold increase in uterine cytosolic progesterone binding sites. Hydroxyflutamide at both 2.5- and 5.0-mg doses significantly attenuated the estrogen-induced elevation in uterine progesterone binding sites. These studies demonstrate that hydroxyflutamide does not bind with high affinity to progesterone receptors, but suppresses the estrogen-induced elevation in progesterone receptor levels in the uterus.

  18. The biology of progesterone receptor in the normal mammary gland and in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Obr, Alison E; Edwards, Dean P

    2012-06-24

    This paper reviews work on progesterone and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the mouse mammary gland that has been used extensively as an experimental model. Studies have led to the concept that progesterone controls proliferation and morphogenesis of the luminal epithelium in a tightly orchestrated manner at distinct stages of development by paracrine signaling pathways, including receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) as a major paracrine factor. Progesterone also drives expansion of stem cells by paracrine signals to generate progenitors required for alveologenesis. During mid-to-late pregnancy, progesterone has another role to suppress secretory activation until parturition mediated in part by crosstalk between PR and prolactin/Stat5 signaling to inhibit induction of milk protein gene expression, and by inhibiting tight junction closure. In models of hormone-dependent mouse mammary tumors, the progesterone/PR signaling axis enhances pre-neoplastic progression by a switch from a paracrine to an autocrine mode of proliferation and dysregulation of the RANKL signaling pathway. Limited experiments with normal human breast show that progesterone/PR signaling also stimulates epithelial cell proliferation by a paracrine mechanism; however, the signaling pathways and whether RANKL is a major mediator remains unknown. Work with human breast cancer cell lines, patient tumor samples and clinical studies indicates that progesterone is a risk factor for breast cancer and that alteration in progesterone/PR signaling pathways contributes to early stage human breast cancer progression. However, loss of PR expression in primary tumors is associated with a less differentiated more invasive phenotype and worse prognosis, suggesting that PR may limit later stages of tumor progression.

  19. The Biology of Progesterone Receptor in the Normal Mammary gland and in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Obr, Alison; Edwards, Dean P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews work on progesterone and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the mouse mammary gland that has been used extensively as an experimental model. Studies have led to the concept that progesterone controls proliferation and morphogenesis of the luminal epithelium in a tightly orchestrated manner at distinct stages of development by paracrine signaling pathways, including receptor of activated nuclear factor κ ligand (RANKL) as a major paracrine factor. Progesterone also drives expansion of stem cells by paracrine signals to generate progenitors required for alveologenesis. During mid-to-late pregnancy, progesterone has another role to suppress secretory activation until parturition mediated in part by crosstalk between PR and prolactin/Stat5 signaling to inhibit induction of milk protein gene expression, and by inhibiting tight junction closure. In models of hormone-dependent mouse mammary tumors, the progesterone/PR signaling axis enhances pre-neoplastic progression by a switch from a paracrine to an autocrine mode of proliferation and dysregulation of the RANKL signaling pathway. Limited experiments with normal human breast show that progesterone/PR signaling also stimulates epithelial cell proliferation by a paracrine mechanism; however, the signaling pathways and whether RANKL is a major mediator remains unknown. Work with human breast cancer cell lines, patient tumor samples and clinical studies indicates that progesterone is a risk factor for breast cancer and that alteration in progesterone/PR signaling pathways contributes to early stage human breast cancer progression. However, loss of PR expression in primary tumors is associated with a less differentiated more invasive phenotype and worse prognosis, suggesting that PR may limit later stages of tumor progression. PMID:22193050

  20. Selectivity in progesterone and androgen receptor binding of progestagens used in oral contraceptives

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterboer, H.J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, C.A.; Turpijn, E.W.

    1988-09-01

    The relative binding affinities (RBAs) of four progestational compounds (norethisterone, levonorgestrel, 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene) for the human progesterone and androgen receptors were measured in MCF-7 cytosol and intact MCF-7 cells. For the binding to the progesterone receptor, both Org 2058 and Org 3236 (or 3-keto-desogestrel) were used as labelled ligands. The following ranking (low to high) for the RBA of the nuclear (intact cells) progesterone receptor irrespective of the ligand used is found: norethisterone much less than levonorgestrel less than 3-keto-destogestrel less than gestodene. The difference between the various progestagens is significant with the exception of that between 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene, when Org 2058 is used as ligand. For the cytosolic progesterone receptor, the same order is found with the exception that similar RBAs are found for gestodene and 3-keto-desogestrel. The four progestagens clearly differ with respect to binding to the androgen receptor using dihydrotestosterone as labelled ligand in intact cells; the ranking (low to high) is: norethisterone less than 3 keto-desogestrel less than levonorgestrel and gestodene. The difference between 3-keto-desogestrel and levonorgestrel or gestodene is significant. The selectivity indices (ratio of the mean RBA for the progesterone receptor to that of androgen receptor) in intact cells are significantly higher for 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene than for levonorgestrel and norethisterone. From these results we conclude that the introduction of the 18-methyl in norethisterone (levonorgestel) increases both the binding to the progesterone and androgen receptors.

  1. Evaluation of three commercial progesterone receptor assays in a single tamoxifen-treated breast cancer cohort.

    PubMed

    Kornaga, Elizabeth N; Klimowicz, Alexander C; Guggisberg, Natalia; Ogilvie, Travis; Morris, Don G; Webster, Marc; Magliocco, Anthony M

    2016-12-01

    Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status are routinely assessed using immunohistochemistry assays to assist in patient prognosis and clinical management. Three commonly utilized autostainer vendors-Dako, Leica and Ventana-provide ready-to-use progesterone receptor assays; however, they have never been directly compared in a single breast cancer cohort. We looked at three immunohistochemical progesterone receptor assays, in addition to original ligand-binding assay results, in a single retrospective, tamoxifen-treated breast cancer cohort to investigate inter- and intra-observer agreement, concordance, prognostic ability and measures of test performance. All immunohistochemical assays utilized the manufacturer's specified protocols. Five-year disease-free survival was the endpoint of interest, and multivariate models were adjusted for lymph node status, tumor grade, tumor size and human epidermal growth factor 2 status. All assays showed substantial to almost perfect agreement between the three observers (Dako κ=0.69-0.90; Leica κ=0.70-0.89; and Ventana κ=0.78-0.94) and concordance (Dako/Leica κ=0.81; Dako/Ventana κ=0.78; and Leica/Ventana κ=0.82). Univariate survival analyses showed that only the ligand-binding assay, Dako and Ventana assays achieved statistical significance. No statistically significant results were seen in multivariate models, although a strong trend was seen with the Ventana progesterone receptor assay. All assays performed similarly with regards to measures of test performance with ligand-binding assay set as the reference, and all immunohistochemical assays outperformed the ligand-binding assay in regards to 5-year disease-free survival. Despite similar agreement and concordance with the progesterone receptor assays, clear differences were noted with regards to 5-year disease-free survival. Additional survival analyses suggest that clinical utility of estrogen receptor assays vary when investigated in combination with

  2. Progesterone receptors in normal mammary gland: receptor modulations in relation to differentiation

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The biological basis for the observed modulation in cytoplasmic progesterone receptors (PgR) of normal mammary gland occurring during mammary development was investigated. Specifically, the relative roles of hormones vs. differentiation on (a) the decrease in PgR concentration during pregnancy and lactation and (b) the loss of mammary responsiveness to estrogen during lactation were examined. PgR were measured using the synthetic progestin, R5020, as the ligand. The hormones estrogen and progesterone were tested in vivo for their effect of PgR concentration. Mammary gland differentiation was assessed morphologically and by measuring enzymatically active alpha- lactalbumin. These studies show that there is a stepwise decrease in PgR that occurs in two stages. The first decrease is completed by day 12 of pregnancy and the second decrease occurs only after parturition. There appears to be a hormonal basis for the first decrease and it appears to be caused by the negative effect of progesterone on estrogen- mediated increase in PgR. In direct contrast, the absence of PgR during lactation and the mammary tissue insensitivity to estrogenic stimulation of PgR were not related to the hormonal milieu of lactation but were directly related to the secretory state of the mammary gland and lactation per se. PMID:7410476

  3. Progesterone receptors A and B and estrogen receptor alpha expression in normal breast tissue and fibroadenomas.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Gisele; Schneider, Lolita; Cericatto, Rodrigo; Capp, Edison; Brum, Ilma Simoni

    2009-06-01

    Fibroadenomas are the most common benign breast tumors, occurring mainly in young women. Their responses to the hormonal environment are similar to those of normal breast tissue, which suggests that steroid receptors may play a role in tumor development. We evaluated the gene and protein expression of progesterone receptors A and B (PRA and PRB) and the protein expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) in fibroadenoma samples, comparing with adjacent normal breast tissue, from 11 premenopausal women. Progesterone and estradiol levels were determined. No alterations in the PRs gene and protein expression and the ER-alpha protein expression were observed between the follicular and luteal phases, in normal breast versus fibroadenomas. Protein levels of PRA and PRB were higher in fibroadenomas compared to normal breast tissue (P = 0.038 and P = 0.031), while the PRs mRNA levels were similar in both tissues (P = 0.721 and P = 0.139). There were no differences in ER-alpha protein expression between normal breast tissue and fibroadenomas (P = 0.508). The PRA:PRB ratio was similar in the tissues, and also showed a strong correlation in both (r = 0.964, P = 0.0001). Our data suggest a role of PRs in the growth and development of fibroadenomas, although without alterations of the PRA:PRB ratio in these tumors. The absence of alterations in ER-alpha protein levels could be a characteristic behavior of fibroadenomas, unlike breast cancer.

  4. Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Mediates Progesterone-Induced Suppression of Oocyte Meiotic Prophase I and Primordial Folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meng; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Yan; Feng, Lizhao; Wang, Zhengpin; Niu, Wanbo; Du, Xiaoyan; Tang, Wang; Li, Yuna; Wang, Chao; Chen, Zhenwen

    2016-11-16

    Well-timed progression of primordial folliculogenesis is essential for mammalian female fertility. Progesterone (P4) inhibits primordial follicle formation under physiological conditions; however, P4 receptor that mediates this effect and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we used an in vitro organ culture system to show that progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) mediated P4-induced inhibition of oocyte meiotic prophase I and primordial follicle formation. We found that membrane-impermeable BSA-conjugated P4 inhibited primordial follicle formation similar to that by P4. Interestingly, PGRMC1 and its partner serpine1 mRNA-binding protein 1 were highly expressed in oocytes in perinatal ovaries. Inhibition or RNA interference of PGRMC1 abolished the suppressive effect of P4 on follicle formation. Furthermore, P4-PGRMC1 interaction blocked oocyte meiotic progression and decreased intra-oocyte cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in perinatal ovaries. cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP reversed P4-PGRMC1 interaction-induced inhibition of meiotic progression and follicle formation. Thus, our results indicated that PGRMC1 mediated P4-induced suppression of oocyte meiotic progression and primordial folliculogenesis by decreasing intra-oocyte cAMP levels.

  5. Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Mediates Progesterone-Induced Suppression of Oocyte Meiotic Prophase I and Primordial Folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Meng; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Yan; Feng, Lizhao; Wang, Zhengpin; Niu, Wanbo; Du, Xiaoyan; Tang, Wang; Li, Yuna; Wang, Chao; Chen, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Well-timed progression of primordial folliculogenesis is essential for mammalian female fertility. Progesterone (P4) inhibits primordial follicle formation under physiological conditions; however, P4 receptor that mediates this effect and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we used an in vitro organ culture system to show that progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) mediated P4-induced inhibition of oocyte meiotic prophase I and primordial follicle formation. We found that membrane-impermeable BSA-conjugated P4 inhibited primordial follicle formation similar to that by P4. Interestingly, PGRMC1 and its partner serpine1 mRNA-binding protein 1 were highly expressed in oocytes in perinatal ovaries. Inhibition or RNA interference of PGRMC1 abolished the suppressive effect of P4 on follicle formation. Furthermore, P4-PGRMC1 interaction blocked oocyte meiotic progression and decreased intra-oocyte cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in perinatal ovaries. cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP reversed P4–PGRMC1 interaction-induced inhibition of meiotic progression and follicle formation. Thus, our results indicated that PGRMC1 mediated P4-induced suppression of oocyte meiotic progression and primordial folliculogenesis by decreasing intra-oocyte cAMP levels. PMID:27848973

  6. Structural Basis for Agonism and Antagonism for a Set of Chemically Related Progesterone Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Lusher, Scott J.; Raaijmakers, Hans C. A.; Vu-Pham, Diep; Dechering, Koen; Lam, Tsang Wai; Brown, Angus R.; Hamilton, Niall M.; Nimz, Olaf; Bosch, Rolien; McGuire, Ross; Oubrie, Arthur; de Vlieg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The progesterone receptor is able to bind to a large number and variety of ligands that elicit a broad range of transcriptional responses ranging from full agonism to full antagonism and numerous mixed profiles inbetween. We describe here two new progesterone receptor ligand binding domain x-ray structures bound to compounds from a structurally related but functionally divergent series, which show different binding modes corresponding to their agonistic or antagonistic nature. In addition, we present a third progesterone receptor ligand binding domain dimer bound to an agonist in monomer A and an antagonist in monomer B, which display binding modes in agreement with the earlier observation that agonists and antagonists from this series adopt different binding modes. PMID:21849509

  7. Progesterone receptor knockout mice have an improved glucose homeostasis secondary to -cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Frédéric; Wanatabe, Mitsuhiro; Schoonjans, Kristina; Lydon, John; O'Malley, Bert W.; Auwerx, Johan

    2002-11-01

    Gestational diabetes coincides with elevated circulating progesterone levels. We show that progesterone accelerates the progression of diabetes in female db/db mice. In contrast, RU486, an antagonist of the progesterone receptor (PR), reduces blood glucose levels in both female WT and db/db mice. Furthermore, female, but not male, PR-/- mice had lower fasting glycemia than PR+/+ mice and showed higher insulin levels on glucose injection. Pancreatic islets from female PR-/- mice were larger and secreted more insulin consequent to an increase in -cell mass due to an increase in -cell proliferation. These findings demonstrate an important role of progesterone signaling in insulin release and pancreatic function and suggest that it affects the susceptibility to diabetes.

  8. The Physiological Role of Progesterone Receptors in Breast Development and Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    AD GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-94- J -4254 TITLE: The Physiological Role of Progesterone Receptors in Breast Development and Tumorigenesis PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Physiological Role of Progesterone Receptors in Breast Development and Tumorigenesis DAMDI7-94- J -4254 6. AUTHOR(S) Orla M...1985). 4. R. Clarke, R.B. Dickson, M.E. Lippman, Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 12, 1 (1992). 5. R.M. Evans, Science 240, 889 (1988). 6. S.Y. Tsai, M.- J

  9. Progesterone receptor modulates estrogen receptor-α action in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Hisham; Russell, I. Alasdair; Stark, Rory; Rueda, Oscar M.; Hickey, Theresa E.; Tarulli, Gerard A.; Serandour, Aurelien A. A.; Birrell, Stephen N.; Bruna, Alejandra; Saadi, Amel; Menon, Suraj; Hadfield, James; Pugh, Michelle; Raj, Ganesh V.; Brown, Gordon D.; D’Santos, Clive; Robinson, Jessica L. L.; Silva, Grace; Launchbury, Rosalind; Perou, Charles M.; Stingl, John; Caldas, Carlos; Tilley, Wayne D.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Progesterone receptor (PR) expression is employed as a biomarker of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) function and breast cancer prognosis. We now show that PR is not merely an ERα-induced gene target, but is also an ERα-associated protein that modulates its behaviour. In the presence of agonist ligands, PR associates with ERα to direct ERα chromatin binding events within breast cancer cells, resulting in a unique gene expression programme that is associated with good clinical outcome. Progesterone inhibited estrogen-mediated growth of ERα+ cell line xenografts and primary ERα+ breast tumour explants and had increased anti-proliferative effects when coupled with an ERα antagonist. Copy number loss of PgR is a common feature in ERα+ breast cancers, explaining lower PR levels in a subset of cases. Our findings indicate that PR functions as a molecular rheostat to control ERα chromatin binding and transcriptional activity, which has important implications for prognosis and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26153859

  10. Cre-mediated recombination in cell lineages that express the progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Soyal, Selma M; Mukherjee, Atish; Lee, Kevin Y-S; Li, Jie; Li, Huaiguang; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P

    2005-02-01

    Using gene-targeting methods, a progesterone receptor Cre knockin (PR-Cre) mouse was generated in which Cre recombinase was inserted into exon 1 of the PR gene. The insertion positions the Cre gene downstream (and under the specific control) of the endogenous PR promoter. As for heterozygotes for the progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mutation, mice heterozygous for the Cre knockin insertion are phenotypically indistinguishable from wildtype. Crossing the PR-Cre with the ROSA26R reporter revealed that Cre excision activity is restricted to cells that express PR in progesterone-responsive tissues such as the uterus, ovary, oviduct, pituitary gland, and mammary gland. Initial characterization of the PR-Cre mouse underscores the utility of this model to precisely ablate floxed target genes specifically in cell lineages that express the PR. In the wider context of female reproductive tissue ontology, this model will be indispensable in tracing the developmental fate of cell lineages that descend from PR positive progenitors.

  11. Progesterone inhibits proliferation and modulates expression of proliferation-Related genes in classical progesterone receptor-negative human BxPC3 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, Alexey I; Maslakova, Aitsana A; Polikarpova, Anna V; Bulanova, Elena A; Guseva, Alexandra A; Morozov, Ivan A; Rubtsov, Petr M; Smirnova, Olga V; Shchelkunova, Tatiana A

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that progesterone may possess anti-tumorigenic properties. However, a growth-modulatory role of progestins in human cancer cells remains obscure. With the discovery of a new class of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor gene family, it becomes important to study the effect of this hormone on proliferation of tumor cells that do not express classical nuclear progesterone receptors (nPRs). To identify a cell line expressing high levels of mPRs and lacking nPRs, we examined mRNA levels of nPRs and three forms of mPRs in sixteen human tumor cell lines of different origin. High expression of mPR mRNA has been found in pancreatic adenocarcinoma BxPC3 cells, while nPR mRNA has not been detected in these cells. Western blot analysis confirmed these findings at the protein level. We revealed specific binding of labeled progesterone in these cells with affinity constant similar to that of human mPR expressed in yeast cells. Progesterone at high concentration of 20 μM significantly reduced the mRNA levels of proliferation markers Ki67 and PCNA, as well as of cyclin D1, and increased the mRNA levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Progesterone (1 μM and 20 μM) significantly inhibited proliferative activity of BxPC3 cells. These results point to anti-proliferative effects of the progesterone high concentrations on BxPC3 cells and suggest that activation of mPRs may mediate this action. Our data are a starting point for further investigations regarding the application of progesterone in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Parturition Involves Phosphorylation of Progesterone Receptor-A at Serine-345 in Myometrial Cells.

    PubMed

    Amini, Peyvand; Michniuk, Daniel; Kuo, Kelly; Yi, Lijuan; Skomorovska-Prokvolit, Yelenna; Peters, Gregory A; Tan, Huiqing; Wang, Junye; Malemud, Charles J; Mesiano, Sam

    2016-11-01

    The hypothesis that phosphorylation of progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, in myometrial cells affects progesterone action in the context of human parturition was tested. Immunodetection of phosphoserine (pSer) PR forms in term myometrium revealed that the onset of labor is associated with increased phosphorylation of PR-A at serine-345 (pSer345-PRA) and that pSer345-PRA localized to the nucleus of myometrial cells. In explant cultures of term myometrium generation of pSer345-PRA was induced by interleukin-1β and dependent on progesterone, suggesting that pSer345-PRA generation is induced by a proinflammatory stimulus. In the hTERT-HM(A/B) human myometrial cell line, abundance of pSer345-PRA was induced by progesterone in a dose- (EC50 ∼1 nM) and time-dependent manner. Prevention of pSer345 (by site-directed mutagenesis) abolished the capacity for PR-A to inhibit anti-inflammatory actions of progesterone mediated by PR-B but had no effect on the transrepressive activity of PR-A at a canonical progesterone response element. Taken together, the data show that human parturition involves the phosphorylation of PR-A at serine-345 in myometrial cells and that this process is ligand dependent and induced by a proinflammatory stimulus. We also found that in myometrial cells, pSer345 activates the capacity for PR-A to inhibit antiinflammatory actions of progesterone mediated by PR-B. Phosphorylation of PR-A at serine-345 may be an important functional link between tissue-level inflammation and PR-A-mediated functional progesterone withdrawal to trigger parturition.

  13. Progesterone receptor in the prostate: A potential suppressor for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, RuiQi; Yu, Yue; Dong, Xuesen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen receptor pathway inhibition (ARPI) eventually progresses to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), suggesting that (i) androgen receptor (AR) blockage is incomplete, and (ii) there are other critical molecular pathways contributing to prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Although most PCa occurs in the epithelium, prostate stroma is increasingly believed to play a crucial role in promoting tumorigenesis and facilitating tumor progression. In the stroma, sex steroid hormone receptors such as AR and estrogen receptor-α are implicated to have important functions, whereas the progesterone receptor (PR) remains largely under-investigated despite the high sequence and structural similarities between PR and AR. Stromal progesterone/PR signaling may play a critical role in PCa development and progression because not only progesterone is a critical precursor for de novo androgen steroidogenesis and an activator of mutant androgen receptors, but also PR functions in a ligand-independent manner in various important pathways. In fact, recent progress in our understanding of stromal PR function suggests that this receptor may exert an inhibitory effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), reactive stroma development, and PCa progression. These early findings of stromal PR warrant further investigations as this receptor could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in PCa management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulatory Effects of Sex Steroids Progesterone and Estradiol on Odorant Evoked Responses in Olfactory Receptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Paul; Mohrhardt, Julia; Gisselmann, Günter; Hatt, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the sex steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol on physiology and behavior during menstrual cycles and pregnancy is well known. Several studies indicate that olfactory performance changes with cyclically fluctuating steroid hormone levels in females. Knowledge of the exact mechanisms behind how female sex steroids modulate olfactory signaling is limited. A number of different known genomic and non-genomic actions that are mediated by progesterone and estradiol via interactions with different receptors may be responsible for this modulation. Next generation sequencing-based RNA-Seq transcriptome data from the murine olfactory epithelium (OE) and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) revealed the expression of several membrane progestin receptors and the estradiol receptor Gpr30. These receptors are known to mediate rapid non-genomic effects through interactions with G proteins. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining results provide evidence for progestin and estradiol receptors in the ORNs. These data support the hypothesis that steroid hormones are capable of modulating the odorant-evoked activity of ORNs. Here, we validated this hypothesis through the investigation of steroid hormone effects by submerged electro-olfactogram and whole cell patch-clamp recordings of ORNs. For the first time, we demonstrate that the sex steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol decrease odorant-evoked signals in the OE and ORNs of mice at low nanomolar concentrations. Thus, both of these sex steroids can rapidly modulate the odor responsiveness of ORNs through membrane progestin receptors and the estradiol receptor Gpr30. PMID:27494699

  15. Targeting reverse tetracycline-dependent transactivator to murine mammary epithelial cells that express the progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Atish; Soyal, Selma M; Fernandez-Valdivia, Rodrigo; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P

    2007-10-01

    Through an established gene-targeting strategy, reverse tetracycline-dependent transactivator (rtTA) was targeted downstream of the murine progesterone receptor (PR) promoter. Mice were generated in which one (PR(+/rtTA)) or both (PR(rtTA/rtTA)) PR alleles harbor the rtTA insertion. The PR(+/rtTA) and PR(rtTA/rtTA) knockins exhibit phenotypes identical to the normal and the progesterone receptor knockout mouse, respectively. Crossed with the TZA reporter, which carries the TetO-LacZ responder transgene, the PR(+/rtTA)/TZA and PR(rtTA/rtTA)/TZA bigenics exhibit doxycycline-induced beta-galactosidase activity specifically in progesterone responsive target tissues such as the mammary gland, uterus, ovary, and pituitary gland. In the case of the PR(+/rtTA)/TZA mammary epithelium, dual immunofluorescence demonstrated that PR expression and doxycycline-induced beta-galactosidase activity colocalized; beta-galactosidase was not detected in the absence of doxycycline. Although both the PR(+/rtTA) and PR(rtTA/rtTA) knockins represent innovative animal models with which to further query progesterone's mechanism of action in vivo, the PR(rtTA/rtTA) mouse in particular promises to provide unique insight into the paracrine mechanism of action, which underpins progesterone's involvement in mammary morphogenesis with obvious implications for extending our understanding of this steroid's role in breast cancer progression.

  16. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Murji, Ally; Whitaker, Lucy; Chow, Tiffany L; Sobel, Mara L

    2017-04-26

    Uterine fibroids are smooth muscle tumours arising from the uterus. These tumours, although benign, are commonly associated with abnormal uterine bleeding, bulk symptoms and reproductive dysfunction. The importance of progesterone in fibroid pathogenesis supports selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) as effective treatment. Both biochemical and clinical evidence suggests that SPRMs may reduce fibroid growth and ameliorate symptoms. SPRMs can cause unique histological changes to the endometrium that are not related to cancer, are not precancerous and have been found to be benign and reversible. This review summarises randomised trials conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of SPRMs as a class of medication for treatment of individuals with fibroids. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of SPRMs for treatment of premenopausal women with uterine fibroids. We searched the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and clinical trials registries from database inception to May 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of relevant articles and contacted experts in the field to request additional data. Included studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of premenopausal women with fibroids who were treated for at least three months with a SPRM. Two review authors independently reviewed all eligible studies identified by the search. We extracted data and assessed risk of bias independently using standard forms. We analysed data using mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data and odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. We performed meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Our primary outcome was change in fibroid-related symptoms. We included in the review 14 RCTs with a total of 1215 study participants. We could not

  17. Leptin receptor expression during the progression of endometrial carcinoma is correlated with estrogen and progesterone receptors

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-López, Luis Fernando; Zavala-Pompa, Angel; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The hormone leptin, which is produced in the adipose tissue, may influence tumorigenesis directly via its receptor (Ob-R). Thus, a role for Ob-R in endometrial carcinogenesis has been proposed. However, most studies neither included samples of the entire histological progression of endometrial carcinoma nor examined Ob-R jointly with the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR, respectively). Material and methods To determine the fluctuations of Ob-R, ER, and PR during the histological progression of endometrial carcinoma, we assessed their expression via immunohistochemistry (IHC) in six histological types of endometrium (proliferative, secretory, nonatypical and atypical hyperplasia, and endometrioid and nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma), in which we performed histopathological and digital scoring for the quantification of receptors. Results We found that Ob-R expression was positively correlated with that of ER and PR (r = 1, p < 0.001; r = 0.943, p < 0.005, respectively), and there was a significant difference in Ob-R expression among proliferative normal endometrium, hyperplasias, and carcinomas, according to their relative digitally scored Ob-R expression (p < 0.001). In addition, we observed that Ob-R expression in the secretory endometrium was more similar to that of carcinomas than to its proliferative counterpart. Conclusions These results indicate that Ob-R expression fluctuates during endometrial carcinogenesis in correlation with ER and PR, suggesting that Ob-R expression in vivo is highly dependent on estrogen and progesterone activities in the endometrium and on its ER and PR status, as suggested previously by in vitro studies. PMID:28144276

  18. Environmental gestagens activate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) nuclear progesterone and androgen receptors in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gestagen is a collective term for endogenous and synthetic progesterone receptor (PR) ligands. In teleost fishes, 17á,20â-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) and17á,20â,21- trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20â-S) are the predominant progestogens, whereas in other vertebrates the major pro...

  19. Environmental gestagens activate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) nuclear progesterone and androgen receptors in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gestagen is a collective term for endogenous and synthetic progesterone receptor (PR) ligands. In teleost fishes, 17á,20â-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) and17á,20â,21- trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20â-S) are the predominant progestogens, whereas in other vertebrates the major pro...

  20. Antagonist action of progesterone at σ-receptors in the modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Johannessen, Molly; Fontanilla, Dominique; Mavlyutov, Timur; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2011-01-01

    σ-Receptors are integral membrane proteins that have been implicated in a number of biological functions, many of which involve the modulation of ion channels. A wide range of synthetic ligands activate σ-receptors, but endogenous σ-receptor ligands have proven elusive. One endogenous ligand, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), has been shown to act as a σ-receptor agonist. Progesterone and other steroids bind σ-receptors, but the functional consequences of these interactions are unclear. Here we investigated progesterone binding to σ1- and σ2-receptors and evaluated its effect on σ-receptor-mediated modulation of voltage-gated Na+ channels. Progesterone binds both σ-receptor subtypes in liver membranes with comparable affinities and blocks photolabeling of both subtypes in human embryonic kidney 293 cells that stably express the human cardiac Na+ channel Nav1.5. Patch-clamp recording in this cell line tested Na+ current modulation by the σ-receptor ligands ditolylguanidine, PB28, (+)SKF10047, and DMT. Progesterone inhibited the action of these ligands to varying degrees, and some of these actions were reduced by σ1-receptor knockdown with small interfering RNA. Progesterone inhibition of channel modulation by drugs was consistent with stronger antagonism of σ2-receptors. By contrast, progesterone inhibition of channel modulation by DMT was consistent with stronger antagonism of σ1-receptors. Progesterone binding to σ-receptors blocks σ-receptor-mediated modulation of a voltage-gated ion channel, and this novel membrane action of progesterone may be relevant to changes in brain and cardiovascular function during endocrine transitions. PMID:21084640

  1. Antagonist action of progesterone at σ-receptors in the modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Molly; Fontanilla, Dominique; Mavlyutov, Timur; Ruoho, Arnold E; Jackson, Meyer B

    2011-02-01

    σ-Receptors are integral membrane proteins that have been implicated in a number of biological functions, many of which involve the modulation of ion channels. A wide range of synthetic ligands activate σ-receptors, but endogenous σ-receptor ligands have proven elusive. One endogenous ligand, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), has been shown to act as a σ-receptor agonist. Progesterone and other steroids bind σ-receptors, but the functional consequences of these interactions are unclear. Here we investigated progesterone binding to σ(1)- and σ(2)-receptors and evaluated its effect on σ-receptor-mediated modulation of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Progesterone binds both σ-receptor subtypes in liver membranes with comparable affinities and blocks photolabeling of both subtypes in human embryonic kidney 293 cells that stably express the human cardiac Na(+) channel Na(v)1.5. Patch-clamp recording in this cell line tested Na(+) current modulation by the σ-receptor ligands ditolylguanidine, PB28, (+)SKF10047, and DMT. Progesterone inhibited the action of these ligands to varying degrees, and some of these actions were reduced by σ(1)-receptor knockdown with small interfering RNA. Progesterone inhibition of channel modulation by drugs was consistent with stronger antagonism of σ(2)-receptors. By contrast, progesterone inhibition of channel modulation by DMT was consistent with stronger antagonism of σ(1)-receptors. Progesterone binding to σ-receptors blocks σ-receptor-mediated modulation of a voltage-gated ion channel, and this novel membrane action of progesterone may be relevant to changes in brain and cardiovascular function during endocrine transitions.

  2. Loss of Progesterone Receptor-Mediated Actions Induce Preterm Cellular and Structural Remodeling of the Cervix and Premature Birth

    PubMed Central

    Yellon, Steven M.; Dobyns, Abigail E.; Beck, Hailey L.; Kurtzman, James T.; Garfield, Robert E.; Kirby, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    A decline in serum progesterone or antagonism of progesterone receptor function results in preterm labor and birth. Whether characteristics of premature remodeling of the cervix after antiprogestins or ovariectomy are similar to that at term was the focus of the present study. Groups of pregnant rats were treated with vehicle, a progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone or mifepristone), or ovariectomized on day 17 postbreeding. As expected, controls given vehicle delivered at term while rats delivered preterm after progesterone receptor antagonist treatment or ovariectomy. Similar to the cervix before term, the preterm cervix of progesterone receptor antagonist-treated rats was characterized by reduced cell nuclei density, decreased collagen content and structure, as well as a greater presence of macrophages per unit area. Thus, loss of nuclear progesterone receptor-mediated actions promoted structural remodeling of the cervix, increased census of resident macrophages, and preterm birth much like that found in the cervix at term. In contrast to the progesterone receptor antagonist-induced advance in characteristics associated with remodeling, ovariectomy-induced loss of systemic progesterone did not affect hypertrophy, extracellular collagen, or macrophage numbers in the cervix. Thus, the structure and macrophage census in the cervix appear sufficient for premature ripening and birth to occur well before term. With progesterone receptors predominantly localized on cells other than macrophages, the findings suggest that interactions between cells may facilitate the loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions as part of a final common mechanism that remodels the cervix in certain etiologies of preterm and with parturition at term. PMID:24339918

  3. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor synthesis and degradation in target cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nardulli, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    It was the intent of this study to determine the turnover of the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in rat uterine and human breast cancer cells, respectively, and to examine the effect of estrogen and progestin on PR levels. The rates of synthesis and degradation of ER were determined in rat uterine cells in vitro and in vivo. The affinity labeling antiestrogen, (/sup 3/H)tamoxifen aziridine, was used in pulse chase experiments to show that the 65,000 molecular weight ER has a half-life of 3-4h in primary cultures of rat uterine cells in vitro and in the intact rat uterus in vivo. Density shift analyses using dense (/sup 15/N, /sup 13/C, /sup 2/H) amino acid incorporation corroborate the rapid turnover of ER in rat uterine cell cultures. The regulation of PR by progestins in T47D human breast cancer cells was examined using density shift-dense amino acid incorporation. When T47D cells, which normally maintain high PR levels, are exposed to progestin (R5020), PR levels decline. Receptor half-life, which is 21h in control cells, is reduced to 6h when cells are exposed to 20 nM (/sup 3/H)R5020. In addition, PR synthesis rate declines exponentially following R5020 exposure. The reduction in receptor level is thus due to dramatic increases in PR degradation as well as marked decreases in PR synthesis.

  4. Progesterone Receptor-A and -B Have Opposite Effects on Proinflammatory Gene Expression in Human Myometrial Cells: Implications for Progesterone Actions in Human Pregnancy and Parturition

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huiqing; Yi, Lijuan; Rote, Neal S.; Hurd, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Progesterone promotes uterine relaxation during pregnancy and its withdrawal induces labor. Progesterone withdrawal in human parturition is mediated in part by changes in the relative levels of the nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, in myometrial cells. Parturition also involves myometrial inflammation; however, the functional link between nuclear PR-mediated progesterone actions and inflammation in human myometrial cells is unclear. Objective: Our objective was to determine how PR-A and PR-B regulate progesterone action in human myometrial cells and specifically the expression of genes encoding contraction-associated proteins and proinflammatory mediators. Design: Effects of PR-A and PR-B on the capacity for progesterone to modulate gene expression was determined using an immortalized human myometrial cell line stably transfected with inducible PR-A and PR-B expression transgenes and conditioned to express various PR-A and PR-B levels. Gene expression was assessed by genome wide transcriptome analysis, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Results: PR-A and PR-B were each transcriptionally active in response to progesterone and affected the expression of distinct gene cohorts. The capacity for progesterone to affect gene expression was dependent on the PR-A to PR-B ratio. This was especially apparent for the expression of proinflammatory genes. Progesterone decreased proinflammatory gene expression when the PR-A to PR-B ratio favored PR-B and increased proinflammatory gene expression when the ratio favored PR-A. Progesterone via PR-B increased expression of inhibitor-κBα, a repressor of the nuclear factor-κB transcription factor, and inhibited basal and lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory gene expression. Both of those PR-B-mediated effects were inhibited by PR-A. Conclusions: Our data suggest that during most of human pregnancy, when myometrial cells are PR-B dominant, progesterone promotes myometrial quiescence through PR

  5. Overexpression of progesterone receptor A isoform in mice leads to endometrial hyperproliferation, hyperplasia and atypia.

    PubMed

    Fleisch, M C; Chou, Y C; Cardiff, Robert D; Asaithambi, A; Shyamala, G

    2009-04-01

    A delicate balance in estrogen and progesterone signaling through their cognate receptors is characteristic for the physiologic state of the endometrium, and a shift in receptor isotype expression can be frequently found in human endometrial pathology. In this study, using a transgenic mouse model, we examined the mechanisms whereby alterations in progesterone receptor (PR) isotype expression leads to endometrial pathology. For an experimental model, we used transgenic mice (PR-A transgenics) carrying an imbalance in the native ratio of the two PR isoforms A and B (PR-A and PR-B) through the expression of additional A form and examined their uterine phenotype under different hormonal regimens, using various criteria. Uterine epithelial cell proliferation was augmented in PR-A transgenics and was abolished by PR antagonists. In particular, proliferative response to progesterone, independent of signaling through estrogen, was enhanced. Upon continuous exposure to estradiol and progesterone, the uteri in PR-A transgenics displayed gross enlargement, endometrial hyperplasia including atypical lesions, endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Imbalanced expression of the two isoforms of PR in a transgenic model reveals multiple derangements in the regulation of uterine physiology, resulting in various pathologies including hyperplasias.

  6. Progesterone receptor ligand binding pocket flexibility: crystal structures of the norethindrone and mometasone furoate complexes.

    PubMed

    Madauss, Kevin P; Deng, Su-Jun; Austin, Robert J H; Lambert, Millard H; McLay, Iain; Pritchard, John; Short, Steven A; Stewart, Eugene L; Uings, Ian J; Williams, Shawn P

    2004-06-17

    Although progesterone, the natural ligand of the progesterone receptor (PR), has a hydrogen atom at the 17alpha position, other potent steroid agonists such as norethindrone and mometasone furoate have larger substituents at this position that are accommodated by the PR ligand binding pocket. Crystallographic analysis of PR ligand binding domain complexes clearly demonstrated that these moieties were accommodated by local shifts of the protein main chain and by adoption of alternative side chain rotamer conformations of ligand-proximal amino acids. These conformational changes imparted a ligand-specific volume to the binding pocket, from 490 A3 in the metribolone complex to 520 A3 in the norethindrone complex, 565 A3 in the progesterone complex, and 730 A3 in the mometasone furoate complex. Despite these marked alterations in binding pocket volume, critical interactions essential for establishment of an active AF2 conformation were maintained.

  7. Endometrial stromal progesterone receptor-A/progesterone receptor-B ratio: no difference between women with and without endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, Davide; Vigano, Paola; Vignali, Michele; Busacca, Mauro; Panina-Bordignon, Paola; Caporizzo, Elvira; Di Blasio, Anna Maria

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether alterations of the P receptor-A/P receptor-B ratio could be considered an etiopathogenetic factor for endometriosis. We failed to observe statistically significant differences in both P receptor-A/P receptor-B messenger RNA and protein ratio between endometrial stromal cells derived from women with and without endometriosis.

  8. Progesterone Signaling Mediated Through Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 in Ovarian Cells with Special Emphasis on Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Various ovarian cell types including granulosa cells and ovarian surface epithelial cells express the progesterone (P4) binding protein, Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (PGRMC1). PGRMC1 is also expressed in ovarian tumors. PGRMC1 plays an essential role in promoting the survival of both normal and cancerous ovarian cell in vitro. Given the clinical significance of factors that regulate the viability of ovarian cancer, this review will focus on the role of PGRMC1 in ovarian cancer, while drawing insights into the mechanism of PGRMC1’s action from cell lines derived from healthy ovaries as well as ovarian tumors. Studies using PGRMC1 siRNA demonstrated that P4’s ability to inhibit ovarian cells from undergoing apoptosis in vitro is dependent on PGRMC1. To confirm the importance of PGRMC1, the ability of PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cell lines to form tumors in intact nude mice was assessed. Compared to PGRMC1-expressing ovarian cancer cells, PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells formed tumors in fewer mice (80% compared to 100% for controls). Moreover, the number of tumors derived from PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells was 50% of that observed in controls. Finally, the tumors that formed from PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells were about a fourth the size of tumors derived from ovarian cancer cells with normal levels of PGRMC1. One reason for PGRMC1-deplete tumors being smaller is that they had a poorly developed microvasculature system. How PGRMC1 regulates cell viability and in turn tumor growth is not known but part of the mechanism likely involves the regulation of genes that promote cell survival and inhibit apoptosis. PMID:21371489

  9. Effect of early pregnancy on the expression of progesterone receptor and progesterone-induced blocking factor in ovine lymph node.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Zang, Shengqin; Bai, Ying; Yao, Xiaolei; Zhang, Leying

    2017-04-15

    Lymph nodes are the sites where the immune reaction or suppression takes place. Progesterone (P4) exerts an essential effect of the immunomodulation on the maternal uterus during early pregnancy in ruminants. At present study, the inguinal lymph nodes were obtained at day 16 of non-pregnancy, days 13, 16 and 25 of pregnancy (n = 3 for each group) in ewes, and RT-PCR assay, western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to analyze to the effect of early pregnancy on the expression of P4 receptor (PGR) and progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) in the lymph nodes. Our results showed that the PGR and PIBF mRNA were up-regulated in the lymph nodes in pregnant ewes, and the PGR isoform (60 kDa) and the PIBF variant (75 kDa) were expressed constantly in the lymph nodes. However, there was no expression of the PGR isoform (40 kDa) and the PIBF variant (48 kDa) at day 16 of the estrous cycle. The immunohistochemistry results confirmed that the PGR and PIBF proteins were limited to the subcapsular sinus and trabeculae in the cortex, medullary sinuses, and were localized in the cytoplasm of the specific cells. This paper reports for the first time that early pregnancy exerts its effect on the specific cells in the lymph nodes through P4, which results in the up-regulated expression of the PGR mRNA and 40 kDa isoform, the PIBF mRNA and 48 kDa variant, and is involved in the immunoregulation of the lymph nodes through a cytosolic pathway in ewes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ion exchange, chromatofocusing and size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography of the human uterine progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Holmes, S D; Smith, R G

    1985-12-01

    The human uterine progesterone receptor was subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography on size exclusion, anion exchange and chromatofocusing columns. For the rapid isolation of the receptor, recovery of [3H]progesterone as well as protein from the columns was essential. The size exclusion columns (G2000 SW and G3000 SW) as well as Mono P HR 5/20 chromatofocusing column adsorbed [3H]progesterone and thus were not useful for separation purposes. The anion exchange (polyanion SI-17) and chromatofocusing columns, AX500, and IEX 540 DEAE gave very good recoveries of protein (greater than 90%) and [3H]progesterone; 80, 66 and 88% respectively. These columns gave rapid and reproducible separation of the progesterone receptor from other cytosol proteins.

  11. Epithelial progesterone receptor exhibits pleiotropic roles in uterine development and function.

    PubMed

    Franco, Heather L; Rubel, Cory A; Large, Michael J; Wetendorf, Margeaux; Fernandez-Valdivia, Rodrigo; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Spencer, Thomas E; Behringer, Richard R; Lydon, John P; Demayo, Francesco J

    2012-03-01

    The ovarian steroid progesterone, acting through the progesterone receptor (PR), coordinates endometrial epithelial-stromal cell communication, which is critical for its development and function. PR expression in these cellular compartments is under tight temporal and endocrine control. Although ex vivo studies demonstrated the importance of stromal PR expression, they failed to show a role for epithelial PR in uterine function. Here, the in vivo role of PR in the uterine epithelium is defined using floxed PR (PR(f/f)) mice crossed to Wnt7a-Cre mice. Progesterone was unable to stimulate the expression of its epithelial target genes, including Ihh, in the Wnt7a-Cre(+)PR(f/-) mice. Analysis was conducted on Ihh to determine whether PR directly regulates epithelial gene transcription. ChIP-on-chip analysis identified PR binding sites in the 5'-flanking region of Ihh. Cotransfection of the proximal Ihh promoter with PR demonstrated that PR directly regulates Ihh transcription. Female Wnt7a-Cre(+)PR(f/-) mice are infertile due to defects in embryo attachment, stromal cell decidualization, and the inability to cease estrogen-induced epithelial cell proliferation. Finally, progesterone was unable to inhibit neonatal endometrial glandular development in Wnt7a-Cre(+)PR(f/-) mice. Thus, epithelial PR is necessary for the regulation of progesterone epithelial target gene expression, as well as uterine function and development.

  12. Cytologic assessment of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 status in metastatic breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Fresia; Murray, Melissa P; Jean, Ryan Des; Konno, Fumiko; Friedlander, Maria; Lin, Oscar; Edelweiss, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Discordance in the receptor status between primary breast carcinomas (PBC) and corresponding metastasis is well documented. Interrogation of the receptor status of metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) in cytology material is common practice; however, its utility has not been thoroughly validated. We studied patients with MBC, and evaluated the concordance rates of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) between PBC surgical specimens and corresponding MBC cell blocks (CBs). We correlated the findings with clinicopathologic variables and with the fixation methods used. We searched for patients with MBC diagnosed on cytology from 2007 to 2009 and selected those with ER, PR and HER2 tested in both the PBC surgical specimens and the MBC CBs. We included CBs fixed in formalin and methanol based solution (CytoLyt®). All slides were reevaluated by cytopathologists. Clinical information was retrieved from the medical records. We studied 65 patients with PBC and MBC paired specimens. The concordance rates between PBC and MBC were 78.5%, 58.5% and 96.9%, for ER, PR and HER2, respectively. When discordant, PR status switched from positive (PBC) to negative (MBC) in most cases (23/27). The PR concordance rate was 45.2% for CBs fixed in formalin and 70.6% for those fixed with CytoLyt® (p=0.047). The ER, PR and HER2 concordance rates between the PBC and MBC CBs are similar to those reported in paired surgical specimens. PR status was the most prevalent discordance and was not accompanied by a switch in ER.

  13. Expression of the estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, DAN; QI, WENJING; ZHANG, PENGXIN; GUAN, HONGWEI; WANG, LIFEN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the protein expression, in addition to the clinical value of the expression, of estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The expression of ERα, PR and EGFR was examined immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 64 patients with PTC and 14 patients with nodular thyroid goiter (NTG). The expression level of ERα, PR and EGFR was found to be significantly elevated in the PTC tissues compared with the NTG tissues. In addition, the expression of ERα was found to be correlated with the size of PTC tumors. However, there was no significant difference between the expression levels of ERα, PR and EGFR in males and females with PTC. Thus, immunohistochemical evaluation of ERα, PR and EGFR expression in patients with PTC may aid in the prediction of the prognosis of patients with PTC. PMID:26171022

  14. Progesterone receptor B promoter hypermethylation in human placenta after labor onset.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yanyan; Cui, Hong; Liu, Sishi; Zheng, Dongming; Liu, Caixia

    2015-03-01

    To determine the methylation status of progesterone receptor B (PR-B) promoter and how PR-B regulates progesterone action in placenta during human pregnancy. Placentas were obtained from the pregnancy women at term who underwent cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery. The methylation status of the PR-B promoter was analyzed using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. And the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of the PR-B and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Compared with the cesarean group, the placentas of vaginal delivery group had greater levels of PR-B DNA methylation, and the PR-B, DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b mRNA and protein expression were significantly decreased. Progesterone receptor B methylation occurs with high frequency after labor onset and may play an important epigenetic mechanism of labor-related PR-B negative expression, thereby mediating the biological process of functional progesterone withdrawal at term for parturition. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation inhibits progesterone-stimulated human MUC1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Dharmaraj, Neeraja; Brayman, Melissa J; Carson, Daniel D

    2010-07-01

    Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein abundantly expressed on nearly all epithelial tissues and overexpressed by many cancer cells. Previous studies from our lab showed that progesterone receptor (PR)B is a strong stimulator of MUC1 gene expression. It is reported that liganded peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) stimulates Muc1 expression in murine trophoblast. Here, we demonstrate that although the PPARgamma ligand, rosiglitazone, stimulates the murine Muc1 promoter in HEC1A, a human uterine epithelial cell line, rosiglitazone alone, has no significant effect on basal human MUC1 promoter activity. In fact, rosiglitazone treatment antagonizes progesterone-stimulated human MUC1 promoter activity and protein expression in two human uterine epithelial cell lines and T47D human breast cancer cells. This response is antagonized by the PPARgamma antagonist, GW9662, as well as a dominant-negative form of PPARgamma, demonstrating the response is mediated by PPARgamma. Additional studies indicate that PPARgamma activation does not change PR binding to the MUC1 promoter but generally antagonizes progesterone activity by stimulating PRB degradation and inhibiting progesterone-induced PRB phosphorylation. Collectively, these studies indicate that PPARgamma activation inhibits PRB activity through both acute (phosphorylation) and long-term (PRB degradation) pathways.

  16. Oxidative stress effect on progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) binding to PIBF-receptor in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    de la Haba, Carlos; Palacio, José R; Palkovics, Tamas; Szekeres-Barthó, Júlia; Morros, Antoni; Martínez, Paz

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-ligand binding is an essential interaction for biological function. Oxidative stress can modify receptors and/or membrane lipid dynamics, thus altering cell physiological functions. The aim of this study is to analyze how oxidative stress may alter receptor-ligand binding and lipid domain distribution in the case of progesterone-induced blocking factor/progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor. For membrane fluidity regionalization analysis of MEC-1 lymphocytes, two-photon microscopy was used in individual living cells. Lymphocytes were also double stained with AlexaFluor647/progesterone-induced blocking factor and Laurdan to evaluate -induced blocking factor/progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor distribution in the different membrane domains, under oxidative stress. A new procedure has been developed which quantitatively analyzes the regionalization of a membrane receptor among the lipid domains of different fluidity in the plasma membrane. We have been able to establish a new tool which detects and evaluates lipid raft clustering from two-photon microscopy images of individual living cells. We show that binding of progesterone-induced blocking factor to progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor causes a rigidification of plasma membrane which is related to an increase of lipid raft clustering. However, this clustering is inhibited under oxidative stress conditions. In conclusion, oxidative stress decreases membrane fluidity, impairs receptor-ligand binding and reduces lipid raft clustering. © 2013.

  17. Differential Responses of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (Pgrmc1) and the Classical Progesterone Receptor (Pgr) to 17β-Estradiol and Progesterone in Hippocampal Subregions that Support Synaptic Remodeling and Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Namrata; Arimoto, Jason M.; Iwata, Nahoko; Lin, Sharon W.; Zhao, Liqin; Brinton, Roberta D.; Morgan, Todd E.

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) modulate neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling in the hippocampus during the rat estrous cycle and in response to deafferenting lesions, but little is known about the steroidal regulation of hippocampal progesterone receptors associated with these processes. We examined the neuronal expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (Pgrmc1) and the classical progesterone receptor (Pgr), by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Pgr, a transcription factor, has been associated with synaptic remodeling and other major actions of P4, whereas Pgrmc1 is implicated in P4-dependent proliferation of adult neuroprogenitor cells and with rapid P4 effects on membranes. Ovariectomized adult rats were given E2, P4, or E2+P4 on two schedules: a 4-d model of the rodent estrous cycle and a 30-d model of postmenopausal hormone therapy. Pgr was hormonally responsive only in CA1 pyramidal neurons, and the induction of Pgr by E2 was partly antagonized by P4 only on the 30-d schedule. In CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons, Pgr was largely unresponsive to all hormone treatments. In contrast to Pgr, Pgrmc1 was generally induced by E2 and/or P4 throughout the hippocampus in CA1, CA3, and DG neurons. In neuroprogenitor cells of the DG (immunopositive for bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin), both Pgrmc1 and Pgr were detected. The differential regulation of hippocampal Pgrmc1 and Pgr by E2 and P4 may guide drug development in hormonal therapy for support of neurogenesis and synaptic regeneration. PMID:22147012

  18. Systematic dissection of the mechanisms underlying progesterone receptor downregulation in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shujie; Jia, Yichen; Liu, Xiaoyue; Winters, Christopher; Wang, Xinjun; Zhang, Yuping; Devor, Eric J.; Hovey, Adriann M.; Reyes, Henry D.; Xiao, Xue; Xu, Yang; Dai, Donghai; Meng, Xiangbing; Thiel, Kristina W.; Domann, Frederick E.; Leslie, Kimberly K.

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone, acting through its receptor, PR (progesterone receptor), is the natural inhibitor of uterine endometrial carcinogenesis by inducing differentiation. PR is downregulated in more advanced cases of endometrial cancer, thereby limiting the effectiveness of hormonal therapy. Our objective was to understand and reverse the mechanisms underlying loss of PR expression in order to improve therapeutic outcomes. Using endometrial cancer cell lines and data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, our findings demonstrate that PR expression is downregulated at four distinct levels. In well-differentiated cancers, ligand-induced receptor activation and downregulation are intact. miRNAs mediate fine tuning of PR levels. As differentiation is lost, PR silencing is primarily at the epigenetic level. Initially, recruitment of the polycomb repressor complex 2 to the PR promoter suppresses transcription. Subsequently, DNA methylation prevents PR expression. Appropriate epigenetic modulators reverse these mechanisms. These data provide a rationale for combining epigenetic modulators with progestins as a therapeutic strategy for endometrial cancer. Significance: Traditional hormonal therapy for women with endometrial cancer can be molecularly enhanced by combining progestins with epigenetic modulators, thereby increasing progesterone receptor expression and significantly improving treatment efficacy. PMID:25229191

  19. Progesterone induces progesterone receptor gene (PGR) expression via rapid activation of protein kinase pathways required for cooperative estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) genomic action at ER/PR target genes.

    PubMed

    Diep, Caroline H; Ahrendt, Hannah; Lange, Carol A

    2016-10-01

    Progesterone Receptors (PRs) are critical effectors of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling required for mammary gland development and reproductive proficiency. In breast and reproductive tract malignancies, PR expression is a clinical prognostic marker of ER action. While estrogens primarily regulate PR expression, other factors likely contribute to a dynamic range of receptor expression across diverse tissues. In this study, we identified estrogen-independent but progestin (R5020)-dependent regulation of ER target genes including PGR in ER+/PR+ cancer cell lines. R5020 (10nM-10μM range) induced dose-dependent PR mRNA and protein expression in the absence of estrogen but required both PR and ERα. Antagonists of either PR (RU486, onapristone) or ERα (ICI 182,780) attenuated R5020 induction of TFF1, CTSD, and PGR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays performed on ER+/PR+ cells demonstrated that both ERα and PR were recruited to the same ERE/Sp1 site-containing region of the PGR proximal promoter in response to high dose progestin (10μM). Recruitment of ERα and PR to chromatin and subsequent PR mRNA induction were dependent upon rapid activation of MAPK/ERK and AKT; inhibition of these kinase pathways via U0126 or LY294002 blocked these events. Overall, we have identified a novel mechanism of ERα activation initiated by rapid PR-dependent kinase pathway activation and associated with phosphorylation of ERα Ser118 for estrogen-independent but progestin-dependent ER/PR cross talk. These studies may provide insight into mechanisms of persistent ER-target gene expression during periods of hormone (i.e. estrogen) ablation and suggest caution following prolonged treatment with aromatase or CYP17 inhibitors (i.e. contexts when progesterone levels may be abnormally elevated). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cloning and initial characterization of nuclear and four membrane progesterone receptors in the fathead minnow(Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both native progestagens and synthetic progestins have important effects on reproduction that are mediated through progesterone receptors (PRs). Progestagens regulate gamete maturation in vertebrates, are critical regulators of placental mammal pregnancy, and act as reproductive ...

  1. Cloning and initial characterization of nuclear and four membrane progesterone receptors in the fathead minnow(Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both native progestagens and synthetic progestins have important effects on reproduction that are mediated through progesterone receptors (PRs). Progestagens regulate gamete maturation in vertebrates, are critical regulators of placental mammal pregnancy, and act as reproductive ...

  2. Analysis of the Mechanism of Action of RPF1: Potentiator of Progesterone Receptor and p53-dependent Transcriptional Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    of the Mechanism of Action of RPFl: Potentiator of Progesterone Receptor and p53-dependent Transcriptional Activity PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Maria ...this change. Thank you in advance for your help. Sincerely, Maria R. Huacani Principal Investigator DAMD17-98-1-8072 2 Form Approved REPORT...the Mechanism of Action of RPFl: Potentiator DAMD17-98-1-8072 of Progesterone Receptor and p53-dependent Transcriptional Activity 6. AUTHOR(S) Maria

  3. Growth of a progesterone receptor-positive meningioma in a female patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, T; Crowley, R K; Farrell, M; MacNally, S; Govender, P; Feeney, J; Gibney, J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Meningioma growth has been previously described in patients receiving oestrogen/progestogen therapy. We describe the clinical, radiological, biochemical and pathologic findings in a 45-year-old woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to a defect in the 21-hydroxylase enzyme who had chronic poor adherence to glucocorticoid therapy with consequent virilisation. The patient presented with a frontal headache and marked right-sided proptosis. Laboratory findings demonstrated androgen excess with a testosterone of 18.1 nmol/L (0–1.5 nmol) and 17-Hydroxyprogesterone >180 nmol/L (<6.5 nmol/L). CT abdomen was performed as the patient complained of rapid-onset increasing abdominal girth and revealed bilateral large adrenal myelolipomata. MRI brain revealed a large meningioma involving the right sphenoid wing with anterior displacement of the right eye and associated bony destruction. Surgical debulking of the meningioma was performed and histology demonstrated a meningioma, which stained positive for the progesterone receptor. Growth of meningioma has been described in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy, in women receiving contraceptive therapy and in transsexual patients undergoing therapy with high-dose oestrogen and progestogens. Progesterone receptor positivity has been described previously in meningiomas. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone is elevated in CAH and has affinity and biological activity at the progesterone receptor. Therefore, we hypothesise that patients who have long-standing increased adrenal androgen precursor concentrations may be at risk of meningioma growth. Learning points: Patients with long-standing CAH (particularly if not optimally controlled) may present with other complications, which may be related to long-standing elevated androgen or decreased glucocorticoid levels. Chronic poor control of CAH is associated with adrenal myelolipoma and adrenal rest tissue tumours. Meningiomas are sensitive to

  4. Distinguishing features of endometrial pathology after exposure to the progesterone receptor modulator mifepristone.

    PubMed

    Fiscella, Julietta; Bonfiglio, Thomas; Winters, Paul; Eisinger, Steven H; Fiscella, Kevin

    2011-07-01

    There is growing interest in the use of progesterone receptor modulators such as mifepristone for treatment of gynecologic and other conditions, but interest in progesterone receptor modulators is dampened by the effects of the agents on the endometrium. In this study, we examined the endometria of women exposed to mifepristone for treatment of leiomyomas in doses of 2.5 and 5 mg and compared them to unexposed endometria. We assessed the reliability of these features by comparing agreement in ratings between pathologists who were blinded to each other's readings. We assessed distinguishing features between exposed and unexposed groups by comparing frequency of features between groups. We found that key features could be reliably assessed by pathologists experienced in endometrial pathology. We observed several features (nonsynchronous endometrium, large fluid filled glands, and abnormal blood vessels) that distinguished endometrial samples that were and were not exposed to the drug. These findings suggest several features that can be tracked during studies involving mifepristone and, potentially, other progesterone receptor modulators.

