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Sample records for recession curve analysis

  1. Recession curve analysis for groundwater levels: case study in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.; Abramenko, K.; Lauva, D.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Dimanta, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Recession curve analysis is powerful and effective analysis technique in many research areas related with hydrogeology where observations have to be made, such as water filtration and absorption of moisture, irrigation and drainage, planning of hydroelectric power production and chemical leaching (elution of chemical substances) as well as in other areas. The analysis of the surface runoff hydrograph`s recession curves, which is performed to conceive the after-effects of interaction of precipitation and surface runoff, has approved in practice. The same method for analysis of hydrograph`s recession curves can be applied for the observations of the groundwater levels. There are manually prepared hydrograph for analysis of recession curves for observation wells (MG2, BG2 and AG1) in agricultural monitoring sites in Latvia. Within this study from the available monitoring data of groundwater levels were extracted data of declining periods, splitted by month. The drop-down curves were manually (by changing the date) moved together, until to find the best match, thereby obtaining monthly drop-down curves, representing each month separately. Monthly curves were combined and manually joined, for obtaining characterizing drop-down curves of the year for each well. Within the process of decreased recession curve analysis, from the initial curve was cut out upward areas, leaving only the drops of the curve, consequently, the curve is transformed more closely to the groundwater flow, trying to take out the impact of rain or drought periods from the curve. Respectively, the drop-down curve is part of the data, collected with hydrograph, where data with the discharge dominates, without considering impact of precipitation. Using the recession curve analysis theory, ready tool "A Visual Basic Spreadsheet Macro for Recession Curve Analysis" was used for selection of data and logarithmic functions matching (K. Posavec et.al., GROUND WATER 44, no. 5: 764-767, 2006), as well as

  2. Comparative analysis of base flow recession curves for different Andean catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, P.; Batelaan, O.; Wyseure, G.

    2012-04-01

    Little is known in the Paute River basin, Ecuador about the groundwater resources, the relation between aquifers and their recharge zones and interaction with rivers. The pressure from human activities in the river basin is increasing and impacting the surface water quality and quantity, therefore it becomes increasingly useful to estimate the potential of groundwater exploitation as an alternative resource. Due to the lack of specific groundwater data and information, assessment of suitable alternative methods for groundwater research at different scales is considered. In low flow hydrology literature it is noted that the majority of natural gains to streamflow during low-flow periods are derived from releases from groundwater storage, moreover baseflow is generally suggested to be an indicator of groundwater or other delayed sources. Analysis of flow recession curves allows the determination of characteristics of the groundwater reservoir, which is a prerequisite for the separation of baseflow from total discharge and the estimation of groundwater storage and recharge. The flow recession curve at a river cross section is defined as the discharge hydrograph of the basin during a rainless or dry period. Its analysis yields information on the retention characteristics of the basin and of groundwater storage and depletion. In the Paute River basin baseflows are assumed to be originating from Paramo storage, which is largely determined by the high water retention capacity of the soils in combination with their slopes. In the case of the sub-catchment of the Tarqui River, there are evidences based on topography, hydromorphology, discharges and soils that suggest the presence of a major aquifer in the valley. Hence, the goal of this contribution is the comparison and analysis of groundwater conditions based on baseflow recession analysis for the Tarqui and Yanuncay River sub-catchments. Baseflow analyses are translated in recharge and groundwater resources

  3. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hong-Yi; Huang, Maoyi; Ali, Melkamu; Leng, Guoyong; Leung, L. Ruby; Wang, Shao-wen; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-11-01

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall-runoff response, especially in steep terrain. Its contribution to total runoff is, however, poorly represented in the current generation of land surface models. The lack of physical basis of these common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation of the stormflow (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global land surface models. This paper is aimed at deriving regionalized parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship relating to subsurface stormflow from a top-down empirical data analysis of streamflow recession curves extracted from 50 eastern United States catchments. Detailed regression analyses were performed between parameters of the empirical storage-discharge relationships and the controlling climate, soil and topographic characteristics. The regression analyses performed on empirical recession curves at catchment scale indicated that the coefficient of the power-law form storage-discharge relationship is closely related to the catchment hydrologic characteristics, which is consistent with the hydraulic theory derived mainly at the hillslope scale. As for the exponent, besides the role of field scale soil hydraulic properties as suggested by hydraulic theory, it is found to be more strongly affected by climate (aridity) at the catchment scale. At a fundamental level these results point to the need for more detailed exploration of the co-dependence of soil, vegetation and topography with climate.

  4. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Ali, Melkamu; Leng, Guoyong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Shaowen; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-21

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall–runoff response, especially in steep terrain. Its contribution to total runoff is, however, poorly represented in the current generation of land surface models. The lack of physical basis of these common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation of the stormflow (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global land surface models. This paper is aimed at deriving regionalized parameterizations of the storage–discharge relationship relating to subsurface stormflow from a top–down empirical data analysis of streamflow recession curves extracted from 50 eastern United States catchments. Detailed regression analyses were performed between parameters of the empirical storage–discharge relationships and the controlling climate, soil and topographic characteristics. The regression analyses performed on empirical recession curves at catchment scale indicated that the coefficient of the power-law form storage–discharge relationship is closely related to the catchment hydrologic characteristics, which is consistent with the hydraulic theory derived mainly at the hillslope scale. As for the exponent, besides the role of field scale soil hydraulic properties as suggested by hydraulic theory, it is found to be more strongly affected by climate (aridity) at the catchment scale. At a fundamental level these results point to the need for more detailed exploration of the co-dependence of soil, vegetation and topography with climate.

  5. "Universal" Recession Curves and their Geomorphological Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marani, M.; Biswal, B.

    2011-12-01

    The basic structural organization of channel networks, and of the connected hillslopes, have been shown to be intimately linked to basin responses to rainfall events, leading to geomorphological theories of the hydrologic response. Here, We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties. We show that the power-law exponent of -dQ/dt vs. Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs. G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. We then generalize the power-law expressions of recession curves, to identify "universal" curves, independent of the initial moisture conditions and of basin area, by making the -dQ/dt vs. Q curve non-dimensional using an index discharge representative of initial moisture conditions. We subsequently rescale the geomorphic recession curve, N(l) vs. G(l), producing a collapse of the geomorphic recession curves constructed from the DTM's of 67 US study basins. Finally, by use of the specific discharge u = Q/A, we link the two previous results and define the specific recession curves, whose collapse across basins within homogeneous geographical areas lends further, decisive, support to the notion that the statistical properties of observational recession curves bear the signature of the geomorphological structure of the networks producing them.

  6. HYDRORECESSION: A toolbox for streamflow recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniega, S.

    2015-12-01

    Streamflow recession curves are hydrological signatures allowing to study the relationship between groundwater storage and baseflow and/or low flows at the catchment scale. Recent studies have showed that streamflow recession analysis can be quite sensitive to the combination of different models, extraction techniques and parameter estimation methods. In order to better characterize streamflow recession curves, new methodologies combining multiple approaches have been recommended. The HYDRORECESSION toolbox, presented here, is a Matlab graphical user interface developed to analyse streamflow recession time series with the support of different tools allowing to parameterize linear and nonlinear storage-outflow relationships through four of the most useful recession models (Maillet, Boussinesq, Coutagne and Wittenberg). The toolbox includes four parameter-fitting techniques (linear regression, lower envelope, data binning and mean squared error) and three different methods to extract hydrograph recessions segments (Vogel, Brutsaert and Aksoy). In addition, the toolbox has a module that separates the baseflow component from the observed hydrograph using the inverse reservoir algorithm. Potential applications provided by HYDRORECESSION include model parameter analysis, hydrological regionalization and classification, baseflow index estimates, catchment-scale recharge and low-flows modelling, among others. HYDRORECESSION is freely available for non-commercial and academic purposes.

  7. Interpretation of karst spring recession curves by the series reservoir model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    chang, Y.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The analysis of karst spring recession is a commonly used approach for understanding the aquifer structure or acquiring hydrodynamic parameters. An approach frequently applied for recession analysis is based on the several parallel, typically two or three, linear reservoirs each of which represents different part with different hydraulic conductivities, such as the conduit system and the fissure system. However, this parallel reservoir structure cannot accord with the relationship between the conduit system and fissure system, which is actually in series rather than parallel. We, therefore, examine the recession curve of two linear reservoirs in series (the conduit reservoir and fissure reservoir), representing the conduit and fissure system respectively, and make comparisons with two corresponding parallel linear reservoirs. Some interesting results are presented. If the storages of two series systems are close and the recession coefficient of the conduit reservoir is larger than the fissure reservoir, two overlapping exponential recession processes still exist. And yet, the recession coefficient of each exponential process is different from that of each single reservoir. One of recession coefficient is larger than the conduit reservoir owing to extra water participation from the fissure reservoir except the drainage of conduit reservoir, while the other recession coefficient is smaller than the fissure reservoir because the water flowing out from the fissure reservoir is regulated by the conduit reservoir again. When the recession coefficient of conduit reservoir is close or smaller than the fissure system, the recession curve is expressed only by an exponential function and the recession coefficient is between the conduit and fissure system. Commonly, the storage of the conduit system is much smaller than the fissure system and the conduit flow is turbulent. When ignoring the storage of the conduit system, the conduit reservoir can be substituted by a pipe, in

  8. Objective hydrograph baseflow recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian F.; Vogel, Richard M.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-06-01

    A streamflow hydrograph recession curve expresses the theoretical relationship between aquifer structure and groundwater outflow to a stream channel. That theoretical relationship is often portrayed empirically using a recession plot defined as a plot of ln(-dQ/dt) versus ln(Q), where Q is streamflow discharge. Such hydrograph recession plots are commonly used to estimate recession parameters, aquifer properties and for evaluating alternative hydrologic hypotheses. We introduce a comprehensive and objective approach to analyze baseflow recessions with innovations including the use of quantile regression, efficient and objective numerical estimation of dQ/dt, inclusion of groundwater withdrawals, and incorporation of seasonal effects. We document that these innovations when all combined, lead to significant improvements, over previous studies, in our ability to discern the theoretical behavior of stream aquifer systems. A case study reveals that our methodology enables us to reject the simple linear reservoir hypothesis of stream aquifer interactions for watersheds in New Jersey and results in improved correlations between low flow statistics and aquifer properties for those same watersheds.

  9. Effects of Antecedent Storage on Inter-Seasonal Recession Curve Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, R. R.; Hope, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the relation between streamflow recession rates and antecedent storage conditions is important for managing riparian ecosystems and forecasting low flows. This understanding is of particular interest in California watersheds where the climate regime is characterized by a large inter-seasonal contrast in precipitation that is out of phase with potential ET, leading to large differences in storage conditions between the beginning and the end of the winter wet season. The objective of this study was to investigate how streamflow recession rates in four watersheds located in the Santa Lucia Mountains of central California vary with antecedent streamflow, which was treated as an indicator of watershed storage conditions. Streamflow recession curves were grouped by antecedent streamflow and compared via examination of their recession slope curve on a log(-dQ/dt)-log(Q) plot. The results indicate that streamflow recession rates decrease with increasing antecedent streamflow. The relation between antecedent streamflow and recession rate follows a negative power law function, with a rapid decrease in recession rate following initial streamflow-producing events. This decrease is likely associated with a shift in the dominant source of recession flows from fast to slow stores as storage levels build up in slow parts of the watershed throughout the wet season. This paper concludes that evaluation of the effect inter-seasonal differences in storage conditions, not just evapotranspiration, is necessary for properly characterizing streamflow recession curves.

  10. Geomorphic signatures on Brutsaert base flow recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutzner, Raphaël.; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Tarolli, Paolo; Weijs, Steven V.; Nicotina, Ludovico; Ceola, Serena; Tomasic, Nevena; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Parlange, Marc B.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the signatures of catchment geomorphology on base flow recession curves. Its relevance relates to the implied predictability of base flow features, which are central to catchment-scale transport processes and to ecohydrological function. Moving from the classical recession curve analysis method, originally applied in the Finger Lakes Region of New York, a large set of recession curves has been analyzed from Swiss streamflow data. For these catchments, digital elevation models have been precisely analyzed and a method aimed at the geomorphic origins of recession curves has been applied to the Swiss data set. The method links river network morphology, epitomized by time-varying distribution of contributing channel sites, with the classic parameterization of recession events. This is done by assimilating two scaling exponents, β and bG, with |dQ/dt| ∝ Qβ where Q is at-a-station gauged flow rate and N(l) ∝ N>(l>)∝G>(l>)bG where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads receding in time, N(l) is the number of draining channel reaches located at distance l from their heads, and G(l) is the total drainage network length at a distance greater or equal to l, the active drainage network. We find that the method provides good results in catchments where drainage density can be regarded as spatially constant. A correction to the method is proposed which accounts for arbitrary local drainage densities affecting the local drainage inflow per unit channel length. Such corrections properly vanish when the drainage density become spatially constant. Overall, definite geomorphic signatures are recognizable for recession curves, with notable theoretical and practical implications.

  11. Watershed model calibration to the base flow recession curve with and without evapotranspiration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, S. M.; Harmon, T. C.; Shi, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Calibration of watershed models to the shape of the base flow recession curve is a way to capture the important relationship between groundwater discharge and subsurface water storage in a catchment. In some montane Mediterranean regions, such as the midelevation Providence Creek catchment in the southern Sierra Nevada of California (USA), nearly all base flow recession occurs after snowmelt, and during this time evapotranspiration (ET) usually exceeds base flow. We assess the accuracy to which watershed models can be calibrated to ET-dominated base flow recession in Providence Creek, both in terms of fitting a discharge time-series and realistically capturing the observed discharge-storage relationship for the catchment. Model parameters estimated from calibrations to ET-dominated recession are compared to parameters estimated from reference calibrations to base flow recession with ET-effects removed ("potential recession"). We employ the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) for simulations of base flow and ET, and methods that are otherwise general in nature. In models calibrated to ET-dominated recession, simulation errors in ET and the targeted relationship for recession (-dQ/dt versus Q) contribute substantially (up to 57% and 46%, respectively) to overestimates in the discharge-storage differential, defined as d(lnQ)/dS, relative to that derived from water flux observations. These errors result in overestimates of deep-subsurface hydraulic conductivity in models calibrated to ET-dominated recession, by up to an order of magnitude, relative to reference calibrations to potential recession. These results illustrate a potential opportunity for improving model representation of discharge-storage dynamics by calibrating to the shape of base flow recession after removing the complicating effects of ET.

  12. Recession Curve Generation for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Thermal Protection System Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanner, Howard S.; Stuckey, C. Irvin; Davis, Darrell W.; Davis, Darrell (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ablatable Thermal Protection System (TPS) coatings are used on the Space Shuttle Vehicle Solid Rocket Boosters in order to protect the aluminum structure from experiencing excessive temperatures. The methodology used to characterize the recession of such materials is outlined. Details of the tests, including the facility, test articles and test article processing are also presented. The recession rates are collapsed into an empirical power-law relation. A design curve is defined using a 95-percentile student-t distribution. based on the nominal results. Actual test results are presented for the current acreage TPS material used.

  13. Streamflow Recession Analysis Incorporating Human Water Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B. F.; Vogel, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrologic studies of streamflow recessions are common in hydrology, yet nearly all previous studies have ignored the impact of human water withdrawals on the recession behavior of streamflow. The baseflow recession constant (Kb), commonly used in hydrologic models, can be estimated from a hydrologic recession. Resulting estimates of Kb are used widely in rainfall runoff models, low flow forecasting, and estimation of low flow characteristics. The accurate estimation of the baseflow recession constant is critical due to its common use in low flow characterization for water management strategies and Clean Water Act permitting requirements. This study documents the impact of water withdrawals on estimates of streamflow recession constants. We combine existing information on both groundwater and surface water resources and readily available information on human water use. We document that estimates of the baseflow recession constant depend critically upon the ratio of groundwater withdrawals to the average magnitude of baseflows. We document that without careful attention to the impact of groundwater withdrawals, estimates of streamflow recession constants will exhibit significant bias. Observed streamflow response is best approximated by a streamflow recession constant that incorporates human water use.

  14. A computer program for predicting recharge with a master recession curve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heppner, Christopher S.; Nimmo, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-table fluctuations occur in unconfined aquifers owing to ground-water recharge following precipitation and infiltration, and ground-water discharge to streams between storm events. Ground-water recharge can be estimated from well hydrograph data using the water-table fluctuation (WTF) principle, which states that recharge is equal to the product of the water-table rise and the specific yield of the subsurface porous medium. The water-table rise, however, must be expressed relative to the water level that would have occurred in the absence of recharge. This requires a means for estimating the recession pattern of the water-table at the site. For a given site there is often a characteristic relation between the water-table elevation and the water-table decline rate following a recharge event. A computer program was written which extracts the relation between decline rate and water-table elevation from well hydrograph data and uses it to construct a master recession curve (MRC). The MRC is a characteristic water-table recession hydrograph, representing the average behavior for a declining water-table at that site. The program then calculates recharge using the WTF method by comparing the measured well hydrograph with the hydrograph predicted by the MRC and multiplying the difference at each time step by the specific yield. This approach can be used to estimate recharge in a continuous fashion from long-term well records. Presented here is a description of the code including the WTF theory and instructions for running it to estimate recharge with continuous well hydrograph data.

  15. Analysis of Exoplanet Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Budding, E.; Rhodes, M. D.; Püsküllü, Ç.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Tüysüz, M.; Demircan, O.

    2015-07-01

    We have applied the close binary system analysis package WINFITTER to a variety of exoplanet transiting light curves taken both from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and our own ground-based observations. WINFitter has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity brightening and structural parameters derived from Kopal's applications of the relevant Radau equation, and it includes appropriate tests for determinacy and adequacy of its best fitting parameter sets. We discuss a number of issues related to empirical checking of models for stellar limb darkening, surface maculation, Doppler beaming, microvariability, and transit time variation (TTV) effects. The Radau coefficients used in the light curve modeling, in principle, allow structural models of the component stars to be tested.

  16. Aerodynamic Analysis of Simulated Heat Shield Recession for the Orion Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibb, Karen L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Mcdaniel, Ryan D.

    2008-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of the recession of the ablative thermal protection system for the Orion Command Module of the Crew Exploration Vehicle are important for the vehicle guidance. At the present time, the aerodynamic effects of recession being handled within the Orion aerodynamic database indirectly with an additional safety factor placed on the uncertainty bounds. This study is an initial attempt to quantify the effects for a particular set of recessed geometry shapes, in order to provide more rigorous analysis for managing recession effects within the aerodynamic database. The aerodynamic forces and moments for the baseline and recessed geometries were computed at several trajectory points using multiple CFD codes, both viscous and inviscid. The resulting aerodynamics for the baseline and recessed geometries were compared. The forces (lift, drag) show negligible differences between baseline and recessed geometries. Generally, the moments show a difference between baseline and recessed geometries that correlates with the maximum amount of recession of the geometry. The difference between the pitching moments for the baseline and recessed geometries increases as Mach number decreases (and the recession is greater), and reach a value of -0.0026 for the lowest Mach number. The change in trim angle of attack increases from approx. 0.5deg at M = 28.7 to approx. 1.3deg at M = 6, and is consistent with a previous analysis with a lower fidelity engineering tool. This correlation of the present results with the engineering tool results supports the continued use of the engineering tool for future work. The present analysis suggests there does not need to be an uncertainty due to recession in the Orion aerodynamic database for the force quantities. The magnitude of the change in pitching moment due to recession is large enough to warrant inclusion in the aerodynamic database. An increment in the uncertainty for pitching moment could be calculated from these results and

  17. Social Skills Intervention during Elementary School Recess: A Visual Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Newsome, W. Sean; Nay, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    This study builds on two studies that explored the effect of a social skills intervention on problem behaviors displayed by elementary school children during recess. Findings conclude that social skills intervention significantly decreased problem behaviors among school children at recess. Implications for behavioral management and healthy school…

  18. Estimating parental relationship in linkage analysis of recessive traits

    SciTech Connect

    Merette, C.; Ott, J.

    1996-05-17

    In linkage analysis of recessive traits, parental relationship is important. For the case that it is unknown, the question is investigated as to whether estimating parental relationship and using the estimated relationship in linkage analysis is beneficial. Results show that estimating parental relationship can reliably be carried out on the basis of 50-100 genetic marker loci (analysis based on theory by Thompson). Misspecification of parental relationship leads to a loss of linkage informativeness, but not to false-positive evidence for linkage. An asymptotic bias in the recombination fraction estimate occurs when parents are unrelated and falsely taken to be related, but no such bias is seen when related parents are taken to be unrelated. Results from this investigation suggest that an estimated parental relationship may be used in linkage analysis as if it were the correct relationship, when evidence for the estimated relationship is supported by a likelihood ratio of at least 10:1 against the parents being unrelated. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Are streamflow recession characteristics really characteristic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoelzle, M.; Stahl, K.; Weiler, M.

    2013-02-01

    Streamflow recession has been investigated by a variety of methods, often involving the fit of a model to empirical recession plots to parameterize a non-linear storage-outflow relationship based on the dQ/dt-Q method. Such recession analysis methods (RAMs) are used to estimate hydraulic conductivity, storage capacity, or aquifer thickness and to model streamflow recession curves for regionalization and prediction at the catchment scale. Numerous RAMs have been published, but little is known about how comparably the resulting recession models distinguish characteristic catchment behavior. In this study we combined three established recession extraction methods with three different parameter-fitting methods to the power-law storage-outflow model to compare the range of recession characteristics that result from the application of these different RAMs. Resulting recession characteristics including recession time and corresponding storage depletion were evaluated for 20 meso-scale catchments in Germany. We found plausible ranges for model parameterization; however, calculated recession characteristics varied over two orders of magnitude. While recession characteristics of the 20 catchments derived with the different methods correlate strongly, particularly for the RAMs that use the same extraction method, not all rank the catchments consistently, and the differences among some of the methods are larger than among the catchments. To elucidate this variability we discuss the ambiguous roles of recession extraction procedures and the parameterization of the storage-outflow model and the limitations of the presented recession plots. The results suggest strong limitations to the comparability of recession characteristics derived with different methods, not only in the model parameters but also in the relative characterization of different catchments. A multiple-methods approach to investigating streamflow recession characteristics should be considered for applications

  20. Are streamflow recession characteristics really characteristic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoelzle, M.; Stahl, K.; Weiler, M.

    2012-09-01

    Streamflow recession has been investigated by a variety of methods, often involving the fit of a model to empirical recession plots to parameterize a non-linear storage-outflow relationship. Such recession analysis methods (RAMs) are used to estimate hydraulic conductivity, storage capacity, or aquifer thickness and to model streamflow recession curves for regionalization and prediction at the catchment scale. Numerous RAMs have been published, but little is known about how characteristic the resulting recession models are to distinguish characteristic catchment behavior. In this study we combined three established recession extraction methods with three different parameter-fitting methods to the power-law storage-outflow model to compare the range of recession characteristics that result from the application of these different RAMs. Resulting recession characteristics including recession time and corresponding storage depletion were evaluated for 20 meso-scale catchments in Germany. We found plausible ranges for model parameterization, however, calculated recession characteristics varied over two orders of magnitude. While recession characteristics of the 20 catchments derived with the different methods correlate strongly, particularly for the RAMs that use the same extraction method and while they rank the catchments relatively consistent, there are still considerable differences among the methods. To elucidate this variability we discuss the ambiguous roles of recession extraction procedures and the parameterization of storage-outflow model and the limitations of the presented recession plots. The results suggest strong limitations to the comparability of recession characteristics derived with different methods, not only in the model parameters but also in the relative characterization of different catchments. A multiple methods approach to investigate streamflow recession characteristics should be considered for applications whenever possible.

  1. Performance analysis of SOI MOSFET with rectangular recessed channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M.; Mishra, S.; Mohanty, S. S.; Mishra, G. P.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a two dimensional (2D) rectangular recessed channel-silicon on insulator metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (RRC-SOI MOSFET), using the concept of groove between source and drain regions, which is one of the channel engineering technique to suppress the short channel effect (SCE). This suppression is mainly due to corner potential barrier of the groove and the simulation is carried out by using ATLAS 2D device simulator. To have further improvement of SCE in RRC-SOI MOSFET, three more devices are designed by using dual material gate (DMG) and gate dielectric technique, which results in formation of devices i.e. DMRRC-SOI,MLSMRRC-SOI, MLDMRRC-SOI MOSFET. The effect of different structures of RRC-SOI on AC and RF parameters are investigated and the importance of these devices over RRC MOSFET regarding short channel effect is analyzed.

  2. Analysis of light curve of LP Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.; Zejda, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present photometric analysis of the RRab type pulsating star LP Cam. The star was observed at Brno Observatory and Planetarium during nine nights. Measurements were calibrated to the Johnson photometric system. Four captured and thirteen previously published maxima timings allowed us to refine the pulsation period and the zero epoch. The light curve was Fourier decomposed to estimate physical parameters using empirical relations. Our results suggest that LP Cam is a common RR Lyrae star with high, almost solar metallicity.

  3. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  4. Technical Note: A measure of watershed nonlinearity II: re-introducing an IFP inverse fractional power transform for streamflow recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    This note illustrates, in the context of Brutsaert-Nieber (1977) model: -dQ/dt = aQb, the utility of a newly rediscovered inverse fractional power (IFP) transform of the flow rates. This method of streamflow recession analysis dates back a half-century. The IFP transform Δb on an operand Q is defined as Δb Q = 1/Qb-1. Brutsaert-Nieber model by IFP transform thus becomes: ΔbQ(t) = ΔbQ(0) + (b-1) at, if b ≠ 1. The IFP transformed recession curve appears as a straight line on a semi-IFP plot. The method has both the advantage of being independent of the size of computational time step, and the disadvantage of being depending on the parameter b value. This is used to calibrate the Brutsaert-Nieber recession flow model in which b is a slope (or shape) parameter, and a is an intercept (or a scale parameter). It is applied to four observed events on the Spoon River in Illinois (4237 km2). The results show that the IFP transform method gives a narrower range of parameter b values than the regression method in a recession plot. Theoretically, an IFP transformed recession curve for large watersheds falls between those performed by the reciprocal of the cubic root (RoCR) transform and the reciprocal of the square root (RoSR) one. In general, the forgotten IFP transform method merits a fresh look, especially for hillslopes and zero-order catchments, the building blocks of a watershed system. In particular, because of its origin in hillslope hydrology, the 1-parameter RoSR transform need be falsified or verified for application to headwater catchments.

  5. NEXT Performance Curve Analysis and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saripalli, Pratik; Cardiff, Eric; Englander, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Performance curves of the NEXT thruster are highly important in determining the thruster's ability in performing towards mission-specific goals. New performance curves are proposed and examined here. The Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is used to verify variations in mission solutions based on both available thruster curves and the new curves generated. Furthermore, variations in BOL and EOL curves are also examined. Mission design results shown here validate the use of EMTG and the new performance curves.

  6. Light-curve Analysis of Neon Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed light curves of five neon novae, QU Vul, V351 Pup, V382 Vel, V693 CrA, and V1974 Cyg, and determined their white dwarf (WD) masses and distance moduli on the basis of theoretical light curves composed of free-free and photospheric emission. For QU Vul, we obtained a distance of d ˜ 2.4 kpc, reddening of E(B - V) ˜ 0.55, and WD mass of MWD = 0.82-0.96 {M}⊙ . This suggests that an oxygen-neon WD lost a mass of more than ˜ 0.1 {M}⊙ since its birth. For V351 Pup, we obtained d˜ 5.5 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.45, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}⊙ . For V382 Vel, we obtained d˜ 1.6 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.15, and {M}{{WD}}=1.13-1.28 {M}⊙ . For V693 CrA, we obtained d˜ 7.1 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.05, and {M}{{WD}}=1.15-1.25 {M}⊙ . For V1974 Cyg, we obtained d˜ 1.8 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.95-1.1 {M}⊙ . For comparison, we added the carbon-oxygen nova V1668 Cyg to our analysis and obtained d˜ 5.4 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}⊙ . In QU Vul, photospheric emission contributes 0.4-0.8 mag at most to the optical light curve compared with free-free emission only. In V351 Pup and V1974 Cyg, photospheric emission contributes very little (0.2-0.4 mag at most) to the optical light curve. In V382 Vel and V693 CrA, free-free emission dominates the continuum spectra, and photospheric emission does not contribute to the optical magnitudes. We also discuss the maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation for these novae based on the universal decline law.

  7. Mathematics analysis of polymerase chain reaction kinetic curves.

    PubMed

    Sochivko, D G; Fedorov, A A; Varlamov, D A; Kurochkin, V E; Petrov, R V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews different approaches to the mathematical analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kinetic curves. The basic principles of PCR mathematical analysis are presented. Approximation of PCR kinetic curves and PCR efficiency curves by various functions is described. Several PCR models based on chemical kinetics equations are suggested. Decision criteria for an optimal function to describe PCR efficiency are proposed.

  8. What Is a Recessive Allele?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents four misconceptions students have concerning the concepts of recessive and dominant alleles. Discusses the spectrum of dominant-recessive relationships, different levels of analysis between phenotype and genotype, possible causes of dominance, and an example involving wrinkled peas. (MDH)

  9. Exome analysis reveals a Japanese family with spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 1.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Yaeko; Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Jun; Takahashi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Takuma, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Doi, Koichiro; Yoshimura, Jun; Morishita, Shinichi; Goto, Jun; Tsuji, Shoji

    2013-08-15

    Spinocerebellar ataxia autosomal recessive 1 (SCAR1/AOA2) is clinically characterized by an early-onset progressive cerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy, ocular motor apraxia, and elevation of serum alpha-fetoprotein level. The disorder is caused by mutations in senataxin (SETX) gene. Here, we report a Japanese SCAR1/AOA2 family with a homozygous nonsense mutation (p.Q1441X) of SETX that was identified by exome sequencing. The family was previously reported as early-onset ataxia of undetermined cause. The present study emphasized the role of whole exome-sequence analysis to establish the molecular diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease presenting with diverse clinical presentations.

  10. Autosomal recessive

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the other gene comes from the father. Recessive inheritance means both genes in a pair must be abnormal to cause ... born to parents who carry the same autosomal recessive change ... abnormal gene from both parents and developing the disease. You ...

  11. Estimation of baseflow and water transfer in karst catchments in Mediterranean Turkey by nonlinear recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eris, Ebru; Wittenberg, Hartmut

    2015-11-01

    Because of water transfers through fissures, cavities, caves and phreatic channels of various sizes and unknown directions, the topographic watersheds of karst catchments have little significance for their aquifers. Most of the flow in the Manavgat River in South Anatolia has its origin outside of the surface watershed and is transferred through karst pathways. Previous investigations found evidence for this by groundwater tracing techniques. In this study, flow recession analysis and baseflow separation are applied to the time series of daily flows 1992-2008 from three gauging stations. Flow recessions were found corresponding to the nonlinear storage-baseflow relationship S = a·Qb, with b values around 0.5 as typical for unconfined groundwater, while the coefficient a showed marked seasonal variations with higher values in the rainy winter time and decreasing values towards the dry summer. For catchments which receive water transfers from other areas, the decrease of a is retarded. Flow recession is slower since more water is available. Baseflow separation by using the same nonlinear model revealed that direct flow, which is mainly surface flow, corresponds roughly to the surface catchments while baseflow, which accounts for most of the total flow, is highly influenced by transfers from karst sink areas outside the surface watersheds. The subsurface transfer was simulated by a nonlinear reservoir routing algorithm. Time series of monthly baseflow from catchments which receive transfer water were compared with those of sinkhole (loss) areas. The procedure allows inferring the origin area of the inflows and estimating the retention or lag time of the transfer.

  12. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve

    PubMed Central

    Murre, Jaap M. J.; Dros, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus’ classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve has indeed been replicated and that it is not completely smooth but most probably shows a jump upwards starting at the 24 hour data point. PMID:26148023

  13. Rapid multipoint linkage analysis of recessive traits in nuclear families, including homozygosity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglyak, L.; Daly, M.J.; Lander, E.S. |

    1995-02-01

    Homozygosity mapping is a powerful strategy for mapping rare recessive traits in children of consanguineous marriages. Practical applications of this strategy are currently limited by the inability of conventional linkage analysis software to compute, in reasonable time, multipoint LOD scores for pedigrees with inbreeding loops. We have developed a new algorithm for rapid multipoint likelihood calculations in small pedigrees, including those with inbreeding loops. The running time of the algorithm grows, at most, linearly with the number of loci considered simultaneously. The running time is not sensitive to the presence of inbreeding loops, missing genotype information, and highly polymorphic loci. We have incorporated this algorithm into a software package, MAPMAKER/HOMOZ, that allows very rapid multipoint mapping of disease genes in nuclear families, including homozygosity mapping. Multipoint analysis with dozens of markers can be carried out in minutes on a personal workstation. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. SS433 Trek 2: light curve analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, J.; Obana, Y.; Okugami, M.

    The authors have calculated theoretical light curves of SS433 during eclipse and precession, using a model in which SS433 consists of a geometrically thick torus around a compact star and a companion star filling the Roche lobe. The favorite combination is that the mass ratio is about 2 (a compact star is a black hole) and the surface temperature of the companion is around 17000K.

  15. PSD analysis of optical QSO light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simm, Torben; Salvato, M.; Saglia, R.; Ponti, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Nandra, K.; Bender, R.

    2016-08-01

    One of the elementary properties of quasar activity is continuous variability in the UV/optical bands. The power spectral density (PSD) potentially contains information about the underlying processes connected to variability. We applied a novel method based on continuous-time autoregressive moving average (CARMA) models (Kelly et al. 2014) to derive the PSD even for irregularly sampled light curves. Using a sample of ~100 X-ray selected non-local QSOs from the XMM-COSMOS catalog and optical light curves provided by the Pan-STARRS1 MDF survey we find that the PSD resembles a broken power-law with a high-frequency slope significantly steeper than observed in X-ray studies. The PSD normalization is observed to scale inversely with bolometric luminosity and Eddington ratio, whereas there is no correlation between the characteristic bend timescale and black hole mass. We find a weak tendency for QSOs with higher black hole mass to have steeper high-frequency PSD slopes. In an ongoing work we extend these studies employing a sample of ~700 variable broad-line QSOs with high-quality black hole mass estimates and well-sampled light curves from the SDSS-RM project.

  16. Genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 gene in the Korean population with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-12-15

    The TMPRSS3 gene (DFNB8/10), which encodes a transmembrane serine protease, is a common hearing loss gene in several populations. Accurate functions of TMPRSS3 in the hearing pathway are still unknown, but TMPRSS3 has been reported to play a crucial role in inner ear development or maintenance. To date, 16 pathogenic mutations have been identified in many countries, but no mutational studies of the TMPRSS3 gene have been conducted in the Korean hearing loss population. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 in 40 unrelated Korean patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss to identify the aspect and frequency of TMPRSS3 gene mutations in the Korean population. A total of 22 variations were detected, including a novel variant (p.V291L) and a previously reported pathogenic mutation (p.A306T). The p.A306T mutation which has been detected in only compound heterozygous state in previous studies was identified in homozygous state for the first time in this study. Moreover, the clinical evaluation identified bilateral dilated vestibules in the patient with p.A306T mutation, and it suggested that p.A306T mutation of the TMPRSS3 gene might be associated with vestibular anomalies. In conclusion, this study investigated that only 2.5% of patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss were related to TMPRSS3 mutations suggesting low prevalence of TMPRSS3 gene in Korean hearing loss population. Also, it will provide the information of genotype-phenotype correlation to understand definite role of TMPRSS3 in the auditory system.

  17. Theoretical foundations for environmental Kuznets curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, Van

    This thesis provides a dynamic theory for analyzing the paths of aggregate output and pollution in a country over time. An infinite horizon, competitive growth-pollution model is explored in order to determine the role that economic scale, production techniques, and pollution regulations play in explaining the inverted U-shaped relationship between output and some forms of pollution (otherwise known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, or EKC). Results indicate that the output-pollution relationship may follow a strictly increasing, strictly decreasing (but bounded), inverted U-shaped, or some combination of curves. While the 'scale' effect may cause output and pollution to exhibit a monotonic relationship, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may ultimately cause a de-linking of these two variables. Pollution-minimizing energy regulation policies are also investigated within this framework. It is found that the EKC may be 'flattened' or even eliminated moving from a poorly-regulated economy to one that minimizes pollution. The model is calibrated to the US economy for output (gross national product, GNP) and two pollutants (sulfur dioxide, SO2, and carbon dioxide, CO2) over the period 1900 to 1990. Results indicate that the model replicates the observations quite well. The predominance of 'scale' effects cause aggregate SO2 and CO2 levels to increase with GNP in the early stages of development. Then, in the case of SO 2, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may be the cause of falling SO2 levels with continued economic growth (establishing the EKC). CO2 continues to monotonically increase as output levels increase over time. The positive relationship may be due to the lack of regulations on this pollutant. If stricter regulation policies were instituted in the two case studies, an improved allocation of resources may result. While GNP may be 2.596 to 20% lower than what has been realized in the US economy (depending on the pollution variable analyzed), individual

  18. Recession Rebound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    A return to normal after a crisis is a good thing. Who doesn't want back what once seemed lost? The problem is it usually isn't a simple task figuring out how to patch together a scaled-back training program. When the recession hit in fall 2008, trainers were asked to scale down programming and make do with fewer resources. With a recovery in full…

  19. Genetic analysis of loci that contribute to recessive polycystic kidney disease in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, D.R.; Dushkin, H.; Tobin, D.

    1994-09-01

    Identification of genes that play a role in the development of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a key to the better understanding of this disorder. We have discovered a new mutation in the mouse we call juvenile cystic kidney (jck) which predisposes to the development of ARPKD and is not allelic with any previously described mutations. In an effort to map and positionally clone the jck gene, an intraspecific intercross between B6/DBA jck/+F1 mice was established and over 100 affected progeny were identified. Genotype analysis using microsatellite markers was employed and the jck mutation has been mapped to a 1 cM interval on mouse chromosome 11. Positional cloning of this mutant locus by employing a YAC contig is in progress. Narrowing the region of interest has been facilitated by the utilization of SSCP analysis to develop informative markers from YAC sequence. In addition, it was noted that severity of disease in the intercross progeny (as measured by the degree of kidney enlargement) was more variable than that observed in the parental B6 strain. This suggested that a modifier locus introduced form the DBA background affects the expression of the jck phenotype. We have determined that two additional regions - one from DBA on distal chromosome 10 and a second from B6 on chromosome 1 - are strongly associated with inheritance of a more severe polycystic kidney disease phenotype. The finding of a highly significant association of a B6-related locus with kidney enlargement was completely unexpected, since the PKD phenotype in the original B6 background is not severe. This finding is unambiguous, with a maximal quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis LOD score of 15 for association with disease severity. We propose that it is the inheritance of both a homozygous B6 locus on chromosome 1 and a DBA gene that results in the severe phenotype, presumably as a consequence of an interaction between their protein products.

  20. Light curve demography via Bayesian functional data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas; Budavari, Tamas; Hendry, Martin A.; Kowal, Daniel; Ruppert, David

    2015-08-01

    Synoptic time-domain surveys provide astronomers, not simply more data, but a different kind of data: large ensembles of multivariate, irregularly and asynchronously sampled light curves. We describe a statistical framework for light curve demography—optimal accumulation and extraction of information, not only along individual light curves as conventional methods do, but also across large ensembles of related light curves. We build the framework using tools from functional data analysis (FDA), a rapidly growing area of statistics that addresses inference from datasets that sample ensembles of related functions. Our Bayesian FDA framework builds hierarchical models that describe light curve ensembles using multiple levels of randomness: upper levels describe the source population, and lower levels describe the observation process, including measurement errors and selection effects. Schematically, a particular object's light curve is modeled as the sum of a parameterized template component (modeling population-averaged behavior) and a peculiar component (modeling variability across the population), subsequently subjected to an observation model. A functional shrinkage adjustment to individual light curves emerges—an adaptive, functional generalization of the kind of adjustments made for Eddington or Malmquist bias in single-epoch photometric surveys. We are applying the framework to a variety of problems in synoptic time-domain survey astronomy, including optimal detection of weak sources in multi-epoch data, and improved estimation of Cepheid variable star luminosities from detailed demographic modeling of ensembles of Cepheid light curves.

  1. Recession Vs Myotomy–Comparative Analysis of Two Surgical Procedures of Weakening Inferior Oblique Muscle Overaction

    PubMed Central

    Alajbegovic-Halimic, Jasmina; Zvizdic, Denisa; Sahbegovic-Holcner, Amra; Kulanic-Kuduzovic, Amira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Inferior oblique overaction (IOOA) can be primary or secondary, isolated or combined to other types of horizontal deviation, mostly with esotropias. Surgical weakening of IOOA means several techniques like; recession, myotomy, myectomy, anteroposition etc. Goals: we analyzed the effect of inferior oblique muscle surgical weakening comparing two groups of patients with primary hypertropia. Material and methods: In 5-years retrospective study, we observed 33 patients on which we did the surgical procedure of weakening inferior muscle overaction by two methods; recession and myotomy. Results: In total number of 33 patients, there were 57,6% male and 42,4% female patients with average age of 10,6±7,5 (in range of 4–36). There was 33,3% of isolated primary hypertropias, and 66,7% combined with esotropias. At 23 (69,9%) patients the recession surgical procedure was done, and with 10 (30,1%) myotomy. Better effect and binocularity was in 65,2% of patients in recession group which was statistically significant with significance level of p<0,0, χ2=5,705; p=0,021. Conclusion: Comparing of two surgical procedures of weakening inferior oblique muscles overaction, recession is better procedure than myotomy. PMID:26261384

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: 1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; 2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  5. Cepheid light curve demography via Bayesian functional data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas J.; Hendry, Martin; Kowal, Daniel; Ruppert, David

    2016-01-01

    Synoptic time-domain surveys provide astronomers, not simply more data, but a different kind of data: large ensembles of multivariate, irregularly and asynchronously sampled light curves. We describe a statistical framework for light curve demography—optimal accumulation and extraction of information, not only along individual light curves as conventional methods do, but also across large ensembles of related light curves. We build the framework using tools from functional data analysis (FDA), a rapidly growing area of statistics that addresses inference from datasets that sample ensembles of related functions. Our Bayesian FDA framework builds hierarchical models that describe light curve ensembles using multiple levels of randomness: upper levels describe the source population, and lower levels describe the observation process, including measurement errors and selection effects. Roughly speaking, a particular object's light curve is modeled as the sum of a parameterized template component (modeling population-averaged behavior) and a peculiar component (modeling variability across the population), subsequently subjected to an observation model. A functional shrinkage adjustment to individual light curves emerges—an adaptive, functional generalization of the kind of adjustments made for Eddington or Malmquist bias in single-epoch photometric surveys. We describe ongoing work applying the framework to improved estimation of Cepheid variable star luminosities via FDA-based refinement and generalization of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation.

  6. A Quantitative Analysis of Recessions and Financial Changes in Higher Education Institution Alumni Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dos Santos, Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between recession and alumni contributions to institutions of higher education for operational expenses and capital expenditures that include property, buildings, and equipment. Identifying variables that may decrease alumni contributions is important because decreased state funding for higher education…

  7. Analysis of exome sequence in 604 trios for recessive genotypes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rees, E; Kirov, G; Walters, J T; Richards, A L; Howrigan, D; Kavanagh, D H; Pocklington, A J; Fromer, M; Ruderfer, D M; Georgieva, L; Carrera, N; Gormley, P; Palta, P; Williams, H; Dwyer, S; Johnson, J S; Roussos, P; Barker, D D; Banks, E; Milanova, V; Rose, S A; Chambert, K; Mahajan, M; Scolnick, E M; Moran, J L; Tsuang, M T; Glatt, S J; Chen, W J; Hwu, H-G; Neale, B M; Palotie, A; Sklar, P; Purcell, S M; McCarroll, S A; Holmans, P; Owen, M J; O'Donovan, M C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic associations involving both rare and common alleles have been reported for schizophrenia but there have been no systematic scans for rare recessive genotypes using fully phased trio data. Here, we use exome sequencing in 604 schizophrenia proband-parent trios to investigate the role of recessive (homozygous or compound heterozygous) nonsynonymous genotypes in the disorder. The burden of recessive genotypes was not significantly increased in probands at either a genome-wide level or in any individual gene after adjustment for multiple testing. At a system level, probands had an excess of nonsynonymous compound heterozygous genotypes (minor allele frequency, MAF ⩽ 1%) in voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs; eight in probands and none in parents, P = 1.5 × 10(-)(4)). Previous findings of multiple de novo loss-of-function mutations in this gene family, particularly SCN2A, in autism and intellectual disability provide biological and genetic plausibility for this finding. Pointing further to the involvement of VGSCs in schizophrenia, we found that these genes were enriched for nonsynonymous mutations (MAF ⩽ 0.1%) in cases genotyped using an exome array, (5585 schizophrenia cases and 8103 controls), and that in the trios data, synaptic proteins interacting with VGSCs were also enriched for both compound heterozygosity (P = 0.018) and de novo mutations (P = 0.04). However, we were unable to replicate the specific association with compound heterozygosity at VGSCs in an independent sample of Taiwanese schizophrenia trios (N = 614). We conclude that recessive genotypes do not appear to make a substantial contribution to schizophrenia at a genome-wide level. Although multiple lines of evidence, including several from this study, suggest that rare mutations in VGSCs contribute to the disorder, in the absence of replication of the original findings regarding compound heterozygosity, this conclusion requires evaluation in a larger sample of trios. PMID:26196440

  8. Analysis of exome sequence in 604 trios for recessive genotypes in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rees, E; Kirov, G; Walters, J T; Richards, A L; Howrigan, D; Kavanagh, D H; Pocklington, A J; Fromer, M; Ruderfer, D M; Georgieva, L; Carrera, N; Gormley, P; Palta, P; Williams, H; Dwyer, S; Johnson, J S; Roussos, P; Barker, D D; Banks, E; Milanova, V; Rose, S A; Chambert, K; Mahajan, M; Scolnick, E M; Moran, J L; Tsuang, M T; Glatt, S J; Chen, W J; Hwu, H-G; Faraone, Stephen V; Roe, Cheri A; Chandler, Sharon D; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Chen-Chung; Yeh, Ling-Ling; Ouyang, Wen-Chen; Chan, Hung-Yu; Chen, Chun-Ying; Neale, B M; Palotie, A; Sklar, P; Purcell, S M; McCarroll, S A; Holmans, P; Owen, M J; O'Donovan, M C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic associations involving both rare and common alleles have been reported for schizophrenia but there have been no systematic scans for rare recessive genotypes using fully phased trio data. Here, we use exome sequencing in 604 schizophrenia proband–parent trios to investigate the role of recessive (homozygous or compound heterozygous) nonsynonymous genotypes in the disorder. The burden of recessive genotypes was not significantly increased in probands at either a genome-wide level or in any individual gene after adjustment for multiple testing. At a system level, probands had an excess of nonsynonymous compound heterozygous genotypes (minor allele frequency, MAF ⩽1%) in voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs; eight in probands and none in parents, P=1.5 × 10−4). Previous findings of multiple de novo loss-of-function mutations in this gene family, particularly SCN2A, in autism and intellectual disability provide biological and genetic plausibility for this finding. Pointing further to the involvement of VGSCs in schizophrenia, we found that these genes were enriched for nonsynonymous mutations (MAF ⩽0.1%) in cases genotyped using an exome array, (5585 schizophrenia cases and 8103 controls), and that in the trios data, synaptic proteins interacting with VGSCs were also enriched for both compound heterozygosity (P=0.018) and de novo mutations (P=0.04). However, we were unable to replicate the specific association with compound heterozygosity at VGSCs in an independent sample of Taiwanese schizophrenia trios (N=614). We conclude that recessive genotypes do not appear to make a substantial contribution to schizophrenia at a genome-wide level. Although multiple lines of evidence, including several from this study, suggest that rare mutations in VGSCs contribute to the disorder, in the absence of replication of the original findings regarding compound heterozygosity, this conclusion requires evaluation in a larger sample of trios. PMID:26196440

  9. Analysis of a modified recessed active tunneling field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HuiJung; Choi, Seongwook; Yoo, NakWon; Rhee, SeungMan; Lee, Myoung Jin; Park, Young June

    2016-07-01

    To enhance the on-current (I ON) of a tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET), we investigated the structures of a TFET with a recessed active (RA) region, known as the “RA-TFET”, using three-dimensional (3D) simulation. The analyzed structure is different from the recessed dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) channel in terms of the positions of the source and drain. The benefit of this structure is that the tunneling length remains unchanged as the depth increases so that the current can be easily scaled up, thereby maintaining the subthreshold slope (SS) and active area. Using an RA-TFET with a 100 nm Si depth, a 9.45 × 10-7 A I ON is achieved with a minimum SS of 35 mV/dec; in addition, we propose RA-TFET modifications to mitigate the ambipolar characteristics and reduce the capacitance between the gate and the drain (C GD) by up to 40%.

  10. Baseflow recession analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Elliot, W. J.; Gazel, E.; Boll, J.

    2015-03-01

    The storage-discharge relationships of 26 watersheds in the inland Pacific Northwest of the United States were analyzed. Four fitting methods were used to obtain the baseflow coefficients: lower envelope, organic correlation, and ordinary and inverse least squares. Several climatic and terrain attributes were evaluated as predictors of baseflow coefficients. Watersheds dominated by basalt and flatter landscapes exhibited the smallest recession time scales ( K) (12.5-20.0 days). Greater K values (33.3-66.7 days) were obtained over catchments dominated by metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Mean basin slope and the aridity index were found to be the best estimators of baseflow coefficients. Baseflow in flat basalt landscapes, located in dry warm climates, decrease rapidly during summer months and are most sensitive to future droughts and warming climates. Groundwater systems feeding streams during the driest months can drop to less than 1 mm of effective storage in these sensitive systems. In contrast, the minimum annual storage in mountainous systems can have greater than 10 mm effective storage. By understanding the main factors controlling baseflow recession characteristics, environmental agencies could prioritize efforts in areas where future droughts and land use changes may affect ecological assemblages and socio-economic activities.

  11. Analysis of a modified recessed active tunneling field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HuiJung; Choi, Seongwook; Yoo, NakWon; Rhee, SeungMan; Lee, Myoung Jin; Park, Young June

    2016-07-01

    To enhance the on-current (I ON) of a tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET), we investigated the structures of a TFET with a recessed active (RA) region, known as the “RA-TFET”, using three-dimensional (3D) simulation. The analyzed structure is different from the recessed dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) channel in terms of the positions of the source and drain. The benefit of this structure is that the tunneling length remains unchanged as the depth increases so that the current can be easily scaled up, thereby maintaining the subthreshold slope (SS) and active area. Using an RA-TFET with a 100 nm Si depth, a 9.45 × 10‑7 A I ON is achieved with a minimum SS of 35 mV/dec; in addition, we propose RA-TFET modifications to mitigate the ambipolar characteristics and reduce the capacitance between the gate and the drain (C GD) by up to 40%.

  12. Comprehensive Analysis of Deafness Genes in Families with Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Tahir; Onay, Huseyin; Aykut, Ayca; Bademci, Guney; Kirazli, Tayfun; Tekin, Mustafa; Ozkinay, Ferda

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive genetic testing has the potential to become the standard of care for individuals with hearing loss. In this study, we investigated the genetic etiology of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in a Turkish cohort including individuals with cochlear implant, who had a pedigree suggestive of an autosomal recessive inheritance. A workflow including prescreening of GJB2 and a targeted next generation sequencing panel (Illumına TruSightTM Exome) covering 2761 genes that we briefly called as mendelian exome sequencing was used. This panel includes 102 deafness genes and a number of genes causing Mendelian disorders. Using this approach, we identified causative variants in 21 of 29 families. Three different GJB2 variants were present in seven families. Remaining 14 families had 15 different variants in other known NSHL genes (MYO7A, MYO15A, MARVELD2, TMIE, DFNB31, LOXHD1, GPSM2, TMC1, USH1G, CDH23). Of these variants, eight are novel. Mutation detection rate of our workflow is 72.4%, confirming the usefulness of targeted sequencing approach in NSHL. PMID:26561413

  13. Comprehensive Analysis of Deafness Genes in Families with Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Atik, Tahir; Onay, Huseyin; Aykut, Ayca; Bademci, Guney; Kirazli, Tayfun; Tekin, Mustafa; Ozkinay, Ferda

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive genetic testing has the potential to become the standard of care for individuals with hearing loss. In this study, we investigated the genetic etiology of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in a Turkish cohort including individuals with cochlear implant, who had a pedigree suggestive of an autosomal recessive inheritance. A workflow including prescreening of GJB2 and a targeted next generation sequencing panel (Illumına TruSightTM Exome) covering 2761 genes that we briefly called as mendelian exome sequencing was used. This panel includes 102 deafness genes and a number of genes causing Mendelian disorders. Using this approach, we identified causative variants in 21 of 29 families. Three different GJB2 variants were present in seven families. Remaining 14 families had 15 different variants in other known NSHL genes (MYO7A, MYO15A, MARVELD2, TMIE, DFNB31, LOXHD1, GPSM2, TMC1, USH1G, CDH23). Of these variants, eight are novel. Mutation detection rate of our workflow is 72.4%, confirming the usefulness of targeted sequencing approach in NSHL.

  14. Instrumentation for automated acquisition and analysis of TLD glow curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, I. J.; Kennett, T. J.; Harvey, J. W.

    1991-04-01

    Instrumentation for the automated and complete acquisition of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) data from a Panasonic UD-702E TLD reader is reported. The system that has been developed consists of both hardware and software components and is designed to operate with an IBM-type personal computer. Acquisition of glow curve, timing, and heating data has been integrated with elementary numerical analysis to permit real-time validity and diagnostic assessments to be made. This allows the optimization of critical parameters such as duration of the heating cycles and the time window for the integration of the dosimetry peak. The form of the Li 2B 4O 7:Cu TLD glow curve has been studied and a mathematical representation devised to assist in the implementation of automated analysis. Differences in the shape of the curve can be used to identify dosimetry peaks due to artifacts or to identify failing components. Examples of the use of this system for quality assurance in the TLD monitoring program at McMaster University are presented.

  15. Multi-wavelength analysis of Ellerman Bomb Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlender, M.; Berlicki, A.

    We present the results of a multi-wavelength photometric analysis of Ellerman Bomb (EB) observations obtained from the Dutch Open Telescope. In our data we have found 6 EBs located in the super-penumbra of the main spot in the active region NOAA 10781. We present light curves of EB observed in the Hα line centre and wing +0.7 Å, in the Ca II H line centre and wing~+2.35 Å, in the G-band and in the TRACE 1600 Å filter. We have shown that EBs were visible in the G-band and moreover, there was a good correlation between the light curves in the G-band and in the Hα line wings. We also found quasi-periodic oscillations of EBs brightness in the G-band, CaII H line and TRACE 1600 Å filter.

  16. Stress analysis in curved composites due to thermal loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, Jared Cornelius

    Many structures in aircraft, cars, trucks, ships, machines, tools, bridges, and buildings, consist of curved sections. These sections vary from straight line segments that have curvature at either one or both ends, segments with compound curvatures, segments with two mutually perpendicular curvatures or Gaussian curvatures, and segments with a simple curvature. With the advancements made in multi-purpose composites over the past 60 years, composites slowly but steadily have been appearing in these various vehicles, compound structures, and buildings. These composite sections provide added benefits over isotropic, polymeric, and ceramic materials by generally having a higher specific strength, higher specific stiffnesses, longer fatigue life, lower density, possibilities in reduction of life cycle and/or acquisition cost, and greater adaptability to intended function of structure via material composition and geometry. To be able to design and manufacture a safe composite laminate or structure, it is imperative that the stress distributions, their causes, and effects are thoroughly understood in order to successfully accomplish mission objectives and manufacture a safe and reliable composite. The objective of the thesis work is to expand upon the knowledge of simply curved composite structures by exploring and ascertaining all pertinent parameters, phenomenon, and trends in stress variations in curved laminates due to thermal loading. The simply curved composites consist of composites with one radius of curvature throughout the span of the specimen about only one axis. Analytical beam theory, classical lamination theory, and finite element analysis were used to ascertain stress variations in a flat, isotropic beam. An analytical method was developed to ascertain the stress variations in an isotropic, simply curved beam under thermal loading that is under both free-free and fixed-fixed constraint conditions. This is the first such solution to Author's best knowledge

  17. A new approach to the analysis of Mira light curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennessier, M. O.; Barthes, D.; Mattei, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Two different but complementary methods for predicting Mira luminosities are presented. One method is derived from a Fourier analysis, it requires performing deconvolution, and its results are not certain due to the inherent instability of deconvolution problems. The other method is a learning method utilizing artificial intelligence techniques where a light curve is presented as an ordered sequence of pseudocycles, and rules are learned by linking the characteristics of several consecutive pseudocycles to one characteristic of the future cycle. It is observed that agreement between these methods is obtainable when it is possible to eliminate similar false frequencies from the preliminary power spectrum and to improve the degree of confidence in the rules.