  5. pH-dependent effects of sodium tungstate on the steroid-binding properties of the hen oviduct progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Murakami, N; Quattrociocchi, T M; Szocik, J F; Moudgil, V K

    1982-11-24

    Effects of sodium tungstate on the steroid-binding properties of hen oviduct progesterone receptor were examined and were found to be pH-dependent. When freshly prepared hen oviduct cytosol containing progesterone receptor was heated at 37 degrees C for 20 min, its ability to bind [3H]progesterone decreased to 20% level of unheated samples. At pH 7, presence of 2-3 mM tungstate during the above incubation period reduced this loss of binding. At higher tungstate concentrations (greater than 5 mM), this stabilizing effect was gradually abolished. Similar results were obtained with preparations that contained [3H]progesterone-receptor complexes; 70-80% of which remained after a 20 min incubation at 37 degrees C in the presence of 2-3 mM tungstate at pH 7. At pH 8, presence of tungstate (1-10 mM) during the 37 degrees C incubation stabilized both the steroid-bound and the unoccupied progesterone receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. The extent of steroid binding by the receptor at 4 degrees C remained unchanged in the presence of up to 10 mM tungstate at both pH 7 and pH 8 assay conditions while presence of 20 mM tungstate lowered this binding capacity. These results indicate that tungstate effects may be mediated via its interaction with the progesterone receptor.

  6. Membrane Progesterone Receptors (mPRs): Evidence for Neuroprotective, Neurosteroid Signaling and Neuroendocrine Functions in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei

    2012-01-01

    Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are novel G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor family (PAQR) that mediate a variety of rapid, cell surface-initiated progesterone actions in the reproductive system involving activation of intracellular signaling pathways (i.e. nonclassical actions). The mPRs are highly expressed in the brain but research on their neural functions has only been conducted in a single neuronal cell line, GT1-7 cells, which have negligible nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) expression. GT1-7 cells express mPRα and mPRβ on their plasma membranes which is associated with the presence of high affinity, specific [3H]-progesterone receptor binding. The neurosteroid, allopregnanolone, is an effective ligand for recombinant mPRα with a relative binding affinity of 7.6% that of progesterone. Allopregnanolone acts as a potent mPR agonist on GT1-7 cells, mimicking the progesterone-induced decrease in cAMP accumulation and its antiapoptotic actions at low nanomolar concentrations.. The decrease in cAMP levels is associated with rapid progesterone-induced down-regulation of GnRH pulsatile secretion from perifused GT1-7 cells. The recent suggestion that mPRs are alkaline ceramidases and mediate sphingolipid signaling is not supported by empirical evidence that TNFα does not bind to mPRs over expressed in human cells and that exogenous sphingomyelinase is ineffective in mimicking progestin actions through mPRs to induce meiotic maturation of fish oocytes. Taken together, these recent studies indicate that mPRs mediate neuroprotective effects of progesterone and allopregnanolone and are also the likely intermediaries in progesterone-induced inhibition of pulsatile GnRH secretion in GT1-7 cells. PMID:22687885

  7. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) and CD36 Protein Expression: THE DUAL PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ROLES OF PROGESTERONE.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Yan; Sun, Lei; Liu, Ying; Liu, Mengyang; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaoju; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2016-07-15

    Progesterone or its analog, one of components of hormone replacement therapy, may attenuate the cardioprotective effects of estrogen. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Expression of CD36, a receptor for oxidized LDL (oxLDL) that enhances macrophage/foam cell formation, is activated by the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). CD36 also functions as a fatty acid transporter to influence fatty acid metabolism and the pathophysiological status of several diseases. In this study, we determined that progesterone induced macrophage CD36 expression, which is related to progesterone receptor (PR) activity. Progesterone enhanced cellular oxLDL uptake in a CD36-dependent manner. Mechanistically, progesterone increased PPARγ expression and PPARγ promoter activity in a PR-dependent manner and the binding of PR with the progesterone response element in the PPARγ promoter. Specific deletion of macrophage PPARγ (MφPPARγ KO) expression in mice abolished progesterone-induced macrophage CD36 expression and cellular oxLDL accumulation. We also determined that, associated with gestation and increased serum progesterone levels, CD36 and PPARγ expression in mouse adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and peritoneal macrophages were substantially activated. Taken together, our study demonstrates that progesterone can play dual pathophysiological roles by activating PPARγ expression, in which progesterone increases macrophage CD36 expression and oxLDL accumulation, a negative effect on atherosclerosis, and enhances the PPARγ-CD36 pathway in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, a protective effect on pregnancy. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Growth differentiation factor-9 stimulates progesterone synthesis in granulosa cells via a prostaglandin E2/EP2 receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Elvin, J A; Yan, C; Matzuk, M M

    2000-08-29

    Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), an oocyte-secreted member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, progesterone receptor, cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2; Ptgs2), and the EP2 prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor (EP2; Ptgerep2) are required for fertility in female but not male mice. To define the interrelationship of these factors, we used a preovulatory granulosa cell culture system in which we added recombinant GDF-9, prostaglandins, prostaglandin receptor agonists, or cyclooxygenase inhibitors. GDF-9 stimulated Cox2 mRNA within 2 h, and PGE(2) within 6 h; however, progesterone was not increased until 12 h after addition of GDF-9. This suggested that Cox2 is a direct downstream target of GDF-9 but that progesterone synthesis required an intermediate. To determine whether prostaglandin synthesis was required for progesterone production, we analyzed the effects of PGE(2) and cyclooxygenase inhibitors on this process. PGE(2) can stimulate progesterone synthesis by itself, although less effectively than GDF-9 (3-fold vs. 6-fold increase over 24 h, respectively). Furthermore, indomethacin or NS-398, inhibitors of Cox2, block basal and GDF-9-stimulated progesterone synthesis. However, addition of PGE(2) to cultures containing both GDF-9 and NS-398 overrides the NS-398 block in progesterone synthesis. To further define the PGE(2)-dependent pathway, we show that butaprost, a specific EP2 agonist, stimulates progesterone synthesis and overrides the NS-398 block. In addition, GDF-9 stimulates EP2 mRNA synthesis by a prostaglandin- and progesterone-independent pathway. Thus, GDF-9 induces an EP2 signal transduction pathway which appears to be required for progesterone synthesis in cumulus granulosa cells. These studies further demonstrate the importance of oocyte-somatic cell interactions in female reproduction.

  9. Characterization of R5020 and RU486 binding to progesterone receptor from calf uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, C.; Moudgil, V.K.

    1988-05-17

    The authors have examined and compared the binding characteristics of the progesterone agonist R5020 (promegestrone, 17,21-dimethylpregna-4,9(10)-diene-3,20-dione) and the progesterone antagonist RU486 (mifepristone, 17..beta..-hydroxy-11..beta..-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-17..cap alpha..-(prop-1-ynyl)-estra-4,9-dien-3-one) in calf uterine cytosol. Both steroids bound cytosol macromolecule(s) with high affinity, exhibiting K/sub d/ values of 5.6 and 3.6 nM for R5020 and RU486 binding, respectively. The binding of the steroids to the macromolecule(s) was rapid at 4/sup 0/C, showing saturation of binding sites at 1-2 h for (/sup 3/H)progesterone and 2-4 h for both (/sup 3/H)R5020 and (/sup 3/H)RU486. Addition of molybdate and glycerol to cytosol increased the extent of (/sup 3/H)R5020 binding. The extent of (/sup 3/H)RU486 binding remained unchanged in the presence of molybdate, whereas glycerol had an inhibitory effect. Molybdate alone or in combination with glycerol stabilized the (/sup 3/H)R5020- and (/sup 3/H)RU486-receptor complexes at 37/sup 0/C. Competitive steroid binding analysis revealed that (/sup 3/H)progesterone, (/sup 3/H)R5020, and (/sup 3/H)RU486 compete for the same site(s) in the uterine cytosol, suggesting that all three bind to the progesterone receptor (PR). Sedimentation rate analysis showed that both steroids were bound to a molecule that sediments in the 8S region. The 8S (/sup 3/H)R5020 and (/sup 3/H)RU486 peaks were abolished by excess radioinert progesterone, RU486, or R5020. The results of this study suggest that, although there are some differences in the nature of their interaction with the PR, both R5020 and RU486 bind to the same 8S receptor in calf uterine cytosol.

  10. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Zebrafish Nuclear Progesterone Receptor1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi X.; Bogerd, Jan; García-López, Ángel; de Jonge, Hugo; de Waal, Paul P.; Hong, Wan S.; Schulz, Rüdiger W.

    2009-01-01

    Progestagenic sex steroid hormones play critical roles in reproduction across vertebrates, including teleost fish. To further our understanding of how progesterone modulates testis functions in fish, we set out to clone a progesterone receptor (pgr) cDNA exhibiting nuclear hormone receptor features from zebrafish testis. The open reading frame of pgr consists of 1854 bp, coding for a 617-amino acid-long protein showing the highest similarity with other piscine Pgr proteins. Functional characterization of the receptor expressed in mammalian cells revealed that zebrafish Pgr exhibited progesterone-specific, dose-dependent induction of reporter gene expression, with 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), a typical piscine progesterone, showing the highest potency. Expression of pgr mRNA: 1) appeared in embryos at 8 h after fertilization; 2) was significantly higher in developing ovary than in early transforming testis at 4 wk of age but vice versa in young adults at 12 wk of age, and thus resembling the expression pattern of the germ cell marker piwil1; and, 3) was restricted to Leydig and Sertoli cells in adult testis. Zebrafish testicular explants released DHP concentration dependently in response to high concentrations of recombinant zebrafish gonadotropins. In addition, DHP stimulated 11-ketotestosterone release from zebrafish testicular explants, but only in the presence of its immediate precursor, 11beta-hydroxytestosterone. This stimulatory activity was blocked by a Pgr antagonist (RU486), suggesting that 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was stimulated by DHP via Pgr. Our data suggest that DHP contributes to the regulation of Leydig cell steroidogenesis, and potentially—via Sertoli cells—also to germ cell differentiation in zebrafish testis. PMID:19741208

  11. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a zebrafish nuclear progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi X; Bogerd, Jan; García-López, Angel; de Jonge, Hugo; de Waal, Paul P; Hong, Wan S; Schulz, Rüdiger W

    2010-01-01

    Progestagenic sex steroid hormones play critical roles in reproduction across vertebrates, including teleost fish. To further our understanding of how progesterone modulates testis functions in fish, we set out to clone a progesterone receptor (pgr) cDNA exhibiting nuclear hormone receptor features from zebrafish testis. The open reading frame of pgr consists of 1854 bp, coding for a 617-amino acid-long protein showing the highest similarity with other piscine Pgr proteins. Functional characterization of the receptor expressed in mammalian cells revealed that zebrafish Pgr exhibited progesterone-specific, dose-dependent induction of reporter gene expression, with 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), a typical piscine progesterone, showing the highest potency. Expression of pgr mRNA: 1) appeared in embryos at 8 h after fertilization; 2) was significantly higher in developing ovary than in early transforming testis at 4 wk of age but vice versa in young adults at 12 wk of age, and thus resembling the expression pattern of the germ cell marker piwil1; and, 3) was restricted to Leydig and Sertoli cells in adult testis. Zebrafish testicular explants released DHP concentration dependently in response to high concentrations of recombinant zebrafish gonadotropins. In addition, DHP stimulated 11-ketotestosterone release from zebrafish testicular explants, but only in the presence of its immediate precursor, 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone. This stimulatory activity was blocked by a Pgr antagonist (RU486), suggesting that 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was stimulated by DHP via Pgr. Our data suggest that DHP contributes to the regulation of Leydig cell steroidogenesis, and potentially--via Sertoli cells--also to germ cell differentiation in zebrafish testis.

  12. Disrupted Cell Cycle Control in Cultured Endometrial Cells from Patients with Endometriosis Harboring the Progesterone Receptor Polymorphism PROGINS

    PubMed Central

    D'Amora, Paulo; Maciel, Thiago Trovati; Tambellini, Rodrigo; Mori, Marcelo A.; Pesquero, João Bosco; Sato, Helio; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Guerreiro da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim; Schor, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Presently, little is understood about how endometriosis is established or maintained, or how genetic factors can predispose women to the disease. Because of the crucial role that the progesterone receptor polymorphism PROGINS plays in predisposing women to the development of endometriosis, we hypothesized that this variant may influence critical steps during endometrial cell metabolism that are involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Eutopic endometria were collected from three sources: women with endometriosis who had a single PROGINS allele (from the progesterone receptor gene); women with endometriosis who had the wild-type progesterone receptor allele; and women without endometriosis who had the wild-type allele. Cells prepared from the eutopic endometria of these women were stimulated with both estradiol and progesterone, and then examined for cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. The cells from women with endometriosis that carried the PROGINS allele demonstrated increased proliferation, greater viability, and decreased apoptosis following progesterone treatment. In general, these parameters were very different as compared with those of women with endometriosis but without the PROGINS allele and women in the control group. This result indicates there is a reduced level of progesterone responsiveness in women who carry the PROGINS polymorphism. Because progesterone responsiveness is known to be an important characteristic of women with endometriosis, these data support the contention that the PROGINS polymorphism enhances the endometriosis phenotype. PMID:19497994

  13. Disrupted cell cycle control in cultured endometrial cells from patients with endometriosis harboring the progesterone receptor polymorphism PROGINS.

    PubMed

    D'Amora, Paulo; Maciel, Thiago Trovati; Tambellini, Rodrigo; Mori, Marcelo A; Pesquero, João Bosco; Sato, Helio; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Guerreiro da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim; Schor, Eduardo

    2009-07-01

    Presently, little is understood about how endometriosis is established or maintained, or how genetic factors can predispose women to the disease. Because of the crucial role that the progesterone receptor polymorphism PROGINS plays in predisposing women to the development of endometriosis, we hypothesized that this variant may influence critical steps during endometrial cell metabolism that are involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Eutopic endometria were collected from three sources: women with endometriosis who had a single PROGINS allele (from the progesterone receptor gene); women with endometriosis who had the wild-type progesterone receptor allele; and women without endometriosis who had the wild-type allele. Cells prepared from the eutopic endometria of these women were stimulated with both estradiol and progesterone, and then examined for cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. The cells from women with endometriosis that carried the PROGINS allele demonstrated increased proliferation, greater viability, and decreased apoptosis following progesterone treatment. In general, these parameters were very different as compared with those of women with endometriosis but without the PROGINS allele and women in the control group. This result indicates there is a reduced level of progesterone responsiveness in women who carry the PROGINS polymorphism. Because progesterone responsiveness is known to be an important characteristic of women with endometriosis, these data support the contention that the PROGINS polymorphism enhances the endometriosis phenotype.

  14. Pregnancy effects on distribution of progesterone receptors, oestrogen receptor alpha, glucocorticoid receptors, Ki-67 antigen and apoptosis in the bovine interplacentomal uterine wall and foetal membranes.

    PubMed

    Boos, A; Kohtes, J; Janssen, V; Mülling, C; Stelljes, A; Zerbe, H; Hässig, M; Thole, H H

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, studies dealing with the uterus of the pregnant cow focus primarily on the placentome or on early and late pregnancy. Thus, there is a paucity of information about many aspects of the interplacentomal uterine wall including adherent foetal membranes. Corresponding tissue specimens were collected at the slaughterhouse and in animals undergoing premature caesarean section. Two specimens per month of pregnancy were assessed immunohistochemically for progesterone receptors, oestrogen receptor alpha and glucocorticoid receptors, Ki-67 protein and TUNEL procedure was performed. The latter two methods were employed in three animals each per months 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 7 and 8 and in six animals undergoing caesarean section at days 274 and 275 post insemination or during spontaneous labour. Results indicate that proliferation and apoptosis are of minor importance for tissue homeostasis since both can histochemically be detected only sporadically. Thus, at the sites investigated here, cellular hypertrophy plays an important role for tissue growth during pregnancy. Progesterone receptors, oestrogen receptor alpha and glucocorticoid receptors, however, exhibit cell type and pregnancy stage specific distribution patterns within the tissues assessed. Progesterone receptor immunoreactive scores remained fairly unchanged during pregnancy. Oestrogen receptor alpha scores, however, generally decreased and glucocorticoid receptors increased with ongoing gestation. Progesterone receptors and oestrogen receptor alpha were present in endometrial stroma and in myometrial smooth muscle cells during whole pregnancy. Oestrogen receptor alpha was detectable during whole pregnancy also in uterine glands. Progesterone receptors were, however, present at a very low level at the latter site only during months 1-3 and 6-9. Oestrogen receptor alpha and glucocorticoid receptors may also mediate uterine blood flow since they were present in the tunica media of uterine blood vessels

  15. Effects of low-dose tamoxifen on breast cancer biomarkers Ki-67, estrogen and progesterone receptors

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Juarez Antônio; Facina, Gil; da Silva, Benedito Borges; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique

    2006-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy among women and it has a major impact on mortality. Studies of primary chemoprevention with tamoxifen have generated high expectations and considerable success rates. The efficacy of lower doses of tamoxifen is similar to that seen with a standard dose of the drug, and there has been a reduction in healthcare costs and side effects. The immune reaction to monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (MIB-1) and the expression of estrogen receptors (1D5) and progesterone receptors (PgR 636) in breast carcinoma were studied in patients treated with 10 mg of tamoxifen for a period of 14 days. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted with 38 patients divided into two groups: Group A: N = 20 (control group-without medication) and Group B: N = 18 (tamoxifen/10 mg/day for 14 days). All patients signed an informed consent term previously approved by both institutions. Patients underwent incisional biopsy before treatment and 14 days later a tumor tissue sample was obtained during surgical treatment. Positivity was quantitatively assessed, counting at least 1.000 cells per slide. For statistical data analysis, a Wilcoxon non-parametric test was used, and α was set at 5%. Both groups (A and B) were considered homogeneous regarding control variables. In Group A (control), there was no statistically significant reduction in Ki-67 (MIB-1) (p = 0.627), estrogen receptor (1D5) (p = 0.296) and progesterone receptor positivity (PgR 636) (p = 0.381). In Group B (tamoxifen 10 mg/day), the mean percentage of nuclei stained by Ki-67 (MIB-1) was 24.69% before and 10.43% after tamoxifen treatment. Mean percentage of nuclei stained by estrogen receptor (1D5) was 59.53% before and 25.99% after tamoxifen treatment. Mean percentage of nuclei stained by progesterone receptor (PgR 636), was 59.34 before and 29.59% after tamoxifen treatment. A statistically significant reduction was found with the three markers (p < 0.001). Tamoxifen significantly

  16. Evidence for specific DNA sequences in the nuclear acceptor sites of the avian oviduct progesterone receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, H; Seelke, R W; Littlefield, B A; Spelsberg, T C

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that saturable high-capacity nuclear binding sites (termed acceptor sites) for the avian oviduct progesterone receptor can be reconstituted by rehybridizing a specific oviduct chromatin protein fraction (CP-3) to pure hen DNA to generate a reconstituted nucleoacidic protein (NAP). Only a limited number of acceptor sites can be generated on hen DNA even at high protein/DNA ratios. This suggests the existence of a limited number of specific sequences in the avian genome that can participate in the acceptor sites. The studies presented in this paper show a specificity as to the source of DNA that can generate acceptor sites using hen oviduct CP-3 protein. The acceptor protein binds to all DNAs but generates acceptor sites only on DNAs from certain animals. The acceptor sites for the progesterone receptor, generated with heterologous mammalian DNAs and the avian oviduct CP-3 fraction, show saturation not only in number of acceptor sites generated on the DNAs but also in progesterone receptor binding. Binding to these sites is also receptor dependent. Using oviduct receptors from particular physiological states of the birds wherein the receptors do not bind to nuclear sites in vivo, it was found that the cell-free binding to these heterologous complexes of hen CP-3 protein and DNA from another species, termed heterologous NAP, is similarly absent. Thus, the cell-free binding to the native oviduct NAP and the heterologous NAP markedly resembles the nuclear binding in vivo. Interestingly, synthetic DNAs rich in adenine and thymine, but not those rich in guanine and cytosine, are capable of generating acceptor sites. Species-specific DNA sequences, as well as specific chromatin proteins, therefore, appear to be involved in the nuclear acceptor sites for the avian oviduct progesterone receptor. The DNA sequences appear to be conserved throughout most of the vertebrates but not among nonvertebrates as are the steroid hormones and their receptors

  17. Effects of low-dose tamoxifen on breast cancer biomarkers Ki-67, estrogen and progesterone receptors.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Juarez Antônio; Facina, Gil; da Silva, Benedito Borges; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique

    2006-09-14

    Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy among women and it has a major impact on mortality. Studies of primary chemoprevention with tamoxifen have generated high expectations and considerable success rates. The efficacy of lower doses of tamoxifen is similar to that seen with a standard dose of the drug, and there has been a reduction in healthcare costs and side effects. The immune reaction to monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (MIB-1) and the expression of estrogen receptors (1D5) and progesterone receptors (PgR 636) in breast carcinoma were studied in patients treated with 10 mg of tamoxifen for a period of 14 days. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted with 38 patients divided into two groups: Group A: N = 20 (control group--without medication) and Group B: N = 18 (tamoxifen/10 mg/day for 14 days). All patients signed an informed consent term previously approved by both institutions. Patients underwent incisional biopsy before treatment and 14 days later a tumor tissue sample was obtained during surgical treatment. Positivity was quantitatively assessed, counting at least 1.000 cells per slide. For statistical data analysis, a Wilcoxon non-parametric test was used, and alpha was set at 5%. Both groups (A and B) were considered homogeneous regarding control variables. In Group A (control), there was no statistically significant reduction in Ki-67 (MIB-1) (p = 0.627), estrogen receptor (1D5) (p = 0.296) and progesterone receptor positivity (PgR 636) (p = 0.381). In Group B (tamoxifen 10 mg/day), the mean percentage of nuclei stained by Ki-67 (MIB-1) was 24.69% before and 10.43% after tamoxifen treatment. Mean percentage of nuclei stained by estrogen receptor (1D5) was 59.53% before and 25.99% after tamoxifen treatment. Mean percentage of nuclei stained by progesterone receptor (PgR 636), was 59.34 before and 29.59% after tamoxifen treatment. A statistically significant reduction was found with the three markers (p < 0.001). Tamoxifen significantly

  18. The progesterone receptor coactivator Hic-5 is involved in the pathophysiology of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Aghajanova, Lusine; Velarde, Michael C; Giudice, Linda C

    2009-08-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disorder primarily associated with pelvic pain and infertility in up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Recent studies suggest that resistance to progesterone action may contribute to the development and pathophysiology of this disorder. In this study we examined the in vivo and in vitro expression and function of one progesterone receptor (PR) coactivator, Hic-5, in human endometrium and endometrial stromal fibroblasts (hESFs) from 29 women with and 30 (control) women without endometriosis. Hic-5 was highly expressed in stromal, but not epithelial, cells in women without endometriosis, in a cycle-dependent manner. In contrast, Hic-5 expression was not regulated during the menstrual cycle in hESFs from women with endometriosis and was significantly reduced in hESFs from women with vs. without disease. Hic-5 mRNA expression throughout the cycle in endometrium from control women, but not those with endometriosis, correlated with expression of PR. Hic-5 mRNA in hESFs was significantly up-regulated in control but not endometriosis hESFs after treatment in vitro with 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP for 96 h but only modestly after 14 d of progesterone treatment. Hic-5 silencing did not influence cAMP-regulated gene expression but affected genes regulated solely by progesterone (e.g. DKK1 and calcitonin). Together the data suggest that the proposed progesterone resistance in endometrium from women with endometriosis derives, in part, from impaired expression of the PR coactivator, Hic-5, in endometrial tissue and cultured endometrial stromal fibroblasts.

  19. Canid progesterone receptors lack activation function 3 domain-dependent activity.

    PubMed

    Gracanin, Ana; van Wolferen, Monique E; Sartorius, Carol A; Brenkman, Arjan B; Schoonen, Willem G; Mol, Jan A

    2012-12-01

    Progesterone regulates multiple behavioral, physiological, and pathological aspects of female reproductive biology through its two progesterone receptors (PRs), PR-B and the truncated PR-A. PR-B is necessary for mammary gland development in mice and, compared with PR-A, is overall a stronger transactivator of target genes due to an additional activation function 3 (AF3) domain. In dogs, known for their high sensitivity to progesterone-induced mammary cancer, the PR-B function was studied. Canine PR (cPR)-B appeared to contain multiple mutations within AF3 core sequence motifs and lacks N-terminal ligand-independent posttranslational modifications. Consequently, cPR-B has a weak transactivation potential on progesterone-responsive mouse mammary tumor virus-luc and progesterone response element 2-luc reporters transiently transfected in hamster, human, or canine cells and also on known target genes FKBP5 and SGK in doxycycline-inducible, stable transfected cPR-B in canine mammary cells. The cPR-B function was restored to the level of human PR-B by the replacement of canine AF3 domain with the human one. The lack of AF3 domain-dependent transcriptional activity was unique for canids (gray wolf, red fox, and raccoon dog) and not present in closely related caniform species (brown bear, gray seal, and domestic ferret). Despite the limited transactivation potential, canids develop normal mammary glands and frequently mammary tumors. Therefore, these results question the role of PR-B in breast cancer development and may explain unique features of canid reproduction.

  20. Cloning and characterization of an ovine intracellular seven transmembrane receptor for progesterone that mediates calcium mobilization.

    PubMed

    Ashley, R L; Clay, C M; Farmerie, T A; Niswender, G D; Nett, T M

    2006-09-01

    Classically, progesterone has been thought to act only through the well-known genomic pathway involving hormone binding to nuclear receptors (nPR) and subsequent modulation of gene expression. However, there is increasing evidence for rapid, nongenomic effects of progesterone in a variety of tissues in mammals, and it seems likely that a membrane PR (mPR) is causing these events. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize an ovine mPR distinct from the nPR. A cDNA clone was isolated from ovine genomic DNA by PCR. The ovine mPR is a 350-amino acid protein that, based on computer hydrophobicity analysis, possesses seven transmembrane domains and is distinct from the nPR. Message for the ovine mPR was detected in hypothalamus, pituitary, uterus, ovary, and corpus luteum by RT-PCR. In CHO cells that overexpressed a mPR-green fluorescent protein fusion protein, the ovine mPR was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and not the plasma membrane. Specific binding of 3H-progesterone to membrane fractions was demonstrated in CHO cells that expressed the ovine mPR but not in nontransfected cells. Furthermore, progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxy-progesterone stimulated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in CHO cells that expressed ovine mPR in Ca2+-free medium (P < 0.05) but not in CHO cells transfected with empty vector. This rise in intracellular Ca2+ is believed to be from the endoplasmic reticulum as intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is absent when mPR transfected cells are first treated with thapsigargin to deplete Ca2+ stores from the endoplasmic reticulum. Isolation, identification, tissue distribution, cellular localization, steroid binding, and a functional response for a unique intracellular mPR in the sheep are presented.

  1. Dienogest increases the progesterone receptor isoform B/A ratio in patients with ovarian endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The resistance of endometriotic tissue to progesterone can be explained by alterations in the distribution of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms. The aims of this study were to examine the expressions of PR-A, PR-B, ERα and ERβ in endometrioma and assess whether these expressions are affected by dienogest or leuprolide acetate (LA) treatment. Methods We enrolled 60 females, including 43 patients with endometriosis (14 who received no medical treatment, 13 who received dienogest and 16 who received LA before undergoing laparoscopic surgery) and 17 patients with leiomyoma. The expression levels of PR and ER isoforms in eutopic and ectopic endometrium were assayed with quantitative real-time PCR, and confirmed with immunohistochemistry. Results A decreased PR-B/PR-A ratio and an increased ERβ/ERα ratio were demonstrated in ectopic endometrium derived from females with endometriosis compared with the ratios observed in eutopic endometrium obtained from females without endometriosis. Although LA treatment did not affect the PR-B/PR-A and ERβ/ERα ratios, dienogest treatment increased the PR-B/PR-A ratio and decreased the ERβ/ERα ratio in patients with endometriomas. Conclusions Dienogest may improve progesterone resistance in endometriotic tissue by increasing the relative expressions of PR-B and PR-A, and decreasing the relative expressions of ERβ and ERα. PMID:23113924

  2. Are high-affinity progesterone binding site(s) from porcine liver microsomes members of the sigma receptor family?

    PubMed

    Meyer, C; Schmieding, K; Falkenstein, E; Wehling, M

    1998-04-24

    Membrane progesterone binding sites have been purified recently from pig liver. Since progesterone is considered as an endogenous sigma (sigma) receptor ligand, these sites were characterized pharmacologically by ligands selective for sigma receptor and dopamine receptor binding sites, and by other drugs from distinct pharmacological classes. Binding studies using the radioligand [3H]progesterone were done in crude membrane preparations and solubilized fractions to determine half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values, from which inhibitory constants (Ki values) were calculated. Radioligand binding was inhibited by the sigma receptor ligands haloperidol, carbetapentane citrate, 1,3-Di(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG), R(-)-N-(3-phenyl-1-propyl)-1-phenyl-2 aminopropane HCl (R(-)-PPAAP HCl), or sigma receptor antagonists like (+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine HCl (R(+)-PPP HCl) and cis-9-[3-(3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-9H-carbazole dihydrochloride (rimcazole 2HCl). The hierarchy of inhibitory action was not fully compatible with either sigma receptor class I (moderate affinity of pentazocine, diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin) insensitivity) or II sites (high affinity of carbetapentane). The data thus suggest that progesterone binding sites in porcine liver membranes are related to the sigma receptor binding site superfamily, but may represent a particular species with progesterone specificity.

  3. Estrogen and progesterone receptor isoforms expression in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Saqui-Salces, Milena; Neri-Gómez, Teresa; Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    AIM: We studied the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms expression in gastric antrum and corpus of female gerbils and their regulation by estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). METHODS: Ovariectomized adult female gerbils were subcutaneously treated with E2, and E2 + P4. Uteri and stomachs were removed, the latter were cut along the greater curvature, and antrum and corpus were excised. Proteins were immunoblotted using antibodies that recognize ER-alpha, ER-beta, and PR-A and PR-B receptor isoforms. Tissues from rats treated in the same way were used as controls. RESULTS: Specific bands were detected for ER-alpha (68 KDa), and PR isoforms (85 and 120 KDa for PR-A and PR-B isoforms, respectively) in uteri, gastric antrum and corpus. We could not detect ER-beta isoform. PR isoforms were not regulated by E2 or P4 in uterus and gastric tissues of gerbils. ER-alpha isoform content was significantly down-regulated by E2 in the corpus, but not affected by hormones in uterus and gastric antrum. CONCLUSION: The presence of ER-alpha and PR isoforms in gerbils stomach suggests that E2 and P4 actions in this organ are in part mediated by their nuclear receptors. PMID:18837087

  4. Fibroblast growth factor signalling induces loss of progesterone receptor in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Piasecka, Dominika; Kitowska, Kamila; Czaplinska, Dominika; Mieczkowski, Kamil; Mieszkowska, Magdalena; Turczyk, Lukasz; Skladanowski, Andrzej C.; Zaczek, Anna J.; Biernat, Wojciech; Kordek, Radzislaw; Romanska, Hanna M.; Sadej, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGFR2), signalling via ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2), promotes progression of breast cancer (BCa). Loss of progesterone receptor (PR), whose activity in BCa cells can be stimulated by growth factor receptors (GFRs), is associated with poor patient outcome. Here we showed that FGF7/FGFR2 triggered phosphorylation of PR at Ser294, PR ubiquitination and subsequent receptor`s degradation via the 26S proteasome pathway in BCa cells. We further demonstrated that RSK2 mediated FGF7/FGFR2-induced PR downregulation. In addition, a strong synergistic effect of FGF7 and progesterone (Pg), reflected in the enhanced anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, was observed. Analysis of clinical material demonstrated that expression of PR inversely correlated with activated RSK (RSK-P) (p = 0.016). Patients with RSK-P(+)/PR(–) tumours had 3.629-fold higher risk of recurrence (p = 0.002), when compared with the rest of the cohort. Moreover, RSK-P(+)/PR(–) phenotype was shown as an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.006). These results indicate that the FGF7/FGFR2-RSK2 axis promotes PR turnover and activity, which may sensitize BCa cells to stromal stimuli and contribute to the progression toward steroid hormone negative BCa. PMID:27852068

  5. Krüppel-like factor 9 regulates cell proliferation and compartmental expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the mouse uterine endometrium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The uterine endometrium undergoes dynamic changes in proliferation and differentiation in response to estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. E and P exert their functions through their respective nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ESR) and progesterone receptor ...

  6. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis reveals the roles of progesterone receptor, inflammatory and fibrosis for slow transit constipation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuwei; Yu, Yongjun; Li, Shuyuan; Zhang, Mingqing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Yang; Zhang, Xipeng; Zhang, Shiwu

    2017-07-11

    Progesterone receptor, inflammation, neurotransmitter expression, and fibrosis are involved in slow-transit constipation. The aim of the present study was to examine whether patients with slow-transit constipation have an overexpression of progesterone receptor and serotonin which may impair the fibrosis of muscularis propria in colorectal wall. High resolution colon manometry was used to record the colorectal peristaltic contractions of the proximal ascending and sigmoid colon in patients. Protein samples prepared from frozen sigmoid colon tissue and the proximal margin of the ascending colon of four female patients were compared using iTRAQ labeling technique coupled to 2D LC-MS/MS analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of progesterone receptor, serotonin, and fibronectin was performed in paraffin-embedded sigmoid colon tissues and the proximal margin of the ascending colon or ileum from 43 patients with slow-transit constipation. Among these differentially regulated proteins based on iTRAQ and LC-MS/MS analysis, 56 proteins involved in the response to progesterone, inflammation, matrix remodeling, fibrosis, and muscle metabolism. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that there was significantly higher expression of progesterone receptor (t = 19.19, P = 0.000) and serotonin (t = 13.52, P = 0.004) in sigmoid colon than in the proximal margin of the ascending colon and ileum. Progesterone receptor and fibronectin expression in the outer layer of muscularis propria was higher than in the middle layer. These results demonstrate that progesterone receptor, along with inflammation and fibrosis may take part in slow-transit constipation development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of progesterone receptor activity in recombinant yeast by soot from fossil fuel combustion emissions and air particulate materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2005-10-15

    Numerous environmental pollutants have been detected for estrogenic activity by interacting with the estrogen receptor, but little information is available about their interactions with the progesterone receptor. In this study, emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion (FFC) and air particulate material (APM) collected from an urban location near a traffic line in a big city of China were evaluated to interact with the human progesterone receptor (hPR) signaling pathway by examining their ability to interact with the activity of hPR expressed in yeast. The results showed that the soot of a petroleum-fired vehicle possessed the most potent anti-progesteronic activity, that of coal-fired stove and diesel fired agrimotor emissions took the second place, and soot samples of coal-fired heating work and electric power station had lesser progesterone inhibition activity. The anti-progesteronic activity of APM was between that of soot from petroleum-fired vehicle and soot from coal-fired establishments and diesel fired agrimotor. Since there was no other large pollution source near the APM sampling sites, the endocrine disrupters were most likely from vehicle emissions, tire attrition and house heating sources. The correlation analysis showed that a strong relationship existed between estrogenic activity and anti-progesteronic activity in emissions of fossil fuel combustion. The discoveries that some environmental pollutants with estrogenic activity can also inhibit hPR activity indicate that further studies are required to investigate potential mechanisms for the reported estrogenic activities of these pollutants.

  8. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Grete S; Hogervorst, Janneke G F; Schouten, Leo J; Konings, Erik J M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2010-07-01

    Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products. Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the association between dietary acrylamide intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer stratified by estrogen and progesterone receptor status. This study was embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, which was initiated in 1986 enrolling 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. After 13.3 years of follow-up, 2225 incident breast cancer cases were ascertained, with hormone receptor status information for 43%. Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to determine hazard ratios in quintiles of dietary acrylamide intake stratifying on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and smoking status. No association was observed for overall breast cancer or receptor-negative breast cancer risk, irrespective of smoking status. A statistically non-significantly increased risk of ER positive, PR positive and joint receptor-positive breast cancer was found in never-smoking women. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.87-1.97, P (trend) = 0.26) for ER+, 1.47 (0.86-2.51, P (trend) = 0.14) for PR+, and 1.43 (0.83-2.46, P (trend) = 0.16) for ER+PR+, when comparing women in the highest quintile of acrylamide intake (median 36.8 microg/day) to women in the lowest (median 9.5 microg/day). This study showed some indications of a positive association between dietary acrylamide intake and receptor-positive breast cancer risk in postmenopausal never-smoking women. Further studies are needed to confirm or refute our observations.

  9. Promoter hypermethylation of progesterone receptor isoform B (PR-B) in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Strawn, Estil; Basir, Zainab; Halverson, Gloria; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2006-01-01

    The physiological effects of progesterone (P) are mediated by two isoforms of progesterone receptors (PRs): PR-A and PR-B. Progestins have long been used in the treatment of endometriosis but unfortunately the relief of pain is relatively short-term. In addition, about nine percent of women with endometriosis simply do not respond to progestin therapy due to unknown reasons. In fact, a general tendency for relative progesterone resistance within eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and also the downregulation of PR-B, but not PR-A, in endometriosis have been noted. Since promoter hypermethylation is well-documented to be associated with transcriptional silencing, we sought to determine the methylation status of the PR-A and PR-B promoter regions in the epithelial component of endometriotic implants using a combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM), methylation specific PCR, and bisulfite sequencing. We found that the promoter region of PR-B, but not PR-A, is hypermethylated in endometriosis as compared with controls. In addition, the PR-B expression was significantly reduced in the ectopic endometrium. Our finding suggests that progesterone resistance in endometriosis in general and the down regulation of PR-B, but not PR-A, in particular, are a result of promoter hypermethylation of PR-B, but not PR-A. This, in conjunction with our reported aberrant methylation of HOXA10 in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis, strongly suggests that endometriosis is an epigenetic disease. This perspective should potentially open up new avenues for the delineation of pathogenesis of endometriosis, and might also lead to novel ways to treat the disease through reversing aberrant methylation via pharmacological means.

  10. Association of estrogen receptor-α and progesterone receptor A expression with hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: role of the host microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Montero Girard, Guadalupe; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Cerliani, Juan Pablo; Bottino, María Cecilia; Bolado, Julieta; Vela, Jorge; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Benavides, Fernando; Gutkind, Silvio; Patel, Vyomesh; Molinolo, Alfredo; Lanari, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) induces estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive ductal invasive mammary carcinomas in BALB/c mice. We sought to reproduce this MPA cancer model in C57BL/6 mice because of their widespread use in genetic engineering. Within this experimental setting, we studied the carcinogenic effects of MPA, the morphologic changes in mammary glands that are induced by MPA and progesterone, and the levels of ER and PR expression in MPA-treated and progesterone-treated mammary glands. Finally, we evaluated whether the differences found between BALB/c and C57BL/6 mouse strains were due to intrinsic differences in epithelial cells. Methods The carcinogenic effect of MPA was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice using protocols proven to be carcinogenic in BALB/c mice. In addition, BALB/c and C57BL/6 females were treated with progesterone or MPA for 1 or 2 months, and mammary glands were excised for histologic studies and for immunohistochemical and Western blot evaluation of ER and PR. Hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Isolated mammary epithelial cells were transplanted into cleared fat pads of 21-day-old female Swiss nu/nu mice or control congenic animals. Results MPA failed to induce mammary carcinomas or significant morphologic changes in the mammary glands of C57BL/6 mice. The expression of ER-α and PR isoform A in virgin mice was surprisingly much higher in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mammary glands, and both receptors were downregulated in progestin-treated BALB/c mice (P < 0.05). PR isoform B levels were low in virgin control mice and increased after progestin treatment in both strains. ER-β expression followed a similar trend. No differences in hormone levels were found between strains. Surprisingly, the transplantation of the epithelial mammary gland cells of both strains into the cleared fat pads of Swiss (nu/nu) mice abolished the mammary gland morphologic differences and the ER and PR

  11. 5-benzylidene-1,2-dihydrochromeno[3,4-f]quinolines as selective progesterone receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Lin; Tegley, Christopher M; Pio, Barbara; Edwards, James P; Motamedi, Mehrnouch; Jones, Todd K; Marschke, Keith B; Mais, Dale E; Risek, Boris; Schrader, William T

    2003-09-11

    A series of 5-benylidene-1,2-dihydrochromeno[3,4-f]quinolines (4) were synthesized and tested in bioassays to evaluate their progestational activities, receptor- and tissue-selectivity profiles as selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). Most of the new analogues exhibited as highly potent progestins with more than 100-fold receptor selectivity over other steroid hormone receptors and LG120920 (7b) demonstrated tissue selectivity toward uterus and vagina versus breasts in a rodent model after oral administration.

  12. Evolutionary analysis of the segment from helix 3 through helix 5 in vertebrate progesterone receptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael E; Uh, Kayla Y

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between helix 3 and helix 5 in the human mineralocorticoid receptor [MR], progesterone receptor [PR] and glucocorticoid receptor [GR] influences their response to steroids. For the human PR, mutations at Gly-722 on helix 3 and Met-759 on helix 5 alter responses to progesterone. We analyzed the evolution of these two sites and the rest of a 59 residue segment containing helices 3, 4 and 5 in vertebrate PRs and found that a glycine corresponding to Gly-722 on helix 3 in human PR first appears in platypus, a monotreme. In lamprey, skates, fish, amphibians and birds, cysteine is found at this position in helix 3. This suggests that the cysteine to glycine replacement in helix 3 in the PR was important in the evolution of mammals. Interestingly, our analysis of the rest of the 59 residue segment finds 100% sequence conservation in almost all mammal PRs, substantial conservation in reptile and amphibian PRs and divergence of land vertebrate PR sequences from the fish PR sequences. The differences between fish and land vertebrate PRs may be important in the evolution of different biological progestins in fish and mammalian PR, as well as differences in susceptibility to environmental chemicals that disrupt PR-mediated physiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Progesterone and Estrogen Receptors in Neurofibromas of Patients with NF1.

    PubMed

    Geller, Mauro; Mezitis, Spyros G E; Nunes, Fabio Pereira; Ribeiro, Marcia G; Araújo, Alexandra Prufer de Q C; Bronstein, Marcello D; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Oliveira, Lisa; Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or von Recklinghausen disease is a genetic disorder affecting the growth of cells in nervous system. One of the most remarkable characteristics of this disease is the development of benign tumors of the nervous system (neurofibromas).The purpose of this study was to test tissue samples taken from neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas of NF1 patients for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors. We used previously collected samples from patients registered in the database of the Centro Nacional de Neurofibromatose (CNNF-Brazil). Samples from twenty-five patients in the database presenting plexiform neurofibromas (N1 group) and 25 samples from the same database from patients presenting neurofibromas (N2 group) were tested.We observed positive staining for progesterone receptors in 13 of the neurofibroma samples and 19 of the plexiform neurofibroma samples. Among the neurofibroma samples, we observed one sample with positive estrogen receptor staining, but none of the plexiform neurofibroma samples showed positive staining. We suggest further studies to investigate in greater depth possible hormonal influences on the development and growth of neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas in NF1.

  14. Progesterone and Estrogen Receptors in Neurofibromas of Patients with NF1

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Mauro; Mezitis, Spyros G.E.; Nunes, Fabio Pereira; Ribeiro, Marcia G.; Araújo, Alexandra Prufer de Q.C.; Bronstein, Marcello D.; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Oliveira, Lisa; Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or von Recklinghausen disease is a genetic disorder affecting the growth of cells in nervous system. One of the most remarkable characteristics of this disease is the development of benign tumors of the nervous system (neurofibromas). The purpose of this study was to test tissue samples taken from neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas of NF1 patients for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors. We used previously collected samples from patients registered in the database of the Centro Nacional de Neurofibromatose (CNNF-Brazil). Samples from twenty-five patients in the database presenting plexiform neurofibromas (N1 group) and 25 samples from the same database from patients presenting neurofibromas (N2 group) were tested. We observed positive staining for progesterone receptors in 13 of the neurofibroma samples and 19 of the plexiform neurofibroma samples. Among the neurofibroma samples, we observed one sample with positive estrogen receptor staining, but none of the plexiform neurofibroma samples showed positive staining. We suggest further studies to investigate in greater depth possible hormonal influences on the development and growth of neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas in NF1. PMID:21876657

  15. [Estrogen dependance of the progesterone "receptor" in human tissues (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kreitmann, B; Moure, C; Bayard, F

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of specific progesterone receptor (RP) has been measured in the endometrium of 31 normal menstruating women during the two phases of their menstrual cycle, and compared with the plasma oestradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations. There was no relationship between RP and plasma E2 when the two phases of the cycle were considered, however a correlation was observed when the follicular phase was only considered. The relationship between oestrogen and RP was then more directly studied in a breast cancer cell line in tissue culture (MCF-7). RP induction by E2 as well as oestriol was demonstrated, but oestrone was ineffective.

  16. Expression and immunolocalization of membrane progesterone receptors in the bovine oviduct.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, M K; Martyniak, M; Rekawiecki, R; Kotwica, J

    2016-04-01

    The oviduct plays a crucial role in the transport and maturation of gametes and ensures suitable conditions for fertility and early embryo development. One regulator of oviduct function is progesterone (P4), which affects the cell by interacting with nuclear progesterone receptors (PGRs) and through nongenomic mechanisms, presumably involving membrane PGRs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of messenger RNAS (mRNAs) and proteins for progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2 and membrane progestin receptors (mPR) α, β, and γ and to use immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their cell-specific localization in the bovine oviduct. Oviducts ipsilateral and contralateral to the corpus luteum or to the dominant follicle were collected from cows on days 6 to 12 (midluteal stage) and 18 to 20 (follicular stage) of the estrous cycle and divided into 3 parts (infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus). There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the PGRMC1, PGRMC2, mPRα, β, and γ mRNA expression between ipsi- and contralateral oviducts. However, the same parts of the oviduct collected during the different stages of the estrous cycle showed higher (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of PGRMC1, PGRMC2, and mPRα on days 18 to 20 than on days 6 to 12 of the estrous cycle. mPRα and mPRβ mRNA levels were higher (P < 0.05) in the infundibulum than in the isthmus, whereas PGRMC1 expression was higher (P < 0.05) in the infundibulum than in ampulla. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PGRMC1, PGRMC2, PRα, β, and γ proteins in all parts of both oviducts from days 6 to 12 and 18 to 20 of the estrous cycle. There were no differences in the staining intensity and cellular localization of the studied proteins between the ipsi- and contralateral oviducts and between the studied stages of the estrous cycle. A strong positive reaction was observed in luminal cells, but this reaction was less evident in myocytes and stromal cells. All proteins were also localized to the

  17. miR-129-2 mediates down-regulation of progesterone receptor in response to progesterone in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Godbole, Mukul; Chandrani, Pratik; Gardi, Nilesh; Dhamne, Hemant; Patel, Kuldeep; Yadav, Neelima; Gupta, Sudeep; Badwe, Rajendra; Dutt, Amit

    2017-09-06

    Hormonal therapy is an important component of first line of treatment for breast cancer. Response to hormonal therapy is influenced by the progesterone receptor (PR)-status of breast cancer patients. However as an early effect, exposure to progesterone decreases expression of PR in breast cancer cells. An understanding of the mechanism underlying down-regulation of PR could help improve response to hormonal therapy. We performed small RNA sequencing of breast cancer cells for identification of microRNAs targeting PR in response to progesterone treatment. Biochemical approaches were used to validate the findings in breast cancer cells. Analysis of small RNA sequencing of four breast cancer cell lines treated with progesterone revealed an up-regulation of miR-129-2 independent of the PR status of the cells. We show that miR-129-2 targets 3'UTR of PR to down-regulate its expression. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-129-2 expression rescues the down-regulation of PR in breast cancer cells. Also, the expression levels of miR-129-2 was observed to be elevated in patients with low expression of PR in the TCGA cohort (n = 359). miR-129-2 mediates down-regulation of PR in breast cancer cells in response to progesterone, while anti-miR-129-2 could potentiate PR expression levels among patients with inadequate PR levels. Thus, modulation of activity of miR-129-2 could stabilize PR expression and potentially improve response to hormonal therapy under adjuvant or neo-adjuvant settings.

  18. Results With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Terms of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, and Human Growth Factor Receptor 2 Status

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Curcio, Lisa D.; Khanijou, Rajesh K.; Eisner, Martin E.; Kakkis, Jane L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Mesa, Albert V.; Macedo, Jorge C.; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To report our results with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in terms of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu) status. Methods and Materials: Between February 2003 and June 2009, 209 women with early-stage breast carcinomas were treated with APBI using multicatheter, MammoSite, or Contura brachytherapy to 34 Gy in 10 fractions twice daily over 5-7 days. Three patient groups were defined by receptor status: Group 1: ER or PR (+) and HER-2/neu (-) (n = 180), Group 2: ER and PR (-) and HER-2/neu (+) (n = 10), and Group 3: ER, PR, and HER-2/neu (-) (triple negative breast cancer, n = 19). Median follow-up was 22 months. Results: Group 3 patients had significantly higher Scarff-Bloom-Richardson scores (p < 0.001). The 3-year ipsilateral breast tumor control rates for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 99%, 100%, and 100%, respectively (p = 0.15). Group 3 patients tended to experience relapse in distant sites earlier than did non-Group 3 patients. The 3-year relapse-free survival rates for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 100%, 100%, and 81%, respectively (p = 0.046). The 3-year cause-specific and overall survival rates for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 100%, 100%, and 89%, respectively (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Triple negative breast cancer patients typically have high-grade tumors with significantly worse relapse-free, cause-specific, and overall survival. Longer follow-up will help to determine whether these patients also have a higher risk of ipsilateral breast tumor relapse.

  19. Identification and characterization of the protein-associated splicing factor as a negative co-regulator of the progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuesen; Shylnova, Oksana; Challis, John R G; Lye, Stephen J

    2005-04-08

    Progesterone is essential in all species for the maintenance of pregnancy, and its withdrawal is required to activate the myometrium and to initiate labor. However, unlike most other species, progesterone levels do not fall at term in humans, raising the paradox as to how labor can occur under the continued influence of progesterone. We hypothesized that an endogenous (myometrial) repressor of the progesterone receptor (PR) could induce a functional withdrawal of progesterone and hence lead to the initiation of labor. We used the human PR as bait in a protein pull-down assay and identified polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) as a PR-interacting protein. PSF functions as a potent inhibitor of PR (but not estrogen receptor) transcriptional activity in mammalian cells. It acts through two novel mechanisms, inducing degradation of the PR through the proteasomal pathway and also interfering with binding of PR to its DNA response element. Importantly, in vivo studies in rats demonstrated a dramatic increase in myometrial PSF expression at term that was temporally associated with reduced levels of the myometrial PR. Accordingly, we propose that PSF acts as a PR corepressor and contributes to the functional withdrawal of progesterone and the initiation of human labor.

  20. Expression of androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptors in mucinous carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Cho, Li-Chen; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang

    2008-05-01

    Hormone receptors play important roles in breast cancer. We investigated the expression of hormone receptors in breast cancer to evaluate the importance of hormone receptors in the clinicopathology of breast cancer. Androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression characteristics were evaluated using immunohistochemistry stain, comparing patient age, tumor size and axillary lymph node status for 23 pure mucinous and 105 non-mucinous infiltrating ductal carcinomas in the human female breast. Mucinous carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis occurred less frequently than non-mucinous carcinoma (11.8% vs. 55.2%; p = 0.01). Compared with the non-mucinous type, mucinous carcinoma specimens showed less AR expression (21.7% vs. 51.4%; p = 0.01) but more ER expression (78.3% vs. 52.4%; p = 0.02). In addition, AR expression was also associated with ER and/or PR coexpression (37/74, 50%) in infiltrating ductal carcinoma. But only three of 20 (15%) mucinous carcinoma specimens with AR expression had associated ER and/or PR coexpression. Our findings revealed that mucinous carcinoma samples from the breast show distinct clinicopathologic and hormone receptor expression features compared to non-mucinous carcinoma.

  1. Progesterone receptor in the liver and oviduct of the lizard Podarcis sicula.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Marina; Di Cristo, Carlo

    2002-08-09

    In this paper we report the presence of a (3)H-Progesterone ((3)H-P) binding moiety, which has the characteristics of a true receptor, in the liver of the female of the lizard Podarcis sicula. (3)H-P binding studies show the presence of one type of binding site with an average Kd value of 6.2 +/- 2.0 nM in the cytoplasm and 6.3 +/- 1.1 nM in the nucleus. Competition experiments showed that progesterone (P) was the best competitor, while testosterone, deoxycorticosterone (DOC), corticosterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone; R5020; RU486 and RU26988-5 were poor competitors. We have also investigated the immunological characteristics of progesterone receptor (PR) in both the liver and the oviduct of Podarcis sicula, by Western blotting using the monoclonal antibody PR22 raised against the PR isoforms A and B of chicken. One imunoreactive band of about 70 kDa was detected in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts of both the liver and the oviduct. PR immunoreactivity was present in the liver during the quiescent phase. In the oviduct PR immunoreactivity increased from the recovery to the full grown phase. P treatment of estrogen-primed females did not affect the presence of PR in the liver, while brought about a PR increase in the oviduct. This study suggests that PR is expressed differently in the liver and the oviduct of Podarcis sicula throughout the reproductive cycle. PR might fulfill different requirements in relation to the different physiological functions of the tissue during the reproductive cycle.

  2. Analysis of estrogen- and progesterone-receptor expression in endometrial polyps.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes C; Baracat, Edmund Chada; de Albuquerque Neto, Luiz Cavalcanti; Ramos, José Francisco Dória; Yatabe, Salete; Depesr, Daniela Baptista; Lippi, Umberto Gazi

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the presence of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in the glandular epithelium and stroma of endometrial polyps in women who underwent hysteroscopic polypectomy. Prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3. Hospital de Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo "Francisco Morato de Oliveira." Forty-eight patients with a solitary endometrial polyp who underwent hysteroscopic polypectomy and resection of an endometrial fragment. The estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, in the polyp, was compared with the endometrial hormone expression of the same patients. The specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The percentage of staining cells was determined as follows: grade I, 0% to 25%; grade II, 26% to 50%; grade III, 51% to 75%; and grade IV, 76% to 100% of stained nuclei. The intensity of nuclear staining was classified as grade I, absent; grade II, weak; grade III, strong; and grade IV, very strong staining. The sum of both grades was the histochemical score. The total scores of polyp and endometrium were statistically compared. The total scores of ER of glandular epithelium were 258 in polyp and 211 in endometrium. As to stroma, it was 155 in polyp and 163 in endometrium. The total scores of PR of glandular epithelium were 286 in polyp and 211 in endometrium. As to stroma, the totals were 76 in polyp and 77 in endometrium. In immunohistochemistry, the concentrations of both ER and PR in glandular epithelium were significantly higher in endometrial polyp than in normal endometrium. The concentrations of ER and PR in the stroma were similar in the polyp and endometrium. The concentrations of these receptors in the glandular epithelium and stroma were similar in postmenopausal and premenopausal patients. The concentrations of ER and PR in glandular epithelium were significantly higher in endometrial polyp than in normal endometrium. The concentrations of these receptors in the glandular epithelium and

  3. Effect of progesterone receptor status on maspin synthesis via nitric oxide production in neutrophils in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ganguly Bhattacharjee, Karabi; Bhattacharyya, Mau; Halder, Umesh Chandra; Jana, Pradipta; Sinha, Asru K

    2014-09-01

    Although progesterone receptor (PR) status, similarly to estrogen receptor status, is of prognostic importance in breast cancer, the involvement of the PR in breast cancer remains obscure. Studies were conducted to determine the function of the PR in neutrophils in the nitric oxide-induced synthesis of maspin, an anti-breast-cancer protein produced in nonmalignant mammary cells and in neutrophils in the circulation. PR status was determined by immunohistochemistry. Maspin synthesis was determined by in-vitro translation of messenger RNA and quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nitric oxide was determined by the methemoglobin method. It was found that PR status in neutrophils was identical with that in malignant breast tissues. A Scatchard plot for progesterone binding to normal and PR-positive (PR+) neutrophils revealed that whereas normal neutrophils had 11.5 × 10(10) PR sites/cell with K d = 47.619 nM, PR+ neutrophils had 6.6 × 10(10) PR sites/cell with K d = 47.619 nM. The progesterone negative (PR-) neutrophils failed to bind to progesterone. Incubation of normal and PR+ neutrophils with 25 nM progesterone produced 1.317 μM NO and 2.329 nM maspin; the PR+ neutrophils produced 0.72 μM NO and 1.138 nM maspin. The PR- neutrophils failed to produce any NO or maspin in the presence of progesterone. Inhibition of progesterone-induced NO synthesis led to complete inhibition of maspin synthesis in all neutrophils. These results suggest that estrogen and progesterone complement each other in NO-induced maspin synthesis, and do not necessarily antagonize in the synthesis of the anti-breast-cancer protein.

  4. The effects of progesterone on the alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtypes in late-pregnant uterine contractions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hajagos-Tóth, Judit; Bóta, Judit; Ducza, Eszter; Samavati, Reza; Borsodi, Anna; Benyhe, Sándor; Gáspár, Róbert

    2016-06-14

    The adrenergic system and progesterone play major roles in the control of the uterine function. Our aims were to clarify the changes in function and expression of the α2-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes after progesterone pretreatment in late pregnancy. Sprague Dawley rats from pregnancy day 15 were treated with progesterone for 7 days. The myometrial expressions of the α2-AR subtypes were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In vitro contractions were stimulated with (-)-noradrenaline, and its effect was modified with the selective antagonists BRL 44408 (α2A), ARC 239 (α2B/C) and spiroxatrine (α2A). The accumulation of myometrial cAMP was also measured. The activated G-protein level was investigated via GTPγS binding assays. Progesterone pretreatment decreased the contractile effect of (-)-noradrenaline through the α2-ARs. The most significant reduction was found through the α2B-ARs. The mRNA of all of the α2-AR subtypes was increased. Progesterone pretreatment increased the myometrial cAMP level in the presence of BRL 44408 (p < 0.001), spiroxatrine (p < 0.001) or the spiroxatrine + BRL 44408 combination (p < 0.05). Progesterone pretreatment increased the G-protein-activating effect of (-)-noradrenaline in the presence of the spiroxatrine + BRL 44408 combination. The expression of the α2-AR subtypes is progesterone-sensitive. It decreases the contractile response of (-)-noradrenaline through the α2B-AR subtype, blocks the function of α2A-AR subtype and alters the G protein coupling of these receptors, promoting a Gs-dependent pathway. A combination of α2C-AR agonists and α2B-AR antagonists with progesterone could be considered for the treatment or prevention of preterm birth.

  5. Remodeling of the cervix and parturition in mice lacking the progesterone receptor B isoform.

    PubMed

    Yellon, Steven M; Oshiro, Bryan T; Chhaya, Tejas Y; Lechuga, Thomas J; Dias, Rejane M; Burns, Alexandra E; Force, Lindsey; Apostolakis, Ede M

    2011-09-01

    Withdrawal of progestational support for pregnancy is part of the final common pathways for parturition, but the role of nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms in this process is not known. To determine if the PGR-B isoform participates in cervical remodeling at term, cervices were obtained from mice lacking PGR-B (PGR-BKO) and from wild-type (WT) controls before or after birth. PGR-BKO mice gave birth to viable pups at the same time as WT controls during the early morning of Day 19 postbreeding. Morphological analyses indicated that by the day before birth, cervices from PGR-BKO and WT mice had increased in size, with fewer cell nuclei/area as well as diminished collagen content and structure, as evidenced by optical density of picrosirius red-stained sections, compared to cervices from nonpregnant mice. Moreover, increased numbers of resident macrophages, but not neutrophils, were found in the prepartum cervix of PGR-BKO compared to nonpregnant mice, parallel to findings in WT mice. These results suggest that PGR-B does not contribute to the growth or degradation of the extracellular matrix or proinflammatory processes associated with recruitment of macrophages in the cervix leading up to birth. Rather, other receptors may contribute to the progesterone-dependent mechanism that promotes remodeling of the cervix during pregnancy and in the proinflammatory process associated with ripening before parturition.

  6. Remodeling of the Cervix and Parturition in Mice Lacking the Progesterone Receptor B Isoform1

    PubMed Central

    Yellon, Steven M.; Oshiro, Bryan T.; Chhaya, Tejas Y.; Lechuga, Thomas J.; Dias, Rejane M.; Burns, Alexandra E.; Force, Lindsey; Apostolakis, Ede M.

    2011-01-01

    Withdrawal of progestational support for pregnancy is part of the final common pathways for parturition, but the role of nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms in this process is not known. To determine if the PGR-B isoform participates in cervical remodeling at term, cervices were obtained from mice lacking PGR-B (PGR-BKO) and from wild-type (WT) controls before or after birth. PGR-BKO mice gave birth to viable pups at the same time as WT controls during the early morning of Day 19 postbreeding. Morphological analyses indicated that by the day before birth, cervices from PGR-BKO and WT mice had increased in size, with fewer cell nuclei/area as well as diminished collagen content and structure, as evidenced by optical density of picrosirius red-stained sections, compared to cervices from nonpregnant mice. Moreover, increased numbers of resident macrophages, but not neutrophils, were found in the prepartum cervix of PGR-BKO compared to nonpregnant mice, parallel to findings in WT mice. These results suggest that PGR-B does not contribute to the growth or degradation of the extracellular matrix or proinflammatory processes associated with recruitment of macrophages in the cervix leading up to birth. Rather, other receptors may contribute to the progesterone-dependent mechanism that promotes remodeling of the cervix during pregnancy and in the proinflammatory process associated with ripening before parturition. PMID:21613631

  7. Regulation of rat uterine steroid receptors by nomegestrol acetate, a new 19-nor-progesterone derivative.

    PubMed

    Botella, J; Duc, I; Delansorne, R; Paris, J; Lahlou, B

    1989-02-01

    The regulatory effects of nomegestrol acetate (NOM-Ac: 17 alpha-acetoxy-6 alpha-methyl-19-nor-pregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione), a new 19-nor-progesterone derivative, active p.o. progestin, were studied on rat uterine estrogen (ER) and progestogen receptor (PgR) levels. The actions of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and various progestins were investigated. The effects of E2 were reproduced with 5 micrograms/animal: a 2-fold increase in activated ER level in the nucleus at 30 min, 2-fold stimulation of cytosolic ER replenishment at 48 hr and a 4-fold induction of PgR synthesis at 48 hr. The negative regulatory effects of P were also reproduced at doses ranging from 0.25 to 2 mg/animal: inhibition of basal and E2-stimulated cytosolic ER replenishment and inhibition of E2-induced PgR synthesis. NOM-Ac reproduced these negative regulatory effects. The 50% effective doses in reducing estrogen receptor levels and the corresponding potencies relative to P showed NOM-Ac to be 2.4-fold more active than P and to present, when compared to the other progestins, the highest antiestrogenic capacity. Furthermore, in contrast with norethisterone acetate, a 19-nor-testosterone derivative, it was completely devoid of estrogenic potency.

  8. Distinct functions and regulation of epithelial progesterone receptor in the mouse cervix, vagina, and uterus

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Fabiola F.; Son, Jieun; Hewitt, Sylvia C.; Jang, Eunjung; Lydon, John P.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    While the function of progesterone receptor (PR) has been studied in the mouse vagina and uterus, its regulation and function in the cervix has not been described. We selectively deleted epithelial PR in the female reproductive tracts using the Cre/LoxP recombination system. We found that epithelial PR was required for induction of apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by progesterone (P4) in the cervical and vaginal epithelium. We also found that epithelial PR was dispensable for P4 to suppress apoptosis and proliferation in the uterine epithelium. PR is encoded by the Pgr gene, which is regulated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the female reproductive tracts. Using knock−in mouse models expressing ERα mutants, we determined that the DNA−binding domain (DBD) and AF2 domain of ERα were required for upregulation of Pgr in the cervix and vagina as well as the uterine stroma. The ERα AF1 domain was required for upregulation of Pgr in the vaginal stroma and epithelium and cervical epithelium, but not in the uterine and cervical stroma. ERα DBD, AF1, and AF2 were required for suppression of Pgr in the uterine epithelium, which was mediated by stromal ERα. Epithelial ERα was responsible for upregulation of epithelial Pgr in the cervix and vagina. Our results indicate that regulation and functions of epithelial PR are different in the cervix, vagina, and uterus. PMID:27007157

  9. Distinct functions and regulation of epithelial progesterone receptor in the mouse cervix, vagina, and uterus.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Fabiola F; Son, Jieun; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Jang, Eunjung; Lydon, John P; Korach, Kenneth S; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-04-05

    While the function of progesterone receptor (PR) has been studied in the mouse vagina and uterus, its regulation and function in the cervix has not been described. We selectively deleted epithelial PR in the female reproductive tracts using the Cre/LoxP recombination system. We found that epithelial PR was required for induction of apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by progesterone (P4) in the cervical and vaginal epithelium. We also found that epithelial PR was dispensable for P4 to suppress apoptosis and proliferation in the uterine epithelium. PR is encoded by the Pgr gene, which is regulated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the female reproductive tracts. Using knock-in mouse models expressing ERα mutants, we determined that the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and AF2 domain of ERα were required for upregulation of Pgr in the cervix and vagina as well as the uterine stroma. The ERα AF1 domain was required for upregulation of Pgr in the vaginal stroma and epithelium and cervical epithelium, but not in the uterine and cervical stroma. ERα DBD, AF1, and AF2 were required for suppression of Pgr in the uterine epithelium, which was mediated by stromal ERα. Epithelial ERα was responsible for upregulation of epithelial Pgr in the cervix and vagina. Our results indicate that regulation and functions of epithelial PR are different in the cervix, vagina, and uterus.

  10. Induction of the progesterone receptor gene in estrogen target cells monitored by branched DNA signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Allan, G F; Hutchins, A; Liu, X; Clancy, J

    2001-09-01

    Estrogens have multiple effects on the growth and development of cells in their target tissues, including the uterus, ovary, breast, bone marrow and brain. The hormone regulates the transcription of diverse genes in these tissues via the estrogen receptor, a nuclear transcription factor. Naturally occurring estrogens and estrogen analogs including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), constitute important therapies for breast cancer and osteoporosis, and are major components of oral contraceptives. The in vitro biologic activities of pharmaceutical estrogen agonists and antagonists have frequently been monitored by cotransfection assay, where exogenous estrogen receptor and reporter genes are transiently inserted into a heterologous, non receptor-containing cell line, such as those derived from kidney cells. Here we describe an alternative to this method, where induction of an endogenous estrogen-responsive gene, the progesterone receptor gene, is monitored by branched DNA signal amplification. Assays are performed with cultured cells derived from estrogen-responsive tissues; namely, breast, uterine endothelium and bone. Hormonal induction occurs via the endogenous estrogen receptor of these cells. Our data show that SERMs, which are estrogen agonists on bone in vivo, antagonize estrogen-dependent target gene induction in conditionally immortalized osteoblast-like cells.

  11. Na+ and K+ Allosterically Regulate Cooperative DNA Binding by the Human Progesterone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Connaghan, Keith D; Heneghan, Aaron F; Miura, Michael T; Bain, David L

    2009-01-01

    Cooperativity is a common mechanism used by transcription factors to generate highly responsive yet stable gene regulation. For the two isoforms of human progesterone receptor (PR-A and PR-B), differences in cooperative DNA binding energetics may account for their differing transcriptional activation properties. Here we report on the molecular origins responsible for cooperativity, finding that it can be activated or repressed with Na+ and K+, respectively. We demonstrate that PR self-association and DNA-dependent cooperativity are linked to a monovalent cation binding event, and that this binding is coupled to modulation of receptor structure. K+ and Na+ are therefore allosteric effectors of PR function. Noting that the apparent binding affinities of Na+ and K+ are comparable to their intracellular concentrations, and that PR isoforms directly regulate the genes of a number of ion pumps and channels, these results suggest that Na+ and K+ may additionally function as physiological regulators of PR action. PMID:20000807

  12. Immunological evidence for progesterone and estradiol receptors in the freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Marina; Di Cristo, Carlo; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2002-09-01

    In this article, we present evidence for progesterone and estradiol receptors (PR and ER, respectively) in the female of the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sex steroid receptors in crustaceans. By using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting approaches and employing three different antibodies against PR (human PR, chicken PR-hinge region, and chicken PR A/B domain) and antibodies against human ER, we showed the presence of PR in the ovary and hepatopancreas and ER in the hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish A. pallipes. The immunological characteristics and the tissue localization suggest a relatedness with both PR and ER in vertebrates along with their involvement in the modulation of reproductive functions in this crustaceans.

  13. Progesterone receptor A stability is mediated by glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the Brca1-deficient mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohui; Li, Ying; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Lee, Sou-Ying; Kim, Yoon; Lee, Eva Y-H P

    2013-09-06

    Germ line mutations of the BRCA1 gene increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, but the basis of this tissue-specific tumor predisposition is not fully understood. Previously, we reported that the progesterone receptors are stabilized in Brca1-deficient mammary epithelial cells, and treating with anti-progesterone delays mammary tumorigenesis in Brca1/p53 conditional knock-out mice, suggesting that the progesterone has a critical role in breast carcinogenesis. To further explore how the stability of progesterone receptor is modulated, here, we have found that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β phosphorylation of progesterone receptor-A (PR-A) facilitates its ubiquitination. GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of serine 390 in PR-A regulates its subsequent ubiquitination and protein stability. Expression of PR-A(S390A) mutant in the human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A, results in enhanced proliferation and formation of aberrant acini structure in the three-dimensional culture. Consistently, reduction of phosphorylation of serine 390 of PR-A and GSK-3β activity is observed in the Brca1-deficient mammary gland. Taken together, these results provide important aspects of tissue specificity of BRCA1-mediated suppression of breast carcinogenesis.

  14. Progesterone Receptor A Stability Is Mediated by Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in the Brca1-deficient Mammary Gland*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaohui; Li, Ying; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Lee, Sou-Ying; Kim, Yoon; Lee, Eva Y.-H. P.

    2013-01-01

    Germ line mutations of the BRCA1 gene increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, but the basis of this tissue-specific tumor predisposition is not fully understood. Previously, we reported that the progesterone receptors are stabilized in Brca1-deficient mammary epithelial cells, and treating with anti-progesterone delays mammary tumorigenesis in Brca1/p53 conditional knock-out mice, suggesting that the progesterone has a critical role in breast carcinogenesis. To further explore how the stability of progesterone receptor is modulated, here, we have found that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β phosphorylation of progesterone receptor-A (PR-A) facilitates its ubiquitination. GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of serine 390 in PR-A regulates its subsequent ubiquitination and protein stability. Expression of PR-AS390A mutant in the human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A, results in enhanced proliferation and formation of aberrant acini structure in the three-dimensional culture. Consistently, reduction of phosphorylation of serine 390 of PR-A and GSK-3β activity is observed in the Brca1-deficient mammary gland. Taken together, these results provide important aspects of tissue specificity of BRCA1-mediated suppression of breast carcinogenesis. PMID:23880761

  15. Uterine epithelial morphology and progesterone receptors in a mifepristone-treated viviparous lizard Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii (Squamata: Scincidae) during gestation.

    PubMed

    Biazik, Joanna M; Parker, Scott L; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2012-03-01

    Structural and functional changes to the uterus associated with maintenance of pregnancy are controlled primarily by steroid hormones such as progesterone. We tested the hypothesis that progesterone regulates uterine structural changes during pregnancy in the viviparous skink, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii, by treating pregnant females with the progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone at different stages of pregnancy. Expression and distribution of progesterone receptor was determined using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. During early pregnancy, mifepristone treatment resulted in altered uterine epithelial cell surface morphology and high embryo mortality, but did not affect females at mid and late stages of pregnancy. Females treated with mifepristone in early pregnancy exhibited abnormal uterine epithelial cell morphology such as lateral blebbing and presence of wide gaps between cells indicating loss of intercellular attachment. Chorioallantoic membranes of the embryo were not affected by mifepristone treatment. Two isoforms (55 kDa and 100 kDa) of progesterone receptor were identified using immunoblots and both isoforms were localized to the nucleus of uterine epithelial cells. The 55 kDa isoform was expressed throughout pregnancy, whereas the 100 kDa isoform was expressed during mid and especially late pregnancy. In P. entrecasteauxii, mifepristone may prevent successful embryo attachment in early pregnancy through its effects on uterine epithelial cells but may have little effect on pregnancy once the maternal-embryo structural relationship is established. © 2011 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Estrogen and progesterone receptor testing in breast carcinoma: concordance of results between local and reference laboratories in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wludarski, Sheila Cristina Lordelo; Lopes, Lisandro Ferreira; Duarte, Ivison Xavier; Carvalho, Filomena Marino; Weiss, Lawrence; Bacchi, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer accounts for approximately one quarter of all cancers in females. Estrogen and progesterone receptor testing has become an essential part of the clinical evaluation of breast carcinoma patients, and accurate results are critical in identifying patients who may benefit from hormone therapy. The present study had the aim of investigating the concordance of the results from hormone receptor tests between a reference laboratory and local (or community) laboratories in Brazil. Retrospective study at a reference pathology laboratory. The concordance in the results from hormone receptor tests between a reference laboratory and 146 local laboratories in Brazil was compared in relation to 500 invasive breast carcinoma cases, using immunohistochemistry. There was concordance in 89.4% (447/500 cases) and 85.0% (425/500 cases) of the results from estrogen (κ = 0.744, P < 0.001) and progesterone (κ = 0.688, P < 0.001) receptor tests, respectively, between local and reference laboratories. This was similar to findings in other countries. The false negative rates from estrogen and progesterone receptor tests in local laboratories were 8.7% and 14.4%, respectively. The false positive rates from estrogen and progesterone receptor tests in local laboratories were 15.5% and 16.0%, respectively. Technical and result interpretation issues may explain most of the discordances in hormone receptor testing in local laboratories. Validation of estrogen and progesterone receptor tests at local laboratories, with rigorous quality control measures, is strongly recommended in order to avoid erroneous treatment of breast cancer patients.

  17. Interaction between FGFR-2, STAT5, and progesterone receptors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cerliani, Juan P; Guillardoy, Tomás; Giulianelli, Sebastián; Vaque, José P; Gutkind, J Silvio; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Martins, Rubén; Zeitlin, Eduardo; Lamb, Caroline A; Lanari, Claudia

    2011-05-15

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 2 (FGFR-2) polymorphisms have been associated with an increase in estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast cancer risk; however, a clear mechanistic association between FGFR-2 and steroid hormone receptors remains elusive. In previous works, we have shown a cross talk between FGF2 and progestins in mouse mammary carcinomas. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these interactions and to validate our findings in a human setting, we have used T47D human breast cancer cells and human cancer tissue samples. We showed that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and FGF2 induced cell proliferation and activation of ERK, AKT, and STAT5 in T47D and in murine C4-HI cells. Nuclear interaction between PR, FGFR-2, and STAT5 after MPA and FGF2 treatment was also showed by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation. This effect was associated with increased transcription of PRE and/or GAS reporter genes, and of PR/STAT5-regulated genes and proteins. Two antiprogestins and the FGFR inhibitor PD173074, specifically blocked the effects induced by FGF2 or MPA respectively. The presence of PR/FGFR-2/STAT5 complexes bound to the PRE probe was corroborated by using NoShift transcription and chromatin immunoprecipitation of the MYC promoter. Additionally, we showed that T47D cells stably transfected with constitutively active FGFR-2 gave rise to invasive carcinomas when transplanted into NOD/SCID mice. Nuclear colocalization between PR and FGFR-2/STAT5 was also observed in human breast cancer tissues. This study represents the first demonstration of a nuclear interaction between FGFR-2 and STAT5, as PR coactivators at the DNA progesterone responsive elements, suggesting that FGFRs are valid therapeutic targets for human breast cancer treatment.

  18. Lack of significant estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in nasal telangiectasias in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: an immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Eivazi, Behfar; Werner, Jochen A; Roessler, Marion; Negm, Hesham; Teymoortash, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    This immunohistochemical study of estrogen and progesterone receptors could not confirm a significant expression in nasal telangiectasias. Thus, a specific effect of these hormones or anti-hormone therapy on malformed nasal vessels has to be questioned and only offered under strict clinical control. The efforts to control recurrent epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) using alternative methods are very intense. Hormone or anti-hormone therapy has frequently been postulated and the reported results are controversial. Therefore it was important to find an explanation regarding a possible impact of hormonal therapies by immunohistochemical evaluation of progesterone and estrogen receptor expression on nasal telangiectasias of affected patients. Tissue samples of nasal mucosa with evidence of telangiectasias from 14 patients with HHT were analyzed for the expression of progesterone and estrogen receptors on the nuclei of endothelial cells of the malformed vessels using immunohistochemistry. Progesterone receptors were not detected in any of the cases and only two cases showed a weak expression of estrogen receptors with an immunoreactive score of 2/12.

  19. Topographies and isoforms of the progesterone receptor in female human, rat and mouse bladder.

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Thomas; Rietjens, Roma; Voets, Thomas; Everaerts, Wouter; De Ridder, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    Steroid hormones such as progesterone are known to influence bladder function. Progesterone effects are mediated by the progesterone receptor (PR) but no detailed studies of PR in bladder exist. We have investigated the presence, topography and subtypes of PR in mouse, rat and human bladder. Fresh tissue samples were obtained from cystectomies in female humans, rats and mice (n = 7 per group). Tissue samples were processed for immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF) and western blot (WB) and, for each species, a panel of specific PR antibody clones was used. Interpretation of IHC/IF was carried out by light/fluorescent microscopy and of WB via standard WB software. IHC/IF in female human bladder showed PR on the interstitial cells in the lamina propria and between detrusor smooth muscle cells, whereas in female rat and mouse bladder, PR was only found on the urothelium. WB in human bladder showed a 78-kD and a 60-kDa band, respectively, corresponding to a modified PR isoform A and PR isoform C. WB in rat and mice bladder showed a 60 kDa band and a 37 kDa band, respectively corresponding with PR isoform C and an unknown isoform. This is the first detailed investigation of the precise location and presence of several isoforms of PR in bladder, together with a comparison of these data between human, rat and mouse. Our study has revealed complex PR families in bladders from the various species studied and demonstrates obvious inter-species differences in PR topography and isoforms.

  20. Dysregulation of Uterine Signaling Pathways in Progesterone Receptor-Cre Knockout of Dicer

    PubMed Central

    Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia V.; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Hodgson, Myles C.; Chen, Ruihong; Creighton, Chad J.; Lydon, John P.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-stromal interactions in the uterus are required for normal uterine functions such as pregnancy, and multiple signaling pathways are essential for this process. Although Dicer and microRNA (miRNA) have been implicated in several reproductive processes, the specific roles of Dicer and miRNA in uterine development are not known. To address the roles of miRNA in the regulation of key uterine pathways, we generated a conditional knockout of Dicer in the postnatal uterine epithelium and stroma using progesterone receptor-Cre. These Dicer conditional knockout females are sterile with small uteri, which demonstrate significant defects, including absence of glandular epithelium and enhanced stromal apoptosis, beginning at approximately postnatal d 15, with coincident expression of Cre and deletion of Dicer. Specific miRNA (miR-181c, −200b, −101, let-7d) were down-regulated and corresponding predicted proapoptotic target genes (Bcl2l11, Aldh1a3) were up-regulated, reflecting the apoptotic phenomenon. Although these mice had normal serum hormone levels, critical uterine signaling pathways, including progesterone-responsive genes, Indian hedgehog signaling, and the Wnt/β-catenin canonical pathway, were dysregulated at the mRNA level. Importantly, uterine stromal cell proliferation in response to progesterone was absent, whereas uterine epithelial cell proliferation in response to estradiol was maintained in adult uteri. These data implicate Dicer and appropriate miRNA expression as essential players in the regulation of multiple uterine signaling pathways required for uterine development and appropriate function. PMID:22798293

  1. Marginal activity of progesterone receptor B (PR-B) in dogs but high incidence of mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Gracanin, Ana; Voorwald, Fabiana A; van Wolferen, Monique; Timmermans-Sprang, Elpetra; Mol, Jan A

    2014-10-01

    Progesterone plays an important role in the normal development and carcinogenesis of the mammary gland. In vitro studies have shown that the canine progesterone receptor B (cPR-B), which is essential for mammary development in the mouse, does not transactivate reporter constructs containing progesterone response elements. Therefore, the question was raised whether the cPR-B was completely devoid of transactivation potential of endogenous progesterone regulated genes. Canine mammary cell lines expressing doxycycline-inducible cPR-B, human PR-B or a chimera in which the canine B-upstream segment (BUS) was replaced by a human BUS were treated for 24h with doxycycline, progesterone or a combination of the two. The expression profiling was subsequently performed using a dog-specific microarray and miRNA primers. Incubation of stably transfected cell lines with doxycycline or progesterone alone, did not change expression of any endogenous gene. Expression of activated human PR-B or the chimera of human BUS with the canine PR resulted in differential expression of >500 genes whereas the activated cPR-B regulated only a subset of 40 genes and to a limited extent. The relevance of the marginal transactivation potential or the consequence of a lack of cPR-B function for the carcinogenesis of mammary gland tumors is discussed.

  2. Effect of Monochromatic Light on Expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) in Ovarian Follicles of Chicken.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingbin; Li, Diyan; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Xiao, Qihai; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Zhu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Artificial illumination is widely used in modern poultry houses and different wavelengths of light affect poultry production and behaviour. In this study, we measure mRNA and protein abundance of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) in order to investigate the effect of monochromatic light on egg production traits and gonadal hormone function in chicken ovarian follicles. Five hundred and fifty-two 19-wk-old laying hens were exposed to three monochromatic lights: red (RL; 660 nm), green (GL; 560 nm), blue (BL; 480 nm) and control cool white (400-760 nm) light with an LED (light-emitting diode). There were 4 identical light-controlled rooms (n = 138) each containing 3 replicate pens (46 birds per pen). Water was supplied ad libitum and daily rations were determined according to the nutrient suggestions for poultry. Results showed that under BL conditions there was an increase in the total number of eggs at 300 days of age and egg-laying rate during the peak laying period. The BL and GL extended the duration of the peak laying period. Plasma melatonin was lowest in birds reared under BL. Plasma estradiol was elevated in the GL-exposed laying hens, and GL and BL increased progesterone at 28 wk of age. In the granulosa layers of the fifth largest preovulatory follicle (F5), the third largest preovulatory follicle (F3) and the largest preovulatory follicle (F1), ERα mRNA was increased by BL and GL. Treatment with BL increased ERβ mRNA in granulosa layers of F5, F3 and F1, while GL increased ERβ mRNA in F5 and F3. There was a corresponding increase in abundance of the proteins in the granulosa layers of F5, with an increase in PR-B, generated via an alternative splice site, relative to PR-A. Treatment with BL also increased expression of PR mRNA in all of the granulosa layers of follicles, while treatment with GL increased expression of PR mRNA in granulosa layers of SYF(small yellow follicle), F5 and F1. These results indicate that blue and green

  3. Exploring Flexibility of Progesterone Receptor Ligand Binding Domain Using Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Liangzhen; Mu, Yuguang

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR), a member of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily, plays a vital role for female reproductive tissue development, differentiation and maintenance. PR ligand, such as progesterone, induces conformation changes in PR ligand binding domain (LBD), thus mediates subsequent gene regulation cascades. PR LBD may adopt different conformations upon an agonist or an antagonist binding. These different conformations would trigger distinct transcription events. Therefore, the dynamics of PR LBD would be of general interest to biologists for a deep understanding of its structure-function relationship. However, no apo-form (non-ligand bound) of PR LBD model has been proposed either by experiments or computational methods so far. In this study, we explored the structural dynamics of PR LBD using molecular dynamics simulations and advanced sampling tools in both ligand-bound and the apo-forms. Resolved by the simulation study, helix 11, helix 12 and loop 895–908 (the loop between these two helices) are quite flexible in antagonistic conformation. Several residues, such as Arg899 and Glu723, could form salt-bridging interaction between helix 11 and helix 3, and are important for the PR LBD dynamics. And we also propose that helix 12 in apo-form PR LBD, not like other NR LBDs, such as human estrogen receptor α (ERα) LBD, may not adopt a totally extended conformation. With the aid of umbrella sampling and metadynamics simulations, several stable conformations of apo-form PR LBD have been sampled, which may work as critical structural models for further large scale virtual screening study to discover novel PR ligands for therapeutic application. PMID:27824891

  4. A Role for Site-Specific Phosphorylation of Mouse Progesterone Receptor at Serine 191 in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Sandra L.; Ward, Robert D.; Obr, Alison E.; Franco, Heather L.; Fernandez-Valdivia, Rodrigo; Kim, Jung-Sun; Roberts, Justin M.; Jeong, Jae-Wook; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Edwards, Dean P.

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone receptors (PRs) are phosphorylated on multiple sites, and a variety of roles for phosphorylation have been suggested by cell-based studies. Previous studies using PR-null mice have shown that PR plays an important role in female fertility, regulation of uterine growth, the uterine decidualization response, and proliferation as well as ductal side-branching and alveologenesis in the mammary gland. To study the role of PR phosphorylation in vivo, a mouse was engineered with homozygous replacement of PR with a PR serine-to-alanine mutation at amino acid 191. No overt phenotypes were observed in the mammary glands or uteri of PR S191A treated with progesterone (P4). In contrast, although PR S191A mice were fertile, litters were 19% smaller than wild type and the estrous cycle was lengthened slightly. Moreover, P4-dependent gene regulation in primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs) was altered in a gene-selective manner. MECs derived from wild type and PR S191A mice were grown in a three-dimensional culture. Both formed acinar structures that were morphologically similar, and proliferation was stimulated equally by P4. However, P4 induction of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and calcitonin was selectively reduced in S191A cultures. These differences were confirmed in freshly isolated MECs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the binding of S191A PR to some of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand enhancers and a calcitonin enhancer was substantially reduced. Thus, the elimination of a single phosphorylation site is sufficient to modulate PR activity in vivo. PR contains many phosphorylation sites, and the coordinate regulation of multiple sites is a potential mechanism for selective modulation of PR function. PMID:25333515

  5. [New method for the determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors in human breast cell lines].

    PubMed

    Olea, N; Devleeschower, N; Leclercq, G

    1985-12-01

    A method for the determination of estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in human mammary cell lines (MCF-7, Cama-1, ZR-75-1, Evsa-T and HBL-100) is described. Cells cultured as monolayers were incubated with the tritiated steroids, [3H]-17 beta-Estradiol or [3H] ORG-2058. Binding of steroids to receptors was a function of cellular uptake. Incubation periods of 50 min were sufficient to attain maximum intracellular incorporation. The binding of 17 beta-E2 and ORG-2058 to MCF-7 cells, a phenomenon which is saturable at low concentrations for the radioactive ligand, is a linear function of the number of cells assayed (Interval: 2.5 X 10(4) to 1.5 X 10(6) cells per well). Binding data and their Scatchard plot allowed for the calculation of affinity and capacity values. Thus, for ER, Kd = 2.0 +/- 0.5 X 10(-10) M and n = 3.76 +/- 0.91 Fmol/microgram DNA, and for PgR Kd = 2.0 +/- 0.2 X 10(-10) M and n = 14.02 +/- 2.30 Fmol/microgram DNA (Mean +/- SD). Binding specificity of 17 beta-Estradiol and ORG-2058 to MCF-7 cells was analysed by means of study on the inhibitory effect of increasing concentrations of unlabelled competitors: 17 beta-Estradiol, ORG-2058, Estrone, DES, R-5020, Cortisol, Androsterone and Testosterone. Only pharmacological doses of some of the mentioned molecules produce displacement of the hormonereceptor binding. This phenomenon appears to be related to the affinity of these chemical compounds for the receptor macromolecules to which estrogens and progesterone bind.

  6. Progesterone Receptor in the Vascular Endothelium Triggers Physiological Uterine Permeability Pre-implantation

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Lauren M.; Murphy, Thomas J.; Org, Tönis; Enciso, Josephine M.; Hashimoto-Partyka, Minako K.; Warren, Carmen M.; Domigan, Courtney K.; McDonald, Austin; He, Huanhuan; Sanchez, Lauren A.; Allen, Nancy C.; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Chao, Lily C.; Dejana, Elisabetta; Tontonoz, Peter; Mikkola, Hanna K.A.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Vascular permeability is frequently associated with inflammation and triggered by a cohort of secreted permeability factors such as VEGF. Here we show that the physiological vascular permeability that precedes implantation is directly controlled by progesterone receptor (PR) and is independent of VEGF. Both global and endothelial-specific deletion of PR block physiological vascular permeability in the uterus whereas misexpression of PR in the endothelium of other organs results in ectopic vascular leakage. Integration of an endothelial genome-wide transcriptional profile with ChIP-sequencing revealed that PR induces a NR4A1 (Nur77/TR3)-dependent transcriptional program that broadly regulates vascular permeability in response to progesterone. Silencing of NR4A1 blocks PR-mediated permeability responses indicating a direct link between PR and NR4A1. This program triggers concurrent suppression of several junctional proteins and leads to an effective, timely and venous-specific regulation of vascular barrier function that is critical to embryo implantation. PMID:24485460

  7. Impact of progesterone receptor on cell-fate decisions during mammary gland development

    PubMed Central

    Shyamala, G.; Yang, X.; Cardiff, R. D.; Dale, E.

    2000-01-01

    Mammary epithelium contains lineage-limited progenitors that give rise to cells that form distinct morphological structures, ducts vs. lobules, depending on the endocrine status of the female. Progesterone signaling through progesterone receptor (PR) is essential for lobulo-alveolar development that accompanies pregnancy, but not for ductal growth accompanying puberty. PR exists in two molecular forms, A and B, and an imbalance in the native ratio of the two isoforms can lead to alterations in PR signaling. Indeed, as we reported previously, in transgenic mice carrying additional A form of PR, mammary development is abnormal, characterized by excessive lateral ductal branching. This suggests that alterations in PR signaling may have important consequences to mammary development, particularly with regard to ductal vs. alveolar growth. To test this further, we created transgenic mice carrying additional B form of PR and report that mammary development in these mice is also abnormal, characterized by inappropriate alveolar growth. More importantly, these mammary glands, on serial transplantation, undergo a premature arrest in ductal growth without any alteration in the potential for lobulo-alveolar growth. Such an arrest in ductal growth does not occur with transgenics carrying additional A form of PR. These studies, therefore, provide strong evidence to indicate that PR signaling may be of paramount importance for appropriate cell-fate decisions during normal mammary development, and also that this requires a regulated expression of the two isoforms. PMID:10737785

  8. RNPC1 enhances progesterone receptor functions by regulating its mRNA stability in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian-Song; Zhou, Wenbin; Wu, Jing; Zhou, Xujie; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ying; Wei, Ji-Fu; Ding, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) could activate transcriptional process involved in normal mammary gland proliferation and breast cancer development. Moreover, PR expression is an important marker of luminal breast cancer, which is associated with good prognosis and indicates better responding to endocrine therapies. The regulation of PR expression was studied mainly on its post-translational levels. In this study, we found PR was positively regulated by RNA-binding region-containing protein 1 (RNPC1), a RNA-binding protein, in PR positive breast cancer. Overexpression of RNPC1 increased, whereas knockdown of RNPC1 decreased, the level of PR protein and transcripts. Additionally, we demonstrated that RNPC1 could bind to PR mRNA via AU-rich elements (AREs) within PR 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) and then enhance PR mRNA stability. Moreover, we proved that progesterone-dependent PR functions which could induce breast cancer proliferation were enhanced by RNPC1, both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusively, we revealed a novel mechanism by which PR could be regulated by RNPC1 via stabilizing its mRNA. PMID:27634883

  9. Progesterone receptor reactivity in renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mai, K T; Teo, I; Belanger, E C; Robertson, S J; Marginean, E C; Islam, S

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the reactivity for oestrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR) in renal oncocytoma (RO) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CHRCC). Thirty-eight RO, 25 CHRCC, 20 papillary RCC with oncocytic cytoplasm and 10 clear cell RCC with dominant eosinophilic cytoplasm were submitted for immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, CD117 and RCC. All cases of RO and CHRCC displayed moderately positive reactivity for PR. The nuclear reactivity ranged from 60% to 90% in RO and from occasional cells to 70% in CHRCC. In CHRCC, reactivity tended to be more prevalent in areas of tumour cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. Progesterone reactivity was focal in areas. All RO and most CHRCC were reactive for CD117 and neither RO nor CHRCC was reactive for RCC. CD117 reactivity tended to be more intense in CHRCC than in RO. Negative reactivity for CD117 and positive reactivity for RCC were observed in almost all RCC, as reported in the literature. PR can be used in combination with CD117 and RCC in the differential diagnosis of RO and eosinophilic variant of CHRCC with other RCC with oncocytic or eosinophilic cytoplasm.

  10. Distribution of androgen and progesterone receptors in the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary during postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Gawron, Antoni

    2010-03-01

    This study describes the localization of androgen (AR) and progesterone (PR) receptors in the developing ovary in the spiny mouse. The immunohistochemical analysis showed for the first time the expression of AR and PR proteins in the ovary as early as in one day-old females. Both AR and PR were present in germinal epithelium cells, stromal cells as well as in the granulosa and theca layer of ovarian follicles. On days 7, 14, 21, 30, 60 and 90, the distribution of AR and PR depended on the stage of follicular development rather than on the animal's age. A novel observation was that PR protein was detected not only in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles, but also in the growing and early antral follicles. It was demonstrated that there is a different pattern of AR and PR immunoexpression throughout folliculogenesis. In contrast to AR, whose expression decreased during follicular development, the PR immunostaining increased during this time. It is concluded that androgens and progesterone may play an important role in the early stage of follicular development in the spiny mouse.

  11. Loss of Fertility in the Absence of Progesterone Receptor Expression in Kisspeptin Neurons of Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Arnon; Lin, Po-Ching; Cacioppo, Joseph A.; Hannon, Patrick R.; Mahoney, Megan M.; Wolfe, Andrew; Fernandez-Valdivia, Rodrigo; Lydon, John P.; Elias, Carol F.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian steroids, estradiol and progesterone, play central roles in regulating female reproduction by acting as both positive and negative regulators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in the hypothalamus. Recent studies have identified kisspeptin neurons of the hypothalamus as the target of estrogenic regulation of GnRH secretion. In this study, we aimed to determine the significance of progesterone receptor (PGR) expression in the kisspeptin neurons. To this end, the Pgr gene was selectively ablated in mouse kisspeptin neurons and the reproductive consequence assessed. The hypothalamus of the Pgr deficient female mouse expressed kisspeptin, the pituitary released LH in response to GnRH stimulation, and the ovary ovulated when stimulated with gonadotropins. However, the mutant mouse gradually lost cyclicity, was unable to generate a LH surge in response to rising estradiol, and eventually became infertile. Taken together, these results indicate that the loss of PGR impairs kisspeptin secretory machinery and therefore that PGR plays a critical role in regulating kisspeptin secretion. PMID:27441639

  12. Progesterone receptor (PR) variants exist in breast cancer cells characterised as PR negative.

    PubMed

    Cork, David M W; Lennard, Thomas W J; Tyson-Capper, Alison J

    2012-12-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) expression is measured in breast cancer by immunohistochemistry using N-terminally targeted antibodies and serves as a biomarker for endocrine therapeutic decisions. Extensive PR alternative splicing has been reported which may generate truncated PR variant proteins which are not detected by current breast cancer screening or may alter the function of proteins detected in screening. However, the existence of such truncated PR variants remains controversial. We have characterised PR protein expression in breast cancer cell lines using commercial PR antibodies targeting different epitopes. Truncated PR proteins are detected in reportedly PR negative MDA-MB-231 cells using a C-terminally targeted antibody. Antibody specificity was confirmed by immunoblotting following siRNA knockdown of PR expression. We have further demonstrated that alternatively spliced PR mRNA is present in MDA-MB-231 cells and in reportedly PR-negative breast tumour tissue which could encode the truncated PR proteins detected by the C-terminal antibody. The potential function of PR variant proteins present in MDA-MB-231 cells was also assessed, indicating the ability of these PR variants to bind progesterone, interact with a nuclear PR co-factor and bind DNA. These findings suggest that alternative splicing may generate functional truncated PR variant proteins which are not detected by breast cancer screening using N-terminally targeted antibodies leading to misclassification as PR negative.

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of androgen and progesterone receptors in the uterus of the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Emam, Mahmoud Abdelghaffar

    2014-10-01

    Ten adult, cyclic female camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to describe the distribution of androgen (AR) and progesterone (PR) receptors in the uterus using immunohistochemistry. Both AR and PR were distributed throughout the different compartments of the uterus with nuclear staining for AR and PR seen in the cells of epithelia (luminal and glandular), stroma and myometrial smooth muscles. AR immunostaining was not uniform in distribution and intensity; the surface epithelium and the glandular epithelium in the adluminal region of the endometrium showed lower AR immunoreactivity than other compartments of the uterus. PR immunostaining showed uniformity in both distribution and intensity strong PR immunostaining intensity in almost all cells of the different uterine compartments. The intensity and distribution of PR immunostaining in epithelia of lumen and glands in the adluminal regions of endometrium was higher (P<0.05) than that of AR. In conclusion, immunohistochemical localization of AR and PR in the uterus of the cyclic dromedary camel indicates the important roles of androgen and progesterone in controlling the uterine activity during the follicular phase.

  14. Detection of progesterone receptor forms A and B by immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mote, P; Johnston, J; Manninen, T; Tuohimaa, P; Clarke, C

    2001-01-01

    Aim—The measurement of progesterone receptors (PR) is recommended as part of the clinical management of breast and endometrial cancers, and immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed tissue is now the method of choice. PR is expressed as two isoforms, PRA and PRB, and although both these proteins are expressed in hormone dependent cancers, there is evidence that a large proportion of tumours express a predominance of one isoform. Therefore, it is essential to document the individual detection of PRA and PRB by the presently available anti-PR antibodies. The aim of this study is to investigate the detection of PR isoforms A and B in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded cell lines and tissue sections by immunohistochemistry, using a panel of commercial and in house antibodies to human PR. Methods—PR negative cell lines stably transfected to express only PRA (MCF-7Mll/PRA) or PRB (MDA-MB-231/PRB), and tissue sections of human breast carcinoma and normal endometrium were stained using an immunoperoxidase method. A panel of primary PR specific antibodies was evaluated for ability to detect both PRA and PRB proteins, and for intensity and distribution of positive staining under optimal conditions. Results—Of the 11 antibodies assessed, only four recognised PRA and PRB similarly. Six recognised PRA proteins but were unable to detect PRB expression in the cell lines expressing only PRA or PRB. In tissues expressing high amounts of PRA and PRB, all antibodies tested demonstrated positive PR staining. However, in tissues expressing a predominance of PRB, differential staining patterns were observed, with variations in staining intensity and in the proportion of cells positive for PR. Conclusions—Most PR specific antibodies tested failed to detect PRB in formalin fixed tissue by immunohistochemical techniques, despite their ability to do so by immunoblot analysis. These observations suggest that there are conformational differences between PRA and PRB that mask epitopes

  15. Effect of anti-PMSG on distribution of estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor in mouse ovary, oviduct and uterus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zi Li; Ni, He Min; Liu, Yun Hai; Sheng, Xi Hui; Cui, Xiang Shun; Kim, Nam Hyung; Guo, Yong

    2015-10-01

    It is well established that estrogen and progesterone are critical endogenous hormones that are essential for implantation and pregnancy in females. However, the distribution of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) in female reproductive tracts is elusive. Herein, we report that after serial treatments with pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) with or without anti-PMSG (AP), mice could regulate the distribution of ERα and PR in the murine ovary, oviduct and uterus and the level of estradiol in serum. ERα and PR regulation by PMSG and anti-PMSG was estrous cycle-dependent and critical for promoting the embryo-implantation period. Furthermore, our results suggested that AP-42 h treatment is more effective than the other treatments. In contrast, other treatment groups also affected the distribution of ERα and PR in mouse reproductive tracts. Thus, we found that anti-PMSG has the potential to restore the distribution of ERα and PR, which could effectively reduce the negative impact of residual estrogen caused by the normal superovulation effect of PMSG in mice.

  16. Delayed Parturition and Altered Myometrial Progesterone Receptor Isoform A Expression in Mice Null for Kruppel-like Factor 9

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-term and delayed labor conditions are devastating health problems, with currently unknown etiologies. We previously showed that the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) influences the expression and/or transcriptional activity of receptors for estrogen and progesterone in endometria...

  17. Development of progesterone receptor antagonists from 1,2-dihydrochromeno[3,4-f]quinoline agonist pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Lin; Ringgenberg, Josef D; Edwards, James P; Tegley, Christopher M; West, Sarah J; Pio, Barbara; Motamedi, Mehrnouch; Jones, Todd K; Marschke, Keith B; Mais, Dale E; Schrader, William T

    2003-06-16

    A series of 1,2-dihydrochromeno[3,4-f]quinoline derivatives was synthesized and tested in biological assays to evaluate the nonsteroidal progesterone receptor modulator pharmacophore (4) as antiprogestins. A number of potent analogues were identified by modification of the substituents at the D-ring.

  18. Prognostic significance of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in LNG-IUS (Mirena) treatment of endometrial hyperplasia: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Emelie; Gallos, Ioannis D; Ganesan, Raji; Varma, Rajesh; Gupta, Janesh K

    2010-03-01

    We performed immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen (ERalpha) and progesterone receptors (PRA and PRB), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and aromatase in endometrial hyperplasia treated with Mirena (levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system; LNG-IUS) and explored their prognostic significance. The baseline pre-treatment endometrial hyperplasia of a selected prospective cohort was analyzed [complex (n = 29) and atypical (n = 5)]. Study participants were categorized into those that showed endometrial regression (responders, n = 28) and those that showed non-regression or histological progression to atypia or malignancy (non-responders, n = 6). Immunohistochemical expression was expressed as a histological score (HS). Responders compared to non-responders showed significantly higher HSs for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors predicted non-responder status with likelihood ratios of 9.33 (95% CI 2.19-39.81) and 2.92 (95% CI 1.47-5.79), respectively. Neither PTEN nor aromatase expression were associated with LNG-IUS therapy responsiveness. Responsiveness of endometrial hyperplasia to LNG-IUS therapy may be determined through analysis of baseline estrogen and progesterone receptors, but these exploratory findings require confirmation in a larger dataset.

  19. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in subtypes of canine mammary tumours in intact and ovariectomised dogs.

    PubMed

    Mainenti, M; Rasotto, R; Carnier, P; Zappulli, V

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate as a potential prognostic indicator the relationship between histological subtype of canine mammary tumours (CMTs) and oestrogen-α (ORα) and progesterone (PR) receptor expression. Using immunohistochemistry, receptor expression in neoplastic epithelial cells was assessed in 12 different subtypes in 113 CMTs (34 benign, 79 malignant) and 101 surrounding normal tissues. Sixty-eight and 45 CMTs were from intact and ovariectomised bitches, respectively. Histological subtype strongly influenced ORα/PR expression: simple and complex adenomas as well as simple tubular carcinomas exhibited the greatest expression, whereas immunohistochemical labelling for these receptors was weakest in carcinoma and malignant myoepitheliomas, as well as in solid/anaplastic carcinomas and comedocarcinomas. Receptor expression was generally higher in benign relative to malignant neoplasms, and in the latter it was significantly lower in ovariectomised vs. intact bitches. Lymphatic invasion, mitotic index, nodule diameter, and tumour grade were significantly associated with ORα/PR expression. Although not found to be an independent prognostic indicator, tumours from dogs with <10% cells with ORα/PR expression had a poorer prognosis. Lymphatic invasion, the state of the margins of excision, and mitotic index were found to be independent prognostic indicators. Overall, the results suggest that differences in histological subtype and whether or not a bitch has been ovariectomised should be considered when evaluating the significance of ORα and PR expression in CMTs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential expression of androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lingmin; Shen, Wenhao; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Qiwu; Wang, Yongquan; Zhou, Zhansong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the differential expression levels of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ), and progesterone receptor (PGR) between normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The combination of immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting assay was used to identify the distribution and differential expression of these receptors at the immunoactive biomarker, transcriptional, and protein levels between 5 normal human prostate tissues and 40 BPH tissues. The results were then validated in a rat model of BPH induced by testosterone propionate and estradiol benzoate. In both human and rat prostate tissues, AR was localized mainly to epithelial and stromal cell nuclei; ERα was distributed mainly to stromal cells, but not exclusively; ERβ was interspersed in the basal layer of epithelium, but sporadically in epithelial and stromal cells; PGR was expressed abundantly in cytoplasm of epithelial and stromal cells. There were decreased expression of ERα and increased expression of PGR, but no difference in the expression of ERβ in the BPH compared to the normal prostate of both human and rat. Increased expression of AR in the BPH compared to the normal prostate of human was observed, however, the expression of AR in the rat prostate tissue was decreased. This study identified the activation of AR and PGR and repression of ERα in BPH, which indicate a promoting role of AR and PGR and an inhibitory role of ERα in the pathogenesis of BPH. PMID:27294569

  1. More favorable progesterone receptor phenotype of breast cancer in diabetics treated with metformin.

    PubMed

    Berstein, Lev M; Boyarkina, Marina P; Tsyrlina, Evgenia V; Turkevich, Elena A; Semiglazov, Vladimir F

    2011-12-01

    The coexistence of type 2 diabetes with breast cancer may result in poorer cancer-related survival due to a number of mediating factors including an alteration of tumor tissue hormonal sensitivity. Previous studies have shown that receptor status of breast tumors in diabetics may be changed; however, the mode of therapy for diabetes was usually ignored. This work presents the results of an analysis of the receptor status of breast carcinomas in 90 postmenopausal women suffering with diabetes mellitus type 2 who had been cured, for not less that 1 year prior to surgery, with different modes of antidiabetic therapy, including a dietary treatment only, sulfonylurea preparations, insulin therapy, and metformin as a monotherapy or in combination with sulfonylurea derivatives. No differences in estrogen receptors occurrence in tumor tissue were found in different treatment groups. The frequency of progesterone receptor-positive mammary carcinomas in women who were treated with metformin, irrespective of whether it was combined with sulfonylurea preparations, was significantly higher than in the sulfonylurea only group (P=0.043) and in the combined group of patients treated with either sulfonylurea or insulin (P=0.041). The exclusion of the patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (24 persons) did not significantly affect the above results. The data may be used as an explanation of the distinctions in cancer characteristics and course between diabetic patients treated with either metformin or sulfonylurea derivatives and insulin.

  2. Elevated Resistin Gene Expression in African American Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallega, Karin A; Liu, NingNing; Myers, Jennifer S; Yu, Kaixian; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2016-01-01

    African American (AA) women diagnosed with breast cancer are more likely to have aggressive subtypes. Investigating differentially expressed genes between patient populations may help explain racial health disparities. Resistin, one such gene, is linked to inflammation, obesity, and breast cancer risk. Previous studies indicated that resistin expression is higher in serum and tissue of AA breast cancer patients compared to Caucasian American (CA) patients. However, resistin expression levels have not been compared between AA and CA patients in a stage- and subtype-specific context. Breast cancer prognosis and treatments vary by subtype. This work investigates differential resistin gene expression in human breast cancer tissues of specific stages, receptor subtypes, and menopause statuses in AA and CA women. Differential gene expression analysis was performed using human breast cancer gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We performed inter-race resistin gene expression level comparisons looking at receptor status and stage-specific data between AA and CA samples. DESeq was run to test for differentially expressed resistin values. Resistin RNA was higher in AA women overall, with highest values in receptor negative subtypes. Estrogen-, progesterone-, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- negative groups showed statistically significant elevated resistin levels in Stage I and II AA women compared to CA women. In inter-racial comparisons, AA women had significantly higher levels of resistin regardless of menopause status. In whole population comparisons, resistin expression was higher among Stage I and III estrogen receptor negative cases. In comparisons of molecular subtypes, resistin levels were significant higher in triple negative than in luminal A breast cancer. Resistin gene expression levels were significantly higher in receptor negative subtypes, especially estrogen receptor negative cases in AA women. Resistin may serve as an early breast

  3. Immunohistochemical expression of estrogens and progesterone receptors in carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma-undifferentiated and adenocarcinoma types.

    PubMed

    Tarakji, Bassel; Nassani, Mohammad Z; Sloan, Philip

    2010-05-01

    Cancer of the salivary gland is one of the common cancers in the head and the neck regions. This type of cancer develops in the minor and the major salivary glands, and it sometimes metastasizes to other organs, particularly the lung. Morphologic mimicry and similarity in the expression of steroid hormone receptors between salivary gland tumours and breast tumours are well-known phenomena and are occasionally debated in the field of surgical pathology. The expression of sex hormone receptors in some tumours suggests a role for these receptors in tumor pathogenesis and therapy. Previous studies of the expression of estrogens and progesterone receptors in salivary gland tumours have reported conflicting results. Our study aimed to characterize alteration in the immunohistochemical expression of oestrogens receptor and progesterone receptor in the tumour cells of carcinoma arising in pleomorphic adenoma. 27 cases of carcinoma arising in pleomorphic adenoma (undifferentiated and adenocarcinoma types) were examined. The results showed that 27 (100 %) of 27 cases had negative nuclear staining for either oestrogens or progesterone receptors. Our data suggest that carcinomas arising in pleomorphic adenoma were not dependent on endocrine function.

  4. Progesterone promotes focal adhesion formation and migration in breast cancer cells through induction of protease-activated receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Jorge; Aranda, Evelyn; Henriquez, Soledad; Quezada, Marisol; Espinoza, Estefanía; Bravo, Maria Loreto; Oliva, Bárbara; Lange, Soledad; Villalon, Manuel; Jones, Marius; Brosens, Jan J; Kato, Sumie; Cuello, Mauricio A; Knutson, Todd P; Lange, Carol A; Leyton, Lisette; Owen, Gareth I

    2012-08-01

    Progesterone and progestins have been demonstrated to enhance breast cancer cell migration, although the mechanisms are still not fully understood. The protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of membrane receptors that are activated by serine proteases in the blood coagulation cascade. PAR1 (F2R) has been reported to be involved in cancer cell migration and overexpressed in breast cancer. We herein demonstrate that PAR1 mRNA and protein are upregulated by progesterone treatment of the breast cancer cell lines ZR-75 and T47D. This regulation is dependent on the progesterone receptor (PR) but does not require PR phosphorylation at serine 294 or the PR proline-rich region mPRO. The increase in PAR1 mRNA was transient, being present at 3  h and returning to basal levels at 18  h. The addition of a PAR1-activating peptide (aPAR1) to cells treated with progesterone resulted in an increase in focal adhesion (FA) formation as measured by the cellular levels of phosphorylated FA kinase. The combined but not individual treatment of progesterone and aPAR1 also markedly increased stress fiber formation and the migratory capacity of breast cancer cells. In agreement with in vitro findings, data mining from the Oncomine platform revealed that PAR1 expression was significantly upregulated in PR-positive breast tumors. Our observation that PAR1 expression and signal transduction are modulated by progesterone provides new insight into how the progestin component in hormone therapies increases the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

  5. Progesterone receptor A predominance is a discriminator of benefit from endocrine therapy in the ATAC trial.

    PubMed

    Mote, Patricia A; Gompel, Anne; Howe, Chris; Hilton, Heidi N; Sestak, Ivana; Cuzick, Jack; Dowsett, Mitch; Hugol, Danielle; Forgez, Patricia; Byth, Karen; Graham, J Dinny; Clarke, Christine L

    2015-06-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) function, while essential in normal human breast, is also implicated in breast cancer risk. The two progesterone receptors, PRA and PRB, are co-expressed at equivalent levels in normal breast, but early in carcinogenesis normal levels of PRA:PRB are frequently disrupted, and predominance of one isoform, usually PRA, results. In model systems, PRA and PRB have different activities, and altering the PRA:PRB ratio in cell lines alters PR signaling. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hormonal or reproductive factors contribute to imbalanced PRA:PRB expression in breast tumors and the impact of PRA:PRB imbalance on disease outcome. The relative expression of PRA and PRB proteins was determined by dual immunofluorescence histochemistry in archival breast tumors and associations with clinical and reproductive history assessed. PRA:PRB expression was not influenced by reproductive factors, whereas exogenous hormone use (menopausal hormone treatment, MHT) favored PRB expression (p < 0.035). The PRA:PRB ratio may be a discriminator of response to endocrine therapy in the TransATAC sample collection, with high PRA:PRB ratio predicting earlier relapse for women on tamoxifen, but not anastrozole (mean lnPRA:PRB ratio; HR (95 % CI) tamoxifen 2.45 (1.20-4.99); p value 0.02; anastrozole 0.80 (0.36-1.78); p value 0.60). The results of this study show that PRA:PRB imbalance in breast cancers is not associated with lifetime endogenous endocrine and reproductive factors, but is associated with MHT use, and that PRA predominance can discriminate those women who will relapse earlier on tamoxifen treatment. These data support a role for imbalanced PRA:PRB expression in breast cancer progression and relative benefit from endocrine treatment.

  6. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 deficiency attenuates growth while promoting chemosensitivity of human endometrial xenograft tumors

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Anne M.; Zhang, Ling; Pru, Cindy A.; Clark, Nicole C.; McCallum, Melissa L.; Blok, Leen J.; Shioda, Toshi; Peluso, John J.; Rueda, Bo R.; Pru, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the leading gynecologic cancer in women in the United States with 52,630 women predicted to be diagnosed with the disease in 2014. The objective of this study was to determine if progesterone (P4) receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) influenced endometrial cancer cell viability in response to chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. A Jentiviral-based shRNA knockdown approach was used to generate stable PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines that also lacked expression of the classical progesterone receptor (PGR). Progesterone treatment inhibited mitosis of PGRMC1-intact, but not PGRMC1-deplete cells, suggesting that PGRMC1 mediates the anti-mitotic actions of P4.To test the hypothesis that PGRMC1 attenuates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete cells were treated in vitro with vehicle, P4 (1 μM), doxorubicin (Dox. 2 μg/ml). or P4 + Dox for 48 h. Doxorubicin treatment of PGRMC1-intact cells resulted in a significant increase in cell death; however, co-treatment with P4 significantly attenuated Dex-induced cell death. This response to P4 was lost in PGRMC1-deplete cells. To extend these observations in vivo, a xenograft model was employed where PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete endometrial tumors were generated following subcutaneous and intraperitonea l inoculation of immunocompromised NOD/SCIO and nude mice, respectively. Tumors derived from PGRMC1-deplete cells grew slower than tumors from PGRMC1-intact cells. Mice harboring endometrial tumors were then given three treatments of vehicle (1:1 cremophor EL: ethanol + 0.9% saline) or chemotherapy [Paclitaxel (15 mg/kg, i.p.) followed after an interval of 30 minutes by CARBOplatin (SO mg/kg)] at five day intervals. In response to chemotherapy, tumor volume decreased approximately four-fold more in PGRMC1-deplete tumors when compared with PGRMC1 intact control tumors, suggesting that PGRMC1 promotes tumor cell viability during

  7. Expression of oxytocin, progesterone, and estrogen receptors in the reproductive tract of bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Prapaiwan, N; Manee-In, S; Olanratmanee, E; Srisuwatanasagul, S

    2017-02-01

    Canine pyometra is considered a serious and life-threatening condition. Due to the relationship among sex steroid hormones, oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression, and canine pyometra pathogenesis, this study aimed to investigate the expression of oxytocin, progesterone, and estrogen receptors in the reproductive tissues of canines with pyometra by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. A total of 27 pyometra bitches were classified into open- and closed-cervix pyometra groups based on the presence of vaginal discharge. Moreover, 15 normal bitches in the luteal phase served as a control group. The results showed that OTR gene expression in the ovary of pyometra bitches was higher than that of normal bitches, whereas the level of OTR gene expression in the cervix of pyometra bitches was less than that of normal bitches (P < 0.05). Conversely, a lower OTR H-score in ovarian follicles was observed in pyometra bitches compared with normal bitches, whereas a higher percentage of OTR-positive immunostaining in uteri and cervices were found in pyometra bitches compared with normal bitches (P < 0.05). Moreover, the H-scores of estrogen receptor alpha in uteri and cervices of pyometra bitches were less than that of normal bitches (P < 0.05). However, the localization of the OTR and sex steroid receptors between groups of pyometra bitches was not different. Our findings suggest that pyometra pathogenesis is associated with a change in expression of OTR and sex steroid receptors in the canine reproductive tract. However, cervical dilation in bitches with pyometra was not influenced by the expression of OTR and sex steroid receptors.

  8. Primate-specific Melanoma Antigen-A11 Regulates Isoform-specific Human Progesterone Receptor-B Transactivation*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shifeng; Blackwelder, Amanda J.; Grossman, Gail; Minges, John T.; Yuan, Lingwen; Young, Steven L.; Wilson, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone acting through the progesterone receptor (PR) and its coregulators prepares the human endometrium for receptivity to embryo implantation and maintains pregnancy. The menstrual cycle-dependent expression of melanoma antigen-A11 (MAGE-11) in the mid-secretory human endometrium suggested a novel function in human PR signaling. Here we show that MAGE-11 is an isoform-specific coregulator responsible for the greater transcriptional activity of human PR-B relative to PR-A. PR was recruited to progesterone response regions of progesterone-regulated FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) immunophilin and small Ras family G protein cell growth inhibitor RASD1 genes. Expression of MAGE-11 lentivirus shRNA in human endometrial Ishikawa cells expressing PR-B showed that MAGE-11 is required for isoform-specific PR-B up-regulation of FKBP5. In contrast, MAGE-11 was not required for progesterone up-regulation of RASD1 in endometrial cells expressing the PR-A/B heterodimer. Target gene specificity of PR-B depended on the synergistic actions of MAGE-11 and p300 mediated by the unique PR-B NH2-terminal 110LLXXVLXXLL119 motif that interacts with the MAGE-11 F-box region in a phosphorylation- and ubiquitinylation-dependent manner. A progesterone-dependent mechanism is proposed in which MAGE-11 and p300 increase PR-B up-regulation of the FKBP5 gene. MAGE-11 down-regulates PR-B, similar to the effects of progesterone, and interacts with FKBP5 to stabilize a complex with PR-B. We conclude that the coregulator function of MAGE-11 extends to isoform-specific regulation of PR-B during the cyclic development of the human endometrium. PMID:22891251

  9. [Value of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the management of intraepithelial squamous lesions of low grade].

    PubMed

    González Sánchez, J L; Chávez Brambila, J; Maricela Román, A; Infante Martínez, R; Salazar Esquivel, L E

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to know the prognostic value of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors positives (ER+, PR+) in the management of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [(LGSIL), human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) and menopausal status]. From January 1995 to January of 1999, was studied in 144 women with abnormal citology to HPV and CIN grades 1, 2 or 3. Colposcopy was carried out and two biopsies were taken from the suspicious lesion, they were sent for histopathological study, and for ER/PR by the dextran-coated charcoal technique. In addition to the receptor status information, histological type of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), and menopausal status were recorded and analyzed and were correlated later. In normal cervix, 89% and 60% of specimens were ER+, PR+ (+6 fmol/mg protein) There was significant difference in ER status between the normal cervix con HPV and CIN, (P < 0.003), but no with PR (P > 0.53). ER levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal patients there was no significant difference (P > 0.27) but PR levels there was significant difference (P < 0.04). ER/PR levels in HPV o CIN grade no correlated to the histologic grade and menopausal status (P > 0.35, > 0.97, respectively). The women with levels ER+ were significant higher in the normal cervix than SIL, ER+, PR+ levels no correlated to the prognostic value in the management of LGSIL and menopausal status.