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis suggests that mitochondria are involved in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Wei; Lu, Xiao-Yan; You, Yong; Sun, Huan; Liu, Xin-Yu; Ai, Jian-Zhong; Tan, Rui-Zhi; Chen, Tie-Lin; Chen, Mian-Zhi; Wang, Hong-Lian; Wei, Yu-Quan; Zhou, Qin

    2012-08-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), characterized by ectatic collecting duct, is an infantile form of PKD occurring in 1 in 20 000 births. Despite having been studied for many years, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In the current study, we employed, for the first time, a MS-based comparative proteomics approach to investigate the differently expressed proteins between kidney tissue samples of four ARPKD and five control individuals. Thirty two differently expressed proteins were identified and six of the identified protein encoding genes performed on an independent group (three ARPKD subjects, four control subjects) were verified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and part of them were further validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, similar alteration tendency was detected after downregulation of PKHD1 by small interfering RNA in HEK293T cell. Interestingly, most of the identified proteins are associated with mitochondria. This implies that mitochondria may be implicated in ARPKD. Furthermore, the String software was utilized to investigate the biological association network, which is based on known and predicted protein interactions. In conclusion, our findings depicted a global understanding of ARPKD progression and provided a promising resource of targeting protein, and shed some light further investigation of ARPKD. PMID:22718539

  19. Baseflow recession analysis across the Eagle Ford shale play (Texas, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniega, Saul; Brena-Naranjo, Agustin; Hernandez-Espriu, Jose Antonio; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Baseflow is an important process of the hydrological cycle as it can be related to aquatic ecosystem health and groundwater recharge. The temporal and spatial dynamics of baseflow are typically governed by fluctuations in the water table of shallow aquifers hence groundwater pumping and return flow can greatly modify baseflow patterns. More recently, in some regions of the world the exploitation of gas trapped in shale formations by means of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has raised major concerns on the quantitative and qualitative groundwater impacts. Although fracking implies massive amounts of groundwater withdrawals, its contribution on baseflow decline has not yet been fully investigated. Furthermore, its impact with respect to other human activities or climate extremes such as irrigation or extreme droughts, respectively, remain largely unknown. This work analyzes baseflow recession time-space patterns for a set of watersheds located across the largest shale producer in the world, the Eagle Ford shale play in Texas (USA). The period of study (1985-2014) includes a pre-development and post-development period. The dataset includes 56 hydrometric time series located inside and outside the shale play. Results show that during the development and expansion of the Eagle Ford play, around 70 % of the time series displayed a significant decline wheras no decline was observed during the pre-development)

  20. Qualitative analysis of dermatoglyphics of the digito-palmar complex in children with severe recessive perceptively impaired hearing.

    PubMed

    Sikić, Nada; Milicić, Jasna; Vrca, Andelko; Dulcić, Adinda; Runjić, Nada

    2009-06-01

    The possible hereditary indicated differences in the ascending family tree was investigated in children with severe recessive perceptively impaired hearing, their parents, and healthy controls, using qualitative analysis of dermatoglyphics of the digito-palmar complex. The chi2 test was performed and biological distance was investigated by means according to Hiernaux Ag methods, and presented using Ward's method for the examined groups. The results show that the healthy control group differs from the groups of boys and girls with impaired hearing and also from their fathers mostly in palmar variables. The mothers were biologically more distant from the examined groups of patients, and more similar to the control group of randomly selected healthy female controls. The results indicate polygenic inheritance of sporadic sensoneurial hearing loss.

  1. Nonlinear Time Series Analysis of White Dwarf Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevtic, N.; Zelechoski, S.; Feldman, H.; Peterson, C.; Schweitzer, J.

    2001-12-01

    We use nonlinear time series analysis methods to examine the light intensity curves of white dwarf PG1351+489 obtained by the Whole Earth Telescope (WET). Though these methods were originally introduced to study chaotic systems, when a clear signature of determinism is found for the process generating an observable and it couples the active degrees of freedom of the system, then the notion of phase space provides a framework for exploring the system dynamics of nonlinear systems in general. With a pronounced single frequency, its harmonics and other frequencies of lower amplitude on a broadband background, the PG1351 light curve lends itself to the use of time delay coordinates. Our phase space reconstruction yields a triangular, toroidal three-dimensional shape. This differs from earlier results of a circular toroidal representation. We find a morphological similarity to a magnetic dynamo model developed for fast rotators that yields a union of both results: the circular phase space structure for the ascending portion of the cycle, and the triangular structure for the declining portion. The rise and fall of the dynamo cycle yield both different phase space representations and different correlation dimensions. Since PG1351 is known to have no significant fields, these results may stimulate the observation of light curves of known magnetic white dwarfs for comparison. Using other data obtained by the WET, we compare the phase space reconstruction of DB white dwarf PG1351 with that of GD 358 which has a more complex power spectrum. We also compare these results with those for PG1159. There is some general similarity between the results of the phase space reconstruction for the DB white dwarfs. As expected, the difference between the results for the DB white dwarfs and PG1159 is great.

  2. Evaluating Random Forests for Survival Analysis using Prediction Error Curves.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Ulla B; Ishwaran, Hemant; Gerds, Thomas A

    2012-09-01

    Prediction error curves are increasingly used to assess and compare predictions in survival analysis. This article surveys the R package pec which provides a set of functions for efficient computation of prediction error curves. The software implements inverse probability of censoring weights to deal with right censored data and several variants of cross-validation to deal with the apparent error problem. In principle, all kinds of prediction models can be assessed, and the package readily supports most traditional regression modeling strategies, like Cox regression or additive hazard regression, as well as state of the art machine learning methods such as random forests, a nonparametric method which provides promising alternatives to traditional strategies in low and high-dimensional settings. We show how the functionality of pec can be extended to yet unsupported prediction models. As an example, we implement support for random forest prediction models based on the R-packages randomSurvivalForest and party. Using data of the Copenhagen Stroke Study we use pec to compare random forests to a Cox regression model derived from stepwise variable selection. Reproducible results on the user level are given for publicly available data from the German breast cancer study group.

  3. WASP-14 b: transit timing analysis of 19 light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raetz, St.; Maciejewski, G.; Seeliger, M.; Marka, C.; Fernández, M.; Güver, T.; Göğüş, E.; Nowak, G.; Vaňko, M.; Berndt, A.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Mugrauer, M.; Trepl, L.; Gelszinnis, J.

    2015-08-01

    Although WASP-14 b is one of the most massive and densest exoplanets on a tight and eccentric orbit, it has never been a target of photometric follow-up monitoring or dedicated observing campaigns. We report on new photometric transit observations of WASP-14 b obtained within the framework of Transit Timing Variations @ Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (TTV@YETI). We collected 19 light curves of 13 individual transit events using six telescopes located in five observatories distributed in Europe and Asia. From light-curve modelling, we determined the planetary, stellar, and geometrical properties of the system and found them in agreement with the values from the discovery paper. A test of the robustness of the transit times revealed that in case of a non-reproducible transit shape the uncertainties may be underestimated even with a wavelet-based error estimation methods. For the timing analysis, we included two publicly available transit times from 2007 and 2009. The long observation period of seven years (2007-2013) allowed us to refine the transit ephemeris. We derived an orbital period 1.2 s longer and 10 times more precise than the one given in the discovery paper. We found no significant periodic signal in the timing-residuals and, hence, no evidence for TTV in the system.

  4. Exclusion of the locus for autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 from the mineralocorticoid receptor gene region on human chromosome 4q by linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, E.; Hanukoglu, A.; Rees, M.; Thompson, R.; Gardiner, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is an uncommon inherited disorder characterized by salt-wasting in infancy arising from target organ unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids. Clinical expression of the disease varies from severely affected infants who may die to apparently asymptomatic individuals. Inheritance is Mendelian and may be either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. A defect in the mineralocortiocoid receptor has been implicated as a likely cause of PHA1. The gene for human mineralocorticoid receptor (MLR) has been cloned and physically mapped to human chromosome 4q31.1-31.2. The etiological role of MLR in autosomal recessive PHA1 was investigated by performing linkage analysis between PHA1 and three simple sequence length polymorphisms (D4S192, D4S1548, and D4S413) on chromosome 4q in 10 consanguineous families. Linkage analysis was carried out assuming autosomal recessive inheritance with full penetrance and zero phenocopy rate using the MLINK program for two-point analysis and the HOMOZ program for multipoint analysis. Lod scores of less than -2 were obtained over the whole region from D4S192 to D4S413 encompassing MLR. This provides evidence against MLR as the site of mutations causing PHA1 in the majority of autosomal recessive families. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Towards fully automated genotyping: use of an X linked recessive spastic paraplegia family to test alternative analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Matise, T C; Perlin, M W; Marks, H G; Hoffman, E P

    1995-05-01

    Advances in dinucleotide-based genetic maps open possibilities for large scale genotyping at high resolution. The current rate-limiting steps in use of these dense maps is data interpretation (allele definition), data entry, and statistical calculations. We have recently reported automated allele identification methods. Here we show that a 10-cM framework map of the human X chromosome can be analyzed on two lanes of an automated sequencer per individual (10-12 loci per lane). We use this map and analysis strategy to generate allele data for an X-linked recessive spastic paraplegia family with a known PLP mutation. We analyzed 198 genotypes in a single gel and used the data to test three methods of data analysis: manual meiotic breakpoint mapping, automated concordance analysis, and whole chromosome multipoint linkage analysis. All methods pinpointed the correct location of the gene. We propose that multipoint exclusion mapping may permit valid inflation of LOD scores using the equation max LOD-(next best LOD). PMID:7759066

  6. Concentrated photovoltaics system costs and learning curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haysom, Joan E.; Jafarieh, Omid; Anis, Hanan; Hinzer, Karin

    2013-09-01

    An extensive set of costs in /W for the installed costs of CPV systems has been amassed from a range of public sources, including both individual company prices and market reports. Cost reductions over time are very evident, with current prices for 2012 in the range of 3.0 ± 0.7 /W and a predicted cost of 1.5 /W for 2020. Cost data is combined with deployment volumes in a learning curve analysis, providing a fitted learning rate of either 18.5% or 22.3% depending on the methodology. This learning rate is compared to that of PV modules and PV installed systems, and the influence of soft costs is discussed. Finally, if an annual growth rate of 39% is assumed for deployed volumes, then, using the learning rate of 20%, this would predict the achievement of a cost point of 1.5 /W by 2016.

  7. An item response curves analysis of the Force Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Gary A.; Harshman, Nathan; Branum-Martin, Lee; Mazur, Eric; Mzoughi, Taha; Baker, Stephen D.

    2012-09-01

    Several years ago, we introduced the idea of item response curves (IRC), a simplistic form of item response theory (IRT), to the physics education research community as a way to examine item performance on diagnostic instruments such as the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). We noted that a full-blown analysis using IRT would be a next logical step, which several authors have since taken. In this paper, we show that our simple approach not only yields similar conclusions in the analysis of the performance of items on the FCI to the more sophisticated and complex IRT analyses but also permits additional insights by characterizing both the correct and incorrect answer choices. Our IRC approach can be applied to a variety of multiple-choice assessments but, as applied to a carefully designed instrument such as the FCI, allows us to probe student understanding as a function of ability level through an examination of each answer choice. We imagine that physics teachers could use IRC analysis to identify prominent misconceptions and tailor their instruction to combat those misconceptions, fulfilling the FCI authors' original intentions for its use. Furthermore, the IRC analysis can assist test designers to improve their assessments by identifying nonfunctioning distractors that can be replaced with distractors attractive to students at various ability levels.

  8. Analysis of selected Kepler Mission planetary light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Budding, E.

    2014-06-01

    We have modified the graphical user interfaced close binary system analysis program CurveFit to the form WinKepler and applied it to 16 representative planetary candidate light curves found in the NASA Exoplanet Archive (NEA) at the Caltech website http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu, with an aim to compare different analytical approaches. WinKepler has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity-brightening and structural parameters derived from the relevant Radau equation. We tested our best-fitting parameter-sets for formal determinacy and adequacy. A primary aim is to compare our parameters with those listed in the NEA. Although there are trends of agreement, small differences in the main parameter values are found in some cases, and there may be some relative bias towards a 90∘ value for the NEA inclinations. These are assessed against realistic error estimates. Photometric variability from causes other than planetary transits affects at least 6 of the data-sets studied; with small pulsational behaviour found in 3 of those. For the false positive KOI 4.01, we found that the eclipses could be modelled by a faint background classical Algol as effectively as by a transiting exoplanet. Our empirical checks of limb-darkening, in the cases of KOI 1.01 and 12.01, revealed that the assigned stellar temperatures are probably incorrect. For KOI 13.01, our empirical mass-ratio differs by about 7 % from that of Mislis and Hodgkin (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 422:1512, 2012), who neglected structural effects and higher order terms in the tidal distortion. Such detailed parameter evaluation, additional to the usual main geometric ones, provides an additional objective for this work.

  9. Does gingival recession require surgical treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hsun-Liang; Chun, Yong-Hee Patricia; MacEachern, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession represents a clinical condition in adults frequently encountered in the general dental practice. It is estimated that 23% of adults in the US have one or more tooth surfaces with ≥ 3 mm gingival recession. Clinicians often time face dilemmas of whether or not to treat such a condition surgically. Therefore, we were charged by the editorial board to answer this critical question: “Does gingival recession require surgical treatment?” An initial condensed literature search was performed using a combination of gingival recession and surgery controlled terms and keywords. An analysis of the search results highlights our limited understanding of the factors that often guide the treatment of gingival recession. Understanding the etiology, prognosis and treatment of gingival recession continues to offer many unanswered questions and challenges in the field of periodontics as we strive to provide the best care possible for our patients. PMID:26427577

  10. Three-Dimensional Postbuckling Analysis of Curved Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. Frank; Lee, Seung-Yoon

    2002-01-01

    Presented here is a method of solving highly flexible curved beam undergoing huge static or quasi-static deformations. A geometrically exact beam theory based on the use of Jaumann stresses and strains and exact coordinate transformation is presented in terms of 17 first-order ordinary differential equations, and a multiple shooting method is used to solve the corresponding nonlinear two-point boundary value problems. The geometrically exact beam theory accounts far large rotations, large displacements, initial curvatures, extensionality, and transverse shear strains. Four examples are used to demonstrate this method, including a rotating clamped-free beam under the influence of gravity and centrifugal forces, an L-frame subjected to an in-plane tip load, a circular arch subjected to a concentrated load, and a clamped-hinged helical spring subjected to an axial displacement. Results show that the combination of the multiple shooting method and the geometrically exact beam theory works very well. Moreover, the obtained numerically exact solutions can be used to verify the accuracy of nonlinear finite element codes for nonlinear analysis of complex structures.

  11. Mapping autosomal recessive vitamin D dependency type I to chromosome 12q14 by linkage analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Labuda, M; Morgan, K; Glorieux, F H

    1990-01-01

    Linkage analysis in French-Canadian families with vitamin D dependency type I (VDD1) demonstrated that the gene responsible for the disease is linked to polymorphic RFLP markers in the 12q14 region. We studied 76 subjects in 14 sibships which included 17 affected individuals and 17 obligate heterozygotes. Significant results for linkage were obtained with the D12S17 locus at the male recombination fraction (theta m) .018 (Z[theta m theta f] = 3.20) and with D126 at (theta m = .025 (Z[theta m theta f] = 3.07). Multipoint linkage analysis and studies of haplotypes and recombinants strongly suggest the localization of the VDD1 locus between the collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1) locus and clustered loci D12S14, D12S17, and D12S6, which segregate as a three-marker haplotype. Linkage disequilibrium between VDD1 and this three-marker haplotype supports the notion of a founder effect in the studied population. The current status of the localization of the disease allows for carrier detection in the families at risk. PMID:1971995

  12. Optical analysis of miniature lenses with curved imaging surfaces.

    PubMed

    Reshidko, Dmitry; Sasian, Jose

    2015-10-01

    Miniature cameras for consumer electronics and mobile phones have been, and continue to be, in fast development. The system level requirements, such as manufacturing cost, packaging, and sensor characteristics, impose unique challenges for optical designers. In this paper, we discuss the potential optical benefits of having a curved image surface rather than a flat one. We show that curved sensor technology allows for optically faster lens solutions. We discuss trade-offs of several relevant characteristics, such as packaging, chief ray angle, image quality, and tolerance sensitivity. A comparison of a benchmark flat field lens, and an evaluation design imaging on a curved surface and working at f/1.6, provides useful specific insights. For a given image quality, departing from a flat imaging surface does not allow significantly reducing the total length of a lens. PMID:26479656

  13. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  14. Starving for Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patt, Mary Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Every weekday, millions of American schoolchildren throw away their half-eaten cafeteria lunches so that they can run outside to play. The traditional placement of lunch before recess, coupled with the recent decline in overall recess time to meet academic time constraints, forces children to choose between two essential needs: (1) food; and (2)…

  15. Recess--It's Indispensable!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga; Waite-Stupiansky, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    The demise of recess in many elementary schools--and of outdoor play in general--is an issue of great concern to many members of the Play, Policy, and Practice Interest Forum. Most people remember recess as an important part of the school day. It was a time to be outdoors; to organize games; to play on the swings, slides, and other playground…

  16. More Recess Time, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Rong; Coward, Fanni Liu

    2015-01-01

    Students in Shanghai, China, get much more recess time than their U.S. counterparts throughout their education. As U.S. education reform efforts seek ways of raising achievement, they have begun replacing recess with academic time. The lesson from Shanghai is that this may not be the best strategy. But whether the Shanghai system of more and…

  17. Recession in the Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Helen

    2009-01-01

    National policy stresses the key role of adult learning and skills in securing economic recovery. This close linking of adult learning policy to the recession agenda raises important questions. How has the recession impacted on the implementation of adult learning policy? What has it meant for service delivery? And what have been the consequences…

  18. Analysis on the Long Term Effect of Trial Test Road Constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at Recess UTHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrus, M. M. M.; Edayu, A. E.; Adnan, Z.; Ismail, B.

    2016-07-01

    The reinforcement used in soil for construction of roads on the soft clay is very important as it will determine the level of service of the road after it was built. Damage or defects on the road surface to be an indicator of the level of the road has dropped and shows the deformation of the road. For this research, an analysis has carried out on the long-term effect of trial test road constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at RECESS UTHM. Through this research, the reinforcement using Rawell Geosynthetic Clay Liner (RGCL) was the best with the stability is 14964 N, a low flow is 2.69mm, stiffness modulus is 1766 MPa, the peak load is 739.4 N and a lower horizontal deformation which is 1.71 µm compared Woven Geotextile section and section without geotextile [1] [9]. In terms of deformation can be seen clearly from physical observations that section without geotextile suffered significant damage than others. Settlement of road can also be analyzed by a longitudinal section that plotted based on the result of leveling work. After that, settlements are more visible way on the right side of the road trial. Through lab tests conducted, it indicate that the coring samples obtained from sites of each section meets the specifications set by the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) in terms of stability, flow and stiffness [1]. Through this study, a trial road built on soft soil can be used as a test site because of the uniqueness of these roads which has three different types of reinforcements.

  19. Mediation Analysis in a Latent Growth Curve Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Soest, Tilmann; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents several longitudinal mediation models in the framework of latent growth curve modeling and provides a detailed account of how such models can be constructed. Logical and statistical challenges that might arise when such analyses are conducted are also discussed. Specifically, we discuss how the initial status (intercept) and…

  20. Multiresolution Analysis of UTAT B-spline Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamnii, A.; Mraoui, H.; Sbibih, D.; Zidna, A.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a multiresolution curve representation based on periodic uniform tension algebraic trigonometric (UTAT) spline wavelets of class ??? and order four. Then we determine the decomposition and the reconstruction vectors corresponding to UTAT-spline spaces. Finally, we give some applications in order to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  1. Analysis of growth curves of fowl. III. Geese.

    PubMed

    Knízetová, H; Hyánek, J; Veselský, A

    1994-07-01

    1. Growth curves of two lines (S,D) and their reciprocal hybrids (in total,. n = 344) were evaluated by the Richards function. Geese were weighed at 7 d intervals to the ninth week, and then at 92, 154, 192 and 217 d of age. Food and water were supplied ad libitum. 2. The accuracy of curve fit measured by the coefficient of determination (R2) for different genetic groups ranged from 0.9840 to 0.9918. The highest percentage deviations between observed and estimated live weights were recorded at hatching (on average 15.1%), while at the others points of curve they were significantly lower (from 0.6 to 6.8%). 3. The geese are characterised by an early maturing rate. The peak of the absolute growth rate (the inflection point of the curve) occurred at 18.7 to 23.5 d of age (t+). The degree of maturity at a slaughter age of 63 d (u63 = y63/A) ranged from 0.69 to 0.76. Fitting the inflection point at the beginning of the linear growth phase significantly affects the maturing rate (k) and the ratio between the inflection (y+) and the asymptotic (A) weights. The values of these correlated parameters were very low (y+/A = 0.233 to 0.294, k = 0.0281 to 0.0373 ln theta/d). 4. The live weights of geese from 28 d of age and the parameters of the Richards function were significantly higher (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) in th sire line (S) than in the dam line (D). A low negative heterosis was observed at all points of the growth curves (-0.01 to -9.7%). The results indicated the effect of sex-linked growth genes. 5. The phenotypic correlations between parameters of the Richards function within genetic groups are discussed. PMID:7953778

  2. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Betancourt, M.

    2015-02-10

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST.

  3. 23. DETAIL OF TRELLIS BEAMS SHOWING RECESSED LIGHTING FIXTURES, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DETAIL OF TRELLIS BEAMS SHOWING RECESSED LIGHTING FIXTURES, WITH ONE BEAM CURVED TO FIT AROUND TRUNK OF FORMER TREE. - Fallingwater, State Route 381 (Stewart Township), Ohiopyle, Fayette County, PA

  4. Climate change and storage response in alpine geologic endmember catchments using integrated modeling and baseflow recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovich, K. H.; Fogg, G. E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Arumi, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Runoff generation in snowmelt-dominated alpine systems predominantly occurs in subsurface, be it in the soil, saprolite, or fractured bedrock zone, and shifts in timing and amount of runoff due to climate change remains an open topic of research. Furthermore, the degree to which subsurface storage offsets the loss of snow storage in porous and fractured alpine terrains, i.e., the hydrogeologic buffering capacity, is still largely unknown. The snowmelt-dominated alpine watersheds in California and Chile are particularly vulnerable to climate change due to their Mediterranean climate, where winter snowpack sustains the demand of urban and agricultural needs during the dry summers. The streams draining the western slope of the Sierra Nevada and Andes mountains show a decline in snowmelt runoff, with an earlier shift in spring pulse and center of mass timing over the past 50 years. Following the snowmelt period, summer low flows are sustained by groundwater, and interbasin baseflow trends have been shown to correlate with geology, and to some extent, soil thickness in less permeable basins. However, the interannual (intrabasin) baseflow trends have not been explored with respect to climate change impacts to storage-discharge relationships. Here we estimate long-term groundwater storage trends via baseflow recession analysis for two geologically distinct alpine basins: the granitic Middle Fork Kaweah in the southern Sierra Nevada, California (640 masl, 264.2 km2 with daily data back to 1949) and the volcanic Diguillín in the central Andes, Bío Bío Region, Chile (670 masl and 334 km2 with daily data back to 1959). We employ a simple linear reservoir model for estimating storage from baseflow, and investigate the sensitivity to watershed characteristics, such as depth of groundwater circulation and storage on the results. We supplement these results with numerical experiments conducted using ParFlow-CLM, a fully-integrated hydrologic model coupled to a land surface

  5. Analysis of growth curves of fowl. I. Chickens.

    PubMed

    Knízetová, H; Hyánek, J; Kníze, B; Roubícek, J

    1991-12-01

    1. The Richards function was used to describe the growth curves (n = 989) of 9 broiler lines. Chickens were fed ad libitum and body weight was recorded every second week from hatching to 26 weeks of age. 2. The accuracy of curve fit measured by the coefficient of determination (R2) was better for males than for females (0.9986-0.9995 vs 0.9972-0.9988, respectively). 3. The estimation of the asymptotic final weight (A) for different lines enabled the degree of maturity (ut = yt/A) to be determined at any fixed point of the curve. At the age of 7 weeks this had a value of 0.318-0.369 for cockerels and 0.325-0.377 for pullets and represented the slaughter maturity of individual lines. The ratio of inflection/asymptotic weight (y+/A = 0.370-0.388) indicated that in some cases chicken growth can be described approximately by the Gompertz function (y+/A = 0.368). 4. It was found that the age at the inflection point of curves (t+ 48.2-55.7 d for cockerels and t+ = 47.8-52.8 d for pullets) roughly corresponds to the slaughter age of the chickens. 5. The interline differences in the parameters of maturation rate for weight (y+/A, k, t+, u7) are low in comparison with the differences in body weight (A, y+, y7) and absolute growth rate (v, v+). 6. The intragroup phenotypic correlation among growth parameters and the importance of the mathematical models are discussed. PMID:1786568

  6. Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis and CGCD method for erbium doped CaZrO3 phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Ratnesh; Chopra, Seema

    2016-05-01

    The manuscript report the synthesis, thermoluminescence study at fixed concentration of Er3+ (1 mol%) doped CaZrO3 phosphor. The phosphors were prepared by modified solid state reaction method. The powder sample was characterized by thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve analysis. In TL glow curve the optimized concentration in 1mol% for UV irradiated sample. The kinetic parameters were calculated by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) techniaue. Trapping parameters gives the information of dosimetry loss in prepared phosphor and its usability in environmental monitoring and for personal monitoring. CGCD is the advance tool for analysis of complicated TL glow curves.

  7. Curved Thermopiezoelectric Shell Structures Modeled by Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    2000-01-01

    "Smart" structures composed of piezoelectric materials may significantly improve the performance of aeropropulsion systems through a variety of vibration, noise, and shape-control applications. The development of analytical models for piezoelectric smart structures is an ongoing, in-house activity at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field focused toward the experimental characterization of these materials. Research efforts have been directed toward developing analytical models that account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of piezoelectric composite materials. Current work revolves around implementing thermal effects into a curvilinear-shell finite element code. This enhances capabilities to analyze curved structures and to account for coupling effects arising from thermal effects and the curved geometry. The current analytical model implements a unique mixed multi-field laminate theory to improve computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy. The mechanics can model both the sensory and active behavior of piezoelectric composite shell structures. Finite element equations are being implemented for an eight-node curvilinear shell element, and numerical studies are being conducted to demonstrate capabilities to model the response of curved piezoelectric composite structures (see the figure).

  8. Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis of natural onyx from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Tamer; Toktamış, Hüseyin; Yüksel, Mehmet; Topaksu, Mustafa; Yazici, A Necmeddin

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the thermoluminesce (TL) properties of natural onyx were determined after β-irradiation ((90)Sr/(90)Y) at room temperature. The effect of the additive dose and variable heating rate for TL glow peaks of the sample were investigated. Computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods were used to determine the number of peaks and kinetic parameters related to the TL glow peaks in natural onyx from Turkey. It was also determined kinetic parameters of onyx by means of the variable heating rate (VHR) method. The sample was exposed to β-irradiation between 2.4 Gy and 2.457 kGy. The CGCD methods showed that the glow curve of sample is the superposition of at least six first order components which were ascribed as P1-P6. The dose responses of some peaks have similar patterns and they follow linearity. The effect of heating rates on the response of dosimetric glow peaks of sample was studied. The maximum TL peak intensities of glow curve are decreasing with increasing heating rate and maximum TL peak intensities at 1 °C/s drops to 20% of the initial value when the sample is read at 6 °C/s.

  9. Paleomagnetic analysis of curved thrust belts reproduced by physical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Elisabetta; Speranza, Fabio

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying the evolution of curved mountain belts by means of paleomagnetic analyses performed on analogue models. Eleven models were designed aimed at reproducing various tectonic settings in thin-skinned tectonics. Our models analyze in particular those features reported in the literature as possible causes for peculiar rotational patterns in the outermost as well as in the more internal fronts. In all the models the sedimentary cover was reproduced by frictional low-cohesion materials (sand and glass micro-beads), which detached either on frictional or on viscous layers. These latter were reproduced in the models by silicone. The sand forming the models has been previously mixed with magnetite-dominated powder. Before deformation, the models were magnetized by means of two permanent magnets generating within each model a quasi-linear magnetic field of intensity variable between 20 and 100 mT. After deformation, the models were cut into closely spaced vertical sections and sampled by means of 1×1-cm Plexiglas cylinders at several locations along curved fronts. Care was taken to collect paleomagnetic samples only within virtually undeformed thrust sheets, avoiding zones affected by pervasive shear. Afterwards, the natural remanent magnetization of these samples was measured, and alternating field demagnetization was used to isolate the principal components. The characteristic components of magnetization isolated were used to estimate the vertical-axis rotations occurring during model deformation. We find that indenters pushing into deforming belts from behind form non-rotational curved outer fronts. The more internal fronts show oroclinal-type rotations of a smaller magnitude than that expected for a perfect orocline. Lateral symmetrical obstacles in the foreland colliding with forward propagating belts produce non-rotational outer curved fronts as well, whereas in between and inside the obstacles a perfect orocline forms

  10. Understanding Recession and Self-Rated Health with the Partial Proportional Odds Model: An Analysis of 26 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Adam; Foster, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-rated health is demonstrated to vary substantially by both personal socio-economic status and national economic conditions. However, studies investigating the combined influence of individual and country level economic indicators across several countries in the context of recent global recession are limited. This paper furthers our knowledge of the effect of recession on health at both the individual and national level. Methods Using the Life in Transition II study, which provides data from 19,759 individuals across 26 European nations, we examine the relationship between self-rated health, personal economic experiences, and macro-economic change. Data analyses include, but are not limited to, the partial proportional odds model which permits the effect of predictors to vary across different levels of our dependent variable. Results Household experiences with recession, especially a loss of staple good consumption, are associated with lower self-rated health. Most individual-level experiences with recession, such as a job loss, have relatively small negative effects on perceived health; the effect of individual or household economic hardship is strongest in high income nations. Our findings also suggest that macroeconomic growth improves self-rated health in low-income nations but has no effect in high-income nations. Individuals with the greatest probability of “good” self-rated health reside in wealthy countries ($23,910 to $50, 870 GNI per capita). Conclusion Both individual and national economic variables are predictive of self-rated health. Personal and household experiences are most consequential for self-rated health in high income nations, while macroeconomic growth is most consequential in low-income nations. PMID:26513660

  11. What mainly controls recession flows in river basins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Basudev; Nagesh Kumar, D.

    2014-03-01

    The ubiquity of the power law relationship between dQ/dt and Q for recession periods (-dQ/dt=kQα,Q being discharge at the basin outlet at time t) clearly hints at the existence of a dominant recession flow process that is common to all real basins. It is commonly assumed that a basin, during recession events, functions as a single phreatic aquifer resting on a impermeable horizontal bed or the Dupuit-Boussinesq (DB) aquifer, and with time different aquifer geometric conditions arise that give different values of α and k. The recently proposed alternative model, geomorphological recession flow model, however, suggests that recession flows are controlled primarily by the dynamics of the active drainage network (ADN). In this study we use data for several basins and compare the above two contrasting recession flow models in order to understand which of the above two factors dominates during recession periods in steep basins. Particularly, we do the comparison by selecting three key recession flow properties: (1) power law exponent α, (2) dynamic dQ/dt-Q relationship (characterized by k) and (3) recession timescale (time period for which a recession event lasts). Our observations suggest that neither drainage from phreatic aquifers nor evapotranspiration significantly controls recession flows. Results show that the value of α and recession timescale are not modeled well by DB aquifer model. However, the above mentioned three recession curve properties can be captured satisfactorily by considering the dynamics of the ADN as described by geomorphological recession flow model, possibly indicating that the ADN represents not just phreatic aquifers but the organization of various sub-surface storage systems within the basin.

  12. Analysis of growth curves of fowl. II. Ducks.

    PubMed

    Knízetová, H; Hyánek, J; Kníze, B; Procházková, H

    1991-12-01

    1. Growth curves of nine selected lines and one random-bred control population (in total, n = 1070) were evaluated by the Richards function. The ducks were weighed at 7-d intervals and, after the tenth week, every second week (up to 18 weeks). Food and water were supplied ad libitum. 2. The predicted curves closely fitted the weight data points (R2 = 0.9991-0.9997). 3. The ducks are characterized by early maturity rate. The peak of the absolute growth rate (the inflection point of the curve) occurred at 24.1-27.6 d of age (t+). A higher ratio of the inflection to the asymptotic weights (y+/A = 0.380-0.424) was found in comparison to those from the Gompertz-type function of growth (y+/A = 0.368). 4. In the selected lines the degree of maturity at a slaughter age of 7 weeks (u7 = y7/A) ranged from 0.784 to 0.835 for males and from 0.819 to 0.889 for females. 5. Ducks within the non-selected control line had a significantly lower maturing rate than the selected lines. 6. Sexual dimorphism was recorded for all growth parameters analysed. Females have faster maturation rate than males (higher values of y+/A, u7, k and a shorter auto-acceleration phase of growth). 7. High interline differences were found for body weight (A, y+, y7) and for absolute growth rate (v, v+) and smaller ones for parameters of the maturation rate (y+/A, u7, k and t+). 8. The intragroup phenotype correlation between growth parameters and the use of weight data only up to 7 weeks of age for the estimation of parameters of the Richards function are discussed. PMID:1786569

  13. Transit Light Curves with Finite Integration Time: Fisher Information Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-01

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/~eprice.

  14. Transit light curves with finite integration time: Fisher information analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-10

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/∼eprice.

  15. The first light curve analysis of eclipsing binary NR Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli, F.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Poro, A.

    2015-05-01

    New observations of the eclipsing binary system NR Cam were carried out using a CCD in B, V, and R filters and new times of light minimum and new ephemeris were obtained. The B, V, and R light curves were analyzed using both the Binary Maker 3.0 and PHOEBE 0.31 programs to determine some geometrical and physical parameters of the system. These results show that NR Cam is an overcontact binary and that both components are Main Sequence stars. The O'Connell effect on NR Cam was studied and some variations in spot parameters were obtained over the different years.

  16. Vibration Analysis of Composite Rectangular Plates Reinforced along Curved Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Shinya; Oonishi, Yoshimasa; Narita, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Katsuhiko

    In the past few decades, composite materials composed of straight fibers and polymer matrix have gained their status as the most promising material for light-weight structures. Technical merit of the composites as tailored material also provided practical advantages in the optimum design process. Recently, it is reported that the fabrication machine has been developed to make curved fibers embedded in the matrix material. Based on such technical advancement, this paper proposes an analytical method to study vibration of composite rectangular plates reinforced along curved lines. The approach is based on the Ritz method where variable fiber direction can be accommodated. For this purpose, the fibers continuously changing their direction are formulated as the variable bending stiffness in the total potential energy. A frequency equation is derived by the Ritz minimizing process, and frequency parameters are calculated as the eigenvlaues in the eigenvalue problem. In numerical results, the accuracy of the method is presented by comparing present results with FEM results. The advantages of present plate are confirmed by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes with those of conventional composite and isotropic plates, and the effectiveness of the new solution to the most recent problem is demonstrated.

  17. GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF KOI-977: SPECTROSCOPY, ASTEROSEISMOLOGY, AND PHASE-CURVE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Sato, Bun'ei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Masuda, Kento; Benomar, Othman; Takeda, Yoichi; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki

    2015-01-20

    We present a global analysis of KOI-977, one of the planet host candidates detected by Kepler. The Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) reports that KOI-977 is a red giant, for which few close-in planets have been discovered. Our global analysis involves spectroscopic and asteroseismic determinations of stellar parameters (e.g., mass and radius) and radial velocity (RV) measurements. Our analyses reveal that KOI-977 is indeed a red giant, possibly in the red clump, but its estimated radius (≳ 20 R {sub ☉} = 0.093 AU) is much larger than KOI-977.01's orbital distance (∼0.027 AU) estimated from its period (P {sub orb} ∼ 1.35 days) and host star's mass. RV measurements show a small variation, which also contradicts the amplitude of ellipsoidal variations seen in the light curve folded with KOI-977.01's period. Therefore, we conclude that KOI-977.01 is a false positive, meaning that the red giant, for which we measured the radius and RVs, is different from the object that produces the transit-like signal (i.e., an eclipsing binary). On the basis of this assumption, we also perform a light curve analysis including the modeling of transits/eclipses and phase-curve variations, adopting various values for the dilution factor D, which is defined as the flux ratio between the red giant and eclipsing binary. Fitting the whole folded light curve as well as individual transits in the short cadence data simultaneously, we find that the estimated mass and radius ratios of the eclipsing binary are consistent with those of a solar-type star and a late-type star (e.g., an M dwarf) for D ≳ 20.

  18. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  19. A Brief Review: The Z-curve Theory and its Application in Genome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2014-04-01

    In theoretical physics, there exist two basic mathematical approaches, algebraic and geometrical methods, which, in most cases, are complementary. In the area of genome sequence analysis, however, algebraic approaches have been widely used, while geometrical approaches have been less explored for a long time. The Z-curve theory is a geometrical approach to genome analysis. The Z-curve is a three-dimensional curve that represents a given DNA sequence in the sense that each can be uniquely reconstructed given the other. The Z-curve, therefore, contains all the information that the corresponding DNA sequence carries. The analysis of a DNA sequence can then be performed through studying the corresponding Z-curve. The Z-curve method has found applications in a wide range of areas in the past two decades, including the identifications of protein-coding genes, replication origins, horizontally-transferred genomic islands, promoters, translational start sides and isochores, as well as studies on phylogenetics, genome visualization and comparative genomics. Here, we review the progress of Z-curve studies from aspects of both theory and applications in genome analysis.

  20. A Brief Review: The Z-curve Theory and its Application in Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2014-01-01

    In theoretical physics, there exist two basic mathematical approaches, algebraic and geometrical methods, which, in most cases, are complementary. In the area of genome sequence analysis, however, algebraic approaches have been widely used, while geometrical approaches have been less explored for a long time. The Z-curve theory is a geometrical approach to genome analysis. The Z-curve is a three-dimensional curve that represents a given DNA sequence in the sense that each can be uniquely reconstructed given the other. The Z-curve, therefore, contains all the information that the corresponding DNA sequence carries. The analysis of a DNA sequence can then be performed through studying the corresponding Z-curve. The Z-curve method has found applications in a wide range of areas in the past two decades, including the identifications of protein-coding genes, replication origins, horizontally-transferred genomic islands, promoters, translational start sides and isochores, as well as studies on phylogenetics, genome visualization and comparative genomics. Here, we review the progress of Z-curve studies from aspects of both theory and applications in genome analysis. PMID:24822026

  1. Determination of the optimum working range from a calibration curve for colorimetric analysis with an "autoanalyzer".

    PubMed

    Whitehead, D

    1973-02-01

    A study has been made of the types and distribution of errors in determining the optimum working range from a calibration curve for automated analysis. Three error equations are derived for the fitting of a linear, quadratic or cubic curve, involving a thorough statistical analysis of the data. The errors from a set of silica and alumina standards, requiring a quadratic and cubic fit respectively, compare favourably with replicate analyses of standard rocks done on a previous occasion. PMID:18961254

  2. New method for calculating a mathematical expression for streamflow recession

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, Albert T.

    1991-01-01

    An empirical method has been devised to calculate the master recession curve, which is a mathematical expression for streamflow recession during times of negligible direct runoff. The method is based on the assumption that the storage-delay factor, which is the time per log cycle of streamflow recession, varies linearly with the logarithm of streamflow. The resulting master recession curve can be nonlinear. The method can be executed by a computer program that reads a data file of daily mean streamflow, then allows the user to select several near-linear segments of streamflow recession. The storage-delay factor for each segment is one of the coefficients of the equation that results from linear least-squares regression. Using results for each recession segment, a mathematical expression of the storage-delay factor as a function of the log of streamflow is determined by linear least-squares regression. The master recession curve, which is a second-order polynomial expression for time as a function of log of streamflow, is then derived using the coefficients of this function.

  3. Etiology and occurrence of gingival recession - An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Mythri, Sarpangala; Arunkumar, Suryanarayan Maiya; Hegde, Shashikanth; Rajesh, Shanker Kashyap; Munaz, Mohamed; Ashwin, Devasya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Gingival recession is the term used to characterize the apical shift of the marginal gingiva from its normal position on the crown of the tooth. It is frequently observed in adult subjects. The occurrence and severity of the gingival recession present considerable differences between populations. To prevent gingival recession from occurring, it is essential to detect the underlying etiology. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of gingival recession and to identify the most common factor associated with the cause of gingival recession. Methods: A total of 710 subjects aged between 15 years to 60 years were selected. Data were collected by an interview with the help of a proforma and then the dental examination was carried out. The presence of gingival recession was recorded using Miller's classification of gingival recession. The Silness and Loe Plaque Index, Loe and Silness gingival index, community periodontal index were recorded. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test and Student's unpaired t-test. Results: Of 710 subjects examined, 291 (40.98%) subjects exhibited gingival recession. The frequency of gingival recession was found to increase with age. High frequency of gingival recession was seen in males (60.5%) compared to females (39.5%). Gingival recession was commonly seen in mandibular incisors (43.0%). Miller's class I gingival recession was more commonly seen. The most common cause for gingival recession was dental plaque accumulation (44.1%) followed by faulty toothbrushing (42.7%). Conclusion: Approximately half of the subjects examined exhibited gingival recession. The etiology of gingival recession is multifactorial, and its appearance is always the result of more than one factor acting together. PMID:26941519

  4. Trends in population mental health before and after the 2008 recession: a repeat cross-sectional analysis of the 1991–2010 Health Surveys of England

    PubMed Central

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Popham, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess short-term differences in population mental health before and after the 2008 recession and explore how and why these changes differ by gender, age and socio-economic position. Design Repeat cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Setting England. Participants Representative samples of the working age (25–64 years) general population participating in the Health Survey for England between 1991 and 2010 inclusive. Main outcome measures Prevalence of poor mental health (caseness) as measured by the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ). Results Age–sex standardised prevalence of GHQ caseness increased from 13.7% (95% CI 12.9% to 14.5%) in 2008 to 16.4% (95% CI 14.9% to 17.9%) in 2009 and 15.5% (95% CI 14.4% to 16.7%) in 2010. Women had a consistently greater prevalence since 1991 until the current recession. However, compared to 2008, men experienced an increase in age-adjusted caseness of 5.1% (95% CI 2.6% to 7.6%, p<0.001) in 2009 and 3% (95% CI 1.2% to 4.9%, p=0.001) in 2010, while no statistically significant changes were seen in women. Adjustment for differences in employment status and education level did not account for the observed increase in men nor did they explain the differential gender patterning. Over the last decade, socio-economic inequalities showed a tendency to increase but no clear evidence for an increase in inequalities associated with the recession was found. Similarly, no evidence was found for a differential effect between age groups. Conclusions Population mental health in men has deteriorated within 2 years of the onset of the current recession. These changes, and their patterning by gender, could not be accounted for by differences in employment status. Further work is needed to monitor recessionary impacts on health inequalities in response to ongoing labour market and social policy changes. PMID:23075569

  5. The Recess Renaissance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2015-01-01

    The author tells of his work around the country and world on transforming how schools do recess, free play, and outside time by transforming their outdoor spaces to match. Instead of a playground of fixed structures like traditional school grounds, newer spaces are filled with loose materials that children can use to build forts, dens, and tree…

  6. A light-curve distortion-wave analysis of eight RS Canum Venaticorum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    A program of differential U,B,V photometry of 14 RS CVn systems carried out at Rosemary Hill Observatory in 1978 - 1981 is described, and an analysis of the light curves for the characteristic distortion wave for eight of the systems is presented. The V light curves of the systems are shown. Significant waves were observed in RS CVn, RZ Eri, and RW UMa. No significant waves were found in UX Com, GK Hya, AR Lac, LX Per, or TY Pyx. Unusual light curve distortions were observed in UX Com and AR Lac.

  7. The recessive model of MRP2 G1249A polymorphism decrease the risk of drug-resistant in Asian Epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Tang, Liang; Pan, Jiabao; Li, Jianming; Zhang, Qingsong; Chen, Bifeng

    2015-05-01

    ABCC2 gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, the published results were controversial. To comprehensively re-evaluate the association between ABCC2 gene polymorphisms and drug-resistant epilepsy in Asian, we carried out this meta-analysis, which included eight related studies. Studies were selected using PUBMED, Web of science, the Cochrane database of system reviews and Embase. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association. Studies with 1302 drug-resistant cases and 1563 drug-sensitive controls were included. No significant association was detected by combined analyses for C-24T, G-1774delG, C3972T and G2934A. However, significant association was found in recessive model for G1249A polymorphism (GG vs. GA+AA: OR=0.72, 95%CI=0.53-0.96, P=0.03), indicating the recessive model of G1249A in MRP2/ABCC2 might decrease the risk of drug resistance in Asian epilepsy.

  8. WTF- and A- Stars: Spectroscopic Analysis of Kepler Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grae Short, Miona; Soderblom, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of Kepler data in 2012 found that in a sample of about 2000 A- and F- stars, 1% of them seemed to exhibit white light flares. However, such stars are not thought to have the convective envelopes needed to produce the magnetic dynamos that yield flares. We use the same Kepler data but examine the flaring stars more comprehensively by analyzing the pixel data in order to predict whether this flare-like behavior may be caused by smaller, less luminous M dwarfs exhibiting genuine flares in the line of sight of the A- and F-stars. The implications of finding verifiable flare activity in a subset of these stars would be enough to incite further investigation of the physical processes that allow this to take place. Yet, if that were not the case, this project would further be able to demonstrate the steps necessary to correct for false-positives in finding flares in A- and F- stars.

  9. The mathematical analysis of the heart rate and blood lactate curves during incremental exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Mirko; Ilic, V; Obradovic, Z; Pantovic, S; Rosic, G

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes a new mathematical approach for the analysis of HR (heart rate) and BL (blood lactate) curves during incremental exercise testing using a HR/BL curve and its derivatives, taking into account the native shape of all curves, without any linear approximation. Using this approach the results indicate the appearance of three characteristic points (A, B and C) on the HR/BL curve. The point A on the HR/BL curve which is the value that corresponds to the load (12.73 ± 0.46 km h-1) at which BL starts to increase above the resting levels (0.9 ± 0.06 mM), and is analogous to Lactate Turn Point 1 (LTP1). The point C on the HR/BL curve which corresponds to a BL of approximately 4mM, and is analogous to LTP2. The point B on the HR/BL curve, which corresponds to the load (16.32 ± 0.49 km h-1) at which the moderate increase turns into a more pronounced increase in BL. This point has not been previously recognized in literature. We speculate this point represents attenuation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increase, accompanied by the decrease in diastolic time duration during incremental exercise testing. Proposed mathematical approach allows precise determination of lactate turnpoints during incremental exercise testing.

  10. A general geomorphological recession flow model for river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Basudev; Nagesh Kumar, D.

    2013-08-01

    Recession flows in a basin are controlled by the temporal evolution of its active drainage network (ADN). The geomorphological recession flow model (GRFM) assumes that both the rate of flow generation per unit ADN length (q) and the speed at which ADN heads move downstream (c) remain constant during a recession event. Thereby, it connects the power law exponent of -dQ/dt versus Q (discharge at the outlet at time t) curve, α, with the structure of the drainage network, a fixed entity. In this study, we first reformulate the GRFM for Horton-Strahler networks and show that the geomorphic α (αg) is equal to D/>(D-1>), where D is the fractal dimension of the drainage network. We then propose a more general recession flow model by expressing both q and c as functions of Horton-Strahler stream order. We show that it is possible to have α =α g for a recession event even when q and c do not remain constant. The modified GRFM suggests that α is controlled by the spatial distribution of subsurface storage within the basin. By analyzing streamflow data from 39 U.S. Geological Survey basins, we show that α is having a power law relationship with recession curve peak, which indicates that the spatial distribution of subsurface storage varies across recession events.

  11. Development of synthetic flood damage curve by explicit costs analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martina, Mario; Molinari, Daniela; Dottori, Francesco; Scorzini, Annarita

    2015-04-01

    characteristics. Such functions were developed using a what-if analysis using data collected after the 2012 flood in the Umbria Region in Central Italy, as well as authors' experience, as reference to understand damage mechanisms. Observed damage data were also used to calibrate the functions.

  12. A new methodology for free wake analysis using curved vortex elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.; Teske, Milton E.; Quackenbush, Todd R.

    1987-01-01

    A method using curved vortex elements was developed for helicopter rotor free wake calculations. The Basic Curve Vortex Element (BCVE) is derived from the approximate Biot-Savart integration for a parabolic arc filament. When used in conjunction with a scheme to fit the elements along a vortex filament contour, this method has a significant advantage in overall accuracy and efficiency when compared to the traditional straight-line element approach. A theoretical and numerical analysis shows that free wake flows involving close interactions between filaments should utilize curved vortex elements in order to guarantee a consistent level of accuracy. The curved element method was implemented into a forward flight free wake analysis, featuring an adaptive far wake model that utilizes free wake information to extend the vortex filaments beyond the free wake regions. The curved vortex element free wake, coupled with this far wake model, exhibited rapid convergence, even in regions where the free wake and far wake turns are interlaced. Sample calculations are presented for tip vortex motion at various advance ratios for single and multiple blade rotors. Cross-flow plots reveal that the overall downstream wake flow resembles a trailing vortex pair. A preliminary assessment shows that the rotor downwash field is insensitive to element size, even for relatively large curved elements.

  13. Numerical analysis of curved frequency selective surface by finite-difference time-domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin-yi; Wang, Jian-bo; Chen, Gui-bo; Sun, Guan-cheng; Lu, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Frequency selective surface is a monolayer or multilayer 2D periodic structure which is composed of multiple resonance units scattering by a two-dimensional periodic array on dielectric layer. FSS can't absorb radio frequency energy, but can filter the frequency which is therefore applied in microwave technique or stealth technology. The relative research on curved FSS is relatively scarce since the curved FSS structure can be obtained only when FSS is attached on the materials surfaces of curved structures in engineering application. However, curved FSS is widely applied in practical engineering; therefore, the research on curved FSS structure has important significance. In this paper, a curved FSS structure model of Y-pore unit is established and numerical simulated by means of FDTD. The influence of curvature on FSS transmission characteristics is studied according to the analysis on the changing of radar cross section (RCS). The results show: the center frequency point of the plane band pass FSS structure drifts after the curve surface deformation of the structure; the center frequency point of the curved band pass FSS structure drifts with the changing of the curvature radius, i. e. with the decreasing of curvature radius, the frequency point drifts towards high points and the transmittance decreases. The design of FSS radome demands of accurate and stable center resonance frequency; therefore, the actual situation of curved surface should be considered in practical engineering application when band pass FSS is made into frequency selection filtering radome. The curvature radius should be long enough to avoid center frequency drifting and transmittance deceasing.

  14. Light curve morphology analysis of contact binaries observed with the Kepler satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debski, Bartłomiej; Zoła, Stanisław

    2014-09-01

    Light-curve morphology analysis of contact binaries provides model-independent insight into the short-term evolution of the system activity. Light-curve morphology applied to the Kepler data of contact binaries reveals directly the migration spot connection to the light curve's intrinsic rapid changes. Since the flat-bottom secondary minima cannot be studied in the way Tran et al. (2013) or Conroy et al. (2014) did, we measure the actual light-curve minimum, instead of the presumed mid-eclipse time. This, combined with the study of the minimum depth, allowed us to uncover the direction of the spot migration for particular binaries. At the same time, the O'Connell effect evolution and the maxima separation confronted with modeling based on the Wilson-Devinney code agree with polar dark spots. The combined results of this new approach offer constraints on the star spots size, temperature and latitude at high precision.

  15. Three-dimensional forward solver and its performance analysis for magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) using recessed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Il; Oh, Suk Hoon; Woo, Eung Je; Lee, Soo Yeol; Cho, Min Hyoung; Kwon, Ohin; Seo, Jin Keun; Lee, June-Yub; Baek, Woon Sik

    2003-07-01

    In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), we try to reconstruct a cross-sectional resistivity (or conductivity) image of a subject. When we inject a current through surface electrodes, it generates a magnetic field. Using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, we can obtain the induced magnetic flux density from MR phase images of the subject. We use recessed electrodes to avoid undesirable artefacts near electrodes in measuring magnetic flux densities. An MREIT image reconstruction algorithm produces cross-sectional resistivity images utilizing the measured internal magnetic flux density in addition to boundary voltage data. In order to develop such an image reconstruction algorithm, we need a three-dimensional forward solver. Given injection currents as boundary conditions, the forward solver described in this paper computes voltage and current density distributions using the finite element method (FEM). Then, it calculates the magnetic flux density within the subject using the Biot-Savart law and FEM. The performance of the forward solver is analysed and found to be enough for use in MREIT for resistivity image reconstructions and also experimental designs and validations. The forward solver may find other applications where one needs to compute voltage, current density and magnetic flux density distributions all within a volume conductor. PMID:12884929

  16. AtomicJ: an open source software for analysis of force curves.

    PubMed

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava; Gabryś, Halina

    2014-06-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh. PMID:24985823

  17. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava; Gabryś, Halina

    2014-06-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  18. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanowicz, Paweł Gabryś, Halina; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava

    2014-06-15

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  19. Retrospective North American CFL Experience Curve Analysis and Correlation to Deployment Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sarah J.; Wei, Max; Sohn, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective experience curves are a useful tool for understanding historic technology development, and can contribute to investment program analysis and future cost estimation efforts. This work documents our development of an analysis approach for deriving retrospective experience curves with a variable learning rate, and its application to develop an experience curve for compact fluorescent lamps for the global and North American markets over the years 1990-2007. Uncertainties and assumptions involved in interpreting data for our experience curve development are discussed, including the processing and transformation of empirical data, the selection of system boundaries, and the identification of historical changes in the learning rate over the course of 15 years. In the results that follow, we find that that the learning rate has changed at least once from 1990-2007. We also explore if, and to what degree, public deployment programs may have contributed to an increased technology learning rate in North America. We observe correlations between the changes in the learning rate and the initiation of new policies, abrupt technological advances, including improvements to ballast technology, and economic and political events such as trade tariffs and electricity prices. Finally, we discuss how the findings of this work (1) support the use of segmented experience curves for retrospective and prospective analysis and (2) may imply that investments in technological research and development have contributed to a change in market adoption and penetration.

  20. Soil hydraulic properties estimate based on numerical analysis of disc infiltrometer three-dimensional infiltration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Borja; Peña-Sancho, Carolina; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafaël; Moret-Fernández, David

    2015-04-01

    Measurement of soil hydraulic properties is of paramount importance in fields such as agronomy, hydrology or soil science. Fundamented on the analysis of the Haverkamp et al. (1994) model, the aim of this paper is to explain a technique to estimate the soil hydraulic properties (sorptivity, S, and hydraulic conductivity, K) from the full-time cumulative infiltration curves. The method (NSH) was validated by means of 12 synthetic infiltration curves generated with HYDRUS-3D from known soil hydraulic properties. The K values used to simulate the synthetic curves were compared to those estimated with the proposed method. A procedure to identify and remove the effect of the contact sand layer on the cumulative infiltration curve was also developed. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the water level measurement as uncertainty source. Finally, the procedure was evaluated using different infiltration times and data noise. Since a good correlation between the K used in HYDRUS-3D to model the infiltration curves and those estimated by the NSH method was obtained, (R2 =0.98), it can be concluded that this technique is robust enough to estimate the soil hydraulic conductivity from complete infiltration curves. The numerical procedure to detect and remove the influence of the contact sand layer on the K and S estimates seemed to be robust and efficient. An effect of the curve infiltration noise on the K estimate was observed, which uncertainty increased with increasing noise. Finally, the results showed that infiltration time was an important factor to estimate K. Lower values of K or smaller uncertainty needed longer infiltration times.