  10. Progesterone receptor induces bcl-x expression through intragenic binding sites favoring RNA polymerase II elongation

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, Paola Y.; Nacht, A. Silvina; Alló, Mariano; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Ballaré, Cecilia; Soronellas, Daniel; Castellano, Giancarlo; Zaurin, Roser; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.; Beato, Miguel; Vicent, Guillermo P.; Pecci, Adali

    2013-01-01

    Steroid receptors were classically described for regulating transcription by binding to target gene promoters. However, genome-wide studies reveal that steroid receptors-binding sites are mainly located at intragenic regions. To determine the role of these sites, we examined the effect of progestins on the transcription of the bcl-x gene, where only intragenic progesterone receptor-binding sites (PRbs) were identified. We found that in response to hormone treatment, the PR is recruited to these sites along with two histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and GCN5, leading to an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation and to the binding of the SWI/SNF complex. Concomitant, a more relaxed chromatin was detected along bcl-x gene mainly in the regions surrounding the intragenic PRbs. PR also mediated the recruitment of the positive elongation factor pTEFb, favoring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation activity. Together these events promoted the re-distribution of the active Pol II toward the 3′-end of the gene and a decrease in the ratio between proximal and distal transcription. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which PR regulates gene expression by facilitating the proper passage of the polymerase along hormone-dependent genes. PMID:23640331

  11. The Sigma-2 Receptor and Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 are Different Binding Sites Derived From Independent Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Uyen B.; Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Chu, Ming-Liang; Yang, Huan; Schulman, Amanda; Mesangeau, Christophe; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Guo, Lian-Wang; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-2 receptor (S2R) is a potential therapeutic target for cancer and neuronal diseases. However, the identity of the S2R has remained a matter of debate. Historically, the S2R has been defined as (1) a binding site with high affinity to 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and haloperidol but not to the selective sigma-1 receptor ligand (+)-pentazocine, and (2) a protein of 18–21 kDa, as shown by specific photolabeling with [3H]-Azido-DTG and [125I]-iodoazido-fenpropimorph ([125I]-IAF). Recently, the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a 25 kDa protein, was reported to be the S2R (Nature Communications, 2011, 2:380). To confirm this identification, we created PGRMC1 knockout NSC34 cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We found that in NSC34 cells devoid of or overexpressing PGRMC1, the maximum [3H]-DTG binding to the S2R (Bmax) as well as the DTG-protectable [125I]-IAF photolabeling of the S2R were similar to those of wild-type control cells. Furthermore, the affinities of DTG and haloperidol for PGRMC1 (KI = 472 μM and 350 μM, respectively), as determined in competition with [3H]-progesterone, were more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than those reported for the S2R (20–80 nM). These results clarify that PGRMC1 and the S2R are distinct binding sites expressed by different genes. PMID:26870805

  12. FKBP52 is Essential to Uterine Reproductive Physiology Controlled By the Progesterone Receptor A Isoform

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zuocheng; Wolf, Irene M.; Chen, Hanying; Periyasamy, Sumudra; Chen, Zhuang; Weidong, Yong; Shi, Shu; Zhao, Weihong; Xu, Jianming; Srivastava, Arun; Sánchez, Edwin R.; Shou, Weinian

    2008-01-01

    FKBP52 is a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein that associates with steroid receptors in complexes containing heat shock protein (Hsp90). To investigate the role of FKBP52 in steroid-regulated physiology we generated FKBP52-deficient mice. FKBP52 (−/−) females are sterile due to a complete failure of implantation, a process that requires estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). Since the uterus expresses two forms of PR, PR-A and PR-B, we investigated all three receptors as potential targets of FKBP52 action. FKBP52 (−/−) uteri showed a normal growth response to estradiol, and unaltered expression of genes controlled by ER and PR-B. In contrast, FKBP52 (−/−) uteri were unable to express two PR-A regulated genes, nor undergo decidualization in response to progesterone, suggesting that FKBP52 specifically regulates PR-A at this organ. Analysis of uterine PR heterocomplexes showed preferential association of FKBP52 with PR-A compared to PR-B. Loss of FKBP52 did not disrupt the PR-A/Hsp90 interaction, nor impair uterine PR-A hormone-binding function, demonstrating the essential role of FKBP52 in PR-A action to be down-stream of the hormone-binding event. Transcription studies in +/+ and −/− mouse embryonic fibroblast cells showed a near-complete loss of PR-A activity at MMTV and synthetic PRE promoters, although partial reductions of ER and PR-B were also observed. Partial disruptions of ovulation and mammary development were also found in FKBP52 (−/−) females. Taken as a whole, our results show FKBP52 to be an essential regulator of PR-A action in the uterus, while being a non-essential but contributory regulator of steroid receptors in the mammary and ovary. These data may now provide the basis for selective targeting of steroid-regulated physiology through TPR proteins. PMID:16873445

  13. Vestibular Schwannoma Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Andrew K.; Alexander, Thomas H.; Andalibi, Ali; Ryan, Allen F.; Doherty, Joni K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Determine the role of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in sporadic and neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2)-related vestibular schwannomas (VS). Growth and proliferation signaling in human VS tumorigenesis may play a key role in molecular therapeutic targeting. VS carry mutations of the NF2 gene encoding the tumor suppressor, merlin, which interacts with ErbB2 in Schwann cells, implicating ErbB receptors in VS tumorigenesis. ErbB receptor family members are overexpressed or constitutively activated in many human tumors, and are effective therapeutic targets in some human cancers. VS occur more frequently in women and are larger, more vascular, and demonstrate increased growth rates during pregnancy. ER and PR may play a role in ErbB pathway activation and VS progression. Study Design Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for ER and PR messenger RNA was performed using greater auricular and vestibular nerve controls (n = 8), sporadic VS (n = 23), and NF2-related VS (n = 16) tissues. Methods The qRT-PCR data were normalized with standardization to a single constitutively expressed control gene, human cyclophylin. Results Reverse transcription of messenger RNA from control and tumor specimens followed by RT Q-PCR demonstrated differences in ER and PR gene expression between sporadic and NF2-related VS. Conclusions ER and PR expression in VS might have implications for development of a VS-specific drug delivery system using antihormone and ErbB pathway small molecule inhibitors, due to crosstalk between these receptors. These signals may be critical for re-establishing ErbB-mediated cell density dependent growth inhibition. PMID:18670322

  14. Is breast reduction in puberty indicated? Retrospective observations of patients with a local hypersensitivity of estrogen and progesterone receptors.

    PubMed

    Noczyńska, Anna; Wasikowa, Renata; Wasik-Kuprianowicz, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    The authors described two women in whom at the age of 14 and 15 diagnosed was gigantomasty and a hypersensitivity of the estrogen receptor. In both the patients at that time a significant increase of the estrogen and progesterone receptors in the breast glandular tissue was ascertained. The immunohistochemical investigation shows a significant higher sensitivity of the progesterone and estrogen receptors. In both the girls observed was gigantomasty with hyperlordosis, deformities of the chest and back, skin changes, orthopnoe. In both the patients a total mastectomy was performed. Both the girls had after surgery a normal menstruation, were married with normal sexual activity. One of the patients had a normal delivery two years ago.

  15. The relationship of cerb B 2 expression with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and prognostic parameters in endometrial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract. Gene alterations and overexpression of various oncogenes are important in tumor development. The human HER 2 neu (c-erbB-2) gene product is a transmembrane receptor with an intracellular tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in coordinating the endometrial growth factor receptor signaling network. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of c-erbB-2 in endometrial cancer, to study its correlation to established prognostic parameters and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Methods Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses of ER, PR and c-erbB-2 were performed in 72 EC cases. Results We detected a positive staining with c erbB 2 in 18.1% of the cases and determined a statistically significant relation between c-erbB-2 and PR. We could not find a statistically significant relation between c-erbB-2 staining and ER. There was not a statistically significant difference between c-erbB-2 and histological grade. The highest level of c-erbB-2 was found in grade 2 cases. There was not any statistically significant relation between c-erbB-2 and menstrual status, myometrial invasion, lymph node status, stage and survival. Conclusions Although our study provides additional evidence of the potential prognostic role of c-erbB-2, further prospective and controlled studies are required to validate their clinical usefulness. PMID:20167054

  16. CHANGES IN THE CONTENT OF ESTROGEN α AND PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS TO DOPAMINE NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Néstor F.; Guerra-Arraiza, Christian; Díaz-Martínez, Néstor E.; Salazar, Patricia; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Velasco, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) can differentiate to derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers. Dopamine neurons have been produced from mouse and human ESC. This in vitro induction mimics the developmental program followed by dopaminergic cells in vivo. Production of dopamine neurons might have clinical applications for Parkinson’s disease, which has a higher incidence in men than in women, suggesting a protective role for sex hormones, particularly progesterone and estradiol. These hormones exert many of their effects through the interaction with their nuclear receptors. In this study, we used a described 5-stage protocol for dopamine neuron differentiation of ESC, allowing neuronal commitment as evidenced by specific markers and by behavioural recovery of hemiparkinsonian rats after grafting. We studied the expression of steroid hormone receptors by immunoblot during this procedure and found an increase in the content of both A and B isoforms of progesterone receptor (PR) and a decrease in estrogen receptor α (ER-α) when cells were at the neural/neuronal stages, when compared with the amount found in initial pluripotent conditions. We also found the same pattern of PR and ER-α expression by immunocytochemistry. Ninety-two percent of dopamine neurons expressed progesterone receptors and only 19% of these neurons co-expressed tyrosine hydroxylase and ER-α. These results show a differential expression pattern of ER-α and PR isoforms during neuronal differentiation of ESC. PMID:17499639

  17. Induction of parturition in the bitch with the progesterone-receptor blocker aglépristone.

    PubMed

    Baan, M; Taverne, M A M; Kooistra, H S; de Gier, J; Dieleman, S J; Okkens, A C

    2005-04-15

    The triggering mechanism for parturition in the bitch remains unclear. Consequently, the development of drugs to successfully induce parturition in the dog has been difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the progesterone-receptor blocker aglépristone for the induction of parturition in beagle bitches. The course of parturition was therefore investigated in six parturitions induced by aglépristone and in six spontaneous parturitions. In addition, data were collected on pup survival and growth rates. Aglépristone was administered twice with a 9h interval on day 58 of pregnancy. If parturition did not proceed a standard intervention protocol was applied. Expulsion of the first pup occurred between 32 and 56 h after the first treatment with aglépristone, at which time the plasma progesterone concentration was still elevated. Accordingly, the gestation length of the bitches in the induced group (59.5+/-0.2 days) was significantly shorter than that of the spontaneously whelping bitches (62.2+/-0.5 days). The expulsion phase length, the inter-pup interval, the number of puppies born dead, and the number of clinical interventions needed during parturition did not significantly differ between the spontaneously whelping and the induced group. Pup survival and mean birth weights in the two groups did not differ significantly and aglépristone treatment had no significant influence on the growth rates. The results of this study show that aglépristone is an effective drug which can be used safely for the induction of parturition in the dog.

  18. Progesterone receptors induce FOXO1-dependent senescence in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Caroline H.; Charles, Nathan J.; Gilks, C. Blake; Kalloger, Steve E.; Argenta, Peter A.; Lange, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of nuclear progesterone receptors (PR) and low circulating progesterone levels are associated with increased ovarian cancer (OC) risk. However, PR are abundantly expressed in a significant percentage of serous and endometrioid ovarian tumors; patients with PR+ tumors typically experience longer progression-free survival relative to those with PR-null tumors. The molecular mechanisms of these protective effects are poorly understood. To study PR action in OC in the absence of added estrogen (i.e., needed to induce robust PR expression), we created ES-2 OC cells stably expressing vector control or GFP-tagged PR-B (GFP-PR). Progestin (R5020) stimulation of ES-2 cells stably expressing GFP-PR induced cellular senescence characterized by altered cellular morphology, prolonged survival, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, G1 cell cycle arrest and upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor, p21, as well as the Forkhead-box transcription factor, FOXO1; these results repeated in unmodified ER+/PR+ PEO4 OC cells. PR-B and FOXO1 were detected within the same PRE-containing regions of the p21 upstream promoter. Knockdown of p21 resulted in molecular compensation via FOXO1-dependent upregulation of numerous FOXO1 target genes (p15, p16, p27) and an increased rate of senescence. Inhibition of FOXO1 (with AS1842856) or stable FOXO1 knockdown inhibited progestin-induced p21 expression and blocked progestin-induced senescence. Overall, these findings support a role for PR as a tumor suppressor in OC cells, which exhibits inhibitory effects by inducing FOXO1-dependent cellular senescence. Clinical “priming” of the PR-FOXO1-p21 signaling pathway using PR agonists may provide a useful strategy to induce irreversible cell cycle arrest and thereby sensitize OC cells to existing chemotherapies as part of combination “two-step” therapies. PMID:23574718

  19. Corticosteroid and progesterone transactivation of mineralocorticoid receptors from Amur sturgeon and tropical gar.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Akira; Oka, Kaori; Sato, Rui; Adachi, Shinji; Baker, Michael E; Katsu, Yoshinao

    2016-10-15

    The response to a panel of steroids by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) from Amur sturgeon and tropical gar, two basal ray-finned fish, expressed in HEK293 cells was investigated. Half-maximal responses (EC50s) for transcriptional activation of sturgeon MR by 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol and aldosterone, and progesterone (Prog) were between 13 and 150 pM. For gar MR, EC50s were between 8 and 55 pM. Such low EC50s support physiological regulation by these steroids of the MR in sturgeon and gar. Companion studies with human and zebrafish MRs found higher EC50s compared with EC50s for sturgeon and gar MRs, with EC50s for zebrafish MR closer to gar and sturgeon MRs than was human MR. For zebrafish MR, EC50s were between 75 and 740 pM; for human MR, EC50s were between 65 pM and 2 nM. In addition to Prog, spironolactone (spiron) and 19nor-progesterone (19norP) were agonists for all three fish MRs, in contrast with their antagonist activity for human MR, which is hypothesized to involve serine-810 in human MR because all three steroids are agonists for a mutant human Ser810Leu-MR. Paradoxically, sturgeon, gar, and zebrafish MRs contain a serine corresponding to serine-810 in human MR. Our data suggest alternative mechanism(s) for Prog, spiron, and 19norP as MR agonists in these three ray-finned fishes and the need for caution in applying data for Prog signaling in zebrafish to human physiology.

  20. Differential effects of progesterone and genital stimulation on sequential inhibition of estrous behavior and progesterone receptor expression in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Camarillo, Madaí A; Beyer, Carlos; Lucio, Rosa Angélica; García-Juárez, Marcos; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Komisaruk, Barry R; González-Flores, Oscar

    2011-05-30

    The effect of genital stimulation, either by vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) using a calibrated vaginal probe combined with manual flank stimulation (FS), or by mounts performed by the male, on the hypothalamus and preoptic area concentration of the progesterone receptors A (PR-A) and B (PR-B) was assessed in ovariectomized (ovx) estrogen-primed rats. VCS/FS or stimulation provided by male mounts, even without intromission, significantly decreased PR-B concentration in the hypoythalamus. Down regulation of PR produced by genital stimulation was quantitatively similar to that elicited by progesterone (P) administration. Bilateral or unilateral transection of the pelvic or the pudendal nerves prevented down regulation elicited by VCS/FS. Repeated VCS/FS elicited lordosis behavior in most ovx estrogen primed rats, but the lordosis intensity was lower than that observed in response to P. P administered to ovx estrogen primed rats, induced sequential inhibition, i.e., failure to display estrous behavior in response to a second P injection (24h after the initial P injection). VCS/FS failed to elicit sequential inhibition, since rats responded with normal estrous behavior to the second injection of P. This suggests that down regulation by VCS, by contrast with P, failed to inhibit the subpopulation of PR involved in the facilitation of estrous behavior by P. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in myometrial expression of progesterone receptor membrane components 1 and 2 are associated with human parturition at term.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ray; Sheehan, Penelope M; Brennecke, Shaun P

    2016-04-01

    While the exact mechanism of human parturition remains unknown, functional progesterone withdrawal is believed to play a key regulatory role. Progesterone receptor membrane components 1 and 2 (PGRMC1, PGRMC2) are putative progesterone receptors and the aim of this project was to investigate their expression in human myometrium. Human term myometrium was obtained from the lower uterine segment incision in women undergoing elective (not-in-labour, NIL; n=11) and emergency Caesarean sections (in-labour, IL; n=10), following written consent. PGRMC1 and 2 expression was quantified using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Subcellular localisation was performed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. There was a significant decrease in PGRMC1 mRNA (P=0.0317) and protein expression (P=0.0151) in IL myometrium, compared with NIL myometrium. PGRMC2 mRNA expression (P=0.0151) was also decreased in IL myometrium, compared with NIL myometrium. Immunostaining studies confirmed the presence of PGRMC1 and 2 in smooth-muscle cells. Expression was perinuclear in NIL myometrium and more generalised and cytoplasmic in IL myometrium. The decrease in PGRMC1 expression and the translocation away from a perinuclear location for both PGRMC1 and 2 could contribute to a functional progesterone withdrawal that may ultimately initiate parturition.

  2. Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewska, Anna; Postawski, Krzysztof; Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, Anna; Kwasniewski, Wojciech; Grywalska, Ewelina; Zdunek, Malgorzata; Korobowicz, Elzbieta

    2011-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely accepted as the main cause of cervical cancer. However, the presence of HPV DNA does not inescapably lead to the development of the cancerous phenotype of the infected cell. Therefore, it is considered that the induction of full cancerous expression of HPV requires additional cofactors. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) in archived tissue blocks of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix and to ascertain whether expression of these receptors is associated with the presence of HPV DNA. The investigation was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer specimens obtained from 250 women who underwent surgery for histologically confirmed neoplastic lesions. The control group consisted of normal cervical tissues obtained from 50 patients who underwent myomectomy. The results of this study revealed that the expression of ER and PR in planoepithelial cancers and adenocarcinomas of the cervix were decreased to undetectable levels. Only in singular cases in the pattern of staining the expression of ER and PR was noted. In stromal cells of the tested neoplasms, higher expression of both types of receptors was found. Comparison of the expression of ER and PR in the staining pattern and stroma of both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcioma of the cervix, showed statistically higher expression in the stromal cells. Strong expression (+1, +2, +3) of ER and PR was noted in the stromal cells irrespective of HPV infection, histopathological type of cancer, and clinical and histopathological grade.

  3. Altered expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in human eutopic endometrium in endometriosis patients.

    PubMed

    Wölfler, Monika Martina; Küppers, Mareike; Rath, Werner; Buck, Volker Uwe; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Classen-Linke, Irmgard

    2016-07-01

    Recent data implicate an altered expression of progesterone receptor isoform A (PR-A) and B (PR-B) in the endometrium of endometriosis patients. This prospective exploratory study aimed to precisely determine the PR-A and PR-B expression using immunohistochemical techniques in eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis compared with disease-free women throughout the menstrual cycle. All symptomatic patients underwent laparoscopy for the diagnosis of endometriosis and histological confirmation of the disease (EO) whereas controls were proven disease-free (CO). In CO samples (n=10) an increased expression of PR-A and PR-B during the proliferative to early secretory phase and a decreased expression of both receptor isoforms during the mid to late secretory phase was ascertained in accordance with previous studies. In patients with endometriosis (n=16) no cycle dependent pattern of PR-A and PR-B expression was identified in contrast to patients without endometriosis. Moreover, in EO samples a huge variety of inter- and intra-individual differences in PR-A and PR-B expression were detected. These data provide further evidence that dysregulation of the PR-A and PR-B expression might contribute to the pathophysiology of endometriosis.

  4. Paracrine regulation of epithelial progesterone receptor by estradiol in the mouse female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Kurita, T; Lee, K J; Cooke, P S; Taylor, J A; Lubahn, D B; Cunha, G R

    2000-04-01

    Regulation of progesterone receptor (PR) by estradiol-17beta (E(2)) in mouse uterine and vaginal epithelia was studied. In ovariectomized mice, PR expression was low in both vaginal stroma and epithelium, but high in uterine epithelium. E(2) induced PR in vaginal epithelium and stroma, but down-regulated PR in uterine epithelium. Analysis of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) knockout (ERKO) mice showed that ERalpha is essential for E(2)-induced PR expression in both vaginal epithelium and stroma, and for E(2)-induced down-regulation, but not constitutive expression of PR in uterine epithelium. Regulation of PR by E(2) was studied in vaginal and uterine tissue recombinants made with epithelium and stroma from wild-type and ERKO mice. In the vaginal tissue recombinants, PR was induced by E(2) only in wild-type epithelium and/or stroma. Hence, in vagina, E(2) induces PR directly via ERalpha within the tissue. Conversely, E(2) down-regulated epithelial PR only in uterine tissue recombinants constructed with wild-type stroma. Therefore, down-regulation of uterine epithelial PR by E(2) requires stromal, but not epithelial, ERalpha. In vitro, isolated uterine epithelial cells retained a high PR level with or without E(2), which is consistent with an indirect regulation of uterine epithelial PR in vivo. Thus, E(2) down-regulates PR in uterine epithelium through paracrine mechanisms mediated by stromal ERalpha.

  5. Multiparameter analysis of a screen for progesterone receptor ligands: comparing fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence polarization measurements.

    PubMed

    Marks, Bryan D; Qadir, Naveeda; Eliason, Hildegard C; Shekhani, Mohammed Saleh; Doering, Klaus; Vogel, Kurt W

    2005-12-01

    Direct measurement of the fluorescence lifetime (FLT) of a fluorescent label is an emerging method for high-throughput screening. Changes in the fluorescence lifetime can be correlated to changes in the non-radiative relaxation pathway(s) for the excited state of the label. These pathways can be environmentally sensitive, such as when a labeled analyte is free in solution versus bound to a receptor. Because lifetime is an intrinsic property of a fluorophore, it is not concentration dependent, and therefore has advantages similar to those of ratiometric fluorescent techniques such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer or fluorescence polarization. We have applied the FLT measurement technique to a screen of a small compound library in order to identify compounds that bind to the progesterone receptor, and compared the results to those obtained by performing the assay in fluorescence polarization mode. Each readout modality showed excellent Z'; values, with the FLT readout performing slightly better in this respect. Interfering compounds could be rapidly identified for either assay format by comparing the results between the two formats.

  6. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β negatively regulates progesterone receptor expression in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2017-01-05

    Many progesterone (P4) actions are mediated by its intracellular receptor (PR), which has two isoforms (PR-A and PR-B) differentially transcribed from separate promoters of a single gene. In glioblastomas, the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors, PR-B is the predominant isoform. In an in silico analysis we showed putative CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein (C/EBP) binding sites at PR-B promoter. We evaluated the role of C/EBPβ in PR-B expression regulation in glioblastoma cell lines, which expressed different ratios of PR and C/EBPβ isoforms (LAP1, LAP2, and LIP). ChIP assays showed a significant basal binding of C/EBPβ, specific protein 1 (Sp1) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) to PR-B promoter. C/EBPβ knockdown increased PR-B expression and treatment with estradiol (E2) reduced C/EBPβ binding to the promoter and up-regulated PR-B expression. P4 induced genes were differently regulated when CEBP/β was silenced. These data show that C/EBPβ negatively regulates PR-B expression in glioblastoma cells.

  7. Regulation of GnRH receptors by progesterone and inhibin in ovine pituitary cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and the gonadal protein, inhibin, on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number and binding affinity were investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. Changes in GnRH binding were correlated with GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release following pretreatment with P{sub 4} and inhibin. Ovine pituitary cells in culture were preincubated with P{sub 4} or porcine inhibin (I{sub P}) for 24 or 48 hours (h). Cells were collected and analyzed for GnRH binding using a radioligand-receptor assay. des-Gly{sup 10}-(D-Ala{sup 6})-LHRH-ethyl-amide was used as the radiolabeled GnRh superagonist analog (mono-{sup 125}I-GnRH-A) and as competing ligand. Treatment with P{sub 4} progressively decreased GnRH-A binding capacity by 44.3% and 71.8% of the control following pretreatment for 24 or 48 h, respectively. When P{sub 4} was removed from the cultures, GnRH-A binding capacity partially returned to control levels within 24 h. Decreased GnRH-A binding was closely correlated with the reduction in GnRH-stimulated LH release which was observed following 24 or 48 h pretreatment with P{sub 4}.

  8. Effect of estrogen agonists and antagonists on induction of progesterone receptor in a rat hypothalamic cell line.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, S L; Berrodin, T J; Jenkins, S F; Sindoni, D M; Deecher, D C; Frail, D E

    1999-09-01

    Estrogen is essential in the hypothalamus for the central regulation of reproduction. To understand the molecular mechanism(s) of estrogen action in the hypothalamus, immortalized rat embryonic hypothalamic cell lines were characterized for steroid receptors and subcloned. Scatchard analysis of the D12 subclone demonstrated one high affinity estrogen receptor-binding site (Kd = 31.3+/-1.9 pM) with a Bmax of 30.8+/-0.8 fmol/mg. Estrogen receptor-alpha protein was identified by Western blot and gel shift analyses. Treatment with estradiol (48 h) stimulated progesterone receptor (PR) messenger RNA expression and binding to [3H]R5020, a synthetic progestin. Because the agonist or antagonist activity of estrogen mimetics can be cell type dependent, the activities of various estrogen mimetics were determined in D12 cells. ICI 182,780 (IC50 = 0.63 nM), raloxifene (IC50 = 1 nM), enclomiphene (IC50 = 77 nM), and tamoxifen (IC50 = 174 nM) inhibited the induction of PR by estradiol, and none of these compounds significantly stimulated PR when given alone. In contrast, 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol (EC50 = 0.014 nM), zuclomiphene (EC50 = 100 nM), and genistein (EC50 = 17.5 nM) functioned as estrogen agonists in these cells. In addition, the estrogen-induced progesterone receptor activated a progesterone response element reporter construct in response to progestins. Thus, the D12 rat hypothalamic cell line provides a useful model for characterizing tissue-selective estrogenic compounds, identifying estrogen- and progesterone-regulated hypothalamic genes, and understanding the molecular mechanisms of steroid action in various physiological processes mediated by the hypothalamus.

  9. Progesterone receptor expression during prostate cancer progression suggests a role of this receptor in stromal cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Yang, Ou; Fazli, Ladan; Rennie, Paul S; Gleave, Martin E; Dong, Xuesen

    2015-07-01

    The progesterone receptor, like the androgen receptor, belongs to the steroid receptor superfamily. Our previous studies have reported that the PR is expressed specifically in prostate stroma. PR inhibits proliferation of, and regulates cytokine secretion by stromal cells. However, PR protein expression in cancer-associated stroma during prostate cancer progression has not been profiled. Since the phenotypes of prostate stromal cells change dynamically as tumors progress, whether the PR plays a role in regulating stromal cell differentiation needs to be investigated. Immunohistochemistry assays measured PR protein levels on human prostate tissue microarrays containing 367 tissue cores from benign prostate, prostate tumors with different Gleason scores, tumors under various durations of castration therapy, and tumors at the castration-resistant stage. Immunoblotting assays determined whether PR regulated the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin, and fibroblast specific protein (FSP) in human prostate stromal cells. PR protein levels decreased in cancer-associated stroma when compared with that in benign prostate stroma. This reduction in PR expression was not correlated with Gleason scores. PR protein levels were elevated by castration therapy, but reduced to pre-castration levels when tumors progressed to the castration-resistant stage. Enhanced PR expression in human prostate stromal cells increased α-SMA, but decreased vimentin and FSP protein levels ligand-independently. These results suggest that PR plays an active role in regulating stromal cell phenotypes during prostate cancer progression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Interactions between inflammatory signals and the progesterone receptor in regulating gene expression in pregnant human uterine myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun; Sooranna, Suren R; Terzidou, Vasso; Christian, Mark; Brosens, Jan; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Poutanen, Matti; Barton, Geraint; Johnson, Mark R; Bennett, Phillip R

    2012-01-01

    The absence of a fall in circulating progesterone levels has led to the concept that human labour is associated with ‘functional progesterone withdrawal’ caused through changes in the expression or function of progesterone receptor (PR). At the time of labour, the human uterus is heavily infiltrated with inflammatory cells, which release cytokines to create a ‘myometrial inflammation’ via NF-κB activation. The negative interaction between NF-κB and PR, may represent a mechanism to account for ‘functional progesterone withdrawal’ at term. Conversely, PR may act to inhibit NF-κB function and so play a role in inhibition of myometrial inflammation during pregnancy. To model this inter-relationship, we have used small interfering (si) RNA-mediated knock-down of PR in human pregnant myocytes and whole genome microarray analysis to identify genes regulated through PR. We then activated myometrial inflammation using IL-1β stimulation to determine the role of PR in myometrial inflammation regulation. Through PR-knock-down, we found that PR regulates gene networks involved in myometrial quiescence and extracellular matrix integrity. Activation of myometrial inflammation was found to antagonize PR-induced gene expression, of genes normally upregulated via PR. We found that PR does not play a role in repression of pro-inflammatory gene networks induced by IL-1β and that only MMP10 was significantly regulated in opposite directions by IL-1β and PR. We conclude that progesterone acting through PR does not generally inhibit myometrial inflammation. Activation of myometrial inflammation does cause ‘functional progesterone withdrawal’ but only in the context of genes normally upregulated via PR. PMID:22435466

  11. Activity of ixabepilone in oestrogen receptor-negative and oestrogen receptor-progesterone receptor-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pivot, Xavier B; Li, Rubi K; Thomas, Eva S; Chung, Hyun-Cheol; Fein, Luis E; Chan, Valorie F; Jassem, Jacek; de Mendoza, Fernando Hurtado; Mukhopadyay, Pralay; Roché, Henri H

    2009-11-01

    Oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, including oestrogen receptor-, progesterone receptor- and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (ER/PR/HER2-negative) breast cancer, is more aggressive than ER-positive disease. A major limitation in the treatment of ER-negative disease subtypes is the inherent insensitivity to hormonal agents (tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors) that are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer. Thus, therapeutic options for poor prognosis patients with ER-negative breast cancer are limited to a handful of chemotherapeutic agents, and new agents are needed to improve the treatment of this disease. Ixabepilone, a novel epothilone B analogue with low susceptibility to cellular mechanisms that confer resistance to taxanes and other chemotherapeutic agents, has demonstrated potent preclinical antitumour activity in multiple models, including those with primary or acquired drug resistance. This review summarises the results of a prospective subset analysis from a phase III clinical trial evaluating ixabepilone for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC), in which efficacy and safety were evaluated in patients with ER-negative and ER/PR/HER2-negative disease.

  12. Progesterone signals through membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) in MDA-MB-468 and mPR-transfected MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells which lack full-length and N-terminally truncated isoforms of the nuclear progesterone receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yefei; Thomas, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The functional characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) have been investigated using recombinant mPR proteins over-expressed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Although these cells do not express the full-length progesterone receptor (PR), it is not known whether they express N-terminally truncated PR isoforms which could possibly account for some progesterone receptor functions attributed to mPRs. In the present study, the presence of N-terminally truncated PR isoforms was investigated in untransfected and mPR-transfected MDA-MB-231 cells, and in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. PCR products were detected in PR-positive T47D Yb breast cancer cells using two sets of C-terminus PR primers, but not in untransfected and mPR-transfected MDA-MB-231 cells, nor in MDA-MB-468 cells. Western blot analysis using a C-terminal PR antibody, 2C11F1, showed the same distribution pattern for PR in these cell lines. Another C-terminal PR antibody, C-19, detected immunoreactive bands in all the cell lines, but also recognized α-actinin, indicating that the antibody is not specific for PR. High affinity progesterone receptor binding was identified on plasma membranes of MDA-MB-468 cells which was significantly decreased after treatment with siRNAs for mPRα and mPRβ. Plasma membranes of MDA-MB-468 cells showed very low binding affinity for the PR agonist, R5020, ≤1% that of progesterone, which is characteristic of mPRs. Progesterone treatment caused G protein activation and decreased production of cAMP in MDA-MB-468 cells, which is also characteristic of mPRs. The results indicate that the progestin receptor functions in these cell lines are mediated through mPRs and do not involve any N-terminally truncated PR isoforms. PMID:21291899

  13. Neuroprotection by steroids after neurotrauma in organotypic spinal cord cultures: a key role for progesterone receptors and steroidal modulators of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Labombarda, Florencia; Ghoumari, Abdel Moumen; Liere, Philippe; De Nicola, Alejandro F; Schumacher, Michael; Guennoun, Rachida

    2013-08-01

    Progesterone is neuroprotective after spinal cord injury, however its mechanism of action remains unexplored. Here we used organotypic spinal cord slice cultures from 3 weeks-old mice to evaluate the mechanisms of neuroprotection by progesterone and its 5α-reduced metabolites. In vitro spinal cord injury, using a weight drop model, induced a decrease in the number of motoneurons. This was correlated with an increase in the number of dying cells (PI⁺ cells) and in LDH release. Addition of 10 μM of progesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) or allopregnanolone (3α, 5α-tetrahydroprogesterone) to the medium at the time of injury rescued the spinal cord slices from the effects of damage. Progesterone prevented membrane cell damage, motoneuron loss and cell death. These effects were not due to its bioconversion to 5α-DHP nor to allopregnanolone, as supported by the finasteride, an inhibitor of 5α-reductase enzymes, and by the absence of 5α-reduced progesterone metabolites in the slices analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The neuroprotective effects of progesterone required PR as they could not be observed in slices from homozygous knockout PR(-/-) mice. Allopregnanolone treatment was also neuroprotective. Its effects were not due to its bioconversion back to 5α-DHP, which can activate gene transcription via PR, because they were still observed in slices from knockout PR(-/-) mice. Allopregnanolone effects involved GABA(A) receptors, as they were inhibited by the selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist Gabazine, in both PR(+/+) and PR(-/-) mice. Altogether, these findings identify both PR and GABA(A) receptors as important targets for neuroprotection by progestagens after spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prognostic significance of progesterone receptor-positive tumor cells within immunohistochemically defined luminal A breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Prat, Aleix; Cheang, Maggie Chon U; Martín, Miguel; Parker, Joel S; Carrasco, Eva; Caballero, Rosalía; Tyldesley, Scott; Gelmon, Karen; Bernard, Philip S; Nielsen, Torsten O; Perou, Charles M

    2013-01-10

    Current immunohistochemical (IHC)-based definitions of luminal A and B breast cancers are imperfect when compared with multigene expression-based assays. In this study, we sought to improve the IHC subtyping by examining the pathologic and gene expression characteristics of genomically defined luminal A and B subtypes. Gene expression and pathologic features were collected from primary tumors across five independent cohorts: British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) tamoxifen-treated only, Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Mama 9906 trial, BCCA no systemic treatment cohort, PAM50 microarray training data set, and a combined publicly available microarray data set. Optimal cutoffs of percentage of progesterone receptor (PR) -positive tumor cells to predict survival were derived and independently tested. Multivariable Cox models were used to test the prognostic significance. Clinicopathologic comparisons among luminal A and B subtypes consistently identified higher rates of PR positivity, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negativity, and histologic grade 1 in luminal A tumors. Quantitative PR gene and protein expression were also found to be significantly higher in luminal A tumors. An empiric cutoff of more than 20% of PR-positive tumor cells was statistically chosen and proved significant for predicting survival differences within IHC-defined luminal A tumors independently of endocrine therapy administration. Finally, no additional prognostic value within hormonal receptor (HR) -positive/HER2-negative disease was observed with the use of the IHC4 score when intrinsic IHC-based subtypes were used that included the more than 20% PR-positive tumor cells and vice versa. Semiquantitative IHC expression of PR adds prognostic value within the current IHC-based luminal A definition by improving the identification of good outcome breast cancers. The new proposed IHC-based definition of luminal A tumors is HR positive/HER2 negative/Ki-67 less than 14

  15. Quantitative progesterone receptor expression and efficacy of anti-estrogen therapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luoh, Shiuh-Wen; Ramsey, Betsy; Park, Byung; Keenan, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The central role of estrogen receptor (ER) presence in predicting which breast cancer patients are likely to benefit from anti-estrogen therapies is well-established, but the added benefit of progesterone receptor (PR) and in particular low levels of PR is less well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the quantitative relationship between borderline levels of PR and subsequent benefit from anti-estrogen therapy. We examined data from 447 patients, age 50 or older. ER and PR levels were quantitated by conventional ligand binding assay and Scatchard plot analysis or by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Comparison of clinical outcome in relation with ER and PR status was calculated using Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival analysis and the log-rank test. Subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP) analysis was used to explore the interaction between treatment effects and ER or PR levels for the 409 patients with ER values greater than 0. For anti-estrogen treated patients, when the ER and PR positivity cut-off was set at 1.0 fmole/mg protein, there was a statistically significant advantage for patients with ER+PR+ over ER+ PR- tumors for both breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) and overall survival (OS). STEPP analysis found no overall interaction between treatment outcome (5 year survival probability) and levels of hormone receptor. However, patients with borderline PR levels did not appear to benefit from anti-estrogen therapy. PR levels above borderline in addition to the presence of ER predicts an increased probability of benefit from anti-estrogen therapy in breast cancer patients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Estrogen and progesterone receptor status affect genome-wide DNA methylation profile in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Han, Wonshik; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Ji-Young; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Park, Sue Kyung; Noh, Dong-Young; Yoo, Keun-Young; Kang, Daehee

    2010-11-01

    DNA methylation is the main epigenetic modification that occurs at the early stages of carcinogenesis. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling to evaluate whether the DNA methylation state is different in the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of breast cancer. Twelve ER+/PR+ and 12 ER-/PR- breast cancer tissues were selected from the biorepository of the Seoul Breast Cancer Study for Infinium Methylation Assay. The difference of the DNA methylation state of 27 578 methylation sites in 14 000 genes between two groups was evaluated by Student's t-test. False discovery rate (FDR) was estimated to evaluate the probability of false positive associations. Of the 27 578 sites, 148 sites (0.54%) were significantly different between ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- breast cancers (P < 0.001); 93 hypermethylated and 55 hypomethylated. Five genes, FAM124B (P = 7.26 × 10(-7)), MANEAL (P = 3.38 × 10(-7)), ST6GALNAC1 (P = 2.85 × 10(-6)), NAV1 (P = 5.94 × 10(-6)) and PER1 (P = 6.45 × 10(-6)) remained significant after correction for multiple tests (FDR < 0.05). In a subsequent replication study for five genes, four of the five genes were validated; FAM124B and ST6GALNAC1 were significantly hypermethylated, and NAV1 and PER1 were significantly hypomethylated in ER+/PR+ breast cancers (P < 0.05). In the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling according to the receptor status of breast cancer, we found that ER/PR status affects the DNA methylation state of FAM124B, ST6GALNAC1, NAV1 and PER1 in breast cancer.

  17. Differential Regulation of Progesterone Receptor-Mediated Transcription by CDK2 and DNA-PK.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Lindsey S; Bolt, Michael J; Grimm, Sandra L; Edwards, Dean P; Mancini, Michael A; Weigel, Nancy L

    2016-02-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) function is altered by cell signaling, but the mechanisms of kinase-specific regulation are not well defined. To examine the role of cell signaling in the regulation of PR transcriptional activity, we have utilized a previously developed mammalian-based estrogen-response element promoter array cell model and automated cell imaging and analysis platform to visualize and quantify effects of specific kinases on different mechanistic steps of PR-mediated target gene activation. For these studies, we generated stable estrogen-response element array cell lines expressing inducible chimeric PR that contains a swap of the estrogen receptor-α DNA-binding domain for the DNA-binding domain of PR. We have focused on 2 kinases important for steroid receptor activity: cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and DNA-dependent protein kinase. Treatment with either a Cdk1/2 inhibitor (NU6102) or a DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (NU7441) decreased hormone-mediated chromatin decondensation and transcriptional activity. Further, we observed a quantitative reduction in the hormone-mediated recruitment of select coregulator proteins with NU6102 that is not observed with NU7441. In parallel, we determined the effect of kinase inhibition on hormone-mediated induction of primary and mature transcripts of endogenous genes in T47D breast cancer cells. Treatment with NU6102 was much more effective than NU7441, in inhibiting induction of PR target genes that exhibit a rapid increase in primary transcript expression in response to hormone. Taken together, these results indicate that the 2 kinases regulate PR transcriptional activity by distinct mechanisms.

  18. Study of proliferative processes and nuclear estradiol and progesterone receptors in myocytes in pregnant and postpartum mouse uterus.

    PubMed

    Skurupiy, V A; Obedinskaya, K S

    2012-08-01

    Numerical densities of the nuclei were morhometrically evaluated in all myocytes and myocytes expressing nuclear estrogen- and progesterone-receptor complexes, which were revealed immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies in C57Bl/6 mice. It was shown that the above quantitative parameters of myometrial cells after the first pregnancy were similar to those in nonpregnant mice by day 10 after delivery. In the third pregnancy, especially developed after the second interrupted pregnancy, proliferation processes in the myometrium were not completed by postpartum day 10, but dramatically progressed. It was associated with a significant decrease in the fraction of myocytes carrying nuclear hormone-receptor complexes with estradiol and progesterone and their disturbed physiological relations in the myometrium during and after pregnancy probably due to dedifferentiation of a considerable part of myocytes.

  19. Expression of a Mitochondrial Progesterone Receptor (PR-M) in Leiomyomata and Association With Increased Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Quanling; Crochet, John R.; Dai, Qunsheng; Leppert, Phyllis C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Clinical evidence supports a role for progestins in the growth of leiomyomata (fibroids). The mechanism(s) for this is thought to involve gene regulation via the nuclear progesterone receptors. Recently a mitochondrial progesterone receptor (PR-M) has been identified with evidence of a progesterone/progestin-dependent increase in cellular respiration. This observation raises a possible new mechanism whereby progesterone/progestin may affect the growth of fibroids. Objective: The goals of this research were to determine differential expression of PR-M in normal myometrium compared with the edge of a fibroid within the same uterus, to demonstrate a progestin-dependent increase in mitochondria membrane potential using an immortalized human myometrial cell line and to examine mitochondrial membrane potential in transfected cells expressing the complete coding sequence of PR-M. Design: Protein levels of PR-M, PR-B, PR-A, mitochondrial porin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in the myometrium and adjacent edge of a fibroid in 10 subjects undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications. Mitochondrial membrane potential was determined by fluorescent emission of 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazolecarbocyanide iodine in hTERT-HM cells treated with R5020 and in transfected hTERT-HM cells determined by the fluorescent emission of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester. Results: Higher levels of PR-M and mitochondrial porin were found in the fibroid edge compared with adjacent myometrium. Progestin increased mitochondrial membrane potential in hTERT-HM cells, which was not affected by a translation inhibitor. This effect was exaggerated in hTERT-HM cells expressing PR-M after transient transfection. Conclusion: These studies suggest a mechanism whereby progesterone/progestin may affect the growth of fibroids by altering mitochondrial activity. PMID:24423317

  20. A progesterone-receptor-positive huge retroperitoneal tumour mimics metastasis in a breast cancer patient: sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Z-J; Chu, C-H; Fan, H-L; Hsu, K-F; Hsu, G-C; Yu, C-P; Char, D-L; Yu, J-C

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare case of breast cancer concomitant with progesterone-receptor-positive renal cell carcinoma. A 48-year-old woman was diagnosed as having infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast and underwent modified radical mastectomy. A synchronous retroperitoneal tumour was detected by sonography of the abdomen in a routine cancer staging. Initially, the tumour was diagnosed as a synchronous retroperitoneal metastasis by needle biopsy; further tests revealed that it was progesterone receptor-positive. The retroperitoneal tumour showed poor response to full courses of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Subsequently, the patient underwent a radical operation that included nephrectomy. The final pathology confirmed a sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. The post-operative course was uneventful. The patient had no recurrence at the 1-year follow-up. In this report, accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment were discussed. An intra-abdominal tumour with progesterone receptor- (PR) positive features is usually considered to be metastatic in breast cancer patients. For breast cancer patients with a PR-positive retroperitoneal tumour, renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from a metastatic lesion of breast cancer, even if PR-expression is rare in renal cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PR-positive expression in breast cancer concomitant with renal carcinoma. In clinical settings, it is challenging for the surgeon to make an accurate diagnosis and to provide prompt treatment in such cases.

  1. Effect of a povidone-iodine intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels and endometrial steroid receptor expression in mares

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intrauterine infusions have been widely used for the treatment of endometritis in the mare. Nevertheless, their consequences on endocrine and endometrial molecular aspects are unknown. We studied the effect of a 1% povidone-iodine solution intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels, endometrial histology and estrogen (ERα) and progesterone (PR) receptor distribution by immunohistochemistry. Methods Fourteen healthy mares were used in this study. Estruses were synchronized and seven mares were treated with intrauterine infusions at days 0 and 2 post ovulation of two consecutive estrous cycles. Uterine biopsy samples were taken on days 6 and 15 post ovulation. Results The treatment did not induce an inflammatory response indicating endometritis, neither affected the ERα. However, it reduced the percentage of PR positive cells (PPC) on day 6 (deep glandular epithelium, control: 95.7 vs. infused: 61.5, P < 0.05). Treated mares tended to have lower progesterone levels on day 2 (3.9 ng/ml vs. 6.6 ng/ml, P = 0.07), and higher levels on day 15 compared with controls (4.4 ng/ml vs. 1.3 ng/ml, P = 0.07). Conclusion a 1% povidone-iodine infusion during days 0 and 2 post ovulation in healthy mares did not induce histological changes indicating endometritis, but altered progesterone concentrations and reduced the expression of endometrial PR at day 6 without affecting the ERα. These changes could reduce embryo survival. PMID:21162724

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of oestrogen receptor-α and progesterone receptor in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Kolude, Bamidele; Adisa, Akinyele; Adeyemi, Bukola; Lawal, Ahmed

    2013-10-01

    The mammary and salivary glands are tubulo-acinar exocrine glands, sharing similar morphological characteristics and tumour histology. It is logical to postulate that they may have similar tumour biology. This study was carried out to define the expression of oestrogen-α (ER-α) and progesterone (PR) in salivary gland tumours (SGTs) presenting at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of different salivary gland neoplasms were processed for antibodies to ER-α and PR using the specifications of the manufacturer. Two independent investigators reviewed the slides scoring the pattern and intensity of staining as follows: negative (0), weakly positive (+1), moderately positive (+2) and strongly positive (+3). Data were analysed using version 16 of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS16). The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. A total of 40 SGTs from 19 males (47.5%) and 21 females (52.5%) were utilised. There were 15 benign and 25 malignant SGTs. ER expression in benign SGTs was 6.7%, while in malignant SGTs, it was 28.0%. There was no statistically significant difference in the gender and mean age distribution between patients with or without positive ER-α expression (χ(2) = 0.37, P = 0.59 Fisher's exact test; t = 0.054, P = 0.96, respectively). About 66.7% of high-grade SGTs was positive for ER while only 20% of the low-grade lesions were positive. This study showed that ER-α was expressed more in the high-grade malignant SGTs compared with the low-grade malignant SGTs and the benign SGTs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Deep Sequencing Reveals New Aspects of Progesterone Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kougioumtzi, Anastasia; Tsaparas, Panayiotis; Magklara, Angeliki

    2014-01-01

    Despite the pleiotropic effects of the progesterone receptor in breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms in play remain largely unknown. To gain a global view of the PR-orchestrated networks, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the progestin-regulated transcriptome in T47D breast cancer cells. We identify a large number of PR target genes involved in critical cellular programs, such as regulation of transcription, apoptosis, cell motion and angiogenesis. Integration of the transcriptomic data with the PR-binding profiling of hormonally treated cells identifies numerous components of the small-GTPases signaling pathways as direct PR targets. Progestin-induced deregulation of the small GTPases may contribute to the PR's role in mammary tumorigenesis. Transcript expression analysis reveals significant expression changes of specific transcript variants in response to the extracellular hormonal stimulus. Using the NET1 gene as an example, we show that the PR can dictate alternative promoter usage leading to the upregulation of an isoform that may play a role in metastatic breast cancer. Future studies should aim to characterize these selectively regulated variants and evaluate their clinical utility in prognosis and targeted therapy of hormonally responsive breast tumors. PMID:24897521

  4. Pharmacokinetics and safety of tanaproget, a nonsteroidal progesterone receptor agonist, in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Bapst, Jody L; Ermer, James C; Ferron, Geraldine M; Foss, Deborah; Orczyk, Gayle P

    2006-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of the nonsteroidal progesterone receptor agonist, tanaproget. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential-group study of ascending single doses of tanaproget was conducted in healthy, 25- to 45-year-old women on cycle days 8 to 12. Eight subjects (six active, two placebo) per cohort received a dose of 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 7 (+/-high-fat meal) or 15 mg. The maximum concentration (C(max)) of tanaproget occurred approximately 2 to 3 h after administration. The elimination half-life (t(1/2)) ranged from 12 to 30 h, and the oral clearance was approximately 70 L/h. The pharmacokinetics of tanaproget was not noticeably altered with a high-fat meal. All doses of tanaproget decreased cervical mucus scores (using a modified Insler method), indicating poor production and poor quality of cervical mucus. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were vaginal bleeding/spotting, abdominal cramping and vomiting; their incidence was not dose related and most events were mild. Tanaproget was safe and well tolerated, decreased cervical mucus scores and had a pharmacokinetic profile acceptable for use as a once-daily oral contraceptive.

  5. The Chromatin Remodeler CHD8 Is Required for Activation of Progesterone Receptor-Dependent Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Eugenia G.; Soronellas, Daniel; Vázquez-Chávez, Elena; Vicent, Guillermo P.; Elemento, Olivier; Beato, Miguel; Reyes, José C.

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of gene enhancers in transcriptional regulation is well established, the mechanisms and the protein factors that determine enhancers activity have only recently begun to be unravelled. Recent studies have shown that progesterone receptor (PR) binds regions that display typical features of gene enhancers. Here, we show by ChIP-seq experiments that the chromatin remodeler CHD8 mostly binds promoters under proliferation conditions. However, upon progestin stimulation, CHD8 re-localizes to PR enhancers also enriched in p300 and H3K4me1. Consistently, CHD8 depletion severely impairs progestin-dependent gene regulation. CHD8 binding is PR-dependent but independent of the pioneering factor FOXA1. The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex is required for PR-dependent gene activation. Interestingly, we show that CHD8 interacts with the SWI/SNF complex and that depletion of BRG1 and BRM, the ATPases of SWI/SNF complex, impairs CHD8 recruitment. We also show that CHD8 is not required for H3K27 acetylation, but contributes to increase accessibility of the enhancer to DNaseI. Furthermore, CHD8 was required for RNAPII recruiting to the enhancers and for transcription of enhancer-derived RNAs (eRNAs). Taken together our data demonstrate that CHD8 is involved in late stages of PR enhancers activation. PMID:25894978

  6. Association analysis between variants in bovine progesterone receptor gene and superovulation traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Yang, W C; Tang, K Q; Li, S J; Yang, L G

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a predictor to forecast superovulation response on the basis of associations between superovulation performance and gene polymorphism. The PCR-RFLP method was applied to detect two reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of G59752C and T81637C (rs41614030) located in introns 3 and 4 of the bovine progesterone receptor (PGR) gene in 171 Chinese Holstein cows treated for superovulation and evaluate its associations with superovulation traits. In polymorphic locus 81637, all cows without superovulation response were g.81637TC and g.81637TT genotypes. Association analysis showed that these two SNPs had significant effects on the total number of ova (TNO) (p<0.05), and the T81637C polymorphism was significantly associated with the number of transferable embryos (p<0.05). In addition, significant additive effects (p<0.05) on TNO were detected in the polymorphisms of G59752C and T81637C. These results showed for the first time that the G59752C and T81637C polymorphisms in PGR gene were associated with superovulation traits and indicated that PGR gene can be used as a predictor for superovulation in Chinese Holstein cows. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF ENDOMETRIAL PATHOLOGY FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO THE PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR MODULATOR MIFEPRISTONE

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, Julietta; Bonfiglio, Thomas; Winters, Paul; Eisinger, Steven H; Fiscella, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in use of progesterone receptor modulators (PRM) such as mifepristone for treatment of gynecological and other conditions, but interest in PRMs is dampened by effects of the agents on the endometrium. In this study, we examined the endometria of women exposed to mifepristone for treatment of leiomyomas in doses of 2.5 mg and 5 mg and compared them to unexposed endometria. We assessed the reliability of these features by comparing agreement in ratings between pathologists who were blinded to each other's readings. We assessed distinguishing features between exposed and unexposed groups by comparing frequency of features between groups. We found that key features could be reliably assessed by pathologists experienced in endometrial pathology. We observed several features (non synchronous endometrium, large fluid filled glands and abnormal blood vessels) that distinguished endometrial samples that were and were not exposed to the drug. These findings suggest several features that can be tracked during studies involving mifepristone and potentially other PRMs. PMID:21315422

  8. Expression of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1), Progestin and AdipoQ Receptor 7 (PAQPR7), and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 RNA-Binding Protein (PAIRBP1) in Glioma Spheroids In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hlavaty, Juraj; Ertl, Reinhard; Miller, Ingrid; Gabriel, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Some effects of progesterone on glioma cells can be explained through the slow, genomic mediated response via nuclear receptors; the other effects suggest potential role of a fast, nongenomic action mediated by membrane-associated progesterone receptors. Methods. The effects of progesterone treatment on the expression levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein (PAIRBP1), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7) on both mRNA and protein levels were investigated in spheroids derived from human glioma cell lines U-87 MG and LN-229. Results. The only significant alteration at the transcript level was the decrease in PGRMC1 mRNA observed in LN-229 spheroids treated with 30 ng/mL of progesterone. No visible alterations at the protein levels were observed using immunohistochemical analysis. Stimulation of U-87 MG spheroids resulted in an increase of PGRMC1 but a decrease of PAIRBP1 protein. Double immunofluorescent detection of PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1 identified the two proteins to be partially colocalized in the cells. Western blot analysis revealed the expected bands for PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1, whereas two bands were detected for PAQR7. Conclusion. The progesterone action is supposed to be mediated via membrane-associated progesterone receptors as the nuclear progesterone receptor was absent in tested spheroids. PMID:27340667

  9. Expression of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1), Progestin and AdipoQ Receptor 7 (PAQPR7), and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 RNA-Binding Protein (PAIRBP1) in Glioma Spheroids In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hlavaty, Juraj; Ertl, Reinhard; Miller, Ingrid; Gabriel, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Some effects of progesterone on glioma cells can be explained through the slow, genomic mediated response via nuclear receptors; the other effects suggest potential role of a fast, nongenomic action mediated by membrane-associated progesterone receptors. Methods. The effects of progesterone treatment on the expression levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein (PAIRBP1), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7) on both mRNA and protein levels were investigated in spheroids derived from human glioma cell lines U-87 MG and LN-229. Results. The only significant alteration at the transcript level was the decrease in PGRMC1 mRNA observed in LN-229 spheroids treated with 30 ng/mL of progesterone. No visible alterations at the protein levels were observed using immunohistochemical analysis. Stimulation of U-87 MG spheroids resulted in an increase of PGRMC1 but a decrease of PAIRBP1 protein. Double immunofluorescent detection of PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1 identified the two proteins to be partially colocalized in the cells. Western blot analysis revealed the expected bands for PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1, whereas two bands were detected for PAQR7. Conclusion. The progesterone action is supposed to be mediated via membrane-associated progesterone receptors as the nuclear progesterone receptor was absent in tested spheroids.

  10. Imaging progesterone receptor in breast tumors: Synthesis and receptor binding affinity of fluoroalkyl-substituted analogs of Tanaproget

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Bing; Lee, Jae Hak; Mayne, Christopher G.; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2010-01-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR) is estrogen regulated, and PR levels in breast tumors can be used to predict the success of endocrine therapies targeting the estrogen receptor (ER). Tanaproget is a non-steroidal progestin agonist with very high PR binding affinity and excellent in vivo potency. When appropriately radiolabeled, it might be used to image PR-positive breast tumors non-invasively, by positron emission tomography (PET). We describe the synthesis and PR binding affinities of a series of fluoroalkyl-substituted 6-aryl-1,4-dihydrobenzo[d][1,3]oxazine-2-thiones, analogs of Tanaproget. Some of these compounds have subnanomolar binding affinities, higher than that of either Tanaproget itself or the high affinity PR ligand R5020. Structure-binding affinity relationships can be rationalized by molecular modeling of ligand complexes with PR, and the enantioselectivity of binding has been predicted. These compounds are being further evaluated as potential diagnostic PET imaging agents for breast cancer, and enantiomerically pure materials of defined stereochemistry are being prepared. PMID:20355713

  11. Is the positivity of estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor different between type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Fang; Gao, Yifei; Ding, Jingxin; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is a major cancer in women and traditionally divided into type 1 and type 2. It is well known that type 2 endometrial cancer has a poor prognosis. Studies have suggested that estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive are positively associated with endometrial cancer survive. However whether the positivity of ER or PR is different between cancer types has not been investigated yet. In this retrospective study, the positivity of ER or PR was analysed in 1054 women with primary diagnosed endometrial cancer taking into account cancer types and menopausal status from the largest university teaching women's hospital in China. The positivity of ER or PR (over 90%) was significantly higher in type 1 compared to that in type 2 endometrial cancer (71% or 64%) in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There was no different in positivity of ER or PR in type 1 endometrial cancer between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. However, in type 2 endometrial cancer, the positivity of ER or PR in premenopausal women was significantly higher compared to that in postmenopausal women. Our data demonstrate that both ER and PR positivity are significantly higher in type 1 endometrial cancer (92%) compared to type 2 (72% ER positive, 65% PR positive). Menopausal status is not associated with the positivity of ER or PR in type 1 endometrial cancer. Our data may provide some novel insights why Asian women have better outcomes of endometrial cancer which was reported in the literature. PMID:27888807

  12. Is the positivity of estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor different between type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer?

    PubMed

    Shen, Fang; Gao, Yifei; Ding, Jingxin; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-03

    Endometrial cancer is a major cancer in women and traditionally divided into type 1 and type 2. It is well known that type 2 endometrial cancer has a poor prognosis. Studies have suggested that estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive are positively associated with endometrial cancer survive. However whether the positivity of ER or PR is different between cancer types has not been investigated yet. In this retrospective study, the positivity of ER or PR was analysed in 1054 women with primary diagnosed endometrial cancer taking into account cancer types and menopausal status from the largest university teaching women's hospital in China. The positivity of ER or PR (over 90%) was significantly higher in type 1 compared to that in type 2 endometrial cancer (71% or 64%) in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There was no different in positivity of ER or PR in type 1 endometrial cancer between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. However, in type 2 endometrial cancer, the positivity of ER or PR in premenopausal women was significantly higher compared to that in postmenopausal women. Our data demonstrate that both ER and PR positivity are significantly higher in type 1 endometrial cancer (92%) compared to type 2 (72% ER positive, 65% PR positive). Menopausal status is not associated with the positivity of ER or PR in type 1 endometrial cancer. Our data may provide some novel insights why Asian women have better outcomes of endometrial cancer which was reported in the literature.

  13. The transcriptional repressor GATAD2B mediates progesterone receptor suppression of myometrial contractile gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Montalbano, Alina P; Hussain, Imran; Lee, Wan-Ru; Mendelson, Carole R

    2017-07-28

    The mechanisms whereby progesterone (P4), acting via the progesterone receptor (PR), inhibits proinflammatory/contractile gene expression during pregnancy are incompletely defined. Using immortalized human myometrial (hTERT-HM) cells stably expressing wild-type PR-A or PR-B (PRWT), we found that P4 significantly inhibited IL-1β induction of the NF-κB target genes, COX-2 and IL-8 P4-PRWT transrepression occurred at the level of transcription initiation and was mediated by decreased recruitment of NF-κB p65 and RNA polymerase II to COX-2 and IL-8 promoters. However, in cells stably expressing a PR-A or PR-B DNA-binding domain mutant (PRmDBD), P4-mediated transrepression was significantly reduced, suggesting a critical role of the PR DBD. ChIP analysis of hTERT-HM cells stably expressing PRWT or PRmDBD revealed that P4 treatment caused equivalent recruitment of PRWT and PRmDBD to COX-2 and IL-8 promoters, suggesting that PR inhibitory effects were not mediated by its direct DNA binding. Using immunoprecipitation, followed by MS, we identified a transcriptional repressor, GATA zinc finger domain-containing 2B (GATAD2B), that interacted strongly with PRWT but poorly with PRmDBD P4 treatment of PRWT hTERT-HM cells caused enhanced recruitment of endogenous GATAD2B to COX-2 and IL-8 promoters. Further, siRNA knockdown of endogenous GATAD2B significantly reduced P4-PRWT transrepression of COX-2 and IL-8 Notably, GATAD2B expression was significantly decreased in pregnant mouse and human myometrium during labor. Our findings suggest that GATAD2B serves as an important mediator of P4-PR suppression of proinflammatory and contractile genes during pregnancy. Decreased GATAD2B expression near term may contribute to the decline in PR function, leading to labor. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk according to estrogen and progesterone receptor status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C-X; Ho, S C; Cheng, S-Z; Chen, Y-M; Fu, J-H; Lin, F-Y

    2011-08-01

    There is few data on the association between dietary fiber intake and estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-defined breast cancer risk. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between total dietary fiber and dietary fiber fractions intake and breast cancer risk by ER and PR status in a hospital-based case-control study among Chinese women. Four hundred and thirty-eight cases with primary breast cancer were consecutively recruited from June 2007 to August 2008 and frequency matched to 438 controls by age (5-year interval) and residence (rural/urban). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake through a face-to-face interview. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for various potential confounders. A statistically significant inverse association was found between total dietary fiber and fiber fractions intake and breast cancer risk. The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest versus the lowest quartile of intake were 0.31 (0.20-0.47) for total dietary fiber, 0.73 (0.48-1.11) for soy fiber, 0.48 (0.22-0.97) for vegetable fiber and 0.54 (0.31-0.92) for fruit fiber. No association was observed for cereal fiber intake and risk. An inverse association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk was observed in ER+, ER-, PR+, ER+PR+ and ER-PR+ tumors. Our results suggest that consumption of total dietary fiber and fiber from vegetable and fruit was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. These inverse associations were more prominent in some subtypes of ER and PR breast cancers.

  15. ESR1 and PGR polymorphisms are associated with estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Daniel L; Henry, N Lynn; Kidwell, Kelley M; Thomas, Dafydd; Goddard, Audrey; Azzouz, Faouzi; Speth, Kelly; Li, Lang; Banerjee, Mousumi; Thibert, Jacklyn N; Kleer, Celina G; Stearns, Vered; Hayes, Daniel F; Skaar, Todd C; Rae, James M

    2016-09-01

    Hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancers express the estrogen (ERα) and/or progesterone (PgR) receptors. Inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1, the gene encoding ERα, have been reported to predict tamoxifen effectiveness. We hypothesized that these associations could be attributed to altered tumor gene/protein expression of ESR1/ERα and that SNPs in the PGR gene predict tumor PGR/PgR expression. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor specimens were analyzed for ESR1 and PGR gene transcript expression by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction based Oncotype DX assay and for ERα and PgR protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and an automated quantitative immunofluorescence assay (AQUA). Germline genotypes for SNPs in ESR1 (n = 41) and PGR (n = 8) were determined by allele-specific TaqMan assays. One SNP in ESR1 (rs9322336) was significantly associated with ESR1 gene transcript expression (P = 0.006) but not ERα protein expression (P > 0.05). A PGR SNP (rs518162) was associated with decreased PGR gene transcript expression (P = 0.003) and PgR protein expression measured by IHC (P = 0.016), but not AQUA (P = 0.054). There were modest, but statistically significant correlations between gene and protein expression for ESR1/ERα and PGR/PgR and for protein expression measured by IHC and AQUA (Pearson correlation = 0.32-0.64, all P < 0.001). Inherited ESR1 and PGR genotypes may affect tumor ESR1/ERα and PGR/PgR expression, respectively, which are moderately correlated. This work supports further research into germline predictors of tumor characteristics and treatment effectiveness, which may someday inform selection of hormonal treatments for patients with HR+ breast cancer.

  16. Androgens Upregulate Endometrial Epithelial Progesterone Receptor Expression: Potential Implications for Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Babayev, Samir N; Park, Chan Woo; Keller, Patrick W; Carr, Bruce R; Word, Ruth A; Bukulmez, Orhan

    2017-10-01

    Androgenic compounds have been implicated in induction of endometrial atrophy yet the mechanisms of androgen effects on human endometrium have not been well studied. We hypothesized that androgens may promote their endometrial effects via modulation of progesterone receptor (PR) expression. Proliferative phase endometrial samples were collected at the time of hysterectomy. We evaluated the effect of the potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on endometrial PR expression by treating human endometrial explants, endometrial stromal cells, and Ishikawa cells with DHT. Ishikawa cells were also treated with DHT ± the androgen receptor (AR) blocker flutamide. The PR-B, total PR messenger RNA (mRNA), and PR protein expression were assessed. Expression of cyclin D1 and D2 was checked as markers of cell proliferation. As expected, estradiol induced PR expression in isolated stromal cells, endometrial epithelial cells, and tissue explants. The DHT treatment also resulted in increased PR expression in endometrial explants and Ishikawa cells but not in stromal cells. Further, protein levels of both nuclear PR isoforms (PR-A and PR-B) were induced with the DHT treatment. Although flutamide treatment alone did not affect PR expression, flutamide diminished androgen-induced upregulation of PR in both endometrial explants and Ishikawa cells. Although estradiol induced both cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 mRNA, DHT did not induce these markers of cell proliferation. Androgens may mediate endometrial effects through upregulation of PR gene and protein expression. Endometrial PR upregulation by androgens is mediated, at least in part, through AR.

  17. Expression of prostate apoptosis response (Par-4) is associated with progesterone receptor in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Méndez-Vázquez, José L; González-Rocha, Talina R; Zamora-Avila, Diana E; Franco-Molina, Moises A; Garza-Garza, Raúl; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2009-10-01

    The prostate apoptosis response (Par-4) gene encodes a proapoptotic protein that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells after diverse apoptotic stimuli. Par-4 expression and its association with other biomarkers have not been reported in breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine Par-4 expression in breast cancer samples and its association with other biomarkers and clinical factors (T-stage, age, nodal status). Paraffin-embedded section samples of breast cancer were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis to determine Par-4, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), c-erbB2, Ki67, p53 and bcl-2 expression. The correlation between Par-4 and the other biomarkers and clinical factors was determined by multivariate analysis. Thirty five percent (n=21) of samples were PAR-4 positive and 64.4% (n=38) were negative. The hormonal status was 64% ER positive (n=38), 35% ER-negative (n=21) and 40.7% PgR positive (n=24), 59.3% PgR negative (n=35). The majority (90%) of the samples presented clear cytoplasmic localization and a small portion (10%) was cytoplasmic and nuclear. Univariate analysis indicates that the Par-4 expression has a significant inverse association (p=0.04) only with expression of PgR and not with the other variables analyzed. Normal breast tissue analyzed was negative for Par-4 immunostaining. Our results suggest that, in breast cancer, Par-4 plays a similar tumor suppressor gene role as reported in endometrial carcinoma. 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. A novel role for progesterone and progesterone receptor membrane component 1 in regulating spindle microtubule stability during rat and human ovarian cell mitosis.

    PubMed

    Lodde, Valentina; Peluso, John J

    2011-04-01

    The present studies were designed to assess the roles of progesterone (P4) and Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1) in regulating mitosis of spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) and ovarian cancer cells, SKOV-3 cells. Because PGRMC1 has been detected among the proteins of the human mitotic spindle, we theorized that P4 and PGRMC1 could affect mitosis through a microtubule-dependent process. The present study confirms that SIGC growth is slowed by either P4 treatment or transfection of a PGRMC1 antibody. In both cases, slower cell proliferation was accompanied by an increased percentage of mitotic cells, which is consistent with a P4-induced prolongation of the M phase of the cell cycle. In addition, P4 increased the stability of the spindle microtubules, as assessed by the rate of beta-tubulin disassembly in response to cooling. Also, P4 increased spindle microtubule stability of SKOV-3 cells. This effect was mimicked by the depletion of PGRMC1 in these cells. Importantly, P4 did not increase the stability of the microtubules over that observed in PGRMC1-depleted SKOV-3 cells. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed that PGRMC1 is distributed to the spindle apparatus as well as to the centrosomes at metaphase. Further in situ proximity ligation assay revealed that PGRMC1 interacted with beta-tubulin. Taken together, these results suggest that P4 inhibits mitosis of ovarian cells by increasing the stability of the mitotic spindle. Moreover, P4's actions appear to be dependent on PGRMC1's function within the mitotic spindle.

  19. Altered mammary gland differentiation and progesterone receptor expression in rats fed soy and whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, J Craig; Hakkak, Reza; Ronis, Martin J J; Badger, Thomas M

    2002-11-01

    There are suspected links between an animal's diet, differentiation status of a target tissue, and sensitivity to chemically induced cancer. We have demonstrated that rats fed AIN93G diets made with soy protein isolate (SPI) or whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) had a lower incidence of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced adenocarcinoma than rats fed the same diet made with casein (CAS). The current study was conducted to determine the differentiation status of the mammary glands during development. Offspring of rats (n = 5-10/group) were fed diets made with SPI, WPH, or CAS throughout life (beginning on gestation day 4) and were sacrificed on postnatal day (PND) 21, PND 33, PND 50 or on metaestrous between PND 48 and PND 51. There were no significant differences between the numbers of mammary terminal end buds (TEBs) or lobuloalveoli (LOB) between any of the diets groups at PND 21 or PND 33, but at PND 50 there was an 75% decrease in the mean numbers of TEBs/mm(2) in the SPI- or WPH-fed rats, compared with the CAS-fed rats (p = 0.09 and p = 0.06, respectively). In rats sacrificed in metaestrous, there were no significant differences in the proliferation index (PI) in the TEBs or LOB between any of the diet groups. In metaestrous rats, there were twice as many cells expressing estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta; approximately 60%) compared with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha; approximately 30%) in the LOB and 1.5 times more ERbeta (approximately 60%) compared with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha, approximately 40%) in the TEBs. There were no diet-dependent differences in expression of ERalpha and ERbeta. Similarly, there were no differences between the diet groups in progesterone receptor (PR) expressing LOB cells. However, in the TEBs there was a diet-dependent difference in PR positive cells with a 34% increase (p < 0.05) in the SPI-fed rats and a 38% increase (p < 0.05) in the WPH-fed rats compared with the CAS-fed rats. These results show that the type of

  20. Neonatal Progesterone Programs Adult Uterine Responses to Progesterone and Susceptibility to Uterine Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Rumi, M. A. Karim; Kubota, Kaiyu; Chakraborty, Damayanti; Chien, Jeremy; Roby, Katherine F.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we investigated the consequences of neonatal progesterone exposure on adult rat uterine function. Female pups were subcutaneously injected with vehicle or progesterone from postnatal days 3 to 9. Early progesterone exposure affected endometrial gland biogenesis, puberty, decidualization, and fertility. Because decidualization and pregnancy success are directly linked to progesterone action on the uterus, we investigated the responsiveness of the adult uterus to progesterone. We first identified progesterone-dependent uterine gene expression using RNA sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR in Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats and progesterone-resistant Brown Norway rats. The impact of neonatal progesterone treatment on adult uterine progesterone responsiveness was next investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. Progesterone resistance affected the spectrum and total number of progesterone-responsive genes and the magnitude of uterine responses for a subset of progesterone targets. Several progesterone-responsive genes in adult uterus exhibited significantly dampened responses in neonatally progesterone-treated females compared with those of vehicle-treated controls, whereas other progesterone-responsive transcripts did not differ between female rats exposed to vehicle or progesterone as neonates. The organizational actions of progesterone on the uterus were dependent on signaling through the progesterone receptor but not estrogen receptor 1. To summarize, neonatal progesterone exposure leads to disturbances in endometrial gland biogenesis, progesterone resistance, and uterine dysfunction. Neonatal progesterone effectively programs adult uterine responsiveness to progesterone. PMID:26204463

  1. Enhancement of Cell Surface Expression and Receptor Functions of Membrane Progestin Receptor α (mPRα) by Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1): Evidence for a Role of PGRMC1 as an Adaptor Protein for Steroid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    A variety of functions have been proposed for progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), including acting as a component of a membrane progestin receptor and as an adaptor protein. Here we show that stable overexpression of human PGRMC1 in nuclear progesterone receptor (PR)-negative breast cancer cell lines causes increased expression of PGRMC1 and membrane progesterone receptor α (mPRα) on cell membranes that is associated with increased specific [3H]progesterone binding. The membrane progestin binding affinity and specificity were characteristic of mPRα, with a Kd of 4.7 nM and high affinity for the mPR-specific agonist, Org OD 02–0, and low affinity for corticosteroids. Progestin treatment caused activation of G proteins, further evidence for increased expression of functional mPRs on PGRMC1-transfected cell membranes. Immunocytochemical and coimmunoprecipitation studies showed a close association of PGRMC1 with mPRα in cell membranes. Transfection of PGRMC1 into spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells was associated with membrane expression of PGRMC1 and mPRα as well as antiapoptotic effects of progestins that were abolished after cotransfection with small interfering RNA for mPRα. These data demonstrate that PGRMC1 can act as an adaptor protein, transporting mPRα to the cell surface, and that the progestin binding and apoptotic functions previously ascribed to PGRMC1 are dependent on cell surface expression of mPRα. Collectively, the results suggest PGRMC1 and mPRα are components of a membrane progesterone receptor protein complex. Increased expression of estrogen receptor β was also observed in the membranes of PGRMC1-transfected cells, suggesting that PGRMC1 can act as an adaptor protein for multiple classes of steroid receptors. PMID:24424068

  2. A model of spontaneous mouse mammary tumor for human estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, LIXIANG; ZHOU, BUGAO; MENG, XIANMING; ZHU, WEIFENG; ZUO, AIREN; WANG, XIAOMIN; JIANG, RUNDE; YU, SHIPING

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently malignancy in women. Therefore, establishment of an animal model for the development of preventative measures and effective treatment for tumors is required. A novel heterogeneous spontaneous mammary tumor animal model of Kunming mice was generated. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spontaneous mammary tumor model. Histopathologically, invasive nodular masses of pleomorphic tubular neoplastic epithelial cells invaded fibro-vascular stroma, adjacent dermis and muscle tissue. Metastatic spread through blood vessel into liver and lungs was observed by hematoxylin eosin staining. No estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) immunoreactivity was detected in their associated malignant tumors, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) protein weak expression was found by immunohistochemistry. High expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), moderate or high expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1 were observed in tumor sections at different stages (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after cancer being found) when compared with that of the normal mammary glands. The result showed that the model is of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Remarkably in the mouse model, ER and PR-negative and HER2 weak positivity are observed. The high or moderate expressions of breast cancer markers (VEGF, c-Myc and cyclin D1) in mammary cancer tissue change at different stages. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a spontaneous mammary model displaying colony-strain, outbred mice. This model will be an attractive tool to understand the biology of anti-hormonal breast cancer in women. PMID:25230850

  3. Aberrant activation of canonical Notch1 signaling in the mouse uterus decreases progesterone receptor by hypermethylation and leads to infertility

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ren-Wei; Strug, Michael R.; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Miele, Lucio; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian reproduction, implantation is one of the most critical events. Failure of implantation and the subsequent decidualization contribute to more than 75% of pregnancy losses in women. Our laboratory has previously reported that inhibition of Notch signaling results in impaired decidualization in both women and a transgenic mouse model. In this study, we generated a Notch gain-of-function transgenic mouse by conditionally overexpressing the Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) in the reproductive tract driven by a progesterone receptor (Pgr) -Cre. We show that the overexpression of N1ICD in the uterus results in complete infertility as a consequence of multiple developmental and physiological defects, including the absence of uterine glands and dysregulation of progesterone and estrogen signaling by a Recombination Signal Binding Protein Jκ-dependent signaling mechanism. We further show that the inhibition of progesterone signaling is caused by hypermethylation of its receptor Pgr by Notch1 overexpression through the transcription factor PU.1 and DNA methyltransferase 3b (Dnmt3b). We have generated a mouse model to study the consequence of increased Notch signaling in female reproduction and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that Notch signaling can regulate epigenetic modification of the Pgr. PMID:26858409

  4. Sperm gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor delta subunit (GABRD) and its interaction with purinergic P2X2 receptors in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenming; Wang, Ke; Chen, Yan; Liang, Xiao Tong; Yu, Mei Kuen; Yue, Huanxun; Tierney, M Louise

    2017-02-13

    The mechanism underlying the non-genomic action of progesterone in sperm functions and related Ca2+ mobilisation remains elusive. Herein we report the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor delta subunit (GABRD) in human and rodent sperm and its involvement in mediating the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. GABRD was localised in the sperm head/neck region. A δ(392-422)-specific inhibitory peptide against GABRD blocked the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction and the associated increase in intracellular Ca2+. Similarly, an inhibitory effect against both progesterone-induced Ca2+ influx and the acrosome reaction was observed with a P2X2 receptor antagonist. The lack of synergism between the GABRD and P2X2 inhibitors suggests that these two receptors are playing a role in the same pathway. Furthermore, a co-immunoprecipitation experiment demonstrated that GABRD could undergo protein-protein interactions with the Ca2+-conducting P2X2 receptor. This interaction between the receptors could be reduced following progesterone (10μM) inducement. Significantly reduced GABRD expression was observed in spermatozoa from infertile patients with reduced acrosome reaction capacity, suggesting that normal expression of GABRD is critical for the sperm acrosome reaction and thus male fertility. The results of the present study indicate that GABRD represents a novel progesterone receptor or modulator in spermatozoa that is responsible for the progesterone-induced Ca2+ influx required for the acrosome reaction through its interaction with the P2X2 receptor.

  5. Uterine gland development begins postnatally and is accompanied by estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the dog.

    PubMed

    Cooke, P S; Borsdorf, D C; Ekman, G C; Doty, K F; Clark, S G; Dziuk, P J; Bartol, F F

    2012-11-01

    During neonatal and juvenile life, mammalian uteri undergo extensive structural and functional changes, including uterine gland differentiation and development. In sheep and mice, inhibition of neonatal uterine gland development induced by progestin treatment led to a permanent aglandular uterine phenotype and adult infertility, suggesting that this strategy might be useful for sterilizing dogs and other companion animals. The goal of this study was to define temporal patterns of adenogenesis (gland development), cell proliferation, and progesterone and estrogen receptor expression in uteri of neonatal and juvenile dogs as a first step toward determining whether neonatal progestin treatments might be a feasible contraceptive approach in this species. Uteri obtained from puppies at postnatal wk 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 were evaluated histologically and immunostained for MKI67, a marker of cell proliferation, estrogen receptor-1, and progesterone receptor. Adenogenesis was under way at 1 wk of age, as indicated by the presence of nascent glands beginning to bud from the luminal epithelium, and rapid proliferation of both luminal epithelial and stromal cells. By Week 2, glands were clearly identifiable and proliferation of luminal, glandular, and stromal cells was pronounced. At Week 4, increased numbers of endometrial glands were evident penetrating uterine stroma, even as proliferative activity decreased in all cell compartments as compared with Week 2. Whereas gland development was most advanced at Weeks 6 to 8, luminal, glandular, and stromal proliferation was minimal, indicating that the uterus was nearly mitotically quiescent at this age. Both estrogen receptor-1 and progesterone receptor were expressed consistently in uterine stromal and epithelial cells at all ages examined. In summary, canine uterine adenogenesis was underway by 1 wk of age and prepubertal glandular proliferation was essentially complete by Week 6. These results provided information necessary to

  6. Progesterone receptor gene maps to human chromosome band 11q13, the site of the mammary oncogene int-2

    SciTech Connect

    Law, M.L.; Kao, F.T.; Wei, Q.; Hartz, J.A.; Greene, G.L.; Zarucki-Schulz, T.; Conneely, O.M.; Jones, C.; Puck, T.T.; O'Malley, B.W.; Horwitz, K.B.

    1987-05-01

    Progesterone is involved in the development and progression of breast cancers, and progesterone receptors (PR) are important markers of hormone dependence and disease prognosis. The authors have used a human PR cDNA probe, genomic DNA blotting of a series of Chinese hamster-human cell hybrids, and in situ hybridization to map the human PR gene to chromosome 11, band q13. This band also contains the human homolog of the mouse mammary tumor virus integration site, int-2, which surrounds a protooncogene thought to be involved in the development of murine mammary cancers. That these two genes share the same chromosomal location raises important questions about their possible linkage and about the relationship between the mammary-specific oncogene and the steroid hormone in the development, growth, and hormone dependence of human breast cancers.

  7. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) expression in murine retina

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Arul K.; Mysona, Barbara A.; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Tawfik, Amany; Sanders, A.; Markand, Shanu; Zorrilla, Eric; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Bollinger, Kathryn E.; Smith, Sylvia B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sigma receptor 1 (σR1) and 2 (σR2) are thought to be two distinct proteins which share the ability to bind multiple ligands, several of which are common to both receptors. Whether σR1 and σR2 share overlapping biological functions is unknown. Recently, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) was shown to contain the putative σR2 binding site. PGRMC1 has not been studied in retina. We hypothesize that biological interactions between σR1 and PGRMC1 will be evidenced by compensatory upregulation of PGRMC1 in σR1−/− mice. Methods Immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and immunoblotting methods were used to analyze expression of PGRMC1 in wild type mouse retina. Tissues from σR1−/− mice were used to investigate whether a biological interaction exists between σR1 and PGRMC1. Results In the eye, PGRMC1 is expressed in corneal epithelium, lens, ciliary body epithelium, and retina. In retina, PGRMC1 is present in Müller cells and retinal pigment epithelium. This expression pattern is similar, but not identical to σR1. PGRMC1 protein levels in neural retina and eye cup from σR1−/− mice did not differ from wild type mice. Nonocular tissues, lung, heart, and kidney showed similar Pgrmc1 gene expression in wild type and σR1−/− mice. In contrast, liver, brain and intestine showed increased Pgrmc1 gene expression in σR1−/− mice. Conclusion Despite potential biological overlap, deletion of σR1 did not result in a compensatory change in PGRMC1 protein levels in σR1−/− mouse retina. Increased Pgrmc1 gene expression in organs with high lipid content such as liver, brain, and intestine indicate a possible tissue specific interaction between σR1 and PGRMC1. The current studies establish the presence of PGRMC1 in retina and lay the foundation for analysis of its biological function. PMID:26642738

  8. Alterations in progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2) in the endometrium of macaques afflicted with advanced endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Keator, Christopher S; Mah, Kuni; Slayden, Ov D

    2012-06-01

    The hormonally driven expression and cell-specific localization patterns of the progesterone receptor membrane components (PGRMC1 and PGRMC2) in the macaque endometrium during the menstrual cycle are unknown. Additionally, the expression and localization patterns of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 in the secretory eutopic endometrium of primates afflicted with endometriosis are also unknown. Therefore, we used real-time PCR to quantify transcript expression levels of the PGRMCs in well-defined samples of endometrium collected from artificially cycled macaques during the menstrual cycle, and in the secretory phase endometrium of naturally cycling macaques afflicted with endometriosis. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry were used to localize PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA and protein, respectively. We compared the patterns of expression and localization of the PGRMCs with the expression and localization patterns of nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR). PGRMC1 and PGR were elevated during the proliferative phases of the cycle, and then declined to nearly undetectable levels during the late secretory phase of the cycle. Levels of PGRMC2 were lowest during the proliferative phases of the cycle and then increased markedly during the secretory phases. Strong staining for PGRMC2 was localized to the luminal and glandular epithelia during the secretory phases. When compared with artificially cycled disease-free animals, macaques with endometriosis exhibited no changes in the expression or localization patterns for PGR and PGRMC1 but exhibited strikingly reduced levels of PGRMC2 transcript and altered intracellular staining patterns for the PGRMC2 protein. Collectively, these results suggest that membrane-bound PGRMC2 may provide a pathway of action that could potentially mediate the non-genomic effects of progesterone on the glandular epithelia during the secretory phase of the cycle. Further, reduced levels of membrane-bound PGRMC2 may be associated with the progesterone insensitivity

  9. Membrane Associated Progesterone Receptors: Promiscuous Proteins with Pleiotropic Functions – Focus on Interactions with Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Chang S.; Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane-associated progesterone receptors (MAPR) are a group of four rather small, partially homologous proteins, which share a similar non-covalent heme-binding domain that is related to cytochrome b5, a well-known functional interaction partner of microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase systems. Apart from their structural similarities the four proteins progesterone membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, also referred to as IZA, sigma-2 receptor, Dap1), PGRMC2, neudesin (NENF) and neuferricin (CYB5D2) display surprisingly divergent and multifunctional physiological properties related to cholesterol/steroid biosynthesis, drug metabolism and response, iron homeostasis, heme trafficking, energy metabolism, autophagy, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, cell migration, neural functions, and tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The purpose of this mini-review is to briefly summarize the structural and functional properties of MAPRs with particular focus on their interactions with the CYP system. For PGRMC1, originally identified as a non-canonical progesterone-binding protein that mediates some immediate non-genomic actions of progesterone, available evidence indicates mainly activating interactions with steroidogenic CYPs including CYP11A1, CYP21A2, CYP17, CYP19, CYP51A1, and CYP61A1, while interactions with drug metabolizing CYPs including CYP2C2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 were either ineffective or slightly inhibitory. For the other MAPRs the evidence is so far less conclusive. We also point out that experimental limitations question some of the previous conclusions. Use of appropriate model systems should help to further clarify the true impact of these proteins on CYP-mediated metabolic pathways. PMID:28396637

  10. Investigational hormone receptor agonists as ongoing female contraception: a focus on selective progesterone receptor modulators in early clinical development.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anita L

    2015-01-01

    As efforts are made to continue to increase the safety of contraceptive methods, those without estrogen have attracted new attention. Progestin-only options are available in many delivery systems, but most cause disturbed bleeding patterns. For gynecologic patients, selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have been approved for medical abortion, for ovulation suppression in emergency contraception, and for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding due to leiomyoma. This article discusses the role of SPRMs in controlling fertility on an ongoing basis with particular emphasis on mifepristone and ulipristal acetate (UPA), since none of the other compounds has progressed out of early Phase I - II testing. It also discusses important information about the mechanisms of action and safety of these two SPRMs. Of all the investigational hormone agonist/antagonists, SPRMs have demonstrated the greatest potential as ongoing female contraceptives. They have the ability to suppress ovulation after initiation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge without affecting ovarian production of estrogen or inducing any significant metabolic changes. SPRMs may well be able to provide longer term contraception as oral agents, vaginal rings, and perhaps even intrauterine devices. UPA has the greatest promise. Current research needs to be expanded.

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor in primate endometrium is regulated by oestrogen-receptor and progesterone-receptor ligands in vivo.

    PubMed

    Greb, R R; Heikinheimo, O; Williams, R F; Hodgen, G D; Goodman, A L

    1997-06-01

    We investigated hormonal regulation of endometrial angiogenesis in menstruating primates. This study was designed to demonstrate: (i) that cell-specific vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and expression in monkey endometrium are regulated by steroid receptor ligands; and (ii) mifepristone (RU 486) alters VEGF production even in the absence of a progestin agonist. Endometrial VEGF production was compared by computer-assisted immunohistochemical analysis during induced hypoestrogenism and after oestradiol, progestin, or antiprogestin (mifepristone) treatment. VEGF gene expression was estimated by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in endometrial samples from castrate cynomolgus monkeys, from intact monkeys in the luteal phase, and from monkeys treated for 20 days with levonorgestrel (LNG) or mifepristone. VEGF staining intensities in glandular epithelium and VEGF mRNA expression were highest in hypoestrogenic monkeys. Progestin treatment induced intense VEGF staining in the stroma. Gene expression of VEGF-189, but not other isoforms, was higher in progesterone- and progestin (LNG)-exposed endometria compared to mifepristone-exposed endometria or endometria from anovulatory cycles (P < 0.04). Mifepristone abolished VEGF staining in glandular epithelium almost completely. We conclude that VEGF protein and VEGF mRNA expression levels in primate endometrium depend on the steroidal milieu. Anti-angiogenic effects of mifepristone via suppression of VEGF production might represent a mechanism for its quelling effects on endometrium.

  12. Cloning and expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, Robert; Kowalik, Magdalena Karolina; Kotwica, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Progesterone (P4) affects a cell through its nuclear receptor (PGR), which has two main isoforms: A (PGRA) and B (PGRB). A partial section of previously unknown PGRB cDNA from cattle was cloned. Next, mRNA and protein levels for these two isoforms in corpora lutea (CL) collected during different stages of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy were determined. The PGRB mRNA level was highest on Days 2-5 of the oestrous cycle, decreased over the next few days (P<0.01) and increased again slightly on Days 17-20 (P<0.05). During pregnancy, PGRB mRNA was at its lowest level during Weeks 3-5 (P<0.01) and highest during Weeks 6-12 (P<0.01). The profile of PGRA mRNA levels was similar to that of PGRB throughout the oestrous cycle. The PGRA protein level was highest on Days 2-10 of the oestrous cycle, decreased continuously to its lowest concentration on Days 17-20 (P<0.01) and during Weeks 3-5 of pregnancy (P>0.05) and increased during Weeks 6-12 (P<0.05). PGRB protein concentration followed a similar pattern but at a markedly lower level. Both PGRA and PGRB isoforms are involved in the regulation of P4 action, especially in the newly formed CL and developed CL in the first trimester of pregnancy. These data suggest that the variable expression of these isoforms during the oestrous cycle may depend on the influence of P4.

  13. Genomic agonism and phenotypic antagonism between estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E.; Tarulli, Gerard; Zarnke, Allison L.; Bourgo, Ryan J.; Laine, Muriel; Chang, Ya-Fang; Ma, Shihong; Dembo, Anna G.; Raj, Ganesh V.; Hickey, Theresa E.; Tilley, Wayne D.; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of progesterone receptor (PR) and its impact on estrogen signaling in breast cancer remain controversial. In primary ER+ (estrogen receptor–positive)/PR+ human tumors, we report that PR reprograms estrogen signaling as a genomic agonist and a phenotypic antagonist. In isolation, estrogen and progestin act as genomic agonists by regulating the expression of common target genes in similar directions, but at different levels. Similarly, in isolation, progestin is also a weak phenotypic agonist of estrogen action. However, in the presence of both hormones, progestin behaves as a phenotypic estrogen antagonist. PR remodels nucleosomes to noncompetitively redirect ER genomic binding to distal enhancers enriched for BRCA1 binding motifs and sites that link PR and ER/PR complexes. When both hormones are present, progestin modulates estrogen action, such that responsive transcriptomes, cellular processes, and ER/PR recruitment to genomic sites correlate with those observed with PR alone, but not ER alone. Despite this overall correlation, the transcriptome patterns modulated by dual treatment are sufficiently different from individual treatments, such that antagonism of oncogenic processes is both predicted and observed. Combination therapies using the selective PR modulator/antagonist (SPRM) CDB4124 in combination with tamoxifen elicited 70% cytotoxic tumor regression of T47D tumor xenografts, whereas individual therapies inhibited tumor growth without net regression. Our findings demonstrate that PR redirects ER chromatin binding to antagonize estrogen signaling and that SPRMs can potentiate responses to antiestrogens, suggesting that cotargeting of ER and PR in ER+/PR+ breast cancers should be explored. PMID:27386569

  14. Progesterone receptor (PROGINS) polymorphism and the risk of endometrial cancer development.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, M G; da Silva, I D C G; Nogueira-de-Souza, N C; Carvalho, C V; Leite, D B; Gomes, M T V; Baracat, E C; Lopes, L A F; Nicolau, S M; Gonçalves, W J

    2007-01-01

    The progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS) has been identified as a risk modifier for benign and malignant gynecological diseases. The present case-control study is to evaluate the role of the PROGINS polymorphisms, as risk factor, for endometrial cancer development and to investigate the association between these genetics variants and clinical/pathologic variables of endometrial cancer. PROGINS polymorphism was examined in a total of 121 patients with endometrial cancer and 282 population-based control subjects, all located at the same area in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The genotyping of PROGINS polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The frequencies of PROGINS polymorphism T1/T1, T1/T2, and T2/T2 were 82.6%, 14.9%, and 2.5% in the endometrial cancer patients and 78.4%, 21.6%, and 0% in the controls, respectively. The chi(2) test showed a higher incidence of the T2/T2 genotype in the endometrial cancer group subjects, these results were statistically different (P= 0.012). However, due to the fact that there were no women in the control group showing homozygosis for the allele T2, the correct evaluation of odds ratio could not be properly calculated. Regarding the clinical and pathologic findings observed within the group of patients with endometrial cancer, there was significant correlation between T1/T2 genotype and the presence of myoma (P= 0.048). No correlations were observed among the other variables. These data suggest that the PROGINS polymorphism T2/T2 genotype might be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer.

  15. Progestin inhibition of progesterone receptor gene expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Alexander, I E; Clarke, C L; Shine, J; Sutherland, R L

    1989-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether inhibition of progesterone receptor (PR) gene transcription and/or regulation of PR mRNA half-life were involved in the progestin-mediated decrease of PR in T-47D human breast cancer cells. Cells were treated with the progestin ORG 2058 and PR mRNA measured by Northern blot analysis of total RNA. A major PR mRNA around 13.5 kilobases and minor species around the 28S ribosomal RNA subunit were decreased upon ORG 2058 treatment. The decrease was not detectable until 2-3 h after treatment and was the same at all ORG 2058 concentrations (1-100 nM) tested. The decrease in PR mRNA was unaffected by actinomycin D in the first 3 h but was inhibited thereafter. There was a partial recovery of PR mRNA levels 24 h after ORG 2058 exposure. Immunoblot analysis showed that immunoreactive PR decreased in parallel with PR mRNA. The rate of protein loss in the first 12 h after progestin treatment was related to the ORG 2058 concentration used. Nuclear run-on experiments showed that ORG 2058 caused a decrease of up to 70% in the transcription rate of the PR gene. The half-life of PR mRNA was shown to be 2-2.5 h by [3H]uridine incorporation, which was much shorter than estimates obtained using actinomycin D, and was unaffected by ORG 2058. In summary, these data have shown that the mechanism by which progestins decrease the concentration of PR includes inhibition of transcription of the PR gene.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and safety of the selective progesterone receptor modulator vilaprisan in healthy postmenopausal women
.

    PubMed

    Schultze-Mosgau, Marcus-Hillert; Schuett, Barbara; Hafner, Frank-Thorsten; Zollmann, Frank; Kaiser, Andreas; Hoechel, Joachim; Rohde, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Vilaprisan is a novel, potent, and highly selective progesterone receptor modulator, which might offer a promising option for the treatment of uterine fibroids. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase 1 study, the pharmacokinetics and safety of vilaprisan were investigated in healthy postmenopausal women. Subjects received a single oral dose of vilaprisan (1, 5, 15, or 30 mg) or placebo and - after a wash-out period - daily doses of the same strength over 28 days. Safety assessments included vital signs, ECGs, clinical laboratory tests, and adverse events. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles were collected over 14 days after single dose (sd) and multiple dose (md; day 28). Vilaprisan was well tolerated. Mild to moderate adverse events occurred with similar frequency at all dose levels. Following single dose, maximum vilaprisan concentrations were observed 1 - 2 hours post-dose. Terminal half-lives ranged from 31 to 38 hours. Maximum concentrations of vilaprisan (Cmax) and exposure to vilaprisan (AUC) increased roughly dose-proportionally from 3.74 µg/L (1 mg) to 68.6 µg/L (30 mg) and 58.5 µg×h/L to 1,590 µg×h/L, respectively. With daily dosing, accumulation consistent with the long terminal half-life was observed (AUC(0-24)md/AUC(0-24)sd ratios: 1.9 to 3.2). The ratio AUC(0-24)md/AUCsd increased with dose from ~ 1 (1 mg) to 1.5 (30 mg). Exposure to vilaprisan increased roughly dose-proportionally in the dose range studied and accumulated after multiple dosing as expected based on t1/2, indicating linear pharmacokinetics of vilaprisan in the expected therapeutic dose range.
.

  17. FK506-binding protein 52 is essential to uterine reproductive physiology controlled by the progesterone receptor A isoform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zuocheng; Wolf, Irene M; Chen, Hanying; Periyasamy, Sumudra; Chen, Zhuang; Yong, Weidong; Shi, Shu; Zhao, Weihong; Xu, Jianming; Srivastava, Arun; Sánchez, Edwin R; Shou, Weinian

    2006-11-01

    FK506-binding protein 52 (FKBP52) is a tetratricopeptide repeat protein that associates with steroid receptors in complexes containing heat shock protein 90. To investigate the role of FKBP52 in steroid-regulated physiology, we generated FKBP52-deficient mice. FKBP52 (-/-) females are sterile due to a complete failure of implantation, a process that requires estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). Because the uterus expresses two forms of PR, PR-A and PR-B, we investigated all three receptors as potential targets of FKBP52 action. FKBP52 (-/-) uteri showed a normal growth response to estradiol, and unaltered expression of genes controlled by ER and PR-B. In contrast, FKBP52 (-/-) uteri were neither able to express two PR-A-regulated genes, nor undergo decidualization in response to progesterone, suggesting that FKBP52 specifically regulates PR-A at this organ. Analysis of uterine PR heterocomplexes showed preferential association of FKBP52 with PR-A compared with PR-B. Loss of FKBP52 neither disrupted the PR-A/heat shock protein 90 interaction, nor impaired uterine PR-A hormone-binding function, demonstrating the essential role of FKBP52 in PR-A action to be downstream of the hormone-binding event. Transcription studies in +/+ and -/- mouse embryonic fibroblast cells showed a near-complete loss of PR-A activity at mouse mammary tumor virus and synthetic progesterone response element promoters, although partial reductions of ER and PR-B were also observed. Partial disruptions of ovulation and mammary development were also found in FKBP52 (-/-) females. Taken as a whole, our results show FKBP52 to be an essential regulator of PR-A action in the uterus, while being a nonessential but contributory regulator of steroid receptors in the mammary and ovary. These data may now provide the basis for selective targeting of steroid-regulated physiology through tetratricopeptide repeat proteins.

  18. Expression of active hormone and DNA-binding domains of the chicken progesterone receptor in E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Eul, J; Meyer, M E; Tora, L; Bocquel, M T; Quirin-Stricker, C; Chambon, P; Gronemeyer, H

    1989-01-01

    Bacterially-expressed fusion proteins containing the DNA-(region C) or hormone-binding (region E) domains of the chicken progesterone receptor (cPR) fused to the C terminus of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase were analysed for the specificity of interaction with natural and synthetic hormone-responsive elements (HREs) and progestins, respectively. The purified fusion protein containing the progestin-binding domain bound progesterone with an apparent Kd of 1.0-1.5 nM and was specifically photocross-linked with the synthetic progestin R5020 in crude bacterial lysates. Labelling of intact bacterial cells with [3H]R5020 revealed that the majority, if not all, of the bacterially produced hormone-binding domain was active. No differences in the binding to a synthetic palindromic glucocorticoid/progestin-responsive element (GRE/PRE) were found when the bacterially produced cPR DNA-binding domain was compared in methylation interference assays with the full-length chicken progesterone receptor form A expressed in eukaryotic cells. The study of dissociation kinetics, however, revealed differences in the half-life of the complexes formed between the palindromic GRE/PRE and either the receptor form A or the fusion protein containing the cPR DNA-binding domain. DNase I protection experiments demonstrated that the bacterially produced region C of the cPR generated specific 'footprints' on the mouse mammary tumour virus long terminal repeat (MMTV-LTR) which were nearly identical to those previously reported for the rat glucocorticoid receptor. Images PMID:2540961

  19. Progestin and AdipoQ Receptor 7, Progesterone Membrane Receptor Component 1 (PGRMC1), and PGRMC2 and Their Role in Regulating Progesterone's Ability to Suppress Human Granulosa/Luteal Cells from Entering into the Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Sueldo, Carolina; Liu, Xiufang; Peluso, John J

    2015-09-01

    The present studies were designed to determine the role of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), PGRMC2, progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7), and progesterone receptor (PGR) in mediating the antimitotic action of progesterone (P4) in human granulosa/luteal cells. For these studies granulosa/luteal cells of 10 women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation were isolated, maintained in culture, and depleted of PGRMC1, PGRMC2, PAQR7, or PGR by siRNA treatment. The rate of entry into the cell cycle was assessed using the FUCCI cell cycle sensor to determine the percentage of cells in the G1/S stage of the cell cycle. PGRMC1, PGRMC2, PAQR7, and PGR mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR and their interactions monitored by in situ proximity ligation assays (PLAs). These studies revealed that PGRMC1, PGRMC2, PAQR7, and PGR were expressed by granulosa/luteal cells from all patients, with PGRMC1 mRNA being most abundant, followed by PAQR7, PGRMC2, and PGR. However, their mRNA levels showed considerable patient variation. P4's ability to suppress entry into the cell cycle was dependent on PGRMC1, PGRMC2, and PAQR7 but not PGR. Moreover, PLAs indicated that PGRMC1, PGRMC2, and PAQR7 formed a complex within the cytoplasm. Based on these studies, it is proposed that these three P4 mediators form a complex within the cytoplasm that is required for P4's action. Moreover, P4's ability to regulate human follicle development may be dependent in part on the expression levels of each of these P4 mediators.

  20. Spontaneous feline mammary intraepithelial lesions as a model for human estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-negative breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Intraepithelial lesions (IELs), such as usual ductal hyperplasia (UH), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are risk factors that predict a woman's chance of developing invasive breast cancer. Therefore, a comparative study that establishes an animal model of pre-invasive lesions is needed for the development of preventative measures and effective treatment for both mammary IELs and tumors. The purpose of this study was to characterize the histologic and molecular features of feline mammary IELs and compare them with those in women. Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens (n = 205) from 203 female cats with clinical mammary disease were retrieved from the archives of the Purdue University Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and Veterinary Teaching Hospital (West Lafayette, IN), and the Department of Pathology and Veterinary Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine (Sassari, Italy). Histologic sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), were evaluated for the presence of IELs in tissue adjacent to excised mammary tumors. Lesions were compared to those of humans. Immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor (ER-alpha), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu) and Ki-67 was performed in IELs and adjacent tumor tissues. Results Intraepithelial lesions were found in 57 of 203 (28%) feline mammary specimens and were categorized as UH (27%), ADH (29%), and DCIS (44%). Most IELs with atypia (ADH and DCIS) were associated with mammary cancer (91%), whereas UH was associated with benign lesions in 53% of cases. Feline IELs were remarkably similar to human IELs. No ER or PR immunoreactivity was detected in intermediate-grade or high-grade DCIS or their associated malignant tumors. HER-2 protein overexpression was found in 27% of IELs. Conclusion The remarkable similarity of feline mammary IELs to those of humans

  1. Comparison between Steroid Binding to Progesterone Membrane Receptor α (mPRα) and to Progesterone Nuclear Receptor: Correlation with Physicochemical Properties Assessed by Comparative Molecular Field Analysis and Identification of mPRα-specific Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kelder, Jan; Azevedo, Rita; Pang, Yefei; de Vlieg, Jacob; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Recent results showing that the binding characteristics of 33 steroids for human membrane progesterone receptor alpha (hu-mPRα) differ from those for the nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) suggest that hu-mPRα-specific agonists can be identified for investigating its physiological functions. The binding affinities of an additional 21 steroids for hu-mPRα were determined to explore the structure-activity relationships in more detail and to identify potent, specific mPRα agonists. Four synthetic progesterone derivatives with methyl or methylene groups on positions 18 or 19, 18a-methylprogesterone (18-CH3P4, Org OE 64-0), 13-ethenyl-18-norprogesterone (18-CH2P4, Org 33663-0), 19a-methylprogesterone (19-CH3P4, Org OD 13-0) and 10-ethenyl-19-norprogesterone (19-CH2P4, Org OD 02-0), showed similar or higher affinities than progesterone for hu-mPRα and displayed mPRα agonist activities in G-protein and MAP kinase activation assays. All four steroids also bound to the nPR in cytosolic fractions of MCF-7 cells. However, two compounds, 19-CH2P4 and 19-CH3P4, showed no nPR agonist activity in a nPR reporter assay and therefore are selective mPRα agonists suitable for physiological investigations. The structure-binding relationships of the combined series of 54 steroids for hu-mPRα deviated strikingly from those of a published set of 60 3-keto or 3-desoxy steroids for nPR. Close correlations were observed between the receptor binding affinities of the steroids and their physicochemical properties calculated by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) for both hu-mPRα and nPR. A comparison of the CoMFA field graphs for the two receptors revealed several differences in the structural features required for binding to hu-mPRα and nPR which could be exploited to develop additional mPR-specific ligands. PMID:20096719

  2. Expression patterns of progesterone receptor membrane components 1 and 2 in endometria from women with and without endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Kristen; Tinnemore, Deborah; Huff, Seth; Hoffer, Zachary S; Burney, Richard O; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2014-02-01

    Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent inflammatory condition associated with pain and infertility. A growing body of evidence supports attenuated secretory-phase progesterone responsiveness in women with this disease. Herein, we compare the expression of progesterone receptor membrane components (PGRMC) 1 and 2 in eutopic endometrium from 11 women with laparoscopically and/or histologically proven stage III/IV endometriosis and 23 disease-free women. Menstrual cycle phase was determined using a combination of reported cycle day, serum hormone profile, and endometrial histologic dating. The PGRMC-1 (fold change -3.3; P < .05) and PGRMC-2 (fold-change -8.8; P < .05) gene expression were significantly downregulated in secretory phase, eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated decreased PGRMC-1 and PGRMC-2 protein expression in the secretory phase endometrial stroma cells of women with endometriosis. Consistent with the preclinical work of others, our results reflect downregulation of endometrial PGRMC-1 and PGRMC-2 expression in secretory phase endometrium from women with advanced stage endometriosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of attenuated progesterone action in endometriosis has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  3. Progesterone-mediated angiogenic activity of endothelial progenitor cell and angiogenesis in traumatic brain injury rats were antagonized by progesterone receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Li, Shengjie; Zhang, Zhifei; Wen, Xiaolong; Quan, Wei; Tian, Qilong; Gao, Chuang; Su, Wanqiang; Zhang, Jianning; Jiang, Rongcai

    2017-10-01

    Progesterone (P4) has the potential therapeutic effects for traumatic brain injury (TBI) whose recovery depended on the enhanced angiogenesis. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) plays an essential role in vascular biology. We previously demonstrated that P4 administration improved circulating EPC level and neurological recovery of rat with TBI. Here, we hypothesized that P4 augmented angiogenic potential of EPC and the angiogenesis-related neurorestoration after TBI through classical progesterone receptor (PR). EPC derived from rats were stimulated with graded concentrations (0, 10(-10) , 10(-9) , 5 × 10(-9) , 10(-8) , 10(-7)  mol/L) of P4 or 10(-6)  mol/L ulipristal acetate (UPA, a PR antagonist). Male rats were subjected to cortical impact injury and treated with (i) DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), (ii) P4 and (iii) P4 and UPA. It showed that P4 improved the angiogenic potential of EPC, including tube formation, adhesion, migration and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion, in a dose-dependent fashion with the maximal effect achieved at 10(-9)  mol/L P4. High concentration (10(-7)  mol/L) of P4 impaired the angiogenic potential of EPC. Notably, 10(-6)  mol/L UPA antagonized the stimulatory effects of 10(-9 ) mol/L P4. After administrating P4, a significant improvement of neurological function and the restoration of the leaked blood-brain barrier were observed as well as a reduction of the brain water content. Both vessel density and expression of occludin of vessels were increased. When UPA was administered with P4, the neural restoration and angiogenesis were all reversed. Western blot showed that 10(-9)  mol/L P4 increased the content of PRA and PRB of EPC, while 10(-7)  mol/L P4 reduced the content of both PR isoforms, but there was no change found in the TBI rats. It may suggest that P4-mediated angiogenic activity of EPC and angiogenesis in TBI rats were antagonized by PR antagonist. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of orexins A and B on expression of orexin receptors and progesterone release in luteal and granulosa ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Natalia I; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A R; Libertun, Carlos

    2012-10-10

    Orexin-A and orexin-B are neuropeptides controlling sleep-wakefulness, feeding and neuroendocrine functions via their G protein-coupled receptors, orexin-1R and orexin-2R. They are synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus and project throughout the brain. Orexins and orexin receptors have also been described outside the brain. Previously we demonstrated the presence of both receptors in the ovary, their increased expression during proestrous afternoon and the dependence on the gonadotropins. Here we studied the effects of orexins on the mRNA expression of both receptors, by quantitative real-time PCR, on luteal cells from superovulated rat ovaries and granulosa cells from diethylstilbestrol-treated rat ovaries. Effects on progesterone secretion were also measured. In luteal cells, 1 nM of either orexin-A or orexin-B decreased progesterone secretion. Orexin-A treatment increased expression of both orexin-1R and orexin-2R mRNA. The effect on orexin-1R mRNA expression was abolished by an orexin-1R selective receptor antagonist SB-334867 and the effect on orexin-2R mRNA expression was abolished by a selective orexin-2R antagonist JNJ-10397049. Orexin-B did not modify orexin-1R mRNA expression, but increased orexin-2R mRNA expression. The effect of orexin-B on orexin-2R was abolished by a selective orexin-2R antagonist. Neither the expression of orexin receptors nor progesterone secretions by granulosa cells were affected by orexins. FSH, as positive control, increased both steroid hormones secretion, but did not induce the expression of OX receptors in granulosa cells isolated from late preantral/early antral follicles. Finally in ovaries obtained immediately after sacrifice, the expression of orexin-1R and orexin-2R was higher in superovulated rat ovaries compared to control or diethylstilbestrol treated rat ovaries. A selective presence and function of both orexinergic receptors in luteal and granulosa cells is described, suggesting that the orexinergic system may

  5. Phosphorylated and sumoylation-deficient progesterone receptors drive proliferative gene signatures during breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Progesterone receptors (PR) are emerging as important breast cancer drivers. Phosphorylation events common to breast cancer cells impact PR transcriptional activity, in part by direct phosphorylation. PR-B but not PR-A isoforms are phosphorylated on Ser294 by mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Phospho-Ser294 PRs are resistant to ligand-dependent Lys388 SUMOylation (that is, a repressive modification). Antagonism of PR small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylation by mitogenic protein kinases suggests a mechanism for derepression (that is, transcriptional activation) of target genes. As a broad range of PR protein expression is observed clinically, a PR gene signature would provide a valuable marker of PR contribution to early breast cancer progression. Methods Global gene expression patterns were measured in T47D and MCF-7 breast cancer cells expressing either wild-type (SUMOylation-capable) or K388R (SUMOylation-deficient) PRs and subjected to pathway analysis. Gene sets were validated by RT-qPCR. Recruitment of coregulators and histone methylation levels were determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Changes in cell proliferation and survival were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and western blotting. Finally, human breast tumor cohort datasets were probed to identify PR-associated gene signatures; metagene analysis was employed to define survival rates in patients whose tumors express a PR gene signature. Results 'SUMO-sensitive' PR target genes primarily include genes required for proliferative and pro-survival signaling. DeSUMOylated K388R receptors are preferentially recruited to enhancer regions of derepressed genes (that is, MSX2, RGS2, MAP1A, and PDK4) with the steroid receptor coactivator, CREB-(cAMP-response element-binding protein)-binding protein (CBP), and mixed lineage leukemia 2 (MLL2), a histone methyltransferase mediator of nucleosome

  6. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy levels of sulfated progesterone metabolites inhibit farnesoid X receptor resulting in a cholestatic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Tahir, Mehreen; Oduwole, Olayiwola; Jamaludin, Nurul Akmal; Ravat, Sabiha; Nikolova, Vanya; Chambers, Jenny; Selden, Clare; Rees, Myrddin; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Parker, Malcolm G; Williamson, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3α-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, leading us to study the impact of sulfated progesterone metabolites on farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here we report that the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate is supraphysiologically raised in the serum of ICP patients. Mice challenged with cholic acid developed hypercholanemia and a hepatic gene expression profile indicative of FXR activation. However, coadministration of epiallopregnanolone sulfate with cholic acid exacerbated the hypercholanemia and resulted in aberrant gene expression profiles for hepatic bile acid-responsive genes consistent with cholestasis. We demonstrate that levels of epiallopregnanolone sulfate found in ICP can function as a partial agonist for FXR, resulting in the aberrant expression of bile acid homeostasis genes in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, epiallopregnanolone sulfate inhibition of FXR results in reduced FXR-mediated bile acid efflux and secreted FGF19. Using cofactor recruitment assays, we show that epiallopregnanolone sulfate competitively inhibits bile acid-mediated recruitment of cofactor motifs to the FXR-ligand binding domain. Our results reveal a novel molecular interaction between ICP-associated levels of the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate and FXR that couples the endocrine component of pregnancy in ICP to abnormal bile acid homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Control of Progesterone Receptor-A Transrepressive Activity in Myometrial Cells: Implications for the Control of Human Parturition.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bansari; Peters, Gregory A; Skomorovska-Prokvolit, Yelenna; Yi, Lijuan; Tan, Huiqing; Yousef, Ahmed; Wang, Junye; Mesiano, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Uterine quiescence during pregnancy is maintained by progesterone primarily via signaling mediated by the type-B progesterone receptor (PR-B) in myometrial cells. Withdrawal of PR-B-mediated progesterone activity is a principal trigger for labor. One mechanism for PR-B withdrawal is by inhibition of its activity by the type-A PR (PR-A) isoform in myometrial cells. We hypothesized that human parturition involves hormonal interactions that induce the capacity for PR-A to inhibit PR-B in myometrial cells and that pro-inflammatory cytokines are major regulators of this process. We tested this hypothesis in an immortalized human myometrial cell line, hTERT-HM(A/B), in which levels of PR-A and PR-B can be experimentally controlled. We found that the capacity for PR-A to repress PR-B, assessed by activity of a transiently transfected reporter DNA controlled by the progesterone response element, and expression of FK506 binding protein 5 ( FKBP5) an endogenous PR-B responsive gene, was increased by serum supplementation and interleukin-1β. In pregnant uterus, FKBP5 was detected exclusively in myometrial cells and its expression decreased with advancing gestation and in association with the onset of labor at term. These findings suggest that in myometrial cells the repressive activity of PR-A on PR-B increases with advancing gestation and is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. This may be a key mechanism linking inflammation with the onset of labor.

  8. Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy Levels of Sulfated Progesterone Metabolites Inhibit Farnesoid X Receptor Resulting in a Cholestatic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Tahir, Mehreen; Oduwole, Olayiwola; Jamaludin, Nurul Akmal; Ravat, Sabiha; Nikolova, Vanya; Chambers, Jenny; Selden, Clare; Rees, Myrddin; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Parker, Malcolm G; Williamson, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3α-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, leading us to study the impact of sulfated progesterone metabolites on farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here we report that the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate is supraphysiologically raised in the serum of ICP patients. Mice challenged with cholic acid developed hypercholanemia and a hepatic gene expression profile indicative of FXR activation. However, coadministration of epiallopregnanolone sulfate with cholic acid exacerbated the hypercholanemia and resulted in aberrant gene expression profiles for hepatic bile acid-responsive genes consistent with cholestasis. We demonstrate that levels of epiallopregnanolone sulfate found in ICP can function as a partial agonist for FXR, resulting in the aberrant expression of bile acid homeostasis genes in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, epiallopregnanolone sulfate inhibition of FXR results in reduced FXR-mediated bile acid efflux and secreted FGF19. Using cofactor recruitment assays, we show that epiallopregnanolone sulfate competitively inhibits bile acid-mediated recruitment of cofactor motifs to the FXR-ligand binding domain. Conclusion: Our results reveal a novel molecular interaction between ICP-associated levels of the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate and FXR that couples the endocrine component of pregnancy in ICP to abnormal bile acid homeostasis. (Hepatology 2013;) PMID:22961653

  9. Polymorphism of the progesterone receptor gene associated with endometriosis in patients from Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, I R; Silva, R C P C; Frare, A B; Silva, C T X; Bordin, B M; Souza, S R; Ribeiro Júnior, C L; Moura, K K V O

    2011-07-06

    We investigated a possible link between endometriosis and polymorphism of the progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS). The endometriosis group consisted of 54 patients with a diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopy, and the control group comprised 44 women without endometriosis. Genotypes for PROGINS polymorphisms (A1/A1, A1/A2 and A2/A2) were determined by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed on a 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. The frequency of polymorphic genotypes (A1/A2 and A2/A2) was significantly higher in patients with endometriosis (33%) than in the control group (16%). We conclude that there is a significant correlation between PROGINS polymorphism and endometriosis.

  10. Establishment and characterization of a new human oestradiol- and progesterone-receptor-positive mammary carcinoma serially transplantable in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Naundorf, H; Fichtner, I; Büttner, B; Frege, J

    1992-01-01

    A human mammary carcinoma originating from a postmenopausal patient was successfully transplanted into nude mice. According to the adopted criteria the tumour proved to be oestradiol- and progesterone-receptor-positive. Histological studies of the patient tumour revealed a ductal invasive mammary carcinoma with 80% tubular growth pattern. Following transplantation the adenoid structures decreased to 30%; the mitosis rate and grade of malignancy increased. Treatment of the nude mice with 20 micrograms oestradiol benzoate/mouse caused a loss of the oestradiol receptor of the mammary carcinoma. The mammary carcinoma 3366 can be used for testing of antineoplastic substances, antihormones and for studies in regard to down-regulation or blocking of hormone receptors and possible consequences for therapies.

  11. Influence of tissue homogenization techniques on levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors measured in calf uterus and human breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E D; Walker, W H

    1980-01-01

    We have investigated the solubilization of estrogen and progesterone receptors during homogenization of human breast tumor and calf uterus tissue. With chopped human breast tumor tissue, the maximum yield of binding proteins occurred after mechanical homogenization at 4 degrees C with a polytron PT-10 instrument running at setting 5 for 10-15 seconds. With frozen or lyophilised tissue powders the maximum yield of binding proteins occurred after intermittent vortex mixing with buffer over 60 min. at 4 degrees C. The solubilized receptor proteins were stable for at least 150 min. at 4 degrees C. Mechanical homogenization of the tissue powder suspensions resulted in rapid denaturation of the receptors. No improvement in stability was obtained by including 10 mM monothioglycerol and 10% glycerol in the homogenization buffer.