  1. Drainage-system development in consecutive melt seasons at a polythermal, Arctic glacier, evaluated by flow-recession analysis and linear-reservoir simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, Richard; Cooper, Richard; Tranter, Martyn; Wadham, Jemma

    2013-01-01

    [1] The drainage systems of polythermal glaciers play an important role in high-latitude hydrology, and are determinants of ice flow rate. Flow-recession analysis and linear-reservoir simulation of runoff time series are here used to evaluate seasonal and inter-annual variability in the drainage system of the polythermal Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, in 1999 and 2000. Linear-flow recessions are pervasive, with mean coefficients of a fast reservoir varying from 16 (1999) to 41 h (2000), and mean coefficients of an intermittent, slow reservoir varying from 54 (1999) to 114 h (2000). Drainage-system efficiency is greater overall in the first of the two seasons, the simplest explanation of which is more rapid depletion of the snow cover. Reservoir coefficients generally decline during each season (at 0.22 h d−1 in 1999 and 0.52 h d−1 in 2000), denoting an increase in drainage efficiency. However, coefficients do not exhibit a consistent relationship with discharge. Finsterwalderbreen therefore appears to behave as an intermediate case between temperate glaciers and other polythermal glaciers with smaller proportions of temperate ice. Linear-reservoir runoff simulations exhibit limited sensitivity to a relatively wide range of reservoir coefficients, although the use of fixed coefficients in a spatially lumped model can generate significant subseasonal error. At Finsterwalderbreen, an ice-marginal channel with the characteristics of a fast reservoir, and a subglacial upwelling with the characteristics of a slow reservoir, both route meltwater to the terminus. This suggests that drainage-system components of significantly contrasting efficiencies can coexist spatially and temporally at polythermal glaciers. PMID:25598557

  2. Taxometrics, Polytomous Constructs, and the Comparison Curve Fit Index: A Monte Carlo Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; McGrath, Robert E.; Knight, Raymond A.

    2010-01-01

    The taxometric method effectively distinguishes between dimensional (1-class) and taxonic (2-class) latent structure, but there is virtually no information on how it responds to polytomous (3-class) latent structure. A Monte Carlo analysis showed that the mean comparison curve fit index (CCFI; Ruscio, Haslam, & Ruscio, 2006) obtained with 3…

  3. Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects on Explicit Rule Learning: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwu, Fenfang; Pan, Wei; Sun, Shuyan

    2014-01-01

    Finding the match between individuals and educational treatments is the aim of both educators and the aptitude-treatment interaction research paradigm. Using the latent growth curve analysis, the present study investigates the interaction between the type of explicit instructional approaches (deductive vs. explicit-inductive) and the level of…

  4. Policy Effectiveness and the Slopes of IS and LM Curves: A Graphical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revier, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the IS-LM model providing a graphical analysis designed to clarify the confusion induced by misleading statements in several major macroeconomics textbooks concerning the connection between policy effectiveness and the slopes of the IS and LM curves. Includes references. (CMK)

  5. IMAGE-PLANE ANALYSIS OF n-POINT-MASS LENS CRITICAL CURVES AND CAUSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Danek, Kamil; Heyrovský, David E-mail: heyrovsky@utf.mff.cuni.cz

    2015-06-10

    The interpretation of gravitational microlensing events caused by planetary systems or multiple stars is based on the n-point-mass lens model. The first planets detected by microlensing were well described by the two-point-mass model of a star with one planet. By the end of 2014, four events involving three-point-mass lenses had been announced. Two of the lenses were stars with two planetary companions each; two were binary stars with a planet orbiting one component. While the two-point-mass model is well understood, the same cannot be said for lenses with three or more components. Even the range of possible critical-curve topologies and caustic geometries of the three-point-mass lens remains unknown. In this paper we provide new tools for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses. We perform our analysis in the image plane of the lens. We show that all contours of the Jacobian are critical curves of re-scaled versions of the lens configuration. Utilizing this property further, we introduce the cusp curve to identify cusp-image positions on all contours simultaneously. In order to track cusp-number changes in caustic metamorphoses, we define the morph curve, which pinpoints the positions of metamorphosis-point images along the cusp curve. We demonstrate the usage of both curves on simple two- and three-point-mass lens examples. For the three simplest caustic metamorphoses we illustrate the local structure of the image and source planes.

  6. Progress curve analysis of qRT-PCR reactions using the logistic growth equation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meile; Udhe-Stone, Claudia; Goudar, Chetan T

    2011-01-01

    We present an alternate approach for analyzing data from real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) experiments by fitting individual fluorescence vs. cycle number (F vs. C) curves to the logistic growth equation. The best fit parameters determined by nonlinear least squares were used to compute the second derivative of the logistic equation and the cycle threshold, C(t), was determined from the maximum value of the second derivative. This C(t) value was subsequently used to determine ΔΔC(t) and the amplification efficiency, E(n), thereby completing the analysis on a qRT-PCR data set. The robustness of the logistic approach was verified by testing ~600 F vs. C curves using both new and previously published data sets. In most cases, comparisons were made between the logistic estimates and those from the standard curve and comparative C(t) methods. Deviations between the logistic and standard curve method ranged between 3-10% for C(t) estimates, 2-10% for ΔΔC(t) estimates, and 1-11% for E(n) estimates. The correlations between C(t) estimates from the logistic and standard curve methods were very high, often >0.95. When compared with five other established methods of qRT-PCR data analysis to predict initial concentrations of two genes encompassing a total of 500 F vs. C curves, the logistic estimates were of comparable accuracy. This reliable performance of the logistic approach comes without the need to construct standard curves which can be a laborious undertaking. Also, no a priori assumptions for E(n) are necessary while some other methods assume equal E(n) values for the reference and target genes, an assumption that is not universally valid. In addition, by accurately describing the data in the plateau region of the F vs. C curve, the logistic method overcomes the limitations of the sigmoidal curve fitting method. The streamlined nature of the logistic approach makes it ideal for complete automation on a variety of computing

  7. Characterizing Decision-Analysis Performances of Risk Prediction Models Using ADAPT Curves

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Chung; Wu, Yun-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve is a widely used index to characterize the performance of diagnostic tests and prediction models. However, the index does not explicitly acknowledge the utilities of risk predictions. Moreover, for most clinical settings, what counts is whether a prediction model can guide therapeutic decisions in a way that improves patient outcomes, rather than to simply update probabilities. Based on decision theory, the authors propose an alternative index, the “average deviation about the probability threshold” (ADAPT). An ADAPT curve (a plot of ADAPT value against the probability threshold) neatly characterizes the decision-analysis performances of a risk prediction model. Several prediction models can be compared for their ADAPT values at a chosen probability threshold, for a range of plausible threshold values, or for the whole ADAPT curves. This should greatly facilitate the selection of diagnostic tests and prediction models. PMID:26765451

  8. Segmented coupled-wave analysis of a curved wire-grid polarizer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyun; Sim, Eunji

    2008-03-01

    The performance of a wire-grid polarizer (WGP) on a curved surface was investigated with a simple numerical model. The computation model combines rigorous coupled-wave analysis with piecewise linear segmentation that approximates a curved surface for two bending configurations. A curvature-induced Rayleigh anomaly is found to be the main performance degradation mechanism that reduces transmittance and polarization contrast. A WGP on a curved surface is more likely to incur the Rayleigh anomaly with smaller surface curvature. For a given curvature, a larger WGP is more vulnerable. Effects of polar and azimuthal incidence angles were also analyzed. Suggestions were made in regard to a WGP design that minimizes the performance degradation.

  9. Effects of variable recruitment on catch-curve analysis for crappie populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Catch-curve analysis is frequently used to estimate total annual mortality (A) of exploited fishes, but the method assumes constant recruitment. Because populations of crappie Pomoxis spp. have exhibited large fluctuations in recruitment, I conducted simulations to assess the amount of variability in recruitment that precludes the use of a catch curve and compared results to recruitment dynamics in six crappie populations. Coefficients of variation (CV = 100 ?? SD/mean) in recruitment to age 1 ranged from 55% to 84% among the six crappie populations. Simulations suggested that recruitment variability in these ranges would likely allow estimation of A within ?? 10%, but the probability of obtaining estimates of A that were ??5% or more of the true A would exceed 0.15. I suggest that catch curves may be used to approximate A in crappie populations but that managers should consider the effects on management recommendations if A were ??10% of the estimated A.

  10. The analysis of dose-response curve from bioassays with quantal response: Deterministic or statistical approaches?

    PubMed

    Mougabure-Cueto, G; Sfara, V

    2016-04-25

    Dose-response relations can be obtained from systems at any structural level of biological matter, from the molecular to the organismic level. There are two types of approaches for analyzing dose-response curves: a deterministic approach, based on the law of mass action, and a statistical approach, based on the assumed probabilities distribution of phenotypic characters. Models based on the law of mass action have been proposed to analyze dose-response relations across the entire range of biological systems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the principles that determine the dose-response relations. Dose-response curves of simple systems are the result of chemical interactions between reacting molecules, and therefore are supported by the law of mass action. In consequence, the shape of these curves is perfectly sustained by physicochemical features. However, dose-response curves of bioassays with quantal response are not explained by the simple collision of molecules but by phenotypic variations among individuals and can be interpreted as individual tolerances. The expression of tolerance is the result of many genetic and environmental factors and thus can be considered a random variable. In consequence, the shape of its associated dose-response curve has no physicochemical bearings; instead, they are originated from random biological variations. Due to the randomness of tolerance there is no reason to use deterministic equations for its analysis; on the contrary, statistical models are the appropriate tools for analyzing these dose-response relations.

  11. The analysis of dose-response curve from bioassays with quantal response: Deterministic or statistical approaches?

    PubMed

    Mougabure-Cueto, G; Sfara, V

    2016-04-25

    Dose-response relations can be obtained from systems at any structural level of biological matter, from the molecular to the organismic level. There are two types of approaches for analyzing dose-response curves: a deterministic approach, based on the law of mass action, and a statistical approach, based on the assumed probabilities distribution of phenotypic characters. Models based on the law of mass action have been proposed to analyze dose-response relations across the entire range of biological systems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the principles that determine the dose-response relations. Dose-response curves of simple systems are the result of chemical interactions between reacting molecules, and therefore are supported by the law of mass action. In consequence, the shape of these curves is perfectly sustained by physicochemical features. However, dose-response curves of bioassays with quantal response are not explained by the simple collision of molecules but by phenotypic variations among individuals and can be interpreted as individual tolerances. The expression of tolerance is the result of many genetic and environmental factors and thus can be considered a random variable. In consequence, the shape of its associated dose-response curve has no physicochemical bearings; instead, they are originated from random biological variations. Due to the randomness of tolerance there is no reason to use deterministic equations for its analysis; on the contrary, statistical models are the appropriate tools for analyzing these dose-response relations. PMID:26952004

  12. A computational model-based validation of Guyton's analysis of cardiac output and venous return curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Cohen, R. J.; Mark, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Guyton developed a popular approach for understanding the factors responsible for cardiac output (CO) regulation in which 1) the heart-lung unit and systemic circulation are independently characterized via CO and venous return (VR) curves, and 2) average CO and right atrial pressure (RAP) of the intact circulation are predicted by graphically intersecting the curves. However, this approach is virtually impossible to verify experimentally. We theoretically evaluated the approach with respect to a nonlinear, computational model of the pulsatile heart and circulation. We developed two sets of open circulation models to generate CO and VR curves, differing by the manner in which average RAP was varied. One set applied constant RAPs, while the other set applied pulsatile RAPs. Accurate prediction of intact, average CO and RAP was achieved only by intersecting the CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs because of the pulsatility and nonlinearity (e.g., systemic venous collapse) of the intact model. The CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs were also practically independent. This theoretical study therefore supports the validity of Guyton's graphical analysis.

  13. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a 2-axle freight wagon in curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Bruni, Stefano; True, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of 2-axle freight wagons in curves, considering the case of one single wagon (neglecting inter-car coupling forces) and of multiple wagons interacting through the buffers and the couplers. A multi-body model of a single wagon and of a three-car assembly is introduced, paying particular attention to the nonlinear and nonsmooth modelling of the suspensions and of the inter-car coupling elements. Using this model, a numerical analysis of the steady-state solution reached after the negotiation of curve transition is presented and bifurcations are identified for some particular values of the curve radius. For the single car case, it is shown that depending on the curve radius and the vehicle speed the carbody may experience severe periodic oscillations at speeds lying in the operating range of the vehicle. For the car-assembly case, it is shown that the coupling forces exchanged by the wagons significantly affect their dynamics in a curve, reducing the amplitude of vibration.

  14. Analytical Problems and Suggestions in the Analysis of Behavioral Economic Demand Curves.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral economic demand curves (Hursh, Raslear, Shurtleff, Bauman, & Simmons, 1988) are innovative approaches to characterize the relationships between consumption of a substance and its price. In this article, we investigate common analytical issues in the use of behavioral economic demand curves, which can cause inconsistent interpretations of demand curves, and then we provide methodological suggestions to address those analytical issues. We first demonstrate that log transformation with different added values for handling zeros changes model parameter estimates dramatically. Second, demand curves are often analyzed using an overparameterized model that results in an inefficient use of the available data and a lack of assessment of the variability among individuals. To address these issues, we apply a nonlinear mixed effects model based on multivariate error structures that has not been used previously to analyze behavioral economic demand curves in the literature. We also propose analytical formulas for the relevant standard errors of derived values such as P max, O max, and elasticity. The proposed model stabilizes the derived values regardless of using different added increments and provides substantially smaller standard errors. We illustrate the data analysis procedure using data from a relative reinforcement efficacy study of simulated marijuana purchasing. PMID:26741176

  15. Who Suffers during Recessions? NBER Working Paper No. 17951

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoynes, Hilary W.; Miller, Douglas L.; Schaller, Jessamyn

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine how business cycles affect labor market outcomes in the United States. We conduct a detailed analysis of how cycles affect outcomes differentially across persons of differing age, education, race, and gender, and we compare the cyclical sensitivity during the Great Recession to that in the early 1980s recession. We present…

  16. Learning Factors Transfer Analysis: Using Learning Curve Analysis to Automatically Generate Domain Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, Philip I. Jr.; Cen, Hao; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method to create a quantitative model of an educational content domain of related practice item-types using learning curves. By using a pairwise test to search for the relationships between learning curves for these item-types, we show how the test results in a set of pairwise transfer relationships that can be…

  17. ATWS Analysis with an Advanced Boiling Curve Approach within COBRA 3-CP

    SciTech Connect

    Gensler, A.; Knoll, A.; Kuehnel, K.

    2007-07-01

    In 2005 the German Reactor Safety Commission issued specific requirements on core coolability demonstration for PWR ATWS (anticipated transients without scram). Thereupon AREVA NP performed detailed analyses for all German PWRs. For a German KONVOI plant the results of an ATWS licensing analysis are presented. The plant dynamic behavior is calculated with NLOOP, while the hot channel analysis is performed with the thermal hydraulic computer code COBRA 3-CP. The application of the fuel rod model included in COBRA 3-CP is essential for this type of analysis. Since DNB (departure from nucleate boiling) occurs, the advanced post DNB model (advanced boiling curve approach) of COBRA 3-CP is used. The results are compared with those gained with the standard BEEST model. The analyzed ATWS case is the emergency power case 'loss of main heat sink with station service power supply unavailable'. Due to the decreasing coolant flow rate during the transient the core attains film boiling conditions. The results of the hot channel analysis strongly depend on the performance of the boiling curve model. The BEEST model is based on pool boiling conditions whereas typical PWR conditions - even in most transients - are characterized by forced flow for which the advanced boiling curve approach is particularly suitable. Compared with the BEEST model the advanced boiling curve approach in COBRA 3-CP yields earlier rewetting, i.e. a shorter period in film boiling. Consequently, the fuel rod cladding temperatures, that increase significantly due to film boiling, drop back earlier and the high temperature oxidation is significantly diminished. The Baker-Just-Correlation was used to calculate the value of equivalent cladding reacted (ECR), i.e. the reduction of cladding thickness due to corrosion throughout the transient. Based on the BEEST model the ECR value amounts to 0.4% whereas the advanced boiling curve only leads to an ECR value of 0.2%. Both values provide large margins to the 17

  18. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness. PMID:26595842

  19. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness.

  20. Small operator outwits recession

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1982-12-01

    Explains how Rockcastle, Inc., one of the smallest surface coal mine operators in the West, maintains production during the recession by concentrating on short-term contracts and spot sales to industrial and commercial users. The mining company has selected well established coal brokers to market its product to users such as sugar beet and cement plants, a brewery, steel mill, utility, and a molybdenum mill. Rockcastle produces, on a two-shift schedule, about 1,200 tpd of coal with a total workforce of 20, or approximately 30 tons per manshift. A fleet of 4 scrapers, with dozer-assist in most cases, is capable of removing 5,000 to 6,000 cu yd of overburden and interburden per shift.

  1. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: analysis of an experienced open surgeon's learning curve after 300 procedures.

    PubMed

    Doumerc, Nicolas; Yuen, Carlo; Savdie, Richard; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Pe Benito, Ruth; Stricker, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    To critically analyse the learning curve for a single experienced open surgeon converting to robotic surgery. From February 2006 to July 2009, 300 patients underwent a robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) by a single urologist. This study is a prospective analysis of the baseline patient and tumour characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative data, and histopathologic features. To analyse the RALP learning curve, the joinpoint regression method was used. Mean age of the patient was 61.3 years (range 46-76). Mean pre-operative PSA level was 7 ng/ml (range 0.7-41), and follow-up was 14 months (0.7-41). The mean operating time was 185 min (range 119-525). One hundred and ten cases were required to achieve 3-h proficiency. There were no conversions. The mean hospital stay was 2.8 days (range 2-7). Major complications rate was 1.3%. The blood transfusion rate was 0.6%. The overall positive surgical margin (PSM) rate was 21.3%. pT2 and pT3 PSM rate was 10 and 44%, respectively. The joinpoint regression method showed that the learning curve started to plateau for the overall PSM rate after 205 cases (95% CI 200-249). For pT2 and pT3, PSM rate, the learning curve tended to flatten after 130 and 170 cases, respectively. The analysis of an experienced open surgeon learning curve in transferring his skills to the robotic platform has shown that 3-h proficiency requires 110 cases. The overall, pT2, and pT3 PSM rate take approximately 200, 130, and 170 cases, respectively, to flatten. PMID:27628635

  2. Nonlinear calibration curves in secondary ion mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of gesi heterostructures with nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Novikov, A. V.; Yunin, P. A.; Yurasov, D. V.

    2016-03-01

    For the first time in the practice of secondary ion mass spectrometry, we obtained a nonlinear calibration curve for the ratio of the cluster and elementary secondary ions of germanium Ge2/Ge without secondary ions of silicon, which enables the quantification of germanium in Ge x Si1- x heterostructures in the entire range of 0 < x ≤ 1. We developed a method for quantitative lateral analysis based on the plotting of a lateral map of x. An algorithm to identify and analyze the lateral heterogeneity of x in Ge x Si1- x heterostructures with 3D clusters by comparing the results of depth profiling analysis, obtained using linear and nonlinear calibration curves, is developed, and concentration x in the self-assembled nanoislands is determined.

  3. Endoscopic Gastrocnemius Intramuscular Aponeurotic Recession

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Gastrocnemius aponeurotic recession is the surgical treatment for symptomatic gastrocnemius contracture. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession procedures has been developed recently and reported to have fewer complications and better cosmetic outcomes. Classically, this is performed at the aponeurosis distal to the gastrocnemius muscle attachment. We describe an alternative endoscopic approach in which the intramuscular portion of the aponeurosis is released. PMID:26900563

  4. Fort Play Children Recreate Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Recess beckons well before it actually arrives. Its allure can be heard in children's lunchtime conversations as they discuss imaginary roles, plans, alliances and teams, with an obvious appetite for play and its unbounded possibility. For some children, recess provides the most important reasons to come to school. In team sports, games of chase…

  5. Mathematical analysis of the heart rate performance curve during incremental exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Rosic, G; Pantovic, S; Niciforovic, J; Colovic, V; Rankovic, V; Obradovic, Z; Rosic, Mirko

    2011-03-01

    In this study we performed laboratory treadmill protocols of increasing load. Heart rate was continuously recorded and blood lactate concentration was measured for determination of lactate threshold by means of LTD-max and LT4.0 methods.Our results indicate that the shape of heart rate performance curve (HRPC) during incremental testing depends on the applied exercise protocol (change of initial speed and the step of running speed increase, with the constant stage duration). Depending on the applied protocol, the HRPC can be described by linear, polynomial (S-shaped), and exponential mathematical expression.We presented mathematical procedure for estimation of heart rate threshold points at the level of LTD-max and LT4.0, by means of exponential curve and its relative deflection from the initial trend line (tangent line to exponential curve at the point of starting heart rate). The relative deflection of exponential curve from the initial trend line at the level of LTD-max and/or LT4.0 can be defined, based on the slope of the initial trend line. Using originally developed software that allows mathematical analysis of heart rate-load relation, LTD-max and/or LT4.0 can be estimated without direct measurement of blood lactate concentration.

  6. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabelow, Karsten; König, Reinhard; Polzehl, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning. PMID:27303809

  7. Genetic Linkage Analysis of DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 Loci in GJB2 Negative Families with Autosomal Recessive Non-syndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    MASOUDI, Marjan; AHANGARI, Najmeh; POURSADEGH ZONOUZI, Ali Akbar; POURSADEGH ZONOUZI, Ahmad; NEJATIZADEH, Azim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) is the most common hereditary form of deafness, and exhibits a great deal of genetic heterogeneity. So far, more than seventy various DFNB loci have been mapped for ARNSHL by linkage analysis. The contribution of three common DFNB loci including DFNB3, DFNB9, DFNB21 and gap junction beta-2 (GJB2) gene mutations in ARNSHL was investigated in south of Iran for the first time. Methods: In this descriptive study, we investigated sixteen large families with at least two affected individuals. After DNA extraction, GJB2 gene mutations were analyzed using direct sequencing method. Negative samples for GJB2 gene mutations were analyzed for the linkage to DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 loci by genotyping the corresponding short tandem repeat (STR) markers using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods. Results: GJB2 mutations (283G>A and 29delT) were causes of hearing loss in 12.5% of families with ARNSHL and no evidence of linkage were found for any of DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 loci. Conclusion: GJB2 mutations are associated with ARNSHL. We failed to find linkage of the DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 loci among GJB2 negative families. Therefore, further studies on large-scale population and other loci will be needed to find conclusively linkage of DFNB loci and ARNSHL in the future. PMID:27398341

  8. Computer programs for describing the recession of ground-water discharge and for estimating mean ground-water recharge and discharge from streamflow records-update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1998-01-01

    The computer programs included in this report can be used to develop a mathematical expression for recession of ground-water discharge and estimate mean ground-water recharge and discharge. The programs are intended for analysis of the daily streamflow record of a basin where one can reasonably assume that all, or nearly all, ground water discharges to the stream except for that which is lost to riparian evapotranspiration, and where regulation and diversion of flow can be considered to be negligible. The program RECESS determines the master reces-sion curve of streamflow recession during times when all flow can be considered to be ground-water discharge and when the profile of the ground-water-head distribution is nearly stable. The method uses a repetitive interactive procedure for selecting several periods of continuous recession, and it allows for nonlinearity in the relation between time and the logarithm of flow. The program RORA uses the recession-curve displacement method to estimate the recharge for each peak in the streamflow record. The method is based on the change in the total potential ground-water discharge that is caused by an event. Program RORA is applied to a long period of record to obtain an estimate of the mean rate of ground-water recharge. The program PART uses streamflow partitioning to estimate a daily record of base flow under the streamflow record. The method designates base flow to be equal to streamflow on days that fit a requirement of antecedent recession, linearly interpolates base flow for other days, and is applied to a long period of record to obtain an estimate of the mean rate of ground-water discharge. The results of programs RORA and PART correlate well with each other and compare reasonably with results of the corresponding manual method.

  9. Light curve solution and orbital period analysis of the contact binary V842 Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selam, S. O.; Albayrak, B.; Şenavci, H. V.; Aksu, O.

    2005-10-01

    New photoelectric BV light curves were obtained for the neglected eclipsing binary V842 Her at the TÜB{İTAK National Observatory (TUG) and studied for the first time in detail to determine the orbital parameters and geometry of the system. The solutions obtained simultaneously for the new light curves and the radial velocity curves in the literature by using the Wilson-Devinney code reveal a typical W-type contact system. The light curves exhibit the so-called O'Connell effect which the level of the primary maxima being higher than that of the secondary ones in both pass-bands. The O'Connell effect in the light curves is explained in terms of a dark-spot located on the more massive component which makes the more massive larger component slightly cooler than the less massive smaller one. The O-C diagram constructed for all available times of minima of V842 Her exhibits a cyclic character superimposed on a quadratic variation. The quadratic character yields a orbital period increase with a rate of dP/dt=7.76×10-7 days yr-1 which can be attributed to the mass exchange/loss mechanism in the system. By assuming the presence of a gravitationally bound third body in the system, the analysis of the cyclic nature in the O-C diagram revealed a third body with mass of 0.4M\\sun orbiting around the eclipsing pair. The possibility of magnetic activity cycle effect as a cause for the observed cyclic variation in the O-C diagram was also discussed.

  10. Bayesian analysis of stage-fall-discharge rating curves and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansanarez, Valentin; Le Coz, Jérôme; Renard, Benjamin; Lang, Michel; Pierrefeu, Gilles; Le Boursicaud, Raphaël; Pobanz, Karine

    2016-04-01

    Stage-fall-discharge (SFD) rating curves are traditionally used to compute streamflow records at sites where the energy slope of the flow is variable due to variable backwater effects. Building on existing Bayesian approaches, we introduce an original hydraulics-based method for developing SFD rating curves used at twin gauge stations and estimating their uncertainties. Conventional power functions for channel and section controls are used, and transition to a backwater-affected channel control is computed based on a continuity condition, solved either analytically or numerically. The difference between the reference levels at the two stations is estimated as another uncertain parameter of the SFD model. The method proposed in this presentation incorporates information from both the hydraulic knowledge (equations of channel or section controls) and the information available in the stage-fall-discharge observations (gauging data). The obtained total uncertainty combines the parametric uncertainty and the remnant uncertainty related to the model of rating curve. This method provides a direct estimation of the physical inputs of the rating curve (roughness, width, slope bed, distance between twin gauges, etc.). The performance of the new method is tested using an application case affected by the variable backwater of a run-of-the-river dam: the Rhône river at Valence, France. In particular, a sensitivity analysis to the prior information and to the gauging dataset is performed. At that site, the stage-fall-discharge domain is well documented with gaugings conducted over a range of backwater affected and unaffected conditions. The performance of the new model was deemed to be satisfactory. Notably, transition to uniform flow when the overall range of the auxiliary stage is gauged is correctly simulated. The resulting curves are in good agreement with the observations (gaugings) and their uncertainty envelopes are acceptable for computing streamflow records. Similar

  11. Robust mean traveltime curves: a powerful tool for analysis in 2D transmission tomographic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Martinez, J.; Pedruelo Gonzalez, L.; Rector, J.

    2008-12-01

    Acoustic tomography methods belong to the class of non destructive inspection techniques and are widely used in engineering applications. One of the main issues for these methods is the direct arrivals, which can be noisy or affected by scattering or other propagation effects. Mean traveltime curves (mean and standard deviation) have been introduced by Fernández Martínez et al (2006), and describe the variation of the main statistical parameters of the traveltime distribution for the different gathering subsets as a function of the gather index. These curves constitute a simple methodology (Fernández Martínez et al., 2008) to analyze before inversion the traveltime quality in 2D acoustic transmission tomography experiments conducted in relatively homogeneous blocks. This analysis can help to discriminate the contribution of picking errors from that of geological heterogeneities. In this contribution we present the so-called robust mean traveltime curves, which refer to the variation of the different p-percentiles and related measures of dispersion (inter-quartile range and minimum absolute deviation) for the above mentioned gathering subsets. Together with the mean curve, the median and upper-quartile traveltime curves are very resistant to the presence of outliers, and thus, are preferred to infer a background velocity model, which is valid at experiment scale and honors the experimental traveltime distribution. This methodology is valid for 2D zonal isotropic or elliptical anisotropic media, explored via any arbitrary acquisition geometry. We show the application to a well-known granitic medium (Febex Project, Nagra, Switzerland). Fernández Martínez et al. 2006. Mathematical Geology:38-3.343-374 Fernández Martínez et al.2008. Computer and Geosciences:34-3,213-225, 2008.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy and receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis in surgical research and decision making.

    PubMed

    Søreide, Kjetil; Kørner, Hartwig; Søreide, Jon Arne

    2011-01-01

    In surgical research, the ability to correctly classify one type of condition or specific outcome from another is of great importance for variables influencing clinical decision making. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is a useful tool in assessing the diagnostic accuracy of any variable with a continuous spectrum of results. In order to rule a disease state in or out with a given test, the test results are usually binary, with arbitrarily chosen cut-offs for defining disease versus health, or for grading of disease severity. In the postgenomic era, the translation from bench-to-bedside of biomarkers in various tissues and body fluids requires appropriate tools for analysis. In contrast to predetermining a cut-off value to define disease, the advantages of applying ROC analysis include the ability to test diagnostic accuracy across the entire range of variable scores and test outcomes. In addition, ROC analysis can easily examine visual and statistical comparisons across tests or scores. ROC is also favored because it is thought to be independent from the prevalence of the condition under investigation. ROC analysis is used in various surgical settings and across disciplines, including cancer research, biomarker assessment, imaging evaluation, and assessment of risk scores.With appropriate use, ROC curves may help identify the most appropriate cutoff value for clinical and surgical decision making and avoid confounding effects seen with subjective ratings. ROC curve results should always be put in perspective, because a good classifier does not guarantee the expected clinical outcome. In this review, we discuss the fundamental roles, suggested presentation, potential biases, and interpretation of ROC analysis in surgical research.

  13. Updated UBV Light-Curve and Period Analysis of Eclipsing Binary HS Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Zeynep; Değirmenci, Ömer Lütfi

    2006-08-01

    UBV light-curves of the eclipsing binary HS Herculis, obtained in 2002 2003 observational seasons, were analysed with Wilson-Devinney computer code. New absolute dimensions of the system were calculated using the results of the light-curve analysis. Period variation of the system was also investigated. Several new times of minima have been secured for this problematic system. An apsidal motion with a period of 80.7 years was confirmed and a third body in a pretty eccentric orbit (e 3 = 0.90 ± 0.08) with a period of 85.4 years was found. The corresponding internal structure constants of the binary system, log k 2, and the mass of the third body were derived.

  14. Updated UBV Light-Curve and Period Analysis of Eclipsing Binary HS Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Zeynep; Değirmenci, Ömer Lütfi

    2006-08-01

    UBV light-curves of the eclipsing binary HS Herculis, which obtained in 2002--2003 observational seasons, were analysed with Wilson-Devinney computer code. New absolute dimensions of the system were calculated using the results of the light-curve analysis. Period variation of the system also investigated. Several new times of minima have been secured for this problematic system. An apsidal motion with the period of 80.7 years was confirmed and a third body in an pretty eccentric orbit (e 3 = 0.90 ± 0.08) with a period of 85.4 years was found. The corresponding internal structure constants of the binary system, log k 2, and mass of third body were derived.

  15. Consequence analysis to determine the damage to humans from vapour cloud explosions using characteristic curves.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Fernando Díaz; Ferradás, Enrique González; Sánchez, Teresa de Jesús Jiménez; Aznar, Agustín Miñana; Gimeno, José Ruiz; Alonso, Jesús Martínez

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide a methodology to facilitate consequence analysis for vapour cloud explosions (VCE). Firstly, the main PROBIT equations to evaluate direct damage on humans from those accidents (eardrum rupture, death due to skull fracture, death due to whole body impact and lung damage) are discussed and the most suitable ones are selected. Secondly, a new methodology is developed to relate characteristic overpressure-impulse-distance curves for VCE, obtained in a previous paper (F. Diaz Alonso et al., Characteristic overpressure-impulse-distance curves for vapour cloud explosions using the TNO Multi-Energy model, J. Hazard. Mater. A137 (2006) 734-741) with the selected PROBIT equations. This methodology allows the determination of damage as a function of distance to the accident's origin in only one step, using explosion energy and VCE Multi-Energy charge strength as input parameters.

  16. Ice shelf structure derived from dispersion curve analysis of ambient seismic noise, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Anthony, R. E.; Aster, R. C.; Cai, C.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    An L-configured, three-component short period seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica during November 2014. Polarization analysis of ambient noise data from these stations shows linearly polarized waves for frequency bands between 0.2 and 2 Hz. A spectral peak at about 1.6 Hz is interpreted as the resonance frequency of the water column and is used to estimate the water layer thickness below the ice shelf. The frequency band from 4 to 18 Hz is dominated by Rayleigh and Love waves propagating from the north that, based on daily temporal variations, we conclude were generated by field camp activity. Frequency-slowness plots were calculated using beamforming. Resulting Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were inverted for the shear wave velocity profile within the firn and ice to ˜150 m depth. The derived density profile allows estimation of the pore close-off depth and the firn-air content thickness. Separate inversions of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves give different shear wave velocity profiles within the firn. We attribute this difference to an effective anisotropy due to fine layering. The layered structure of firn, ice, water and the seafloor results in a characteristic dispersion curve below 7 Hz. Forward modelling the observed Rayleigh wave dispersion curves using representative firn, ice, water and sediment structures indicates that Rayleigh waves are observed when wavelengths are long enough to span the distance from the ice shelf surface to the seafloor. The forward modelling shows that analysis of seismic data from an ice shelf provides the possibility of resolving ice shelf thickness, water column thickness and the physical properties of the ice shelf and underlying seafloor using passive-source seismic data.

  17. 3D combinational curves for accuracy and performance analysis of positive biometrics identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yingzi; Chang, Chein-I.

    2008-06-01

    The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve has been widely used as an evaluation criterion to measure the accuracy of biometrics system. Unfortunately, such an ROC curve provides no indication of the optimum threshold and cost function. In this paper, two kinds of 3D combinational curves are proposed: the 3D combinational accuracy curve and the 3D combinational performance curve. The 3D combinational accuracy curve gives a balanced view of the relationships among FAR (false alarm rate), FRR (false rejection rate), threshold t, and Cost. Six 2D curves can be derived from the 3D combinational accuracy curve: the conventional 2D ROC curve, 2D curve of (FRR, t), 2D curve of (FAR, t), 2D curve of (FRR, Cost), 2D curve of (FAR, Cost), and 2D curve of ( t, Cost). The 3D combinational performance curve can be derived from the 3D combinational accuracy curve which can give a balanced view among Security, Convenience, threshold t, and Cost. The advantages of using the proposed 3D combinational curves are demonstrated by iris recognition systems where the experimental results show that the proposed 3D combinational curves can provide more comprehensive information of the system accuracy and performance.

  18. Improved protocol for rapid identification of certain spa types using high resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Benjamin; Stöger, Anna; Pietzka, Ariane T; Fernandez, Haizpea Lasa; Prewein, Bernhard; Sorschag, Sieglinde; Kunert, Renate; Allerberger, Franz; Ruppitsch, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant pathogens associated with health care. For efficient surveillance, control and outbreak investigation, S. aureus typing is essential. A high resolution melting curve analysis was developed and evaluated for rapid identification of the most frequent spa types found in an Austrian hospital consortium covering 2,435 beds. Among 557 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates 38 different spa types were identified by sequence analysis of the hypervariable region X of the protein A gene (spa). Identification of spa types through their characteristic high resolution melting curve profiles was considerably improved by double spiking with genomic DNA from spa type t030 and spa type t003 and allowed unambiguous and fast identification of the ten most frequent spa types t001 (58%), t003 (12%), t190 (9%), t041 (5%), t022 (2%), t032 (2%), t008 (2%), t002 (1%), t5712 (1%) and t2203 (1%), representing 93% of all isolates within this hospital consortium. The performance of the assay was evaluated by testing samples with unknown spa types from the daily routine and by testing three different high resolution melting curve analysis real-time PCR instruments. The ten most frequent spa types were identified from all samples and on all instruments with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Compared to classical spa typing by sequence analysis, this gene scanning assay is faster, cheaper and can be performed in a single closed tube assay format. Therefore it is an optimal screening tool to detect the most frequent endemic spa types and to exclude non-endemic spa types within a hospital. PMID:25768007

  19. Improved protocol for rapid identification of certain spa types using high resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Benjamin; Stöger, Anna; Pietzka, Ariane T; Fernandez, Haizpea Lasa; Prewein, Bernhard; Sorschag, Sieglinde; Kunert, Renate; Allerberger, Franz; Ruppitsch, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant pathogens associated with health care. For efficient surveillance, control and outbreak investigation, S. aureus typing is essential. A high resolution melting curve analysis was developed and evaluated for rapid identification of the most frequent spa types found in an Austrian hospital consortium covering 2,435 beds. Among 557 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates 38 different spa types were identified by sequence analysis of the hypervariable region X of the protein A gene (spa). Identification of spa types through their characteristic high resolution melting curve profiles was considerably improved by double spiking with genomic DNA from spa type t030 and spa type t003 and allowed unambiguous and fast identification of the ten most frequent spa types t001 (58%), t003 (12%), t190 (9%), t041 (5%), t022 (2%), t032 (2%), t008 (2%), t002 (1%), t5712 (1%) and t2203 (1%), representing 93% of all isolates within this hospital consortium. The performance of the assay was evaluated by testing samples with unknown spa types from the daily routine and by testing three different high resolution melting curve analysis real-time PCR instruments. The ten most frequent spa types were identified from all samples and on all instruments with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Compared to classical spa typing by sequence analysis, this gene scanning assay is faster, cheaper and can be performed in a single closed tube assay format. Therefore it is an optimal screening tool to detect the most frequent endemic spa types and to exclude non-endemic spa types within a hospital.

  20. Spectrophotometric analysis of gamma-ray burst afterglow extinction curves with X-Shooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japelj, J.; Covino, S.; Gomboc, A.; Vergani, S. D.; Goldoni, P.; Selsing, J.; Cano, Z.; D'Elia, V.; Flores, H.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hammer, F.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kaper, L.; Kopač, D.; Krühler, T.; Melandri, A.; Piranomonte, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Watson, D.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2015-07-01

    We use gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectra observed with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph to measure rest-frame extinction in GRB lines-of-sight by modelling the broadband near-infrared (NIR) to X-ray afterglow spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Our sample consists of nine Swift GRBs, of which eight belong to the long-duration and one to the short-duration class. Dust is modelled using the average extinction curves of the Milky Way and the two Magellanic Clouds. We derive the rest-frame extinction of the entire sample, which fall in the range 0 ≲ AV ≲ 1.2. Moreover, the SMC extinction curve is the preferred extinction curve template for the majority of our sample, a result that is in agreement with those commonly observed in GRB lines of sights. In one analysed case (GRB 120119A), the common extinction curve templates fail to reproduce the observed extinction. To illustrate the advantage of using the high-quality, X-Shooter afterglow SEDs over the photometric SEDs, we repeat the modelling using the broadband SEDs with the NIR-to-UV photometric measurements instead of the spectra. The main result is that the spectroscopic data, thanks to a combination of excellent resolution and coverage of the blue part of the SED, are more successful in constraining extinction curves and therefore dust properties in GRB hosts with respect to photometric measurements. In all cases but one the extinction curve of one template is preferred over the others. We show that themodelled values of the extinction AV and the spectral slope, obtained through spectroscopic and photometric SED analysis, can differ significantly for individual events, though no apparent trend in the differences is observed. Finally we stress that, regardless of the resolution of the optical-to-NIR data, the SED modelling gives reliable results only when the fit is performed on a SED covering a broader spectral region (in our case extending to X-rays). Based on observations collected at the European

  1. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  2. Autosomal recessive epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma.

    PubMed

    Alsaleh, Q A; Teebi, A S

    1990-08-01

    Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a heterogeneous group of disorders. Epidermolytic PPK is a well delineated autosomal dominant entity, but no recessive form is known. Here we report two sons of phenotypically normal, consanguineous, Arab parents with features suggestive of PPK. They presented with patchy eczematous skin lesions followed by PPK and raised serum levels of IgE. Skin biopsy from the keratotic lesions showed the features of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Autosomal recessive inheritance is suggested and the differential diagnosis is discussed.

  3. On the Analysis and Construction of the Butterfly Curve Using "Mathematica"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geum, Y. H.; Kim, Y. I.

    2008-01-01

    The butterfly curve was introduced by Temple H. Fay in 1989 and defined by the polar curve r = e[superscript cos theta] minus 2 cos 4 theta plus sin[superscript 5] (theta divided by 12). In this article, we develop the mathematical model of the butterfly curve and analyse its geometric properties. In addition, we draw the butterfly curve and…

  4. Circular Helix-Like Curve: An Effective Tool of Biological Sequence Analysis and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yushuang

    2016-01-01

    This paper constructed a novel injection from a DNA sequence to a 3D graph, named circular helix-like curve (CHC). The presented graphical representation is available for visualizing characterizations of a single DNA sequence and identifying similarities and differences among several DNAs. A 12-dimensional vector extracted from CHC, as a numerical characterization of CHC, was applied to analyze phylogenetic relationships of 11 species, 74 ribosomal RNAs, 48 Hepatitis E viruses, and 18 eutherian mammals, respectively. Successful experiments illustrated that CHC is an effective tool of biological sequence analysis and comparison. PMID:27403205

  5. Circular Helix-Like Curve: An Effective Tool of Biological Sequence Analysis and Comparison.

    PubMed

    Li, Yushuang; Xiao, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    This paper constructed a novel injection from a DNA sequence to a 3D graph, named circular helix-like curve (CHC). The presented graphical representation is available for visualizing characterizations of a single DNA sequence and identifying similarities and differences among several DNAs. A 12-dimensional vector extracted from CHC, as a numerical characterization of CHC, was applied to analyze phylogenetic relationships of 11 species, 74 ribosomal RNAs, 48 Hepatitis E viruses, and 18 eutherian mammals, respectively. Successful experiments illustrated that CHC is an effective tool of biological sequence analysis and comparison. PMID:27403205

  6. [Aging Process of Puer Black Tea Studied by FTIR Spectroscopy Combined with Curve-Fitting Analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-yu; Shi, You-ming; Yi, Shi Lai

    2015-07-01

    For better determination of the chemical components in the Puer black tea, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of Puer black tea at different aging time. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that the chemical components had change in Puer black tea at different aging time. The leaf of Puer black tea was a complex system, its Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed a total overlap of each absorption spectrum of various components. Each band represented an overall overlap of some characteristic absorption peaks of functional groups in the Puer black tea. In order to explore the change of characteristic absorption peaks of functional groups with aging time, the prediction positions and the number of second peaks in the range of 1900-900 cm(-1) were determined by Fourier self-deconvolution at first, and later the curve fitting analysis was performed in this overlap band. At different aging time of Puer black tea, the wave number of second peaks of amide II, tea polyphenol, pectin and polysaccharides at overlap band were assigned by curve fitting analysis. The second peak at 1520 cm(-1) was characteristic absorption band of amide II, the second peaks of tea polyphenol and pectin appeared at 1278 and 1103 cm(-1) respectively. Two second peaks at 1063 and 1037 cm(-1), corresponds mainly to glucomannan and arabinan. The relative area of these second peaks could be indicated the content of protein, tea polyphenol, pectin and polysaccharides in the Puer black tea. The results of curve fitting analysis showed that the relative area of amide II was increasing first and then decreasing, it indicated the change of protein in Puer black tea. At the same time, the content of tea polyphenol and pectin were decreased with the increase of aging time, but the glucomannan and arabinan were increased in reverse. It explained that the bitter taste was become weak and a sweet taste appeared in the tea with the increase of

  7. An analysis of long-term light curves of four novalike variables.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraicheva, Z.; Stanishev, V.; Spassovska, I.; Popov, V.

    The long-term light curves of the novalike systems TT Ari, KR Aur, AM Her and MV Lyr, were compiled and analysed in a search for solar-like cyclical behaviour. The frequency analysis shows long-term cyclical modulations of the brightness of the stars, which can be ascribed to changes of the radii of the late type secondaries of the order of ΔR/R ≅ 10-4 - 10-5. Periods of about 250 - 400 days are also suspected for all systems studied here.

  8. Analyzing Multiple-Choice Questions by Model Analysis and Item Response Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattanakasiwich, P.; Ananta, S.

    2010-07-01

    In physics education research, the main goal is to improve physics teaching so that most students understand physics conceptually and be able to apply concepts in solving problems. Therefore many multiple-choice instruments were developed to probe students' conceptual understanding in various topics. Two techniques including model analysis and item response curves were used to analyze students' responses from Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE). For this study FMCE data from more than 1000 students at Chiang Mai University were collected over the past three years. With model analysis, we can obtain students' alternative knowledge and the probabilities for students to use such knowledge in a range of equivalent contexts. The model analysis consists of two algorithms—concentration factor and model estimation. This paper only presents results from using the model estimation algorithm to obtain a model plot. The plot helps to identify a class model state whether it is in the misconception region or not. Item response curve (IRC) derived from item response theory is a plot between percentages of students selecting a particular choice versus their total score. Pros and cons of both techniques are compared and discussed.

  9. Asymptotic analysis of a newtonian fluid in a curved pipe with moving walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiñeira, Gonzalo; Rodríguez, José M.

    2016-06-01

    This communication is devoted to the presentation of our recent results regarding the asymptotic analysis of a viscous flow in a tube with elastic walls. This study can be applied, for example, to the blood flow in an artery. With this aim, we consider the dynamic problem of the incompressible flow of a viscous fluid through a curved pipe with a smooth central curve. Our analysis leads to the obtention of an one dimensional model via singular perturbation of the Navier-Stokes system as ɛ, a non dimensional parameter related to the radius of cross-section of the tube, tends to zero. We allow the radius depend on tangential direction and time, so a coupling with an elastic or viscoelastic law on the wall of the pipe is possible. To perform the asymptotic analysis, we do a change of variable to a reference domain where we assume the existence of asymptotic expansions on ɛ for both velocity and pressure which, upon substitution on Navier-Stokes equations, leads to the characterization of various terms of the expansion. This allows us to obtain an approximation of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  10. What's Getting in the Way of Play? An Analysis of the Contextual Factors that Hinder Recess in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the first two years of an ongoing, collaborative action research project focused on the troubled recess environment in 4 elementary schools in southern Ontario. The project involves an iterative, dynamic process of inquiry, planning, action, and reflection among students, teachers, university researchers, university student…

  11. Composite beam analysis linear analysis of naturally curved and twisted anisotropic beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borri, Marco; Ghiringhelli, Gian L.; Merlini, Teodoro

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this report is to present a consistent theory for the deformation of a naturally curved and twisted anisotropic beam. The proposed formulation naturally extends the classical Saint-Venant approach to the case of curved and twisted anisotropic beams. The mathematical model developed under the assumption of span-wise uniform cross-section, curvature and twist, can take into account any kind of elastic coupling due to the material properties and the curved geometry. The consistency of the presented math-model and its generality about the cross-sectional shape, make it a useful tool even in a preliminary design optimization context such as the aeroelastic tailoring of helicopter rotor blades. The advantage of the present procedure is that it only requires a two-dimensional discretization; thus, very detailed analyses can be performed and interlaminar stresses between laminae can be evaluated. Such analyses would be extremely time consuming if performed with standard finite element codes: that prevents their recursive use as for example when optimizing a beam design. Moreover, as a byproduct of the proposed formulation, one obtains the constitutive law of the cross-section in terms of stress resultant and moment and their conjugate strain measures. This constitutive law takes into account any kind of elastic couplings, e.g., torsion-tension, tension-shear, bending-shear, and constitutes a fundamental input in aeroelastic analyses of helicopter blades. Four simple examples are given in order to show the principal features of the method.

  12. Tectonic and kinematics of curved orogenic systems: insights from AMS analysis and paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, Francesca; Mattei, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    During the past few years, paleomagnetism has been considered a unique tool for constraining kinematic models of curved orogenic systems, because of its great potential in quantifying vertical axis rotations and in discriminating between primary and secondary (orocline s.l.) arcs. In fact, based on the spatio-temporal relationships between deformation and vertical axis rotation, curved orogens can be subdivided as primary or secondary (oroclines s.l.), if they formed respectively in a self-similar manner without undergoing important variations in their original curved shape or if their curvature in map-view is the result of a bending about a vertical axis of rotation. In addition to the kinematics of the arc and the timing of its curvature, a crucial factor for understanding the origin of belts curvature is the knowledge of the geodynamic process governing arc formation. In this context, the detailed reconstruction of the rotational history is mainly based on paleomagnetic and structural analyses (fold axes, kinematic indicators), which include the magnetic fabric. In fact, in curved fold and thrust belts, assuming that the magnetic lineation is tectonically originated and formed during layer-parallel shortening (LPS) before vertical axis rotations, the orientation of the magnetic lineation often strictly follows the curvature of the orogeny. This assumption represents a fundamental prerequisite to fully understand the origin of orogenic arcs and to unravel the geodynamic processes responsible for their curvature. We present two case studies: the central Mediterranean arcs and the Alborz Mts in Iran. The Mediterranean area has represented an attractive region to apply paleomagnetic analysis, as it shows a large number of narrow arcs, whose present-day shape has been driven by the space-time evolution of the Mediterranean subduction system, which define a irregular and rather diffuse plate boundary. The Alborz Mts. form a sinuous range over 1,200 km long, defining

  13. Single fluorophore melting curve analysis for detection of hypervirulent Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Angione, Stephanie L; Croote, Derek; Leung, Joshua W; Mermel, Leonard A; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel detection assay able to identify and subtype strains of Clostridium difficile. Primers carefully designed for melting curve analysis amplify DNA from three C. difficile genes, tcdB, tcdC and cdtB, during quantitative (q)PCR. The tcdB gene allows for confirmation of organism presence, whilst the tcdC and cdtB genes allow for differentiation of virulence status, as deletions in the tcdC gene and the concurrent presence of the cdtB gene, which produces binary toxin, are associated with hypervirulence. Following qPCR, subtyping is then achieved by automated, inline melting curve analysis using only a single intercalating dye and verified by microchip electrophoresis. This assay represents a novel means of distinguishing between toxigenic and hypervirulent C. difficile strains NAP1/027/BI and 078 ribotype, which are highly prevalent hypervirulent strains in humans. This methodology can help rapidly detect and identify C. difficile strains that impose a significant health and economic burden in hospitals and other healthcare settings. PMID:26516039

  14. Validation of a blood group genotyping method based on high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tianxiang; Hong, Ying; Wang, Naihong; Fu, Xuemei; Zhou, Changhua

    2014-01-01

    The detection of polymorphism is the basis of blood group genotyping and phenotype prediction. Genotyping may be useful to determine blood groups when serologic results are unclear. The development and application of different methods for blood group genotyping may be needed as a substitute for blood group typing. The purpose of this study is to establish an approach for blood group genotyping based on a melting curve analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using DNA extracted from whole blood, we developed and validated a DNA typing method for detecting DO*01/DO*02, DO*01/DI*02, LU*01/LU*02, and GYPB*03/GYBP*04 alleles using a melting curve analysis. All assays were confirmed with a commercial reagent containing sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP), and a cohort of the samples was confirmed with sequencing. Results for all blood groups were within the range of specificity and assay variability. Genotypes of 300 blood donors were fully consistent with PCR-SSP data. The obtained genotype distribution is in complete concordance with existing data for the Chinese population. There are several advantages for this approach of blood group genotyping: lower contamination rates with PCR products in this laboratory, ease of performance, automation potential, and rapid cycling time.

  15. Nonlinear Analysis and Post-Test Correlation for a Curved PRSEUS Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Kevin; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn; Neal, Albert L.; Linton, Kim, A.; Bergan, Andrew C.; Bakuckas, John G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept, developed by The Boeing Company, has been extensively studied as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA s) Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program. The PRSEUS concept provides a light-weight alternative to aluminum or traditional composite design concepts and is applicable to traditional-shaped fuselage barrels and wings, as well as advanced configurations such as a hybrid wing body or truss braced wings. Therefore, NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and The Boeing Company partnered in an effort to assess the performance and damage arrestments capabilities of a PRSEUS concept panel using a full-scale curved panel in the FAA Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility. Testing was conducted in the FASTER facility by subjecting the panel to axial tension loads applied to the ends of the panel, internal pressure, and combined axial tension and internal pressure loadings. Additionally, reactive hoop loads were applied to the skin and frames of the panel along its edges. The panel successfully supported the required design loads in the pristine condition and with a severed stiffener. The panel also demonstrated that the PRSEUS concept could arrest the progression of damage including crack arrestment and crack turning. This paper presents the nonlinear post-test analysis and correlation with test results for the curved PRSEUS panel. It is shown that nonlinear analysis can accurately calculate the behavior of a PRSEUS panel under tension, pressure and combined loading conditions.

  16. Single fluorophore melting curve analysis for detection of hypervirulent Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Angione, Stephanie L; Croote, Derek; Leung, Joshua W; Mermel, Leonard A; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel detection assay able to identify and subtype strains of Clostridium difficile. Primers carefully designed for melting curve analysis amplify DNA from three C. difficile genes, tcdB, tcdC and cdtB, during quantitative (q)PCR. The tcdB gene allows for confirmation of organism presence, whilst the tcdC and cdtB genes allow for differentiation of virulence status, as deletions in the tcdC gene and the concurrent presence of the cdtB gene, which produces binary toxin, are associated with hypervirulence. Following qPCR, subtyping is then achieved by automated, inline melting curve analysis using only a single intercalating dye and verified by microchip electrophoresis. This assay represents a novel means of distinguishing between toxigenic and hypervirulent C. difficile strains NAP1/027/BI and 078 ribotype, which are highly prevalent hypervirulent strains in humans. This methodology can help rapidly detect and identify C. difficile strains that impose a significant health and economic burden in hospitals and other healthcare settings.

  17. A Light Curve And Period Analysis Of AE Ursae Majoris, CY Aquarii, And DY Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, Michael D.; Iverson, E. P.; Jolley, J. W.; Joner, L. A.; Swenson, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    We present a light curve analysis of three high amplitude delta Scuti stars (HADs). Data for this presentation were all secured during spring and fall of 2007. Most of the observations were obtained using the facilities of the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory. The variable stars we observed in this investigation include AE Ursae Majoris, CY Aquarii, and DY Pegasi. We present evidence for small period changes as well as an analysis of the light curve components for each of the variables. We compare the results obtained in the present investigation with prior studies of these same targets. This investigation is part of an initiative to provide a mentored learning environment at the West Mountain Observatory and to promote a variety of undergraduate research experiences. Tools developed in this investigation include the data reduction procedures that enable us to process the several thousand CCD frames that are secured each night as raw observations. We thank the Department of Physics and Astronomy and the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at Brigham Young University for the continued support of mentored undergraduate research.

  18. Analysis of Rail Vehicle Suspension Spring with Special Emphasis on Curving, Tracking and Tractive Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhalkar, M. A.; Bhope, D. V.; Vanalkar, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of the rail vehicle represents a balance between the forces acting between wheel and rail, the inertia forces and the forces exerted by suspension and articulation. Axial loading on helical spring causes vertical deflection at straight track but failures calls to investigate for lateral and longitudinal loading at horizontal and vertical curves respectively. Goods carrying vehicle has the frequent failures of middle axle inner suspension spring calls for investigation. The springs are analyzed for effect of stress concentration due to centripetal force and due to tractive and breaking effort. This paper also discusses shear failure analysis of spring at curvature and at uphill at various speeds for different loading condition analytically and by finite element analysis. Two mass rail vehicle suspension systems have been analyzed for vibration responses analytically using mathematical tool Matlab Simulink and the same will be evaluated using FFT vibration analyzer to find peak resonance in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction. The results prove that the suspension acquires high repeated load in vertical and lateral direction due to tracking and curving causes maximum stress concentration on middle axle suspension spring as height of this spring is larger than end axle spring in primary suspension system and responsible for failure of middle axle suspension spring due to high stress acquisition.

  19. Cooling Curve Analysis as an Alternative to Dilatometry in Continuous Cooling Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, John W.; Schlacher, Christian; Kamyabi-Gol, Ata; Mayr, Peter; Mendez, Patricio F.

    2015-01-01

    Dilatometry and cooling curve analysis (CCA) are two methods of determining the evolution of a phase transformation with temperature. The two methods are similar conceptual in that they take an indirect measure of the transformation and extract phase fraction information from it; however, the differences between the two methods typically makes one method better suited to analyzing a given transformation. However, without a quantitative comparison between the two methods, it is difficult to use them interchangeably. We address this by presenting a quantitative comparison of CCA and dilatometry for a martensitic transformation in a 9Cr3W3CoVNb steel. The resulting phase fraction data matches very well, within 5 K (5 °C) for any given phase fraction. This paper also extends to the quantitative methodology of calorimetry to the analysis of dilatometric data, with results comparable to ASTM A1033-10, but with expected higher accuracy by accounting by variable thermal expansion coefficients.

  20. Spectral analysis of stellar light curves by means of neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliaferri, R.; Ciaramella, A.; Milano, L.; Barone, F.; Longo, G.

    1999-06-01

    Periodicity analysis of unevenly collected data is a relevant issue in several scientific fields. In astrophysics, for example, we have to find the fundamental period of light or radial velocity curves which are unevenly sampled observations of stars. Classical spectral analysis methods are unsatisfactory to solve the problem. In this paper we present a neural network based estimator system which performs well the frequency extraction in unevenly sampled signals. It uses an unsupervised Hebbian nonlinear neural algorithm to extract, from the interpolated signal, the principal components which, in turn, are used by the MUSIC frequency estimator algorithm to extract the frequencies. The neural network is tolerant to noise and works well also with few points in the sequence. We benchmark the system on synthetic and real signals with the Periodogram and with the Cramer-Rao lower bound. This work was been partially supported by IIASS, by MURST 40\\% and by the Italian Space Agency.