  12. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2, serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) and nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) in the bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Slonina, Dominika; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Progesterone (P4) is involved in the regulation of essential reproductive functions affecting the target cells through both nuclear progesterone receptors (PGRs) and membrane progesterone receptors. The aim of this study was to determine the mRNA and protein expression for PGRMC1, PGRMC2, SERBP1 and PGR within the bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. There were no changes in PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA and protein expression during the estrous cycle, however, mRNA levels of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 were increased (P<0.001) in pregnant animals. SERBP1 mRNA expression was increased (P<0.05), while the level of this protein was decreased (P<0.05) on days 11-16 of the estrous cycle. The expression of PGR mRNA was higher (P<0.01) on days 17-20 compared to days 6-10 and 11-16 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. PGR-A and PGR-B protein levels were elevated on days 1-5 and 17-20 of the estrous cycle as compared to other stages of the cycle and during pregnancy. In conclusion, our results indicate that P4 may influence endometrial cells through both genomic and nongenomic way. This mechanism may contribute to the regulation of the estrous cycle and provide protection during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary lignan intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by estrogen and progesterone receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Touillaud, Marina S.; Thiébaut, Anne C. M.; Fournier, Agnès; Niravong, Maryvonne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies conducted in Asian populations have suggested that high consumption of soy-based foods that are rich in isoflavone phytoestrogens is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. However, the potential associations of other dietary phytoestrogens — i.e., the lignans or their bioactive metabolites, the enterolignans — with the risk of breast cancer are unclear. Methods We prospectively examined associations between the risk of postmenopausal invasive breast cancer and dietary intakes of four plant lignans (pinoresinol, lariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and matairesinol) and estimated exposure to two enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone), as measured with a selfadministered diet history questionnaire, among 58 049 postmenopausal French women who were not taking soy isoflavone supplements. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Analyses were further stratified by the combined estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status of the tumors. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results During 383 425 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up, 7.7 years), 1469 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Compared with women in the lowest intake quartiles, those in the highest quartile of total lignan intake (>1395 μg/day) had a reduced risk of breast cancer (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.95, Ptrend = .02, 376 versus 411 cases per 100 000 person-years), as did those in the highest quartile of lariciresinol intake (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.95, Ptrend = .01). The inverse associations between phytoestrogen intakes and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were limited to ER- and PR-positive disease (e.g., RR for highest versus lowest quartiles of total plant lignan intake = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.88, Ptrend = .01, 174 versus 214 cases per 100 000 person-years, and RR for highest versus lowest quartiles of total enterolignan level = 0.77, 95% CI = 0

  14. G-protein Coupled Estrogen Receptor, Estrogen Receptor α, and Progesterone Receptor Immunohistochemistry in the Hypothalamus of Aging Female Rhesus Macaques Given Long-Term Estradiol Treatment

    PubMed Central

    NAUGLE, MICHELLE M.; NGUYEN, LONG T.; MERCERON, TYLER K.; FILARDO, EDWARD; JANSSEN, WILLIAM G.M.; MORRISON, JOHN H.; RAPP, PETER R.; GORE, ANDREA C.

    2014-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are widely and heterogeneously expressed in the brain, and are regulated by age and gonadal hormones. Our goal was to quantify effects of aging, long-term estradiol (E2) treatment, and their interactions, on expression of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) immunoreactivity in two hypothalamic regions, the arcuate (ARC) and the periventricular area (PERI) of rhesus monkeys as a model of menopause and hormone replacement. Ovariectomized (OVX) rhesus macaques were young (~11 years) or aged (~25 years), given oil (vehicle) or E2 every 3 weeks for 2 years. Immunohistochemistry and stereologic analysis of ERα, PR, and GPER was performed. More effects were detected for GPER than the other two receptors. Specifically, GPER cell density in the ARC and PERI, and the percent of GPER-immunoreactive cells in the PERI, were greater in aged than in young monkeys. In addition, we mapped the qualitative distribution of GPER in the monkey hypothalamus and nearby regions. For ERα, E2 treated monkeys tended to have higher cell density than vehicle monkeys in the ARC. The percent of PR density in the PERI tended to be higher in E2 than vehicle monkeys of both ages. This study shows that the aged hypothalamus maintains expression of hormone receptors with age, and that long-term cyclic E2 treatment has few effects on their expression, although GPER was affected more than ERα or PR. This result is surprising in light of evidence for E2 regulation of the receptors studied here, and differences may be due to the selected regions, long-term nature of E2 treatment, among other possibilities. PMID:24862737

  15. Progesterone Receptors and Proliferation of the Endometrium in Obese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-A Lifestyle Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Mariana; Sahlin, Lena; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2017-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. This is usually explained by chronic anovulation and deficient progesterone activity. However, the role of progesterone receptors (PRs) in endometrial proliferation is unclear. To evaluate PRs in relation to endometrial proliferation in women with PCOS. Cross-sectional study and lifestyle intervention. Clinical and laboratory research unit at a university hospital. Twenty obese women with PCOS and 10 age- and body mass index-matched regularly menstruating controls. Dietary management and physical exercise. Endometrial messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and immunostaining of the nuclear PRs A (PRA) and B (PRB), nongenomic progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and 2 (PGRMC2), and proliferation marker Ki67. Before lifestyle intervention, mRNA expression of PRAB was lower while PRB was higher in proliferative endometrium of obese women with PCOS compared with controls (P < 0.05). After lifestyle intervention and weight loss, mRNA expression of PRAB was still low but PRB mRNA decreased and was not different to controls in proliferative endometrium (P < 0.01). The subgroup of PCOS women who remained anovulatory displayed higher protein levels of PRB, PGRMC1, PGRMC2 and of the proliferative marker Ki67 on cycle days 21 to 23 than controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, the subgroup of PCOS women with confirmed ovulation showed immunostaining, including Ki67, in secretory endometrium that was not different to controls, except for higher PRA (P < 0.05). Lifestyle intervention improves, but not fully restores PR expression and decreases proliferation in secretory endometrium of obese PCOS women.

  16. CRISPLD2 is a target of progesterone receptor and its expression is decreased in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Shin, Heesung; Kim, Tae Hoon; Choi, Won-Seok; Ferguson, Susan D; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Young, Steven L; Lessey, Bruce A; Ha, Un-Hwan; Jeong, Jae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as the presence of endometrial cells outside of the uterine cavity, is a major cause of infertility and pelvic pain, afflicting more than 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and lipopolysaccharide promotes the proliferation and invasion of endometriotic stromal cells. Cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain-containing 2 (CRISPLD2) has high affinity for lipopolysaccharide and plays a critical role in defense against endotoxin shock. However, the function of CRISPLD2 has not been studied in endometriosis and uterine biology. Herein, we examined the expression of CRISPLD2 in endometrium from patients with and without endometriosis using immunohistochemistry. The expression of CRISPLD2 was higher in the secretory phase in human menstrual cycle compared to proliferative phase. The expression of CRISPLD2 was significantly decreased in the endometrium of women with endometriosis in the early secretory phase compared to women without endometriosis. The increase of CRISPLD2 expression at the early secretory and dysregulation of its expression in endometriosis suggest progesterone (P4) regulation of CRISPLD2. To investigate whether CRISPLD2 is regulated by P4, we examined the expression of the CRISPLD2 in the uteri of wild-type and progesterone receptor knock out (PRKO) mice. The expression of CRISPLD2 was significantly increased after P4 treatment in the wild-type mice. However, CRISPLD2 expression was significantly decreased in the (PRKO) mice treated with P4. During early pregnancy, the expression of CRISPLD2 was increased in decidua of implantation and post-implantation stages. CRISPLD2 levels were also increased in cultured human endometrial stromal cells during in vitro decidualization. These results suggest that the CRISPLD2 is a target of the progesterone receptor and may play an important role in pathogenesis of endometriosis.

  17. The Effect of Estradiol and Progesterone on Toll Like Receptor Gene Expression in A Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Zandieh, Zahra; Amjadi, Fatemehsadat; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Fazeli, Alireza; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective Toll like receptors (TLRs) are one of the main components of the innate im- mune system. It has been reported that expression of these receptors are altered in the female reproductive tract (FRT) during menstrual cycle. Here we used a fallopian tube epithelial cell line (OE-E6/E7) to evaluate the effect of two sex hormones in modulating TLR expression. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, initially TLR gene expression in OE- E6/E7 cells was evaluated and compared with that of fallopian tube tissue using quanti- tative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunostaining. Thereafter, OE-E6/E7 cells were cultured with different concentrations of estradiol and progesterone, and combination of both. qRT-PCR was performed to reveal any changes in expression of TLR genes as a result of hormonal treatment. Results TLR1-10 genes were expressed in human fallopian tube tissue. TLR1-6 genes and their respective proteins were expressed in the OE-E6/E7 cell line. Although estradiol and progesterone separately had no significant effect on TLR expression, their combined treatment altered the expression of TLRs in this cell line. Also, the pattern of TLR expres- sion in preovulation (P), mensturation (M) and window of implantation (W) were the same for all TLRs with no significant differences between P, M and W groups. Conclusion These data show the significant involvement of the combination of es- tradiol and progesterone in modulation of TLR gene expression in this human fal- lopian tube cell line. Further experiments may reveal the regulatory mechanism and signalling pathway behind the effect of sex hormones in modulating TLRs in the hu- man FRT. PMID:26862527

  18. Gene and protein expression of oestrogen-β and progesterone receptors in facial melasma and adjacent healthy skin in women.

    PubMed

    Tamega, A de A; Miot, H A; Moço, N P; Silva, M G; Marques, M E A; Miot, L D B

    2015-04-01

    Compare gene and protein expression for oestrogen receptor-β (ER-β) and progesterone receptor (PR) in facial melasma and adjacent healthy skin. A cross-sectional study including 42 women with facial melasma, conducted at the Dermatology Service of Botucatu Medical School of São Paulo State University, Brazil. Biopsies of the melasma skin were performed, together with healthy surrounding skin. The gene expression (real-time PCR) of the hormone receptors in the tissue was evaluated. Subsequently, skin fragments were immunostained for nuclear ER-β and PR, evaluated according to their HSCORE (epidermis) and percentage of staining per microscopic field (dermis). Messenger RNA tissue expression for ER-β and PR showed no difference between melasma-affected skin fragments and the healthy perilesional areas (P > 0.2). Median nuclear epithelial expression for ER-β and PR was higher in lesioned skin (HSCORE 157 and 58) than in the healthy perilesional skin (HSCORE 97 and 19; P < 0.01), with no difference in dermal immunostaining. Nuclear histological expression for ER-β was associated to sun-induced melasma and negative familiar background; PR expression was associated to sun-induced melasma and darker phototypes. No difference was observed in gene expression for oestrogen-β and progesterone receptors in melasma-affected skin compared with adjacent healthy skin. However, the higher protein expression of these receptors in melasma-affected epithelia suggests hormonal participation in the pathogenesis of this disease. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Differential and Interactive Effects of Ligand-Bound Progesterone Receptor A and B Isoforms on Tyrosine Hydroxylase Promoter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jensik, Philip J.; Arbogast, Lydia A.

    2013-01-01

    The classical progesterone receptors (PRs) are expressed in some hypothalamic dopaminergic and brainstem noradrenergic neurons. Progesterone influences prolactin and luteinising hormone release from the anterior pituitary gland, in part by regulating the activity of these catecholaminergic neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of PRs on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter activity. When CAD, SK-N-SH and CV-1 cells were transfected with TH promoter constructs and PR-A or PR-B expression vectors, progesterone treatment caused three- to six-fold increases in TH-9.0kb promoter activity in PR-B expressing cells, but a modest increase or no change in PR-A expressing cells. Using CAD cells, deletional analysis mapped the site of PR action to the −1403 to −1304 bp region of the TH promoter. Mutational analysis of putative regulatory sequences in this region indicated multiple DNA elements are required for complete PR-B transactivation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were unable to demonstrate direct PR-B binding to TH promoter DNA sequences. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis indicated PR-B was recruited to the TH promoter. Two different PR-B DNA binding domain mutants had opposite effects on PR-B mediated TH promoter activation. A GS to AA mutation located in the p-box of the first zinc finger of PR-B inhibited progesterone transactivation of the TH promoter, whereas a C to A mutation in the zinc finger increased transactivation. PR-A was able to inhibit PR-B transactivation in a dose-dependent manner, although the degree of PR-A inhibition was dependent on the TH promoter deletion construct. These data indicate that ligand-bound PR-B is recruited to DNA elements in the TH promoter and acts as a transcriptional activator of the TH gene and that changes in the ratio of PR-A to PR-B may affect the ability of progesterone to increase TH expression. PMID:21815951

  20. Progesterone receptor isoform analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine mammary dysplasias and tumors.

    PubMed

    Guil-Luna, S; Stenvang, J; Brünner, N; Sánchez-Céspedes, R; Millán, Y; Gómez-Laguna, J; de las Mulas, J Martín

    2014-09-01

    Cloning and sequencing of the progesterone receptor gene in dogs have revealed 2 isoforms, A and B, transcribed from a single gene. Distribution of isoforms A and B in canine mammary lesions has hitherto been investigated only by Western blot analysis. This study analyzed progesterone receptor and its isoforms in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from canine mammary lesions (4 dysplasias, 10 benign tumors, and 46 carcinomas) using 1-step SYBR Green quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Progesterone receptor was expressed in 75% of dysplasias, all benign tumors, and 59% of carcinomas. Carcinomas, and particularly simple epithelial-type carcinomas, displayed the lowest levels of expression. A high rate of agreement was recorded between RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical labeling. Isoforms A and B were successfully amplified, with correlation coefficients of 0.99 and amplification efficiencies close to 2, and were expressed in all lesion types analyzed. Predominance of A over B expression was observed in carcinomas and complex adenomas. Low-grade tumors exhibited higher progesterone receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, but no difference was observed in the expression of isoform A versus B. Analysis of progesterone receptor mRNA isoforms by RT-qPCR was successful in routinely formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples and enabled the distribution of isoforms A and B to be identified for the first time in dysplasias, benign tumors, and malignant tumors of the canine mammary gland. These findings will facilitate future research into the role of progesterone receptor isoforms in the progression of canine mammary tumors. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Differences in the progesterone receptor contents between familial breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers stratified by patient age.

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, T; Akashi-Tanaka, S

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) contents of familial breast cancers (FBCs) and compared the findings with those of sporadic breast cancers., stratified by the patients' age. To evaluate the hormone receptor contents of Japanese FBCs, we collected a consecutive series of 250 FBCs and 2,533 sporadic breast cancers (SBCs). These patients were divided into the three groups stratified by the patients' age at initial surgery (group I, under 40 years old; group II, 40-60 years old; group III, over 60 years old). The clinicopathological features of FBCs and SBCs, including ERs and PRs, were analyzed for each group. In all age groups, the PR contents of FBCs were significantly lower than those of SBCs, particularly for group III. In FBCs, the PR content was significantly lower in group III than in groups I or II. In addition, there was a nonsignificant trend towards a high frequency of ER-positive, PR-negative tumors in FBC patients aged 60 years and over. These data indicate that the loss of ER function and/or loss of binding capacity of PR to progesterone was associated with some late-onset FBCS.

  2. A Novel Role for Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1): A Partner and Regulator of Ferrochelatase.

    PubMed

    Piel, Robert B; Shiferaw, Mesafint T; Vashisht, Ajay A; Marcero, Jason R; Praissman, Jeremy L; Phillips, John D; Wohlschlegel, James A; Medlock, Amy E

    2016-09-20

    Heme is an iron-containing cofactor essential for multiple cellular processes and fundamental activities such as oxygen transport. To better understand the means by which heme synthesis is regulated during erythropoiesis, affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) was performed to identify putative protein partners interacting with ferrochelatase (FECH), the terminal enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Both progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2) were identified in these experiments. These interactions were validated by reciprocal affinity purification followed by MS analysis and immunoblotting. The interaction between PGRMC1 and FECH was confirmed in vitro and in HEK 293T cells, a non-erythroid cell line. When cells that are recognized models for erythroid differentiation were treated with a small molecule inhibitor of PGRMC1, AG-205, there was an observed decrease in the level of hemoglobinization relative to that of untreated cells. In vitro heme transfer experiments showed that purified PGRMC1 was able to donate heme to apo-cytochrome b5. In the presence of PGRMC1, in vitro measured FECH activity decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Interactions between FECH and PGRMC1 were strongest for the conformation of FECH associated with product release, suggesting that PGRMC1 may regulate FECH activity by controlling heme release. Overall, the data illustrate a role for PGRMC1 in regulating heme synthesis via interactions with FECH and suggest that PGRMC1 may be a heme chaperone or sensor.

  3. The interplay between intracellular progesterone receptor and PKC plays a key role in migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Marquina-Sánchez, Brenda; González-Jorge, Jesús; Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; Wegman-Ostrosky, Talia; Baranda-Ávila, Noemi; Mejía-Pérez, Sonia; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; González-Arenas, Aliesha

    2017-09-01

    Intracellular progesterone receptors (PRs) and protein kinases C (PKCs) are known regulators of cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Both PRs and PKCs are found overexpressed in grade IV human astrocytomas, also known as glioblastomas, which are the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. In the present study, we investigated whether PR activation by PKC induces the migration and invasion of glioblastoma derived cell lines and if PKCα and δ isoforms are involved in PR activation. We observed that PKC activation with tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) increases the migration and invasion capacity of two human glioblastoma derived human cell lines (U251 MG and U87) and that the treatment with the PR receptor antagonist RU486 blocks these processes. Interestingly, the pharmacological inhibition of the isoenzymes PKCα and PKCδ also resulted in a blocked PR transcriptional activity. Also, TPA-dependent PR activation increases the expression of progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF), a known PR target gene. These results hint to an existing cross-talk between PKCs and PRs in regulating the infiltration process of human glioblastomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The identification and distribution of progesterone receptors in the brain and thoracic ganglion in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Ye, Haihui; Huang, Huiyang; Song, Ping; Wang, Guizhong

    2010-11-01

    The existence of progesterone receptors (PR) in the Scylla paramamosain (mud crab) was studied using immunological techniques. By Western blotting, PR with an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa is identified in both the brain and the thoracic ganglion. By immunohistochemistry, PR immunoreactive neurons are detected mainly in the protocerebrum, the subesophageal ganglion and the leg ganglion. PR immunoreactivity is localized mainly in the nuclei of these neurons, while only a few neurons show such activities in their cytoplasm. Our results provide evidence that progesterone modulates the neuroendocrine system mainly via nucleus receptors.

  5. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component 1, serpine mRNA binding protein 1 and nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Slonina, Dominika; Kowalik, Magdalena K; Kotwica, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the (1) expression of progesterone membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) and progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA and (2) protein expression levels of PGRMC1, SERBP1 and PR isoforms A and B in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Uteri from cows on days 1-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-21 of the estrous cycle and weeks 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12 of pregnancy were used (n=5-6 per period). There were no changes (P>0.05) in PGRMC1 mRNA expression during the estrous cycle, while expression of SERBP1 and PR mRNA was the lowest (P<0.05) on days 11-16 relative to other days of the cycle. The highest mRNA expression of PGRMC1, SERBP1 and PR was found during pregnancy. There were no changes (P>0.05) in SERBP1 protein expression in cycling and pregnant cows, while the highest (P<0.05) PGRMC1 protein expression was found during weeks 3-5 of pregnancy. Similar protein expression profiles for PRA and PRB were found, and protein levels were highest on days 1-5 of the estrous cycle. From day 6 of the cycle, PRA and PRB protein expression decreased and were maintained at this lower level during pregnancy. In conclusion, our study assessed mRNA and protein expression levels of PGRMC1, SERBP1 and PR in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. It is possible that progesterone (P4) affects myometrial function in a genomic and nongenomic manner.

  6. Influence of domain interactions on conformational mobility of the progesterone receptor detected by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Devrishi; Callaway, Celetta; Pascal, Bruce D.; Kumar, Raj; Edwards, Dean P.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional details of the N-terminal activation function 1 (AF1) of most nuclear receptors are poorly understood due to the highly dynamic intrinsically disordered nature of this domain. A hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry based investigation of TATA box binding protein (TBP) interaction with various domains of progesterone receptor (PR) demonstrate that agonist bound PR interaction with TBP via AF1 impacts the mobility of the C-terminal AF2. Results from HDX and other biophysical studies involving agonist and antagonist bound full length PR and isolated PR domains reveals the molecular mechanism underlying synergistic transcriptional activation mediated by AF1 and AF2, dominance of PR-B isoform over PR-A, and the necessity of AF2 for full AF1-mediated transcriptional activity. These results provide a comprehensive picture elaborating the underlying mechanism of PR-TBP interactions as a model for studying NR-transcription factor functional interactions. PMID:24909783

  7. Serotonergic receptor mechanisms underlying antidepressant-like action in the progesterone withdrawal model of hormonally induced depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Raaby, Kasper F; Sánchez, Connie; Gulinello, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Hormonally induced mood disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) are characterized by a range of physical and affective symptoms including anxiety, irritability, anhedonia, social withdrawal and depression. Studies demonstrated rodent models of progesterone withdrawal (PWD) have a high level of constructive and descriptive validity to model hormonally-induced mood disorders in women. Here we evaluate the effects of several classes of antidepressants in PWD female Long-Evans rats using the forced swim test (FST) as a measure of antidepressant activity. The study included fluoxetine, duloxetine, amitriptyline and an investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine (5-HT(3), 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1D) receptor antagonist; 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist; 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist; inhibitor of the serotonin transporter (SERT)). After 14 days of administration, amitriptyline and vortioxetine significantly reduced immobility in the FST whereas fluoxetine and duloxetine were ineffective. After 3 injections over 48 h, neither fluoxetine nor duloxetine reduced immobility, whereas amitriptyline and vortioxetine significantly reduced FST immobility during PWD. When administered acutely during PWD, the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, flesinoxan, significantly reduced immobility, whereas the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, increased immobility. The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, ondansetron, significantly reduced immobility, whereas the 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, SR-57227, increased immobility. The 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, SB-269970, was inactive, although the 5-HT(7) receptor agonist, AS-19, significantly increased PWD-induced immobility. None of the compounds investigated (ondansetron, flesinoxan and SB-269970) improved the effect of fluoxetine during PWD. These data indicate that modulation of specific 5-HT receptor subtypes is critical for manipulating FST immobility in this model of hormone-induced depression.

  8. Expression and cellular distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptors and the real-time proliferation of porcine cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Kempisty, Bartosz; Ziółkowska, Agnieszka; Ciesiółka, Sylwia; Piotrowska, Hanna; Antosik, Paweł; Bukowska, Dorota; Brüssow, Klaus P; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    Although the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors within porcine ovary and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) is well recognized, still little information is known regarding expression of the progesterone receptor (PGR), PGR membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and of estrogen-related receptors (ERRγ and ERRβ/γ) in separated cumulus cells in relation to real-time proliferation. In this study, a model of oocytes-separated cumulus cells was used to analyze the cell proliferation index and the expression PGR, PGRMC1 and of ERRγ and ERRβ/γ during 96-h cultivation in vitro using real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and confocal microscopic observation. We found that PGR protein expression was increased at 0 h, compared with PGR protein expression after 96 h of culture (P < 0.001). The expression of PGRMC1, ERRγ and ERRβ/γ was unchanged. After using qRT-PCR we did not found statistical differences in expression of PGR, PGRMC1, ERRγ and ERRβ/γ during 96 h of cumulus cells in vitro culture (IVC). We supposed that the differential expression of the PGR protein at 0 h and after 96 h is related to a time-dependent down-regulation, which may activate a negative feedback. The distribution of PGR, PGRMC1 proteins may be linked with the translocation of receptors to the cytoplasm after the membrane binding of respective agonists and intra-cytoplasmic signal transduction. Furthermore, cumulus cells analyzed at 0 h were characterized by decreased proliferation index, whereas those after 96 h of culture revealed a significant increase of proliferation index, which may be associated with differentiation/luteinization of these cells during real-time proliferation.

  9. Progesterone Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of infertility . Since progesterone levels vary throughout the menstrual cycle, multiple (serial) measurements can be used for this ... be ordered a few times during a woman's menstrual cycle to evaluate the change in progesterone concentrations. When ...

  10. Inactivation of the Progesterone Receptor in Mx1+ Cells Potentiates Osteogenesis in Calvaria but Not in Long Bone

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhendong A.; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Lane, Nancy E.; Yao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The effect of progesterone on bone remains elusive. We previously reported that global progesterone receptor (PR) knockout mice displayed high bone mass phenotype, suggesting that PR influences bone growth and modeling. Recently, Mx1+ cells were characterized to be mesenchymal stem cell-like pluripotent Cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the PR in Mx1+ cells regulates osteogenesis. Using the Mx1-Cre;mT/mG reporter mouse model, we found that the calvarial cells exhibited minimal background Mx1-Cre activity prior to Cre activation by IFNα treatment as compared to the bone marrow stromal cells. IFNα treatment significantly activated Mx1-Cre in the calvarial cells. When the PR gene was deleted in the Mx1-Cre;PR-flox calvarial cells in vitro, significantly higher levels of expression of osteoblast maturation marker genes (RUNX2, Osteocalcin, and Dmp1) and osteogenic potential were detected. The PR-deficient calvariae exhibited greater bone volume, especially in the males. Although Mx1-Cre activity could be induced on the bone surface in vivo, the Mx1+ cells did not differentiate into osteocytes in long bones. Bone volumes at the distal femurs and the bone turnover marker serum Osteocalcin were similar between the Mx1-Cre;PR-flox mutant mice and the corresponding wild types in both sexes. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that blocking progesterone signaling via PRs in calvarial Mx1+ cells promoted osteoblast differentiation in the calvaria. Mx1+ was expressed by heterogeneous cells in bone marrow and did not differentiate into osteocyte during long bone development in vivo. Selectively inactivating the PR gene in Mx1+ cells affected the membrane bone formation but did not affect peripheral skeletal homeostasis. PMID:26431032

  11. Decreased progesterone receptor isoform expression in luteal phase fallopian tube epithelium and high-grade serous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tone, Alicia A; Virtanen, Carl; Shaw, Patricia A; Brown, Theodore J

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that BRCA1/2-mutated fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) collected during the luteal phase exhibits gene expression profiles more closely resembling that of high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) specimens than FTE collected during the follicular phase or from control patients. Since the luteal phase is characterised by high levels of progesterone, we determined whether the expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and PR-responsive genes was altered in FTE obtained from BRCA mutation carriers during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. RT-qPCR confirmed a decreased expression of PR mRNA in FTE during the luteal phase relative to follicular phase, in both BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and control patients. Immunohistochemistry using isoform-specific antibodies confirmed a low level of both PR-A and PR-B in HGSC and a lower level of staining in FTE samples obtained during the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase. No significant difference in PR-A or PR-B staining was found based on patient BRCA mutation status. Analysis of our previously reported gene expression profiles based upon known PR-A- and PR-B-specific target genes did not partition samples by BRCA mutation status, indicating that overall FTE PR response is not altered in BRCA mutation carriers. HGSC samples grouped separately from other samples, consistent with the observed loss of PR expression. These findings indicate no overall difference in PR signalling in FTE as a function of BRCA mutation status. Thus, the molecular similarity of BRCA1/2-mutated luteal phase FTE and HGSC likely results from an altered response to luteal phase factors other than progesterone. PMID:21263043

  12. Understanding the Inguinal Sinus in Sheep (Ovis aries)-Morphology, Secretion, and Expression of Progesterone, Estrogens, and Prolactin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Alexandre-Pires, Graça; Martins, Catarina; Galvão, António M; Miranda, Margarida; Silva, Olga; Ligeiro, Dário; Nunes, Telmo; Ferreira-Dias, Graça

    2017-07-13

    Post-parturient behavior of mammalian females is essential for early parent-offspring contact. After delivery, lambs need to ingest colostrum for obtaining the related immunological protection, and early interactions between the mother and the lamb are crucial. Despite visual and auditory cues, olfactory cues are decisive in lamb orientation to the mammary gland. In sheep, the inguinal sinus is located bilaterally near the mammary gland as a skin pouch (IGS) that presents a gland that secretes a strong-smelling wax. Sheep IGS gland functions have many aspects under evaluation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate sheep IGS gland functional aspects and mRNA transcription and the protein expression of several hormone receptors, such as progesterone receptor (PGR), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), and 2 (ESR2) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) present. In addition, another aim was to achieve information about IGS ultrastructure and chemical compounds produced in this gland. All hormone receptors evaluated show expression in IGS during the estrous cycle (follicular/luteal phases), pregnancy, and the post-partum period. IGS secretion is rich in triterpenoids that totally differ from the surrounding skin. They might be essential substances for the development of an olfactory preference of newborns to their mothers.

  13. Effects of estrogen receptor α and β gene deletion on estrogenic induction of progesterone receptors in the locus coeruleus in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Helena, Cleyde; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Korach, Kenneth; Pfaff, Donald; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2016-01-01

    Locus coeruleus (LC) is involved in the LHRH regulation by gonadal steroids. We investigated the expression of progesterone and estrogen receptors (PR; ER) in LC neurons of ERα (αERKO) or ERβ (βERKO) knockout mice, and their wild-type (αWT and βWT). Immunocytochemical studies showed that LC expresses PR and both ERs, although ERβ was more abundant. Estradiol benzoate (EB) decreased ERα-positive cells in WT and βERKO mice, and progesterone caused a further reduction, whereas none of the steroids influenced ERβ expression. ERβ deletion increased ERα while ERα deletion did not alter ERβ expression. In both WT mice, EB increased PR expression, which was diminished by progesterone. These steroid effects were also observed in αERKO animals but to a lesser extent, suggesting that ERα is partially responsible for the estrogenic induction of PR in LC. Steroid effects on PR in βERKO mice were similar to those in the αERKO but to a lesser extent, probably because PR expression was already high in the oil-treated group. This expression seems to be specific of LC neurons, since it was not observed in other areas studied, the preoptic area and ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus. These findings show that LC in mice expresses αER, βER, and PR, and that a balance between them may be critical for the physiological control of reproductive function. PMID:19551522

  14. The progesterone receptor antagonist, onapristone has differential effects on the timing and control of the luteolytic mechanism depending on timing of administration in sheep.

    PubMed

    Mann, G E; Wathes, D C; Robinson, R S

    2013-08-25

    Cyclic ewes were treated with control vehicle or progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone; 100mg i.m. twice daily) during either early (day 3-5) or late (day 12-14) luteal phase and plasma samples collected for hormone analysis and to determine endogenous and oxytocin induced PGF2α release. On day 14 and 17, ewes were euthanised and reproductive tracts collected for ovarian morphology and endometrium for oxytoxin and steroid hormone receptor analysis. Early treatment increased LH, but not progesterone or oestradiol, while late treatment elevated all three hormones. Early treatment delayed the up-regulation of endometrial oxytocin receptors and responsiveness to oxytocin challenge, delaying luteolysis. Late treatment advanced development of oxytocin receptors and responsiveness to oxytocin though not timing of luteolysis. Patterns of hormone receptor mRNA were differentially disrupted by treatments. Results provide mechanistic insight into hormonal control of the oestrous cycle and identify the ability of the luteolytic mechanism to dissociate from functional luteolysis.

  15. A functional progesterone receptor is required for immunomodulation, reduction of reactive gliosis and survival of oligodendrocyte precursors in the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Labombarda, Florencia; Jure, Ignacio; Gonzalez, Susana; Lima, Analia; Roig, Paulina; Guennoun, Rachida; Schumacher, Michael; De Nicola, Alejandro F

    2015-11-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone have been increasingly recognized in several neuropathological models, including spinal cord inflammation. In the present investigation, we explored the regulation of proinflammatory factors and enzymes by progesterone at several time points after spinal cord injury (SCI) in male rats. We also demonstrated the role of the progesterone receptor (PR) in inhibiting inflammation and reactive gliosis, and in enhancing the survival of oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPC) in injured PR knockout (PRKO) mice receiving progesterone. First, after SCI in rats, progesterone greatly attenuated the injury-induced hyperexpression of the mRNAs of interleukin 1β (IL1β), IL6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), all involved in oligodendrocyte damage. Second, the role of the PR was investigated in PRKO mice after SCI, in which progesterone failed to reduce the high expression of IL1β, IL6, TNFα and IκB-α mRNAs, the latter being considered an index of reduced NF-κB transactivation. These effects occurred in a time framework coincident with a reduction in the astrocyte and microglial responses. In contrast to wild-type mice, progesterone did not increase the density of OPC and did not prevent apoptotic death of these cells in PRKO mice. Our results support a role of PR in: (a) the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone; (b) the modulation of astrocyte and microglial responses and (c) the prevention of OPC apoptosis, a mechanism that would enhance the commitment of progenitors to the remyelination pathway in the injured spinal cord. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Progesterone and Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Meharvan; Su, Chang

    2012-01-01

    Summary Numerous studies aimed at identifying the role of estrogen on the brain have used the ovariectomized rodent as the experimental model. And while estrogen intervention in these animals have, at least partially, restored cholinergic, neurotrophin and cognitive deficits seen in the ovariectomized animal, it is worth considering that the removal of the ovaries results in the loss of not only circulating estrogen but of circulating progesterone as well. As such, the various deficits associated with ovariectomy may be attributed to the loss of progesterone as well. Similarly, one must also consider the fact that the human menopause results in the precipitous decline of not just circulating estrogens, but in circulating progesterone as well and as such, the increased risk for diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease during the postmenopausal period could also be contributed by this loss of progesterone. In fact, progesterone has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects, both in cell models, animal models and in humans. Here, we review the evidence that supports the neuroprotective effects of progesterone and discuss the various mechanisms that are thought to mediate these protective effects. We also discuss the receptor pharmacology of progesterone’s neuroprotective effects and present a conceptual model of progesterone action that supports the complementary effects of membrane-associated and classical intracellular progesterone receptors. In addition, we discuss fundamental differences in the neurobiology of progesterone and the clinically used, synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate that may offer an explanation for the negative findings of the combined estrogen/progestin arm of the Women’s Health Initiative-Memory Study (WHIMS) and suggest that the type of progestin used may dictate the outcome of either pre-clinical or clinical studies that addresses brain function. PMID:22732134

  17. Effect of antiprogestin ZK 98. 734 on the ovarian cycle, early pregnancy, and on its binding to progesterone receptors in the myometrium of marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, C.P.; Kholkute, S.D.; Pongubala, J.M.; Patil, R.K.; Elger, W.A.; Jayaraman, S.

    1988-04-01

    The antiprogestin ZK 98.734 (11 beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl-17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-(3-hydroxy-prop-1(Z)-enyl-4,9(10)-estradien-3-one) was administered i.m. (5 mg/day) for three consecutive days to two groups of common marmosets. In one group (nonpregnant, n = 6), it was injected during the luteal phase, and to the second group (pregnant, n = 7), it was injected during early pregnancy, on Days 24-26 of the mid-cycle estradiol peak. Administration of ZK 98.734 during the luteal phase caused a sharp drop in plasma progesterone levels. The luteal phase was shortened whether the drug was administered during the early or the late luteal phase. Similarly, administration of ZK 98.734 during early pregnancy caused a significant drop in progesterone levels, and pregnancy was terminated in all of the animals. The post-treatment cycles in both groups of animals were ovulatory and of normal duration. /sup 3/H-ZK 98.734 showed specific binding to myometrial cytosol fraction. ZK 98.734 also displaced the binding of /sup 3/H-progesterone to progesterone receptors. However, progesterone had higher binding affinity than did ZK 98.734. The antifertility action of ZK 98.734 could be a result either of its luteolytic action or of its blocking the progesterone receptors in the target tissue. This study, therefore, indicates that in the common marmoset ZK 98.734 is a progesterone antagonist with a potential to terminate early pregnancy.

  18. Induction of progesterone receptor A form attenuates the induction of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha expression by cortisol in human amnion fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunming; Ni, Xiaotian; Zhu, Ping; Li, Wenjiao; Zhu, Xiaoou; Sun, Kang

    2010-05-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA(2alpha), now known as PLA2G4A) is the enzyme catalyzing the formation of the rate-limiting substrate, arachidonic acid, for prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The increasing expression of PLA2G4A toward term gestation in human amnion fibroblasts is believed to be the crucial event in parturition. Human amnion fibroblasts produce cortisol, progesterone and express glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor A (PGRA) form at term. The roles of progesterone and PGRA in the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol via GR in the amnion fibroblasts remain largely unknown. Using cultured human term amnion fibroblasts, we found that cortisol induced the expression of PGRA, which was attenuated by inhibiting PG synthesis with indomethacin. Knockdown of PGRA expression or inhibition of endogenous progesterone production with trilostane significantly enhanced the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol, whereas overexpression of PGRA attenuated the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Although exogenous progesterone did not alter PLA2G4A expression under basal conditions, it attenuated cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression at concentrations about tenfold higher, which might be achieved by competition with cortisol for GR. In conclusion, PGRA in the presence of endogenous progesterone is a transdominant repressor of the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. High level of progesterone may compete with cortisol for GR, thus further inhibiting the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Moreover, increased PG synthesis by cortisol may feed back on the expression of PGRA leading to attenuation of cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression. The above findings may be pertinent to the inconsistent effects of glucocorticoids on parturition in humans.

  19. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) gene expression in corpus luteum during the estrous cycle in cows.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Kotwica, Jan

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) mRNA expression in bovine corpus luteum (CL) obtained from heifers or non-pregnant cows on the following days of the estrous cycle: 1-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-21 (n=4/each time period). The expression of PGRMC1 mRNA, analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, was the highest on days 6-10 (p<0.01) and then it declined (p<0.05). The lowest expression was found on days 1-5 (p<0.05). A significant correlation (p<0.05) was also observed between luteal progesterone (P(4)) concentration and PGRMC1 mRNA expression. These data indicate that PGRMC1 mRNA is expressed in bovine CL and this expression varies throughout the luteal phase. It is assumed that PGRMC1 may be involved in a non-genomic effect of P(4) on luteal cells.

  20. Evaluation of fetal and maternal genetic variation in the progesterone receptor gene for contributions to preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Nicole L; Cooper, Margaret E; Orr, Kristin; Shi, Min; Johnson, Marla K; Caprau, Diana; Dagle, John; Steffen, Katherine; Johnson, Karen; Marazita, Mary L; Merrill, David; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2007-11-01

    Progesterone plays a critical role in the maintenance of pregnancy and has been effectively used to prevent recurrences of preterm labor. We investigated the role of genetic variation in the progesterone receptor (PGR) gene in modulating risks for preterm labor by examining both maternal and fetal effects. Cases were infants delivered prematurely at the University of Iowa. DNA was collected from the mother, infant, and father. Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and an insertion deletion variant in PGR were studied in 415 families. Results were then analyzed using transmission disequilibrium tests and log-linear-model-based analysis. DNA sequencing of the PGR gene was also carried out in 92 mothers of preterm infants. We identified significant associations between SNP in the PGR for both mother and preterm infant. No etiologic sequence variants were found in the coding sequence of the PGR gene. This study suggests that genetic variation in the PGR gene of either the mother or the fetus may trigger preterm labor.

  1. Ovarian steroid hormones modulate the expression of progesterone receptors and histone acetylation patterns in uterine leiomyoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Gabriela Dos Santos; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Branchini, Gisele; Pizzolato, Lolita Schneider; Capp, Edison; Corleta, Helena von Eye

    2017-03-16

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumors in women. Estrogen (E2), progesterone (P4) and environmental factors play important roles in the development of these tumors. New treatments, such as mifepristone, have been proposed. We evaluated the gene expression of total (PRT) and B (PRB) progesterone receptors, and the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase (HDAC) activity after treatment with E2, P4 and mifepristone (RU486) in primary cell cultures from uterine leiomyoma and normal myometrium. Compared to myometrium, uterine leiomyoma cells showed an increase in PRT mRNA expression when treated with E2, and increase in PRB mRNA expression when treated with E2 and P4. Treatment with mifepristone had no significant impact on mRNA expression in these cells. The HDAC activity was higher in uterine leiomyoma compared to myometrial cells after treatment with E2 and E2 + P4 + mifepristone. HAT activity was barely detectable. Our results suggest that ovarian steroid hormones modulate PR, and mifepristone was unable to decrease PRT and PRB mRNA. The higher activity of HDAC leiomyoma cells could be involved in transcriptional repression of genes implicated in normal myometrium cell function, contributing to the maintenance and growth of uterine leiomyoma.

  2. Oestrogen increases S-phase fraction and oestrogen and progesterone receptors in human cervical cancer in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, D.; Redkar, A.; Mittra, I.; Sutaria, U.; MacRae, K. D.

    1997-01-01

    Although cancer of the cervix is traditionally considered not to be responsive to steroid hormones, an in vitro study has reported that the addition of oestrogen increased cellular proliferation in a cervix cancer cell line that was inhibited by progesterone. We investigated whether the reported in vitro effects of oestrogen and progesterone on cellular proliferation can be replicated in locally advanced cervical cancer in vivo and whether these effects, if any, are related to oestrogen and progesterone receptor (ER and PgR) content of the tumour. One hundred post-menopausal patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were systematically allocated by rotation to the four treatment groups: (1) control group receiving no treatment; (2) ethinyl oestradiol 50 micrograms: (3) norethisterone 5 mg: (4) a combination of ethinyl oestradiol and norethisterone. Hormone treatment (five doses) was given orally every 12 h. Tissue biopsies were taken before and 12 h after the last hormone treatment. S-phase fraction (SpF) was measured by flow cytometry, and ER and PgR were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Results were analysed using two-factor analysis of variance, the factors being oestrogen-absent or present- and progesterone-absent or present. The main effects of oestrogen were increases in SpF, ER and PgR, which were statistically significant (P = 0.0056, 0.0009 and 0.01 respectively), indicating that there is much greater change in these three parameters in the presence of oestrogen (mean changes 7.808%, 6.258 fmol mg-1 and 12.716 fmol mg-1 for SpF, ER and PgR respectively) than in its absence (mean change -1.986%,-3.041 fmol mg-1 and 1.736 fmol mg-1 respectively). The progestogen main effect and the oestrogen-progestogen interaction were not significant. The rise in SpF, ER and PgR in the presence of oestrogen had a correlation coefficient with the initial ER values of -0.0565, -0.2863 and -0.1230 respectively, none being statistically significant, suggesting that the

  3. Changes in uterine estrogen and progesterone receptors during delayed implantation and early implantation in the spotted skunk.

    PubMed

    Mead, R A; Eroschenko, V P

    1995-10-01

    Although the exact cause(s) of embryonic diapause in the western spotted skunk and other carnivores remains unknown, it has been hypothesized that it may be due to levels of ovarian hormone secretion that are insufficient to promote a uterine environment conducive to continuous embryonic development and implantation. Immunocytochemistry was used to determine whether changes in abundance or distribution of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) may be associated with the cessation or renewal of embryonic development. Thirty pregnant skunks were killed during delayed implantation and periimplantation periods. ER and PR were detected in luminal and glandular epithelium, endometrial stroma, vasculature, and myometrium of the uterus during the period of delayed implantation. There was a significant reduction of both ER and PR receptors during the periimplantation period. The most pronounced change was the complete loss or reduction in staining intensity for PR and ER in the luminal epithelium during the first 2-3 days after implantation. These findings suggest that the failure of skunk blastocysts to undergo continuous development and implant without a prolonged period of diapause is not the result of an insufficient number of ER or PR in the uterus. The data also indicate that renewed embryonic development and implantation is not associated with an increase in these uterine steroid receptors.

  4. The Cochaperone SGTA (Small Glutamine-rich Tetratricopeptide Repeat-containing Protein Alpha) Demonstrates Regulatory Specificity for the Androgen, Glucocorticoid, and Progesterone Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Atanu; Garcia, Yenni A.; Zierer, Bettina; Patwardhan, Chaitanya; Gutierrez, Omar; Hildenbrand, Zacariah; Harris, Diondra C.; Balsiger, Heather A.; Sivils, Jeffrey C.; Johnson, Jill L.; Buchner, Johannes; Chadli, Ahmed; Cox, Marc B.

    2014-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors that require the ordered assembly of multichaperone complexes for transcriptional activity. Although heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 and Hsp70 are key players in this process, multiple Hsp70- and Hsp90-associated cochaperones associate with receptor-chaperone complexes to regulate receptor folding and activation. Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA) was recently characterized as an Hsp70 and Hsp90-associated cochaperone that specifically regulates androgen receptor activity. However, the specificity of SGTA for additional members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily and the mechanism by which SGTA regulates receptor activity remain unclear. Here we report that SGTA associates with and specifically regulates the androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptors and has no effect on the mineralocorticoid and estrogen receptors in both yeast and mammalian cell-based reporter assays. In both systems, SGTA knockdown/deletion enhances receptor activity, whereas SGTA overexpression suppresses receptor activity. We demonstrate that SGTA binds directly to Hsp70 and Hsp90 in vitro with similar affinities yet predominately precipitates with Hsp70 from cell lysates, suggesting a role for SGTA in early, Hsp70-mediated folding. Furthermore, SGTA expression completely abrogates the regulation of receptor function by FKBP52 (52-kDa FK506-binding protein), which acts at a later stage of the chaperone cycle. Taken together, our data suggest a role for SGTA at distinct steps in the chaperone-dependent modulation of androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptor activity. PMID:24753260

  5. The cochaperone SGTA (small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha) demonstrates regulatory specificity for the androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptors.

    PubMed

    Paul, Atanu; Garcia, Yenni A; Zierer, Bettina; Patwardhan, Chaitanya; Gutierrez, Omar; Hildenbrand, Zacariah; Harris, Diondra C; Balsiger, Heather A; Sivils, Jeffrey C; Johnson, Jill L; Buchner, Johannes; Chadli, Ahmed; Cox, Marc B

    2014-05-30

    Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors that require the ordered assembly of multichaperone complexes for transcriptional activity. Although heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 and Hsp70 are key players in this process, multiple Hsp70- and Hsp90-associated cochaperones associate with receptor-chaperone complexes to regulate receptor folding and activation. Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA) was recently characterized as an Hsp70 and Hsp90-associated cochaperone that specifically regulates androgen receptor activity. However, the specificity of SGTA for additional members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily and the mechanism by which SGTA regulates receptor activity remain unclear. Here we report that SGTA associates with and specifically regulates the androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptors and has no effect on the mineralocorticoid and estrogen receptors in both yeast and mammalian cell-based reporter assays. In both systems, SGTA knockdown/deletion enhances receptor activity, whereas SGTA overexpression suppresses receptor activity. We demonstrate that SGTA binds directly to Hsp70 and Hsp90 in vitro with similar affinities yet predominately precipitates with Hsp70 from cell lysates, suggesting a role for SGTA in early, Hsp70-mediated folding. Furthermore, SGTA expression completely abrogates the regulation of receptor function by FKBP52 (52-kDa FK506-binding protein), which acts at a later stage of the chaperone cycle. Taken together, our data suggest a role for SGTA at distinct steps in the chaperone-dependent modulation of androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptor activity.

  6. Progesterone reverts LPS-reduced FAAH activity in murine peripheral blood mononuclear cells by a receptor-mediated fashion.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Manuel L; Aisemberg, Julieta; Salazar, Ana I; Domínguez Rubio, Ana P; Vercelli, Claudia A; Franchi, Ana M

    2013-12-05

    Increased anandamide concentrations are associated with pregnancy failure. Anandamide levels are regulated by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The aim of the study was to investigate the role of progesterone (P) on FAAH modulation in murine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) under septic conditions. We observed that in vivo administration of LPS to non-pregnant (NP) mice decreased FAAH activity of PBMC while in pregnant mice no changes in FAAH activity were observed. NP animals administered with P had a similar response to LPS as the pregnant animals. Also, NP mice injected with P antagonist and P showed that the effect of P on LPS-reduced FAAH activity was impaired. Furthermore, LPS produced a decrease in the ratio of PR-B/PR-A in NP animals. Our results showed that, in our model the endotoxin decreased PBMC's FAAH activity and this condition was reverted by P in a receptor-mediated fashion.

  7. Concordance between core needle biopsy and surgical specimen for oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asogan, Aravind Barathi; Hong, Ga Sze; Prabhakaran, Subash Kumar Arni

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to analyse the concordance rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value of core needle biopsy (CNB) and subsequent surgical specimen (SS) in assessing levels of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu). It also evaluated the revised American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) guidelines for ER/PgR positivity. METHODS We analysed the breast cancer database of KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, from 1 June 2005 to 30 December 2012. Invasive breast cancer patients who had CNB and subsequent SS were included. RESULTS A total of 560 patients were included. The concordance of ER, PgR and HER2/neu positivity between CNB and SS was 96.1%, 89.1% and 96.8%, respectively. When the ‘ER ≥ 10% positive’ group was compared with the ‘ER ≥ 1% positive’ group, specificity increased from 79.7% to 92.5% and PPV increased from 93.9% to 97.5%. When the ‘PgR ≥ 10% positive’ group was compared with the ‘PgR ≥ 1% positive’ group, specificity increased from 84.2% to 89.3% and PPV improved from 89.7% to 92.9%. The revised ASCO/CAP guidelines decreased discordant results by > 50% for ER and by 18.2% for PgR. CONCLUSION CNB has high concordance with SS in the evaluation of the molecular profile of invasive breast cancer. Thus, molecular evaluation does not need to be repeated with SS except for ER-, PgR- and HER2/neu-negative CNB results. The revised ASCO/CAP guidelines resulted in more precise ER and PgR status on CNB. PMID:27029805

  8. Chronic exposure to bisphenol a impairs progesterone receptor-mediated signaling in the uterus during early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major threat to female reproductive health. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental toxicant that is commonly found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention due to its estrogenic activity and high risk of chronic exposure in human. Whereas BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In a recent publication in Endocrinology, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA disrupts progesterone receptor-regulated uterine functions, thus affecting uterine receptivity for embryo implantation and decidua morphogenesis, two critical events for establishment and maintenance of early pregnancy. In particular we reported a marked impairment of progesterone receptor (PGR) expression and its downstream effector HAND2 in the uterine stromal cells in response to chronic BPA exposure. In an earlier study we have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) expression and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, thus inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly we observed that downregulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with an enhanced activation of FGFR and MAPK signaling, aberrant proliferation, and lack of uterine receptivity in the epithelium. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the maintenance of early pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. This research highlight will provide an overview of our findings and discuss the potential mechanisms by which chronic BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:28239613

  9. Association of the Alu insertion polymorphism in the progesterone receptor gene with breast cancer in a Mexican population

    PubMed Central

    Figuera, Luis E.; Flores-Ramos, Liliana Gómez; Puebla-Pérez, Ana María; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo Moisés

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The progesterone receptor (PR) gene plays an important role in reproduction-related events. Data on polymorphisms in the PR gene have revealed associations with cancer, particularly for the Alu insertion polymorphism, which has been suggested to affect progesterone receptor function and contribute to tumor promotion in the mammary gland. Material and methods We examined the role of the Alu insertion polymorphism in the PR gene by comparing the genotypes of 209 healthy Mexican women with those of 481 Mexican women with breast cancer (BC). Results The genotype frequencies observed in the controls and BC patients were 0% and 4% for T2/T2 (Alu insertion), 16% and 21% for T1/T2, and 84% and 75% for T1/T1 (Alu deletion), respectively. The obtained odds ratio (OR) was 1.7, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.1–2.6, p = 0.009, for the T1/T2–T2/T2 genotypes. The association was also evident when the distributions of the T1/T2–T2/T2 genotypes in patients in the following categories were compared: obesity grade II (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.03–3.18, p = 0.039) and the chemotherapy response (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.27–3.067, p = 0.002). Conclusions The T1/T2–T2/T2 genotypes of the Alu insertion polymorphism in the PR gene are associated with BC susceptibility in the analyzed Mexican population. PMID:26170848

  10. Tumor morphology and immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53, and Ki67 in urogenital carcinomas of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Colegrove, K M; Gulland, F M D; Naydan, D K; Lowenstine, L J

    2009-07-01

    Metastatic carcinoma of urogenital origin is a common cause of mortality in free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). The etiology of this cancer is likely multifactorial, with viral infection, genetic factors, and exposure to environmental organochlorine contaminants possible contributing factors. In this study, expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, and Ki67 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 12 sea lions with metastatic carcinoma, genital epithelial dysplasia, and intraepithelial neoplasia; 4 with genital epithelial dysplasia and intraepithelial neoplasia without metastases; and 6 control animals. Dysplastic and neoplastic lesions were identified in multiple areas of the cervix, vagina, penis, prepuce, and urethra in affected animals, suggesting multicentric development. Lesions were graded according to degree of epithelial dysplasia and infiltration and lesions of different grades were evaluated separately. Estrogen receptor expression was lower in intraepithelial lesions compared with normal genital epithelium, and expression in metastatic lesions was completely absent. There was progesterone receptor expression in neoplastic cells in intraepithelial lesions of all grades and in metastases, with no significant difference between lesion grades or between control and affected epithelium. Ki67 index and p53 expression increased with lesion grade and were higher in lesions than normal epithelium. Metastatic tumors exhibited highly variable morphology; however, proliferation index, ER alpha, PR, and p53 expression were similar in tumors with different patterns of growth. These results suggest that endogenous hormones, environmental contaminants that interact with steroid hormone receptors, and alterations in p53 may play a role in urogenital carcinogenesis in California sea lions.

  11. Leisure-time physical activity and breast cancer risk defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status--the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Reiko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the association between leisure-time physical activity and breast cancer risk in consideration of tumor estrogen-receptor/progesterone-receptor status. We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study among 53,578 women in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Leisure-time physical activity was assessed by self-reported questionnaires. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to derive relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. From 1990-1993 to the end of 2007, 652 cases were identified. The breast cancer rates (per 100,000 person-years) in the sedentary groups (≤3 days/month) was 84 in overall, 97 in premenopausal and 75 in postmenopausal women. We observed a statistically significant inverse association between leisure-time physical activity and breast cancer risk (relative risk(≥3 days/week vs. ≤3 days/month)=0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.54-1.00; p(trend) 0.037), particularly in estrogen receptor+progesterone receptor+ (relative risk 0.43; 0.19-1.00; p(trend) 0.022), and this inverse trend was apparent among postmenopausal women (relative risk 0.25; 0.06-1.06; p(trend) 0.041). An inverse trend was also observed between daily total physical activity and postmenopausal estrogen receptor+progesterone receptor+ risk (p=0.046). Among body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) group, leisure-time physical activity was associated with decreased risk (relative risk(≥1 day/week vs. ≤3 days/month)=0.65; 0.43-0.97; p(trend) 0.033). Active participation in leisure-time physical activity may contribute to a decrease in breast cancer risk, particularly for postmenopausal estrogen receptor+progesterone receptor+ tumors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tip30 Deletion in MMTV-Neu Mice Leads to Enhanced EGFR Signaling and Development of Estrogen Receptor-Positive and Progesterone Receptor-Negative Mammary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengliang; Mori, Mikito; Gao, Shenglan; Li, Aimin; Hoshino, Isamu; Aupperlee, Mark D.; Haslam, Sandra Z.; Xiao, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-negative (ER+/PR−) breast cancers account for 15–25% of all human breast cancers and display more aggressive malignant characteristics compared to ER+/PR+ cancers. However, the molecular mechanism underlying development of ER+/PR− breast cancers still remains elusive. We show here that Tip30 deletion dramatically accelerated the onset of mammary tumors in the MMTV-Neu mouse model of breast cancer. The mammary tumors arising in Tip30−/−/MMTV-Neu mice were exclusively ER+/PR−. The growth of these ER+/PR− tumors depends not only on estrogen but also on progesterone despite the absence of detectable PR. Tip30 is predominantly expressed in ER+ mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and its deletion leads to an increase in the number of phospho-ERα (p-ERα) positive cells in mammary glands and accelerated activation of Akt in MMTV-Neu mice. Moreover, we found that Tip30 regulates the EGFR pathway through controlling endocytic downregulation of EGFR protein level and signaling. Together, these findings suggest a novel mechanism in which loss of Tip30 cooperates with Neu activation to enhance the activation of Akt signaling, leading to the development of ER+/PR− mammary tumors. PMID:21159643

  13. Sexual Dimorphism in the Regulation of Estrogen, Progesterone, and Androgen Receptors by Sex Steroids in the Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Zarazúa, Abraham; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Ramírez-Vélez, Gabriela; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos-Lara, María G

    2016-01-01

    The role of sex hormones in lung is known. The three main sex steroid receptors, estrogen, progesterone, and androgen, have not been sufficiently studied in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), and the sex hormone regulation on these receptors is unknown. We examined the presence and regulation of sex hormone receptors in female and male rat ASMC by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Gonadectomized rats were treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, 17β-estradiol + progesterone, or testosterone. ASMC were enzymatically isolated from tracheas and bronchi. The experiments were performed with double staining flow cytometry (anti-α-actin smooth muscle and antibodies to each hormone receptor). ERα, ERβ, tPR, and AR were detected in females or males. ERα was upregulated by E2 and T and downregulated by P4 in females; in males, ERα was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T. ERβ was downregulated by each treatment in females, and only by E + P and T in males. tPR was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T in females. No hormonal regulation was observed in male receptors. AR was downregulated in males treated with E + P and T. We have shown the occurrence of sex hormone receptors in ASMC and their regulation by the sex hormones in female and male rats.

  14. Sexual Dimorphism in the Regulation of Estrogen, Progesterone, and Androgen Receptors by Sex Steroids in the Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zarazúa, Abraham; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Ramírez-Vélez, Gabriela; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos-Lara, María G.