  1. Z curve theory-based analysis of the dynamic nature of nucleosome positioning in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueting; Liu, Hui; Liu, Hongbo; Su, Jianzhong; Lv, Jie; Cui, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Nucleosome is the elementary structural unit of eukaryotic chromatin. Instability of nucleosome positioning plays critical roles in chromatin remodeling in differentiation and disease. In this study, we investigated nucleosome dynamics in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome using a geometric model based on Z curve theory. We identified 52,941 stable nucleosomes and 7607 dynamic nucleosomes, compiling them into a genome-wide nucleosome dynamic positioning map and constructing a user-friendly visualization platform (http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/nucleosome). Our approach achieved a sensitivity of 90.31% and a specificity of 87.76% for S. cerevisiae. Analysis revealed transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) were enriched in linkers. And among the sparse nucleosomes around TFBSs, dynamic nucleosomes were slightly preferred. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that stable and dynamic nucleosomes were enriched on genes involved in different biological processes and functions. This study provides an approach for comprehending chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation of genes.

  2. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids.

  3. Buckling analysis of curved composite sandwich panels subjected to inplane loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.

    1993-01-01

    Composite sandwich structures are being considered for primary structure in aircraft such as subsonic and high speed civil transports. The response of sandwich structures must be understood and predictable to use such structures effectively. Buckling is one of the most important response mechanisms of sandwich structures. A simple buckling analysis is derived for sandwich structures. This analysis is limited to flat, rectangular sandwich panels loaded by uniaxial compression (N(sub x)) and having simply supported edges. In most aerospace applications, however, the structure's geometry, boundary conditions, and loading are usually very complex. Thus, a general capability for analyzing the buckling behavior of sandwich structures is needed. The present paper describes and evaluates an improved buckling analysis for cylindrically curved composite sandwich panels. This analysis includes orthotropic facesheets and first-order transverse shearing effects. Both simple support and clamped boundary conditions are also included in the analysis. The panels can be subjected to linearly varying normal loads N(sub x) and N(sub y) in addition to a constant shear load N(sub xy). The analysis is based on the modified Donnell's equations for shallow shells. The governing equations are solved by direct application of Galerkin's method. The accuracy of the present analysis is verified by comparing results with those obtained from finite element analysis for a variety of geometries, loads, and boundary conditions. The limitations of the present analysis are investigated, in particular those related to the shallow shell assumptions in the governing equations. Finally, the computational efficiency of the present analysis is considered.

  4. Analysis of variation in L-365,260 competition curves in radioligand binding assays.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, E. A.; Roberts, S. P.; Shankley, N. P.; Black, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    1. For several years, we have used the cholecystokinin (CCK)B/gastrin receptor selective antagonist, L-365,260, as a reference compound in a variety of studies in CCKB/gastrin receptor radioligand binding assays. Here, we have analysed the competition curve data sets obtained between L-365,260 and [125I]-BH-CCK8S in guinea-pig gastric gland and mouse and rat cerebral cortex preparations. 2. Competition curves obtained for L-365,260 in the mouse cortex assay were not different from rectangular hyperbolae (slope = 1.01 +/- 0.02) implying the presence of a single population of binding sites (pKI = 8.41 +/- 0.01; data from 47 experiments, slope constrained to unity). However, in the rat cortex and guinea-pig gastric gland assays, the mean slope of the competition curves was significantly less than one and the mean apparent pKI significantly lower than that obtained in the mouse cortex (slope = 0.85 +/- 0.03, 0.90 +/- 0.03; apparent pKI = 7.98 +/- 0.05, 8.07 +/- 0.05; 48 and 45 experiments, in rat and guinea-pig, respectively). The distribution of the individual pKI and slope estimates of the competition curves in these two assays was consistent with expectations for the variable expression (in terms of absolute number and proportion) of two binding sites. The two sites were characterized by pKI values for L-365,260 of 8.50 +/- 0.04 and 8.48 +/- 0.04 for the high affinity site and 7.32 +/- 0.04 and 7.22 +/- 0.06 for the low affinity site in guinea-pig and rat, respectively. 3. The affinity estimates for L-365,260, although obtained on different tissues, are consistent with data obtained from the analysis of L-365,260 antagonism of pentagastrin-stimulated responses in mouse and rat stomach (acid secretion) and guinea-pig gastric muscle (isotonic contraction) assays. To this extent, these data suggest the existence of two CCKB/gastrin receptor subtypes. PMID:8842437

  5. Determination of secondary flow morphologies by wavelet analysis in a curved artery model with physiological inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Hussain, Shadman; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2014-11-01

    Secondary flow vortical patterns in arterial curvatures have the potential to affect several cardiovascular phenomena, e.g., progression of atherosclerosis by altering wall shear stresses, carotid atheromatous disease, thoracic aortic aneurysms and Marfan's syndrome. Temporal characteristics of secondary flow structures vis-à-vis physiological (pulsatile) inflow waveform were explored by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of phase-locked, two-component, two-dimensional particle image velocimeter data. Measurements were made in a 180° curved artery test section upstream of the curvature and at the 90° cross-sectional plane. Streamwise, upstream flow rate measurements were analyzed using a one-dimensional antisymmetric wavelet. Cross-stream measurements at the 90° location of the curved artery revealed interesting multi-scale, multi-strength coherent secondary flow structures. An automated process for coherent structure detection and vortical feature quantification was applied to large ensembles of PIV data. Metrics such as the number of secondary flow structures, their sizes and strengths were generated at every discrete time instance of the physiological inflow waveform. An autonomous data post-processing method incorporating two-dimensional CWT for coherent structure detection was implemented. Loss of coherence in secondary flow structures during the systolic deceleration phase is observed in accordance with previous research. The algorithmic approach presented herein further elucidated the sensitivity and dependence of morphological changes in secondary flow structures on quasiperiodicity and magnitude of temporal gradients in physiological inflow conditions.

  6. Verbal learning across the lifespan: an analysis of the components of the learning curve.

    PubMed

    Blachstein, Haya; Vakil, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the acquisition process of verbal material, conducted separately on child and adult populations, reveal that the lifespan is characterized by an inverted-U performance curve with similar achievements at its two poles. To clarify the acquisition mechanism across the entire lifespan, the learning curve for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was reproduced for participants aged 8-91. The study utilized typical trial summary scores and a more refined analysis of trial-by-trial single-word recalls, including omissions (missed words that were previously recalled), additions (recalled words previously missed), and touched words (a count for the first recall time only, for each word during the five learning trial). A clear age effect was shown for the number of words recalled - symmetrically increases during childhood and decreases in adulthood. Similarly, increased turnover of words omitted and added characterized both incremental and decremental age differences. Measurement patterns differed for the age segments on the two sides of the lifespan, despite the similar total number of words recalled by the two sides. Acquisition pattern in children was characterized by a higher number of touched words and higher turnover than for adult groups. In contrast, older adults achieved fewer touched words and lower turnover than the child groups. This study shows that it is possible to reach the same quantitative results via different cognitive processes. The results are interpreted in terms of specific mechanisms of maturational characteristics.

  7. An analysis of the learning curve to achieve competency at colonoscopy using the JETS database

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Stephen Thomas; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Walt, Robert; Valori, Roland; Ismail, Tariq; Dunckley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of colonoscopies required to reach competency is not well established. The primary aim of this study was to determine the number of colonoscopies trainees need to perform to attain competency, defined by a caecal intubation rate (CIR) ≥90%. As competency depends on completion, we also investigated trainee factors that were associated with colonoscopy completion. Design The Joint Advisory Group on GI Endoscopy in the UK has developed a trainee e-portfolio from which colonoscopy data were retrieved. Inclusion criteria were all trainees who had performed a total of ≥20 colonoscopies and had performed ≤50 colonoscopies prior to submission of data to the e-portfolio. The primary outcome measure was colonoscopy completion. The number of colonoscopies required to achieve CIR ≥90% was calculated by the moving average method and learning curve cumulative summation (LC-Cusum) analysis. To determine factors which determine colonoscopy completion, a mixed effect logistic regression model was developed which allowed for nesting of patients within trainees and nesting of patients within hospitals, with various patient, trainee and training factors entered as fixed effects. Results 297 trainees undertook 36 730 colonoscopies. By moving average analysis, the cohort of trainees reached a CIR of 90% at 233 procedures. By LC-Cusum analysis, 41% of trainees were competent after 200 procedures. Of the trainee factors, the number of colonoscopies, intensity of training and previous flexible sigmoidoscopy experience were significant factors associated with colonoscopy completion. Conclusions This is the largest study to date investigating the number of procedures required to achieve competency in colonoscopy. The current training certification benchmark in the UK of 200 procedures does not appear to be an inappropriate minimum requirement. The LC-Cusum chart provides real time feedback on individual learning curves for trainees. The association of training

  8. Evidence of genetic heterogeneity in the autosomal recessive adult forms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy following linkage analysis with 15q probes in Brazilian families.

    PubMed Central

    Passos-Bueno, M R; Richard, I; Vainzof, M; Fougerousse, F; Weissenbach, J; Broux, O; Cohen, D; Akiyama, J; Marie, S K; Carvalho, A A

    1993-01-01

    The autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) represent a heterogeneous group of diseases which may be characterised by one or more autosomal loci. A gene at 15q has recently been found to be responsible for a mild form of LGMD in a group of families from the isolated island of Réunion, now classified as LGMD2. Based on results of eight out of 11 large Brazilian LGMD families of different racial background (which were informative for the closest available probe to the LGMD2 gene), we confirmed linkage to the LGMD2 gene at 15q in two of these families and exclusion in six others. These data provide the first evidence of genetic heterogeneity for the autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. PMID:8320700

  9. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in symptomatic patients and detection of clarithromycin resistance using melting curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Ayse Demet; Öztürk, C. Elif; Akcan, Yusuf; Behçet, Mustafa; Karakoç, A. Esra; Yücel, Mihriban; Mısırlıoglu, Müge; Tuncer, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background: Clarithromycin is often a component of combination therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication; however, increases in resistance rates have decreased the success of the treatment. Objective: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of H pylori infection in symptomatic patients and to detect clarithromycin resistance rates using melting curve analysis. Methods: Patients scheduled for upper endoscopy at the Endoscopy Unit of the Department of Gastroenterology, Duzce University, Medical Faculty Hospital, Konuralp/Duzce, Turkey, were assessed for enrollment in the study. Two pairs of gastric biopsy specimens (antrum and corpus) were obtained from each study patient. Histopathologic examination, rapid urease test, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the specimens were used to identify H pylori infection. Clarithromycin resistance was detected using melting curve analysis. Results: Seventy-five patients (41 women, 34 men; mean [SD]age, 42.6 [14.5] years [range, 17–70 years]) were included in the study. Using histopathology and rapid urease test, H pylori was detected in 40 (53.3%) of the 75 specimens. H pylori was detected using PCR in 40 (53.3%) specimens and by culture in 10 (13.3%) specimens. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR and culture were interpreted by comparing them with the results of histopathologic examination and urease tests. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR were 68.6% and 72.5%, respectively, and the specificity and sensitivity of culture were 97.1% and 22.5%, respectively. Of the 40 isolates, 21 (52.5%) were susceptible to clarithromycin, 12 (30.0%) were resistant, and a mixed susceptibility pattern was detected in 7 (17.5%) specimens. H pylori isolates from 19 (79.2%) of the 24 patients who had formerly used clarithromycin showed clarithromycin resistance. Conclusions: The prevalence of H pylori infection was 53.3% for the symptomatic patients in this study, and 47.5% of the isolates showed

  10. Analysis of Repair Mechanisms following an Induced Double-Strand Break Uncovers Recessive Deleterious Alleles in the Candida albicans Diploid Genome

    PubMed Central

    Feri, Adeline; Loll-Krippleber, Raphaël; Commere, Pierre-Henri; Maufrais, Corinne; Sertour, Natacha; Schwartz, Katja; Sherlock, Gavin; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The diploid genome of the yeast Candida albicans is highly plastic, exhibiting frequent loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) events. To provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to LOH, we investigated the repair of a unique DNA double-strand break (DSB) in the laboratory C. albicans SC5314 strain using the I-SceI meganuclease. Upon I-SceI induction, we detected a strong increase in the frequency of LOH events at an I-SceI target locus positioned on chromosome 4 (Chr4), including events spreading from this locus to the proximal telomere. Characterization of the repair events by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and whole-genome sequencing revealed a predominance of gene conversions, but we also observed mitotic crossover or break-induced replication events, as well as combinations of independent events. Importantly, progeny that had undergone homozygosis of part or all of Chr4 haplotype B (Chr4B) were inviable. Mining of genome sequencing data for 155 C. albicans isolates allowed the identification of a recessive lethal allele in the GPI16 gene on Chr4B unique to C. albicans strain SC5314 which is responsible for this inviability. Additional recessive lethal or deleterious alleles were identified in the genomes of strain SC5314 and two clinical isolates. Our results demonstrate that recessive lethal alleles in the genomes of C. albicans isolates prevent the occurrence of specific extended LOH events. While these and other recessive lethal and deleterious alleles are likely to accumulate in C. albicans due to clonal reproduction, their occurrence may in turn promote the maintenance of corresponding nondeleterious alleles and, consequently, heterozygosity in the C. albicans species. PMID:27729506

  11. Dropped-head in recessive oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Matteo; Pennisi, Elena Maria; Bruttini, Mirella; Bizzarri, Veronica; Bucci, Elisabetta; Morino, Stefania; Talerico, Caterina; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Renieri, Alessandra; Antonini, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented a dropped head, caused by severe neck extensor weakness that had started two years before. She had also developed a mild degree of dysphagia, rhinolalia, eyelid ptosis and proximal limb weakness during the last months. EMG revealed myopathic changes. Muscle MRI detected fatty infiltration in the posterior neck muscles and tongue. Muscle biopsy revealed fiber size variations, sporadic rimmed vacuoles, small scattered angulated fibers and a patchy myofibrillar network. Genetic analysis revealed homozygous (GCN)11 expansions in the PABPN1 gene that were consistent with recessive oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). There are a few reports of the recessive form, which has a later disease onset with milder symptoms and higher clinical variability than the typical dominantly inherited form. This patient, who is the first Italian and the eighth worldwide reported case of recessive OPMD, is also the first case of OPMD with dropped-head syndrome, which thus expands the clinical phenotype of recessive OPMD.

  12. Autosomal recessive epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma.

    PubMed Central

    Alsaleh, Q A; Teebi, A S

    1990-01-01

    Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a heterogeneous group of disorders. Epidermolytic PPK is a well delineated autosomal dominant entity, but no recessive form is known. Here we report two sons of phenotypically normal, consanguineous, Arab parents with features suggestive of PPK. They presented with patchy eczematous skin lesions followed by PPK and raised serum levels of IgE. Skin biopsy from the keratotic lesions showed the features of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Autosomal recessive inheritance is suggested and the differential diagnosis is discussed. Images PMID:2145438

  13. Vibration analysis and transient response of a functionally graded piezoelectric curved beam with general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhu; Jin, Guoyong; Ye, Tiangui

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a unified solution for free and transient vibration analyses of a functionally graded piezoelectric curved beam with general boundary conditions within the framework of Timoshenko beam theory. The formulation is derived by means of the variational principle in conjunction with a modified Fourier series which consists of standard Fourier cosine series and supplemented functions. The mechanical and electrical properties of functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPMs) are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction and are estimated by Voigt’s rule of mixture. The convergence, accuracy and reliability of the present formulation are demonstrated by comparing the present solutions with those from the literature and finite element analysis. Numerous results for FGPM beams with different boundary conditions, geometrical parameters as well as material distributions are given. Moreover, forced vibration of the FGPM beams subjected to dynamic loads and general boundary conditions are also investigated.

  14. Correlation Analysis of Optical and Radio Light Curves for a Large Sample of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Smith, A. G.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.

    1995-08-01

    The Rosemary Hill Observatory has accumulated internally consistent light curves extending over as much as 26 years for a large sample of active galactic nuclei. Forty-six of these optical records have been compared with similar radio records from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Algonquin Radio Observatory. For 18 objects, pairs of records were sufficiently long and unconfused to allow reliable application of the Discrete Correlation Function analysis; this group included 8 BL Lacertids, 8 quasars, and 2 Seyfert galaxies. Nine of the 18 sources showed positive radio-optical correlations, with the radio events lagging the optical by intervals ranging from 0 to 14 months. Consistent with the relativistic beaming model of the BL Lacertids, the group displaying correlations was dominated by this type of object.

  15. Single-channel multiplexing without melting curve analysis in real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jo; Kim, Daeyoung; Lee, Kihoon; Chun, Jong-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Multiplex real-time PCR with quantification of targets in a single fluorescence channel has been the demand in biotechnology industry. Here, we develop a novel analytical real-time PCR technique to detect multiple targets in a single fluorescence channel without melting curve analysis. In this technique, we show the intensity of the fluorescence signals of two discrete Tm targets is different at certain temperatures called detection temperatures, by which a high Tm target can be detected regardless of a low Tm target. We then identify the low Tm target by utilizing a change of the fluorescence signals between two different detection temperatures. Furthermore, it enables us to determine quantification of each target in a single channel, possibly facilitating convenient patient care for drug treatment in clinics. PMID:25501038

  16. Recurrence plot analysis of nonstationary data: The understanding of curved patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, A.; Kantz, H.; Tiezzi, E.

    2005-08-01

    Recurrence plots of the calls of the Nomascus concolor (Western black crested gibbon) and Hylobates lar (White-handed gibbon) show characteristic circular, curved, and hyperbolic patterns superimposed to the main temporal scale of the signal. It is shown that these patterns are related to particular nonstationarities in the signal. Some of them can be reproduced by artificial signals like frequency modulated sinusoids and sinusoids with time divergent frequency. These modulations are too faint to be resolved by conventional time-frequency analysis with similar precision. Therefore, recurrence plots act as a magnifying glass for the detection of multiple temporal scales in slightly modulated signals. The detected phenomena in these acoustic signals can be explained in the biomechanical context by taking in account the role of the muscles controlling the vocal folds.

  17. Multivariate curve resolution: a powerful tool for the analysis of conformational transitions in nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Jaumot, Joaquim; Escaja, Núria; Gargallo, Raimundo; González, Carlos; Pedroso, Enrique; Tauler, Romà

    2002-01-01

    A successful application is reported of the multivariate curve resolution alternating least-squares method (MCR-ALS) for the analysis of nucleic acid melting and salt-induced transitions. Under conditions where several structures co-exist in a conformational equilibrium, MCR-ALS analysis of the UV and circular dichroism (CD) spectra at different temperatures, ionic strength and oligonucleotide concentration allows for the resolution of concentration profiles and pure spectra of the different species. The methodology is illustrated by the case of the cyclic oligonucleotide d. The melting transition of this molecule at different oligonucleotide concentrations was studied at 0, 2 and 10 mM MgCl2 by UV and CD spectroscopy. In addition, salt titration experiments were carried out at 21.0 and 54.0°C. The MCR-ALS analysis indicates that three different conformations of this molecule co-exist in solution. In agreement with previous NMR studies, these conformations were assigned to a monomeric dumbbell-like structure, a dimeric four-stranded conformation and a disordered (random coil) structure. The MCR-ALS methodology allows for a detailed analysis of how this equilibrium is affected by temperature, salt and oligonucleotide concentration. PMID:12202780

  18. BLOT: A mesh and curve plot program for the output of a finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gilkey, A.P.; Glick, J.H.

    1989-06-01

    BLOT is a graphics program for post-processing of finite element analysis output that is presented in the EXODUS database format. It is command driven with free-format input and can drive any graphics device supported by the Sandia Virtual Device Interface. BLOT produces mesh plots with various representations of the analysis output variables. The major mesh plot capabilities are deformed mesh plots, line contours, banded contours, vector plots of two or three variables (e.g., velocity vectors), and symbol plots of scalar variables (e.g., temperature). Pathlines of analysis variables can also be drawn on the mesh. BLOT's features include element selection by material, element birth and death, multiple views for combining several displays on each plot, symmetry mirroring, and node and element numbering. BLOT can also produce X-Y curve plots of the analysis variables. BLOT generates time-versus-variable plots or variable-versus-variable plots. It also generates distance versus-variable plots at selected time steps where the distance is the accumulated distance between pairs of nodes or element centers. 14 refs.

  19. Multivariate curve resolution for hyperspectral image analysis :applications to microarray technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Sinclair, Michael B.; Haaland, David Michael; Martinez, M. Juanita (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Werner-Washburne, Margaret C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Aragon, Anthony D. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) using constrained alternating least squares algorithms represents a powerful analysis capability for a quantitative analysis of hyperspectral image data. We will demonstrate the application of MCR using data from a new hyperspectral fluorescence imaging microarray scanner for monitoring gene expression in cells from thousands of genes on the array. The new scanner collects the entire fluorescence spectrum from each pixel of the scanned microarray. Application of MCR with nonnegativity and equality constraints reveals several sources of undesired fluorescence that emit in the same wavelength range as the reporter fluorphores. MCR analysis of the hyperspectral images confirms that one of the sources of fluorescence is due to contaminant fluorescence under the printed DNA spots that is spot localized. Thus, traditional background subtraction methods used with data collected from the current commercial microarray scanners will lead to errors in determining the relative expression of low-expressed genes. With the new scanner and MCR analysis, we generate relative concentration maps of the background, impurity, and fluorescent labels over the entire image. Since the concentration maps of the fluorescent labels are relatively unaffected by the presence of background and impurity emissions, the accuracy and useful dynamic range of the gene expression data are both greatly improved over those obtained by commercial microarray scanners.

  20. Multivariate Curve Resolution Applied to Hyperspectral Imaging Analysis of Chocolate Samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; de Juan, Anna; Tauler, Romà

    2015-08-01

    This paper shows the application of Raman and infrared hyperspectral imaging combined with multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to the analysis of the constituents of commercial chocolate samples. The combination of different spectral data pretreatment methods allowed decreasing the high fluorescent Raman signal contribution of whey in the investigated chocolate samples. Using equality constraints during MCR analysis, estimations of the pure spectra of the chocolate sample constituents were improved, as well as their relative contributions and their spatial distribution on the analyzed samples. In addition, unknown constituents could be also resolved. White chocolate constituents resolved from Raman hyperspectral image indicate that, at macro scale, sucrose, lactose, fat, and whey constituents were intermixed in particles. Infrared hyperspectral imaging did not suffer from fluorescence and could be applied for white and milk chocolate. As a conclusion of this study, micro-hyperspectral imaging coupled to the MCR method is confirmed to be an appropriate tool for the direct analysis of the constituents of chocolate samples, and by extension, it is proposed for the analysis of other mixture constituents in commercial food samples.

  1. Analysis of H2 clearance curves used to measure blood flow in rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Day, T J; Lagerlund, T D; Low, P A

    1989-01-01

    1. By use of the H2 clearance technique, blood flow was measured in the sciatic nerve of healthy, anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats at rest, during inferior vena cava occlusion and during 5-hydroxytryptamine infusion. The purpose was to clarify the mechanisms underlying the biexponential curves which are commonly obtained using this technique. 2. An analysis of the frequency distribution of rate constants of 270 nerve and thirty-three arterial samples indicated that H2 clearance rates cluster below 20 ml min-1 100 g-1 and between 70 and 100 ml min-1 100 g-1. This suggests that at least two compartments are present. 3. The contribution of diffusion was studied by recording H2 clearance immediately following circulatory arrest. Slow clearance rates (median = 2.4 ml min-1 100 g-1) were observed, indicating that diffusion is not likely to contribute significantly to nutritive flow under most situations. 4. The contribution of arteriovenous shunts to H2 clearance was assessed by determining H2 clearance during inferior vena cava occlusion and the infusion of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Both manoeuvres caused abolition of, or a significant reduction in the weight of, the fast component which indicates that this compartment is closely related to arteriovenous shunts in nerve. 5. By use of a multi-compartmental model, it was shown that H2 clearance should follow a multi-exponential course, where the weights of the components reflect the relative volumes of each compartment and the exponents represent the relative flow (i.e. flow per unit volume) in each compartment. 6. By use of other mathematical models, estimates were made for the clearance rates attributable to polarographic oxidation of H2 at the tip of the microelectrode (0.2 ml min-1 100 g-1) and to diffusion to air (2 ml min-1 100 g-1). The latter estimate is very close to the measured value of 2.4 ml min-1 100 g-1. 7. These findings indicate that it is possible to separately assess nutritive and non-nutritive flow by

  2. Light curve analysis of GSC 2750-0054 and GSC 03208-02644

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhateeb, M. M.; Nouh, M. I.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first photometric analysis for the newly discovered eclipsing binary systems of Algole-type GSC 2750-0054 and GSC 03208-02644. Our analysis was carried out by means of the most recent version of Wilson Devinney (WD) code, which applies the model atmosphere by (Kurucz, R., 1993. In: Milon, E. (Ed.), Light Curve Modeling of Eclipsing Binary Stars. Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 93) with a prescription in passband for the radiative treatment. The accepted light curve solutions reveal absolute physical parameters and the spectral classifications for the components are adopted. We derived the spectral types of the system GSC 2750-0054 as K3 and K7. The physical parameters of the system are M1 = 0.72 ± 0.03 M⊙, M2 = 0.47 ± 0.02 M⊙, R1 = 0.81 ± 0.03 R⊙, R2 = 0.62 ± 0.03 R⊙, L1 = 0.27 ± 0.01 L⊙ and L2 = 0.1 ± 0.004 L⊙. For the system, GSC 03208 02644 the spectral types of the components are A5 and A8. The physical parameters are M1 = 1.86 ± 0.076 M⊙, M2 = 1.21 ± 0.049 M⊙, R1 = 1.84 ± 0.075 R⊙, R2 = 1.75 ± 0.072 R⊙, L1 = 13.58 ± 0.55 L⊙ and L2 = 9.94 ± 0.41 L⊙. Comparison with the evolutionary models as well as the empirical databases is presented.

  3. Human fetal weight and placental weight growth curves. A mathematical analysis from a population at sea level.

    PubMed

    Bonds, D R; Mwape, B; Kumar, S; Gabbe, S G

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of human fetal and placental growth curves was made on data collected prospectively from a population at sea level. Both the fetal and placental growth curves can best be described by a form of the logistic equation inhibited growth model. The fetal growth rate reaches its maximum approximately 4 weeks after the placental growth rate has reached its maximum. Growth rate constants were calculated for several populations at various altitudes. PMID:6733167

  4. Analysis of Surface Plasmon Resonance Curves with a Novel Sigmoid-Asymmetric Fitting Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jang, Daeho; Chae, Geunhyoung; Shin, Sehyun

    2015-01-01

    The present study introduces a novel curve-fitting algorithm for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) curves using a self-constructed, wedge-shaped beam type angular interrogation SPR spectroscopy technique. Previous fitting approaches such as asymmetric and polynomial equations are still unsatisfactory for analyzing full SPR curves and their use is limited to determining the resonance angle. In the present study, we developed a sigmoid-asymmetric equation that provides excellent curve-fitting for the whole SPR curve over a range of incident angles, including regions of the critical angle and resonance angle. Regardless of the bulk fluid type (i.e., water and air), the present sigmoid-asymmetric fitting exhibited nearly perfect matching with a full SPR curve, whereas the asymmetric and polynomial curve fitting methods did not. Because the present curve-fitting sigmoid-asymmetric equation can determine the critical angle as well as the resonance angle, the undesired effect caused by the bulk fluid refractive index was excluded by subtracting the critical angle from the resonance angle in real time. In conclusion, the proposed sigmoid-asymmetric curve-fitting algorithm for SPR curves is widely applicable to various SPR measurements, while excluding the effect of bulk fluids on the sensing layer. PMID:26437414

  5. Analysis of Surface Plasmon Resonance Curves with a Novel Sigmoid-Asymmetric Fitting Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Daeho; Chae, Geunhyoung; Shin, Sehyun

    2015-01-01

    The present study introduces a novel curve-fitting algorithm for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) curves using a self-constructed, wedge-shaped beam type angular interrogation SPR spectroscopy technique. Previous fitting approaches such as asymmetric and polynomial equations are still unsatisfactory for analyzing full SPR curves and their use is limited to determining the resonance angle. In the present study, we developed a sigmoid-asymmetric equation that provides excellent curve-fitting for the whole SPR curve over a range of incident angles, including regions of the critical angle and resonance angle. Regardless of the bulk fluid type (i.e., water and air), the present sigmoid-asymmetric fitting exhibited nearly perfect matching with a full SPR curve, whereas the asymmetric and polynomial curve fitting methods did not. Because the present curve-fitting sigmoid-asymmetric equation can determine the critical angle as well as the resonance angle, the undesired effect caused by the bulk fluid refractive index was excluded by subtracting the critical angle from the resonance angle in real time. In conclusion, the proposed sigmoid-asymmetric curve-fitting algorithm for SPR curves is widely applicable to various SPR measurements, while excluding the effect of bulk fluids on the sensing layer. PMID:26437414

  6. Kepler light-curve analysis of the blazar W2R 1926+42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Bachev, Rumen; Strigachev, Anton

    2016-02-01

    We study the long term Kepler light curve of the blazar W2R 1926+42 (˜1.6 yr) which indicates a variety of variability properties during different intervals of observation. The normalized excess variance, Fvar ranges from 1.8 per cent in the quiescent phase and 43.3 per cent in the outburst phase. We find no significant deviation from linearity in the Fvar-flux relation. Time series analysis is conducted using the Fourier power spectrum and the wavelet analysis methods to study the power spectral density (PSD) shape, infer characteristic time-scales and statistically significant quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). A bending power law with an associated time-scale of T_B = 6.2^{+6.4}_{-3.1} hours is inferred in the PSD analysis. We obtain a black hole mass of M• = (1.5-5.9) × 107 M⊙ for the first time using Fvar and the bend time-scale for this source. From a mean outburst lifetime of days, we infer a distance from the jet base r ≤ 1.75 pc indicating that the outburst originates due to a shock. A possible QPO peaked at 9.1 d and lasting 3.4 cycles is inferred from the wavelet analysis. Assuming that the QPO is a true feature, r = (152-378)GM•/c2 and supported by the other timing analysis products such as a weighted mean PSD slope of -1.5 ± 0.2 from the PSD analysis, we argue that the observed variability and the weak and short duration QPO could be due to jet based processes including orbital features in a relativistic helical jet and others such as shocks and turbulence.

  7. Limitation of high-resolution melting curve analysis for genotyping simple sequence repeats in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Yue, Y J; Guo, T T; Han, J L; Liu, J B; Guo, J; Sun, X P; Feng, R L; Wu, Y Y; Wang, C F; Wang, L P; Yang, B H

    2014-04-08

    Variation in microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci has, until recently, relied heavily on the use of gel-based methods that can be both time consuming and difficult to genotype. Non gel-based systems are therefore important to increase simplicity and improve turn-around time without compromising assay sensitivity and accuracy. In this report, we assessed the latest of the non-gel-based methods, high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis. HRM is a technique that monitors exactly the decreasing fluorescence of intercalating dye in the process of dissociation of double-stranded DNA. The measurement immediately follows polymerase chain reaction in a one-step, closed-tube method. Four SSR loci of different complexity in sheep, namely MAF209, MCM140, CB226, and SRCRSP5, were assessed using the LightScanners System with LC Greens PLUS DNA binding dye. In order to improve the accuracy of genotyping, we applied internal oligo nucleotide calibrators while performing HRM. DNA polymorphisms were previously identified using capillary electrophoresis analysis (CE). The result showed that CE detected more genotypes than HRM in the same loci regardless of the level of polymorphism at the SSR loci. We demonstrate current limitations of the HRM method for the analysis of SSR loci.

  8. Evaluation of drug-polymer solubility curves through formal statistical analysis: comparison of preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Per; Löbmann, Korbinian; Holm, René; Langguth, Peter; Rades, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the preparation technique (ball milling, spray drying, and film casting) of a supersaturated amorphous dispersion on the quality of solubility determinations of indomethacin in polyvinylpyrrolidone was investigated by means of statistical analysis. After annealing of the amorphous dispersions above the crystallization temperature for 2 h, the solubility curve was derived from the glass transition temperature of the demixed material using the Gordon-Taylor relationship and fitting with the Flory-Huggins model. The study showed that the predicted solubility from the ball-milled mixtures was not consistent with those from spray drying and film casting, indicating fundamental differences between the preparation techniques. Through formal statistical analysis, the best combination of fit to the Flory-Huggins model and reproducibility of the measurements was analyzed. Ball milling provided the best reproducibility of the three preparation techniques; however, an analysis of residuals revealed a systematic error. In contrast, film casting demonstrated a good fit to the model but poor reproducibility of the measurements. Therefore, this study recommends that techniques such as spray drying or potentially film casting (if experimental reproducibility can be improved) should be used to prepare the amorphous dispersions when performing solubility measurements of this kind.

  9. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    PubMed

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  10. Autosomal recessive primary microcephalies (MCPH).

    PubMed

    Kaindl, Angela M

    2014-07-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by a pronounced reduction in volume of otherwise architectonical normal brains and intellectual deficit. Here, we summarize the genetic causes of MCPH types 1-12 known to date. PMID:24780602

  11. Algebra, Home Mortgages, and Recessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariner, Jean A. Miller; Miller, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The current financial crisis and recession in the United States present an opportunity to discuss relevant applications of some topics in typical first-and second-year algebra and precalculus courses. Real-world applications of percent change, exponential functions, and sums of finite geometric sequences can help students understand the problems…

  12. Firms Still Training Despite Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felstead, Alan; Green, Francis; Jewson, Nick

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that company training is one of the first casualties in times of recession. Falling recruitment, pressures to cut costs and a focus on short-term survival force businesses to put training on the backburner. Expecting the worst, the UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES), the Confederation of British Industry (CBI)…

  13. [Application of calibration curve method and partial least squares regression analysis to quantitative analysis of nephrite samples using XRF].

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Su, Bo-min; Li, Qing-hui; Gan, Fu-xi

    2015-01-01

    The authors tried to find a method for quantitative analysis using pXRF without solid bulk stone/jade reference samples. 24 nephrite samples were selected, 17 samples were calibration samples and the other 7 are test samples. All the nephrite samples were analyzed by Proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) quantitatively. Based on the PIXE results of calibration samples, calibration curves were created for the interested components/elements and used to analyze the test samples quantitatively; then, the qualitative spectrum of all nephrite samples were obtained by pXRF. According to the PIXE results and qualitative spectrum of calibration samples, partial least square method (PLS) was used for quantitative analysis of test samples. Finally, the results of test samples obtained by calibration method, PLS method and PIXE were compared to each other. The accuracy of calibration curve method and PLS method was estimated. The result indicates that the PLS method is the alternate method for quantitative analysis of stone/jade samples.

  14. High-throughput gender identification of penguin species using melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chao-Neng; Chang, Yung-Ting; Chiu, Hui-Tzu; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Ming-Hui; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Most species of penguins are sexual monomorphic and therefore it is difficult to visually identify their genders for monitoring population stability in terms of sex ratio analysis. In this study, we evaluated the suitability using melting curve analysis (MCA) for high-throughput gender identification of penguins. Preliminary test indicated that the Griffiths's P2/P8 primers were not suitable for MCA analysis. Based on sequence alignment of Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-W and CHD-Z genes from four species of penguins (Pygoscelis papua, Aptenodytes patagonicus, Spheniscus magellanicus, and Eudyptes chrysocome), we redesigned forward primers for the CHD-W/CHD-Z-common region (PGU-ZW2) and the CHD-W-specific region (PGU-W2) to be used in combination with the reverse Griffiths's P2 primer. When tested with P. papua samples, PCR using P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 primer sets generated two amplicons of 148- and 356-bp, respectively, which were easily resolved in 1.5% agarose gels. MCA analysis indicated the melting temperature (Tm) values for P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 amplicons of P. papua samples were 79.75°C-80.5°C and 81.0°C-81.5°C, respectively. Females displayed both ZW-common and W-specific Tm peaks, whereas male was positive only for ZW-common peak. Taken together, our redesigned primers coupled with MCA analysis allows precise high throughput gender identification for P. papua, and potentially for other penguin species such as A. patagonicus, S. magellanicus, and E. chrysocome as well. PMID:24555797

  15. High-throughput gender identification of penguin species using melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chao-Neng; Chang, Yung-Ting; Chiu, Hui-Tzu; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Ming-Hui; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Most species of penguins are sexual monomorphic and therefore it is difficult to visually identify their genders for monitoring population stability in terms of sex ratio analysis. In this study, we evaluated the suitability using melting curve analysis (MCA) for high-throughput gender identification of penguins. Preliminary test indicated that the Griffiths's P2/P8 primers were not suitable for MCA analysis. Based on sequence alignment of Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-W and CHD-Z genes from four species of penguins (Pygoscelis papua, Aptenodytes patagonicus, Spheniscus magellanicus, and Eudyptes chrysocome), we redesigned forward primers for the CHD-W/CHD-Z-common region (PGU-ZW2) and the CHD-W-specific region (PGU-W2) to be used in combination with the reverse Griffiths's P2 primer. When tested with P. papua samples, PCR using P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 primer sets generated two amplicons of 148- and 356-bp, respectively, which were easily resolved in 1.5% agarose gels. MCA analysis indicated the melting temperature (Tm) values for P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 amplicons of P. papua samples were 79.75°C-80.5°C and 81.0°C-81.5°C, respectively. Females displayed both ZW-common and W-specific Tm peaks, whereas male was positive only for ZW-common peak. Taken together, our redesigned primers coupled with MCA analysis allows precise high throughput gender identification for P. papua, and potentially for other penguin species such as A. patagonicus, S. magellanicus, and E. chrysocome as well.

  16. Decline curve analysis of production data from The Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1987-01-01

    Production data for over two hundred wells at The Geysers geothermal field were compiled and analyzed. Decline curves for groups of wells with 5, 10, and 40 acre spacing are presented and compared to curves published previously by Budd (1972) and Dykstra (1981). Decline curves for several individual wells and leases are discussed to illustrate the effects of well spacing and location, as well as the heterogeneous nature of the reservoir.

  17. Decline Curve Analysis of Production Data from the Geysers Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1987-01-20

    Production data for over two hundred wells at The Geysers geothermal field were compiled and analysed. Decline curves for groups of wells with 5, 10, and 40 acre spacing are presented and compared to curves published previously by Budd (1972) and Dykstra (1981). Decline curves for several individual wells and leases are discussed to illustrate the effects of well spacing and location, as well as the heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. 6 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs.

  18. Patient-centered evaluation of microsurgical management of gingival recession using coronally advanced flap with platelet-rich fibrin or amnion membrane: A comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sumit Kumar; Jhingran, Rajesh; Bains, Vivek Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Madan, Rohit; Rizvi, Iram

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of coronally advanced flap (CAF) procedure under microsurgical approach for the management of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession defects with the use of either platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) or amnion membrane (AM) in comparison to CAF alone. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 sites with Miller's Class I or II gingival recession defect were randomly distributed for: Experimental Group I (CAF with PRF) sites (n = 15) which were treated with the microsurgical approach using CAF along with PRF; experimental Group II (CAF with AM) sites (n = 15) were treated with the microsurgical approach using CAF along with AM; control Group III (CAF alone) sites (n = 15) were treated with the microsurgical approach using CAF alone. Vertical gingival recession (VGR), horizontal gingival recession (HGR), gingival thickness (GT) (using transgingival probing [TGP] and ultrasonography [USG]) and patients’ response and acceptance were documented at baseline, 3 months and 6 months after surgical interventions. Results: CAF alone and in combination with PRF or AM, were effective techniques for root coverage with average VGR values of 1.47 ± 0.92 mm (56%), 0.67 ± 1.23 mm (36%) and 0.60 ± 1.06 mm (33%) in Group I (CAF with PRF), Group II (CAF with AM), and Group III (CAF alone), respectively. Complete coverage (100%) was obtained in 33.3% sites of Group I (CAF with PRF), 26.6% sites of Group II (CAF with AM) and 13.3% in Group III (CAF alone). Patients’ response and acceptance for surgical treatment modality in terms of patient esthetic score and decrease in hypersensitivity score was highest for Group I (CAF with PRF), whereas patient comfort score was highest for Group II (CAF with AM). At 6 months follow-up, significant increase in GT measurements (using TGP and USG) in Group I (CAF with PRF), whereas, nonsignificant increase for Group II (CAF with AM) and no change or decrease for Group III (CAF alone) as compared to baseline was observed

  19. Comparison of Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and melting curve analysis for the detection of KRAS mutations: diagnostic and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Tsiatis, Athanasios C; Norris-Kirby, Alexis; Rich, Roy G; Hafez, Michael J; Gocke, Christopher D; Eshleman, James R; Murphy, Kathleen M

    2010-07-01

    Mutations in codons 12 and 13 of the KRAS oncogene are relatively common in colorectal and lung adenocarcinomas. Recent data indicate that these mutations result in resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Therefore, we assessed Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and melting curve analysis for the detection of KRAS codon 12/13 mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, including 58 primary and 42 metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas, 63 primary and 17 metastatic lung adenocarcinomas, and 20 normal colon samples. Of 180 tumor samples, 62.2% were KRAS mutant positive, and 37.8% were negative. Melting curve analysis yielded no false positive or false negative results, but had 10% equivocal calls. Melting curve analysis also resulted in 4 cases with melting curves inconsistent with either wild-type or codon 12/13 mutations. These patterns were generated from samples with double mutants in codons 12/13 and with mutations outside of codons 12/13. Pyrosequencing yielded no false positive or false negative results as well. However, two samples from one patient yielded a pyrogram that was flagged as abnormal, but the mutation subtype could not be determined. Finally, using an electronic cutoff of 10%, Sanger sequencing showed 11.1% false positives and 6.1% false negatives. In our hands, the limit of detection for Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and melting curve analysis was approximately 15 to 20%, 5%, and 10% mutant alleles, respectively. PMID:20431034

  20. Non-linear multivariate curve resolution analysis of voltammetric pH titrations.

    PubMed

    Díaz Cruz, José Manuel; Sanchís, Josep; Chekmeneva, Elena; Ariño, Cristina; Esteban, Miquel

    2010-07-01

    A new chemometric approach is put forward, dealing with the non-linear behaviour observed in the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) analysis of certain overlapping voltammetric signals obtained in titrations of metal complexes where pH is progressively changed. In such cases, non-reversible reduction signals move along the potential axis as a consequence of the involvement of H(+)-ions in the electrochemical process and cause a dramatic loss of linearity, which hinders accurate MCR analysis. The method proposed is based on the least-squares fitting of peak potential vs. pH datasets to parametric linear and sigmoid functions through the decomposition of the data matrix into both a concentration profile matrix and a unit signal matrix, in a similar way as in the alternating least-squares algorithm of MCR (ALS). Such calculations are carried out through several home-made Matlab programs which are freely available as Supplementary Material of the present work. The fitted parameters, along with the evolution of resolved concentrations and potential shifts with pH, provide valuable information on the complexation/reduction processes. The method is tested first on the relatively simple Cd(II)-NTA system and then applied to the study of the binding of Cd(II)-ions by glutathione (gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly, GSH) and the phytochelatin PC(2) ((gamma-Glu-Cys)(2)-Gly).

  1. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    SciTech Connect

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-09-20

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds.

  2. Impact Analysis of Embedded Delamination Location in Hybrid Curved Laminated Composite Stiffened Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naini, Jeevan Kumar; P, Ramesh Babu

    2016-08-01

    Modern, aero structures are predominantly of curved construction characterized by a skin and stiffeners. The latest generation of large passenger aircraft also uses mostly composite material in their primary structure and there is trend towards the utilization of bonding of subcomponents. The presence of delamination is a major problem in composite laminated panels and so, it is of great concern to both the academic and aeronautical industrial worlds Indeed delamination can strongly affect the material strength and, sometimes, can cause their breaking up in service. A Pre-damaged configuration is loaded to study the delamination location and mode for delamination initiation and propagation. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of the location of the delamination propagation when delamination is embedded inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface, with the cases i) delamination located at front and inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface ii) delamination located in middle and inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface iii) delamination located at the end and inbetween plies of the skin- stiffener interface. Further the influence of the location of the delamination on load carrying capacity of the panel is investigated. The effect of location of debonds on crack growth and collapse behavior is analyzed using analysis tool. An analysis tool is applied that includes an approach for predicting interlaminar damage initiation and interlaminar damage growth as well as in-plane damage mechanisms to predict the design of defect free panel.

  3. Modeling and regression analysis of semiochemical dose-response curves of insect antennal reception and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose-response curves with semiochemicals are reported in many articles in insect chemical ecology regarding neurophysiology and behavioral bioassays. Most such curves are shown in figures where the x-axis has order of magnitude increases in dosages versus responses on the y-axis represented by point...

  4. Imaging the shallow subsurface with surface waves: dispersion curve analysis versus full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés Pérez Solano, Carlos; Donno, Daniela; Strobbia, Claudio; Chauris, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Seismic surface wave analysis is a standard tool in geotechnical engineering for imaging the shallow subsurface. Most current surface wave analysis methods assume a horizontally layered medium, and estimate the near-surface shear velocity profile from dispersion curves, which are picked on frequency-wavenumber (f-k) gathers and then inverted using 1D modelling approaches. Media containing high velocity contrasts and irregular lateral variations might be difficult to be handled with the local 1D approximation. For 2D model estimation, full waveform inversion (FWI) is an alternative and can estimate high resolution models. The classical FWI objective function consists of the least-squares misfit between observed and modelled shot gathers (Tarantola, 1986). Classical FWI needs an accurate initial model for achieving convergence. Data sets containing surface waves could be inverted, without falling into secondary minima, if the data contains sufficiently low frequencies and large offsets such that multi-scale and time windowing approaches can be applied. We propose to invert surface waves with an alternative FWI-based approach that uses a modified objective function. It is based on the least-squares misfit between the absolute value of the f-k transform of windowed shot gathers. We refer to this approach as the windowed-Amplitude Waveform Inversion (w-AWI). Some secondary minima problems are mitigated: the choice of an initial model is easier in w-AWI than in FWI. The alternative objective function is intermediary between the one used in the 1D inversion approach (dispersion curves) and classical FWI. As most of the phase information is neglected in w-AWI, we use it as a first step before classical FWI. This sequential inversion approach using w-AWI followed by classical FWI aims at estimating a high-resolution near-surface velocity model, by explaining the complete elastic wavefield, even when the initial velocity model is far from the exact one. The proposed approach

  5. An analysis of watershed hydrological double mass curve based on elasticity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Ning, Tingting; Lin, Wen; Cheng, Liping; Han, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    The method of double mass curve (DMC) is often used in the analysis of the consistency of hydro-meteorological factors and their inter-annual variations. The trend and slope of DMC are the focus of general concern. By taking the DMC of annual precipitation-runoff in a watershed as an example, this paper analyzed the characteristics of DMC variations by means of the elasticity index obtained by the curve slope divided by the ratio of accumulated runoff to accumulated precipitation at corresponding location. Using a year as a time step, the index was further simplified to be the ratio of annual runoff coefficient to the runoff coefficient averaged over the period from starting year to computing year. An elasticity index greater than, less than, or equal to one indicated rising, decline, or stability of average annual runoff coefficient, respectively. Variation trend of elasticity index was analyzed to extract the information on the years with significant change and then, dominant factors and their impacts could be enquired further. The Jinghe River is located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, being the largest tributary of the Weihe River. The elasticity index was used to analyze the DMC of annual precipitation-runoff on the scale of water year for the Jinghe River watershed from 1961 to 2012 and the two years of 1971 and 1997 were first chosen as the years showing abrupt changes. The elasticity indices in three periods separated by the two years in the past 50 years averaged 1.08, 0.89 and 0.64 and annual runoff coefficients, 0.08, 0.07 and 0.05, respectively. The human activities disturbing underlying surface were found to be the important factor responsible for the remarkable decline of runoff coefficient. The large-scale comprehensive control of soil erosion and the adjustment of landuse structure had made some achievements in the recent twenty years. However, their disturbing effects on underlying surface interacted with the impacts of climate change

  6. BEER Analysis of Kepler and CoRoT Light Curves. II. Evidence for Superrotation in the Phase Curves of Three Kepler Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed the Kepler light curves of four transiting hot Jupiter systems—KOI-13, HAT-P-7, TrES-2, and Kepler-76, which show BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations. The mass of the four planets can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude, given the mass and radius of their parent stars. For KOI-13, HAT-P-7, and Kepler-76 we find that the beaming-based planetary mass estimate is larger than the mass estimated from the ellipsoidal amplitude, consistent with previous studies. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by equatorial superrotation of the planet atmosphere, which induces an angle shift of the planet reflection/emission phase modulation, as was suggested for Kepler-76 in the first paper of this series. We propose a modified BEER model that supports superrotation, assuming either a Lambertian or geometric reflection/emission phase function, and provides a photometry-consistent estimate of the planetary mass. Our analysis shows that for Kepler-76 and HAT-P-7, the Lambertian superrotation BEER model is highly preferable over an unshifted null model, while for KOI-13 it is preferable only at a 1.4σ level. For TrES-2 we do not find such preference. For all four systems the Lambertian superrotation model mass estimates are in excellent agreement with the planetary masses derived from, or constrained by, radial velocity measurements. This makes the Lambertian superrotation BEER model a viable tool for estimating the masses of hot Jupiters from photometry alone. We conclude that hot Jupiter superrotation may be a common phenomenon that can be detected in the visual light curves of Kepler.

  7. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. II. EVIDENCE FOR SUPERROTATION IN THE PHASE CURVES OF THREE KEPLER HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-02-10

    We analyzed the Kepler light curves of four transiting hot Jupiter systems—KOI-13, HAT-P-7, TrES-2, and Kepler-76, which show BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations. The mass of the four planets can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude, given the mass and radius of their parent stars. For KOI-13, HAT-P-7, and Kepler-76 we find that the beaming-based planetary mass estimate is larger than the mass estimated from the ellipsoidal amplitude, consistent with previous studies. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by equatorial superrotation of the planet atmosphere, which induces an angle shift of the planet reflection/emission phase modulation, as was suggested for Kepler-76 in the first paper of this series. We propose a modified BEER model that supports superrotation, assuming either a Lambertian or geometric reflection/emission phase function, and provides a photometry-consistent estimate of the planetary mass. Our analysis shows that for Kepler-76 and HAT-P-7, the Lambertian superrotation BEER model is highly preferable over an unshifted null model, while for KOI-13 it is preferable only at a 1.4σ level. For TrES-2 we do not find such preference. For all four systems the Lambertian superrotation model mass estimates are in excellent agreement with the planetary masses derived from, or constrained by, radial velocity measurements. This makes the Lambertian superrotation BEER model a viable tool for estimating the masses of hot Jupiters from photometry alone. We conclude that hot Jupiter superrotation may be a common phenomenon that can be detected in the visual light curves of Kepler.

  8. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex temperature-programmed desorption data by multivariate curve resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Reyes, Juan Carlos F.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.; Brown, Steven D.

    2010-10-01

    The substantial amount of information carried in temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments is often difficult to mine due to the occurrence of competing reaction pathways that produce compounds with similar mass spectrometric features. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) is introduced as a tool capable of overcoming this problem by mathematically detecting spectral variations and correlations between several m/z traces, which is later translated into the extraction of the cracking pattern and the desorption profile for each desorbate. Different from the elegant (though complex) methods currently available to analyze TPD data, MCR analysis is applicable even when no information regarding the specific surface reaction/desorption process or the nature of the desorbing species is available. However, when available, any information can be used as constraints that guide the outcome, increasing the accuracy of the resolution. This approach is especially valuable when the compounds desorbing are different from what would be expected based on a chemical intuition, when the cracking pattern of the model test compound is difficult or impossible to obtain (because it could be unstable or very rare), and when knowing major components desorbing from the surface could in more traditional methods actually bias the quantification of minor components. The enhanced level of understanding of thermal processes achieved through MCR analysis is demonstrated by analyzing three phenomena: i) the cryogenic desorption of vinyltrimethylsilane from silicon, an introductory system where the known multilayer and monolayer components are resolved; ii) acrolein hydrogenation on a bimetallic Pt-Ni-Pt catalyst, where a rapid identification of hydrogenated products as well as other desorbing species is achieved, and iii) the thermal reaction of Ti[N(CH 3) 2] 4 on Si(100), where the products of surface decomposition are identified and an estimation of the surface composition after the

  10. The role of Soil Water Retention Curve in slope stability analysis in unsaturated and heterogeneous soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinoro, Chiara; Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of rainwater infiltration causing slope instability had been analyzed and reviewed in many scientific works. Rainwater infiltration into unsaturated soil increases the degree of saturation, hence affecting the shear strength properties and thus the probability of slope failure. It has been widely proved that the shear strength properties change with the soil water suction in unsaturated soils; therefore, the accuracy to predict the relationship between soil water content and soil water suction, parameterized by the soil-water characteristic curve, has significant effects on the slope stability analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate how the characterization of SWRC of differently structured unsaturated soils affects the slope stability on a simple infinite slope. In particular, the unimodal and bimodal distributions of the soil pore size were compared. Samples of 40 soils, highly different in terms of structure and texture, were collected and used to calibrate two bimodal SWRCs, i.e. Ross and Smettem (1993) and Dexter et al., (2008). The traditional unimodal van Genuchten (1980) model was also applied for comparison. Slope stability analysis was conducted in terms of Factor of Safety (FS) by applying the infinite slope model for unsaturated soils. In the used formulation, the contribution of the suction effect is tuned by a parameter 'chi' in a rate proportional to the saturation conditions. Different parameterizations of this term were also compared and analyzed. Results indicated that all three SWRC models showed good overall performance in fitting the sperimental SWRCs. Both the RS and DE models described adequately the water retention data for soils with a bimodal behavior confirmed from the analysis of pore size distribution, but the best performance was obtained by DE model confirmed. In terms of FS, the tree models showed very similar results as soil moisture approached to the saturated condition; however, within the residual zone

  11. Selecting a linear mixed model for longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern model, and growth curve approaches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2012-03-01

    With increasing popularity, growth curve modeling is more and more often considered as the 1st choice for analyzing longitudinal data. Although the growth curve approach is often a good choice, other modeling strategies may more directly answer questions of interest. It is common to see researchers fit growth curve models without considering alterative modeling strategies. In this article we compare 3 approaches for analyzing longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern models, and growth curve models. As all are members of the general linear mixed model family, they represent somewhat different assumptions about the way individuals change. These assumptions result in different patterns of covariation among the residuals around the fixed effects. In this article, we first indicate the kinds of data that are appropriately modeled by each and use real data examples to demonstrate possible problems associated with the blanket selection of the growth curve model. We then present a simulation that indicates the utility of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion in the selection of a proper residual covariance structure. The results cast doubt on the popular practice of automatically using growth curve modeling for longitudinal data without comparing the fit of different models. Finally, we provide some practical advice for assessing mean changes in the presence of correlated data.

  12. A BAYESIAN APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF TIME SYMMETRY IN LIGHT CURVES: RECONSIDERING SCORPIUS X-1 OCCULTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Blocker, Alexander W.; Protopapas, Pavlos; Alcock, Charles R.

    2009-08-20

    We present a new approach to the analysis of time symmetry in light curves, such as those in the X-ray at the center of the Scorpius X-1 occultation debate. Our method uses a new parameterization for such events (the bilogistic event profile) and provides a clear, physically relevant characterization of each event's key features. We also demonstrate a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to carry out this analysis, including a novel independence chain configuration for the estimation of each event's location in the light curve. These tools are applied to the Scorpius X-1 light curves presented in Chang et al., providing additional evidence based on the time series that the events detected thus far are most likely not occultations by trans-Neptunian objects.

  13. M DWARFS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82: PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES AND FLARE RATE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.; Becker, Andrew C.; Sesar, Branimir; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.

    2009-08-15

    We present a flare rate analysis of 50,130 M dwarf light curves in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82. We identified 271 flares using a customized variability index to search {approx}2.5 million photometric observations for flux increases in the u and g bands. Every image of a flaring observation was examined by eye and with a point-spread function-matching and image subtraction tool to guard against false positives. Flaring is found to be strongly correlated with the appearance of H{alpha} in emission in the quiet spectrum. Of the 99 flare stars that have spectra, we classify eight as relatively inactive. The flaring fraction is found to increase strongly in stars with redder colors during quiescence, which can be attributed to the increasing flare visibility and increasing active fraction for redder stars. The flaring fraction is strongly correlated with |Z| distance such that most stars that flare are within 300 pc of the Galactic plane. We derive flare u-band luminosities and find that the most luminous flares occur on the earlier-type m dwarfs. Our best estimate of the lower limit on the flaring rate (averaged over Stripe 82) for flares with {delta}u {>=} 0.7 mag on stars with u < 22 is 1.3 flares hr{sup -1} deg{sup -2} but can vary significantly with the line of sight.