    2016-01-01

    The role of sex hormones in lung is known. The three main sex steroid receptors, estrogen, progesterone, and androgen, have not been sufficiently studied in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), and the sex hormone regulation on these receptors is unknown. We examined the presence and regulation of sex hormone receptors in female and male rat ASMC by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Gonadectomized rats were treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, 17β-estradiol + progesterone, or testosterone. ASMC were enzymatically isolated from tracheas and bronchi. The experiments were performed with double staining flow cytometry (anti-α-actin smooth muscle and antibodies to each hormone receptor). ERα, ERβ, tPR, and AR were detected in females or males. ERα was upregulated by E2 and T and downregulated by P4 in females; in males, ERα was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T. ERβ was downregulated by each treatment in females, and only by E + P and T in males. tPR was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T in females. No hormonal regulation was observed in male receptors. AR was downregulated in males treated with E + P and T. We have shown the occurrence of sex hormone receptors in ASMC and their regulation by the sex hormones in female and male rats. PMID:27110242

  15. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 promotes survival of human breast cancer cells and the growth of xenograft tumors

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Nicole C.; Friel, Anne M.; Pru, Cindy A.; Zhang, Ling; Shioda, Toshi; Rueda, Bo R.; Peluso, John J.; Pru, James K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly aggressive and grow in response to sex steroid hormones despite lacking expression of the classical estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) receptors. Since P4 receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is expressed in breast cancer tumors and is known to mediate P4-induced cell survival, this study was designed to determine the expression of PGRMC1 in TNBC tumors and the involvement of PGRMC1 in regulating proliferation and survival of TNBC cells in vitro and the growth of TNBC tumors in vivo. For the latter studies, the MDA-MB-231 (MDA) cell line derived from TNBC was used. These cells express PGRMC1 but lack expression of the classical P4 receptor. A lentiviral-based shRNA approach was used to generate a stably transfected PGRMC1-deplete MDA line for comparison to the PGRMC1-intact MDA line. The present studies demonstrate that PGRMC1: 1) is expressed in TNBC cells; 2) mediates the ability of P4 to suppress TNBC cell mitosis in vitro; 3) is required for P4 to reduce the apoptotic effects of doxorubicin in vitro; and 4) facilitates TNBC tumor formation and growth in vivo. Taken together, these findings indicate that PGRMC1 plays an important role in regulating the growth and survival of TNBC cells in vitro and ultimately in the formation and development of these tumors in vivo. Thus, PGRMC1 may be a therapeutic target for TNBCs. PMID:26785864

  16. Regulation of the Structurally Dynamic N-terminal Domain of Progesterone Receptor by Protein-induced Folding*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Moure, Carmen M.; Khan, Shagufta H.; Callaway, Celetta; Grimm, Sandra L.; Goswami, Devrishi; Griffin, Patrick R.; Edwards, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    The N-terminal domain (NTD) of steroid receptors harbors a transcriptional activation function (AF1) that is composed of an intrinsically disordered polypeptide. We examined the interaction of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) with the NTD of the progesterone receptor (PR) and its ability to regulate AF1 activity through coupled folding and binding. As assessed by solution phase biophysical methods, the isolated NTD of PR contains a large content of random coil, and it is capable of adopting secondary α-helical structure and more stable tertiary folding either in the presence of the natural osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide or through a direct interaction with TBP. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry confirmed the highly dynamic intrinsically disordered property of the NTD within the context of full-length PR. Deletion mapping and point mutagenesis defined a region of the NTD (amino acids 350–428) required for structural folding in response to TBP interaction. Overexpression of TBP in cells enhanced transcriptional activity mediated by the PR NTD, and deletion mutations showed that a region (amino acids 327–428), similar to that required for TBP-induced folding, was required for functional response. TBP also increased steroid receptor co-activator 1 (SRC-1) interaction with the PR NTD and cooperated with SRC-1 to stimulate NTD-dependent transcriptional activity. These data suggest that TBP can mediate structural reorganization of the NTD to facilitate the binding of co-activators required for maximal transcriptional activation. PMID:23995840

  17. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 promotes survival of human breast cancer cells and the growth of xenograft tumors.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nicole C; Friel, Anne M; Pru, Cindy A; Zhang, Ling; Shioda, Toshi; Rueda, Bo R; Peluso, John J; Pru, James K

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly aggressive and grow in response to sex steroid hormones despite lacking expression of the classical estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) receptors. Since P4 receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is expressed in breast cancer tumors and is known to mediate P4-induced cell survival, this study was designed to determine the expression of PGRMC1 in TNBC tumors and the involvement of PGRMC1 in regulating proliferation and survival of TNBC cells in vitro and the growth of TNBC tumors in vivo. For the latter studies, the MDA-MB-231 (MDA) cell line derived from TNBC was used. These cells express PGRMC1 but lack expression of the classical P4 receptor. A lentiviral-based shRNA approach was used to generate a stably transfected PGRMC1-deplete MDA line for comparison to the PGRMC1-intact MDA line. The present studies demonstrate that PGRMC1: 1) is expressed in TNBC cells; 2) mediates the ability of P4 to suppress TNBC cell mitosis in vitro; 3) is required for P4 to reduce the apoptotic effects of doxorubicin in vitro; and 4) facilitates TNBC tumor formation and growth in vivo. Taken together, these findings indicate that PGRMC1 plays an important role in regulating the growth and survival of TNBC cells in vitro and ultimately in the formation and development of these tumors in vivo. Thus, PGRMC1 may be a therapeutic target for TNBCs.

  18. Expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Ki67 in normal breast tissue in relation to subsequent risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hannah; Eliassen, A Heather; Wang, Molin; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Beck, Andrew H; Schnitt, Stuart J; Collins, Laura C; Connolly, James L; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Polyak, Kornelia; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-01-01

    Although expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and cell proliferation marker Ki67 serve as predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancers, little is known about their roles in normal breast tissue. Here in a nested case–control study within the Nurses’ Health Studies (90 cases, 297 controls), we evaluated their expression levels in normal breast epithelium in relation to subsequent breast cancer risk among women with benign breast disease. Tissue microarrays were constructed using cores obtained from benign biopsies containing normal terminal duct lobular units and immunohistochemical stained for these markers. We found PR and Ki67 expression was non-significantly but positively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk, whereas ER expression was non-significantly inversely associated. After stratifying by lesion subtype, Ki67 was significantly associated with higher risk among women with proliferative lesions with atypical hyperplasia. However, given the small sample size, further studies are required to confirm these results. PMID:28111631

  19. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Estrogen, Androgen, and Progesterone Nuclear Receptors from a Freshwater Turtle (Pseudemys nelsoni)

    PubMed Central

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Ichikawa, Rie; Ikeuchi, Toshitaka; Kohno, Satomi; Guillette, Louis J.; Iguchi, Taisen

    2008-01-01

    Steroid hormones are essential for the normal function of many organ systems in vertebrates. Reproductive activity in females and males, such as the differentiation, growth, and maintenance of the reproductive system, requires signaling by the sex steroids. Although extensively studied in mammals and a few fish, amphibians, and bird species, the molecular mechanisms of sex steroid hormone (estrogens, androgens, and progestins) action are poorly understood in reptiles. Here we evaluate hormone receptor ligand interactions in a freshwater turtle, the red-belly slider (Pseudemys nelsoni), after the isolation of cDNAs encoding an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), an androgen receptor (AR), and a progesterone receptor (PR). The full-length red-belly slider turtle (t)ERα, tAR, and tPR cDNAs were obtained using 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification cDNA ends. The deduced amino acid sequences showed high identity to the chicken orthologs (tERα, 90%; tAR, 71%; tPR, 71%). Using transient transfection assays of mammalian cells, tERα protein displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription from an estrogen-responsive element-containing promoter. The other receptor proteins, tAR and tPR, also displayed androgen- or progestin-dependent activation of transcription from androgen- and progestin-responsive murine mammary tumor virus promoters. We further examined the transactivation of tERα, tAR and tPR by ligands using a modified GAL4-transactivation system. We found that the GAL4-transactivation system was not suitable for the measurement of tAR and tPR transactivations. This is the first report of the full coding regions of a reptilian AR and PR and the examination of their transactivation by steroid hormones. PMID:17916628

  20. Breast Cancer Outcomes as Defined by the Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, and Human Growth Factor Receptor-2 in a Multi-ethnic Asian Country.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, S; Bhoo-Pathy, N; Taib, N A; Tan, G H; See, M H; Jamaris, S; Ho, G F; Looi, L M; Yip, C H

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer can be divided into four subtypes based on the expressions of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2). Each subtype has different clinicopathological features and outcomes. To compare the clinicopathological features and survival of ER and/or PR positive HER2 negative (ER+PR+HER2-, ER+PR-HER2- or ER-PR+HER2-), ER and/or PR positive HER2 positive (ER+PR+HER2+, ER+PR-HER2+ or ER-PR+HER2+), ER negative PR negative HER2 positive (ER-PR-HER2+), and ER negative PR negative HER2 negative (ER-PR-HER2-) subtypes. 1957 patients with Stage 1-3 breast carcinoma diagnosed between Jan 2005 and Dec 2011 were categorized into the four subtypes. The clinicopathological features between the subtypes were compared using χ (2) test. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate 5-year overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression was used to determine the association between subtypes and mortality adjusted for age, ethnicity, stage, pathological features, and treatment. ER-PR-HER2+ and ER-PR-HER2- subtypes were associated with younger age, larger tumors, and higher grade. There was no difference in the 5-year survival of the ER-PR-HER2+ and ER-PR-HER2- subtypes (75.1 and 74.4 %, respectively) and survival was poorer than in the ER and/or PR positive HER2 negative and ER and/or PR positive HER2 positive subtypes (87.1 and 83.1 %, respectively). Only 9.5 % of women with HER2 positive breast cancer had access to trastuzumab. In a low resource setting with limited access to trastuzumab, there is no difference in survival between the ER-PR-HER2+ and ER-PR-HER2- subtypes of breast cancer.

  1. delta 9-(16 alpha-/sup 125/I)iodo-19-nortestosterone: a gamma-emitting photoaffinity label for the progesterone receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, D.J.; Bullock, D.W.; Hoyte, R.M.; Hochberg, R.B.

    1988-05-01

    We have synthesized 16 alpha-iodo-4,9-estradien-17 beta-ol-3-one (delta 9-16 alpha-iodo-19-nortestosterone (delta 9-INT)) labeled with 125I (delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT) to provide a new gamma-emitting photoaffinity ligand for the progesterone receptor that has many advantages over the currently available (3H)R5020. We have characterized the interaction of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT with the rabbit uterine progesterone receptor and have demonstrated the usefulness of this compound for studies of receptor structure. The binding of 2 nM (3H)progesterone to receptor in rabbit uterine cytosol was specifically competed for by 19-nortestosterone, 16 alpha-iodo-19-nortestosterone, and delta 9-INT. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT and (3H)progesterone estimated the same number of binding sites in rabbit uterine cytosol, with a Kd for delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT of about 2.7 nM. The binding of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT was inhibited by both progesterone and R5020, whereas testosterone, estradiol, and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone were ineffective. In cytosol, delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT covalently labeled the same mol wt receptor forms as (3H)R5020. Although the efficiency of cross-linking was similar for (3H)R5020 (3%) and delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT (4%), the radioactivity was 10-fold greater due to the higher specific activity of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT and the lack of sample quench. The use of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT greatly increases the sensitivity and efficiency of the photoaffinity labeling technique; it will provide a valuable tool for further studies of the progesterone receptor, allowing the detection of receptor in dilute cytosol after gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions.

  2. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ligands affect progesterone and 17β-estradiol secretion by porcine corpus luteum during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kurzynska, A; Bogacki, M; Chojnowska, K; Bogacka, I

    2014-10-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands on progesterone (P4) and 17β-estradiol (E2) secretion and 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3β-HSD) mRNA abundance in porcine corpora lutea (CL) collected on days 10-12 and 14-16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. The PPAR agonists reduced P4 secretion by the CL during pregnancy whereas they were ineffective during the estrous cycle. An inhibitory effect of WY-14643 (PPARα agonist) on P4 release was noted on days 14-16 of pregnancy. The treatment of the CL with L-165,045 (PPARβ agonist) diminished P4 release by the tissue during both stages of pregnancy. A natural PPARγ agonist, PGJ2, reduced P4 release on days 14-16 or days 10-12 of pregnancy, respectively. Rosiglitazone (PPARγ agonist) inhibited P4 secretion by the CL on days 10-12 of pregnancy. In turn, PPARα ligands effect on E2 release was differential. While PPARγ activator diminished E2 secretion by the CL explants during all tested stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, PPARβ ligands did not induce any change in E2 level. In turn, PPARβ agonist reduced E2 release by the tissue during both stages of pregnancy but did not affect the secretion during the estrous cycle. In the present study there was a lack of PPAR ligands effect on 3β-HSD mRNA abundance. In summary, the results suggest that PPARs are involved in the regulation of progesterone and 17β-estradiol release by porcine CL. Porcine CL indicates a different receptivity to PPAR ligands depending on the reproductive status of animals.

  3. Rat uterine complement C3 expression as a model for progesterone receptor modulators: characterization of the new progestin trimegestone.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, S G; Zhang, Z; Zhu, Y; Carver, J M; Winneker, R C

    2001-08-01

    Progestins have a wide variety of activities in female reproduction. There are also pharmacological applications for progestins, including hormone replacement therapy and contraception. Here we report the development and characterization of the rat uterine complement component C3 mRNA as a molecular target for the evaluation of the antiestrogenic activity of progestins in the uterus. In this assay, ethinyl estradiol (EE) is used to stimulate C3 expression and progestins are then evaluated for their ability to inhibit this expression. The three reference progestins, progesterone (P4), levonorgestrel (LNG), and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) blocked the increase in C3 mRNA levels induced by EE. Dexamethasone (DEX) and 17alpha-methyl testosterone did not inhibit the estrogen induced C3 mRNA levels; in fact, DEX caused a further increase in C3 mRNA levels. Finally, the antiprogestin RU486 was able to block the MPA inhibition of C3 message. RU486, like DEX, caused an increase in C3 mRNA levels above that of estrogen treatment alone. The model was also used to evaluate trimegestone (TMG), a new steroidal progestin, that has been shown to be a potent and selective progesterone receptor agonist. The activity of TMG in the rat uterine decidualization and ovulation inhibition assays was similar to MPA. However, in the C3 model, TMG caused a dose-dependent inhibition of the EE induced C3 message and was approximately five-fold more potent in this model than MPA (EC(50) of 4.7 microg/kg and 26.5 microg/kg, respectively). Therefore, TMG was a more potent antagonist of estrogenic activity in the uterine endometrium than any of the reference progestins tested and therefore may be more effective in protecting the endometrium in hormone replacement therapy.

  4. Active FOXO1 is a Key Determinant of Isoform-Specific Progesterone Receptor Transactivation and Senescence Programming

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Caroline H.; Knutson, Todd P.; Lange, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone promotes differentiation coupled to proliferation and pro-survival in the breast, but inhibits estrogen-driven growth in the reproductive tract and ovaries. Herein, it is demonstrated, using progesterone receptor (PR) isoform-specific ovarian cancer model systems, that PR-A and PR-B promote distinct gene expression profiles that differ from PR-driven genes in breast cancer cells. In ovarian cancer models, PR-A primarily regulates genes independently of progestin, while PR-B is the dominant ligand-dependent isoform. Notably, FOXO1 and the PR/FOXO1 target-gene p21 (CDKN1A) are repressed by PR-A, but induced by PR-B. In the presence of progestin, PR-B, but not PR-A, robustly induced cellular senescence via FOXO1-dependent induction of p21 and p15 (CDKN2B). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays performed on PR-isoform specific cells demonstrated that while each isoform is recruited to the same PRE-containing region of the p21 promoter in response to progestin, only PR-B elicits active chromatin marks. Overexpression of constitutively active FOXO1 in PR-A-expressing cells conferred robust ligand-dependent upregulation of the PR-B target genes GZMA, IGFBP1, and p21, and induced cellular senescence. In the presence of endogenous active FOXO1, PR-A was phosphorylated on Ser294 and transactivated PR-B at PR-B target genes; these events were blocked by the FOXO1 inhibitor (AS1842856). PR isoform-specific regulation of the FOXO1/p21 axis recapitulated in human primary ovarian tumor explants treated with progestin; loss of progestin sensitivity correlated with high AKT activity. PMID:26577046

  5. The Possible Impact of Obesity on Androgen, Progesterone and Estrogen Receptors (ERα and ERβ) Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Esfahlan, R. Jahanban; Zarghami, N.; Esfahlan, A. Jahanban; Mollazadeh, M.; Nejati, K.; Nasiri, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity has been associated with increased mortality from hormone dependant cancers such as breast cancer which is the most prevalent cancer in women. The link between obesity and breast cancer can be attributed to excess estrogen produced through aromatization in adipose tissue. The role of steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer development is well studied but how obesity can affect the expression pattern of steroid hormones in patients with different grades of breast cancer was the aim of this study. Methods In this case-control study, 70 women with breast cancer participated with different grades of obesity (36 none obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2 and 34 obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). The mean age of participants was 44.53 ± 1.79 yr (21–70 yr). The serum level of estrogen, progesterone and androgen determined by ELISA. Following quantitative expression of steroid hormone receptors mRNA in tumor tissues evaluated by Real-time PCR. Patients with previous history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy were excluded. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results The difference in ERα, ERβ and PR mRNA level between normal and obese patients was significant (P < 0.001). In addition, the expression of AR mRNA was found to be higher than other steroid receptors. There was no significant relation between ERβ gene expression in two groups (P = 0.68). We observed a significant relationship between ERα and AR mRNA with tumor stage and tumor grade, respectively (P = 0.023, P = 0.015). Conclusion According to the obtained results, it is speculated that obesity could paly a significant role in estrogen receptors gene expression and also could affect progression and proliferation of breast cancer cells. PMID:22174584

  6. Parturition induction in ewes by a progesterone receptor blocker, aglepristone, and subsequent neonatal survival: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Özalp, R G; Yavuz, A; Orman, A; Seker, I; Udum Küçükşen, D; Rişvanlı, A; Demiral, Ö O; Wehrend, A

    2017-01-01

    The clinical effects of aglepristone treatment to induce parturition in ewes and their newborns were reported. Three experimental groups were defined: group AG5 (n = 5), group AG10 (n = 5), and group CG (n = 5) in which ewes were injected twice with 5, 10 mg/kg of aglepristone, and saline solution of ewes, respectively. Different parameters associated with parturition in ewes and their newborns were investigated. Serum progesterone, oxytocin, and free and conjugated total estrogens were measured after treatments until parturition. No statistical difference was found from first aglepristone administration to onset of lambing between AG5 and AG10 (23.90 ± 6.20, 40.00 ± 6.71 hours). Parturition induction in two groups shortened the gestational length significantly compared with the control group (P = 0.003). Dystocia was observed in two ewes in group AG10. The placental weight showed statistically significant difference only between the AG10 and CG (P = 0.039), but no difference was observed in the placental expulsion period between the groups. Decrease in food consumption 24 to 36 hours after parturition in all ewes and skin necrosis in an ewe in group AG5 were observed. Progesterone concentration was significantly lower in AG5 than that in ewes in group AG10 and CG (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in concentrations of free total estrogens and oxytocin between groups. The body temperature of lambs was significantly different between AG10 and CG groups both right after (P = 0.011) and 12 hours after parturition (P = 0.014). The lambs in CG had the highest mean birth weight (4.29 ± 0.28 kg), which was significantly different from the induced groups. No significant difference of blood pH and blood gases values between groups was identified both at birth and 12 hours after parturition for lambs. Significant differences could clearly be observed in total protein and blood urea nitrogen and total protein findings 12 hours after parturition

  7. Effects of Reproductive Experience on Central Expression of Progesterone, Oestrogen α, Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor mRNA in Male California Mice (Peromyscus californicus)

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Rodriguez, J. P.; Takahashi, E. Y.; Amador, T. M.; Hao, R. C.; Saltzman, W.; Trainor, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    Fatherhood in biparental mammals is accompanied by distinct neuroendocrine changes in males, involving some of the same hormones involved in maternal care. In the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care has been linked to changes in the central and/or peripheral availability of oestrogen, progesterone, vasopressin and oxytocin, although it is not known whether these endocrine fluctuations are associated with changes in receptor availability in the brain. Thus, we compared mRNA expression of oestrogen receptor (ER)α, progesterone receptor (PR), vasopressin receptor (V1a) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) in brain regions implicated in paternal care [i.e. medial preoptic area (MPOA)], fear [i.e. medial amygdala (MeA)] and anxiety [i.e. bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)] between first-time fathers (n = 8) and age-matched virgin males (n = 7). Males from both reproductive conditions behaved paternally towards unrelated pups, whereas fathers showed significantly shorter latencies to behave paternally and less time investigating pups. Furthermore, fathers showed significantly lower PR, OTR and V1a receptor mRNA expression in the BNST compared to virgins. Fathers also showed a marginally significant (P = 0.07) reduction in progesterone receptor mRNA expression in the MPOA, although fatherhood was not associated with any other changes in receptor mRNA in the MPOA or MeA. The results of the present study indicate that behavioural and endocrine changes associated with the onset of fatherhood, and/or with cohabitation with a (breeding) female, are accompanied by changes in mRNA expression of hormone and neuropeptide receptors in the brain. PMID:25659593

  8. Progesterone, estrogen, and androgen receptors in the corpus luteum of the domestic cat, Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    PubMed

    Amelkina, Olga; Zschockelt, Lina; Painer, Johanna; Serra, Rodrigo; Villaespesa, Francisco; Krause, Eberhard; Jewgenow, Katarina; Braun, Beate C

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the species studied, the corpus luteum (CL) of Iberian and Eurasian lynx physiologically persists in the ovary for more than 2 years and continues to secrete progesterone. Such persistent CL (perCL) transition into the next cycle and are present in the ovary together with the freshly formed CL (frCL) of a new ovulation. To date, the mechanisms supporting such CL persistence are not known. We analyzed the potential receptivity of feline CL to sex steroids through mRNA measurements of progesterone receptor (PGR), progesterone receptor membrane components (PGRMC) 1 and 2, estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 and ESR2, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1), and androgen receptor (AR). All receptors were present in domestic cat CL during pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase, in frCL and perCL of post-mating Iberian lynx and in perCL of pre-mating Eurasian lynx. Mass spectrometry detected the presence of PGRMC1 protein in frCL and perCL of the Iberian lynx. In both domestic cat and lynx CL, PGR, PGRMC1, and ESR1 proteins were localized in luteal cells by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of PGR, PGRMC1, PGRMC2, ESR1, and AR changed significantly throughout the domestic cat luteal phase. This may indicate involvement of these receptors in the processes of formation, maintenance, and regression of feline CL. In Iberian lynx, expression of PGRMC1, PGRCM2, ESR1, GPER1, and AR was significantly higher in perCL compared with frCL, whereas ESR2 was reversed. High mRNA amounts of these receptors in perCL suggest that physiological persistence of lynx CL may be partly regulated by actions of sex steroids through their nuclear and/or membrane receptors.

  9. Facilitation or inhibition of the oestradiol-induced gonadotrophin surge in the immature female rat by progesterone: effects on pituitary responsiveness to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH self-priming and pituitary mRNAs for the progesterone receptor A and B isoforms.

    PubMed

    Attardi, B; Scott, R; Pfaff, D; Fink, G

    2007-12-01

    Progesterone can either facilitate or inhibit the oestradiol (E(2))-induced gonadotrophin surge. We have previously developed immature female rat models to characterise and investigate the mechanisms of progesterone inhibition or facilitation. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of pituitary responsiveness to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH self-priming under conditions of progesterone-facilitation and progesterone-inhibition, and whether the underlying mechanisms reflect changes in mRNAs encoding the A and B isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR) in the pituitary gland. Pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, determined by measuring the luteinising hormone (LH) response to one i.v. injection of GnRH, was decreased by 60-80% (P < 0.001) in the progesterone-inhibition model. GnRH self-priming, estimated as the increment in the LH response to the second of two injections of GnRH separated by 60 min, was also significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in this model. In the progesterone-facilitation model, the LH response to GnRH injection was increased 2.5-3-fold (P < 0.05), an effect suppressed by the progesterone receptor antagonist, mifepristone. Progesterone-facilitation of LH release and increased pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were blocked by sheep anti-GnRH serum injected i.v. immediately after insertion of progesterone implants. The PR-B mRNA isoform, measured by solution hybridisation/RNase protection assay, was the predominant form in the pituitary of the immature female rat. PR-B was increased by E(2) and decreased by progesterone in both models. Thus, in immature female rats, progesterone-inhibition of the E(2)-induced LH surge is due to significant reduction in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH as well as in the magnitude of GnRH self-priming. Progesterone-facilitation of the E(2)-induced LH surge is due to increased pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, which is mediated by PR, and depends on endogenous GnRH release. The differences

  10. Delayed parturition and altered myometrial progesterone receptor isoform A expression in mice null for Krüppel-like factor 9.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhaoyang; Velarde, Michael C; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2008-06-01

    Preterm and delayed labor conditions are devastating health problems with currently unknown etiologies. We previously showed that the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) influences the expression and/or transcriptional activity of receptors for estrogen and progesterone in endometrial cells in vivo and in vitro. Given that estrogen and progesterone differentially regulate uterine myometrial contractility during gestation, we hypothesized that lack of KLF9 could compromise myometrial function, leading to defects in parturition. To test this, we used mice null for Klf9 to evaluate gestation length, response to the progesterone receptor (PGR) antagonist RU486, expression levels of steroid receptor proteins, nuclear receptor coactivator and contractility-associated genes, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity in myometrium near term. Klf9 knockout (KO) mice exhibited delayed parturition by 1-2 days relative to wild-type (WT) counterparts, in the absence of fetal genotype contribution and differences in serum estrogen and progesterone levels. Knockout mice near term were refractory to the abortive action of RU486, and they displayed aberrant myometrial expression patterns of nuclear PGR-A and NF-kappaB p65/RELA relative to WT mice. Myometrial expression levels of nuclear estrogen receptor-alpha did not differ, whereas those for Oxtr and Crebbp mRNAs were lower, in KO versus WT mice. Results indicate that KLF9 contributes to the regulation of PGR-associated components in the myometrium necessary for timely onset of parturition in mice. The present study highlights the potential utility of Klf9 null mice to investigate the pathophysiology of parturition defects involving PGR signaling.

  11. Progesterone receptor activation signals behavioral transitions across the reproductive cycle of the female rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, K L; González-Mariscal, G

    2006-06-01

    The female rabbit is an exceptional experimental model to define mechanisms by which progesterone (P) controls the expression of reproductive behaviors. In the rabbit, the rise in P levels during pregnancy inhibits estrous scent marking ("chinning"), stimulates the excavation of a nest burrow ("digging"), and primes behaviors later used for nest construction. The pre-parturient fall of P triggers the construction of a straw nest ("straw carrying") that is lined with hair that she pulls from her own body ("hair pulling"). These behaviors can be replicated in ovariectomized (ovx) females given a schedule of estradiol (E) and P that mimics hormone levels during pregnancy (E from days 0 to 4, E + P from days 5 to 17, E from days 18 to 27). We administered PR antagonists RU486 or CDB(VA)2914 to ovx female rabbits during either the initial (days 5-11) or late (days 12-17) phases of P treatment, to determine the role of PR activation in coordinating the expression of these behaviors. Both antiprogestins attenuated the P-mediated decline in chinning and increase in digging when administered during days 5-11. When given across days 12-17, both antiprogestins triggered an early decline in digging, the onset of nest building in some Ss, and the reinstatement of chinning. These results point to a central role of PR activation for establishing and maintaining the behavioral phenotype of pregnancy, and for the behavioral transition from pregnancy to estrus.

  12. 6-Aryl-1,4-dihydro-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin- 2-ones: a novel class of potent, selective, and orally active nonsteroidal progesterone receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Puwen; Terefenko, Eugene A; Fensome, Andrew; Wrobel, Jay; Winneker, Richard; Lundeen, Scott; Marschke, Keith B; Zhang, Zhiming

    2002-09-26

    Novel 6-aryl-1,4-dihydro-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-2-ones were synthesized and tested as progesterone receptor (PR) antagonists. These compounds were potent and showed good selectivity for PR over other steroid receptors such as the glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (e.g., greater than 80-fold selectivity at PR for 4h). Numerous 6-aryl benzoxazinones (e.g., 4h-j) were active orally in the uterine decidualization and component C3 assays in the rats. In these in vivo models,4h had potencies comparable to mifepristone.

  13. Estrogen and progesterone receptors have distinct roles in the establishment of the hyperplastic phenotype in PR-A transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Simian, Marina; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Shyamala, Gopalan

    2009-05-11

    Expression of the A and B forms of progesterone receptor (PR) in an appropriate ratio is critical for mammary development. Mammary glands of PR-A transgenic mice, carrying an additional A form of PR as a transgene, exhibit morphological features associated with the development of mammary tumors. Our objective was to determine the roles of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) in the genesis of mammary hyperplasias/preneoplasias in PR-A transgenics. We subjected PR-A mice to hormonal treatments and analyzed mammary glands for the presence of hyperplasias and used BrdU incorporation to measure proliferation. Quantitative image analysis was carried out to compare levels of latency-associated peptide and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF{beta}1) between PR-A and PR-B transgenics. Basement membrane disruption was examined by immunofluorescence and proteolytic activity by zymography. The hyperplastic phenotype of PR-A transgenics is inhibited by ovariectomy, and is reversed by treatment with E + P. Studies using the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 or antiprogestins RU486 or ZK 98,299 show that the increase in proliferation requires signaling through E/estrogen receptor alpha but is not sufficient to give rise to hyperplasias, whereas signaling through P/PR has little impact on proliferation but is essential for the manifestation of hyperplasias. Increased proliferation is correlated with decreased TGF{beta}1 activation in the PR-A transgenics. Analysis of basement membrane integrity showed loss of laminin-5, collagen III and collagen IV in mammary glands of PR-A mice, which is restored by ovariectomy. Examination of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) showed that total levels of MMP-2 correlate with the steady-state levels of PR, and that areas of laminin-5 loss coincide with those of activation of MMP-2 in PR-A transgenics. Activation of MMP-2 is dependent on treatment with E and P in ovariectomized wild-type mice, but is achieved only by treatment with P in PR-A mice. These data

  14. Survival of women with ovarian carcinomas and borderline tumors is not affected by estrogen and progesterone receptor status.

    PubMed

    Sallum, Luis Felipe; Sarian, Luis Otavio; Lucci De Angelo Andrade, Liliana; Vassallo, José; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Pinto, Glauce Aparecida; Ferreira, Patrícia Andréia; Derchain, Sophie

    2013-04-01

    To examine the patterns of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) and ovarian carcinomas. We also assessed the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in women with ovarian carcinoma, in relation to ER and/or PR expression. We examined ER/PR expression in 38 BOTs and 172 ovarian carcinomas removed from patients treated at the State University of Campinas-UNICAMP (Brazil), from 1993 to 2008 and followed for up to 60 months using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry. Twenty-eight (73.7%) mucinous and 10 (26.3%) serous BOTs were included. Ovarian carcinomas consisted mainly of 79 (46.0%) serous, 44 (25.5%) mucinous, 17 (9.8%) endometrioid, 10 (5.8%) clear-cell types. There was no significant difference of the ER/PR expression between BOT and ovarian carcinoma (p=0.55 for ER alone, 0.90 for PR alone, and 0.12 for combined expression). The level of ER/PR expression in BOTs was significantly higher in serous than in mucinous tumors (p<0.01). In carcinomas, ER/PR was higher in serous tumors than in mucinous (p<0.01) and clear cell tumors (p=0.02), and higher in endometrioid tumors than in mucinous tumors (p<0.01). DFS was affected neither by the clinical characteristics nor by combined steroid receptor status. OS was found to be significantly worse (p<0.01) only in women with stages II-IV tumors and those with residual disease after surgery (p<0.01). Overall, serous and endometrioid tumors were predominantly ER/PR positive, whereas mucinous and clear-cell tumors were preponderantly ER/PR negative. DFS and OS were not affected by ER/PR expression.

  15. Survival of women with ovarian carcinomas and borderline tumors is not affected by estrogen and progesterone receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Sallum, Luis Felipe; Sarian, Luis Otavio; Lucci De Angelo Andrade, Liliana; Vassallo, José; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Pinto, Glauce Aparecida; Ferreira, Patrícia Andréia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) and ovarian carcinomas. We also assessed the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in women with ovarian carcinoma, in relation to ER and/or PR expression. Methods We examined ER/PR expression in 38 BOTs and 172 ovarian carcinomas removed from patients treated at the State University of Campinas-UNICAMP (Brazil), from 1993 to 2008 and followed for up to 60 months using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry. Results Twenty-eight (73.7%) mucinous and 10 (26.3%) serous BOTs were included. Ovarian carcinomas consisted mainly of 79 (46.0%) serous, 44 (25.5%) mucinous, 17 (9.8%) endometrioid, 10 (5.8%) clear-cell types. There was no significant difference of the ER/PR expression between BOT and ovarian carcinoma (p=0.55 for ER alone, 0.90 for PR alone, and 0.12 for combined expression). The level of ER/PR expression in BOTs was significantly higher in serous than in mucinous tumors (p<0.01). In carcinomas, ER/PR was higher in serous tumors than in mucinous (p<0.01) and clear cell tumors (p=0.02), and higher in endometrioid tumors than in mucinous tumors (p<0.01). DFS was affected neither by the clinical characteristics nor by combined steroid receptor status. OS was found to be significantly worse (p<0.01) only in women with stages II-IV tumors and those with residual disease after surgery (p<0.01). Conclusion Overall, serous and endometrioid tumors were predominantly ER/PR positive, whereas mucinous and clear-cell tumors were preponderantly ER/PR negative. DFS and OS were not affected by ER/PR expression. PMID:23653835

  16. The association between reproductive and hormonal factors and ovarian cancer by estrogen-α and progesterone receptor status.

    PubMed

    Shafrir, Amy L; Rice, Megan S; Gupta, Mamta; Terry, Kathryn L; Rosner, Bernard A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Hecht, Jonathan L; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the association between reproductive and hormonal factors and ovarian cancer incidence characterized by estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Tissue microarrays were used to assess ERα and PR expression among 197 Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 42 NHSII and 76 New England Case-Control Study (NECC) ovarian cancer cases. NHS/NHSII cases were matched to up to 4 controls (n=954) on diagnosis date and birth year. NECC controls (n=725) were frequency matched on age. Cases were considered receptor positive if ≥1% of tumor cells stained positive. Associations by ERα and PR status were assessed using polytomous logistic regression. p-Value for heterogeneity was calculated using a likelihood ratio test. 45% of ovarian tumors were PR(+), 78% were ERα(+) and 45% were ERα(+)/PR(+), while 22% were ERα(-)/PR(-). Postmenopausal status was associated with an increased risk of PR(-) tumors (OR: 2.07; 95%CI: 1.15-3.75; p-heterogeneity=0.01) and age at natural menopause was inversely associated with PR(-) tumors (OR, per 5years: 0.77; 95%CI: 0.61-0.96; p-het=0.01). Increasing duration of postmenopause was differentially associated by PR status (p-het=0.0009). Number of children and tubal ligation were more strongly associated with ERα(-) versus ERα(+) tumors (p-het=0.002 and 0.05, respectively). No differential associations were observed for oral contraceptive or hormone therapy use. Postmenopausal women have an increased risk of developing PR(-) ovarian tumors compared to premenopausal women. The associations observed for ovarian cancer differ from those seen for breast cancer suggesting that the biology for tumor development through ERα and PR pathways may differ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prognostic impact of progesterone receptor status combined with body mass index in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Masahiro; Akimoto, Etsushi; Noma, Midori; Matsuura, Kazuo; Doi, Mihoko; Kagawa, Naoki; Itamoto, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have played a central role in endocrine therapy for the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. However, prognostic factors for recurrence following such treatment have not been identified. The current study aimed to validate the prognostic value of endocrine-related progesterone receptor (PgR) status combined with body mass index (BMI). Among 659 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent curative surgery between 2002 and 2012, 184 postmenopausal patients with ER-positive (ER+) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative (HER2-) breast cancer who were treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy were assessed. The patients were assigned to groups based on BMI, according to the WHO cut-off value: ≥25 kg/m(2) (high, H) or <25 kg/m(2) (low, L). Positive nodal status, negative PgR status, BMI-H and a high Ki-67 labeling index (≥20%) were found to be significantly associated with a short recurrence-free interval (RFI) upon univariate analysis (P=0.048, 0.007, 0.027, and 0.012, respectively). The patients were further grouped based on their combined PgR/BMI status. The RFI was significantly shorter in the PgR- and/or BMI-H group compared with that of the PgR+/BMI-L group (P=0.012). Multivariate analysis revealed PgR- tumors and/or BMI-H and positive nodal status to be independent prognostic factors (P=0.012 and 0.020, respectively). The present findings indicate that PgR/BMI status may serve as a practical tool in the management of ER+ and HER2- breast cancer in patients treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitors.

  18. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Decreased Progesterone Receptor B/A Ratio in Endometrial Cells by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Peritoneal Fluid from Patients with Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Chae, Uisoo; Min, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ihm, Hyo Jin; Oh, Young Sang; Park, So Yun; Chae, Hee Dong; Kim, Chung Hoon; Kang, Byung Moon

    2016-11-01

    Progesterone resistance is thought to be a major factor that contributes to progression of endometriosis. However, it is not clear what causes progesterone resistance in endometriosis. This study aimed to assess whether cytokines or peritoneal fluid can affect progesterone receptor (PR) expression in endometrial cells and to verify whether PR expression is reduced in endometriosis. The PR-B/A ratio was measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction after in vitro culture, in which endometrial cells were treated with either tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta, or peritoneal fluid obtained from women with advanced-stage endometriosis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to compare PR-B expression between eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues from women with and without advanced-stage endometriosis. The PR-B/A ratio was significantly decreased by treatment with either TNF-α (p=0.011) or peritoneal fluid from women with advanced-stage endometriosis (p=0.027). Immunoreactivity of PR-B expression was significantly lower during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase in endometrial tissues from control subjects (p<0.001). PR-B expression was significantly reduced in the eutopic endometrium (p=0.031) and ovarian endometrioma (p=0.036) from women with advanced-stage endometriosis compared with eutopic endometrium tissues from control subjects. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis may be caused by proinflammatory conditions in the pelvic peritoneal microenvironment.

  20. Diagnostic value of progesterone receptor, p16, p53 and pHH3 expression in uterine atypical leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Xiaoduan; Lü, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between atypical leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma may be hard based on morphological criterion at times. It would be helpful to find out biomarkers that can be used to distinguish them. The aim of the study was to investigate the diagnostic value of progesterone receptor (PR), p16, p53 and pHH3 expression in a series of uterine smooth muscle tumors. Immunohistochemical expression of PR, p16, p53 and pHH3 was investigated on 32 atypical leiomyomas, 15 leiomyosarcomas and 15 usual leomyomas. The difference in expression was compared between atypical leiomyoma and other groups. The expression of PR, p16, and pHH3 was found significantly different between atypical leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, but lack of significant difference between atypical leiomyomas and usual leiomyomas. There was no significant difference with regard to p53 distribution among these uterine smooth muscle tumors. High p16, pHH3 expression and low PR expression preferred the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma. The panel of antibodies used in this study is a useful complementary analysis in the assessment of problematic uterine smooth muscle tumors. PMID:26261614

  1. The progesterone receptor PROGINS polymorphism is not related to oxidative stress factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz, Muammer; Erdogan, Mehmet; Berdeli, Afig; Tamsel, Sadik; Saygili, Fusun; Yilmaz, Candeger

    2007-01-01

    Background Women with PCOS have been reported to be at increased risk of a number of gynaecological neoplasias, including endometrial, breast, and ovarian cancer. Studies of the possible association of genetic variation in progesterone receptor polymorphism with risk of ovarian and breast cancer have concentrated on a variant known as PROGINS. Methods Ninety-five young women with PCOS and 99 healthy control women were included in our study. All subjects underwent venous blood drawing for complete hormonal assays, lipid profile, glucose, insulin and PROGINS polymorphism genetic study. Results In PROGINS polymorphism results; in both control and the patient groups T1/T1 has been detected in high levels. But for genotype (p = 0.178) and allele (p = 0.555) frequencies both of the groups give similar results. Statistically significant difference has been detected on serum FSH levels for T1/T1 genotype according to T2/T2 genotype. Conclusion No relation has been detected between the inflammatory and oxidative stress factors, and PROGINS polymorphism alleles. This may be because the PCOS patients are young and their BMI means are normal and their CIMT and oxidative stress markers are like healthy women. PMID:17919323

  2. The relationship between follicle development and progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) expression in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Elassar, Alyaa; Liu, Xiufang; Scranton, Victoria; Wu, Carol A.; Peluso, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (PGRMC1) expression and the outcome of in vitro fertilization treatment. Design A prospective study in which PGRMC1 mRNA levels, methylation status of the Pgrmc1 promoter, and the presence of point mutations within Pgrmc1 were obtained from granulosa/luteal cells of women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Setting Fertility center/Basic science laboratory Patients Eighty-five IVF patients and 10 women, who were undergoing COH for the purpose of oocyte donation, were included in this study. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures PGRMC1 measurements were correlated with clinical outcomes, such as number of follicles, number of retrieved oocytes and ongoing pregnancy rates. Results PGRMC1 mRNA levels within granulosa/luteal cells of 18% of IVF patients were > 2.25 fold higher than those of oocyte donors. Individuals with elevated PGRMC1 mRNA levels had 30% fewer large follicles and fewer oocytes retrieved. The elevated PGRMC1 mRNA levels were associated with an increase in the methylation of Pgrmc1 promoter. Conclusion In patients with elevated PGRMC1 mRNA levels, gonadotropin-induced follicle development is attenuated, although sufficient numbers of follicles develop to allow for embryo transfer and subsequent pregnancy. PMID:22245528

  3. [Study on effect of total matrines and extracts from Periplaneta americana on negative endometrial cancer cell JEC of progesterone receptors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-wei; Zhu, Yan

    2015-06-01

    To study the effect of total matrines and extracts from Periplaneta americana on negative endometrial cancer cell JEC of progesterone receptors. After detecting the effect of total matrine, extracts from P. americana and their combination on JEC cells' growth inhibition, cell cycle, P53 and c-erbB-2 gene protein expressions through MTT, flow cytometry instrument and Western blot method, the author found that, (1) MTT: total matrines and extracts from P. americana could inhibit the growth of JEC cell, with significant increase in the inhibitory effect in the combination group. (2) Flow cytometry instrument: the cell cycle at G0/G1 increased after the treatment with total matrines, the cell cycle at G2/M increased after the treatment with extracts from periplaneta americana, and the ratio of G0/G1 cell cycle in the combination group was significantly higher than the other groups, with inhibition in cell growth and statistical difference in inter-group comparison (P < 0.05). (3) Western blot: the expression level of P53 increased and c-erbB-2 decreased after the treatment with total matrines, extracts from P. americana and their combination on JEC cell, with statistical difference in inter-group comparison (P < 0.05). The above results suggested that total matrines, extracts from P. americana and their combination could induce cell cycle arrest and inhibit the growth of JEC cell by up-regulating P53 and down-regulating the c-erbB-2 level.

  4. Uterine fibroid shrinkage after short-term use of selective progesterone receptor modulator or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Jin; Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Mi-La; Jung, Yong Wook; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Bae, Hyo Sook; Kim, Da Hee; Hwang, Ji Young

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short-term use of selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist on uterine fibroid shrinkage among Korean women. Methods This retrospective study involved 101 women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who received ulipristal acetate (SPRM, n=51) and leuprolide acetate (GnRH agonist, n=50) for 3 months between November 2013 and February 2015. The fibroid volume was measured both before and after treatment using ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The outcomes were compared between the SPRM and GnRH agonist groups. Results The median rate of fibroid volume reduction after SPRM treatment was 12.4% (IQR −14.5% to 40.5%) which was significantly lower than the reduction rate observed after GnRH agonist treatment (median 34.9%, IQR 14.7% to 48.6%, P=0.004). 19 of 51 (37.3%) patients with SPRM treatment did not show any response of volume shrinkage, while 7 of 50 (14.0%) women with GnRH agonist showed no response (P=0.007). Conclusion Short-term SPRM treatment yields lower volume reduction than GnRH agonist treatment in Korean women with symptomatic fibroids. Further large-scale randomized trials are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:28217674

  5. Persistence of an intact endometrial matrix and vessels structure in women exposed to VA-2914, a selective progesterone receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Ravet, S; Munaut, C; Blacher, S; Brichant, G; Labied, S; Beliard, A; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Bouchard, P; Foidart, J-M; Pintiaux, A

    2008-11-01

    VA-2914 is a selective progesterone receptor modulator with potential contraceptive activity that induces amenorrhea, whereas progestins cause endometrial spotting and bleeding. This abnormal bleeding due to progestins is a consequence of focal stromal proteolysis by an increase in naked vessel size and density. Our objective was to quantify the effects of VA-2914 on endometrial vascularization, fibrillar matrix, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression in endometrial biopsies from 41 women before and after 12 wk daily treatment with a placebo, or 2.5, 5, or 10 mg VA-2914. Collagen fibrillar network was stained by silver impregnation. Vessel area, density, and structure were quantified with a computer-assisted image analysis system after double immunostaining using an anti-von Willebrand factor (endothelial cells) and an anti-alpha smooth muscle actin (vascular smooth muscle cells) marker antibody. VEGF-A mRNAs were quantified by RT-PCR and localized by immunohistochemistry. The endometrial vessels, collagen network, and mRNA levels of VEGF-A were identical during the luteal phase at baseline and in VA-2914 treated women. VEGF-A distribution was unchanged. VA-2914 does not alter the endometrial matrix and cells, and does not modify the endometrial vessel morphology as compared with baseline biopsies.

  6. Uterine fibroid shrinkage after short-term use of selective progesterone receptor modulator or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Jin; Yun, Bo Seong; Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Mi-La; Jung, Yong Wook; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Bae, Hyo Sook; Kim, Da Hee; Hwang, Ji Young

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short-term use of selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist on uterine fibroid shrinkage among Korean women. This retrospective study involved 101 women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who received ulipristal acetate (SPRM, n=51) and leuprolide acetate (GnRH agonist, n=50) for 3 months between November 2013 and February 2015. The fibroid volume was measured both before and after treatment using ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The outcomes were compared between the SPRM and GnRH agonist groups. The median rate of fibroid volume reduction after SPRM treatment was 12.4% (IQR -14.5% to 40.5%) which was significantly lower than the reduction rate observed after GnRH agonist treatment (median 34.9%, IQR 14.7% to 48.6%, P=0.004). 19 of 51 (37.3%) patients with SPRM treatment did not show any response of volume shrinkage, while 7 of 50 (14.0%) women with GnRH agonist showed no response (P=0.007). Short-term SPRM treatment yields lower volume reduction than GnRH agonist treatment in Korean women with symptomatic fibroids. Further large-scale randomized trials are needed to confirm our findings.

  7. Coordinate patterns of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Wilms tumor 1 expression in the histopathologic distinction of ovarian from endometrial serous adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; James, Samuel; Desouki, Mohamed M; Khabele, Dineo

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether composite or coordinate immunoexpression patterns of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene can significantly distinguish between endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) and ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC). Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on whole tissue sections from 22 uterus-confined ESCs and on a tissue microarray of 140 high-grade, pan-stage OSCs, using antibodies to ER, PR, and WT-1. Estrogen receptor, PR, and WT1 expressions were present in 37%, 49%, and 81% of OSC, respectively, but these markers were also present in 18%, 27%, and 36% of ESC. The ER+/PR+/WT1+ coordinate profile was identified in 33.6% of OSC but in none of ESC (P = .0006), resulting in a calculated sensitivity and specificity of this profile for OSC of 33.6% and 100%, respectively. By contrast, the ER-/PR-/WT1- coordinate profile was identified in 41% of ESC but in only 6.4% of OSC (P = .0001), resulting in a calculated sensitivity and specificity of this profile for ESC of 50% and 94%. In summary, in the differential diagnosis between OSC and ESC, positivity for all 3 markers favors an extrauterine origin, whereas negativity for all 3 markers is supportive of an endometrial origin. The use of single markers for this purpose is not recommended, as each lacks optimal discriminatory power. Coordinate profiles, in general, have a high specificity but low sensitivity in this differential diagnosis.

  8. Serum progesterone

    MedlinePlus

    ... progesterone levels start to rise midway through the menstrual cycle. It continues to rise for about 6 to ... normal ranges based upon certain phases of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy: Female (pre-ovulation): less than 1 ...

  9. Tissue-specific Regulation of Porcine Prolactin Receptor Expression by Estrogen, Progesterone and Prolactin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prolactin (PRL) acts through its receptor (PRLR) via both endocrine and local paracrine/autocrine pathways to regulate biological processes including reproduction and lactation. We analyzed the tissue and stage of gestation-specific regulation of PRL and PRLR expression in various tissues of pigs. ...

  10. Progesterone receptor in the forebrain of female gray short-tailed opossums: effects of exposure to male stimuli.

    PubMed

    Vitazka, Maria E; Cárdenas, Horacio; Cruz, Yolanda; Fadem, Barbara H; Norfolk, Jennifer R; Harder, John D

    2009-01-01

    Progesterone receptor immunoreactivity (PRir) in brain areas involved in reproductive behavior in eutherian species was examined for the first time in a female marsupial, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica, hereinafter, opossum). PRir in nuclei of neurons, measured as area covered by stained nuclei, was seen in the arcuate nucleus (Arc); anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv); bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST); medial preoptic area (MPOA), and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), but not in control areas adjacent to the hypothalamus or cortex. Female opossums are induced into cytological, urogenital sinus (UGS), estrus by male pheromones and into behavioral estrus, i.e., receptivity, by pairing with a male, and both estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) are involved in induction of receptivity in intact and ovariectomized females. PRir in the AVPv, MPOA, and VMH was very low in females that had never been exposed to males or their scent marks, i.e., naïve anestrous (NVA) females, and either previous or current exposure to males or their scent marks was associated with elevated PRir. PRir was significantly higher in the AVPv and MPOA of anestrous females with previous but no current exposure to males and their scent marks, i.e., experienced anestrous (EXPA) females, than in NVA females, but PRir was significantly lower in the MPOA and VMH of EXPA females than in females that were behaviorally receptive and had recently copulated, i.e., behavioral receptive estrous (BRE) females. PRir was higher in the VMH of both UGS estrous (UGSE) and BRE females compared to that in EXPA animals, but PRir did not differ between UGSE and BRE females in any of the 3 brain areas examined, including the MPOA These results provide evidence that pheromonal induction of estrus and sexual receptivity in opossums is associated with elevation of PRir in the VMH and MPOA and that prior exposure to males or their pheromones, even in the absence of current male stimuli

  11. Positive Association between Nuclear Runx2 and Estrogen-Progesterone Receptor Gene Expression Characterizes a Biological Subtype of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Das, Kakoli; Leong, David; Gupta, Anurag; Shen, Liang; Putti, Thomas; Stein, Gary S; van Wijnen, Andre J; Salto-Tellez, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The runt-related transcription factor, Runx2 may have an oncogenic role in mediating metastatic events in breast cancer, but whether Runx2 has a role in the early phases of breast cancer development is not clear. We examined the expression of Runx2 and its relationship with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Methods Two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were transiently transfected with vectors expressing either Runx2 or ER and the levels of both proteins and mRNA were examined by Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR respectively. Runx2 expression was also examined in tissue microarray sections of 123 breast cancer patients by immunohistochemistry and results were correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics. Results Expression of Runx2 and ER was reciprocal in the breast cell culture models and Runx2 suppressed ERβ but ERα not mRNA levels. In contrast, functional expression of Runx2 was evident in the nucleus in 28% of the breast cancer tissues and in both early and late stages of tumor growth. Importantly, Runx2 expression was significantly more frequent in Grade 2 compared to Grade 1 and Grade 3 tumors (48% vs 39% vs 13%) and the expression was significantly associated with ER (p=0.005), PR (p=0.008) expression in Grade 2 & 3 tumors than the Grade 1 tumors. Conclusion We propose that Runx2, ER and PR triple positivity in Grade 2 & 3 defines a biological subtype in breast cancer. PMID:19632824

  12. Affinity of estrogens for human progesterone receptor A and B monomers and risk of breast cancer: a comparative molecular modeling study.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Tarique N; B, Leena Grace; Masoodi, Tariq A; Shafi, Gowhar; Alshatwi, Ali A; Sivashanmugham, P

    2011-01-01

    The human progesterone receptor (hPR) belongs to the steroid receptor family. It may be found as monomers (A and B) and or as a dimer (AB). hPR is regarded as the prognostic biomarker for breast cancer. In a cellular dimer system, AB is the dominant species in most cases. However, when a cell coexpresses all three isoforms of hPR, the complexity of the action of this receptor increases. For example, hPR A suppresses the activity of hPR B, and the ratio of hPR A to hPR B may determine the physiology of a breast tumor. Also, persistent exposure of hPRs to nonendogenous ligands is a common risk factor for breast cancer. Hence we aimed to study progesterone and some nonendogenous ligand interactions with hPRs and their molecular docking. A pool of steroid derivatives, namely, progesterone, cholesterol, testosterone, testolectone, estradiol, estrone, norethindrone, exemestane, and norgestrel, was used for this in silico study. Dockings were performed on AutoDock 4.2. We found that estrogens, including estradiol and estrone, had a higher affinity for hPR A and B monomers in comparison with the dimer, hPR AB, and that of the endogenous progesterone ligand. hPR A had a higher affinity to all the docked ligands than hPR B. This study suggests that the exposure of estrogens to hPR A as well as hPR B, and more particularly to hPR A alone, is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  13. Accuracy of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Assessment in Core Needle Biopsy Specimens of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Omranipour, Ramesh; Alipour, Sadaf; Hadji, Maryam; Fereidooni, Forouzandeh; Jahanzad, Issa; Bagheri, Khojasteh

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of breast cancer is completed through core needle biopsy (CNB) of the tumors but there is controversy on the accuracy of hormone receptor results on CNB specimens. Objectives We undertook this study to compare the results of hormone receptor assessment in CNB and surgical samples on our patients. Patients and Methods Hormone receptor status was determined in CNB and surgical samples in breast cancer patients whose CNB and operation had been performed in this institute from 2009 to 2011 and had not undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results About 350 patients, 60 cases met all the criteria for entering the study. The mean age was 49.8 years. Considering a confidence interval (CI) of 95%, the sensitivity of ER and PR assessment in CNB was 92.9% and 81%, respectively and the specificity of both was 100%. The Accuracy of CNB was 98% for ER and 93% for PR. Conclusions Our results confirm the acceptable accuracy of ER assessment on CNB. The subject needs further investigation in developing countries where omission of the test in surgical samples can be cost and time-saving. PMID:24349751

  14. Immunohistochemical determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer: relationship with clinicopathologic factors in 302 patients in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Effi, Ahoua Benjamin; Aman, Nguiessan Alphonse; Koui, Baumaney Sylvanus; Koffi, Kouadio Donatien; Traoré, Zie Cheick; Kouyate, Mohamed

    2017-02-07

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous and a hormone-dependent disease. The detection of the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) is crucial for prognostic evaluation and treatment choice of breast cancer for clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of the hormonal receptors, their distribution, and their correlation with clinicopathologic prognostic parameters for the improvement of the patients' treatment in Ivory Coast. The 20-month prospective study included 302 patients who were diagnosed with primary invasive breast carcinomas at the Central Laboratory in Abidjan. The paraffin-embedded blocks of these patients were examined by immunohistochemistry to assess the ER and PgR status. The one-way analysis of variance and Chi-Square Test were used to analyze the data. The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 48 ± 11 years. The majority of the women were premenopausal in 180 cases (59.9%). The predominant histologic type was invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC NOS) in 247 cases (82%). Tumor grade 2 was more frequent in 166 cases (55%). Among 302 patients, 169 (56%) and 154 (49%) expressed ER and PgR respectively. The ER+PgR+ group with 131 cases (43%) was predominant, followed by 116 cases (38%) of ER-PgR-. The expression of ER and PgR was correlated with the age of the patients (p = 0.026) and the tumor grade (p = 0.0004). However, there was not statistically significant correlation between ER/PgR and the menopausal status of patients (p = 0.149), nor between ER/PgR and the histologic type (p = 0.523). The ER+PgR+ and ER-PgR- are the most common subgroups in women with breast cancer in Ivory Coast. The hormonal receptor status is associated with the age and the histologic grade in breast cancer patients. The systematic use of hormonal treatment should be reevaluated. A further study should be done to investigate the reasons of high rate of ER-PgR- in breast cancer patients in

  15. Expression of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) in rat peripheral glial cell membranes and their potential role in the modulation of cell migration and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Castelnovo, Luca F; Magnaghi, Valerio; Thomas, Peter

    2017-09-26

    The role played by progestogens in modulating Schwann cell pathophysiology is well established. Progestogens exert their effects in these cells through both classical genomic and non-genomic mechanisms, the latter mediated by the GABA-A receptor. However, there is evidence that other receptors may be involved. Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are novel 7-transmembrane receptors coupled to G proteins that have been characterized in different tissues and cells, including the central nervous system (CNS). The mPRs were shown to mediate some of progestogens' neuroprotective effects in the CNS, and to be upregulated in glial cells after traumatic brain injury. Based on this evidence, this paper investigated the possible involvement of mPRs in mediating progestogen actions in S42 Schwann cells. All five mPR isoforms and progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) were detected in Schwann cells, and were present on the cell membrane. Progesterone and the mPR-specific agonist, Org-OD-02-0 (02) bound to these membranes, indicating the presence of functional mPRs. The mPR agonist 02 rapidly increased cell migration in an in vitro assay, suggesting a putative role of mPRs in the nerve regeneration process. Treatment with pertussis toxin, and 8-Br-cAMP blocked 02-induced cell migration, suggesting this progestogen action is mediated by activation of an inhibitory G protein leading to a decrease in intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, long-term mPR activation led to increased expression levels of myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG). Taken together, these findings show that mPRs are present and active in Schwann cells and have a role in modulating their physiological processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Progesterone increases ex vivo testosterone production and decreases the expression of progestin receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) ovary.

    PubMed

    Chishti, Yasmin Z; Feswick, April; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    Progesterone (P4) is a metabolic precursor for a number of steroids, including estrogens and androgens. P4 also has diverse roles within the vertebrate ovary that include oocyte growth and development. The objectives of this study were to measure the effects of P4 on testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) production in the fathead minnow (FHM) ovary and on the mRNA abundance of transcripts involved in steroidogenesis and steroid receptor signaling. Ovary explants were treated with P4 (10(-6)M) for 6 and 12h. P4 administration significantly increased T production ∼3-fold at both 6 and 12h, whereas E2 production was not affected, consistent with the hypothesis that excess P4 is not converted to terminal estrogens in the mature ovary. Nuclear progesterone receptor mRNA was decreased at 6h and membrane progesterone receptor gamma-2 mRNA was significantly down-regulated at both 6 and 12h; however there was no change in membrane progesterone receptor alpha or beta mRNA levels. Androgen receptor (ar) and estrogen receptor 2a (esr2a) mRNA were significantly reduced at 6h with P4 treatment, but there was no change in esr2b mRNA at either time point. Transcripts for enzymes in the steroid pathway (star, hsd11b2) were significantly lower at 6h compared to controls, whereas cyp17a and cyp19a mRNA abundance did not change with treatments at either time point. These data suggest that P4 incubation can lead to increased T production in the FHM ovary without a concomitant change in E2, and that the membrane bound progestin receptors are differentially regulated by P4 in the teleost ovary. As environmental progestins have received increased attention due to their suspected role as endocrine disruptors, mechanistic data on the role of exogenous P4 treatments in the male and female gonad is warranted.