  14. M Dwarfs in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82: Photometric Light Curves and Flare Rate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.; Becker, Andrew C.; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.; Sesar, Branimir

    2009-08-01

    We present a flare rate analysis of 50,130 M dwarf light curves in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82. We identified 271 flares using a customized variability index to search ~2.5 million photometric observations for flux increases in the u and g bands. Every image of a flaring observation was examined by eye and with a point-spread function-matching and image subtraction tool to guard against false positives. Flaring is found to be strongly correlated with the appearance of Hα in emission in the quiet spectrum. Of the 99 flare stars that have spectra, we classify eight as relatively inactive. The flaring fraction is found to increase strongly in stars with redder colors during quiescence, which can be attributed to the increasing flare visibility and increasing active fraction for redder stars. The flaring fraction is strongly correlated with |Z| distance such that most stars that flare are within 300 pc of the Galactic plane. We derive flare u-band luminosities and find that the most luminous flares occur on the earlier-type m dwarfs. Our best estimate of the lower limit on the flaring rate (averaged over Stripe 82) for flares with Δu >= 0.7 mag on stars with u < 22 is 1.3 flares hr-1 deg-2 but can vary significantly with the line of sight. Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  15. Analysis of HAT-P-2b Warm Spitzer Full Orbit Light Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nikole; Knuston, H.; Showman, A. P.; Fortney, J. J.; Agol, E.; Burrows, A.; Charbonneau, D.; Cowan, N. B.; Deming, D.; Desert, J.; Langton, J.; Laughlin, G.; Mighell, K. J.

    2011-05-01

    The Spitzer warm mission has already greatly expanded the field of exoplanet characterization with over 3000 hours of time dedicated to exoplanet observations. Observations of eclipsing systems with Spitzer are at the heart of these advances, as they allow us to move beyond simple mass and period estimates to determine planetary radius, dayside emission, and emission variations as a function of orbital phase. The eclipsing system HAT-P-2 is of special interest because the massive Jovian sized planet in this system is on a highly eccentric orbit (e=0.5171). Because HAT-P-2b's orbit is eccentric, the planet is subject to time variable heating and probable non-synchronous rotation. Circulation patterns that we expect to develop in HAT-P-2b's atmosphere will likely vary with both planetary local time and orbital phase. Here we present an analysis of a full orbit light curve from the HAT-P-2 system obtained during the most recent cycle of the Spitzer warm mission and discuss the constraints it imposes on the atmospheric circulation of HAT-P-2b. Support for this work was provided by NASA.

  16. High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis for Identification of Pasteurellaceae Species in Experimental Animal Facilities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Manuel; Zorn, Julia; Brielmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurellaceae are among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated from mice housed in experimental animal facilities. Reliable detection and differentiation of Pasteurellaceae are essential for high-quality health monitoring. In this study, we combined a real-time PCR assay amplifying a variable region in the 16S rRNA sequence with high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) to identify and differentiate among the commonly isolated species Pasteurella pneumotropica biotypes "Jawetz" and "Heyl", Actinobacillus muris, and Haemophilus influenzaemurium. We used a set of six reference strains for assay development, with the melting profiles of these strains clearly distinguishable due to DNA sequence variations in the amplicon. For evaluation, we used real-time PCR/HRM to test 25 unknown Pasteurellaceae isolates obtained from an external diagnostic laboratory and found the results to be consistent with those of partial 16S rRNA sequencing. The real-time PCR/HRM method provides a sensitive, rapid, and closed-tube approach for Pasteurellaceae species identification for health monitoring of laboratory mice. PMID:26556281

  17. Analysis of Curved Sandwich Panels Subjected to Combined Temperature Gradient and Mechanical Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1998-01-01

    The results of a detailed study of the nonlinear response of curved sandwich panels with composite face sheets and subjected to a temperature gradient through-the-thickness combined with mechanical loadings are presented. The analysis is based on a first-order shear-deformation Sanders-Budiansky type theory with the effects of large displacements, moderate rotations, transverse shear deformation and laminated anisotropic material behavior included. A mixed formulation is used with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the generalized displacements and the stress resultants of the panel. The nonlinear displacements, strain energy, principal strains, transverse shear stresses, transverse shear strain energy density, and their hierarchical sensitivity coefficients are evaluated. The hierarchical sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the nonlinear response to variations in the panel parameters, the effective properties of the face sheet layers and the core, and the micromechanical parameters. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical panels subjected to combined pressure loading, edge shortening or extension, edge shear and a temperature gradient through the thickness. The results show the effects of variations in the loading and the panel aspect ratio, on the nonlinear response and its sensitivity to changes in the various panel, effective layer and micromechanical parameters.

  18. Reliability analysis of laser ultrasonics for train axle diagnostics based on model assisted POD curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, M. S.; Cavuto, A.; Martarelli, M.; Pandarese, G.; Revel, G. M.

    2014-05-01

    High speed train axles are integrated for a lifetime and it is time and resource consuming to conduct in service inspection with high accuracy. Laser ultrasonics is a proposed solution as a subset of non-contact measuring methods effective also for hard to reach areas and even recently proved to be effective using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) or air-coupled probes in reception. A reliability analysis of laser ultrasonics for this specific application is here performed. The research is mainly based on numerical study of the effect of high energy laser pulses on the surface of a steel axle and of the behavior of the ultrasonic waves in detecting possible defects. Probability of Detection (POD) concept is used as an estimated reliability of the inspection method. In particular Model Assisted Probability of Detection (MAPOD), a modified form of POD where models are used to infer results for making a decisive statistical approach of POD curve, is here adopted. This paper implements this approach by taking the inputs from limited experiments conducted on a high speed train axle using laser ultrasonics (source pulsed Nd:Yag, reception by high-frequency LDV) to calibrate a multiphysics FE model and by using the calibrated model to generate data samples statistically representative of damaged train axles. The simulated flaws are in accordance with the real defects present on the axle. A set of flaws of different depth has been modeled in order to assess the laser ultrasonics POD for this specific application.

  19. BEER analysis of Kepler and CoRoT light curves. III. Spectroscopic confirmation of seventy new beaming binaries discovered in CoRoT light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The BEER algorithm searches stellar light curves for the BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection photometric modulations that are caused by a short-period companion. These three effects are typically of very low amplitude and can mainly be detected in light curves from space-based photometers. Unlike eclipsing binaries, these effects are not limited to edge-on inclinations. Aims: Applying the algorithm to wide-field photometric surveys such as CoRoT and Kepler offers an opportunity to better understand the statistical properties of short-period binaries. It also widens the window for detecting intrinsically rare systems, such as short-period brown-dwarf and massive-planetary companions to main-sequence stars. Methods: Applying the search to the first five long-run center CoRoT fields, we identified 481 non-eclipsing candidates with periodic flux amplitudes of 0.5-87 mmag. Optimizing the Anglo-Australian-Telescope pointing coordinates and the AAOmega fiber-allocations with dedicated softwares, we acquired six spectra for 231 candidates and seven spectra for another 50 candidates in a seven-night campaign. Analysis of the red-arm AAOmega spectra, which covered the range of 8342-8842 Å, yielded a radial-velocity precision of ~1 km s-1. Spectra containing lines of more than one star were analyzed with the two-dimensional correlation algorithm TODCOR. Results: The measured radial velocities confirmed the binarity of seventy of the BEER candidates - 45 single-line binaries, 18 double-line binaries, and 7 diluted binaries. We show that red giants introduce a major source of false candidates and demonstrate a way to improve BEER's performance in extracting higher fidelity samples from future searches of CoRoT light curves. The periods of the confirmed binaries span a range of 0.3-10 days and show a rise in the number of binaries per ΔlogP toward longer periods. The estimated mass ratios of the double-line binaries and the mass ratios assigned to the single

  20. Deformation Analysis of Curved Folds in the Southern Upper Magdalena Valley. Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, G.; Bayona, G. A.; Silva, C.; Rapalini, A.; Trindade, R.

    2008-12-01

    In the Upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia there are folds with changes in the strike of their axes (e.g La Hocha Anticline), the origin of which was studied by integrating field, paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy data. Two structural domains were defined: the northern is a symmetrical fold and has a strike N10W, whereas the southern is an asymmetrical fold and has a N30E strike. The principal fault is the San Jacinto Fault, which is a reverse fault with slikensides indicating also a horizontal component of displacement. In the hanging wall of the San Jacinto Fault Mesozoic rocks crops out forming an anticline, whereas in the footwall Cenozoic rocks with vertical and locally overturned beds are exposed. Four magnetic components were isolated, being the low coercivity/temperature component similar to the present field. A characteristic component isolated in Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks is a pre-fold but post-Oligocene component (n=5, D=0.8, I=2.4, K=62.33, a95=9.8). Two characteristic components were isolated in Jurassic rocks. The directions of the first are similar between domains (north domain: n=10 D=20.7 I=35.6 K=13 a95=12.5; south domain: n=6 D=12 I=28.9 K=16 a95=9.5), suggesting no relationship between strike changes and declination variation. The other component has negative inclination (n=2 D=13.8 I=-27.1 K=61.42 a95=11.8) indicating a mean paleolatitude of 14.4S in Jurassic time. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the curved fold is controlled by the geometry of the paleobasin and support the northward translation of accreted terranes along the Western margin of South America during the Jurassic. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analysis in Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks document three magnetic fabrics: (1) Undeformed fabrics are located in the back limb of La Hocha Anticline; (2) tectonics fabrics are associated to reverse fault planes in the north and south domains and indicated a relationship between the anisotropy ellipsoid with the local stress

  1. Influence of plasma conditions on the intensity ratio calibration curve during laser induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Kyu; In, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Seok-Hee; Jeong, Sungho

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative prediction of elemental concentration or concentration ratio of solid samples can be achieved by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy if a calibration curve that is little influenced by plasma conditions could be obtained. This work demonstrates that such a calibration curve is available for copper indium gallium diselenide (CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se₂) thin film solar cells for properly selected spectral lines. The possible changes of calibration curves based on the selected spectral lines are discussed in consideration of self-absorption in optically thick plasma and the dependency of spectral line properties on plasma temperature.

  2. Analysis of the U-B-V photoelectric light curves of the eclipsing binary GT CEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, C.; Bonifazi, A.; Milano, L.

    1984-03-01

    The authors analyse the UBV light curves of GT Cep with different methods of solution. Some difficulties arise from the peculiar morphology of the light curves. The authors discuss the set of results and finally adopt the solution they derived by the Wilson and Devinney direct method. The system results to be a semi-detached one and this fact partly justifies the observed peculiarities. Given their results, the authors question the physical reliability of different models representing the light curves of eclipsing binaries.

  3. Re-Analysis of the Solar Phase Curves of the Icy Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domingue, Deborah; Verbiscer, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Re-analysis of the solar phase curves of the icy Galilean satellites demonstrates that the quantitative results are dependent on the single particle scattering function incorporated into the photometric model; however, the qualitative properties are independent. The results presented here show that the general physical characteristics predicted by a Hapke model (B. Hapke, 1986, Icarus 67, 264-280) incorporating a two parameter double Henyey-Greenstein scattering function are similar to the predictions given by the same model incorporating a three parameter double Henyey-Greenstein scattering function as long as the data set being modeled has adequate coverage in phase angle. Conflicting results occur when the large phase angle coverage is inadequate. Analysis of the role of isotropic versus anisotropic multiple scattering shows that for surfaces as bright as Europa the two models predict very similar results over phase angles covered by the data. Differences arise only at those phase angles for which there are no data. The single particle scattering behavior between the leading and trailing hemispheres of Europa and Ganymede is commensurate with magnetospheric alterations of their surfaces. Ion bombardment will produce more forward scattering single scattering functions due to annealing of potential scattering centers within regolith particles (N. J. Sack et al., 1992, Icarus 100, 534-540). Both leading and trailing hemispheres of Europa are consistent with a high porosity model and commensurate with a frost surface. There are no strong differences in predicted porosity between the two hemispheres of Callisto, both are consistent with model porosities midway between that deduced for Europa and the Moon. Surface roughness model estimates predict that surface roughness increases with satellite distance from Jupiter, with lunar surface roughness values falling midway between those measured for Ganymede and Callisto. There is no obvious variation in predicted surface

  4. Development of synthetic velocity - depth damage curves using a Weighted Monte Carlo method and Logistic Regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozinaki, Anthi Eirini K.; Karatzas, George P.; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.

    2014-05-01

    Damage curves are the most significant component of the flood loss estimation models. Their development is quite complex. Two types of damage curves exist, historical and synthetic curves. Historical curves are developed from historical loss data from actual flood events. However, due to the scarcity of historical data, synthetic damage curves can be alternatively developed. Synthetic curves rely on the analysis of expected damage under certain hypothetical flooding conditions. A synthetic approach was developed and presented in this work for the development of damage curves, which are subsequently used as the basic input to a flood loss estimation model. A questionnaire-based survey took place among practicing and research agronomists, in order to generate rural loss data based on the responders' loss estimates, for several flood condition scenarios. In addition, a similar questionnaire-based survey took place among building experts, i.e. civil engineers and architects, in order to generate loss data for the urban sector. By answering the questionnaire, the experts were in essence expressing their opinion on how damage to various crop types or building types is related to a range of values of flood inundation parameters, such as floodwater depth and velocity. However, the loss data compiled from the completed questionnaires were not sufficient for the construction of workable damage curves; to overcome this problem, a Weighted Monte Carlo method was implemented, in order to generate extra synthetic datasets with statistical properties identical to those of the questionnaire-based data. The data generated by the Weighted Monte Carlo method were processed via Logistic Regression techniques in order to develop accurate logistic damage curves for the rural and the urban sectors. A Python-based code was developed, which combines the Weighted Monte Carlo method and the Logistic Regression analysis into a single code (WMCLR Python code). Each WMCLR code execution

  5. Video meteor light curve analysis of Orionids and Geminids and developing a method for obtaining the absolute light curves of shower meteors from the single station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grašić, L.; Milanović, N.; Pavlović, D.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a method for obtaining the absolute light curves of the shower meteors from single station video data. We found that even though the height of a meteor atmospheric trajectory obtained by using this method may have a large error, the absolute light curve shape is preserved. We used our method to calculate the F parameters of the Orionid and Geminid light curves. The light curves were obtained from the single station video data by the instrument with a limiting sensitivity of 3.5m. We found that for our sample of the light curves the zenith distance of meteor radiant does not affect the F parameter for either of the two showers. The value of F parameter of the Orionids obtained in this paper matches the values obtained by other authors, whilst for the Geminids it is significantly different.

  6. Development of a viability standard curve for microencapsulated probiotic bacteria using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mark R

    2015-07-01

    Microencapsulation is proposed to protect probiotic strains from food processing procedures and to maintain probiotic viability. Little research has described the in situ viability of microencapsulated probiotics. This study successfully developed a real-time viability standard curve for microencapsulated bacteria using confocal microscopy, fluorescent dyes and image analysis software.

  7. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  8. Self-Esteem Trajectories among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: A Growth Curve Analysis of the Patterns and Predictors of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Melissa L.; Way, Niobe

    2005-01-01

    The current study presents a growth curve analysis of self-esteem among Black, Latino, and Asian American high school students. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to examine patterns and predictors of change in self-esteem over time. Results revealed an average increase in self-esteem with age. Although boys and girls experienced…

  9. Prediction Accuracy of the Washington and Illinois Risk Assessment Instruments: An Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha

    1995-01-01

    Compares the predictive performances of the Illinois CANTS 17B and the Washington State Risk Matrix on a sample of New Jersey child protective services cases using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Both instruments predict case recidivism, closings, and substantiation with probabilities greater than chance.…

  10. Multilevel Models for the Analysis of Angle-Specific Torque Curves with Application to Master Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Humberto M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to outline a multilevel modeling approach to fit individual angle-specific torque curves describing concentric knee extension and flexion isokinetic muscular actions in Master athletes. The potential of the analytical approach to examine between individual differences across the angle-specific torque curves was illustrated including between-individuals variation due to gender differences at a higher level. Torques in concentric muscular actions of knee extension and knee extension at 60º·s−1 were considered within a range of motion between 5º and 85º (only torques “truly” isokinetic). Multilevel time series models with autoregressive covariance structures with standard multilevel models were superior fits compared with standard multilevel models for repeated measures to fit angle-specific torque curves. Third and fourth order polynomial models were the best fits to describe angle-specific torque curves of isokinetic knee flexion and extension concentric actions, respectively. The fixed exponents allow interpretations for initial acceleration, the angle at peak torque and the decrement of torque after peak torque. Also, the multilevel models were flexible to illustrate the influence of gender differences on the shape of torque throughout the range of motion and in the shape of the curves. The presented multilevel regression models may afford a general framework to examine angle-specific moment curves by isokinetic dynamometry, and add to the understanding mechanisms of strength development, particularly the force-length relationship, both related to performance and injury prevention. PMID:26839603

  11. Statistical model to perform error analysis of curve fits of wind tunnel test data using the techniques of analysis of variance and regression analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    The considered research had the objective to design a statistical model that could perform an error analysis of curve fits of wind tunnel test data using analysis of variance and regression analysis techniques. Four related subproblems were defined, and by solving each of these a solution to the general research problem was obtained. The capabilities of the evolved true statistical model are considered. The least squares fit is used to determine the nature of the force, moment, and pressure data. The order of the curve fit is increased in order to delete the quadratic effect in the residuals. The analysis of variance is used to determine the magnitude and effect of the error factor associated with the experimental data.

  12. Second-Law Analysis of the Peristaltic Flow of an Incompressible Viscous Fluid in a Curved Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narla, V. K.; Prasad, K. M.; Ramana Murthy, J. V.

    2016-03-01

    The present investigation extends a consideration of peristaltic flow in curved channels through the second-law analysis. The lubrication approximation is employed to linearize the momentum, energy, and entropy generation rate equations. The stream function and temperature distribution are used to calculate the entropy generation number and the Bejan number. It is shown that the entropy generation rate in a peristaltic pump increases with the occlusion parameter. The entropy generation increases at the upper wall and decreases near the lower wall of the peristaltic channel as the curvature parameter increases. A curved surface acts as a strong source of entropy generation.

  13. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Y.; Lu, X. L.; Zhao, Q. W.; Dong, D. Q.; Lao, B. Q.; Lu, Y.; Wei, Y. H.; Wu, X. C.; An, T.

    2016-03-01

    SS 433 is the only X-ray binary to date that was detected to have a pair of well-collimated jets, and its orbital period, super orbital period, and nutation period were all detected at the same time. The study on the periodic X-ray variabilities is helpful for understanding its dynamic process of the central engine and the correlation with other bands. In the present paper, two time series analysis techniques, Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periodicities from the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope)(15--50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/All-Sky Monitor)(1.5--3, 3--5 and 5--12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed. For the 15--50 keV energy band, five significant periodic signals are detected, which are P_1(˜6.29 d), P_2 (˜6.54 d), P_3 (˜13.08 d), P_4 (˜81.50 d), and P_5 (˜162.30 d). For the 3--5 and 5--12 keV energy bands, periodic signals P_3 (˜13 d) and P_5 (˜162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5--3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P_5 has the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3--5, 5--12, and 15--50 keV, and it is consistent with that obtained by previous study in optical band. Further, due to the existence of relativistic radio jets, the X-ray and optical band variability of P_5 (˜162 d) is probably related to the precession of the relativistic jets. High coherence between X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical emissions are of the same physical origin. P_3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (˜13.07 d) first obtained by previous study, and P_2 and P_4 are the high frequency harmonic components of P_3 and P_5, respectively. P_1 is detected from the power spectrum of 15--50 keV energy band only, and it is consistent with the systematic nutation period. As the power of energy band decreases (from hard X-ray to

  14. Evaluation of qPCR curve analysis methods for reliable biomarker discovery: bias, resolution, precision, and implications.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, Jan M; Pfaffl, Michael W; Zhao, Sheng; Spiess, Andrej N; Boggy, Gregory; Blom, Jochen; Rutledge, Robert G; Sisti, Davide; Lievens, Antoon; De Preter, Katleen; Derveaux, Stefaan; Hellemans, Jan; Vandesompele, Jo

    2013-01-01

    RNA transcripts such as mRNA or microRNA are frequently used as biomarkers to determine disease state or response to therapy. Reverse transcription (RT) in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the method of choice to quantify small amounts of such RNA molecules. In parallel with the democratization of RT-qPCR and its increasing use in biomedical research or biomarker discovery, we witnessed a growth in the number of gene expression data analysis methods. Most of these methods are based on the principle that the position of the amplification curve with respect to the cycle-axis is a measure for the initial target quantity: the later the curve, the lower the target quantity. However, most methods differ in the mathematical algorithms used to determine this position, as well as in the way the efficiency of the PCR reaction (the fold increase of product per cycle) is determined and applied in the calculations. Moreover, there is dispute about whether the PCR efficiency is constant or continuously decreasing. Together this has lead to the development of different methods to analyze amplification curves. In published comparisons of these methods, available algorithms were typically applied in a restricted or outdated way, which does not do them justice. Therefore, we aimed at development of a framework for robust and unbiased assessment of curve analysis performance whereby various publicly available curve analysis methods were thoroughly compared using a previously published large clinical data set (Vermeulen et al., 2009) [11]. The original developers of these methods applied their algorithms and are co-author on this study. We assessed the curve analysis methods' impact on transcriptional biomarker identification in terms of expression level, statistical significance, and patient-classification accuracy. The concentration series per gene, together with data sets from unpublished technical performance experiments, were analyzed in order to assess the

  15. Evaluation of qPCR curve analysis methods for reliable biomarker discovery: bias, resolution, precision, and implications.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, Jan M; Pfaffl, Michael W; Zhao, Sheng; Spiess, Andrej N; Boggy, Gregory; Blom, Jochen; Rutledge, Robert G; Sisti, Davide; Lievens, Antoon; De Preter, Katleen; Derveaux, Stefaan; Hellemans, Jan; Vandesompele, Jo

    2013-01-01

    RNA transcripts such as mRNA or microRNA are frequently used as biomarkers to determine disease state or response to therapy. Reverse transcription (RT) in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the method of choice to quantify small amounts of such RNA molecules. In parallel with the democratization of RT-qPCR and its increasing use in biomedical research or biomarker discovery, we witnessed a growth in the number of gene expression data analysis methods. Most of these methods are based on the principle that the position of the amplification curve with respect to the cycle-axis is a measure for the initial target quantity: the later the curve, the lower the target quantity. However, most methods differ in the mathematical algorithms used to determine this position, as well as in the way the efficiency of the PCR reaction (the fold increase of product per cycle) is determined and applied in the calculations. Moreover, there is dispute about whether the PCR efficiency is constant or continuously decreasing. Together this has lead to the development of different methods to analyze amplification curves. In published comparisons of these methods, available algorithms were typically applied in a restricted or outdated way, which does not do them justice. Therefore, we aimed at development of a framework for robust and unbiased assessment of curve analysis performance whereby various publicly available curve analysis methods were thoroughly compared using a previously published large clinical data set (Vermeulen et al., 2009) [11]. The original developers of these methods applied their algorithms and are co-author on this study. We assessed the curve analysis methods' impact on transcriptional biomarker identification in terms of expression level, statistical significance, and patient-classification accuracy. The concentration series per gene, together with data sets from unpublished technical performance experiments, were analyzed in order to assess the

  16. Management of the Spring Snowmelt Recession in Regulated Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnell, S. M.; Lind, A.; Epke, G.; Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    In unregulated rivers in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, the spring snowmelt recession links high winter flows to low summer baseflow and is a consistent and predictable portion of the annual hydrograph. Consequently, it is an important resource to both riverine ecosystems and California's water supply. In regulated river systems where the spring snowmelt recession is often captured behind dams or diverted for hydropower, restoration of a more natural spring flow regime can provide distinct ecological benefits, such as breeding and migration cues for native species, increased habitat availability, and greater hydraulic habitat diversity. However, knowledge of how to create and manage an ecologically beneficial spring snowmelt recession in a regulated river system has been lacking. This study defined a methodology by which spring flow regimes can be modeled in regulated systems from the quantifiable characteristics of spring snowmelt recessions in unregulated rivers. Using fundamental flow components such as magnitude, timing, and rate of change, the spring snowmelt recession in eight unregulated rivers across the Sierra Nevada range was quantified to gain a better understanding of the predictability and variability across watersheds. The analysis found that unregulated Sierran systems behaved similarly with respect to seasonal patterns and flow recession shape (i.e., recession limb curvature), and thus flows could be modeled in a manner that mimics those predictable characteristics. Using this methodology that quantifies spring recession flows in terms of a daily percent decrease in flow, a series of flow recession scenarios were then created for application on a regulated Sierran river. Four scenarios, ranging from a slow natural recession to a short fast recession typically observed in regulated rivers following cessation of high flow spills, were evaluated within a 2D hydrodynamic model. The effects of the flows on suitable habitat for Foothill yellow

  17. High-throughput quantitative analysis with cell growth kinetic curves for low copy number mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, James Z; Gabos, Stephan; Huang, Biao; Pan, Tianhong; Huang, Min; Chen, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The mutation rate in cells induced by environmental genotoxic hazards is very low and difficult to detect using traditional cell counting assays. The established genetic toxicity tests currently recognized by regulatory authorities, such as conventional Ames and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) assays, are not well suited for higher-throughput screening as they require large amounts of test compounds and are very time consuming. In this study, we developed a novel cell-based assay for quantitative analysis of low numbers of cell copies with HPRT mutation induced by an environmental mutagen. The HPRT gene mutant cells induced by the mutagen were selected by 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and the cell's kinetic growth curve monitored by a real-time cell electronic sensor (RT-CES) system. When a threshold is set at a certain cell index (CI) level, samples with different initial mutant cell copies take different amounts of time in order for their growth (or CI accumulation) to cross this threshold. The more cells that are initially seeded in the test well, the faster the cell accumulation and therefore the shorter the time required to cross this threshold. Therefore, the culture time period required to cross the threshold of each sample corresponds to the original number of cells in the sample. A mutant cell growth time threshold (MT) value of each sample can be calculated to predict the number of original mutant cells. For mutagenesis determination, the RT-CES assay displayed an equal sensitivity (p > 0.05) and coefficients of variation values with good correlation to conventional HPRT mutagenic assays. Most importantly, the RT-CES mutation assay has a higher throughput than conventional cellular assays.

  18. Magnetic unmixing of first-order reversal curve diagrams using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascu, Ioan; Harrison, Richard J.; Li, Yuting; Muraszko, Joy R.; Channell, James E. T.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Hodell, David A.

    2015-09-01

    We describe a quantitative magnetic unmixing method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. For PCA, we resample FORC distributions on grids that capture diagnostic signatures of single-domain (SD), pseudosingle-domain (PSD), and multidomain (MD) magnetite, as well as of minerals such as hematite. Individual FORC diagrams are recast as linear combinations of end-member (EM) FORC diagrams, located at user-defined positions in PCA space. The EM selection is guided by constraints derived from physical modeling and imposed by data scatter. We investigate temporal variations of two EMs in bulk North Atlantic sediment cores collected from the Rockall Trough and the Iberian Continental Margin. Sediments from each site contain a mixture of magnetosomes and granulometrically distinct detrital magnetite. We also quantify the spatial variation of three EM components (a coarse silt-sized MD component, a fine silt-sized PSD component, and a mixed clay-sized component containing both SD magnetite and hematite) in surficial sediments along the flow path of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). These samples were separated into granulometric fractions, which helped constrain EM definition. PCA-based unmixing reveals systematic variations in EM relative abundance as a function of distance along NADW flow. Finally, we apply PCA to the combined data set of Rockall Trough and NADW sediments, which can be recast as a four-EM mixture, providing enhanced discrimination between components. Our method forms the foundation of a general solution to the problem of unmixing multicomponent magnetic mixtures, a fundamental task of rock magnetic studies.

  19. More basic approach to the analysis of multiple specimen R-curves for determination of J/sub c/

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.W.; Williams, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    Multiple specimen J-R curves were developed for groups of 1T compact specimens with different a/W values and depth of side grooving. The purpose of this investigation was to determine J/sub c/ (J at onset of crack extension) for each group. Judicious selection of points on the load versus load-line deflection record at which to unload and heat tint specimens permitted direct observation of approximate onset of crack extension. It was found that the present recommended procedure for determining J/sub c/ from multiple specimen R-curves, which is being considered for standardization, consistently yielded nonconservative J/sub c/ values. A more basic approach to analyzing multiple specimen R-curves is presented, applied, and discussed. This analysis determined J/sub c/ values that closely corresponded to actual observed onset of crack extension.

  20. Combined statistical analysis of vasodilation and flow curves in brachial ultrasonography: technique and its connection to cardiovascular risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisrobert, Loic; Laclaustra, Martin; Bossa, Matias; Frangi, Andres G.; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2005-04-01

    Clinical studies report that impaired endothelial function is associated with Cardio-Vascular Diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. One commonly used mean for assessing endothelial function is Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD). Classically, FMD is quantified using local indexes e.g. maximum peak dilation. Although such parameters have been successfully linked to CVD risk factors and other clinical variables, this description does not consider all the information contained in the complete vasodilation curve. Moreover, the relation between flow impulse and the vessel vasodilation response to this stimulus, although not clearly known, seems to be important and is not taken into account in the majority of studies. In this paper we propose a novel global parameterization for the vasodilation and the flow curves of a FMD test. This parameterization uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to describe independently and jointly the variability of flow and FMD curves. These curves are obtained using computerized techniques (based on edge detection and image registration, respectively) to analyze the ultrasound image sequences. The global description obtained through PCA yields a detailed characterization of the morphology of such curves allowing the extraction of intuitive quantitative information of the vasodilation process and its interplay with flow changes. This parameterization is consistent with traditional measurements and, in a database of 177 subjects, seems to correlate more strongly (and with more clinical parameters) than classical measures to CVD risk factors and clinical parameters such as LDL- and HDL-Cholesterol.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Biologically Relevant Response Curves in Gene Expression Experiments: Heteromorphy, Heterochrony, and Heterometry.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart G

    2014-01-01

    To gain biological insights, investigators sometimes compare sequences of gene expression measurements under two scenarios (such as two drugs or species). For this situation, we developed an algorithm to fit, identify, and compare biologically relevant response curves in terms of heteromorphy (different curves), heterochrony (different transition times), and heterometry (different magnitudes). The curves are flat, linear, sigmoid, hockey-stick (sigmoid missing a steady state), transient (sigmoid missing two steady states), impulse (with peak or trough), step (with intermediate-level plateau), impulse+ (impulse with an extra parameter), step+ (step with an extra parameter), further characterized by upward or downward trend. To reduce overfitting, we fit the curves to every other response, evaluated the fit in the remaining responses, and identified the most parsimonious curves that yielded a good fit. We measured goodness of fit using a statistic comparable over different genes, namely the square root of the mean squared prediction error as a percentage of the range of responses, which we call the relative prediction error (RPE). We illustrated the algorithm using data on gene expression at 14 times in the embryonic development in two species of frogs. Software written in Mathematica is freely available. PMID:27605029

  2. An analysis of calibration curve models for solid-state heat-flow calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Hypes, P. A.; Bracken, D. S.; McCabe, G.

    2001-01-01

    Various calibration curve models for solid-state calorimeters are compared to determine which model best fits the calibration data. The calibration data are discussed. The criteria used to select the best model are explained. A conclusion regarding the best model for the calibration curve is presented. These results can also be used to evaluate the random and systematic error of a calorimetric measurement. A linear/quadratic model has been used for decades to fit the calibration curves for wheatstone bridge calorimeters. Excellent results have been obtained using this calibration curve model. The Multical software package uses this model for the calibration curve. The choice of this model is supported by 40 years [1] of calorimeter data. There is good empirical support for the linear/quadratic model. Calorimeter response is strongly linear. Calorimeter sensitivity is slightly lower at higher powers; the negative coefficient of the x{sup 2} term accounts for this. The solid-state calorimeter is operated using the Multical [2] software package. An investigation was undertaken to determine if the linear/quadratic model is the best model for the new sensor technology used in the solid-state calorimeter.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Biologically Relevant Response Curves in Gene Expression Experiments: Heteromorphy, Heterochrony, and Heterometry

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    To gain biological insights, investigators sometimes compare sequences of gene expression measurements under two scenarios (such as two drugs or species). For this situation, we developed an algorithm to fit, identify, and compare biologically relevant response curves in terms of heteromorphy (different curves), heterochrony (different transition times), and heterometry (different magnitudes). The curves are flat, linear, sigmoid, hockey-stick (sigmoid missing a steady state), transient (sigmoid missing two steady states), impulse (with peak or trough), step (with intermediate-level plateau), impulse+ (impulse with an extra parameter), step+ (step with an extra parameter), further characterized by upward or downward trend. To reduce overfitting, we fit the curves to every other response, evaluated the fit in the remaining responses, and identified the most parsimonious curves that yielded a good fit. We measured goodness of fit using a statistic comparable over different genes, namely the square root of the mean squared prediction error as a percentage of the range of responses, which we call the relative prediction error (RPE). We illustrated the algorithm using data on gene expression at 14 times in the embryonic development in two species of frogs. Software written in Mathematica is freely available.

  4. Applications of species accumulation curves in large-scale biological data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Chao; Daley, Timothy; Smith, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    The species accumulation curve, or collector’s curve, of a population gives the expected number of observed species or distinct classes as a function of sampling effort. Species accumulation curves allow researchers to assess and compare diversity across populations or to evaluate the benefits of additional sampling. Traditional applications have focused on ecological populations but emerging large-scale applications, for example in DNA sequencing, are orders of magnitude larger and present new challenges. We developed a method to estimate accumulation curves for predicting the complexity of DNA sequencing libraries. This method uses rational function approximations to a classical non-parametric empirical Bayes estimator due to Good and Toulmin [Biometrika, 1956, 43, 45–63]. Here we demonstrate how the same approach can be highly effective in other large-scale applications involving biological data sets. These include estimating microbial species richness, immune repertoire size, and k-mer diversity for genome assembly applications. We show how the method can be modified to address populations containing an effectively infinite number of species where saturation cannot practically be attained. We also introduce a flexible suite of tools implemented as an R package that make these methods broadly accessible. PMID:27252899

  5. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  6. Development of Oral Reading Fluency in Children with Speech or Language Impairments: A Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Catts, Hugh W.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study used piece-wise growth curve analyses to examine growth patterns in oral reading fluency for 1,991 students with speech impairments (SI) or language impairments (LI) from first through third grade. The main finding of this study was that a diagnosis of SI or LI can have a detrimental and persistent effect on early reading…

  7. Three-dimensional FE analysis of a nailed soil wall curved in plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I. M.; Su, N.

    1997-09-01

    A nailed soil wall curved in plan was modelled in three-dimensions by the finite element method for construction, service and ultimate loading conditions. The behaviour of the nailed soil wall, the soil-nail interaction, the role of the reinforcement, and the overall and internal failure mechanisms were investigated.

  8. The Second Order Approximation to Sample Influence Curve in Canonical Correlation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Wing K.; Gu, Hong

    1998-01-01

    A second order approximation to the sample influence curve (SIC) has been derived in the literature. This paper presents a more accurate second order approximation, which is exact for the SIC of the squared multiple correction coefficient. An example is presented. (SLD)

  9. Analysis of a Kepler Light Curve of the Novalike Cataclysmic Variable KIC 8751494

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Maehara, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    We analyzed a Kepler light curve of KIC 8751494, a recently recognized novalike cataclysmic variable in the Kepler field. We detected a stable periodicity of 0.114379(1) d, which we identified as being the binary's orbital period. The stronger photometric period at around 0.12245 d, which had been detected from a ground-based observation, was found to be variable, and we identified this period as the positive-superhump period. This superhump period showed short-term (10-20 d) strong variations in period most unexpectedly when the object entered a slightly faint state. The fractional superhump excess varied by as much large as ˜ 30%. The variation of the period very well traced the variation of the brightness of the system. The time-scale of this variation of superhump periods was too slow to be interpreted as a variation caused by a change of the disk radius due to thermal disk instability. We interpreted the cause of the period variation as a varying pressure effect on the period of positive superhumps. This finding suggests that the pressure effect, in at least novalike systems, plays a very important (up to ˜ 30% in the precession rate) role in producing the period of positive superhumps. We also described a possible detection of negative superhumps with a varying period of 0.1071-0.1081 d in the Q14 run of the Kepler data, and found that the variation of frequency of negative superhumps followed that of positive superhumps. The relation between the fractional superhump excesses of negative and positive superhumps can be understood if the angular frequency of positive superhumps is decreased by a pressure effect. We also found that the phase of the variation in the velocity of the emission lines reported in the earlier study is compatible with the SW Sex-type classification. Further, we introduced a new two-dimentional period analysis using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso), and showed superior advantages of this method.

  10. A breakthrough curve analysis of unstable density-driven flow and transport in homogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M.; Simmons, C. T.; Hutson, J. L.

    2004-03-01

    In certain hydrogeological situations, density variations occur because of changes in solute concentration, temperature, and pressure of the fluid. These include seawater intrusion, high-level radioactive waste disposal, groundwater contamination, and geothermal energy production. Under certain conditions, when the density of the invading fluid is greater than that of the ambient one, gravitational instabilities or fingers may lead to transport over larger spatial scales and significantly shorter timescales than compared with diffusion alone. This study has two key objectives: (1) to explore how the nature of a breakthrough curve changes as the density of the invading fluid changes and there is a subsequent transition from stable to unstable behavior and (2) to examine the feasibility of using 1-D advection-dispersion fitting models to fit the experimental data as the density of the invading fluid increases. Thirty-six breakthrough curve experiments were carried out in fully saturated, homogeneous sand columns. Results show that an increase in the density of the source solutions leads to breakthrough curves with lower peak concentrations at breakthrough, earlier peak breakthrough pore volume and time, and an increase in positive skewness of the breakthrough curve. Visual experiments conducted in transparent columns confirm that a transition from stable to unstable behavior occurs as the density of the injectant increases and that backward convective reflux in the high-density cases leads to dilution of the trailing edge of the pulse as evidenced by positively skewed breakthrough curves. These mixed convective systems (controlled by both forced and free convection) are characterized by a mixed convective ratio. Parameter estimation using a 1-D advection-dispersion fitting model suggests that unstable plume migration can be fitted with an apparent pore flow velocity and dispersivity at low-density gradients. However, as the density of the injectant increases, it

  11. Analysis of hyperspherical adiabatic curves of helium: A classical dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonović, N. S.; Solov'ev, E. A.

    2013-05-01

    The hyperspherical adiabatic curves (adiabatic eigenenergies as functions of the hyperradius R) of helium for zero total angular momentum are analyzed by studying the underlying classical dynamics which in the adiabatic treatment reduces to constrained two-electron motion on a hypersphere. This dynamics supports five characteristic classical configurations which can be represented by five types of short periodic orbits: the frozen planet (FP), the inverted frozen planet (IFP), the asymmetric stretch (AS), the asynchronous (ASC), and the Langmuir periodic orbit (PO). These POs are considered as fundamental modes of the two-electron motion on a hypersphere which, after quantization, give five families of so-called adiabatic lines (adiabatic energies related to these POs as functions of R). It is found that multiplets, each of them consisting of adiabatic curves which converge to the same ionization threshold, are at large values of R delimited from the bottom and from the top by the adiabatic lines which are related to the IFP and stable AS POs and to the FP PO, respectively. At smaller values of R, where the AS PO becomes unstable, the curves move to the area between the ASC (bottom) and AS (top) lines by crossing the latter. Therefore, at different values of R the lower limiting line of the multiplet is related to the three types of PO (IFP, AS, and ASC), which are all stable in the negative-energy part of this line. As a consequence, the quantum states of helium in principle are not related individually to a single classical configuration on the hypersphere. In addition, it is demonstrated that “unstable parts” of adiabatic lines (the so-called diabatic curves) determine the positions and type of avoided and hidden crossings between hyperspherical adiabatic curves. Two clearly visible classes of avoided crossings are related to the AS and ASC POs. In addition, a number of avoided crossings of the adiabatic curves is observed at the positions where the

  12. Recession, Retrenchment, and Recovery: State Higher Education Funding & Student Financial Aid. Volume II: State Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Allison S.; Hines, Edward R.; Hodel, Ross A.; Kelly, Kathleen F.; Mushrush, Christopher E., Pruden, Sheila J.; Vogt, W. Paul

    2006-01-01

    This report is a companion to "Recession, Retrenchment and Recovery: Higher Education Funding and Student Financial Aid" (ED502180). It provides profiles of individual states and their performance on a variety of measures used in the economic and fiscal analysis of the Recession, Retrenchment and Recovery project. The profiles describe the results…

  13. The Effects of Four Decades of Recession on Higher Education Enrollments in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne A.; Ramdin, Gianna; Vásquez-Colina, María D.

    2013-01-01

    The United States experienced six economic recessions between 1970 and 2009. The impact of economic recession on higher education enrollment was examined using seasonally adjusted data from the U.S. Census and the U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, Unemployment Level-Civilian Labor Force. One-way analysis of variance, factorial…

  14. Noise transmission from a curved panel into a cylindrical enclosure: analysis of structural acoustic coupling.

    PubMed

    Henry, J K; Clark, R L

    2001-04-01

    Much of the research on sound transmission through the aircraft fuselage into the interior of aircraft has considered coupling of the entire cylinder to the acoustic modes of the enclosure. Yet, much of the work on structural acoustic control of sound radiation has focused on reducing sound radiation from individual panels into an acoustic space. Research by the authors seeks to bridge this gap by considering the transmission of sound from individual panels on the fuselage to the interior of the aircraft. As part of this research, an analytical model of a curved panel, with attached piezoelectric actuators, subjected to a static pressure load was previously developed. In the present work, the analytical model is extended to consider the coupling of a curved panel to the interior acoustics of a rigid-walled cylinder. Insight gained from an accurate analytical model of the dynamics of the noise transmission from the curved panels of the fuselage into the cylindrical enclosure of an aircraft is essential to the development of feedback control systems for the control of stochastic inputs, such as turbulent boundary layer excitation. The criteria for maximal structural acoustic coupling between the modes of the curved panel and the modes of the cylindrical enclosure are studied. For panels with aspect ratios typical of those found in aircraft, results indicate that predominately axial structural modes couple most efficiently to the acoustic modes of the enclosure. The effects of the position of the curved panel on the cylinder are also studied. Structural acoustic coupling is found to not be significantly affected by varying panel position. The impact of the findings of this study on structural acoustic control design is discussed. PMID:11325117

  15. A LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE: FREE-FREE EMISSION VERSUS PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko E-mail: mariko@educ.cc.keio.ac.jp

    2015-01-10

    We analyzed light curves of seven relatively slower novae, PW Vul, V705 Cas, GQ Mus, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, based on an optically thick wind theory of nova outbursts. For fast novae, free-free emission dominates the spectrum in optical bands rather than photospheric emission, and nova optical light curves follow the universal decline law. Faster novae blow stronger winds with larger mass-loss rates. Because the brightness of free-free emission depends directly on the wind mass-loss rate, faster novae show brighter optical maxima. In slower novae, however, we must take into account photospheric emission because of their lower wind mass-loss rates. We calculated three model light curves of free-free emission, photospheric emission, and their sum for various white dwarf (WD) masses with various chemical compositions of their envelopes and fitted reasonably with observational data of optical, near-IR (NIR), and UV bands. From light curve fittings of the seven novae, we estimated their absolute magnitudes, distances, and WD masses. In PW Vul and V705 Cas, free-free emission still dominates the spectrum in the optical and NIR bands. In the very slow novae, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, photospheric emission dominates the spectrum rather than free-free emission, which makes a deviation from the universal decline law. We have confirmed that the absolute brightnesses of our model light curves are consistent with the distance moduli of four classical novae with known distances (GK Per, V603 Aql, RR Pic, and DQ Her). We also discussed the reason why the very slow novae are about ∼1 mag brighter than the proposed maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation.

  16. Highlights and pitfalls of 20 years of application of computerised glow curve analysis to thermoluminescence research and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Y S; Moscovitch, M

    2013-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of computerised glow curve analysis are described in detail including a review of the current 'state-of-the-achieved' in applications to environmental and personal dosimetry, clinical dosimetry, quality control, characterisation of new materials, continuing characterisation of 'old' materials, heavy charged particle dosimetry, mixed field n-gamma dosimetry, X-ray dosimetry and other aspects of thermoluminescence dosimetry. Fearless emphasis is placed on 'pitfalls' as well as successes.

  17. Recession-based hydrological models for estimating low flows in ungauged catchments in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, H. G.; Holmes, M. G. R.; Young, A. R.; Kansakar, S. R.

    The Himalayan region of Nepal and northern India experiences hydrological extremes from monsoonal floods during July to September, when most of the annual precipitation falls, to periods of very low flows during the dry season (December to February). While the monsoon floods cause acute disasters such as loss of human life and property, mudslides and infrastructure damage, the lack of water during the dry season has a chronic impact on the lives of local people. The management of water resources in the region is hampered by relatively sparse hydrometerological networks and consequently, many resource assessments are required in catchments where no measurements exist. A hydrological model for estimating dry season flows in ungauged catchments, based on recession curve behaviour, has been developed to address this problem. Observed flows were fitted to a second order storage model to enable average annual recession behaviour to be examined. Regionalised models were developed, using a calibration set of 26 catchments, to predict three recession curve parameters: the storage constant; the initial recession flow and the start date of the recession. Relationships were identified between: the storage constant and catchment area; the initial recession flow and elevation (acting as a surrogate for rainfall); and the start date of the recession and geographic location. An independent set of 13 catchments was used to evaluate the robustness of the models. The regional models predicted the average volume of water in an annual recession period (1st of October to the 1st of February) with an average error of 8%, while mid-January flows were predicted to within ±50% for 79% of the catchments in the data set.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis for recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in 10 families by mutation and haplotype analysis in the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1).

    PubMed Central

    Christiano, A. M.; LaForgia, S.; Paller, A. S.; McGuire, J.; Shimizu, H.; Uitto, J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of heritable diseases that manifest as blistering and erosions of the skin and mucous membranes. In the dystrophic forms of EB (DEB), the diagnostic hallmark is abnormalities in the anchoring fibrils, attachment structures beneath the cutaneous basement membrane zone. The major component of anchoring fibrils is type VII collagen, and DEB has been linked to the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) at 3p21, with no evidence for locus heterogeneity. Due to life-threatening complications and significant long-term morbidity associated with the severe, mutilating form of recessive dystrophic EB (RDEB), there has been a demand for prenatal diagnosis from families with affected offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intragenic polymorphisms in COL7A1 and flanking microsatellite markers on chromosome 3p21, as well as detection of pathogenetic mutations in families, were used to perform PCR-based prenatal diagnosis from DNA obtained by chorionic villus sampling at 10-15 weeks or amniocentesis at 12-15 weeks gestation in 10 families at risk for recurrence of RDEB. RESULTS: In nine cases, the fetus was predicted to be normal or a clinically unaffected carrier of a mutation in one allele. These predictions have been validated in nine cases by the birth of a healthy child. In one case, an affected fetus was predicted, and the diagnosis was confirmed by fetal skin biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: DNA-based prenatal diagnosis of RDEB offers an early, expedient method of testing which will largely replace the previously available invasive fetal skin biopsy at 18-20 weeks gestation. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 PMID:8900535

  19. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of super high resolution video for histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, Kenneth J.; Rozek, L. S.; Weinstein, Ronald S.

    1987-10-01

    The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve is used to assess the ability of a diagnostic test to distinguish between two discreet states, such as tumor present or tumor absent in a histopathologic section. We have used ROC methodology to assess the ability of pathologists to diagnose frozen section biopsies of breast tissue as benign or malignant, using both a conventional light microscope and a high resolution camera/monitor system. 115 consecutive frozen section breast biopsies were reviewed using each of the above modalities. Results yielded identical ROC curves for the conventional light microscope and high resolution camera/monitor system. Furthermore, the percentage of cases in which pathologists rendered an "equivocal" diagnosis was the same with both modalities.

  20. Eigen analysis of tree-ring records: Part 1, a limited representativeness of regional curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bao; Sonechkin, Dmitry M.; Datsenko, Nina M.; Ivashchenko, Nadezda N.; Liu, Jingjing; Qin, Chun

    2011-12-01

    Based on a set of very long-living (2,000 years) Qilian junipers ( Sabina przewalskii Kom.) from the north-eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau (the region of Dulan), we carefully consider the regional curve standardization (RCS) technique. For this goal, we correlate deviations of individual tree-ring width records from their regional mean age-dependent curve (RC). It turns out that these correlations keep their positivity for almost all shifts between ages compared (up to 500 years and even more) evidencing each Dulan juniper to be a unique "thermometer". Just the unification of these "thermometers" in the form RC creates a spurious positive trend in the Dulan chronology. We modify the RCS technique to closer attach RC to these "thermometers" in order to construct a new chronology in which the trend is absent.

  1. Fracture toughness master-curve analysis of the tempered martensitic steel Eurofer97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Pablo; Spätig, P.; Bonadé, R.; Odette, G. R.; Gragg, D.

    2009-04-01

    We report fracture toughness data for the reduced activation tempered martensitic steel Eurofer97 in the lower to middle transition region. The fracture toughness was measured from tests carried out on 0.35 T and 0.87 T pre-cracked compact tension specimens. The data were first analyzed using the ASTM E1921 standard. The toughness-temperature behavior and scatter were shown to deviate from the ASTM E1921 standard predictions near the lower shelf. Using the method of maximum likelihood, the athermal component of the master-curve was calculated to better fit the data from the lower to the middle transition region. We showed that these master-curve adjustments are necessary to make the To values obtained near the lower shelf with 0.35 TC( T) specimens consistent with those obtained in the middle transition region with 0.87 TC( T) specimens.

  2. Fitting sediment rating curves using regression analysis: a case study of Russian Arctic rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananaev, N. I.

    2015-03-01

    Published suspended sediment data for Arctic rivers is scarce. Suspended sediment rating curves for three medium to large rivers of the Russian Arctic were obtained using various curve-fitting techniques. Due to the biased sampling strategy, the raw datasets do not exhibit log-normal distribution, which restricts the applicability of a log-transformed linear fit. Non-linear (power) model coefficients were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms, all of which generally showed close agreement. A non-linear power model employing the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter evaluation algorithm was identified as an optimal statistical solution of the problem. Long-term annual suspended sediment loads estimated using the non-linear power model are, in general, consistent with previously published results.

  3. Effects of experimental design on calibration curve precision in routine analysis.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, M F; Neto, B de B; Saldanha, T C; Araújo, M C

    1998-01-01

    A computational program which compares the effciencies of different experimental designs with those of maximum precision (D-optimized designs) is described. The program produces confidence interval plots for a calibration curve and provides information about the number of standard solutions, concentration levels and suitable concentration ranges to achieve an optimum calibration. Some examples of the application of this novel computational program are given, using both simulated and real data.

  4. Analysis of spatial variability of extreme rainfall at radar subpixel scale using IDF curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleg, Nadav; Marra, Francesco; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Extreme rainfall is quantified in engineering practice using Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves (IDFs) that are traditionally derived from rain-gauges and, more recently, also from weather radars. These instruments measure rainfall at different spatial scales: rain-gauge samples rainfall at the point scale while weather radar averages precipitation over a relatively large area, generally around 1 km2. As such, a radar derived IDF curve is representative of the mean areal rainfall over a given radar pixel and neglects the within-pixel rainfall variability. In this study, we quantify subpixel variability of extreme rainfall by using a novel space-time rainfall generator (STREAP model) that downscales in space the rainfall within a given radar pixel. The study was conducted using a long radar data record (23 years) and a very dense rain-gauge network in the Eastern Mediterranean area. Radar-IDF curves, together with an ensemble of point-based IDF curves representing the radar subpixel extreme rainfall variability, were developed fitting GEV distributions to annual rainfall maxima. It was found that the mean areal extreme rainfall derived from the radar underestimate most of the extreme values computed for point locations within the radar pixel. The subpixel variability of extreme rainfall was found to increase with longer return periods and shorter durations. For the longer return periods, a considerable enhancement of extreme rainfall variability was found when stochastic (natural) climate variability was taken into account. Bounding the range of the subpixel extreme rainfall derived from radar-IDF can be of major importance for applications that require very local estimates of rainfall extremes.

  5. Statistically generated weighted curve fit of residual functions for modal analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookout, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    A statistically generated weighting function for a second-order polynomial curve fit of residual functions has been developed. The residual flexibility test method, from which a residual function is generated, is a procedure for modal testing large structures in an external constraint-free environment to measure the effects of higher order modes and interface stiffness. This test method is applicable to structures with distinct degree-of-freedom interfaces to other system components. A theoretical residual function in the displacement/force domain has the characteristics of a relatively flat line in the lower frequencies and a slight upward curvature in the higher frequency range. In the test residual function, the above-mentioned characteristics can be seen in the data, but due to the present limitations in the modal parameter evaluation (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of test data, the residual function has regions of ragged data. A second order polynomial curve fit is required to obtain the residual flexibility term. A weighting function of the data is generated by examining the variances between neighboring data points. From a weighted second-order polynomial curve fit, an accurate residual flexibility value can be obtained. The residual flexibility value and free-free modes from testing are used to improve a mathematical model of the structure. The residual flexibility modal test method is applied to a straight beam with a trunnion appendage and a space shuttle payload pallet simulator.

  6. CONFIRMATION OF HOT JUPITER KEPLER-41b VIA PHASE CURVE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Rowe, Jason F.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Morris, Robert L.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Barclay, Thomas; Ciardi, David R.; Klaus, Todd C.

    2013-04-20

    We present high precision photometry of Kepler-41, a giant planet in a 1.86 day orbit around a G6V star that was recently confirmed through radial velocity measurements. We have developed a new method to confirm giant planets solely from the photometric light curve, and we apply this method herein to Kepler-41 to establish the validity of this technique. We generate a full phase photometric model by including the primary and secondary transits, ellipsoidal variations, Doppler beaming, and reflected/emitted light from the planet. Third light contamination scenarios that can mimic a planetary transit signal are simulated by injecting a full range of dilution values into the model, and we re-fit each diluted light curve model to the light curve. The resulting constraints on the maximum occultation depth and stellar density combined with stellar evolution models rules out stellar blends and provides a measurement of the planet's mass, size, and temperature. We expect about two dozen Kepler giant planets can be confirmed via this method.

  7. Advances in the interpretation and analysis of lunar occultation light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richichi, A.; Glindemann, A.

    2012-02-01

    Context. The introduction of fast 2D detectors and the use of very large telescopes have significantly advanced the sensitivity and accuracy of the lunar occultation technique. Recent routine observations at the ESO Very Large Telescope have yielded hundreds of events with results, especially in the area of binary stars, which are often beyond the capabilities of any other techniques. Aims: With the increase in the quality and in the number of the events, subtle features in the light curve patterns have occasionally been detected which challenge the standard analytical definition of the lunar occultation phenomenon as diffraction from an infinite straight edge. We investigate the possible causes for the observed peculiarities. Methods: We have evaluated the available statistics of distortions in occultation light curves observed at the ESO VLT, and compared it to data from other facilities. We have developed an alternative approach to model and interpret lunar occultation light curves, based on 2D diffraction integrals describing the light curves in the presence of an arbitrary lunar limb profile. We distinguish between large limb irregularities requiring the Fresnel diffraction formalism, and small irregularities described by Fraunhofer diffraction. We have used this to generate light curves representative of several limb geometries, and attempted to relate them to some of the peculiar data observed. Results: We conclude that the majority of the observed peculiarities is due to limb irregularities, which can give origin both to anomalies in the amplitude of the diffraction fringes and to varying limb slopes. We investigate also other possible effects, such as detector response and atmospheric perturbations, finding them negligible. We have developed methods and procedures that for the first time allow us to analyze data affected by limb irregularities, with large ones bending the fringe pattern along the shape of the irregularity, and small ones creating fringe

  8. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHAPES OF INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION CURVES. VI. THE NEAR-IR EXTINCTION LAW

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Massa, D. E-mail: massa@derckmassa.net

    2009-07-10

    We combine new observations from the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera of Survey with existing data to investigate the wavelength dependence of near-IR (NIR) extinction. Previous studies suggest a power law form for NIR extinction, with a 'universal' value of the exponent, although some recent observations indicate that significant sight line-to-sight line variability may exist. We show that a power-law model for the NIR extinction provides an excellent fit to most extinction curves, but that the value of the power, {beta}, varies significantly from sight line to sight line. Therefore, it seems that a 'universal NIR extinction law' is not possible. Instead, we find that as {beta} decreases, R(V) {identical_to} A(V)/E(B - V) tends to increase, suggesting that NIR extinction curves which have been considered 'peculiar' may, in fact, be typical for different R(V) values. We show that the power-law parameters can depend on the wavelength interval used to derive them, with the {beta} increasing as longer wavelengths are included. This result implies that extrapolating power-law fits to determine R(V) is unreliable. To avoid this problem, we adopt a different functional form for NIR extinction. This new form mimics a power law whose exponent increases with wavelength, has only two free parameters, can fit all of our curves over a longer wavelength baseline and to higher precision, and produces R(V) values which are consistent with independent estimates and commonly used methods for estimating R(V). Furthermore, unlike the power-law model, it gives R(V)s that are independent of the wavelength interval used to derive them. It also suggests that the relation R(V) = -1.36 E(K-V)/(E(B-V)) - 0.79 can estimate R(V) to {+-}0.12. Finally, we use model extinction curves to show that our extinction curves are in accord with theoretical expectations, and demonstrate how large samples of observational quantities can provide useful constraints on the grain properties.