  17. Activation of the Src/p21ras/Erk pathway by progesterone receptor via cross-talk with estrogen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A; Piccolo, D; Castoria, G; Di Domenico, M; Bilancio, A; Lombardi, M; Gong, W; Beato, M; Auricchio, F

    1998-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which ovarian hormones stimulate growth of breast tumors are unclear. It has been reported previously that estrogens activate the signal-transducing Src/p21(ras)/Erk pathway in human breast cancer cells via an interaction of estrogen receptor (ER) with c-Src. We now show that progestins stimulate human breast cancer T47D cell proliferation and induce a similar rapid and transient activation of the pathway which, surprisingly, is blocked not only by anti-progestins but also by anti-estrogens. In Cos-7 cells transfected with the B isoform of progesterone receptor (PRB), progestin activation of the MAP kinase pathway depends on co-transfection of ER. A transcriptionally inactive PRB mutant also activates the signaling pathway, demonstrating that this activity is independent of transcriptional effects. PRB does not interact with c-Src but associates via the N-terminal 168 amino acids with ER. This association is required for the signaling pathway activation by progestins. We propose that ER transmits to the Src/p21(ras)/Erk pathway signals received from the agonist-activated PRB. These findings reveal a hitherto unrecognized cross-talk between ovarian hormones which could be crucial for their growth-promoting effects on cancer cells. PMID:9524123

  18. Identification of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Progesterone Receptor Gene and Its Association With Reproductive Traits in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, R.; Merchán, M.; Santacreu, M. A.; Argente, M. J.; García, M. L.; Folch, J. M.; Blasco, A.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 598 F2 does from a cross between the high and low lines selected divergently for uterine capacity during 10 generations were used in a candidate gene analysis. The presence of major genes affecting the number of implanted embryos and uterine capacity has been suggested in lines divergently selected for uterine capacity. Uterine capacity is a main component of litter size. The progesterone receptor gene was tested as a candidate gene to determine whether polymorphisms explain differences in litter size and its components. Fragments of the promoter region and exons 1–8 were amplified and sequenced. One SNP was found in the promoter region, 2464G>A, three SNPs in the 5′-UTR exon 1, and a silence SNP in exon 7. The first four SNPs were segregated in two haplotypes. The allele G found in the promoter region was found in 75% of the high-line parental animals and in 29% of the low-line parental animals. The GG genotype had 0.5 kits and 0.5 implanted embryos more than the AA genotype. At 48 hr of gestation, the difference in early embryo survival and embryonic stage of development was small. However, at 72 hr of gestation, the GG genotype had 0.36 embryos more than the AA genotype and also had a more advanced embryonic stage of development, showing a lower percentage of compacted morulae and a higher percentage of blastocysts. The difference in litter size between the GG and GA genotypes was similar to the difference found between homozygote genotypes; however, differences in implanted embryos, early embryo survival, and embryo development were not detected between the GG and GA genotypes. PMID:18791246

  19. Loss of Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression is associated with estrogen and progesterone receptors negativity in invasive breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Tufail, Rozina; Jorda, Mercy; Zhao, Wei; Reis, Isildinha; Nawaz, Zafar

    2011-01-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a well characterized transcriptional coactivator that interacts with various transcription factors and modulates their transcriptional activities. Phosphorylation of YAP by specific kinases regulates its cellular distribution and transcriptional activation functions. Sequestration of phosphorylated YAP in cytoplasm results in the reduction of transcription from its target genes. Since, YAP has been characterized as a coactivator of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, we examined the immunohistochemical expression profile of YAP and correlation of YAP expression with that of ER and PR in normal (40 samples) and tumor breast (226 samples) from microarray tissue samples using immunohistochemistry. Here we show that YAP expression is significantly reduced in invasive carcinoma samples compared to normal breast tissues, which express high levels of YAP (YAP was positive for 45.1% of invasive carcinoma samples vs. 82.5% of normal samples p<.0001). Furthermore, our data shows that reduced expression of YAP in invasive carcinoma samples is significantly associated with ER negativity (YAP was negative for 59.9% in ER negative vs. 38.9% in ER positive invasive carcinoma samples, p=0.007) and PR negativity (YAP was negative for 60.1% in PR negative vs. 28.9% in PR positive, p=0.0004). Among invasive carcinoma samples, 42.9% were YAP, ER and PR negative, whereas only 7.5% were found to be YAP, ER and PR positive. On the contrary, 20 out of 23 (87%) normal breast tissues that were positive for ER and PR were also positive for YAP. These data suggest that YAP may act as a tumor suppressor in invasive breast carcinomas and it can also be used as a molecular marker for ER and PR negative breast tumors. PMID:21399893

  20. Expression of genes involved in progesterone receptor paracrine signaling and their effect on litter size in pigs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Fu, Jinluan; Wang, Aiguo

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic mortality during the period of implantation strongly affects litter size in pigs. Progesterone receptor (PGR) paracrine signaling has been recognized to play a significant role in embryonic implantation. IHH, NR2F2, BMP2, FKBP4 and HAND2 were proved to involve in PGR paracrine signaling. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of IHH, NR2F2, BMP2, FKBP4 and HAND2 in endometrium of pregnant sows and to further investigate these genes' effect on litter size in pigs. Real-time PCR, western blot and immunostaining were used to study target genes/proteins expression in endometrium in pigs. RFLP-PCR was used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of target genes. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of IHH, NR2F2 and BMP2 were up-regulated during implantation period (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). All target proteins were mainly observed in luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium. Interestingly, the staining of NR2F2 and HAND2 was also strong in stroma. SNPs detection revealed that there was a -204C > A mutation in promoter region of NR2F2 gene. Three genotypes were found in Large White, Landrace and Duroc sows. A total of 1847 litter records from 625 sows genotyped at NR2F2 gene were used to analyze the total number born (TNB) and number born alive (NBA). The study of the effect on litter size suggested that sows with genotype CC tend to have higher litter size. These results showed the expression patterns of genes/proteins involved in PGR paracrine signaling over implantation time. And the candidate gene for litter size was identified from genes involved in this signaling. This study could be a resource for further studies to identify the roles of these genes for embryonic implantation in pigs.

  1. Quantitative analysis of expression level of estrogen and progesterone receptors and VEGF genes in human endometrial stromal cells after treatment with nicotine.

    PubMed

    Totonchi, Hamidreza; Miladpour, Behnoosh; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh; Khademi, Fatemeh; Kasraeian, Maryam; Zal, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of toxic chemicals, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, and several recognized carcinogens and mutagens. Nicotine has a direct disturbing influence on steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone), which are essential components of the female reproductive system, but the effect of nicotine on the hormone receptors is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of nicotine on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in endometrial stromal cells. Expression levels of PR, ER, and VEGF in human endometrial stromal primary cells treated with nicotine (0, 10(-11), 10(-8), and 10(-6 )μM) for 24 h were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. MTT assay demonstrated that nicotine decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time PCR data showed that despite decrease in ER expression in the nicotine-treated groups compared with the control, nicotine exerted an increased inhibitory effect on PR expression compared to that on ER expression. VEGF mRNA expression in nicotine-treated endometrial stromal cells was increased. The results from this study provide novel evidence for inhibitory effects of nicotine on steroid hormones receptor expression in human primary endometrial cells. Also, our data suggest that nicotine might have angiogenesis effects on these cells.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α upregulates progesterone receptor-A by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway in human decidua after labor onset.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z Y; Guo, Y Y; Ren, H B; Zou, Y F; Fan, M S; Lv, Y; Han, P; De, W; Sun, L Z

    2012-01-01

    To date, the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and progesterone receptors (PRs) has been little studied, although both mediate the mechanism of parturition in human deciduas. Thus, the aim of study was to investigate the role of an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, in regulating progesterone withdrawal in decidua at human parturition. TNF-α levels and PR isoforms were compared in intrauterine deciduas from women who were in labor (IL, n = 10) or who were not in labor (NIL, n = 10). Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling and PR status were analyzed in NIL deciduas after TNF-α stimulation. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to localize and quantitate protein and mRNA expression. TNF-α immunostaining, protein levels, PR-A/PR-B ratio and COX-2 level were significantly higher in IL deciduas (all P < 0.05). NF-κB was activated by TNF-α after 24 h stimulation in a dose-dependent manner, and was significantly inactivated by the NF-κB inhibitor panepoxydone, which was associated with decreased PR-A and COX-2 expression (P < 0.05) in not in labor deciduas. In conclusion, TNF-α may have an important role in regulating progesterone withdrawal in human decidua following labor onset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-association energetics of an intact, full-length nuclear receptor: the B-isoform of human progesterone receptor dimerizes in the micromolar range.

    PubMed

    Heneghan, Aaron F; Berton, Nancy; Miura, Michael T; Bain, David L

    2005-07-12

    We are focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying eukaryotic gene regulation, using the human progesterone receptor (PR) and its interactions with its DNA response elements as a model system. An understanding of PR function is complicated by the presence of two transcriptionally distinct isoforms, an 83 kDa A-receptor (PR-A) and a 99 kDa B-receptor (PR-B). The two isoforms are identical except the B-receptor contains an additional 164 residues at its N-terminus. As a first step toward understanding the principles by which the two isoforms assemble at complex promoters, we examined the energetics of PR-B self-association using sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium methods. Full-length human PR-B was purified to 95% homogeneity from baculovirus-infected insect cells. Using a fluorescence hormone binding assay, we determined the purified protein to be highly active in its ability to bind ligand. Sedimentation velocity studies of hormone-bound PR-B at pH 8.0, 4 degrees C, and 50 mM NaCl demonstrate that it undergoes a concentration-dependent change in its sedimentation coefficient, existing as a 4.0S species at submicromolar concentrations but forming a 5.7S species at higher concentrations. These results strongly suggest that PR-B undergoes self-association in the micromolar range. This hypothesis was examined rigorously using sedimentation equilibrium. Global analysis of the sedimentation equilibrium data demonstrated that PR-B self-association was well described by a monomer-dimer model with a dimerization free energy of -7.2 +/- 0.7 kcal/mol. The role of NaCl in regulating PR-B dimerization was examined by carrying out sedimentation velocity and equilibrium studies under high salt conditions. At 300 mM NaCl, PR-B is exclusively monomeric in the micromolar range, thus revealing a significant ionic contribution to the assembly energetics. Further, the monomer sediments as a structurally homogeneous, but highly asymmetric, 4.0S species. Limited

  4. The effect of cold ischemic time on the immunohistochemical evaluation of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression in invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yildiz-Aktas, Isil Z; Dabbs, David J; Bhargava, Rohit

    2012-08-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologist (ASCO/CAP) guidelines on breast cancer currently recommend a cold ischemic time of <1 h, although data are limited. Breast resection specimens were subjected to variable cold ischemic time periods (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 24, and 48 h) within the refrigerator and at room temperature. The study included 25 tumors, all of which had refrigerated samples. Non-refrigerated samples (samples at room temperature) were present on 23 cases. Hormone receptors were semi-quantitatively scored using the H-score method. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene ERBB2 (HER2) was scored using the ASCO/CAP guidelines. The results were compared with the core biopsy scores, which have negligible cold ischemic time period before fixation. Mild reduction in staining for hormone receptors was judged present if the H-score on the resection specimen was between one-half and three-fourth of the H-score at core biopsy. Significant reduction was judged present when the H-score on resection was less than one-half of the core biopsy H-score. Mild reduction in HER2 staining was judged present if there was one-step reduction; and significant reduction was judged present if there was two-step reduction in staining. A true reduction was judged present only when the reduction was consistently present for the increasing time interval. A focal reduction for a particular time sample was attributed to the heterogeneity of the tumor sample. Non-refrigerated samples are affected more by prolonged cold ischemic time than refrigerated samples. Cold ischemic time period of as short as one-half hour may occasionally impact the immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for progesterone receptor. Significant reduction in IHC staining for hormone receptors, and HER2, however, generally does not result until 4 h for refrigerated samples and 2 h for non-refrigerated samples. The ASCO/CAP guideline of cold ischemic time period of <1 h is a prudent

  5. Levels of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and αB-crystallin in eutopic endometrium in relation to pregnancy in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Moberg, Christian; Bourlev, Vladimir; Ilyasova, Natalia; Olovsson, Matts

    2015-03-01

    Endometriosis affects fertility in many women and may partly be due to decreased endometrial receptivity. Several mechanisms have been suggested, notably, progesterone resistance for which a number of candidate biomarkers have been suggested. Here we demonstrate aberrant levels of steroid hormone receptors and the small heat shock protein αB-crystallin in eutopic endometrial epithelium from 38 women with peritoneal endometriosis diagnosed during investigation for secondary infertility. Spontaneous pregnancies within 1 year after medical and surgical treatment for endometriosis were recorded and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry data compared between women with endometriosis who did or did not become pregnant and healthy controls. Stronger immunostaining for ER-α was detected in luminal and glandular endometrial epithelium from women with endometriosis who did not become pregnant during the post-treatment observation period versus endometriosis patients who became pregnant and controls. Staining levels of PR and PR-B were lower in patients without subsequent pregnancies than in the two other groups. Endometrial levels of αB-crystallin in endometriosis patients similar to those in controls were strongly correlated with the chance of becoming pregnant, whereas higher or lower levels were not.

  6. Progesterone receptor (PR) polyproline domain (PPD) mediates inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kawprasertsri, Sornsawan; Pietras, Richard J; Marquez-Garban, Diana C; Boonyaratanakornkit, Viroj

    2016-05-01

    Recent evidence has suggested a possible role for progesterone receptor (PR) in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, little is known concerning roles of PR in NSCLC. PR contains a polyproline domain (PPD), which directly binds to the SH3 domain of signaling molecules. Because PPD-SH3 interactions are essential for EGFR signaling, we hypothesized that the presence of PR-PPD interfered with EGFR-mediated signaling and cell proliferation. We examined the role of PR-PPD in cell proliferation and signaling by stably expressing PR-B, or PR-B with disrupting mutations in the PPD (PR-BΔSH3), from a tetracycline-regulated promoter in A549 NSCLC cells. PR-B dose-dependently inhibited cell growth in the absence of ligand, and progestin (R5020) treatment further suppressed the growth. Treatment with RU486 abolished PR-B- and R5020-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. Expression of PR-BΔSH3 and treatment with R5020 or RU486 had no effect on cell proliferation. Furthermore, PR-B expression but not PR-BΔSH3 expression reduced EGF-induced A549 proliferation and activation of ERK1/2, in the absence of ligand. Taken together, our data demonstrated the significance of PR extranuclear signaling through PPD interactions in EGFR-mediated proliferation and signaling in NSCLC.

  7. Lysine Methylation of Progesterone Receptor at Activation Function 1 Regulates both Ligand-independent Activity and Ligand Sensitivity of the Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hwa Hwa; Sze, Siu Kwan; Woo, Amanda Rui En; Sun, Yang; Sim, Kae Hwan; Dong, Xue Ming; Lin, Valerie C-L.

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) exists in two isoforms, PRA and PRB, and both contain activation functions AF-1 and AF-2. It is believed that AF-1 is primarily responsible for the ligand-independent activity, whereas AF-2 mediates ligand-dependent PR activation. Although more than a dozen post-translational modifications of PR have been reported, no post-translational modification on AF-1 or AF-2 has been reported. Using LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis, this study revealed AF-1 monomethylation at Lys-464. Mutational analysis revealed the remarkable importance of Lys-464 in regulating PR activity. Single point mutation K464Q or K464A led to ligand-independent PR gel upshift similar to the ligand-induced gel upshift. This upshift was associated with increases in both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent PR phosphorylation and PR activity due to the hyperactivation of AF-1. In contrast, mutation of Lys-464 to the bulkier phenylalanine to mimic the effect of methylation caused a drastic decrease in PR activity. Importantly, PR-K464Q also showed heightened ligand sensitivity, and this was associated with increases in its functional interaction with transcription co-regulators NCoR1 and SRC-1. These results suggest that monomethylation of PR at Lys-464 probably has a repressive effect on AF-1 activity and ligand sensitivity. PMID:24415758

  8. Lysine methylation of progesterone receptor at activation function 1 regulates both ligand-independent activity and ligand sensitivity of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hwa Hwa; Sze, Siu Kwan; Woo, Amanda Rui En; Sun, Yang; Sim, Kae Hwan; Dong, Xue Ming; Lin, Valerie C-L

    2014-02-28

    Progesterone receptor (PR) exists in two isoforms, PRA and PRB, and both contain activation functions AF-1 and AF-2. It is believed that AF-1 is primarily responsible for the ligand-independent activity, whereas AF-2 mediates ligand-dependent PR activation. Although more than a dozen post-translational modifications of PR have been reported, no post-translational modification on AF-1 or AF-2 has been reported. Using LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis, this study revealed AF-1 monomethylation at Lys-464. Mutational analysis revealed the remarkable importance of Lys-464 in regulating PR activity. Single point mutation K464Q or K464A led to ligand-independent PR gel upshift similar to the ligand-induced gel upshift. This upshift was associated with increases in both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent PR phosphorylation and PR activity due to the hyperactivation of AF-1. In contrast, mutation of Lys-464 to the bulkier phenylalanine to mimic the effect of methylation caused a drastic decrease in PR activity. Importantly, PR-K464Q also showed heightened ligand sensitivity, and this was associated with increases in its functional interaction with transcription co-regulators NCoR1 and SRC-1. These results suggest that monomethylation of PR at Lys-464 probably has a repressive effect on AF-1 activity and ligand sensitivity.

  9. WT1, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor as markers for breast or ovarian primary sites in metastatic adenocarcinoma to body fluids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin H; Hecht, Jonathan L; Pinkus, Jack L; Pinkus, Geraldine S

    2002-05-01

    In tissue sections, detection of the Wilms tumor susceptibility gene 1 (WTI) protein, the hormonal receptors for estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR), and gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP) are useful for diagnosing ovarian and breast adenocarcinomas. We evaluated these markers for cytology cell-block preparations from 96 effusion specimens (metastases from 29 breast, 22 ovarian, and 45 adenocarcinomas from other sites). WTI protein was reactive in 19 cases inetastatic from ovary (86%), 2 from breast (7%), and none from other sites (specificity; 97%). Of the metastatic breast carcinomas, 21(72%) were reactive for ER, 15(52%) for PR, and 13 (45%) for both (combined specificity, 84%). GCDEP was reactive in only 4 breast cancer cases (14%). Ovarian tumors also were frequently positive for ER (19 [86%]), PR (II [SO%]), or both (10 [45%]). WTI protein is an effective marker for ovarian adenocarcinoma, especially in ascites. The detection of ER and PR in metastatic adenocarcinoma from pleural or pericardial efflusions can distinguish breast from lung primary sites. Reactivity for ER and PR did not distinguish between breast and ovarian metastases; however; studies for WTI protein and GCDFP may aid in making this distinction.

  10. Alpha-Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors Modulate Kisspeptin Effects on Prolactin: Role in Estradiol-Induced Prolactin Surge in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Nayara S S; Araujo-Lopes, Roberta; Henriques, Patricia C; Lopes, Felipe E F; Gusmao, Daniela O; Coimbra, Candido C; Franci, Celso R; Reis, Adelina M; Szawka, Raphael E

    2017-04-06

    Kisspeptin regulates prolactin (PRL) in an estradiol-dependent manner. We investigated the interaction between ovarian-steroid receptors and kisspeptin in the control of PRL secretion. Intracerebroventricular injections of kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) or kisspeptin-234 (Kp-234) were performed in ovariectomized (OVX) rats under different hormonal treatments. Kp-10 increased PRL release and decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacet acid (DOPAC) levels in the median eminence (ME) of OVX rats treated with estradiol (OVX+E), which was prevented by tamoxifen. Whereas these effects of Kp-10 were absent in OVX rats, they were replicated in OVX rats treated with selective agonist of estrogen receptor (ER)α, propylpyrazole triol (PPT), but not of ERβ, diarylpropionitrile (DPN). Furthermore, the Kp-10-induced increase in PRL was 2-fold higher in OVX+E rats further treated with progesterone (OVX+EP), which was associated with a reduced expression of both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and Ser40-phosphorylated TH in the ME. Kp-10 also reduced dopamine levels in the ME of OVX+EP rats, an effect blocked by the progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist, RU486. We also determined the effect of kisspeptin antagonism with Kp-234 on the estradiol-induced surges of PRL and luteinizing hormone (LH), using tail-tip blood sampling combined with ultrasensitive ELISA. Kp-234 impaired the early phase of the PRL surge and prevented the LH surge in OVX+E rats. Thus, we provide evidence for the first time that kisspeptin stimulation of PRL release requires ERα and is potentiated by progesterone via PR activation. Moreover, alongside its essential role in the LH surge, kisspeptin seems to play a role in the peak phase of the estradiol-induced PRL surge.

  11. Oestrogen, progesterone and oxytocin receptors and COX-2 expression in endometrial biopsy samples from the induction of ovulation to luteolysis in llamas (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C P; Meikle, A; Alvarez, M A; Benavente, M A; Cavilla, M V; Rodríguez, E; Aba, M A

    2013-08-01

    Endometrial expression of oestrogen (ERα), progesterone (PR) and oxytocin receptor (OR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was evaluated from the induction of ovulation to luteolysis in llamas. Ovarian activity was daily assessed by ultrasonography in five females. Ovulation was induced immediately after the detection of an ovulatory follicle by a GnRH injection (Day 0). Endometrial samples were obtained by transcervical biopsies from the left and right horns on day 0 and days 4, 8, 10 and 12 post-GnRH. Blood samples were collected daily for progesterone and estradiol-17β determinations by RIA. An immunohistochemical technique was used to study receptors population and COX-2 expression which were then evaluated by two independent observers. The expression of ERα and PR was highest on day 0 in the luminal epithelium and stroma in association with high plasma estradiol-17β concentrations. Thereafter, a decrease in ERα population was registered on day 4 and a new increase of its expression was observed between days 8 and 12 in those cell types. Conversely, PR population was gradually down-regulated until its lowest expression was reached on day 10 post-GnRH in the luminal epithelium. Content of OR was similar throughout the study in all cell types. The expression of COX-2 was highest from day 8 to 12 post-GnRH in the luminal epithelium, in relation to the time of maximal PGF2α release. Both steroid receptors populations and COX-2 expression were similar between horns. Meanwhile, OR expression was higher in the right than in the left uterine horn. In summary, this study showed that the loss of endometrium sensitivity to progesterone by days 8-10 post-induction of ovulation and the concomitant increase of COX-2 expression could play a key role in the mechanism of luteolysis and somehow be related to the short corpus luteum lifespan of llamas. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Paragon (ANZGOG-0903): Phase 2 Study of Anastrozole in Women With Estrogen or Progesterone Receptor-Positive Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Recurrent Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Anthony; OʼConnell, Rachel L; Mapagu, Cristina; Beale, Philip J; McNally, Orla M; Mileshkin, Linda R; Grant, Peter T; Hadley, Alison M; Goh, Jeffery C H; Sjoquist, Katrin M; Martyn, Julie; DeFazio, Anna; Scurry, James; Friedlander, Michael L

    2017-06-01

    There is some evidence that a subset of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer may benefit from antiestrogen therapy. The Paragon study is a basket protocol that includes a series of phase 2 trials investigating the activity of anastrozole in patients with estrogen or progesterone receptor-positive recurrent gynecological cancers. We report the results of treatment in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Postmenopausal women who had estrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory recurrent ovarian cancer and disease measurable by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 or GCIG (Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup) CA-125 criteria were eligible. Patients received anastrozole 1 mg daily until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The study was prospectively registered (ACTRN12610000796088). There were 49 evaluable patients, and clinical benefit was observed in 13 (27%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-40%). There were no complete or partial RECIST version 1.1 responses. Clinical benefit was associated with higher global quality-of-life scores. Median progression-free survival was 2.7 months (95% CI, 2.0-2.8 months). The median duration of clinical benefit was 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.6-5.7 months). Most patients (83%) progressed within 6 months. Seven patients continued on treatment for longer than 6 months. Anastrozole was well tolerated in most patients. Subgroup analysis suggested greater clinical benefit in patients with tumors with estrogen-receptor histoscore of more than 200, but this difference was not statistically significant. A subset of patients with estrogen- or progesterone-positive platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory recurrent epithelial ovarian cancers derives clinical benefit from anastrozole, with acceptable toxicity. The challenge remains how to identify them.

  13. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-2 within the immature rat ovary and its role in regulating mitosis and apoptosis of spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Daniel; Liu, Xiufang; Pru, Cindy; Pru, James K; Peluso, John J

    2014-08-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (Pgrmc2) mRNA was detected in the immature rat ovary. By 48 h after eCG, Pgrmc2 mRNA levels decreased by 40% and were maintained at 48 h post-hCG. Immunohistochemical studies detected PGRMC2 in oocytes and ovarian surface epithelial, interstitial, thecal, granulosa, and luteal cells. PGRMC2 was also present in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells, localizing to the cytoplasm of interphase cells and apparently to the mitotic spindle of cells in metaphase. Interestingly, PGRMC2 levels appeared to decrease during the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Moreover, overexpression of PGRMC2 suppressed entry into the cell cycle, possibly by binding the p58 form of cyclin dependent kinase 11b. Conversely, Pgrmc2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment increased the percentage of cells in G1 and M stage but did not increase the number of cells, which was likely due to an increase in apoptosis. Depleting PGRMC2 did not inhibit cellular (3)H-progesterone binding, but attenuated the ability of progesterone to suppress mitosis and apoptosis. Taken together these studies suggest that PGRMC2 affects granulosa cell mitosis by acting at two specific stages of the cell cycle. First, PGRMC2 regulates the progression from the G0 into the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Second, PGRMC2 appears to localize to the mitotic spindle, where it likely promotes the final stages of mitosis. Finally, siRNA knockdown studies indicate that PGRMC2 is required for progesterone to slow the rate of granulosa cell mitosis and apoptosis. These findings support a role for PGRMC2 in ovarian follicle development.

  14. Lowering oral contraceptive norethindrone dose increases estrogen and progesterone receptor levels with no reduction in proliferation of breast epithelium: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Taylor, DeShawn; Hawes, Debra; Spicer, Darcy V; Press, Michael F; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C; Pearce, C Leigh

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to compare breast epithelial-cell proliferation and estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in women taking one of two oral contraceptives (OCs) containing the same dose of estrogen but different doses of the progestin norethindrone (NET). Thirty-three women were randomly assigned 1:1 to one of two OCs with 35-mcg ethinylestradiol (EE2) but different doses of NET - 1 or 0.4 mg. At the end of the active pill phase of the third OC cycle, a breast biopsy was performed and the percentages of epithelial cells of the terminal duct lobular units were measured for Ki67 (MIB1), progesterone receptors A and B (PRA and PRB, respectively), and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The biopsies from 27 women had sufficient epithelium for analysis. The percentages of cells positive for PRA, PRB and ERα were approximately double with the lower progestin dose (PRA: p=.041; PRB: p=.030; ERα: p=.056). The Ki67 percentage was not reduced with the lower progestin dose (12.5% for 0.4-mg NET vs. 7.8% for 1.0-mg NET). The increase in PRA-, PRB- and ERα-positive cells with the 60% lower progestin dose OC appears likely to account for its failure to decrease breast-cell proliferation. This breast-cell proliferation result is contrary to that predicted from the results of lowering the medroxyprogesterone acetate dose in menopausal hormone therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lowering oral contraceptive norethindrone dose increases estrogen and progesterone receptor levels with no reduction in proliferation of breast epithelium: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Taylor, DeShawn; Hawes, Debra; Spicer, Darcy V.; Press, Michael F.; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Pearce, C. Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to compare breast epithelial-cell proliferation and estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in women taking one of two oral contraceptives (OCs) containing the same dose of estrogen but different doses of the progestin norethindrone (NET). Study Design Thirty-three women were randomly assigned 1:1 to one of two OCs with 35-mcg ethinylestradiol (EE2) but different doses of NET - 1 mg or 0.4 mg. At the end of the active pill phase of the third OC cycle, a breast biopsy was performed and the percentages of epithelial cells of the terminal duct lobular units were measured for Ki67 (MIB1), progesterone receptors A and B (PRA and PRB), and estrogen receptor α (ERα). Results The biopsies from 27 women had sufficient epithelium for analysis. The percentage of cells positive for PRA, PRB, and ERα were approximately double with the lower progestin dose (PRA: p = 0.041; PRB: p = 0.030; ERα: p = 0.056). The Ki67 percentage was not reduced with the lower progestin dose (0.4-mg NET - 12.5% vs 1.0-mg NET - 7.8%). Conclusions The increase in PRA, PRB, and ERα positive cells with the 60% lower progestin dose OC appears likely to account for its failure to decrease breast-cell proliferation. This breast-cell proliferation result is contrary to that predicted from the results of lowering the medroxyprogesterone acetate dose in menopausal hormone therapy. PMID:22325110

  16. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) (beta)cx protein in ER(alpha)-positive breast cancer: specific correlation with progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Saji, Shigehira; Omoto, Yoko; Shimizu, Chikako; Warner, Margaret; Hayashi, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Shin-ichiro; Watanabe, Toru; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Toi, Masakazu

    2002-09-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) (beta)cx, a splice variant of ERbeta, is a dominant repressor of ER(alpha) function. In this study we investigated the possibility that because the progesterone receptor (PR) gene is a downstream target of activated ER(alpha), in ER(alpha)-positive breast cancers, expression of ER(beta)cx would result in repression of PR. In ER(alpha)-positive MCF-7 cells, stable transfection of an ER(beta)cx expression vector resulted in reduced expression of PR without affecting ER(alpha) expression. In breast cancers, immunohistochemical evaluation of ER(alpha)-positive foci for the expression of PR and ER(beta)cx revealed a significant correlation between a PR-negative phenotype and the presence of ER(beta)cx within the foci. However, when entire lesions were evaluated by Allred scoring in 115 ER(alpha)-positive breast cancer specimens, the presence of two distinct groups of patients could be discerned. One group expressed ER(beta)cx and had very reduced levels of PR expression, as expected. The second group showed both ER(beta)cx and high levels of PR. To evaluate the role of ER(beta)cx in sensitivity to tamoxifen, 18 core needle biopsies, obtained before preoperative treatment with tamoxifen, were investigated. The results show that expression of ER(beta)cx in primary lesions correlated with a poor response to tamoxifen, especially in cancers with a low PR expression in Allred score. This is the first evidence that evaluation of ER(beta)cx along with PR may contribute to a better characterization of ER(alpha)-positive breast cancers.

  17. Bovine luteal prolactin receptor expression: potential involvement in regulation of progesterone during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, I M; Ozawa, M; Bubolz, J W; Yang, Q; Dahl, G E

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, we performed quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qPCR) to examine changes in gene expression of prolactin receptor (long form: l-PRLR; short form: s-PRLR) and 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD; EC 1.1.1.149) in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Western blotting was used to determine protein abundance. Bovine CL were collected and luteal stages (n = 6/stage) were classified by macroscopic observation as early (d 1 to 4 after ovulation), mid (d 5 to 10), late (d 11 to 17), and regressing (d 18 to 20). A CL of pregnancy (n = 6) was determined by the presence of conceptus (d 28 to term). The mRNA for both forms of PRLR were expressed at all the luteal stages. Expression of s-PRLR and l-PRLR mRNA was less (P < 0.01) during early and regressing luteal stages compared with mid and late stages. Expression of s-PRLR mRNA in CL of pregnancy was greater (P < 0.01) than early, mid, and regressing CL and did not differ from late luteal stage expression. A greater (P < 0.01) expression of l-PRLR mRNA was observed in pregnant vs. early and regressing CL. In addition, qPCR showed the presence of 20α-HSD mRNA during all luteal stages of the estrous cycle, with the greatest (P < 0.01) expression observed in the regressing luteal stage. Western blotting revealed protein abundance of both PRLR isoforms during all luteal stages and pregnancy, with a predominance of the s-PRLR protein. Densitometry analysis indicated that protein abundances of s-PRLR were greater (P < 0.05) than l-PRLR during early, mid, and late luteal stages and did not differ during the regressing luteal stage. Protein abundances of 20α-HSD were least (P < 0.05) during the early luteal stage. In conclusion, results of the current study suggest a possible involvement of PRLR, especially s-PRLR, in the regulation of progesterone secretion and metabolism during the bovine estrous cycle and pregnancy.

  18. Developmental and hormone-induced epigenetic changes to estrogen and progesterone receptor genes in brain are dynamic across the life span.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M; Nugent, Bridget M; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2010-10-01

    Sexual differentiation of the rodent brain occurs during a perinatal critical period when androgen production from the male testis is locally converted to estradiol in neurons, resulting in masculinization of adult sexual behavior. Adult brain responses to hormones are programmed developmentally by estradiol exposure, but the mechanism(s) by which these changes are permanently organized remains poorly understood. Activation of steroid receptors plays a major role in organization of the brain, and we hypothesized that estradiol-induced alteration of steroid-receptor gene methylation is a critical component to this process. Estrogen receptor (ER)-α and ER-β and progesterone receptor are expressed at high levels within the preoptic area (POA) and the mediobasal hypothalamus, two brain regions critical for the expression of male and female sexual behavior. The percent methylation on the ER-α promoter increased markedly across development. During the critical period of sexual differentiation, females had significantly increased methylation than males or females masculinized with estradiol at two CpG sites. By adulthood, the neonatal sex difference and hormonal modulation of methylation were replaced with a new pattern at a different CpG site on the ER-α promoter. In contrast, the percent methylation on the progesterone receptor and ER-β promoter did not change developmentally but was modulated by hormones and exhibited only late emerging transient sex differences. These data indicate that sex differences in the methylation pattern of genes important for sexual behavior are epigenetically modified during development, but the specific changes observed do not endure and are not necessarily temporally associated with neonatal hormone exposure.

  19. Evaluation of the progesterone receptor status in breast cancer using three different antibodies: a comparison by Allred score system

    PubMed Central

    Daltoé, Renata Dalmaschio; Madeira, Klesia Pirola; de Carvalho, Alex Assis; de Rezende, Lucas Cunha Dias; Silva, Ian Victor; Rangel, Leticia Batista Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) hormonal receptors status is assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a specific, sensitive, and accessible method that guide breast cancer treatment. In this study, we evaluated progesterone receptor (PR) expression in 53 BC cases using 3 anti-PgR antibodies (AB): monoclonal (SP42 and PgR636) and polyclonal ab62621. Primary BC cases (with signed informed consent) were used to generate tissue microarray platforms, where PR expression was accessed by IHC and evaluated by the Allred score. Categorical and quantitative data are shown in percentage and mean, respectively. Concordance (CON) and correlation among ABs were analyzed by Kappa factor (Κ), Spearman’s correlation coefficient (ρ) or intraclass correlation coefficient. Staining patterns of each AB were compared by paired T-Test. We noted poor CON and Κ between ab62621 vs SP42 (CON=64.1%; Κ=0.247), and ab62621 vs PgR636 (CON=62.3%; Κ=0.204), but higher CON between SP42 vs PgR636 (CON 90.6%; Κ=0.738). Data were corroborated by Mc Nemar statistical test (p=0.019, p=0.014 and p>0.05, respectively). Regarding staining intensity (SI) among PgR+ samples, we found higher proportion of weak staining and lower SI for ab62621 (48.3%; mean IS=1.6), when compared to SP42 (20.0%, mean IS=2.1, T-test p<0.01) and PgR636 (2.3, 21.9%, T-test p<0.01). Within the entire sample, similar results were observed following ρ: SP42 vs PgR636 (ρ=0.8103); ab62621 vs SP42 (ρ=0.3524); ab62621 vs PgR636 (ρ=0.4075). As for proportion of stained cells and proportion score (PS), among PgR+ samples, the mean values for ab62621 (75.4%; 4.8) were significantly higher than those of SP42 (56.3%, 4.3; T-test p<0.01) and RPG636 (60.1%; 4.2; T-test p<0.01). Similar data were found after analyzing PS for the entire sample: SP42 vs PgR636 (ρ=0.8588); SP42 vs ab62621 (ρ=0.4832); RPG636 vs ab62621 (ρ=0.4050). Our data indicate that anti-PgR monoclonal ABs, PgR636 and SP42, are, unlike ab62621, equally suitable to test BC Pg

  20. Differential Spatiotemporal Regulation of Lactoferrin and Progesterone Receptor Genes in the Mouse Uterus by Primary Estrogen, Catechol Estrogen, and Xenoestrogen*

    PubMed Central

    DAS, SANJOY K.; TAN, JIAN; JOHNSON, DONALD C.; DEY, SUDHANSU K.

    2014-01-01

    Many xenobiotics are considered reproductive toxins because of their ability to interact with the nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). However, there is evidence that these xenobiotics can regulate gene expression in the reproductive targets by mechanisms that do not involve these ERs. To examine this further, we compared the effects of estrogenic (o,p′-DDT [1-(o-chlorophenyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)2,2,2-trichloroethane] and Kepone, chlordecone) and nonestrogenic (p,p′-DDD [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], a metabolite of p,p′-DDT) xenobiotics with those of 17β-estradiol (E2) and 4-hydroxyestradiol-17β (4-OH-E2), a catechol metabolite of E2, on uterine expression of lactoferrin (LF) and progesterone receptor (PR). These genes are estrogen responsive in the mouse uterus. Normally, LF is expressed in the uterine epithelium, whereas PR is expressed in both the epithelium and stroma in response to estrogenic stimulation. Ovariectomized mice were injected with xenobiotics (7.5 mg/kg), E2 (10 μg/kg), 4-OH-E2 (10 μg/kg), or the vehicle (oil, 0.1 ml/mouse), and uterine tissues were processed for Northern blot and in situ hybridization. The pure antiestrogen ICI-182780 (ICI; 1 or 20 mg/kg) was used to interfere with estrogenic responses that were associated with the ERs. The results of Northern and in situ hybridization demonstrated increased uterine levels of PR and LF messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by all of these xenobiotics, but quantitatively the responses were much lower than those induced by E2 or 4-OH-E2. The results further showed that the E2-inducible epithelial LF mRNA accumulation was markedly abrogated by pretreatment with ICI (20 mg/kg). In contrast, this treatment retained the epithelial expression of PR mRNA, but down-regulated the stromal expression. In contrast, ICI had negligible effects on LF and PR mRNA responses to 4-OH-E2, indicating that this catechol estrogen exerted its effects primarily via a mechanism(s) other than the ERs. The

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450cl7alpha (CYP17) and progesterone receptor genes (PROGINS) in the assessment of endometriosis risk.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, Cristina Valleta; Nogueira-De-Souza, Naiara Correa; Costa, Ana Maria Massad; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Girão, Manoel J B C; D'Amora, Paulo; Schor, Eduardo; da Silva, Ismael D C G

    2007-01-01

    We designed the present study in order to evaluate the eventual role of polymorphisms in the genes encoding cytochrome P450c17alpha (CYP17) and the progesterone receptor (PROGINS) as risk factors for endometriosis development. Eligible cases consisted of 121 women with surgically confirmed endometriosis who underwent treatment in a hospital in São Paulo, Brazil during the period from September 2003 to September 2005. The 281 controls were participants with normal gynecological as well as pelvic ultrasound evaluation, who did not have any gynecological conditions during their reproductive lives such as pelvic pain and/or dyspareunia nor infertility history. Genomic DNA was obtained from buccal cells and processed for DNA extraction using the GFX DNA extraction kit (GE Healthcare). The CYP17 (-34T-->C) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has been described previously, as has the progesterone receptor polymorphism (PROGINS) detection assay. PROGINS heterozygosis genotype frequencies were shown to be statistically higher in endometriosis cases compared with controls. On the other hand, differences in the CYP17 polymorphism (-34T-->C) frequencies were not even close to significance (p = 0.278) according to our findings.

  2. A tissue-selective nonsteroidal progesterone receptor modulator: 7,9-difluoro-5-(3-methylcyclohex-2-enyl)-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydrochromeno[3,4-f]quinoline.

    PubMed

    Pedram, Bijan; van Oeveren, Arjan; Mais, Dale E; Marschke, Keith B; Verbost, Pieter M; Groen, Marinus B; Zhi, Lin

    2008-07-10

    The progesterone receptor plays an important role in the female reproductive system. Here we describe the discovery of a new selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM). In rats, the lead compound, 7,9-difluoro-5-(3-methylcyclohex-2-enyl)-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydrochromeno[3,4- f]quinoline ( 5c), inhibited ovulation and showed full efficacy in uterine and vaginal tissue but was a mixed partial agonist/antagonist in breast tissue. The compound also suppressed ovulation in monkeys, but in contrast to currently approved steroidal PR agonists, it did not suppress estradiol levels.

  3. Messenger RNA levels of estrogen receptors alpha and beta and progesterone receptors in the cyclic and inseminated/early pregnant sow uterus.

    PubMed

    Sukjumlong, S; Persson, E; Dalin, A-M; Janson, V; Sahlin, L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in the expression of mRNAs for ERalpha, ERbeta and PR in the sow uterus at different stages of the estrous cycle as well as in inseminated sows at estrus and during early pregnancy by use of solution hybridization and in relation to plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone. Uterine samples were collected at different stages of the estrous cycle and after insemination/early pregnancy. In the endometrium, the expression of ERalpha mRNA and PR mRNA was similar for cyclic and early pregnant groups. Both were highest at early diestrus/70 h after ovulation and ERalpha mRNA was lowest at late diestrus/d 19 while PR mRNA was lowest at diestrus and late diestrus/d 11 and d 19. The expression of endometrial ERbeta was constantly low during the estrous cycle but higher expression was found in inseminated/early pregnant sows at estrus and 70 h after ovulation. In the myometrium, high expression of ERalpha mRNA and PR mRNA was observed at proestrus and estrus in cyclic sows and at estrus in newly inseminated sows. Higher expression of myometrial ERbeta mRNA was found in inseminated/early pregnant sows compared with cyclic sows, although significant only at estrus. In conclusion, the expression of mRNAs for ERalpha, ERbeta and PR in the sow uterus differed between endometrium and myometrium as well as with stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. In addition to plasma steroid levels, the differences between cyclic and inseminated/early pregnant sows suggest that other factors, e.g. insemination and/or the presence of embryos, influence the expression of these steroid receptor mRNAs in the sow uterus.

  4. X-Ray Crystal Structure of the Ancestral 3-Ketosteroid Receptor-Progesterone-Mifepristone Complex Shows Mifepristone Bound at the Coactivator Binding Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Colucci, Jennifer K.; Ortlund, Eric A.

    2013-12-12

    Steroid receptors are a subfamily of nuclear receptors found throughout all metazoans. They are highly important in the regulation of development, inflammation, and reproduction and their misregulation has been implicated in hormone insensitivity syndromes and cancer. Steroid binding to SRs drives a conformational change in the ligand binding domain that promotes nuclear localization and subsequent interaction with coregulator proteins to affect gene regulation. SRs are important pharmaceutical targets, yet most SR-targeting drugs have off-target pharmacology leading to unwanted side effects. A better understanding of the structural mechanisms dictating ligand specificity and the evolution of the forces that created the SR-hormone pairs will enable the design of better pharmaceutical ligands. In order to investigate this relationship, we attempted to crystallize the ancestral 3-ketosteroid receptor (ancSR2) with mifepristone, a SR antagonist. Here, we present the x-ray crystal structure of the ancestral 3-keto steroid receptor (ancSR2)-progesterone complex at a resolution of 2.05 Å. This improves upon our previously reported structure of the ancSR2-progesterone complex, permitting unambiguous assignment of the ligand conformation within the binding pocket. Surprisingly, we find mifepristone, fortuitously docked at the protein surface, poised to interfere with coregulator binding. Recent attention has been given to generating pharmaceuticals that block the coregulator binding site in order to obstruct coregulator binding and achieve tissue-specific SR regulation independent of hormone binding. Mifepristone’s interaction with the coactivator cleft of this SR suggests that it may be a useful molecular scaffold for further coactivator binding inhibitor development.

  5. Human homologs of the putative G protein-coupled membrane progestin receptors (mPRalpha, beta, and gamma) localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and are not activated by progesterone.

    PubMed

    Krietsch, Tom; Fernandes, Maria Sofia; Kero, Jukka; Lösel, Ralf; Heyens, Maria; Lam, Eric W-F; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Brosens, Jan J; Gellersen, Birgit

    2006-12-01

    The steroid hormone progesterone exerts pleiotrophic functions in many cell types. Although progesterone controls transcriptional activation through binding to its nuclear receptors, it also initiates rapid nongenomic signaling events. Recently, three putative membrane progestin receptors (mPRalpha, beta, and gamma) with structural similarity to G protein-coupled receptors have been identified. These mPR isoforms are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and belong to the larger, highly conserved family of progestin and adiponectin receptors found in plants, eubacteria, and eukaryotes. The fish mPRalpha has been reported to mediate progesterone-dependent MAPK activation and inhibition of cAMP production through coupling to an inhibitory G protein. To functionally characterize the human homologs, we established human embryonic kidney 293 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines that stably express human mPRalpha, beta, or gamma. For comparison, we also established cell lines expressing the mPRalpha cloned from the spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) and Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes). Surprisingly, we found no evidence that human or fish mPRs regulate cAMP production or MAPK (ERK1/2 or p38) activation upon progesterone stimulation. Furthermore, the mPRs did not couple to a highly promiscuous G protein subunit, Galpha(q5i), in transfection studies or provoke Ca(2+) mobilization in response to progesterone. Finally, we demonstrate that transfected mPRs, as well as endogenous human mPRalpha, localize to the endoplasmic reticulum, and that their expression does not lead to increased progestin binding either in membrane preparations or in intact cells. Our results therefore do not support the concept that mPRs are plasma membrane receptors involved in transducing nongenomic progesterone actions.

  6. Ratio of concentrations of estrogen receptors to progesterone receptors (ER/PR) in the cytosol of breast cancers (stratification by forming of groups differing in PR).

    PubMed

    Hochmann, J

    2007-01-01

    The ratio of cytosol concentrations of estrogen receptors to progesterone receptors (ER/PR) can help at the diagnosis of the excessive production of estrogens or (on the contrary) of the lowered function of ER or of the too small expression of the PR gene. We divided the statistical set into the groups with the approximately same concentrations of PR for stronger judgement of this ratio because PR is nearly not changing due to the age (in contrast to the age unstable ER). We used this stratification into the PR-limited groups at the radio-receptor analysis of 147 patients. 1) The ER/PR quotient was higher in the older patients but predominantly it was approximately 10-times lower in case of the high PR than in case of the low PR. This is why the more than 10-fould error can arise at uncorrected judgement whether ER of some patient is inadequately high or low in the comparison with her PR. It implies that e.g. in case of any one patient it is possible to infer the excessive production of ER from the comparison of her ER/PR--best only in the range of her PR-limited group (and in the addition taking account of the age). It can be important for therapy and prognosis. 2) The interpersonal differences of ER and ER/PR were approximately 10-times smaller in PR-limited groups than in the whole statistical set. This is why e.g. the correlation coefficients of the age increase of ER and ER/PR in the PR-limited groups were more favourable than in the whole non-stratified statistical set. In case if PR decreases in the higher age in case of some authors, it is necessary to create the PR-limited groups by another manner. For instance, 20 % of the tumors with the highest PR from each age group will be in the same PR-limited group (despite the fact that they differ in PR). The impact of the age will be then more marked in case of ER/PR than in case of ER only because the numerator elevates and denominator decreases. The impact of the ovarian cycle might be detected more

  7. Carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 18 prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuehong; Spiegelman, Donna; Baglietto, Laura; Bernstein, Leslie; Boggs, Deborah A; van den Brandt, Piet A; Buring, Julie E; Gapstur, Susan M; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Goodman, Gary; Hankinson, Susan E; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Inoue, Manami; Jung, Seungyoun; Khudyakov, Polyna; Larsson, Susanna C; Lof, Marie; McCullough, Marjorie L; Miller, Anthony B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Palmer, Julie R; Park, Yikyung; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E; Ross, Julie A; Schouten, Leo J; Shikany, James M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wolk, Alicja; Willett, Walter C; Zhang, Shumin M; Ziegler, Regina G; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A

    2012-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies examining associations between carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status are limited. We investigated these associations in a pooled analysis of 18 cohort studies. Of 1,028,438 participants followed for a maximum follow-up of 26 y across studies, 33,380 incident invasive breast cancers were identified. Study-specific RRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression and then pooled by using a random-effects model. α-Carotene, β-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer (pooled multivariable RRs of the comparison between the highest and lowest quintiles): α-carotene (0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.97), β-carotene (0.84; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93), and lutein/zeaxanthin (0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.95). These variables were not inversely associated with the risk of ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer (pooled multivariable RRs for the same comparison): α-carotene (1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.09), β-carotene (1.04; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10), and lutein/zeaxanthin (1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.07). Although the pooled RRs for quintile 5 for β-cryptoxanthin were not significant, inverse trends were observed for ER- and ER+ breast cancer (P-trend ≤ 0.05). Nonsignificant associations were observed for lycopene intake. The associations were largely not appreciably modified by several breast cancer risk factors. Nonsignificant associations were observed for PR-positive and PR-negative breast cancer. Intakes of α-carotene, β-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with risk of ER-, but not ER+, breast cancer. However, the results need to be interpreted with caution because it is unclear whether the observed association is real or due to other constituents in the same food sources.

  8. ImmunoRatio: a publicly available web application for quantitative image analysis of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Accurate assessment of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67 is essential in the histopathologic diagnostics of breast cancer. Commercially available image analysis systems are usually bundled with dedicated analysis hardware and, to our knowledge, no easily installable, free software for immunostained slide scoring has been described. In this study, we describe a free, Internet-based web application for quantitative image analysis of ER, PR, and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry in breast cancer tissue sections. Methods The application, named ImmunoRatio, calculates the percentage of positively stained nuclear area (labeling index) by using a color deconvolution algorithm for separating the staining components (diaminobenzidine and hematoxylin) and adaptive thresholding for nuclear area segmentation. ImmunoRatio was calibrated using cell counts defined visually as the gold standard (training set, n = 50). Validation was done using a separate set of 50 ER, PR, and Ki-67 stained slides (test set, n = 50). In addition, Ki-67 labeling indexes determined by ImmunoRatio were studied for their prognostic value in a retrospective cohort of 123 breast cancer patients. Results The labeling indexes by calibrated ImmunoRatio analyses correlated well with those defined visually in the test set (correlation coefficient r = 0.98). Using the median Ki-67 labeling index (20%) as a cutoff, a hazard ratio of 2.2 was obtained in the survival analysis (n = 123, P = 0.01). ImmunoRatio was shown to adapt to various staining protocols, microscope setups, digital camera models, and image acquisition settings. The application can be used directly with web browsers running on modern operating systems (e.g., Microsoft Windows, Linux distributions, and Mac OS). No software downloads or installations are required. ImmunoRatio is open source software, and the web application is publicly accessible on our website. Conclusions We anticipate that free web applications

  9. Carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 18 prospective cohort studies123

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelman, Donna; Baglietto, Laura; Bernstein, Leslie; Boggs, Deborah A; van den Brandt, Piet A; Buring, Julie E; Gapstur, Susan M; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Goodman, Gary; Hankinson, Susan E; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Inoue, Manami; Jung, Seungyoun; Khudyakov, Polyna; Larsson, Susanna C; Lof, Marie; McCullough, Marjorie L; Miller, Anthony B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Palmer, Julie R; Park, Yikyung; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E; Ross, Julie A; Schouten, Leo J; Shikany, James M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wolk, Alicja; Willett, Walter C; Zhang, Shumin M; Ziegler, Regina G; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies examining associations between carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status are limited. Objective: We investigated these associations in a pooled analysis of 18 cohort studies. Design: Of 1,028,438 participants followed for a maximum follow-up of 26 y across studies, 33,380 incident invasive breast cancers were identified. Study-specific RRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression and then pooled by using a random-effects model. Results: α-Carotene, β-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative (ER−) breast cancer (pooled multivariable RRs of the comparison between the highest and lowest quintiles): α-carotene (0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.97), β-carotene (0.84; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93), and lutein/zeaxanthin (0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.95). These variables were not inversely associated with the risk of ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer (pooled multivariable RRs for the same comparison): α-carotene (1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.09), β-carotene (1.04; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10), and lutein/zeaxanthin (1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.07). Although the pooled RRs for quintile 5 for β-cryptoxanthin were not significant, inverse trends were observed for ER− and ER+ breast cancer (P-trend ≤ 0.05). Nonsignificant associations were observed for lycopene intake. The associations were largely not appreciably modified by several breast cancer risk factors. Nonsignificant associations were observed for PR-positive and PR-negative breast cancer. Conclusions: Intakes of α-carotene, β-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with risk of ER−, but not ER+, breast cancer. However, the results need to be interpreted with caution because it is unclear whether the observed association is real or due to other constituents in the same food sources. PMID:22277553

  10. Breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-positive tumors: being younger and getting less benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke-da; Di, Gen-hong; Wu, Jiong; Lu, Jin-song; Shen, Kun-wei; Liu, Guang-yu; Shen, Zhen-zhou; Shao, Zhio-ming

    2008-12-01

    Most breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-positive (ER-/PgR+) tumors are premenopausal cases, with few alternatives of adjuvant endocrine therapy but tamoxifen (TAM). The efficacy of adjuvant TAM on ER-/PgR+ patients is still controversial. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of adjuvant TAM on patients with ER-/PgR+ tumors. Among all 1,836 consecutive patients with operable primary breast cancer, 798 cases were with ER+/PgR+ tumors and 205 with ER-/PgR+ tumors. By sub-grouping the patients according to ER/PR phenotypes and whether the patients had been treated with adjuvant TAM therapy or not, we investigated the differences of survivals between groups. Patients with ER-/PgR+ tumors were younger than those with ER+/PgR+ tumors (P = 0.021), and were mainly premenopausal (P = 0.013). ER-/PgR+ patients were related to more involved lymph nodes and later stage. In the absence of TAM treatment, ER+/PgR+ group had a similar survival to ER-/PgR+ group in terms of 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), as well as overall survival (OS). After TAM treatment, both groups had increased survival rates comparing with the baseline of non-TAM-treated groups. Moreover, significant survival differences were then observed between TAM-treated ER+/PgR+ group and TAM-treated ER-/PgR+ group either in DFS (P = 0.016) or OS (P = 0.007). Of the TAM-treated patients, by sub-dividing the chemotherapy-treated population into CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil) group and CA(E)F (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin/epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil) group, we found that ER-/PgR+ group got more benefits from CMF regimen than from CA(E)F. Subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP) analysis showed that the ER-/PgR+ group had an obvious worse survival than ER+/PgR+ group in younger patients (<55 years). Axillary lymph nodes involvement was the only independent prognostic factor for ER-/PgR+ group. Our results indicate that patients with

  11. Therapeutic effects of progesterone in animal models of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Alejandro F; Coronel, Florencia; Garay, Laura I; Gargiulo-Monachelli, Gisella; Gonzalez Deniselle, Maria Claudia; Gonzalez, Susana L; Labombarda, Florencia; Meyer, Maria; Guennoun, Rachida; Schumacher, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Substantial evidence supports that progesterone exerts many functions in the central and peripheral nervous system unrelated to its classical role in reproduction. In this review we first discussed progesterone effects following binding to the classical intracellular progesterone receptors A and B and several forms of membrane progesterone receptors, the modulation of intracellular signalling cascades and the interaction of progesterone reduced metabolites with neurotransmitter receptors. We next described our results involving animal models of human neuropathologies to elucidate the protective roles of progesterone. We described: (a) the protective and promyelinating effects of progesterone in experimental spinal cord injury; (b) the progesterone protective effects exerted upon motoneurons in the degenerating spinal cord of Wobbler mouse model of amyotropic lateral sclerosis; (c) the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis and after lysolecithin demyelination; (d) the progesterone prevention of nociception and neuropathic pain which follow spinal cord injury; and (e) the protective effect of progesterone in experimental ischemic stroke. Whenever available, the molecular mechanisms involved in these progesterone effects were examined. The multiplicity of progesterone beneficial effects has opened new venues of research for neurological disorders. In this way, results obtained in animal models could provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies and pre-clinical studies.

  12. The association among cytochrome P450 3A, progesterone receptor polymorphisms, plasma 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate concentrations, and spontaneous preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Martha L; Caritis, Steve N; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Reddy, Uma M; Sorokin, Yoram; Manuck, Tracy; Varner, Michael W; Wapner, Ronald J; Iams, Jay D; Carpenter, Marshall W; Peaceman, Alan M; Mercer, Brian M; Sciscione, Anthony; Rouse, Dwight J; Ramin, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    Infants born <37 weeks' gestation are of public health concern since complications associated with preterm birth are the leading cause of mortality in children <5 years of age and a major cause of morbidity and lifelong disability. The administration of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate reduces preterm birth by 33% in women with history of spontaneous preterm birth. We demonstrated previously that plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate vary widely among pregnant women and that women with 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentrations in the lowest quartile had spontaneous preterm birth rates of 40% vs rates of 25% in those women with higher concentrations. Thus, plasma concentrations are an important factor in determining drug efficacy but the reason 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentrations vary so much is unclear. Predominantly, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate is metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 enzymes. We sought to: (1) determine the relation between 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentrations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5; (2) test the association between progesterone receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms and spontaneous preterm birth; and (3) test whether the association between plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate and spontaneous preterm birth varied by progesterone receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated genetic polymorphism in 268 pregnant women treated with 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, who participated in a placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the benefit of omega-3 supplementation in women with history of spontaneous preterm birth. Trough plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate were measured between 25-28 weeks of gestation after a minimum of 5 injections of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate. We extracted DNA from maternal blood samples and

  13. Synthesis of (17 alpha,20E/Z)iodovinyl testosterone and 19-nortestosterone derivatives as potential radioligands for androgen and progesterone receptors.

    PubMed

    Ali, H; Rousseau, A J; van Lier, J E

    1994-05-01

    To develop androgen and progesterone receptor-based radioligands for SPECT imaging we synthesized several radioiodinated 17 alpha-iodovinyl testosterone and 19-nortestosterone analogs and evaluated their biological properties. The synthesis of these compounds proceeds via the (17 alpha,20E/Z)stannyl intermediates and involves addition of tri-n-butyltin hydride to the 17 alpha-ethynyl group of the steroid using either azobisiso butyronitrile or triethylborane as a catalyst. The stannyl derivatives are stereospecifically converted to the corresponding (17 alpha,20E/Z)iodovinyl derivatives using molecular iodine, or to the [125I]iodovinyl analogs using [125I]NaI and H2O2. Androgen and progesterone receptor (AR and PgR) binding affinities were measured via a competitive in vitro binding assay. In general 19-nortestosterone derivatives showed higher receptor affinities as compared to the testosterone derivatives. In the latter series the highest PgR binding affinities were observed with the (17 alpha,20Z)iodovinyl-19-nortestosterone (IVNT) (92 vs 100 for R5020) followed by the 7 alpha-methyl analog, whereas the highest AR binding affinity was observed with the 7 alpha-Me-(17 alpha,20Z)IVNT (54 vs 100 for 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone). These derivatives were also labeled with 125I and evaluated for their in vivo target organ uptake (prostate and estrogen-primed uterus). The highest PgR-mediated target tissue uptake was observed with the (17 alpha,20Z)-[125I]IVNT and its 7 alpha-methyl derivatives whereas only one derivative, the 7 alpha-Me-(17 alpha,20Z)-[125I]IVNT, showed AR-mediated dorsal prostate retention. Although some of the IVNT derivatives have interesting binding properties, the lack of in vivo selectivity does suggest that the 123I-labeled analogs are unlikely to be suitable for imaging of AR and PgR-rich tissues.

  14. Oestrogen and Progesterone Receptors and COX-2 Expression in Endometrial Biopsy Samples During Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy in Llamas (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C P; Meikle, A; Benavente, M A; Álvarez, M A; Trasorras, V L; Miragaya, M H; Rodríguez, E; Aba, M A

    2015-12-01

    Endometrial expression of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) was evaluated in non-pregnant and pregnant llamas during the period when luteolysis/maternal recognition of pregnancy is expected to occur. Females (n = 28) were divided into two groups: non-pregnant llamas were induced to ovulate with a Buserelin injection, and endometrial biopsies were obtained on day 8 (n = 5) or 12 (n = 5) post-induction of ovulation. Animals of the pregnant group