  9. Photometric analysis of the contact binary star V842 Hercules on the basis of seasonal light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Özkardeş, B.

    2009-04-01

    We present new BVR light curves and photometric analysis of the contact binary star V842 Her. The light curves were obtained at the ÇOMU Observatory in the consecutive years 2003, 2004, 2005, and also 2007. We studied the variation of the orbital period of the system. The O- C diagram shows a quasi-sinusoidal form superimposed on a parabola. The parabolic variation, which indicates the secular increase of the orbital period of the system, was interpreted in terms of the combined effect of mass transfer between the components of the system and mass loss by a stellar wind from the system. The sinusoidal form of the orbital period variation was considered as an apparent change and interpreted in term of the light-time effect due to an unseen component in the system. We have also studied the nature of asymmetries and the intrinsic variability in the light curves of the system. The differences between light levels of both maxima (i.e. O'Connell effect) and minima are changing with time. These peculiar asymmetries were explained by a dark spot on the surface of the large and more massive component star. The present BVR light curves and radial velocity curves obtained by [Rucinski, S.M., Lu, W., 1999. AJ 118, 2451] were analysed by means of the Wilson-Devinney method supplemented with a Monte Carlo type algorithm. Absolute parameters of the system were also derived. They are m1 = 0.38 m⊙, m2 = 1.45 m⊙, R1 = 0.81 R⊙, R2 = 1.47 R⊙, M = 5m.08 and M = 4m.06.

  10. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. PMID:25548775

  11. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. PMID:25548775

  12. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  13. Strategies for Supporting Recess in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Recess provides students with a needed break from their structured school day. It can improve children's physical, social, and emotional well-being, and enhance learning. Recess helps children meet the goal of 60 minutes of physical activity (PA) each day, as recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. National…

  14. The Crucial Role of Recess in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramstetter, Catherine L.; Murray, Robert; Garner, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recess is at the heart of a vigorous debate over the role of schools in promoting optimal child development and well-being. Reallocating time to accentuate academic concerns is a growing trend and has put recess at risk. Conversely, pressure to increase activity in school has come from efforts to combat childhood obesity. The purpose…

  15. Buckling Analysis of Anisotropic Curved Panels and Shells with Variable Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1998-01-01

    A buckling formulation for anisotropic curved panels with variable curvature is presented in this paper. The variable curvature panel is assumed to consists of two or more panels of constant but different curvatures. Bezier functions are used as Ritz functions Displacement (C(sup 0)), and slope (C(sup 1)) continuities between segments are imposed by manipulation of the Bezier control points. A first-order shear-deformation theory is used in the buckling formulation. Results obtained from the present formulation are compared with those from finite element simulations and are found to be in good agreement.

  16. The crucial role of recess in school.

    PubMed

    Murray, Robert; Ramstetter, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Recess is at the heart of a vigorous debate over the role of schools in promoting the optimal development of the whole child. A growing trend toward reallocating time in school to accentuate the more academic subjects has put this important facet of a child's school day at risk. Recess serves as a necessary break from the rigors of concentrated, academic challenges in the classroom. But equally important is the fact that safe and well-supervised recess offers cognitive, social, emotional, and physical benefits that may not be fully appreciated when a decision is made to diminish it. Recess is unique from, and a complement to, physical education--not a substitute for it. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that recess is a crucial and necessary component of a child's development and, as such, it should not be withheld for punitive or academic reasons.

  17. A recessive genetic model and runs of homozygosity in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Power, Robert A; Keller, Matthew C; Ripke, Stephan; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Wray, Naomi R; Sullivan, Patrick F; Breen, Gerome

    2014-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have yet to identify variants that surpass the threshold for genome-wide significance. A recent study reported that runs of homozygosity (ROH) are associated with schizophrenia, reflecting a novel genetic risk factor resulting from increased parental relatedness and recessive genetic effects. Here, we explore the possibility of such a recessive model in MDD. In a sample of 9,238 cases and 9,521 controls reported in a recent mega-analysis of 9 GWAS we perform an analysis of ROH and common variants under a recessive model. Since evidence for association with ROH could reflect a recessive mode of action at loci, we also conducted a genome-wide association analyses under a recessive model. The genome-wide association analysis using a recessive model found no significant associations. Our analysis of ROH suggested that there was significant heterogeneity of effect across studies in effect (P = 0.001), and it was associated with genotyping platform and country of origin. The results of the ROH analysis show that differences across studies can lead to conflicting systematic genome-wide differences between cases and controls that are unaccounted for by traditional covariates. They highlight the sensitivity of the ROH method to spurious associations, and the need to carefully control for potential confounds in such analyses. We found no strong evidence for a recessive model underlying MDD. PMID:24482242

  18. The Application of the Principal Curve Analysis Technique to Smooth Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Oren, W.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    The smoothness of a beam line refers to the quality of the relative positioning of a number of adjacent beam guiding components. The fact that smoothness is of highest priority when positioning magnets can be seen in the local tolerances imposed by the beam optics. In the past, smoothing has been done by separating horizontal and vertical misalignments and then applying some sort of analytical or manual ''feathering'' technique. The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) did not easily lend itself to this sort of smoothing because of the highly coupled nature of its pitched and rolled beam line. This paper will discuss an attempt to develop a repeatable method which is independent of the inconsistencies of human judgment and can simultaneously smooth in two or more dimensions. Four major goals were defined for the smoothing algorithm used on the SLC alignment. The first, was to simultaneously model errors for both horizontal and vertical directions. Secondly, a smooth curve whose shape was suggested by the data and not by a predetermined model was implied by the fact that unknown systematic errors were being eliminated. Thirdly, this curve must be a reproducibly fit, independent of the inconsistent nature of human judgment. Fourth, the result of the procedure was to minimize the number and size of magnet movements to reach the final alignment criteria.

  19. Study of the deterioration mechanism of LiCoO2/graphite cells in charge/discharge cycles using the discharge curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkura, Kohei; Horiba, Tatsuo

    2014-10-01

    The differential discharge curve analysis that separates the discharge curve of battery cells into those of the positive and negative electrodes is useful for investigating deterioration mechanisms. We applied it to LiCoO2/graphite cells and investigated the capacity fading mechanisms during charge/discharge cycles. In the initial state, the discharge curves of the cells were reconstructed very well by the discharge curves of the positive and negative electrodes measured in advance. The discharge curve analysis revealed that the initial cell capacities were controlled by the negative electrodes. On the other hand, the capacity of the positive electrode decreased faster than that of the negative electrode during the course of the cycle test. With repeated charge/discharge cycles, the positive electrodes came to control the cell capacities. After that, deep charge/discharge cycles of the positive electrode accelerated the loss of capacity and the increase of the internal resistance. Furthermore, the rapid increase of the internal resistance lowered the accuracy of the discharge curve analysis. Although the discharge curve analysis was still applicable to the cells that were controlled by the positive electrodes, there were some discrepancies around the endpoints of the discharge curves.

  20. Dropped-head in recessive oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Matteo; Pennisi, Elena Maria; Bruttini, Mirella; Bizzarri, Veronica; Bucci, Elisabetta; Morino, Stefania; Talerico, Caterina; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Renieri, Alessandra; Antonini, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented a dropped head, caused by severe neck extensor weakness that had started two years before. She had also developed a mild degree of dysphagia, rhinolalia, eyelid ptosis and proximal limb weakness during the last months. EMG revealed myopathic changes. Muscle MRI detected fatty infiltration in the posterior neck muscles and tongue. Muscle biopsy revealed fiber size variations, sporadic rimmed vacuoles, small scattered angulated fibers and a patchy myofibrillar network. Genetic analysis revealed homozygous (GCN)11 expansions in the PABPN1 gene that were consistent with recessive oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). There are a few reports of the recessive form, which has a later disease onset with milder symptoms and higher clinical variability than the typical dominantly inherited form. This patient, who is the first Italian and the eighth worldwide reported case of recessive OPMD, is also the first case of OPMD with dropped-head syndrome, which thus expands the clinical phenotype of recessive OPMD. PMID:26494409

  1. A unified approach for nonlinear vibration analysis of curved structures using non-uniform rational B-spline representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askari, H.; Esmailzadeh, E.; Barari, A.

    2015-09-01

    A novel procedure for the nonlinear vibration analysis of curved beam is presented. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) is combined with the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to define the curvature of the structure. The governing equation of motion and the general frequency formula, using the NURBS variables, is applicable for any type of curvatures, is developed. The Galerkin procedure is implemented to obtain the nonlinear ordinary differential equation of curved system and the multiple time scales method is utilized to find the corresponding frequency responses. As a case study, the nonlinear vibration of carbon nanotubes with different shapes of curvature is investigated. The effect of oscillation amplitude and the waviness on the natural frequency of the curved nanotube is evaluated and the primary resonance case of system with respect to the variations of different parameters is discussed. For the sake of comparison of the results obtained with those from the molecular dynamic simulation, the natural frequencies evaluated from the proposed approach are compared with those reported in literature for few types of carbon nanotube simulation.

  2. Mixed convection analysis in lid-driven cavity with sinusoidally curved bottom wall using CNT-water nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohieminul Islam; Rabbi, Khan Md.; Khan, Saadbin; Mamun, M. A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Mixed convection in a lid-driven enclosure with a curved bottom wall has been investigated using CNT (Carbon Nanotube)-water nanofluid in this paper. The curvature of the bottom wall follows the sine function. Studies have been made with different amplitudes (λ = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15) of the sine function hence wall curvature. The curved wall at the bottom is heated and the top wall is kept at a relatively low temperature. Left vertical and right vertical surface are assumed to be adiabatic. Top wall has been moving at a constant lid velocity U0 at right direction. Galerkin method of FEA (Finite Element Analysis) has been used to solve the governing equations. Different parameters like Richardson number (Ri = 0.1 ˜ 10) at a fixed Reynolds number (Re = 100), solid volume fraction of CNT particle (φ = 0 ˜ 0.09) are used to observe better heat transfer rate. Streamlines, isothermal lines and average Nusselt number plots are included to discuss the result of the investigation. A 2D plot between average Nusselt number and solid volume fraction of CNT-water nanofluid is also given to analyse heat transfer rate. It is observed that higher value of Richardson number shows better heat transfer rate. Finally, the paper concludes that better heat transfer is achieved at higher amplitude (λ = 0.15) of curved surface at higher solid volume fraction (φ = 0.09).

  3. Type curve analysis of inertial effects in the response of a well to a slug test.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kipp, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    The water level response to a slug or bailer test in a well completed in a confined aquifer, has been evaluated taking into account well-bore storage and inertial effects of the water column in the well. The response range, from overdamped with negligible inertial effects to damped oscillations, was covered employing numerical inversions of the Laplace-transform solution. By scaling the time with respect to the undamped natural period of the well-aquifer system and by using the damping parameter for a second-order damped, inertial-elastic system, a set of type curves was constructed that enables water level response data from a slug or bailer test to be analyzed under conditions where the inertial parameter is large.-from Author

  4. Modal analysis using a Fourier analyzer, curve-fitting, and modal tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.; Chung, Y. T.

    1981-01-01

    The proposed modal test program differs from single-input methods in that preliminary data may be acquired using multiple inputs, and modal tuning procedures may be employed to define closely spaced frquency modes more accurately or to make use of frequency response functions (FRF's) which are based on several input locations. In some respects the proposed modal test proram resembles earlier sine-sweep and sine-dwell testing in that broadband FRF's are acquired using several input locations, and tuning is employed to refine the modal parameter estimates. The major tasks performed in the proposed modal test program are outlined. Data acquisition and FFT processing, curve fitting, and modal tuning phases are described and examples are given to illustrate and evaluate them.

  5. Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Delong; Wang, Ping; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Ben-Amotz, Dor; Weiner, Andrew M; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic imaging has been an increasingly critical approach for unveiling specific molecules in biological environments. Toward this goal, we demonstrate hyperspectral stimulated Raman loss (SRL) imaging by intrapulse spectral scanning through a femtosecond pulse shaper. The hyperspectral stack of SRL images is further analyzed by a multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method to reconstruct quantitative concentration images for each individual component and retrieve the corresponding vibrational Raman spectra. Using these methods, we demonstrate quantitative mapping of dimethyl sulfoxide concentration in aqueous solutions and in fat tissue. Moreover, MCR is performed on SRL images of breast cancer cells to generate maps of principal chemical components along with their respective vibrational spectra. These results show the great capability and potential of hyperspectral SRL microscopy for quantitative imaging of complicated biomolecule mixtures through resolving overlapped Raman bands.

  6. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F.

    2015-04-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP.

  7. Single Cell Wall Nonlinear Mechanics Revealed by a Multiscale Analysis of AFM Force-Indentation Curves.

    PubMed

    Digiuni, Simona; Berne-Dedieu, Annik; Martinez-Torres, Cristina; Szecsi, Judit; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise

    2015-05-01

    Individual plant cells are rather complex mechanical objects. Despite the fact that their wall mechanical strength may be weakened by comparison with their original tissue template, they nevertheless retain some generic properties of the mother tissue, namely the viscoelasticity and the shape of their walls, which are driven by their internal hydrostatic turgor pressure. This viscoelastic behavior, which affects the power-law response of these cells when indented by an atomic force cantilever with a pyramidal tip, is also very sensitive to the culture media. To our knowledge, we develop here an original analyzing method, based on a multiscale decomposition of force-indentation curves, that reveals and quantifies for the first time the nonlinearity of the mechanical response of living single plant cells upon mechanical deformation. Further comparing the nonlinear strain responses of these isolated cells in three different media, we reveal an alteration of their linear bending elastic regime in both hyper- and hypotonic conditions. PMID:25954881

  8. Frequency analysis of curved nano-sandwich structure based on a nonlocal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, O.; Hosseini, S. A. H.; Hayati, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the vibration of curved nano-sandwich (CNS) with considering the influence of core shear based on the Eringen nonlocal theory. The equation of motion is derived and exact solution for the natural frequencies of CNS is presented. The proposed nonlocal model includes a material length scale parameter that can capture the size effect in CNS beam. The effects of important parameters, such as the thickness to length ratio, nonlocal parameter and mode number on the frequencies of CNS are investigated. The result of our research shows that as the opening angle increases, the amount of natural frequencies decrease. We have additionally validate, our results against previous research works which showed good agreement.

  9. Light Curve Analysis for W UMa-Type Eclipsing Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Scott; Peach, N.; Olsen, T.

    2006-12-01

    We report results from summer 2006 in an ongoing study of eclipsing binary stars. Our investigations have focused on the measurement and interpretation of light curves for W UMa-type systems 44i Boötis and VW Cephei. These contact binaries have component stars of spectral type G, and revolve with periods of 6.43 and 6.67 hours. Dome automation and scripting capabilities introduced this summer have significantly reduced experimental uncertainties in our data. In support of previous findings we continue to observe an increase in the orbital period of 44i Boo at a rate of 10.4 µs/epoch or 14.2 ms/yr. Residuals computed after incorporating the increasing period suggest an underlying sinusoidal oscillation with a 61.5 year period and amplitude of 648 seconds. AAPT Member Thomas Olsen is sponsoring the lead presenter, SPS Member Scott Henderson, and the co-presenter, SPS Member Nick Peach.

  10. Single Cell Wall Nonlinear Mechanics Revealed by a Multiscale Analysis of AFM Force-Indentation Curves

    PubMed Central

    Digiuni, Simona; Berne-Dedieu, Annik; Martinez-Torres, Cristina; Szecsi, Judit; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Individual plant cells are rather complex mechanical objects. Despite the fact that their wall mechanical strength may be weakened by comparison with their original tissue template, they nevertheless retain some generic properties of the mother tissue, namely the viscoelasticity and the shape of their walls, which are driven by their internal hydrostatic turgor pressure. This viscoelastic behavior, which affects the power-law response of these cells when indented by an atomic force cantilever with a pyramidal tip, is also very sensitive to the culture media. To our knowledge, we develop here an original analyzing method, based on a multiscale decomposition of force-indentation curves, that reveals and quantifies for the first time the nonlinearity of the mechanical response of living single plant cells upon mechanical deformation. Further comparing the nonlinear strain responses of these isolated cells in three different media, we reveal an alteration of their linear bending elastic regime in both hyper- and hypotonic conditions. PMID:25954881

  11. Bradford Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of informetric distributions shows that generalized Leimkuhler functions give proper fits to a large variety of Bradford curves, including those exhibiting a Groos droop or a rising tail. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is used to test goodness of fit, and least-square fits are compared with Egghe's method. (Contains 53 references.) (LRW)

  12. DSA Analysis of IRM Curves for Hydrocarbon Microseepage Characterization in Oil Fields From Eastern and Western Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana, M.; Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Gonzalez, C.; Gomez, L.

    2009-05-01

    During the last few years we have performed surface reservoir characterization at some Venezuelan oil fields using rock magnetic properties. We have tried to identify, at shallow levels, the "oil magnetic signature" of subjacent reservoirs. Recent data obtained from eastern Venezuela (San Juan field) emphasizes the differences between rock magnetic data from eastern and western oil fields. These results support the hypothesis of different authigenic processes. To better characterize hydrocarbon microseepage in both cases, we apply a new method to analyze IRM curves in order to find out the main magnetic phases responsible for the observed magnetic susceptibility (MS) anomalies. This alternative method is based on a Direct Signal Analysis (DSA) of the IRM in order to identify the number and type of magnetic components. According to this method, the IRM curve is decomposed as the sum of N elementary curves (modeled using the expression proposed by Robertson and France, 1994) whose mean coercivities vary in the interval of the measured magnetic field. The result is an adjusted spectral histogram from which the number of main contributions, their widths and mean coercivities, associated with the number and type of magnetic minerals, can be obtained. This analysis indicates that in western fields the main magnetic mineralogy is magnetite. Conversely in eastern fields, the MS anomalies are mainly caused by the presence of Fe sulphides (i.e. greigite). These results support the hypothesis of two different processes. In western fields a net electron transfer from the organic matter, degraded by hydrocarbon gas leakage, should occur precipitating Fe(II) magnetic minerals (e.g. magnetite). On the other hand, high concentrations of H2S at shallow depth levels, might allow the formation of secondary Fe-sulphides in eastern fields.

  13. A TRANSIT TIMING ANALYSIS OF NINE RISE LIGHT CURVES OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEM TrES-3

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, N. P.; Pollacco, D.; Simpson, E. K.; Barros, S.; Joshi, Y. C.; Todd, I.; Keenan, F. P.; Skillen, I.; Benn, C.; Christian, D.; Hrudkova, M.; Steele, I. A.

    2009-08-01

    We present nine newly observed transits of TrES-3, taken as part of a transit timing program using the RISE instrument on the Liverpool Telescope. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the planet-star radius ratio and inclination of the system, which were found to be R{sub p} /R {sub *} = 0.1664{sup +0.0011} {sub -0.0018} and i = 81.73{sup +0.13} {sub -0.04}, respectively, consistent with previous results. The central transit times and uncertainties were also calculated, using a residual-permutation algorithm as an independent check on the errors. A re-analysis of eight previously published TrES-3 light curves was conducted to determine the transit times and uncertainties using consistent techniques. Whilst the transit times were not found to be in agreement with a linear ephemeris, giving {chi}{sup 2} = 35.07 for 15 degrees of freedom, we interpret this to be the result of systematics in the light curves rather than a real transit timing variation. This is because the light curves that show the largest deviation from a constant period either have relatively little out-of-transit coverage or have clear systematics. A new ephemeris was calculated using the transit times and was found to be T{sub c} (0) = 2454632.62610 {+-} 0.00006 HJD and P = 1.3061864 {+-} 0.0000005 days. The transit times were then used to place upper mass limits as a function of the period ratio of a potential perturbing planet, showing that our data are sufficiently sensitive to have probed sub-Earth mass planets in both interior and exterior 2:1 resonances, assuming that the additional planet is in an initially circular orbit.

  14. Analysis of the Validity of Environmental Kuznets Curve for the Baltic States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinskienė, Giedrė; Tvaronavičienė, Manuela; Vaitkus, Pranas

    2013-12-01

    The paper analyses a traditional Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) relationship between greenhouse gases (GHG) and gross domestic product (GDP), extending the research to include some additional factors, such as environmental tax, research and development expenditure, implicit tax rate on energy, primary production of coal and lignite, energy intensity of the economy taken from the Eurostat database. The EKC indicates that, at the early stages of economic growth, pollution increases with the growing use of resources, but when a certain level of income per capita is reached, the trend reverses so that, at a higher development stage, further economic growth leads to the improvement of the environment. In the first part of the research, the validity of the reduced EKC for the Baltic region for the period 1995-2008 is determined. In the second part, the impact of selected factors is statistically tested. In both cases, the standard cubic equation is used because it is believed that this model is the most accurate for the development stage of this region. The research results may be useful for climate change policy design.

  15. Stability and dynamic analysis of a slender column with curved longitudinal stiffeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a stability design study are presented for a slender column with curved longitudinal stiffeners for large space structure applications. Linear stability analyses are performed using a link-plate representation of the stiffeners to determine stiffener local buckling stresses. Results from a set of parametric analyses are used to determine an approximate explicit expression for stiffener local buckling in terms of its geometric parameters. This expression along with other equations governing column stability and mass are assembled into a determinate system describing minimum mass stiffened column design. An iterative solution is determined to solve this system and a computer program incorporating this routine is presented. Example design problems are presented which verify the solution accuracy and illustrate the implementation of the solution routine. Also, observations are made which lead to a greatly simplified first iteration design equation relating the percent increase in column mass to the percent increase in column buckling load. From this, generalizations are drawn as to the mass savings offered by the stiffened column concept. Finally, the percent increase in fundamental column vibration frequency due to the addition of deployable stiffeners is studied.

  16. Development of oral reading fluency in children with speech or language impairments: A growth curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Catts, Hugh W.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study used piece-wise growth curve analyses to examine growth patterns in oral reading fluency for students diagnosed with speech (SI) or language impairments (LI) from first through third grade (N = 1,991). The main finding of this study was that a diagnosis of SI or LI can have a detrimental effect on early reading skills and these problems can be persistent. The results indicate differences between subgroups in growth trajectories that were evident in first grade. These differences were associated with a students’ speech or language status. A large proportion of students with SI or LI did not meet grade-level reading fluency benchmarks. Overall students with SI showed better performance than students with LI. Reading fluency performance was negatively related to the persistence of the SI or LI; the lowest performing students were those originally identified with SI or LI whose diagnosis changed to a learning disability. The results underscore the need to identify, monitor, and address reading fluency difficulties early among students with SI or LI. PMID:18625782

  17. Vertically stratified two-phase flow in a curved channel: Insights from a domain perturbation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, P.; Picardo, J. R.; Pushpavanam, S.

    2014-07-15

    In this work, we investigate the fully developed flow field of two vertically stratified fluids (one phase flowing above the other) in a curved channel of rectangular cross section. The domain perturbation technique is applied to obtain an analytical solution in the asymptotic limit of low Reynolds numbers and small curvature ratios (the ratio of the width of the channel to its radius of curvature). The accuracy of this solution is verified by comparison with numerical simulations of the nonlinear equations. The flow is characterized by helical vortices within each fluid, which are driven by centrifugal forces. The number of vortices and their direction of circulation varies with the parameters of the system (the volume fraction, viscosity ratio, and Reynolds numbers). We identify nine distinct flow patterns and organize the parameter space into corresponding flow regimes. We show that the fully developed interface between the fluids is not horizontal, in general, but is deformed by normal stresses associated with the circulatory flow. The results are especially significant for flows in microchannels, where the Reynolds numbers are small. The mathematical results in this paper include an analytical solution to two coupled biharmonic partial differential equations; these equations arise in two-phase, two-dimensional Stokes flows.

  18. A novel three-dimensional smile analysis based on dynamic evaluation of facial curve contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; Lin, Han; Lin, Qiuping; Zhang, Jinxin; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Zhi; Lv, Jiahong; Lee, Mln Kyeong; Xu, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The influence of three-dimensional facial contour and dynamic evaluation decoding on factors of smile esthetics is essential for facial beauty improvement. However, the kinematic features of the facial smile contour and the contribution from the soft tissue and underlying skeleton are uncharted. Here, the cheekbone-maxilla contour and nasolabial fold were combined into a “smile contour” delineating the overall facial topography emerges prominently in smiling. We screened out the stable and unstable points on the smile contour using facial motion capture and curve fitting, before analyzing the correlation between soft tissue coordinates and hard tissue counterparts of the screened points. Our finding suggests that the mouth corner region was the most mobile area characterizing smile expression, while the other areas remained relatively stable. Therefore, the perioral area should be evaluated dynamically while the static assessment outcome of other parts of the smile contour contribute partially to their dynamic esthetics. Moreover, different from the end piece, morphologies of the zygomatic area and the superior part of the nasolabial crease were determined largely by the skeleton in rest, implying the latter can be altered by orthopedic or orthodontic correction and the former better improved by cosmetic procedures to improve the beauty of smile.

  19. Analyzing Exercise Behaviors during the College Years: Results from Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wittman, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze changes in the predictors of physical activity behavior among college students. The Theory of Planned Behavior served as its theoretical framework. Methods: Among an initial sample of 417 college students, 195 participants completed a validated questionnaire measuring attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, intentions and self-reported physical activity, at the beginning and end of each of 3 college semesters. Latent growth curve modeling analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between the trajectories of changes in PA, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control. Results: Good fit indices supported the validity of the proposed longitudinal model (CFI > .97, RMSEA < .05). Changes in perceived control (γ = 0.57) were significantly linked with changes in intentions (p < .05). Perceived control (γ = 0.28) and intention growth (γ = 0.36) predicted behavior changes (p < .05). No gender differences were observed on attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control (p > .10). However, girls tend to have higher growth parameters on intentions and physical activity (p < .05). In summary, intentions and physical activity has significantly increased over 3 college semesters (growth parameters significant at p < .05). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that attitudes and perceived control are key determinants regarding the intentions of being active. On a longer term perspective, future physical activity interventions should focus on the enhancement of students’ perceived control. Such educational context should help in promoting the adoption of an active lifestyle during college. PMID:27124179

  20. Secondary flow structure in a model curved artery: 3D morphology and circulation budget analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we examined the rate of change of circulation within control regions encompassing the large-scale vortical structures associated with secondary flows, i.e. deformed Dean-, Lyne- and Wall-type (D-L-W) vortices at planar cross-sections in a 180° curved artery model (curvature ratio, 1/7). Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments were performed independently, under the same physiological inflow conditions (Womersley number, 4.2) and using Newtonian blood-analog fluids. The MRV-technique performed at Stanford University produced phase-averaged, three-dimensional velocity fields. Secondary flow field comparisons of MRV-data to PIV-data at various cross-sectional planes and inflow phases were made. A wavelet-decomposition-based approach was implemented to characterize various secondary flow morphologies. We hypothesize that the persistence and decay of arterial secondary flow vortices is intrinsically related to the influence of the out-of-plane flow, tilting, in-plane convection and diffusion-related factors within the control regions. Evaluation of these factors will elucidate secondary flow structures in arterial hemodynamics. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-0828903, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE). The MRV data were acquired at Stanford University in collaboration with Christopher Elkins and John Eaton.

  1. A novel three-dimensional smile analysis based on dynamic evaluation of facial curve contour.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Lin, Han; Lin, Qiuping; Zhang, Jinxin; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Zhi; Lv, Jiahong; Lee, Mln Kyeong; Xu, Yue

    2016-02-25

    The influence of three-dimensional facial contour and dynamic evaluation decoding on factors of smile esthetics is essential for facial beauty improvement. However, the kinematic features of the facial smile contour and the contribution from the soft tissue and underlying skeleton are uncharted. Here, the cheekbone-maxilla contour and nasolabial fold were combined into a "smile contour" delineating the overall facial topography emerges prominently in smiling. We screened out the stable and unstable points on the smile contour using facial motion capture and curve fitting, before analyzing the correlation between soft tissue coordinates and hard tissue counterparts of the screened points. Our finding suggests that the mouth corner region was the most mobile area characterizing smile expression, while the other areas remained relatively stable. Therefore, the perioral area should be evaluated dynamically while the static assessment outcome of other parts of the smile contour contribute partially to their dynamic esthetics. Moreover, different from the end piece, morphologies of the zygomatic area and the superior part of the nasolabial crease were determined largely by the skeleton in rest, implying the latter can be altered by orthopedic or orthodontic correction and the former better improved by cosmetic procedures to improve the beauty of smile.

  2. A novel three-dimensional smile analysis based on dynamic evaluation of facial curve contour

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Lin, Han; Lin, Qiuping; Zhang, Jinxin; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Zhi; Lv, Jiahong; Lee, Mln Kyeong; Xu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three-dimensional facial contour and dynamic evaluation decoding on factors of smile esthetics is essential for facial beauty improvement. However, the kinematic features of the facial smile contour and the contribution from the soft tissue and underlying skeleton are uncharted. Here, the cheekbone-maxilla contour and nasolabial fold were combined into a “smile contour” delineating the overall facial topography emerges prominently in smiling. We screened out the stable and unstable points on the smile contour using facial motion capture and curve fitting, before analyzing the correlation between soft tissue coordinates and hard tissue counterparts of the screened points. Our finding suggests that the mouth corner region was the most mobile area characterizing smile expression, while the other areas remained relatively stable. Therefore, the perioral area should be evaluated dynamically while the static assessment outcome of other parts of the smile contour contribute partially to their dynamic esthetics. Moreover, different from the end piece, morphologies of the zygomatic area and the superior part of the nasolabial crease were determined largely by the skeleton in rest, implying the latter can be altered by orthopedic or orthodontic correction and the former better improved by cosmetic procedures to improve the beauty of smile. PMID:26911450

  3. Multivariate curve resolution for the analysis of remotely sensed thermal infrared hyperspectral images.

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, David Michael; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2004-07-01

    While hyperspectral imaging systems are increasingly used in remote sensing and offer enhanced scene characterization relative to univariate and multispectral technologies, it has proven difficult in practice to extract all of the useful information from these systems due to overwhelming data volume, confounding atmospheric effects, and the limited a priori knowledge regarding the scene. The need exists for the ability to perform rapid and comprehensive data exploitation of remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery. To address this need, this paper describes the application of a fast and rigorous multivariate curve resolution (MCR) algorithm to remotely sensed thermal infrared hyperspectral images. Employing minimal a priori knowledge, notably non-negativity constraints on the extracted endmember profiles and a constant abundance constraint for the atmospheric upwelling component, it is demonstrated that MCR can successfully compensate thermal infrared hyperspectral images for atmospheric upwelling and, thereby, transmittance effects. We take a semi-synthetic approach to obtaining image data containing gas plumes by adding emission gas signals onto real hyperspectral images. MCR can accurately estimate the relative spectral absorption coefficients and thermal contrast distribution of an ammonia gas plume component added near the minimum detectable quantity.

  4. Post-Buckling Analysis of Curved Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Containing Interfacial Disbonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Krivanek, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study on the effect of facesheet-core disbonds on the post-buckling response of curved honeycomb sandwich panels is presented herein. This work was conducted as part of the development of a damage tolerance plan for the next-generation Space Launch System heavy lift launch vehicle payload fairing. As such, the study utilized full-scale fairing barrel segments as the structure of interest. The panels were composed of carbon fiber reinforced polymer facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The panels were analyzed numerically using the finite element method incorporating geometric nonlinearity. In a predetermined circular region, facesheet and core nodes were detached to simulate a disbond, between the outer mold line facesheet and honeycomb core, induced via low-speed impact. Surface-to-surface contact in the disbonded region was invoked to prevent interpenetration of the facesheet and core elements and obtain realistic stresses in the core. The diameter of this disbonded region was varied and the effect of the size of the disbond on the post-buckling response was observed. Significant changes in the slope of the edge load-deflection response were used to determine the onset of global buckling and corresponding buckling load. Finally, several studies were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the numerical predictions to refinement in the finite element mesh.

  5. Evaluation of pollutant loads from stormwater BMPs to receiving water using load frequency curves with uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Daeryong; Roesner, Larry A

    2012-12-15

    This study examined pollutant loads released to receiving water from a typical urban watershed in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin of California by applying a best management practice (BMP) performance model that includes uncertainty. This BMP performance model uses the k-C model and incorporates uncertainty analysis and the first-order second-moment (FOSM) method to assess the effectiveness of BMPs for removing stormwater pollutants. Uncertainties were considered for the influent event mean concentration (EMC) and the aerial removal rate constant of the k-C model. The storage treatment overflow and runoff model (STORM) was used to simulate the flow volume from watershed, the bypass flow volume and the flow volume that passes through the BMP. Detention basins and total suspended solids (TSS) were chosen as representatives of stormwater BMP and pollutant, respectively. This paper applies load frequency curves (LFCs), which replace the exceedance percentage with an exceedance frequency as an alternative to load duration curves (LDCs), to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. An evaluation method based on uncertainty analysis is suggested because it applies a water quality standard exceedance based on frequency and magnitude. As a result, the incorporation of uncertainty in the estimates of pollutant loads can assist stormwater managers in determining the degree of total daily maximum load (TMDL) compliance that could be expected from a given BMP in a watershed.

  6. Scaling and disorder analysis of local I-V curves from ferroelectric thin films of lead zirconate titanate.

    PubMed

    Maksymovych, Peter; Pan, Minghu; Yu, Pu; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2011-06-24

    Differential analysis of current-voltage characteristics, obtained on the surface of epitaxial films of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr(0.2)Ti(0.8))O(3)) using scanning probe microscopy, was combined with spatially resolved mapping of variations in local conductance to differentiate between candidate mechanisms of local electronic transport and the origin of disorder. Within the assumed approximations, electron transport was inferred to be determined by two mechanisms depending on the magnitude of applied bias, with the low-bias range dominated by the trap-assisted Fowler-Nordheim tunneling through the interface and the high-bias range limited by the hopping conduction through the bulk. Phenomenological analysis of the I-V curves has further revealed that the transition between the low- and high-bias regimes is manifested both in the strength of variations within the I-V curves sampled across the surface, as well as the spatial distribution of conductance. Spatial variations were concluded to originate primarily from the heterogeneity of the interfacial electronic barrier height with an additional small contribution from random changes in the tip-contact geometry.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive hypotrichosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... erythema), itchiness (pruritus), or missing patches of skin (erosions) on the scalp. In areas of poor hair ... recessive hypotrichosis with monilethrix hairs and congenital scalp erosions. J Invest Dermatol. 2006 Jun;126(6):1286- ...

  8. Systematic review of suicide in economic recession

    PubMed Central

    Oyesanya, Mayowa; Lopez-Morinigo, Javier; Dutta, Rina

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide a systematic update of the evidence concerning the relationship between economic recession and suicide. METHODS: A keyword search of Ovid Medline, Embase, Embase Classic, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES was performed to identify studies that had investigated the association between economic recession and suicide. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies met predetermined selection criteria and 31 of them found a positive association between economic recession and increased suicide rates. Two studies reported a negative association, two articles failed to find such an association, and three studies were inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Economic recession periods appear to increase overall suicide rates, although further research is warranted in this area, particularly in low income countries. PMID:26110126

  9. Have Employment Patterns in Recessions Changed?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Norman

    1981-01-01

    A survey of postwar recessions shows that the increasing proportion of service sector jobs has moderated overall employment declines and that women in nontraditional jobs, Blacks, and youths bear a disproportionate share of job losses. (LRA)

  10. Curved Beam Computed Tomography based Structural Rigidity Analysis of Bones with Simulated Lytic Defect: A Comparative Study with Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oftadeh, R.; Karimi, Z.; Villa-Camacho, J.; Tanck, E.; Verdonschot, N.; Goebel, R.; Snyder, B. D.; Hashemi, H. N.; Vaziri, A.; Nazarian, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a CT based structural rigidity analysis (CTRA) method that incorporates bone intrinsic local curvature is introduced to assess the compressive failure load of human femur with simulated lytic defects. The proposed CTRA is based on a three dimensional curved beam theory to obtain critical stresses within the human femur model. To test the proposed method, ten human cadaveric femurs with and without simulated defects were mechanically tested under axial compression to failure. Quantitative computed tomography images were acquired from the samples, and CTRA and finite element analysis were performed to obtain the failure load as well as rigidities in both straight and curved cross sections. Experimental results were compared to the results obtained from FEA and CTRA. The failure loads predicated by curved beam CTRA and FEA are in agreement with experimental results. The results also show that the proposed method is an efficient and reliable method to find both the location and magnitude of failure load. Moreover, the results show that the proposed curved CTRA outperforms the regular straight beam CTRA, which ignores the bone intrinsic curvature and can be used as a useful tool in clinical practices. PMID:27585495

  11. Curved Beam Computed Tomography based Structural Rigidity Analysis of Bones with Simulated Lytic Defect: A Comparative Study with Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Oftadeh, R; Karimi, Z; Villa-Camacho, J; Tanck, E; Verdonschot, N; Goebel, R; Snyder, B D; Hashemi, H N; Vaziri, A; Nazarian, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a CT based structural rigidity analysis (CTRA) method that incorporates bone intrinsic local curvature is introduced to assess the compressive failure load of human femur with simulated lytic defects. The proposed CTRA is based on a three dimensional curved beam theory to obtain critical stresses within the human femur model. To test the proposed method, ten human cadaveric femurs with and without simulated defects were mechanically tested under axial compression to failure. Quantitative computed tomography images were acquired from the samples, and CTRA and finite element analysis were performed to obtain the failure load as well as rigidities in both straight and curved cross sections. Experimental results were compared to the results obtained from FEA and CTRA. The failure loads predicated by curved beam CTRA and FEA are in agreement with experimental results. The results also show that the proposed method is an efficient and reliable method to find both the location and magnitude of failure load. Moreover, the results show that the proposed curved CTRA outperforms the regular straight beam CTRA, which ignores the bone intrinsic curvature and can be used as a useful tool in clinical practices. PMID:27585495

  12. Curved Beam Computed Tomography based Structural Rigidity Analysis of Bones with Simulated Lytic Defect: A Comparative Study with Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oftadeh, R.; Karimi, Z.; Villa-Camacho, J.; Tanck, E.; Verdonschot, N.; Goebel, R.; Snyder, B. D.; Hashemi, H. N.; Vaziri, A.; Nazarian, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a CT based structural rigidity analysis (CTRA) method that incorporates bone intrinsic local curvature is introduced to assess the compressive failure load of human femur with simulated lytic defects. The proposed CTRA is based on a three dimensional curved beam theory to obtain critical stresses within the human femur model. To test the proposed method, ten human cadaveric femurs with and without simulated defects were mechanically tested under axial compression to failure. Quantitative computed tomography images were acquired from the samples, and CTRA and finite element analysis were performed to obtain the failure load as well as rigidities in both straight and curved cross sections. Experimental results were compared to the results obtained from FEA and CTRA. The failure loads predicated by curved beam CTRA and FEA are in agreement with experimental results. The results also show that the proposed method is an efficient and reliable method to find both the location and magnitude of failure load. Moreover, the results show that the proposed curved CTRA outperforms the regular straight beam CTRA, which ignores the bone intrinsic curvature and can be used as a useful tool in clinical practices.

  13. Statistical signal analysis of the Phanerozoic ð13C curve: implications for Earth system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachan, A.; Kump, L. R.; Payne, J.; Saltzman, M.; Thomas, E.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, vast amounts of carbon isotopic data have been collected allowing the construction of the Phanerozoic δ13C curve in unprecedented detail. Our dataset comprises 8143 points spanning the last 541 m.y., with a mean spacing of 66 k.y. The average δ13C of Phanerozoic carbonate is 1 ‰ ± 2 ‰, in accordance with the canonical values measured in the past. However, the record also shows numerous, highly resolved, large (± 6 ‰) excursions whose magnitude declines through time, especially going into the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. When the magnitude - distribution of the excursions is tabulated we find that it follows a power law: plotting the min-max differences vs. number of bins in which a particular value occurs reveals that the data fall on a semilogarithmic line with a slope of -0.23 and R2 = 0.99. The result is insensitive to outliers: smoothing the data with lowess, spline, Savitzky-Golay, and Butterworth filters yields similar results. The continuity from small variation to large perturbations, both positive and negative, suggests that, despite the numerous proposed causes for individual carbon isotopic evens, there is likely an underlying mechanism which governs the magnitude of δ13C response to perturbations. We suggest that a mechanism acting to amplify carbon cycle perturbations is the key to explaining the power-law distribution, and identify the anoxia-productivity feedback as the most likely candidate. Establishment of sulfidic conditions is accompanied by increased release of phosphate to the water column, which allows for further productivity, and thus acts as a destabilizing, positive, feedback. This feedback would act to increase carbon cycle swings irrespective of their proximal trigger. The decline in frequency of anoxic-sulfidic bottom waters in the world's oceans, and potential disappearance in the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic, may account for a reduction in the Earth system's gain and increase in its resilience.

  14. The Impact of Tides on Transiting Planet Structure and Evolution and Light Curve Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrier, Gilles

    2011-09-01

    We examine two key consequences of tidal forces on the transiting planet observed and theoretical properties. First, based on consistent calculations coupling gravothermal evolution with complete tidal equations, we revisit the viability of the tidal heating hypothesis to explain the anomalously large radius of some transiting planets. We demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that calculations based on tidal models truncated at second order in eccentricity, as done in all previous studies, lead to severely erroneous tidal evolutions. Such truncated calculations yield characteristic timescales for dynamical evolution that can be wrong by orders of magnitude, leading accordingly to completely erroneous tidal energy dissipation rates during the planet's evolution. We demontrate that these results do not stem from uncertainties in the tidal quality factor, as often (erroneously) suggested, but from the exact calculations of the tidal equations. We show that, although tidal heating provides a substantial contribution to the planet's heat budget, this mechanism can not explain alone all the anomalously inflated planets. We examine alternative mechanisms to explain these puzzling properties. Furthermore, due to strong tidal forces, transiting planets exhibit a non-spherical shape. Such a departure from sphericity has a measurable impact on the observed transit depth and leads to a bias in the derivation of the transit radius from the light curve. As the tidally deformed planet projects its smallest cross section area during the transit, the measured effective radius is smaller than the one of the unperturbed genuine spherical planet. To correct this bias, we present analytical expressions that can easily be used to calculate the shape of observed planets (and Love number) and its impact on the transit lightcurve. These expressions enable us to convert the planet’s measured cross section into its real equilibrium radius, the one to be used when comparing

  15. The first multi-color light curve analysis of FI Lyn and new V and Rc light curve analysis for GN Boo, two W-subtype W Ursae Majoris systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barani, C.; Martignoni, M.; Acerbi, F.

    2015-08-01

    Here we present the first analysis of the B, V and Ic CCD light curves of the W UMa type eclipsing binary star FI Lyn obtained in the year 2009 (8 nights) and in the year 2010 (2 nights), and new CCD V and Rc light curves of the known contact eclipsing binary GN Boo obtained in 4 nights in May 2012. Our data permits us the determination of ten and six new times of minimum light respectively for FI Lyn and GN Boo and refine both the orbital periods of the systems to P = 0.3732612 days and P = 0.3016022 days. The periods of both the systems are variable. FI Lyn shows an increasing period at the rate of dP / dt 1.05 × 10-6 days yr-1 while GN Boo shows cyclic oscillations. The observed light curves are analyzed simultaneously with the Wilson-Devinney program analysis; the geometrical and photometric elements are derived. Our solutions show that FI Lyn and GN Boo belong to the W-subtype W Ursae Majoris contact binary class, consisting of a hotter, less massive primary star eclipsed at primary minimum with a primary spectral type of G1 and G8 and a companion of spectral type G3 and G4 respectively. We found, for FI Lyn a mass ratio of q = 2.58 , the degree of contact of f = 38.9 % , an orbital inclination of i = 71 ° .5 and a small temperature difference between the components of about Δ T = 150 K indicating a good thermal contact, while for GN Boo we found a mass ratio of q = 3.33 , the degree of contact of f = 24.3 % , an orbital inclination of i = 83 ° .6 and a difference between the components temperature of about Δ T = 620 K. The elements obtained from the W-D analysis are used to compute the physical parameters of the systems in order to study their evolutionary status.

  16. Establishment of an x-ray standard calibration curve by conventional dicentric analysis as prerequisite for accurate radiation dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Beinke, Christina; Braselmann, Herbert; Meineke, Viktor

    2010-02-01

    The dicentric assay was established to carry out cytogenetic biodosimetry after suspected radiation overexposure, including a comprehensive documentation system to record the processing of the specimen, all data, results, and stored information. As an essential prerequisite for retrospective radiation dose assessment, a dose-response curve for dicentric induction by in vitro x-ray irradiation of peripheral blood samples was produced. The accelerating potential was 240 kV (maximum photon energy: 240 keV). A total of 8,377 first-division metaphases of four healthy volunteers were analyzed after exposure to doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy at a dose rate of 1.0 Gy min. The background level of aberrations at 0-dose was determined by the analysis of 14,522 first-division metaphases obtained from unirradiated blood samples of 10 healthy volunteers. The dose-response relationship follows a linear-quadratic equation, Y = c + alphaD + betaD, with the coefficients c = 0.0005 +/- 0.0002, alpha = 0.043 +/- 0.006, and beta = 0.063 +/- 0.004. The technical competence and the quality of the calibration curve were assessed by determination of the dose prediction accuracy in an in vitro experiment simulating whole-body exposures within a range of 0.2 to 2.0 Gy. Dose estimations were derived by scoring up to 500-1,000 metaphase spreads or more (full estimation mode) and by evaluating only 50 metaphase spreads (triage mode) per subject. The triage mode was applied by performing manifold evaluations of the full estimation data in order to test the robustness of the curve for triage purposes and to assess possible variations among the estimated doses referring to a single exposure and preparation.

  17. Not proper ROC curves as new tool for the analysis of differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Stefano; Pistoia, Vito; Muselli, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Background Most microarray experiments are carried out with the purpose of identifying genes whose expression varies in relation with specific conditions or in response to environmental stimuli. In such studies, genes showing similar mean expression values between two or more groups are considered as not differentially expressed, even if hidden subclasses with different expression values may exist. In this paper we propose a new method for identifying differentially expressed genes, based on the area between the ROC curve and the rising diagonal (ABCR). ABCR represents a more general approach than the standard area under the ROC curve (AUC), because it can identify both proper (i.e., concave) and not proper ROC curves (NPRC). In particular, NPRC may correspond to those genes that tend to escape standard selection methods. Results We assessed the performance of our method using data from a publicly available database of 4026 genes, including 14 normal B cell samples (NBC) and 20 heterogeneous lymphomas (namely: 9 follicular lymphomas and 11 chronic lymphocytic leukemias). Moreover, NBC also included two sub-classes, i.e., 6 heavily stimulated and 8 slightly or not stimulated samples. We identified 1607 differentially expressed genes with an estimated False Discovery Rate of 15%. Among them, 16 corresponded to NPRC and all escaped standard selection procedures based on AUC and t statistics. Moreover, a simple inspection to the shape of such plots allowed to identify the two subclasses in either one class in 13 cases (81%). Conclusion NPRC represent a new useful tool for the analysis of microarray data. PMID:18834513

  18. High resolution melting curve analysis as a new tool for rapid identification of canine parvovirus type 2 strains.

    PubMed

    Bingga, Gali; Liu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yujun; Lin, Lifeng; Ding, Shuangyang; Guo, Pengju

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution melting (HRM) curve method was developed to identify canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) strains by nested PCR. Two sets of primers, CPV-426F/426R and CPV-87R/87F, were designed that amplified a 52 bp and 53 bp product from the viral VP2 capsid gene. The region amplified by CPV-426F/426R included the A4062G and T4064A mutations in CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. The region amplified by CPV-87F/87R included the A3045T mutation in the vaccine strains of CPV-2 and CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Faecal samples were obtained from 30 dogs that were CPV antigen-positive. The DNA was isolated from the faecal samples and PCR-amplified using the two sets of primers, and genotyped by HRM curve analysis. The PCR-HRM assay was able to distinguish single nucleotide polymorphisms between CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c using CPV-426F/426R. CPV-2a was distinguished from CPV-2b and CPV-2c by differences in the melting temperature. CPV-2b and CPV-2c could be distinguished based on the shape of the melting curve after generating heteroduplexes using a CPV-2b reference sample. The vaccine strains of CPV-2 were identified using CPV-87F/87R. Conventional methods for genotyping CPV strains are labor intensive, expensive or time consuming; the present PCR-based HRM assay might be an attractive alternative.

  19. A Computer Program for Calculation of Calibration Curves for Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Frank N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a FORTRAN IV program written to supplement a laboratory exercise dealing with quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis of mixtures of polycrystalline phases in an introductory course in x-ray diffraction. Gives an example of the use of the program and compares calculated and observed calibration data. (Author/GS)

  20. Leptin receptor (LEPR) SNP polymorphisms in HELLP syndrome patients determined by quantitative real-time PCR and melting curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown overexpression of leptin in microarray experiments in pre-eclampsia (PE) and in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. We decided to study four leptin receptor (LEPR) SNP polymorphisms in HELLP syndrome patients by using quantitative real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. Methods DNA was isolated from blood samples from 83 normotensive pregnant women and 75 HELLP syndrome patients. Four SNPs, LEPR c.326A>G (K109), LEPR c.668A>G (Q223R), LEPR c.1968G>C (K656N) and LEPR c.3024A>G (S1008) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. Investigators were blinded to clinical outcomes. Results LEPR c.326A>G, LEPR c.668A>G, LEPR c.1968G>C and LEPR c.3024A>G allele, genotype and haplotype polymorphisms were not different in HELLP syndrome patients and normotensive healthy pregnants. There were strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between loci c.326A>G and c.6687A>G (D' = 0.974), and c.668A>G and c.1968G>C (D' = 0.934), and c.326A>G and c.1968G>C (D' = 0.885), and c.1968G>C and c.3024A>G (D' = 1.0). However, linkages of c.3024A>G with c.668A>G (D' = 0.111) and c.326A>G (D' = 0.398) were weak. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed for all polymorphisms. However the LEPR c.326A>G AG genotype was twice more frequent and the (AG AG GG AG) haplotype was three times more frequent in HELLP syndrome patients. The introduced quantitative real-time PCR combined with melting curve analysis is a fast and reliable method for the determination of LEPR SNPs. Conclusion Although certain LEPR haplotypes are more frequent in HELLP syndrome, we conclude that there is no compelling evidence that the four studied LEPR SNP polymorphisms associated with the development of HELLP syndrome. PMID:20149225

  1. Mathematical Analysis for Peristaltic Flow of Two Phase Nanofluid in a Curved Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Iqra, Shahzadi

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the theoretical analysis for peristaltic motion of water base nanofluid containing distinct types of the nanoparticles like Cu, TiO2, and Al2O3. Equations of nano fluid are modelled and simplified by constructing the suppositions of low Reynolds number as well as long wave length. The reduced equations are solved exactly. Solutions are represented through graphs. Outcomes for the velocity, temperature, pressure rise and stream lines are analyzed graphically. The work presented here is based on the fictitious values, however some other values can be tested experimentally.

  2. Label-free Chemical Imaging of Fungal Spore Walls by Raman Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Noothalapati, Hemanth; Sasaki, Takahiro; Kaino, Tomohiro; Kawamukai, Makoto; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Fungal cell walls are medically important since they represent a drug target site for antifungal medication. So far there is no method to directly visualize structurally similar cell wall components such as α-glucan, β-glucan and mannan with high specificity, especially in a label-free manner. In this study, we have developed a Raman spectroscopy based molecular imaging method and combined multivariate curve resolution analysis to enable detection and visualization of multiple polysaccharide components simultaneously at the single cell level. Our results show that vegetative cell and ascus walls are made up of both α- and β-glucans while spore wall is exclusively made of α-glucan. Co-localization studies reveal the absence of mannans in ascus wall but are distributed primarily in spores. Such detailed picture is believed to further enhance our understanding of the dynamic spore wall architecture, eventually leading to advancements in drug discovery and development in the near future. PMID:27278218

  3. Detection and differentiation of in vitro-spiked bacteria by real-time PCR and melting-curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Klaschik, S; Lehmann, L E; Raadts, A; Book, M; Gebel, J; Hoeft, A; Stuber, F

    2004-02-01

    We introduce a consensus real-time PCR protocol for the detection of bacterial DNA from laboratory-prepared specimens such as water, urine, and plasma. This prototype detection system enables an exact Gram stain classification and, in particular, screening for specific species of 17 intensive care unit-relevant bacteria by means of fluorescence hybridization probes and melting-curve analysis in a one-run experiment. One strain of every species was tested at a final density of 10(6) CFU/ml. All bacteria examined except Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis could be differentiated successfully; S. aureus and S. epidermidis could only be classified as "Staphylococcus species." The hands-on time for preparation of the DNA, performance of the PCR, and evaluation of the PCR results was less than 4 h. Nevertheless, this prototype detection system requires more clinical validation.

  4. DOUBLE-STEP MULTIPLEX REAL TIME PCR WITH MELTING CURVE ANALYSIS FOR DETECTION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF MYCOBACTERIA IN SPUTUM.

    PubMed

    Kasa, Sawinee; Faksri, Kiatichai; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Namwat, Wises

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is a causative agent of tuberculosis, a worldwide public health problem. In recent years, the incidence of human mycobacterial infection due to species other than M. tb has increased. However, the lack of specific, rapid, and inexpensive methods for identification of mycobacterial species remains a pressing problem. A diagnostic test was developed for mycobacterial strain differentiation utilizing a double-step multiplex real time PCR together with melting curve analysis for identifying and distinguishing among M. tb, M. bovis BCG, other members of M. tb. complex, M. avium, and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria. The assay was tested using 167 clinical sputum samples in comparison with acid-fast staining and culturing. Using only the first step (step A) the assay achieved sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 95%, respectively. The detection limit was equivalent to 50 genome copies.

  5. First-order reversal curve diagrams of magnetic entities with mean interaction field: A physical analysis perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béron, Fanny; Ménard, David; Yelon, Arthur

    2008-04-01

    A new approach to the quantitative and physical analysis of first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams is presented. Each hysteron in the FORC method represents a magnetic cluster. Starting with a model for a ferromagnetic, isotropic, and monodomain sphere, and adding anisotropy and domain structure, three different types of "basic hysterons" are obtained: vertical reversible and irreversible, and linear. The FORC diagrams of basic hysterons with a mean interaction field were obtained by simulation. From them, the relationships between the characteristics of the hysterons and the FORC distribution function were extracted. Different sets of hysterons can lead to the same FORC distribution function. A positive mean interaction field tends to merge the hysterons on the FORC diagram, while a negative mean interaction field introduces repulsion between them.

  6. A Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Early and Increasing Peer Victimization as Predictors of Mental Health Across Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Hessel, Elenda T.; Schmidt, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization has been implicated as a traumatic stressor that compromises children’s long-term mental health, yet a dearth of prospective research specifically demonstrates lasting effects of early victimization. This research examined whether early (2nd grade) victimization and increasing (2nd – 5th grade) victimization independently predicted depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior (overt and relational) in 5th grade. Participants included 433 children (238 girls, 195 boys). Children reported on peer victimization and depressive symptoms; teachers reported on peer victimization and aggressive behavior. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that both early and increasing victimization made unique contributions to subsequent depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior. Relational aggression was particularly likely to follow victimization in girls. PMID:21229448

  7. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage. Final report, May 1997--July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, K.A.; Bahulkar, A.M.

    1998-08-01

    The use of a pavement management system provides a state highway agency with the tools necessary to conduct a multi-year analysis of the maintenance and rehabilitation needs within the state based on both current needs and expected future conditions. In order to adequately predict future conditions, pavement performance models must be developed to reflect the deterioration trends of the agency`s pavements. At the time the SDDOT pavement management system was implemented in 1994, the Department developed a new condition rating system to evaluate the existing conditions of the state maintained pavements. At the same time, expert-based pavement performance models were developed to approximate the deterioration patterns of the highways based on pavement families (groupings of pavements with similar characteristics). A recommendation from that study (SD93-14) was to update the curves based on historical performance once sufficient data had been collected.

  8. Analysis of the photoelectric light curve and the orbital period variations of the binary system UU Andromedae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoori, D.; Abbasvand, S.; Najafinezhad, F.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the analysis of the photoelectric light curve (LC) in the broad-band filter (400-700 nm) for the UU And system was carried out using the PHOEBE program (vers. 0.31a). The absolute dimensions of the system are determined and its evolution is discussed. Moreover, the period changes of the system are studied using updated O-C data, which shows a cyclic change with a period of P_mod=18 yr. This was attributed to a magnetic activity cycle operating in this system. In addition to the cyclic change, a long-term secular variation due to mass transfer from the secondary to the primary component with a rate of 6.17 × 10-9 M⊙ yr-1 was also detected.

  9. DOUBLE-STEP MULTIPLEX REAL TIME PCR WITH MELTING CURVE ANALYSIS FOR DETECTION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF MYCOBACTERIA IN SPUTUM.

    PubMed

    Kasa, Sawinee; Faksri, Kiatichai; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Namwat, Wises

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is a causative agent of tuberculosis, a worldwide public health problem. In recent years, the incidence of human mycobacterial infection due to species other than M. tb has increased. However, the lack of specific, rapid, and inexpensive methods for identification of mycobacterial species remains a pressing problem. A diagnostic test was developed for mycobacterial strain differentiation utilizing a double-step multiplex real time PCR together with melting curve analysis for identifying and distinguishing among M. tb, M. bovis BCG, other members of M. tb. complex, M. avium, and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria. The assay was tested using 167 clinical sputum samples in comparison with acid-fast staining and culturing. Using only the first step (step A) the assay achieved sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 95%, respectively. The detection limit was equivalent to 50 genome copies. PMID:26513906

  10. Molecular component distribution imaging of living cells by multivariate curve resolution analysis of space-resolved Raman spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.

    2014-01-01

    Label-free Raman microspectroscopy combined with a multivariate curve resolution (MCR) analysis can be a powerful tool for studying a wide range of biomedical molecular systems. The MCR with the alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) technique, which retrieves the pure component spectra from complicatedly overlapped spectra, has been successfully applied to in vivo and molecular-level analysis of living cells. The principles of the MCR-ALS analysis are reviewed with a model system of titanium oxide crystal polymorphs, followed by two examples of in vivo Raman imaging studies of living yeast cells, fission yeast, and budding yeast. Due to the non-negative matrix factorization algorithm used in the MCR-ALS analysis, the spectral information derived from this technique is just ready for physical and/or chemical interpretations. The corresponding concentration profiles provide the molecular component distribution images (MCDIs) that are vitally important for elucidating life at the molecular level, as stated by Schroedinger in his famous book, "What is life?" Without any a priori knowledge about spectral profiles, time- and space-resolved Raman measurements of a dividing fission yeast cell with the MCR-ALS elucidate the dynamic changes of major cellular components (lipids, proteins, and polysaccharides) during the cell cycle. The MCR-ALS technique also resolves broadly overlapped OH stretch Raman bands of water, clearly indicating the existence of organelle-specific water structures in a living budding yeast cell.

  11. Learning curve analysis of the Collum Femoris Preserving total hip surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Van Oldenrijk, Jakob; Schafroth, Matthias U; Rijk, Elisa; Runne, Wouter C; Verheyen, Cees C P M; van Egmond, Cees; Bhandari, Mohit; Poolman, Rudolf W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether femoral neck preserving total hip arthroplasty would become less difficult and more efficient during the first 20 cases and to identify potential pitfalls during the introduction of this procedure. The difficulty and efficiency of the initial 20 procedures performed by four surgeons was prospectively determined by analysing a total of 68 video recordings using time-action analysis. This method measures the duration and efficiency of individual actions needed for a surgeon to achieve his or her goal. Afterwards, we reviewed all actions with a long duration and discussed possible causes of delay with the surgeons to identify possible pitfalls. We found a decrease of difficulty and an increase of efficiency during the first 20 cases and a more consistent execution after the initial five cases. Estimating the correct osteotomy level and stem curvature was often difficult, which resulted in a variable stem position. Radiologic analysis demonstrated a tendency for varus position and increased leg length throughout the series, even after the surgeons demonstrated technical proficiency.

  12. Simplified Acute Physiology Score II as Predictor of Mortality in Intensive Care Units: A Decision Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Allyn, Jérôme; Ferdynus, Cyril; Bohrer, Michel; Dalban, Cécile; Valance, Dorothée; Allou, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background End-of-life decision-making in Intensive care Units (ICUs) is difficult. The main problems encountered are the lack of a reliable prediction score for death and the fact that the opinion of patients is rarely taken into consideration. The Decision Curve Analysis (DCA) is a recent method developed to evaluate the prediction models and which takes into account the wishes of patients (or surrogates) to expose themselves to the risk of obtaining a false result. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical usefulness, with DCA, of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) to predict ICU mortality. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study from January 2011 to September 2015, in a medical-surgical 23-bed ICU at University Hospital. Performances of the SAPS II, a modified SAPS II (without AGE), and age to predict ICU mortality, were measured by a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and DCA. Results Among the 4.370 patients admitted, 23.3% died in the ICU. Mean (standard deviation) age was 56.8 (16.7) years, and median (first-third quartile) SAPS II was 48 (34–65). Areas under ROC curves were 0.828 (0.813–0.843) for SAPS II, 0.814 (0.798–0.829) for modified SAPS II and of 0.627 (0.608–0.646) for age. DCA showed a net benefit whatever the probability threshold, especially under 0.5. Conclusion DCA shows the benefits of the SAPS II to predict ICU mortality, especially when the probability threshold is low. Complementary studies are needed to define the exact role that the SAPS II can play in end-of-life decision-making in ICUs. PMID:27741304

  13. Validation of an automatic comet assay analysis system integrating the curve fitting of combined comet intensity profiles.

    PubMed

    Dehon, G; Catoire, L; Duez, P; Bogaerts, P; Dubois, J

    2008-02-29

    In recent years, the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay has become a reference technique for the assessment of DNA fragmentation both in vitro and in vivo at the cellular level. In order to improve the throughput of genotoxicity screening, development of fully automated systems is clearly a must. This would allow us to increase processing time and to avoid subjectivity brought about by frequent manual settings required for the 'classical' analysis systems. To validate a fully automatic system developed in our laboratory, different experiments were conducted in vitro on murine P388D1 cells with increasing doses of ethyl methanesulfonate (up to 5 mM), thus covering a large range of DNA damage (up to 80% of DNA in the tail). The present study (1) validates our 'in house' fully automatic system versus a widely used semi-automatic commercial system for the image-analysis step, and versus the human eye for the image acquisition step, (2) shows that computing tail DNA a posteriori on the basis of a curve fitting concept that combines intensity profiles [G. Dehon, P. Bogaerts, P. Duez, L. Catoire, J. Dubois, Curve fitting of combined comet intensity profiles: a new global concept to quantify DNA damage by the comet assay, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 73 (2004) 235-243] gives results not significantly different from the 'classical' approach but is much more accurate and easy to undertake and (3) demonstrates that, with these increased performances, the number of comets to be scored can be reduced to a minimum of 20 comets per slide without sacrificing statistical reliability. PMID:18160335

  14. Interactome analysis reveals that FAM161A, deficient in recessive retinitis pigmentosa, is a component of the Golgi-centrosomal network.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Silvio Alessandro; Farinelli, Pietro; Letteboer, Stef J F; Arsenijevic, Yvan; Sharon, Dror; Roepman, Ronald; Rivolta, Carlo

    2015-06-15

    Defects in FAM161A, a protein of unknown function localized at the cilium of retinal photoreceptor cells, cause retinitis pigmentosa, a form of hereditary blindness. By using different fragments of this protein as baits to screen cDNA libraries of human and bovine retinas, we defined a yeast two-hybrid-based FAM161A interactome, identifying 53 bona fide partners. In addition to statistically significant enrichment in ciliary proteins, as expected, this interactome revealed a substantial bias towards proteins from the Golgi apparatus, the centrosome and the microtubule network. Validation of interaction with key partners by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay confirmed that FAM161A is a member of the recently recognized Golgi-centrosomal interactome, a network of proteins interconnecting Golgi maintenance, intracellular transport and centrosome organization. Notable FAM161A interactors included AKAP9, FIP3, GOLGA3, KIFC3, KLC2, PDE4DIP, NIN and TRIP11. Furthermore, analysis of FAM161A localization during the cell cycle revealed that this protein followed the centrosome during all stages of mitosis, likely reflecting a specific compartmentalization related to its role at the ciliary basal body during the G0 phase. Altogether, these findings suggest that FAM161A's activities are probably not limited to ciliary tasks but also extend to more general cellular functions, highlighting possible novel mechanisms for the molecular pathology of retinal disease. PMID:25749990

  15. Comparison of the clinical applicability of Miller's classification system to Kumar and Masamatti's classification system of gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Geeti; Puri, Komal; Bansal, Mansi; Jain, Deept; Khatri, Manish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of the present study were to (i) Find the percentage of recession cases that could be classified by application of Miller's and/or Kumar and Masamatti's classification of gingival recession, and (ii) compare the percentage of clinical applicability of Miller's criteria and Kumar and Masamatti's criteria to the total recessions present. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients (1089 recession cases) were included in the study wherein they were classified using both Miller's and Kumar and Masamatti's classification systems of gingival recession. Percentage comparison of the application of both classification systems was done. Results: Data analysis showed that though all the cases of the recession were classified by Kumar and Masamatti's classification, only 34.61% cases were classified by Miller's classification. 19.10% cases were completely (having only labial/buccal recession) classified. In 15.51% (out of 34.61%) cases, only buccal recession was classified according to Miller's criteria and included in this category, although these cases had both buccal and lingual/palatal recessions. Furthermore, 29.75% cases of recession with interdental loss and marginal tissue loss coronal to mucogingival junction (MGJ) remained uncategorized by Miller's classification; categorization of palatal/lingual recession was possible with Kumar and Masamatti's classification. Conclusion: The elaborative evaluation of both buccal and palatal/lingual recession by the Kumar and Masamatti's classification system can be used to overcome the limitations of Miller's classification system, especially the cases with interdental loss and having marginal tissue loss coronal to MGJ. PMID:26644724

  16. Aeroacoustical Study of the Tgv Pantograph Recess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NOGER, C.; PATRAT, J. C.; PEUBE, J.; PEUBE, J. L.

    2000-03-01

    The general focus of this aerodynamic noise research, induced by turbulent incompressible flow, is to improve our knowledge of acoustic production mechanisms in the TGV pantograph recess in order to be able to reduce the radiated noise. This work is performed under contract with SNCF as a part of the German-French Cooperation DEUFRAKO K2, and is supported by French Ministries for Transport and Research. Previous studies on TGV noise source locations (DEUFRAKO K) have identified the pantograph recess as one of the important aerodynamic noise sources, for speeds higher than 300 km/h, due to flow separation. The pantograph recess is a very complex rectangular cavity, located both on the power car and the first coach roofs of the TGV, and has not been studied before due to the complex shapes. Its aeroacoustic features are investigated experimentally in a low-subsonic wind tunnel, on a realistic 1/7th scale mock-up both with and without pantographs. Flow velocities, estimated with hot-wire anemometry, and parietal visualizations show the flow to reattach on the recess bottom wall and to separate again at the downstream face. Wall pressure fluctuations and “acoustic” measurements using 14 and 12 in microphones respectively are also measured to qualify the flow: no aerodynamic or acoustic oscillations are observed. The study indicates that the pantograph recess has a different behaviour compared to the usual cavity grazing flows.

  17. Management and prevention of gingival recession.

    PubMed

    Merijohn, George K

    2016-06-01

    Gingival recession is highly prevalent worldwide. It increases the risk for root caries and can interfere with patient comfort, function and esthetics. Progressive gingival recession also increases the risk of tooth loss secondary to clinical attachment loss. Although mitigating the causes of gingival recession decreases its incidence and severity, implementing practical management and prevention strategies in the clinical setting can be challenging. Identification of susceptible patients and evaluating them for the presence of modifiable risk exposures are essential first steps in developing action plans for appropriate interventions. This article reviews these steps and introduces chairside tools that can help in the selection of interventions designed to reduce the risk of future gingival recession and may also facilitate patient communication. Practical decision-making criteria are proposed for when and how to monitor gingival recession, for deciding when a patient is a candidate for surgical evaluation or referral to a periodontist, and, if surgery is the treatment of choice, what should be considered as key surgical outcome objectives. PMID:27045439

  18. Blast response of curved carbon/epoxy composite panels: Experimental study and finite-element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadnis, V. A.; Kumar, P.; Shukla, A.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Experimental and numerical studies were conducted to understand the effect of plate curvature on blast response of carbon/epoxy composite panels. A shock-tube system was utilized to impart controlled shock loading to quasi-isotropic composite panels with differing range of radii of curvatures. A 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique coupled with high-speed photography was used to obtain out-of-plane deflection and velocity, as well as in-plane strain on the back face of the panels. Macroscopic post-mortem analysis was performed to compare yielding and deformation in these panels. A dynamic computational simulation that integrates fluid-structure interaction was conducted to evaluate the panel response in general purpose finite-element software ABAQUS/Explicit. The obtained numerical results were compared to the experimental data and showed a good correlation.

  19. A steady-state equilibrium configuration in the dynamic analysis of a curved pipe conveying fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Duhan; Chung, Jintai

    2006-06-01

    This paper discusses a steady-state equilibrium configuration and a set of linearized equations of motion for the dynamic analysis of a semi-circular fluid-conveying pipe. Through application of the perturbation method to the equations of motion for a semi-circular pipe, new nonlinear equilibrium equations were derived and the equations of motion were linearized around the equilibrium configuration of the pipe. The equilibrium configurations obtained from the derived nonlinear equilibrium equations were compared to configurations from the linear equilibrium equations of other researchers. Additionally, the natural frequencies computed in this study were compared with the frequencies presented in a previous study. It was found that the steady-state equilibrium configuration should be determined using the proposed nonlinear equilibrium equations rather than previous linear equilibrium equations. Furthermore, it was shown that the natural frequencies computed with the proposed equilibrium equations were more accurate than the frequencies of other studies.

  20. A Global Approach to Accurate and Automatic Quantitative Analysis of NMR Spectra by Complex Least-Squares Curve Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. L.

    The performance of quantitative analysis of 1D NMR spectra depends greatly on the choice of the NMR signal model. Complex least-squares analysis is well suited for optimizing the quantitative determination of spectra containing a limited number of signals (<30) obtained under satisfactory conditions of signal-to-noise ratio (>20). From a general point of view it is concluded, on the basis of mathematical considerations and numerical simulations, that, in the absence of truncation of the free-induction decay, complex least-squares curve fitting either in the time or in the frequency domain and linear-prediction methods are in fact nearly equivalent and give identical results. However, in the situation considered, complex least-squares analysis in the frequency domain is more flexible since it enables the quality of convergence to be appraised at every resonance position. An efficient data-processing strategy has been developed which makes use of an approximate conjugate-gradient algorithm. All spectral parameters (frequency, damping factors, amplitudes, phases, initial delay associated with intensity, and phase parameters of a baseline correction) are simultaneously managed in an integrated approach which is fully automatable. The behavior of the error as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio is theoretically estimated, and the influence of apodization is discussed. The least-squares curve fitting is theoretically proved to be the most accurate approach for quantitative analysis of 1D NMR data acquired with reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. The method enables complex spectral residuals to be sorted out. These residuals, which can be cumulated thanks to the possibility of correcting for frequency shifts and phase errors, extract systematic components, such as isotopic satellite lines, and characterize the shape and the intensity of the spectral distortion with respect to the Lorentzian model. This distortion is shown to be nearly independent of the chemical species

  1. The impact of the great recession on community-based mental health organizations: an analysis of top managers' perceptions of the economic downturn's effects and adaptive strategies used to manage the consequences in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Helen Anne; Knudsen, Kraig

    2014-04-01

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 adversely affected the financial stability of the community-based mental health infrastructure in Ohio. This paper presents survey results of the type of adaptive strategies used by Ohio community-based mental health organizations to manage the consequences of the economic downturn. Results were aggregated into geographical classifications of rural, mid-sized urban, and urban. Across all groups, respondents perceived, to varying degrees, that the Great Recession posed a threat to their organization's survival. Urban organizations were more likely to implement adaptive strategies to expand operations while rural and midsized urban organizations implemented strategies to enhance internal efficiencies.

  2. A unified phenomenological analysis of the experimental velocity curves in molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, Aleix; Sancho, J M

    2008-06-14

    We present a unified phenomenological kinetic framework to analyze the experimental data of several motor proteins (either linear or rotatory). This formalism allows us to discriminate the characteristic times of most relevant subprocesses. Explicitly, internal mechanical as well as chemical times are taken into account and joined together in a full-cycle time where effusion, diffusion and chemical rates, viscoelastic friction, and overdamped motion are considered. This approach clarifies the most relevant mechanisms in a particular motor by using the available experimental data of velocity versus external load and substrate concentration. We apply our analysis to three real molecular motors for which enough experimental data are available: the bacterial flagellar motor [Yoshiyuki et al., J. Mol. Biol. 377, 1043 (2003)], conventional kinesin (kinesin-1) [Block et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 2351 (2003)], and a RAN polymerase [Abbondanzieril, Nature (London) 438, 460 (2003)]. Moreover, the mechanism of stalling a motor is revised and split into two different concepts (mechanical and chemical stalling) that shed light to the understanding of backstepping in kinesin-1.

  3. High-resolution melting curve analysis for genotyping of common SNP in MTHFR gene using fixed-cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Sinthuwiwat, Thivaratana; Poowasanpetch, Phanasit; Wongngamrungroj, Angsana; Promso, Somying; Auewarakul, Chirayu; Mooney, Sean; Tocharoentanaphol, Chintana

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation in MTHFR might explain the interindividual differences in both therapeutic and toxic responses to the treatment of cancer and rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate, and can be involved in the sensitivity of developing diseases like cancer and congenital anomalies. We investigated the common sequence variation, C677T, in the MTHFR gene in fixed-cell specimens archived after chromosomal analysis using a novel gene scanning method based on post PCR analysis of high-resolution melting curves (HRM). These fixed specimens were stored after routine chromosomal analysis for 1 year at -20 degrees C in a 3:1 methanol:acetic acid solution. The method revealed a distinct pattern between homozygous and heterozygous alleles. Sensitivity and specificity of the HRM based method were comparable to that obtained by a hybridization probe. While the success rate for genotyping of a common SNP in MTHFR was similar to the hybridization probe approach, the HRM based method was more cost-effective and had a shorter turnaround time. PMID:18725286

  4. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse-Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.

    1999-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations including transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Linearized, perturbed equilibrium equations (stability equations) that describe the response of the plate just after buckling occurs are derived. These equations are then modified to allow the plate reference surface to be located a distance z(sub c) from the centroidal surface. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT exact buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design computer program is described. The terms of the plate stiffness matrix using both classical plate theory (CPT) and first-order shear-deformation plate theory (SDPT) are presented. The effects of in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loads are included in the in-plane stability equations. Numerical results for several example problems with different loading states are presented. Comparisons of analyses using both physical and tensorial strain measures as well as CPT and SDPT are made. The computational effort required by the new analysis is compared to that of the analysis currently in the VICONOPT program. The effects of including terms related to in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loadings in the in-plane stability equations are also examined. Finally, results of a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression are presented.

  5. From Curves to Trees: A Tree-like Shapes Distance Using the Elastic Shape Analysis Framework.

    PubMed

    Mottini, A; Descombes, X; Besse, F

    2015-04-01

    Trees are a special type of graph that can be found in various disciplines. In the field of biomedical imaging, trees have been widely studied as they can be used to describe structures such as neurons, blood vessels and lung airways. It has been shown that the morphological characteristics of these structures can provide information on their function aiding the characterization of pathological states. Therefore, it is important to develop methods that analyze their shape and quantify differences between their structures. In this paper, we present a method for the comparison of tree-like shapes that takes into account both topological and geometrical information. This method, which is based on the Elastic Shape Analysis Framework, also computes the mean shape of a population of trees. As a first application, we have considered the comparison of axon morphology. The performance of our method has been evaluated on two sets of images. For the first set of images, we considered four different populations of neurons from different animals and brain sections from the NeuroMorpho.org open database. The second set was composed of a database of 3D confocal microscopy images of three populations of axonal trees (normal and two types of mutations) of the same type of neurons. We have calculated the inter and intra class distances between the populations and embedded the distance in a classification scheme. We have compared the performance of our method against three other state of the art algorithms, and results showed that the proposed method better distinguishes between the populations. Furthermore, we present the mean shape of each population. These shapes present a more complete picture of the morphological characteristics of each population, compared to the average value of certain predefined features.

  6. NEW BEST1 MUTATIONS IN AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE BESTROPHINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    FUNG, ADRIAN T.; YZER, SUZANNE; GOLDBERG, NAOMI; WANG, HAO; NISSEN, MICHAEL; GIOVANNINI, ALFONSO; MERRIAM, JOANNA E.; BUKANOVA, ELENA N.; CAI, CAROLYN; YANNUZZI, LAWRENCE A.; TSANG, STEPHEN H.; ALLIKMETS, RANDO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the ocular phenotype in patients with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy and carriers, and to describe novel BEST1 mutations. Methods Patients with clinically suspected and subsequently genetically proven autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy underwent full ophthalmic examination and investigation with fundus autofluorescence imaging, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, electroretinography, and electrooculography. Mutation analysis of the BEST1 gene was performed through direct Sanger sequencing. Results Five affected patients from four families were identified. Mean age was 16 years (range, 6–42 years). All affected patients presented with reduced visual acuity and bilateral, hyperautofluorescent subretinal yellowish deposits within the posterior pole. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated submacular fluid and subretinal vitelliform material in all patients. A cystoid maculopathy was seen in all but one patient. In 1 patient, the location of the vitelliform material was seen to change over a follow-up period of 3 years despite relatively stable vision. Visual acuity and fundus changes were unresponsive to topical and systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and systemic steroids. Carriers had normal ocular examinations including normal fundus autofluorescence. Three novel mutations were detected. Conclusion Three novel BEST1 mutations are described, suggesting that many deleterious variants in BEST1 resulting in haploinsufficiency are still unknown. Mutations causing autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy are mostly located outside of the exons that usually harbor vitelliform macular dystrophy–associated dominant mutations. PMID:25545482

  7. Landscape and Storm Controls on Recession Coefficients over Small Mountainous Catchments in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Yi; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Chen, Yi-Chin; Shih, Yu-Ting; Shen, Che-Wei

    2016-04-01

    relationship between recession coefficient and landscape characteristics can facilitate the understanding of recession analysis and applicability in ungauged watersheds.

  8. Asteroid phase curve analysis with the H, G 1, G 2 photometric phase function: application to the PTF survey observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, Antti; Cellino, Alberto; Lu, Xiaoping; Shevchenko, Vasilij G.; Muinonen, Karri

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of an asteroid's absolute magnitude H from its photometry is extremely important. The absolute magnitude relates the brightness of the asteroid to its size, if the geometric albedo is known. The shape of the phase curve can serve as a proxy for the taxonomic type of the asteroid in cases with no spectral information available [1,2].In 2012, the IAU adopted the H,G1,G2 function to replace the H,G function for phase curve analysis [3]. This new function improves the backscattering behavior of the curve with high- and low-albedo asteroids. The phase function (PF) can be applied to asteroids with multiple high-quality observations. If the number of observations is small, or their accuracy is low, problems may arise. The most apparent problem is that the parameter G or the parameters G1, G2 might be poorly estimated. The solution has been to fix to value of G or values of G1, G2 and estimate only the H. In our recent work [4], we offer a solution that can improve the current situation with the photometric fits with a small number of low-accuracy observations. We present a constrained nonlinear least-squares method for fitting the H,G1,G2 function that can improve the possible bias with low-accuracy data. Then, we revisit the two-parameter PF with new data and offer a new version, the H,G12* PF. Finally, we assess the problem with fixed G or G1, G2 parameters by introducing one-parameter models that relate to five taxonomic asteroid groups. We tie all the models together with three or two parameters, or a single parameter, with a statistical model selection procedure to select the best version for a particular data set.We have developed practical tools for the abovementioned algorithms. We apply the tools to a dataset of 8,900 asteroids with almost 500,000 photometric observations from the Palomar Transient Factory survey [5]. We report the effect of the revised H estimates on the geometric albedos in cases where WISE-mission size estimates are available.[1] D

  9. A historical perspective of the effect of the great recession on hospitals.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Janet

    2014-08-01

    At 18 months, the Great Recession of December 2007 to June 2009 is the longest recession since World War II. The recession led to soaring unemployment, resulting in loss of employment-based health insurance for millions of people. In addition to seeing increases in uninsured patients, hospitals experienced losses in their investment portfolios, which in turn increased bad debt, charity care, and uncompensated care nationwide. Hospital executives began to devise cost-cutting strategies to balance the rising debt, such as standardizing medical equipment, cutting staff positions, and delaying construction projects and capital expenditures as well as implementing value analysis strategies. The recession is officially over, and, although economic recovery has been slow and unemployment continues to be an issue, hospitals' net revenue started improving as of 2009 and hospital construction started increasing in 2010. Still, caution is warranted in the postrecession climate, because it is unknown what effects will be seen when the Baby Boomer generation begins using Medicare.

  10. A historical perspective of the effect of the great recession on hospitals.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Janet

    2014-08-01

    At 18 months, the Great Recession of December 2007 to June 2009 is the longest recession since World War II. The recession led to soaring unemployment, resulting in loss of employment-based health insurance for millions of people. In addition to seeing increases in uninsured patients, hospitals experienced losses in their investment portfolios, which in turn increased bad debt, charity care, and uncompensated care nationwide. Hospital executives began to devise cost-cutting strategies to balance the rising debt, such as standardizing medical equipment, cutting staff positions, and delaying construction projects and capital expenditures as well as implementing value analysis strategies. The recession is officially over, and, although economic recovery has been slow and unemployment continues to be an issue, hospitals' net revenue started improving as of 2009 and hospital construction started increasing in 2010. Still, caution is warranted in the postrecession climate, because it is unknown what effects will be seen when the Baby Boomer generation begins using Medicare. PMID:25080418

  11. How many loci on the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster can mutate to recessive lethals

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Wuergler, F.E.; DeJongh, C.; Meyer, H.U.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of the sex-linked recessive lethal test is due to the fact that a very large number of loci are included in the mutation study. From extensive studies on the spontaneous sex-linked recessive lethal frequency and spontaneous specific locus mutation rates, it is possible to derive an estimate of the number of loci included in the recessive lethal test. The average number derived from three estimates on male and female germ cells in 563 loci. A second independent approach derives from published data which analyzed short regions of the genome and the proportion of loci within these regions which mutate to lethality. This analysis suggests that 830 loci are potentially lethal mutables. We describe the reasons for concluding that 600 to 800 loci of the approximately 1000 loci on the X-chromosome are involved in the X-linked recessive lethal test.

  12. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Bayr, Klaus J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle.

  13. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S. Jr.; Bayr, K.J. USGS, Reston, VA Keene State College, NH )

    1992-03-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle. 21 refs.

  14. MOST light-curve analysis of the γ Doradus pulsator HR 8799, showing resonances and amplitude variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sódor, Á.; Chené, A.-N.; De Cat, P.; Bognár, Zs.; Wright, D. J.; Marois, C.; Walker, G. A. H.; Matthews, J. M.; Kallinger, T.; Rowe, J. F.; Kuschnig, R.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The central star of the HR 8799 system is a γ Doradus-type pulsator. The system harbours four planetary-mass companions detected by direct imaging, and is a good solar system analogue. The masses of the companions are not accurately known because the estimation depends greatly on the age of the system, which is also not known with sufficient accuracy. Asteroseismic studies of the star might help to better constrain the age of HR 8799. We organized an extensive photometric and multi-site spectroscopic observing campaign to study the pulsations of the central star. Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the pulsation properties of HR 8799 in detail via the ultra-precise 47 d nearly continuous photometry obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations in STars (MOST) space telescope, and to find as many independent pulsation modes as possible, which is the prerequisite for an asteroseismic age determination. Methods: We carried out Fourier analysis of the wide-band photometric time series. Results: We find that resonance and sudden amplitude changes characterize the pulsation of HR 8799. The dominant frequency is always at f1 = 1.978 d-1.Many multiples of one-ninth of the dominant frequency appear in the Fourier spectrum of the MOST data: n/9 f1, where n = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,13,14,17,18}. Our analysis also reveals that many of these peaks show strong amplitude decrease and phase variations even on the 47 d time scale. The dependencies between the pulsation frequencies of HR 8799 make the planned subsequent asteroseismic analysis rather difficult. We point out some resemblance between the light curve of HR 8799 and the modulated pulsation light curves of Blazhko RR Lyrae stars. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

  15. A rare case of respiratory disorders associated with two autosomal recessive diseases and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Mendeluk, Gabriela Ruth; Costa, Sergio López; Scigliano, Sergio; Menga, Guillermo; Demiceu, Sergio; Palaoro, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ultrastructure may contribute to the understanding of pathognomonic cases of male infertility associated with defects in sperm motility. This study was designed to report a particular case of male infertility, characterized by the association of two respiratory autosomal recessive genetic diseases (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency [AAT-D] and primary ciliary dyskinesia [PCD]). A 39-year-old patient with complete sperm immotility, AAT-D, and bronchiectasis was studied in the Laboratory of Male Fertility, the Department of Urology, the Respiratory Center of a Pediatric Hospital, and in the Department of Clinical Medicine of a Rehabilitation Respiratory Hospital. Family history, physical examination, hormonal analysis, microbial assays, semen analysis, nasal ciliary function, and structure study by digital high-speed video photography and transmission electron microscopy are described. A noninvasive nasal biopsy to retrieve ciliated epithelium lining the inferior surface of the inferior nasal turbinates was performed and CBF was determined. Beat pattern was slightly curved and rigid, not wide, and metacronic in all the observed fields analyzed. CBF was 8.2 Hz in average (reference value, 10-15 Hz) Ultrastructural assay revealed absence of the inner dynein arms in 97% of the cilia observed. The final infertility accurate diagnosis was achieved by the study of nasal CBF and ultrastructure contributing to the patient health management and genetic counseling while deciding fatherhood. Beyond this particular case, the present report may open a new field of studies in male infertility, mainly in cases of asthenozoospermia.

  16. Weathering the Recession in College Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, William A.

    2010-01-01

    The current global recession has increased personal stress levels throughout our society. With dwindling resources, institutions of higher learning are especially prone to budgetary cutbacks during such periods. Based on 22 years of experience as a health service director, the author offers some personal insights in the hope that they will help…

  17. [Periodontology and esthetics: the gingival recession].

    PubMed

    Corba, N H

    1991-06-01

    Gingival recessions are regarded by many people as an esthetical problem. Successively the etiology, the significance and the indications for therapy are discussed. Different kinds of therapy such as oral hygiene instruction, the free gingival graft and various pedicle grafts are explained. Finally it is advocated that surgical kinds of therapy have to be applied with reservedness.

  18. The Recession and Education: Seize New Opportunities!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskvitz, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The teaching profession has long been thought of as recession proof. Indeed, that may have been one of the reasons why teachers took far lower starting salaries right out of college. Perhaps the greatest common feature of teachers, besides their desire to serve society in a humanitarian way, may be the lack of risk-taking the occupation previously…

  19. Shop Steward Resistance in the Recession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Bruce

    1985-01-01

    This article draws on work carried out in a British brewery, refutes the claim that the recession has made trade unions irrelevant to managerial concerns, and argues that cohesive, factor-based shop steward organization can resist a management onslaught. (Author/CT)

  20. The effect of recessions on gambling expenditures.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Csilla; Paap, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This article examines the influence of the business cycle on expenditures of three major types of legalized gambling activities: Casino gambling, lottery, and pari-mutuel wagering. Empirical results are obtained using monthly aggregated US per capita consumption time series for the period 1959.01-2010.08. Among the three gambling activities only lottery consumption appears to be recession-proof. This series is characterized by a vast and solid growth that exceeds the growth in income and the growth in other gambling sectors. Casino gambling expenditures show a positive growth during expansions and no growth during recessions. Hence, the loss in income during recessions affects casino gambling. However, income shocks which are not directly related to the business cycle do not influence casino gambling expenditures. Pari-mutuel wagering displays an overall negative trend and its average growth rate is smaller than the growth in income, especially during recessions. The findings of this article provide important implications for the gambling industry and for local governments.

  1. Recession curbs gas pipeline construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-01-24

    This paper shows how after 5 yrs. of inflation, gas pipeline construction costs have finally felt the effects of a severe building recession. First quarter (1982) construction activity, compressor equipment and drive units, and high-pressure gas-station piping are discussed. Graphs of OGJ-Morgan composite gas pipeline cost, and gas pipeline cost component indexes are presented.

  2. Gender Differences during Recess in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twarek, Linda S.; George, Halley S.

    A study examined the differences in what boys and girls choose, or are free to choose, to do on the playground during recess. Given the apparent problem that boys dominate the playground area, leaving girls on the perimeter, it was hypothesized that girls engage in passive, non-competitive, small group activities, whereas boys engage in…

  3. Nevada, the Great Recession, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Great Recession and its aftermath has been devastating in Nevada, especially for public education. This article discusses the budget shortfalls and the impact of the economic crisis in Nevada using case study methodology. It provides a review of documents, including Governor Gibbon's proposals for the public K-12 education system…

  4. Weathering the recession in college health.

    PubMed

    Christmas, William A

    2010-01-01

    The current global recession has increased personal stress levels throughout our society. With dwindling resources, institutions of higher learning are especially prone to budgetary cutbacks during such periods. Based on 22 years of experience as a health service director, the author offers some personal insights in the hope that they will help colleagues cope with the current situation.

  5. Testing Faces Ups and Downs Amid Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    As the recession crimps education budgets, states are beginning to pare the number of standardized tests they give, particularly those that no longer factor into state or federal accountability decisions. At the district level, though, it's a different story. Despite pressure not to cut staffing and programs, many districts are preserving local…

  6. A meta-analysis of education effects on chronic disease: the causal dynamics of the Population Education Transition Curve.

    PubMed

    Smith, William C; Anderson, Emily; Salinas, Daniel; Horvatek, Renata; Baker, David P

    2015-02-01

    As the Epidemiological Transition progresses worldwide, chronic diseases account for the majority of deaths in developed countries and a rising proportion in developing countries indicating a new global pattern of mortality and health challenges into the future. Attainment of formal education is widely reported to have a negative gradient with risk factors and onset of chronic disease, yet there has not been a formal assessment of this research. A random-effects meta-analysis finds that across 414 published effects more education significantly reduces the likelihood of chronic disease, except for neoplastic diseases with substantial genetic causes. Some studies, however, report null effects and other research on infectious disease report positive education gradients. Instead of assuming these contradictory results are spurious, it is suggested that they are part of a predictable systemic interaction between multiple mediating effects of education and the Epidemiological Transition stage of the population; and thus represent one case of the Population Education Transition Curve modeling changes in the association between education and health as dependent on population context.

  7. Galactoside-proton symport in a lacYUN mutant of Escherichia coli investigated by analysis of transport progress curves.

    PubMed Central

    Page, M G

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of galactoside-proton symport catalysed by a wild-type strain and one carrying a mutation, previously reported to cause uncoupling of the symport reaction, have been examined. The mutation does not affect the stoichiometry during the initial period of uptake, when the internal concentration of galactoside is low, but it does result in much greater competition from the galactoside as it is accumulated. Simple methods for the analysis of the uptake progress curves have been developed and used to estimate the initial rate of uptake and affinity for internal galactoside. The maximum rate of uptake is decreased by a factor of 2 at most whereas the affinity for internal galactoside is increased up to 50-fold by the mutation. The pH-dependence of the galactoside efflux reaction is changed in a manner which suggests that the defect is in the interaction between proton-binding and galactoside-binding sites rather than in the structure of either site. PMID:3036093

  8. Pulse wave analysis in a 180-degree curved artery model: Implications under physiological and non-physiological inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse pressures, and left ventricular hypertrophy contribute to cardiovascular risks. Increase of arterial stiffness due to aging and hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular, chronic kidney and end-stage-renal-diseases. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) based on arterial pressure wave characteristics, is well established in clinical practice for evaluation of arterial distensibility and hypertension. The objective of our exploratory study in a rigid 180-degree curved artery model was to evaluate arterial pressure waveforms. Bend upstream conditions were measured using a two-component, two-dimensional, particle image velocimeter (2C-2D PIV). An ultrasonic transit-time flow meter and a catheter with a MEMS-based solid state pressure sensor, capable of measuring up to 20 harmonics of the observed pressure waveform, monitored flow conditions downstream of the bend. Our novel continuous wavelet transform algorithm (PIVlet 1.2), in addition to detecting coherent secondary flow structures is used to evaluate arterial pulse wave characteristics subjected to physiological and non-physiological inflows. Results of this study will elucidate the utility of wavelet transforms in arterial function evaluation and pulse wave speed. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  9. Validation of Kepler's Multiple Planet Candidates. III. Light Curve Analysis and Announcement of Hundreds of New Multi-planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Mullally, Fergal; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Issacson, Howard; Ford, Eric; Howell, Steve B.; Borucki, William J.; Haas, Michael; Huber, Daniel; Steffen, Jason H.; Thompson, Susan E.; Quintana, Elisa; Barclay, Thomas; Still, Martin; Fortney, Jonathan; Gautier, T. N., III; Hunter, Roger; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Ciardi, David R.; Devore, Edna; Cochran, William; Jenkins, Jon; Agol, Eric; Carter, Joshua A.; Geary, John

    2014-03-01

    The Kepler mission has discovered more than 2500 exoplanet candidates in the first two years of spacecraft data, with approximately 40% of those in candidate multi-planet systems. The high rate of multiplicity combined with the low rate of identified false positives indicates that the multiplanet systems contain very few false positive signals due to other systems not gravitationally bound to the target star. False positives in the multi-planet systems are identified and removed, leaving behind a residual population of candidate multi-planet transiting systems expected to have a false positive rate less than 1%. We present a sample of 340 planetary systems that contain 851 planets that are validated to substantially better than the 99% confidence level; the vast majority of these have not been previously verified as planets. We expect ~two unidentified false positives making our sample of planet very reliable. We present fundamental planetary properties of our sample based on a comprehensive analysis of Kepler light curves, ground-based spectroscopy, and high-resolution imaging. Since we do not require spectroscopy or high-resolution imaging for validation, some of our derived parameters for a planetary system may be systematically incorrect due to dilution from light due to additional stars in the photometric aperture. Nonetheless, our result nearly doubles the number verified exoplanets.

  10. Latent growth curve analysis of fear during a speech task before and after treatment for social phobia.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2011-11-01

    Models of social phobia highlight the importance of anticipatory anxiety in the experience of fear during a social situation. Anticipatory anxiety has been shown to be highly correlated with performance anxiety for a variety of social situations. A few studies show that average ratings of anxiety during the anticipation and performance phases of a social situation decline following treatment. Evidence also suggests that the point of confrontation with the feared stimulus is the peak level of fear. No study to date has evaluated the pattern of anxious responding across the anticipation, confrontation, and performance phases before and after treatment, which is the focus of the current study. Socially phobic individuals (N = 51) completed a behavioral avoidance task before and after two types of manualized cognitive behavioral therapy, and gave ratings of fear during the anticipation and performance phases. Results from latent growth curve analysis were the same for the two treatments and suggested that before treatment, anxiety sharply increased during the anticipation phase, was highly elevated at the confrontation, and gradually increased during the performance phase. After treatment, anxiety increased during the anticipation phase, although at a much slower rate than at pretreatment, peaked at confrontation, and declined during the performance phase. The findings suggest that anticipatory experiences are critical to the experience of fear for public speaking and should be incorporated into exposures. PMID:21907972

  11. Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. III. Light curve analysis and announcement of hundreds of new multi-planet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Mullally, Fergal; Howell, Steve B.; Borucki, William J.; Haas, Michael; Huber, Daniel; Thompson, Susan E.; Quintana, Elisa; Barclay, Thomas; Still, Martin; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Issacson, Howard; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Ford, Eric; Steffen, Jason H.; Gautier, T. N. III; and others

    2014-03-20

    The Kepler mission has discovered more than 2500 exoplanet candidates in the first two years of spacecraft data, with approximately 40% of those in candidate multi-planet systems. The high rate of multiplicity combined with the low rate of identified false positives indicates that the multiplanet systems contain very few false positive signals due to other systems not gravitationally bound to the target star. False positives in the multi-planet systems are identified and removed, leaving behind a residual population of candidate multi-planet transiting systems expected to have a false positive rate less than 1%. We present a sample of 340 planetary systems that contain 851 planets that are validated to substantially better than the 99% confidence level; the vast majority of these have not been previously verified as planets. We expect ∼two unidentified false positives making our sample of planet very reliable. We present fundamental planetary properties of our sample based on a comprehensive analysis of Kepler light curves, ground-based spectroscopy, and high-resolution imaging. Since we do not require spectroscopy or high-resolution imaging for validation, some of our derived parameters for a planetary system may be systematically incorrect due to dilution from light due to additional stars in the photometric aperture. Nonetheless, our result nearly doubles the number verified exoplanets.

  12. Vibrational analysis on the revised potential energy curve of the low-barrier hydrogen bond in photoactive yellow protein.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, Yusuke; Kamikubo, Hironari; Kataoka, Mikio; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) has a characteristic hydrogen bond (H bond) between p-coumaric acid chromophore and Glu46, whose OH bond length has been observed to be 1.21 Å by the neutron diffraction technique [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 440-4]. Although it has been expected that such a drastic elongation of the OH bond could be caused by the quantum effect of the hydrogen nucleus, previous theoretical computations including the nuclear quantum effect have so far underestimated the bond length by more than 0.07 Å. To elucidate the origin of the difference, we performed a vibrational analysis of the H bond on potential energy curve with O…O distance of 2.47 Å on the equilibrium structure, and that with O…O distance of 2.56 Å on the experimental crystal structure. While the vibrationally averaged OH bond length for equilibrium structure was underestimated, the corresponding value for crystal structure was in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental values. The elongation of the O…O distance by the quantum mechanical or thermal fluctuation would be indispensable for the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond in PYP.

  13. Vibrational analysis on the revised potential energy curve of the low-barrier hydrogen bond in photoactive yellow protein.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, Yusuke; Kamikubo, Hironari; Kataoka, Mikio; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) has a characteristic hydrogen bond (H bond) between p-coumaric acid chromophore and Glu46, whose OH bond length has been observed to be 1.21 Å by the neutron diffraction technique [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 440-4]. Although it has been expected that such a drastic elongation of the OH bond could be caused by the quantum effect of the hydrogen nucleus, previous theoretical computations including the nuclear quantum effect have so far underestimated the bond length by more than 0.07 Å. To elucidate the origin of the difference, we performed a vibrational analysis of the H bond on potential energy curve with O…O distance of 2.47 Å on the equilibrium structure, and that with O…O distance of 2.56 Å on the experimental crystal structure. While the vibrationally averaged OH bond length for equilibrium structure was underestimated, the corresponding value for crystal structure was in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental values. The elongation of the O…O distance by the quantum mechanical or thermal fluctuation would be indispensable for the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond in PYP. PMID:27274362

  14. A biometric latent curve analysis of memory decline in older men of the NAS-NRC twin registry.

    PubMed

    McArdle, John J; Plassman, Brenda L

    2009-09-01

    Previous research has shown cognitive abilities to have different biometric patterns of age-changes. We examined the variation in episodic memory (word recall task) for over 6,000 twin pairs who were initially aged 59-75, and were subsequently re-assessed up to three more times over 12 years. In cross-sectional analyses, variation in the number of words recalled independent of age was explained largely by non-shared influences (65-72%), with clear additive genetic influences (12-32%), and marginal shared family influences (1-18%). The longitudinal phenotypic analysis of the word recall task showed systematic linear declines over age, but several nonlinear models with more dramatic changes at later ages, improved the overall fit. A two-part spline model for the longitudinal twin data with an optimal turning point at age 74 led to: (a) a separation of non-shared environmental influences and transient measurement error (~50%); (b) strong additive genetic components of this latent curve (~44% at age 60) with increases (over 50%) up to age 74, but with no additional genetic variation after age 74; (c) the smaller influences of shared family environment (~15% at age 74) were constant over all ages; (d) non-shared effects play an important role over most of the life-span but diminish after age 74.

  15. Rapid detection and non-subjective characterisation of infectious bronchitis virus isolates using high-resolution melt curve analysis and a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Hewson, Kylie; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Devlin, Joanne M; Mardani, Karim; Ignjatovic, Jagoda

    2009-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus that causes upper respiratory, renal and/or reproductive diseases with high morbidity in poultry. Classification of IBV is important for implementation of vaccination strategies to control the disease in commercial poultry. Currently, the lengthy process of sequence analysis of the IBV S1 gene is considered the gold standard for IBV strain identification, with a high nucleotide identity (e.g. > or =95%) indicating related strains. However, this gene has a high propensity to mutate and/or undergo recombination, and alone it may not be reliable for strain identification. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) combined with high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed based on the 3'UTR of IBV for rapid detection and classification of IBV from commercial poultry. HRM curves generated from 230 to 435-bp PCR products of several IBV strains were subjected to further analysis using a mathematical model also developed during this study. It was shown that a combination of HRM curve analysis and the mathematical model could reliably group 189 out of 190 comparisons of pairs of IBV strains in accordance with their 3'UTR and S1 gene identities. The newly developed RT-PCR/HRM curve analysis model could detect and rapidly identify novel and vaccine-related IBV strains, as confirmed by S1 gene and 3'UTR nucleotide sequences. This model is a rapid, reliable, accurate and non-subjective system for detection of IBVs in poultry flocks.

  16. Langevin Equation on Fractal Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satin, Seema; Gangal, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze random motion of a particle on a fractal curve, using Langevin approach. This involves defining a new velocity in terms of mass of the fractal curve, as defined in recent work. The geometry of the fractal curve, plays an important role in this analysis. A Langevin equation with a particular model of noise is proposed and solved using techniques of the Fα-Calculus.

  17. Re-analysis of previous laboratory phase curves: 2. Connections between opposition effect morphology and spectral features of stony meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déau, Estelle; Spilker, Linda J.; Flandes, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    We investigate connections between the opposition phase curves and the spectra from ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths of stony meteorites. We use two datasets: the reflectance dataset of Capaccioni et al. ([1990] Icarus, 83, 325), which consists of optical phase curves (from 2° to 45°) of 17 stony meteorites (three carbonaceous chondrites, 11 ordinary chondrites, and three achondrites), and the spectral dataset from the RELAB database consisting of near-ultraviolet to near-infrared spectra of the same meteorites. We re-analyzed the first dataset and fit it with two morphological models to derive the amplitude A, the angular width HWHM of the surge and the slope S of the linear part. Our re-analysis confirms that stony meteorites have a non-monotonic behavior of the surge amplitude with albedo, which is also observed in planetary surfaces (Déau et al. [2013] Icarus, 226, 1465), laboratory samples (Nelson et al. [2004] Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf., 35, p. 1089) and asteroids (Belskaya and Shevchenko [2000] Icarus, 147, 94). We find a very strong correlation between the opposition effect morphological parameters and the slope of the spectra between 0.75 μm and 0.95 μm. In particular, we found that meteorites with a positive amplitude-albedo correlation have a positive spectral slope between 0.75 μm and 0.95 μm, while meteorites with a negative amplitude-albedo correlation have a negative spectral slope between 0.75 μm and 0.95 μm. We have ruled out the role of the meteorite samples' macro-properties (grain size, porosity and macroscopic roughness) in the correlations found because these properties were constant during the preparation of the samples. If this hypothesis is correct, this implies that other properties like the composition or the micro-properties (grain inclusions, grain shape or microscopic roughness) could have a preponderant role in the non-monotonic behavior of the surge morphology with albedo at small and moderate phase angles. Further

  18. Analysis of α-particle-induced chromosomal aberrations by chemically-induced PCC. Elaboration of dose-effect curves.

    PubMed

    Puig, Roser; Pujol, Mònica; Barrios, Leonardo; Caballín, María Rosa; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc

    2016-09-01

    In a similar way to high-dose exposures to low-LET radiations, cells show difficulties reaching mitosis after high-LET radiation exposure. For this reason, techniques have been proposed that are able to analyze chromosome aberrations in interphase by prematurely condensing the chromosomes (PCC-techniques). Few dose-effect curves for high-LET radiation types have been reported, and none for α-particles. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by chemically-induced PCC, the chromosome aberrations induced by several doses of α-particles. Monolayers of peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to an α-source of Americium-241 with a mean energy entering the cells of 2.7 MeV. Lymphocytes were exposed to 10 doses, from 0-2.5 Gy, and then cultured for 48 h. Colcemid and Calyculin-A were added at 24 and 1 h before harvesting, respectively. During microscope analysis, chromosome rings and extra chromosome pieces were scored in G2/M-PCC and M cells, while dicentric chromosomes were only scored in M cells. As the dose increased, fewer cells were able to reach mitosis and the proportion of G2/M-PCC cells increased. Chromosome rings were hardly observed in M cells when compared to G2/M-PCC cells. Extra fragments were more frequent than rings in both G2/M-PCC and M cells, but with lower frequencies than in G2/M-PCC cells. The distribution of dicentrics and extra fragments showed a clear overdispersion; this was not so evident for rings. The dose-effect curves obtained fitted very well to a linear model. Damaged cells after α-particle irradiation show more difficulties in reaching mitosis than cells exposed to γ-rays. After α-particle irradiation the frequency of all the chromosome aberrations considered increased linearly with the dose, and α-particles clearly produced more dicentrics and extra chromosome pieces with respect to γ-rays. After α-particle exposure, the existence of extra chromosome fragments in PCC cells seems to be a good candidate for use as a biomarker

  19. Analysis of α-particle-induced chromosomal aberrations by chemically-induced PCC. Elaboration of dose-effect curves.

    PubMed

    Puig, Roser; Pujol, Mònica; Barrios, Leonardo; Caballín, María Rosa; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc

    2016-09-01

    In a similar way to high-dose exposures to low-LET radiations, cells show difficulties reaching mitosis after high-LET radiation exposure. For this reason, techniques have been proposed that are able to analyze chromosome aberrations in interphase by prematurely condensing the chromosomes (PCC-techniques). Few dose-effect curves for high-LET radiation types have been reported, and none for α-particles. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by chemically-induced PCC, the chromosome aberrations induced by several doses of α-particles. Monolayers of peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to an α-source of Americium-241 with a mean energy entering the cells of 2.7 MeV. Lymphocytes were exposed to 10 doses, from 0-2.5 Gy, and then cultured for 48 h. Colcemid and Calyculin-A were added at 24 and 1 h before harvesting, respectively. During microscope analysis, chromosome rings and extra chromosome pieces were scored in G2/M-PCC and M cells, while dicentric chromosomes were only scored in M cells. As the dose increased, fewer cells were able to reach mitosis and the proportion of G2/M-PCC cells increased. Chromosome rings were hardly observed in M cells when compared to G2/M-PCC cells. Extra fragments were more frequent than rings in both G2/M-PCC and M cells, but with lower frequencies than in G2/M-PCC cells. The distribution of dicentrics and extra fragments showed a clear overdispersion; this was not so evident for rings. The dose-effect curves obtained fitted very well to a linear model. Damaged cells after α-particle irradiation show more difficulties in reaching mitosis than cells exposed to γ-rays. After α-particle irradiation the frequency of all the chromosome aberrations considered increased linearly with the dose, and α-particles clearly produced more dicentrics and extra chromosome pieces with respect to γ-rays. After α-particle exposure, the existence of extra chromosome fragments in PCC cells seems to be a good candidate for use as a biomarker

  20. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions ARCA1 autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1 ( ARCA1 ) is a condition characterized by progressive problems ...

  1. Usefulness of three-channel multiplex real-time PCR and melting curve analysis for simultaneous detection and identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun Ji; Chung, Young Hoon; Kim, Taek Soo; Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Kyoung Un; Yim, Jae Joon; Song, Junghan; Lee, Jae Ho; Kim, Eui Chong

    2011-11-01

    We attempted to determine the benefits of three-channel multiplex real-time PCR and melting curve analysis not only in detecting and distinguishing between nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but also in identifying NTM to the species level.

  2. Curves and Their Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Robert C.

    This volume, a reprinting of a classic first published in 1952, presents detailed discussions of 26 curves or families of curves, and 17 analytic systems of curves. For each curve the author provides a historical note, a sketch or sketches, a description of the curve, a discussion of pertinent facts, and a bibliography. Depending upon the curve,…

  3. [Analysis of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations in genotypically different strains of Drosophila melanogaster MS and w, exposed in the 5-kilometer zone of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor].

    PubMed

    Aslanian, M M; Kim, A I; Magomedova, M A; Fatkulbaianova, N L

    1994-09-01

    The frequency of induced and spontaneous recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) in Drosophila melanogaster strains w and ms was estimated after their chronic irradiation in the five-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl' meltdown. The mutagenic effect of relatively low radiation doses was analyzed. In an experiment conducted in 1990, a significant increase in the RSLLM frequency was recorded, while, in 1991, no significant difference between the experiment and control was found.

  4. Understanding High Recession Rates of Carbon Ablators Seen in Shear Tests in an Arc Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, David M.; Olson, Michael W.; Barnhardt, Michael D.; MacLean, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    High rates of recession in arc jet shear tests of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) inspired a series of tests and analysis on FiberForm (a carbon preform used in the fabrication of PICA). Arc jet tests were performed on FiberForm in both air and pure nitrogen for stagnation and shear configurations. The nitrogen tests showed little or no recession, while the air tests of FiberForm showed recession rates similar to that of PICA (when adjusted for the difference in density). While mechanical erosion can not be ruled out, this is the first step in doing so. Analysis using a carbon oxidation boundary condition within DPLR was used to predict the recession rate of FiberForm. The analysis indicates that much of the anomalous recession behavior seen in shear tests may simply be an artifact of the non-flight like test configuration (copper upstream of the test article) a result of dissimilar enthalpy and oxygen concentration profiles on the copper. Shape change effects were also investigated and shown to be relatively small.

  5. Semiconductor devices having a recessed electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2015-05-26

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  6. Recession trims third-quarter building costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-05-09

    The composite cost index for building oil pipelines during the third quarter of 1982 showed a decrease of 0.96%. This decrease was due to a steady drop in the rate of inflation for most pipeline construction materials during the first 9 months of the year. The major thrust behind the pipeline materials decline was a sharp 5.3% drop in the average price of steel line pipe. However, the pipeline construction recession has failed to deter escalating pipeline labor rates.

  7. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  8. Rapid detection of isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by use of real-time-PCR-based melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Siyu; Li, Guoli; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoli; Niu, Jianjun; Quan, Shengmao; Wang, Feng; Wen, Huixin; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge

    2014-05-01

    The MeltPro TB/INH assay, recently approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration, is a closed-tube, dual-color, melting curve analysis-based, real-time PCR test specially designed to detect 30 isoniazid (INH) resistance mutations in katG position 315 (katG 315), the inhA promoter (positions -17 to -8), inhA position 94, and the ahpC promoter (positions -44 to -30 and -15 to 3) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we evaluated both the analytical performance and clinical performance of this assay. Analytical studies with corresponding panels demonstrated that the accuracy for detection of different mutation types (10 wild-type samples and 12 mutant type samples), the limit of detection (2×10(3) to 2×10(4) bacilli/ml), reproducibility (standard deviation [SD], <0.4°C), and the lowest heteroresistance level (40%) all met the parameters preset by the kit. The assay could be run on five types of real-time PCR machines, with the shortest running time (105 min) obtained with the LightCycler 480 II. Clinical studies enrolled 1,096 clinical isolates collected from three geographically different tuberculosis centers, including 437 INH-resistant isolates and 659 INH-susceptible isolates characterized by traditional drug susceptibility testing on Löwenstein-Jensen solid medium. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the MeltPro TB/INH assay were 90.8% and 96.4%, respectively. DNA sequencing analysis showed that, except for the 5 mutants outside the detection range of the MeltPro assay, a concordance rate between the two methods of 99.1% (457/461) was obtained. Among the 26 mutation types detected, katG S315T (AGC→ACC), inhA -15C→T, katG S315N (AGC→AAC), and ahpC promoter -10C→T accounted for more than 90%. Overall, the MeltPro TB/INH assay represents a reliable and rapid tool for the detection of INH resistance in clinical isolates.

  9. Multilayer theory for delamination analysis of a composite curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1989-01-01

    A composite test specimen in the shape of a semicircular curved bar subjected to bending offers an excellent stress field for studying the open-mode delamination behavior of laminated composite materials. This is because the open-mode delamination nucleates at the midspan of the curved bar. The classical anisotropic elasticity theory was used to construct a multilayer theory for the calculations of the stress and deformation fields induced in the multilayered composite semicircular curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments. The radial location and intensity of the open-mode delamination stress were calculated and were compared with the results obtained from the anisotropic continuum theory and from the finite element method. The multilayer theory gave more accurate predictions of the location and the intensity of the open-mode delamination stress than those calculated from the anisotropic continuum theory.

  10. X-ray photoemission analysis of clean and carbon monoxide-chemisorbed platinum(111) stepped surfaces using a curved crystal

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Andrew L.; Schiller, Frederik; Corso, Martina; Merte, Lindsay R.; Bertram, Florian; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Shipilin, Mikhail; Gustafson, Johan; Lundgren, Edvin; Brión-Ríos, Anto´n X.; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel; Ortega, J. Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Surface chemistry and catalysis studies could significantly gain from the systematic variation of surface active sites, tested under the very same conditions. Curved crystals are excellent platforms to perform such systematics, which may in turn allow to better resolve fundamental properties and reveal new phenomena. This is demonstrated here for the carbon monoxide/platinum system. We curve a platinum crystal around the high-symmetry (111) direction and carry out photoemission scans on top. This renders the spatial core-level imaging of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a ‘tunable' vicinal surface, allowing a straightforward visualization of the rich chemisorption phenomenology at steps and terraces. Through such photoemission images we probe a characteristic elastic strain variation at stepped surfaces, and unveil subtle stress-release effects on clean and covered vicinal surfaces. These results offer the prospect of applying the curved surface approach to rationally investigate the chemical activity of surfaces under real pressure conditions. PMID:26561388

  11. X-ray photoemission analysis of clean and carbon monoxide-chemisorbed platinum(111) stepped surfaces using a curved crystal

    DOE PAGES

    Walter, Andrew L.; Schiller, Frederik; Corso, Martina; Merte, Lindsay R.; Bertram, Florian; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Shipilin, Mikhail; Gustafson, Johan; Lundgren, Edvin; Brión-Ríos, Anto´n X.; et al

    2015-11-12

    Surface chemistry and catalysis studies could significantly gain from the systematic variation of surface active sites, tested under the very same conditions. Curved crystals are excellent platforms to perform such systematics, which may in turn allow to better resolve fundamental properties and reveal new phenomena. This is demonstrated here for the carbon monoxide/platinum system. We curve a platinum crystal around the high-symmetry (111) direction and carry out photoemission scans on top. This renders the spatial core-level imaging of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a 'tunable' vicinal surface, allowing a straightforward visualization of the rich chemisorption phenomenology at steps and terraces. Throughmore » such photoemission images we probe a characteristic elastic strain variation at stepped surfaces, and unveil subtle stress-release effects on clean and covered vicinal surfaces. Lastly, these results offer the prospect of applying the curved surface approach to rationally investigate the chemical activity of surfaces under real pressure conditions.« less

  12. X-ray photoemission analysis of clean and carbon monoxide-chemisorbed platinum(111) stepped surfaces using a curved crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Andrew L.; Schiller, Frederik; Merte, Lindsay R.; Bertram, Florian; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Gustafson, Johan; Lundgren, Edvin; Brión-Ríos, Anto´n X.; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel

    2015-11-12

    Surface chemistry and catalysis studies could significantly gain from the systematic variation of surface active sites, tested under the very same conditions. Curved crystals are excellent platforms to perform such systematics, which may in turn allow to better resolve fundamental properties and reveal new phenomena. This is demonstrated here for the carbon monoxide/platinum system. We curve a platinum crystal around the high-symmetry (111) direction and carry out photoemission scans on top. This renders the spatial core-level imaging of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a 'tunable' vicinal surface, allowing a straightforward visualization of the rich chemisorption phenomenology at steps and terraces. Through such photoemission images we probe a characteristic elastic strain variation at stepped surfaces, and unveil subtle stress-release effects on clean and covered vicinal surfaces. Lastly, these results offer the prospect of applying the curved surface approach to rationally investigate the chemical activity of surfaces under real pressure conditions.

  13. A new classification system for gingival and palatal recession.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra

    2013-03-01

    Various classifications have been proposed to classify gingival recession. Miller's classification of gingival recession is most widely followed. With a wide array of cases in daily clinical practice, it is often difficult to classify numerous gingival recession cases according to defined criteria of the present classification systems. To propose a new classification system that gives a comprehensive depiction of recession defect that can be used to include cases that cannot be classified according to present classifications. A separate classification system for palatal recessions (PR) is also proposed. This article outlines the limitations of present classification systems and also the inability to classify PR. A new comprehensive classification system is proposed to classify recession on the basis of the position of interdental papilla and buccal/lingual/palatal recessions. PMID:23869122

  14. Analysis of the flickering in the visual light curve of the declining old nova RW UMi (1956) with wavelets and Hurst analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygac, A. Talat; Balman, Solen; Esenoglu, Hasan H.; Gulsecen, Hulusi; Alis, Sinan; Bianchini, Antonio; Tamburini, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    We characterize the flickering observed in the optical light curve of the old nova RW UMi (1956) by determining its position in the α-Σ diagram of Fritz and Bruch (1998) classification scheme. The strength of flickering on a given timescale is represented by Σ, while α is the energy distribution of the flickering at different timescales. Here α is derived independently with both the wavelets and the Hurst R/S analysis. The flickering shows self-similarity on a timescale ranging from tens of minutes down to few minutes and, in the future, we plan to check whether stochastic persistent memory can be seen also down to time scales of seconds. In the α-Σ diagram, RW UMi occupies the region of magnetic systems. Since the old nova shows QPOs we conclude that this method can be used to characterize CV subtypes especially when their classification is uncertain.

  15. Optical analysis of a curved-slats fixed-mirror solar concentrator by a forward ray-tracing procedure.

    PubMed

    Pujol Nadal, Ramon; Martínez Moll, Víctor

    2013-10-20

    Fixed-mirror solar concentrators (FMSCs) use a static reflector and a moving receiver. They are easily installable on building roofs. However, for high-concentration factors, several flat mirrors would be needed. If curved mirrors are used instead, high-concentration levels can be achieved, and such a solar concentrator is called a curved-slats fixed-mirror solar concentrator (CSFMSC), on which little information is available. Herein, a methodology is proposed to characterize the CSFMSC using 3D ray-tracing tools. The CSFMSC shows better optical characteristics than the FMSC, as it needs fewer reflector segments for achieving the same concentration and optical efficiency.

  16. Interest and satisfaction of dentists in practicing periodontics: A survey based on treatment of gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Vishakha; Kapoor, Anoop; Malhotra, Ranjan; Sachdeva, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gingival recession is a common occurrence and patients often report to dental clinic with associated problems such as root surface hypersensitivity, esthetic concerns, cervical root abrasions, and root caries that make it a concern for patients. Based upon the fact that gingival recession is an enigma for clinicians because of multitude of etiological factors and plethora of treatment modalities present for its treatment, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge as well as opinion about most common etiology, classification, and preferred treatment of gingival recession and to evaluate the interest and satisfaction of dentists in practicing periodontics. Materials and Methods: Study design consisted of a cross-sectional online survey, conducted among dentists practicing in state of Punjab, India, in the month of April 2011. A structured online questionnaire consisting of 17 questions evaluating the interest of dentists in periodontics based on knowledge about gingival recession (most of them giving the possibility of multiple choices of answers) was sent to about 300 dentists. Pearson Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis of data collected. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and P ≤ 0.01 considered as highly significant. Results: A greater proportion of periodontists had better knowledge about etiology (P = 0.07), classification (P = 0.000), and treatment of gingival recession (P = 0.000). A greater number of periodontists opted for the surgical modalities to correct the defects produced by gingival recession as compared to non-periodontists and had better interest (P = 0.000) and satisfaction (P = 0.000) in practicing periodontics. Conclusion: The results elucidated that periodontists had better interest and satisfaction in practicing periodontics, and were more inclined towards surgical correction of gingival recession as compared to non-periodontists. PMID:23162580

  17. Analysis of tipping-curve measurements performed at the DSS-13 beam-waveguide antenna at 32.0 and 8.45 GigaHertz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Skjerve, L.

    1995-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of the Ka-band Antenna Performance Experiment tipping-curve data acquired at the DSS-13 research and development beam-waveguide (BWG) antenna. By measuring the operating system temperatures as the antenna is moved form zenith to low-elevation angles and fitting a model to the data, one can obtain information on how well the overall temperature model behaves at zenith and approximate the contribution due to the atmosphere. The atmospheric contribution estimated from the data can be expressed in the form of (1) atmospheric noise temperatures that can provide weather statistic information and be compared against those estimated from other methods and (2) the atmospheric loss factor used to refer efficiency measurements to zero atmosphere. This article reports on an analysis performed on a set of 68 8.4-GHz and 67 32-GHz tipping-curve data sets acquired between December 1993 and May 1995 and compares the results with those inferred from a surface model using input meteorological data and from water vapor radiometer (WVR) data. The general results are that, for a selected subset of tip curves, (1) the BWG tipping-curve atmospheric temperatures are in good agreement with those determined from WVR data (the average difference is 0.06 +/- 0.64 K at 32 GHz) and (2) the surface model average values are biased 3.6 K below those of the BWG and WVR at 32 GHz.

  18. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene produce autosomal recessive ocular albinism

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.A.; Summers, C.G.; Oetting, W.S.

    1994-09-01

    Albinism has historically been divided into ocular (OA) and oculocutaneous (OCA) types based on the presence or absence of clinically apparent skin and hair involvement in an individual with the ocular features of albinism. The major genes for OCA include the tyrosinase gene in OCA1 and the P gene in OCA2. X-linked and autosomal recessive OA have been described and the responsible genes have not been identified. We now present six Caucasian individuals who have the phenotype of autosomal recessive OA but who have OCA1 as shown by the presence of mutations of the tyrosinase. They had white or very light hair and white skin at birth, and cutaneous pigment developed in the first decade of life. At ages ranging from 1.5-23 years, hair color was dark blond to light brown. The skin had generalized pigment and well developed tan was present on the exposed arm and face skin of four. Iris pigment was present and iris translucency varied. Molecular analysis of the tyrosinase gene, using PCR amplification and direct di-deoxy sequencing showed the following mutations: E398Z/E398Q, P406S/g346a, R402E/T373K, ?/D383N, and H211N/T373K. The homozygous individual was not from a known consanguineous mating. T373K is the most common tyrosinase gene mutation in our laboratory. Three of these mutations are associated with a total loss of tyrosinase activity (g346a splice-site, T373K, and D383N), while four are associated with residual enzyme activity (H211N, R402E, E398Q, and P406S). These studies show that mutations of the tyrosinase gene can produce the phenotype of autosomal recessive OA in an individual who has normal amounts of cutaneous pigment and the ability to tan after birth. This extends the phenotypic range of OCA1 to normal cutaneous pigment after early childhood, and suggest that mutations of the tyrosinase gene account for a significant number of individuals with autosomal recessive OA.

  19. A Unified Latent Curve, Latent State-Trait Analysis of the Developmental Trajectories and Correlates of Positive Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Guido; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Tisak, John

    2012-01-01

    Literature documents that the judgments people hold about themselves, their life, and their future are important ingredients of their psychological functioning and well-being and are commonly related to each other. In this article, results from a longitudinal study (N = 298, 45% males) are presented. Using an integrative Latent Curve, Latent…

  20. Application of a tangent curve mathematical model for analysis of the mechanical behaviour of sunflower bulk seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigalingging, Riswanti; Herák, David; Kabutey, Abraham; Dajbych, Oldřich; Hrabě, Petr; Mizera, Čestmír

    2015-10-01

    This paper evaluate the use of a tangent curve mathematical model for representation of the mechanical behaviour of sunflower bulk seeds. Compression machine (Tempos Model 50, Czech Republic) and pressing vessel diameter 60 mm were used for the loading experiment. Varying forces between 50 and 130 kN and speeds ranging from 10, 50, and 100 mm min-1 were applied respectively on the bulk seeds with moisture content 12.37±0.38% w.b. The relationship between force and deformation curves of bulk seeds of pressing height 80 mm was described. The oil point strain was also determined from the different deformation values namely 30, 35, 40, and 45 mm at speed 10 mm min-1. Based on the results obtained, model coefficients were determined for fitting the experimental load and deformation curves. The validity of these coefficients were dependent on the bulk seeds of pressing height, vessel diameter, maximum force 110 kN, and speed 10 mm min-1, where optimal oil yield was observed. The oil point was detected at 45 mm deformation giving the strain value of 0.56 with the corresponding force 16.65±3.51 kN and energy 1.06±0.18 MJ m-3. At the force of 130 kN, a serration effect on the curves was indicated; hence, the compression process was ceased.

  1. Growth curve analysis of placental and fetal growth influenced by adjacent fetal sex status under crowded uterine conditions in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine position and sex of adjacent fetuses in litter bearing species have been implicated in physiological and behavioral differences in males and females. Our objective was to establish growth curves for fetal and placental weight gain as influenced by sex status of flanking fetuses under cr...

  2. Langevin power curve analysis for numerical wind energy converter models with new insights on high frequency power performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mücke, Tanja A.; Wächter, Matthias; Milan, Patrick; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    Based on the Langevin equation it has been proposed to obtain power curves for wind turbines from high frequency data of wind speed measurements u(t) and power output P (t). The two parts of the Langevin approach, power curve and drift field, give a comprehensive description of the conversion dynamic over the whole operating range of the wind turbine. The method deals with high frequent data instead of 10 min means. It is therefore possible to gain a reliable power curve already from a small amount of data per wind speed. Furthermore, the method is able to visualize multiple fixed points, which is e.g. characteristic for the transition from partial to full load or in case the conversion process deviates from the standard procedures. In order to gain a deeper knowledge it is essential that the method works not only for measured data but also for numerical wind turbine models and synthetic wind fields. Here, we characterize the dynamics of a detailed numerical wind turbine model and calculate the Langevin power curve for different data samplings. We show, how to get reliable results from synthetic data and verify the applicability of the method for field measurements with ultra-sonic, cup and Lidar measurements. The independence of the fixed points on site specific turbulence effects is also confirmed with the numerical model. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of the Langevin approach to detect failures in the conversion process and thus show the potential of the Langevin approach for a condition monitoring system.

  3. Differential School Effects among Low, Middle, and High Social Class Composition Schools: A Multiple Group, Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palardy, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses large-scale survey data and a multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve model to examine differential school effects between low, middle, and high social class composition public schools. The results show that the effects of school inputs and school practices on learning differ across the 3 subpopulations. Moreover, student…

  4. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage: Appendix D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The technical memorandum is intended to discuss the detailed procedure required for carrying out the statistical analyses of historical pavement condition data for building pavement performance curves. This chapter assumes the availability of the historical data in a spreadsheet format (Microsoft{trademark} Excel) that has been retrieved from the master (pavement management system) database.

  5. FIRST PRECISION LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF THE NEGLECTED EXTREME MASS RATIO SOLAR-TYPE BINARY HR BOOTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, Ronald G.; Benkendorf, Barry; Dignan, James B.; Robb, Russell; Kring, James; Faulkner, Danny R.

    2015-04-15

    HR Bootis is a neglected binary that is found to be a solar-type (G2V) extreme mass ratio binary (EMRB). It was discovered by Hanley and Shapley in 1940. Surprisingly, little has been published in the intervening years. In 1999 it was characterized by a 0.31587 day orbital period. Since that time it has been observed by various observers who have determined ∼20 timings of minimum light over the past ∼15,000 orbits. Our observations in 2012 represent the first precision curves in the BVR{sub c}I{sub c} Johnson–Cousins wavelength bands. The light curves have rather low amplitudes, averaging some 0.5 magnitudes, yet they exhibit total eclipses, which is typical of the rare group of solar-type EMRBs. An improved linear ephemeris was computed along with a quadratic ephemeris showing a decaying orbit, which indicates magnetic breaking may be occurring. The light curve solution reveals that HR Boo is a contact system with a somewhat low 21% Roche-lobe fill-out but a mass ratio of q = 4.09 (0.2444), which defines it as an EMRB. Two spots, both hot, were allowed to iterate to fit the light curve asymmetries. Their radii are 32° and 16°. Both are high-latitude polar spots indicative of strong magnetic activity. The shallow contact yet nearly equal component temperatures makes it an unusual addition to this group.

  6. A regret theory approach to decision curve analysis: A novel method for eliciting decision makers' preferences and decision-making

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Decision curve analysis (DCA) has been proposed as an alternative method for evaluation of diagnostic tests, prediction models, and molecular markers. However, DCA is based on expected utility theory, which has been routinely violated by decision makers. Decision-making is governed by intuition (system 1), and analytical, deliberative process (system 2), thus, rational decision-making should reflect both formal principles of rationality and intuition about good decisions. We use the cognitive emotion of regret to serve as a link between systems 1 and 2 and to reformulate DCA. Methods First, we analysed a classic decision tree describing three decision alternatives: treat, do not treat, and treat or no treat based on a predictive model. We then computed the expected regret for each of these alternatives as the difference between the utility of the action taken and the utility of the action that, in retrospect, should have been taken. For any pair of strategies, we measure the difference in net expected regret. Finally, we employ the concept of acceptable regret to identify the circumstances under which a potentially wrong strategy is tolerable to a decision-maker. Results We developed a novel dual visual analog scale to describe the relationship between regret associated with "omissions" (e.g. failure to treat) vs. "commissions" (e.g. treating unnecessary) and decision maker's preferences as expressed in terms of threshold probability. We then proved that the Net Expected Regret Difference, first presented in this paper, is equivalent to net benefits as described in the original DCA. Based on the concept of acceptable regret we identified the circumstances under which a decision maker tolerates a potentially wrong decision and expressed it in terms of probability of disease. Conclusions We present a novel method for eliciting decision maker's preferences and an alternative derivation of DCA based on regret theory. Our approach may be intuitively more

  7. Perspective on Afterglows: Numerically Computed Views, Light Curves, and the Analysis of Homogeneous and Structured Jets with Lateral Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmonson, Jay D.

    2003-08-01

    Herein I present numerical calculations of light curves of homogeneous and structured afterglows with various lateral expansion rates as seen from any vantage point. Such calculations allow for direct simulation of observable quantities for complex afterglows with arbitrary energy distributions and lateral expansion paradigms. A simple, causal model is suggested for lateral expansion of the jet as it evolves: namely, that the lateral expansion kinetic energy derives from the forward kinetic energy. As such, the homogeneous jet model shows that lateral expansion is important at all times in the afterglow evolution and that analytical scaling laws do a poor job at describing the afterglow decay before and after the break. In particular, I find that lateral expansion does not cause a break in the light curve as had been predicted. A primary purpose of this paper is to study structured afterglows, which do a good job of reproducing global relationships and correlations in the data and thus suggest the possibility of a universal afterglow model. Simulations of structured jets show a general trend in which jet breaks become more pronounced with increasing viewing angle with respect to the jet axis. In fact, under certain conditions a bump can occur in the light curve at the jet-break time. I derive scaling relations for this bump and suggest that it may be a source of some bumps in observed light curves such as that of GRB 000301C. A couple of lateral expansion models are tested over a range of efficiencies and viewing angles, and it is found that lateral expansion can, in some cases, substantially sharpen the jet break. I show flux surface contour maps and simulated images of the afterglows that give insight into how they evolve and determine their light curves.

  8. Scale-emergence of snowmelt runoff recession based on heterogeneous snow accumulation and melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, Charles; Tarboton, David; Clark, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    Snow drifts are usually seen as small elements in mountain landscapes; so are inconsistently considered in hydrologic modeling. Their small spatial representation in the landscape belies an outsize influence in the recession characteristics of mountain watersheds. Differential accumulation and melt of mountain snowpacks can shift center of spring runoff timing by months compared to expectations based on a uniform snowpack. Here we develop the quantification of melt and flow recession as an emergent characteristic from heterogeneity in snowpack accumulation and melt. While previous work has demonstrated the ties between differential accumulation and depletion of snowpacks, the importance of differential melt in concert with differential accumulation is less well explored. We develop a framework for showing the combined effects of joint spatial variability in accumulation and melt. Further, we relate the information to alternative methods for estimating snow depletion curves.

  9. A statistical model for the effect of casing treatment recesses on compressor rotor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Nezym, Vitaliy

    2007-08-15

    The tip clearance between a compressor's rotating blades and its casing has an unfavorable influence on performance. By applying an abradable coating (insert) to the casing over the rotating blades, this tip clearance can be reduced to practically zero. A rather frequent variant is for the rotor blade tips to carve an entire annular recess in this coating. Rectangular recesses of various configurations have been tested in several different researches. The results of these investigations are processed using the Group Method of Data Handling. A statistical model is developed that predicts the influence of rectangular recesses on a compressor stage's efficiency and stable operating (flow) range. The model takes into account the six principal geometric parameters of a rectangular recess, as well as the Lieblein rotor diffusion factor. Analysis of the derived model has also determined which of these parameters are the most influential. Rectangular entire annular recesses are one of the simplest and most progressive types of casing treatment, and this paper concludes with an overview of existing research that supports this claim. (author)

  10. CFLs in Recessed Downlights: Technical Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, Marc R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Dillon, Heather E.; Sandahl, Linda J.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2005-05-09

    Recessed downlights are the most popular residential lighting fixture in the United States representing about 12 percent of installed residential lighting fixtures and 15 percent of total lighting energy use nationwide. We estimate 400 million recessed downlights are currently installed in American homes, almost all using incandescent light sources. In the year 2000, only 0.44 percent of recessed cans sold were hard-wired for using pin-based CFLs. Recessed downlights consume energy in three ways. First, their incandescent light sources use energy directly, drawing 65 to 150 watts. Second, they consume energy indirectly by adding heat from their light sources to air-conditioning loads. Third, since most are not airtight, they also consume energy indirectly by allowing conditioned air to escape into unconditioned areas above the downlights, such as attics. PNNL calculated potential energy savings and found that if a 65W incandescent non-airtight downlight is replaced with a 26W CFL ICAT downlight operated at 3 hrs per day savings will be 126 kWh/yr. Early reflector CFLs have had high return rates primarily because of failure due to thermal related stress. A PNNL laboratory test of ten commercially available R-CFLs selected from retail store shelves showed almost all operated above their manufacturer rated maximum operating temperatures when they were installed and tested in ICAT downlights in a simulated insulated ceiling apparatus. DOE asked PNNL to investigate the development and introduction of both pin-based and screw-based CFLs for use in ICAT fixtures. PNNL invited manufacturers to submit lamps to a procurement program. PNNL conducted short- and long-term thermal testing of the lamps to measure performance parameters affected by elevated temperatures. 8 out of 10 R-CFLs (secrew-based lamps) failed the long-tem testing. Five out of nine CFL-ICAT (pin-based CFL) fixtures passed the long-term test, surviving a full year of operation in a simulated insulated

  11. Problems in using p-curve analysis and text-mining to detect rate of p-hacking and evidential value.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Thompson, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Background. The p-curve is a plot of the distribution of p-values reported in a set of scientific studies. Comparisons between ranges of p-values have been used to evaluate fields of research in terms of the extent to which studies have genuine evidential value, and the extent to which they suffer from bias in the selection of variables and analyses for publication, p-hacking. Methods. p-hacking can take various forms. Here we used R code to simulate the use of ghost variables, where an experimenter gathers data on several dependent variables but reports only those with statistically significant effects. We also examined a text-mined dataset used by Head et al. (2015) and assessed its suitability for investigating p-hacking. Results. We show that when there is ghost p-hacking, the shape of the p-curve depends on whether dependent variables are intercorrelated. For uncorrelated variables, simulated p-hacked data do not give the "p-hacking bump" just below .05 that is regarded as evidence of p-hacking, though there is a negative skew when simulated variables are inter-correlated. The way p-curves vary according to features of underlying data poses problems when automated text mining is used to detect p-values in heterogeneous sets of published papers. Conclusions. The absence of a bump in the p-curve is not indicative of lack of p-hacking. Furthermore, while studies with evidential value will usually generate a right-skewed p-curve, we cannot treat a right-skewed p-curve as an indicator of the extent of evidential value, unless we have a model specific to the type of p-values entered into the analysis. We conclude that it is not feasible to use the p-curve to estimate the extent of p-hacking and evidential value unless there is considerable control over the type of data entered into the analysis. In particular, p-hacking with ghost variables is likely to be missed. PMID:26925335

  12. Problems in using p-curve analysis and text-mining to detect rate of p-hacking and evidential value.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Thompson, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Background. The p-curve is a plot of the distribution of p-values reported in a set of scientific studies. Comparisons between ranges of p-values have been used to evaluate fields of research in terms of the extent to which studies have genuine evidential value, and the extent to which they suffer from bias in the selection of variables and analyses for publication, p-hacking. Methods. p-hacking can take various forms. Here we used R code to simulate the use of ghost variables, where an experimenter gathers data on several dependent variables but reports only those with statistically significant effects. We also examined a text-mined dataset used by Head et al. (2015) and assessed its suitability for investigating p-hacking. Results. We show that when there is ghost p-hacking, the shape of the p-curve depends on whether dependent variables are intercorrelated. For uncorrelated variables, simulated p-hacked data do not give the "p-hacking bump" just below .05 that is regarded as evidence of p-hacking, though there is a negative skew when simulated variables are inter-correlated. The way p-curves vary according to features of underlying data poses problems when automated text mining is used to detect p-values in heterogeneous sets of published papers. Conclusions. The absence of a bump in the p-curve is not indicative of lack of p-hacking. Furthermore, while studies with evidential value will usually generate a right-skewed p-curve, we cannot treat a right-skewed p-curve as an indicator of the extent of evidential value, unless we have a model specific to the type of p-values entered into the analysis. We conclude that it is not feasible to use the p-curve to estimate the extent of p-hacking and evidential value unless there is considerable control over the type of data entered into the analysis. In particular, p-hacking with ghost variables is likely to be missed.

  13. Problems in using p-curve analysis and text-mining to detect rate of p-hacking and evidential value

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The p-curve is a plot of the distribution of p-values reported in a set of scientific studies. Comparisons between ranges of p-values have been used to evaluate fields of research in terms of the extent to which studies have genuine evidential value, and the extent to which they suffer from bias in the selection of variables and analyses for publication, p-hacking. Methods. p-hacking can take various forms. Here we used R code to simulate the use of ghost variables, where an experimenter gathers data on several dependent variables but reports only those with statistically significant effects. We also examined a text-mined dataset used by Head et al. (2015) and assessed its suitability for investigating p-hacking. Results. We show that when there is ghost p-hacking, the shape of the p-curve depends on whether dependent variables are intercorrelated. For uncorrelated variables, simulated p-hacked data do not give the “p-hacking bump” just below .05 that is regarded as evidence of p-hacking, though there is a negative skew when simulated variables are inter-correlated. The way p-curves vary according to features of underlying data poses problems when automated text mining is used to detect p-values in heterogeneous sets of published papers. Conclusions. The absence of a bump in the p-curve is not indicative of lack of p-hacking. Furthermore, while studies with evidential value will usually generate a right-skewed p-curve, we cannot treat a right-skewed p-curve as an indicator of the extent of evidential value, unless we have a model specific to the type of p-values entered into the analysis. We conclude that it is not feasible to use the p-curve to estimate the extent of p-hacking and evidential value unless there is considerable control over the type of data entered into the analysis. In particular, p-hacking with ghost variables is likely to be missed. PMID:26925335

  14. Detector response and intensity cross-contribution as contributing factors to the observed non-linear calibration curves in mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Sie, Meng-Jie; Chen, Bud-Gen; Chang, Chiung Dan; Lin, Chia-Han; Liu, Ray H

    2011-01-21

    It is a common knowledge that detector fatigue causes a calibration curve to deviate from the preferred linear relationship at the higher concentration end. With the adaptation of an isotopically labeled analog of the analyte as the internal standard (IS), cross-contribution (CC) of the intensities monitored for the ions designating the analyte and the IS can also result in a non-linear relationship at both ends. A novel approach developed to assess 'the extent and the effect of [CC]… in quantitative GC-MS analysis' can be extended (a) to examine whether a specific set of CC values is accurate; and (b) to differentiate whether the observed non-linear calibration curve is caused by detector fatigue or the CC phenomenon. Data derived from the exemplar secobarbital (SB)/SB-d(5) system (as di-butyl-derivatives) are used to illustrate this novel approach. Comparing the non-linear nature of calibration data that are empirically observed to that derived from theoretical calculation (with the incorporation of adjustment resulting from the ion CC phenomenon), supports the conclusions that (a) both CC and detector fatigue contribute significantly to the observed non-linear nature of the calibration curve based on ion-pair m/z 207/212; and (b) detector fatigue is the dominating contributor when the calibration curve is based on ion-pair m/z 263/268.

  15. Explicit superconic curves.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sunggoo

    2016-09-01

    Conics and Cartesian ovals are extremely important curves in various fields of science. In addition, aspheric curves based on conics are useful in optical design. Superconic curves, recently suggested by Greynolds, are extensions of both conics and Cartesian ovals and have been applied to optical design. However, they are not extensions of aspheric curves based on conics. In this work, we investigate another type of superconic curves. These superconic curves are extensions of not only conics and Cartesian ovals but also aspheric curves based on conics. Moreover, these are represented in explicit form, while Greynolds's superconic curves are in implicit form. PMID:27607506

  16. Polymerized and polyethylene glycol-conjugated hemoglobins: a globin-based calibration curve for dynamic light scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, Serena; Ronda, Luca; Bruno, Stefano; Jankevics, Hanna; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2010-06-15

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a technique capable of determining the hydrodynamic radius of proteins. From this parameter, a molecular weight can be assessed provided that an appropriate calibration curve is available. To this goal, a globin-based calibration curve was used to determine the polymerization state of a recombinant hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier and to assess the equivalent molecular weight of hemoglobins conjugated with polyethylene glycol molecules. The good agreement between DLS values and those obtained from gel filtration chromatography is a consequence of the high similarity in structure, shape, and density within the globin superfamily. Moreover, globins and heme proteins in general share similar spectroscopic properties, thereby reducing possible systematic errors associated with the absorption of the probe radiation by the chromophore.

  17. The Learning Curve of Transareola Single-site Laparoendoscopic Thyroidectomy: CUSUM Analysis of a Single Surgeon’s Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guanghui; Zhang, Xueli; Tang, Zhiqiang; Tan, Zhanhai; Chen, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transareola single-site laparoendoscopic thyroidectomy (TASSET) is a rapidly advancing minimally invasive procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the learning curve for TASSET. Subjects and Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients were prospectively divided into group 1 (initial phase), group 2 (intermediate phase), and group 3 (advanced phase) according to their surgical order (15 patients in each group). The operative time, operative blood loss, duration of hospital stay, postoperative pain, and postoperative complications were compared using phases. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in the different learning phases, among operative time (P<0.05), operative blood loss (P<0.05), hospital stay (P<0.05), and postoperative pain (P<0.05). The postoperative complication rate was low (3/45). Conclusions: Learning curve of the TASSET are improved synchronized at different phases and technical indicators. The establishment of operative space take longer time to skilled master. PMID:27552376

  18. Observations and analysis of a curved jet in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.-Y.; Lai, I.-L.; Su, C.-C.; Ip, W.-H.; Lee, J.-C.; Wu, J.-S.; Vincent, J.-B.; La Forgia, F.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Lowry, S.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.; Rożek, A.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We analyze the physical properties and dynamical origin of a curved jet of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko that was observed repeatedly in several nucleus rotations starting on May 30 and persisting until early August, 2015. Methods: We simulated the motion of dust grains ejected from the nucleus surface under the influence of the gravity and viscous drag effect of the expanding gas flow from the rotating nucleus. Results: The formation of the curved jet is a combination of the size of the dust particles (~0.1-1 mm) and the location of the source region near the nucleus equator. This enhances the spiral feature of the collimated dust stream after the dust is accelerated to a terminal speed on the order of m s-1.

  19. Late infantile autosomal recessive myotonia, mental retardation, and skeletal abnormalities: a new autosomal recessive syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Richieri-Costa, A; Garcia da Silva, S M; Frota-Pessoa, O

    1984-01-01

    Four sibs of non-consanguineous parents who had myotonia from late infancy are described. Mild to moderate mental retardation, severe bone abnormalities of the vertebral column (mainly in the thoracolumbar region), and short stature were also observed. Autosomal recessive inheritance is demonstrated. These cases are compared with reported cases of the Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Images PMID:6716408

  20. Autosomal recessive brachyolmia: early radiological findings.

    PubMed

    Handa, Atsuhiko; Tham, Emma; Wang, Zheng; Horemuzova, Eva; Grigelioniene, Giedre

    2016-11-01

    Brachyolmia (BO) is a heterogeneous group of skeletal dysplasias with skeletal changes limited to the spine or with minimal extraspinal features. BO is currently classified into types 1, 2, 3, and 4. BO types 1 and 4 are autosomal recessive conditions caused by PAPSS2 mutations, which may be merged together as an autosomal recessive BO (AR-BO). The clinical and radiological signs of AR-BO in late childhood have already been reported; however, the early manifestations and their age-dependent evolution have not been well documented. We report an affected boy with AR-BO, whose skeletal abnormalities were detected in utero and who was followed until 10 years of age. Prenatal ultrasound showed bowing of the legs. In infancy, radiographs showed moderate platyspondyly and dumbbell deformity of the tubular bones. Gradually, the platyspondyly became more pronounced, while the bowing of the legs and dumbbell deformities of the tubular bones diminished with age. In late childhood, the overall findings were consistent with known features of AR-BO. Genetic testing confirmed the diagnosis. Being aware of the initial skeletal changes may facilitate early diagnosis of PAPSS2-related skeletal dysplasias. PMID:27544198

  1. [Autosomal recessive ethnic diseases of Czech Gypsies].

    PubMed

    Seeman, P; Sisková, D

    2006-01-01

    Roma (Gypsy ethnic) form a genetically isolated ethnical group of the identical origin with the world population of 10 to 14 millions derived from a limited number of so-called founders. Majority (about 8 millions) of Roma ethnic live in Europe, namely at Balkan and in the southwest of Europe. Roma have specific hereditary diseases, namely those caused by recessive genetic mutations. The molecular-genetic mechanism has been recently elucidated and confirmed in several diseases of the Roma population. Owing to the significant proportion of Roma in the population, patients with those diseases are possible to meet also in the Czech Republic. However, the diagnostics of those diseases is frequently difficult and they are often under diagnosed or misdiagnosed. The article gives examples of autosomal recessive diseases, which can be confirmed at the DNA level which occur in Roma population of the Czech Republic: syndrome of congenital cataract, facial dysmorphism and demyelinating neuropathy, non-syndromic prelingual deafness with GJB2 gene impairment and the congenital myastenic syndrome. PMID:16921785

  2. Predictors of Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury: New Insight Using Receiver Operating Curve Indices and Bayesian Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zador, Zsolt; Sperrin, Matthew; King, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury remains a global health problem. Understanding the relative importance of outcome predictors helps optimize our treatment strategies by informing assessment protocols, clinical decisions and trial designs. In this study we establish importance ranking for outcome predictors based on receiver operating indices to identify key predictors of outcome and create simple predictive models. We then explore the associations between key outcome predictors using Bayesian networks to gain further insight into predictor importance. Methods We analyzed the corticosteroid randomization after significant head injury (CRASH) trial database of 10008 patients and included patients for whom demographics, injury characteristics, computer tomography (CT) findings and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GCS) were recorded (total of 13 predictors, which would be available to clinicians within a few hours following the injury in 6945 patients). Predictions of clinical outcome (death or severe disability at 6 months) were performed using logistic regression models with 5-fold cross validation. Predictive performance was measured using standardized partial area (pAUC) under the receiver operating curve (ROC) and we used Delong test for comparisons. Variable importance ranking was based on pAUC targeted at specificity (pAUCSP) and sensitivity (pAUCSE) intervals of 90–100%. Probabilistic associations were depicted using Bayesian networks. Results Complete AUC analysis showed very good predictive power (AUC = 0.8237, 95% CI: 0.8138–0.8336) for the complete model. Specificity focused importance ranking highlighted age, pupillary, motor responses, obliteration of basal cisterns/3rd ventricle and midline shift. Interestingly when targeting model sensitivity, the highest-ranking variables were age, severe extracranial injury, verbal response, hematoma on CT and motor response. Simplified models, which included only these key predictors, had similar performance (pAUCSP = 0

  3. Anatomical curve identification

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  4. Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The current research, "Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery", asks the question: Do the citizens of Northern Ohio support community college funding during difficult economic times? Based on the theory of Stakeholder Analysis, the purpose of this concurrent,…

  5. Is the Elimination of Recess in School a Violation of a Child's Basic Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroc, Alicia M.

    2007-01-01

    The elimination of recess in schools across the country is becoming a normal occurrence in many communities, large and small. In each study presented in this content analysis, we find that free time and unstructured play is indeed essential to a child's healthy cognitive development. Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of…

  6. Quantitative analysis of electrophoresis data: novel curve fitting methodology and its application to the determination of a protein-DNA binding constant.

    PubMed

    Shadle, S E; Allen, D F; Guo, H; Pogozelski, W K; Bashkin, J S; Tullius, T D

    1997-02-15

    A computer program, GelExplorer, which uses a new methodology for obtaining quantitative information about electrophoresis has been developed. It provides a straightforward, easy-to-use graphical interface, and includes a number of features which offer significant advantages over existing methods for quantitative gel analysis. The method uses curve fitting with a nonlinear least-squares optimization to deconvolute overlapping bands. Unlike most curve fitting approaches, the data is treated in two dimensions, fitting all the data across the entire width of the lane. This allows for accurate determination of the intensities of individual, overlapping bands, and in particular allows imperfectly shaped bands to be accurately modeled. Experiments described in this paper demonstrate empirically that the Lorentzian lineshape reproduces the contours of an individual gel band and provides a better model than the Gaussian function for curve fitting of electrophoresis bands. Results from several fitting applications are presented and a discussion of the sources and magnitudes of uncertainties in the results is included. Finally, the method is applied to the quantitative analysis of a hydroxyl radical footprint titration experiment to obtain the free energy of binding of the lambda repressor protein to the OR1 operator DNA sequence.

  7. A rare case of respiratory disorders associated with two autosomal recessive diseases and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sergio López; Scigliano, Sergio; Menga, Guillermo; Demiceu, Sergio; Palaoro, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ultrastructure may contribute to the understanding of pathognomonic cases of male infertility associated with defects in sperm motility. This study was designed to report a particular case of male infertility, characterized by the association of two respiratory autosomal recessive genetic diseases (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency [AAT-D] and primary ciliary dyskinesia [PCD]). A 39-year-old patient with complete sperm immotility, AAT-D, and bronchiectasis was studied in the Laboratory of Male Fertility, the Department of Urology, the Respiratory Center of a Pediatric Hospital, and in the Department of Clinical Medicine of a Rehabilitation Respiratory Hospital. Family history, physical examination, hormonal analysis, microbial assays, semen analysis, nasal ciliary function, and structure study by digital high-speed video photography and transmission electron microscopy are described. A noninvasive nasal biopsy to retrieve ciliated epithelium lining the inferior surface of the inferior nasal turbinates was performed and CBF was determined. Beat pattern was slightly curved and rigid, not wide, and metacronic in all the observed fields analyzed. CBF was 8.2 Hz in average (reference value, 10–15 Hz) Ultrastructural assay revealed absence of the inner dynein arms in 97% of the cilia observed. The final infertility accurate diagnosis was achieved by the study of nasal CBF and ultrastructure contributing to the patient health management and genetic counseling while deciding fatherhood. Beyond this particular case, the present report may open a new field of studies in male infertility, mainly in cases of asthenozoospermia. PMID:23772318

  8. Determination of whole blood and plasma viscosity in term neonates by flow curve analysis with the LS300 viscometer1.

    PubMed

    Kuss, N; Bauknecht, E; Felbinger, C; Gehm, J; Gehm, L; Pöschl, J; Ruef, P

    2015-10-01

    Determination of shear stresses at given shear rates allow approximation of flow curves by mathematical models and to calculate viscosities of non-Newtonian fluids. In term neonates, the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) is markedly below that of adults, therefore rheological properties of blood play an important role in maintaining perfusion. Whole blood viscosity was measured in umbilical cord blood taken from 62 term neonates using the LS 300 viscometer. Individual parameters that influence the viscosity of whole blood were measured: red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, and RBC deformability. The flow curve of whole blood of neonates was approximated by the method of Ostwald with the highest quality whereas in adults the best approximation was found by the method of Casson. With hematocrits of 0.40, the viscosity of whole blood in newborns approximated by Ostwald (9.84 ± 5.12 mPa·s) was significantly lower than that of adults (15.34 ± 3.01 mPa·s). The aggregation index of the blood of newborns was markedly lower (2.98 ± 2.12) than in adults (14.63 ± 3.50) whereas RBC deformability was higher in neonates. The viscosity of plasma determined by Ostwald revealed a lower exponent (n) in neonates (0.94 ± 022) compared to adults (1.01 ± 0.12) and the viscosity determined by Newton was lower in neonates (1.04 ± 0.16 mPa·s) than in adults (1.19 ± 0.07 mPa·s). The flow curve of neonatal blood which is best approximated by the model of Ostwald emphasizes its important viscous properties necessary for conditions with physiologically low blood pressure. PMID:26444620

  9. Direct Analysis of JV-Curves Applied to an Outdoor-Degrading CdTe Module (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D; Kurtz, S.; Ulbrich, C.; Gerber, A.; Rau, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present the application of a phenomenological four parameter equation to fit and analyze regularly measured current density-voltage JV curves of a CdTe module during 2.5 years of outdoor operation. The parameters are physically meaningful, i.e. the short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc and differential resistances Rsc, and Roc. For the chosen module, the fill factor FF degradation overweighs the degradation of Jsc and Voc. Interestingly, with outdoor exposure, not only the conductance at short circuit, Gsc, increases but also the Gsc(Jsc)-dependence. This is well explained with an increase in voltage dependent charge carrier collection in CdTe.

  10. Investigation on non-exchange spring behaviour and exchange spring behaviour: A first order reversal curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debangsu; Sreenivasulu, K. V.; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2013-11-01

    The First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) method has been utilised to understand the magnetization reversal and the extent of the irreversible magnetization of the soft CoFe2O4-hard SrFe12O19 nanocomposite in the nonexchange spring and the exchange spring regime. The single peak switching behaviour in the FORC distribution of the exchange spring composite confirms the coherent reversal of the soft and hard phases. The onset of the nucleation field and the magnetization reversal by domain wall movement are also evident from the FORC measurements.

  11. Arbitrarily Curved and Twisted Space Beams. Ph.D. Thesis - Va. Polytech. Inst. and State Univ.; [Elastic Deformation, Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    A derivation of the equations which govern the deformation of an arbitrarily curved and twisted space beam is presented. These equations differ from those of the classical theory in that (1) extensional effects are included; (2) the strain-displacement relations are derived; and (3) the expressions for the stress resultants are developed from the strain displacement relations. It is shown that the torsional stress resultant obtained by the classical approach is basically incorrect except when the cross-section is circular. The governing equations are given in the form of first-order differential equations. A numerical algorithm is given for obtaining the natural vibration characteristics and example problems are presented.

  12. Flow Curve Determination at Large Plastic Strain Levels: Limitations of the Membrane Theory in the Analysis of the Hydraulic Bulge Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, X.; Iancu, A.; Ferron, G.

    2011-05-01

    Nowadays, an accurate determination of the true stress-strain curve is a key-element for all finite element (FE) forming predictions. Since the introduction of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) for the automotive market, the standard uniaxial tension test suffers the drawback of relatively low uniform elongations. The extrapolation of the uniaxial stress-strain curve up to large strains is not without consequence in forming predictions—especially formability and springback. One of the means to solve this problem is to use experimental tests where large plastic strain levels can be reached. The hydraulic bulge test is one of these tests. The effective plastic strain levels reached in the bulge test are of about 0.7. From an experimental standpoint, the biaxial flow stress is estimated using measurement of fluid pressure, and calculation of thickness and curvature at the pole, via appropriate measurements and assumptions. The biaxial stress at the pole is determined using the membrane equilibrium equation. The analysis proposed in this paper consists of performing "virtual experiments" where the results obtained by means of FE calculations are used as input data for determining the biaxial stress-strain law in agreement with the experimental procedure. In this way, a critical discussion of the experimental procedure can be made, by comparing the "experimental" stress-strain curve (Membrane theory curve) with the "reference" one introduced in the simulations. In particular, the influences of the "(die diameter)/thickness" ratio and of the plastic anisotropy are studied, and limitations of the hydraulic bulge test analysis are discussed.

  13. Ion mobility spectrometry nuisance alarm threshold analysis for illicit narcotics based on environmental background and a ROC-curve approach.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Thomas P; Najarro, Marcela

    2016-07-21

    The discriminative potential of an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for trace detection of illicit narcotics relative to environmental background was investigated with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve framework. The IMS response of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and Δ(9)-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC) was evaluated against environmental background levels derived from the screening of incoming delivery vehicles at a federal facility. Over 20 000 samples were collected over a multiyear period under two distinct sets of instrument operating conditions, a baseline mode and an increased desorption/drift tube temperature and sampling time mode. ROC curves provided a quantifiable representation of the interplay between sensitivity (true positive rate, TPR) and specificity (1 - false positive rate, FPR). A TPR of 90% and minimized FPR were targeted as the detection limits of IMS for the selected narcotics. MDMA, THC, and cocaine demonstrated single nanogram sensitivity at 90% TPR and <10% FPR, with improvements to both MDMA and cocaine in the elevated temperature/increased sampling mode. Detection limits in the tens of nanograms with poor specificity (FPR ≈ 20%) were observed for methamphetamine and heroin under baseline conditions. However, elevating the temperature reduced the background in the methamphetamine window, drastically improving its response (90% TPR and 3.8% FPR at 1 ng). On the contrary, the altered mode conditions increased the level of background for THC and heroin, partially offsetting observed enhancements to desorption. The presented framework demonstrated the significant effect environmental background distributions have on sensitivity and specificity.

  14. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality, Attitudes, and Study Skills on the Learning Curve within a Team-based Learning Environment

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Methods. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students’ Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. Results. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. Conclusion. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course. PMID:25861101

  15. Ion mobility spectrometry nuisance alarm threshold analysis for illicit narcotics based on environmental background and a ROC-curve approach.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Thomas P; Najarro, Marcela

    2016-07-21

    The discriminative potential of an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for trace detection of illicit narcotics relative to environmental background was investigated with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve framework. The IMS response of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and Δ(9)-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC) was evaluated against environmental background levels derived from the screening of incoming delivery vehicles at a federal facility. Over 20 000 samples were collected over a multiyear period under two distinct sets of instrument operating conditions, a baseline mode and an increased desorption/drift tube temperature and sampling time mode. ROC curves provided a quantifiable representation of the interplay between sensitivity (true positive rate, TPR) and specificity (1 - false positive rate, FPR). A TPR of 90% and minimized FPR were targeted as the detection limits of IMS for the selected narcotics. MDMA, THC, and cocaine demonstrated single nanogram sensitivity at 90% TPR and <10% FPR, with improvements to both MDMA and cocaine in the elevated temperature/increased sampling mode. Detection limits in the tens of nanograms with poor specificity (FPR ≈ 20%) were observed for methamphetamine and heroin under baseline conditions. However, elevating the temperature reduced the background in the methamphetamine window, drastically improving its response (90% TPR and 3.8% FPR at 1 ng). On the contrary, the altered mode conditions increased the level of background for THC and heroin, partially offsetting observed enhancements to desorption. The presented framework demonstrated the significant effect environmental background distributions have on sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27206280

  16. CONSTRUCTION OF AN EARTH MODEL: ANALYSIS OF EXOPLANET LIGHT CURVES AND MAPPING THE NEXT EARTH WITH THE NEW WORLDS OBSERVER

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, P. H. H.; Cash, W.

    2009-08-01

    The orbital light curve of a terrestrial exoplanet will likely contain valuable information about the surface and atmospheric features of the planet, both in its overall shape and hourly variations. We have constructed an empirically based code capable of simulating observations of the Earth from any orientation, at any time of year with continuously updated cloud and snow coverage with a New Worlds Observatory. By simulating these observations over a full orbital revolution at a distance of 10 pc we determine that the detection of an obliquity or seasonal terrain change is possible at low inclinations. In agreement with other studies, a 4 m New Worlds Observer can accurately determine the rotation rate of the planet at a success rate from {approx}30% to 80% with only 5 days of observations depending on the signal to noise of the observations. We also attempt simple inversions of these diurnal light curves to sketch a map of the reflecting planet's surface features. This mapping technique is only successful with highly favorable systems and in particular requires that the cloud coverage must be lower than the Earth's average. Our test case of a 2 M {sub +} planet at 7 pc distance with low exo-zodiacal light and 25% cloud coverage produced crude, but successful results. Additionally, with these highly favorable systems NWO may be able to discern the presence of liquid surface water (or other smooth surfaces) though it requires a complex detection available only at crescent phases in high inclination systems.

  17. Analysis of MOST light curves of five young stars in Taurus-Auriga and Lupus 3 star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwak, Michal; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Guenther, David B.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2011-08-01

    Continuous photometric observations of five young stars obtained by the MOST satellite in 2009 and 2010 in the Taurus and Lupus star formation regions are presented. Using light-curve modelling under the assumption of internal invariability of spots, we obtained small values of the solar-type differential-rotation parameter (k = 0.0005-0.009) for three spotted weak-line T Tauri stars, V410 Tau, V987 Tau and Lupus 3-14; for another spotted weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS), Lupus 3-48, the data are consistent with a rigidly rotating surface (k = 0). Three flares of similar rise (4 min and 30 s) and decay (1 h and 45 min) times were detected in the light curve of Lupus 3-14. The brightness of the classical T Tauri star RY Tau continuously decreased over 3 weeks of its observations with a variable modulation not showing any obvious periodic signal. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute of Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

  18. Impact of recession on Swiss pension program.

    PubMed

    McArdle, F B

    1978-04-01

    Legislation drafted in Switzerland in 1975--77 aims at countering the effects of inflation and recession by bringing increased revenues into the system, reducing expenditures, devising a mechanism to adjust pensions automatically, and improving income maintenance for the unemployed. The proposed legislation to place the social security system on a sound financial basis now needs voter approval in a referendum. Swiss voters meanwhile rejected (in mid-1977) a government-proposed value-added tax designed to finance increasing government contributions during 1978-82. Still to be resolved, therefore, is the problem of how the government will finance higher contributions and still achieve its staged goal of a balanced budget. PMID:644419

  19. Intimate Partner Violence in the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship. PMID:27003136

  20. Did the Great Recession influence retirement plans?

    PubMed

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E; Davey, Adam; Martin, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    The recent recession constitutes one of the macro forces that may have influenced workers' retirement plans. We evaluate a multilevel model that addresses the influence of macro-, meso-, and micro-level factors on retirement plans, changes in these plans, and expected retirement age. Using data from Waves 8 and 9 of the Health and Retirement Study (N=2,618), we find that individuals with defined benefit plans are more prone to change toward plans to stop work before the stock market declined, whereas the opposite trend holds for those without pensions. Debts, ability to reduce work hours, and firm unionization also influenced retirement plans. Findings suggest retirement planning education may be particularly important for workers without defined pensions, especially in times of economic volatility.

  1. Detection of a knockdown resistance mutation associated with permethrin resistance in the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis by use of melting curve analysis genotyping.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Benkouiten, Samir; Badiaga, Sékéné; Bitam, Idir; Rolain, Jean Marc; Brouqui, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    Louse-borne diseases are prevalent in the homeless, and body louse eradication has thus far been unsuccessful in this population. We aim to develop a rapid and robust genotyping method usable in large field-based clinical studies to monitor permethrin resistance in the human body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. We assessed a melting curve analysis genotyping method based on real-time PCR using hybridization probes to detect the M815I-T917I-L920F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in the paraorthologous voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) α subunit gene, which is associated with permethrin resistance. The 908-bp DNA fragment of the VSSC gene, encoding the α subunit of the sodium channel and encompassing the three mutation sites, was PCR sequenced from 65 lice collected from a homeless population. We noted a high prevalence of the 3 indicated mutations in the body lice collected from homeless people (100% for the M815I and L920F mutations and 56.73% for the T917I mutation). These results were confirmed by melting curve analysis genotyping, which had a calculated sensitivity of 100% for the M815I and T917I mutations and of 98% for the L920F mutation. The specificity was 100% for M815I and L920F and 96% for T917I. Melting curve analysis genotyping is a fast, sensitive, and specific tool that is fully compatible with the analysis of a large number of samples in epidemiological surveys, allowing the simultaneous genotyping of 96 samples in just over an hour (75 min). Thus, it is perfectly suited for the epidemiological monitoring of permethrin resistance in human body lice in large-scale clinical studies. PMID:22573588

  2. Bluff formation and long-term recession rates, southwestern Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Rovey, C.W. II )

    1992-01-01

    Where eroding cohesive sediments are present, Lake Michigan bluffs range up to 140 ft. in height and expose multiple stratigraphic units. According to the model presented here, bluffs form as a wave cut terrace erodes inland from a point near the original shoreline. The erosion plane is nearly horizontal, in contrast with the eastward dip of the glacial units inherited from underlying bedrock. Therefore, terraces eroding inland (west) produce progressively higher bluffs and expose successively older units at the toe and beneath the lake. This process repeated several times as lake levels sequentially dropped to their modern stage. The initial modern shoreline, and hence the width of the wave cut terrace, was determined from 4 offshore seismic profiles. It is picked as an inflection point in the slope of the lake bed, occurring offshore of dipping reflectors intersecting the lake bottom. The calculated average recession rate over the 2,500 year duration of the modern stage is 5 ft/yr in contrast to average rates of 2 ft/yr measured over the last century. Thus rates decrease through time as the terrace widens and wave energy is damped. By correlating bluff height to amount of recession of modern bluffs, a third rate of 12 ft/yr of the first 800 years of a recession is calculated for relict bluffs formed at the Nipissing II level. The 3 rates define a steeply decaying exponential curve in early stages of bluff retreat, flattening into a nearly linear function after 1,000 years.

  3. Analysis of curved folds and fault/fold terminations in the southern Upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Giovanny; Rico, John; Bayona, German; Montes, Camilo; Rosero, Alexis; Sierra, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    We use surface and subsurface fold and fault geometries to document curved geometry of folds, along-strike termination of faults/folds and the change of dip of regional faults in four structural areas in the southern part of the Upper Magdalena Valley Basin. In La Cañada area, strike-slip deformation is dominant and cuts former compressional structures; faults and folds of this area end northward abruptly near Rio Paez. To the north of Paez River is the La Hocha area that includes the Tesalia Syncline and La Hocha Anticline, two curved folds that plunge at the same latitude. The southern domain of La Hocha Anticline is asymmetric and bounded by faults in both flanks, whereas the symmetry of the northern domain is related to subsurface fault bending. Paleomagnetic components uncovered in Jurassic rocks suggest a clockwise rotation of 15.2 ± 11.4 in the southern domain, and 31.7 ± 14.4 in the northern domain. The Iquira Area, North of La Hocha, the internal structure is controlled by east-verging faults that end abruptly to the north of this area. The northernmost area is the Upar area that includes fault systems with opposite vergence; west-verging faults at the east of this area decapitate east-verging faults and folds. Paleomagnetic data, geologic mapping and regional structural cross-sections suggest that: (1) pre-existing basement structure controls the curved geometry of La Hocha Anticline; (2) along-strike changes in structural style between adjacent areas and along-strike termination of faults and folds are related to the location of northwest-striking transverse structures in the subsurface; and (3) at least two deformation phases are documented: an Eocene-Oligocene phase associated with the growth of folds along detachment levels within Mesozoic rocks; and a late Miocene phase associated with transpressive faulting along the Chusma and San Jacinto faults. The latter event drove clockwise rotation of the La Hocha Anticline.

  4. [The decline in population growth, income distribution, and economic recession].

    PubMed

    Banguero, H

    1983-05-01

    This work uses Keynesian principles and an analysis of the Colombian population in the 1970s to argue that the Colombian policy of slowing population growth, which was adopted with the aim of improving the general welfare of the population, has had shortterm negative effects on effective demand and thus on the level of employment and welfare. These negative effects were caused by the inflexibility of income distribution, which prevented expansion of the internal market, complicated by the stagnant condition of the external sector and the budget deficit. The results of the Colombian case study demonstrate how the deceleration of population growth beginning in the 1960s had a significant impact on the levels of consumption and savings and on the patterns of consumption, leading to low levels of investment and little dynamism. Although the current Colombian economic recession is aggravated by contextual factors such as the world economic recession, the high cost of capital, the industrial recession, and declining food production among others, at the core of the crisis are longer term structural determinants such as the decline in the rate of population growth and the highly unequal distribution of income and wealth, which have contributed to a shrinking of the internal market for some types of goods. Given the unlikelihood of renewed rapid population growth, the Keynesian model suggests that the only alternative for increasing aggregate demand is state intervention through public spending and investment and reorientation of the financial system to achieve a dynamic redistribution of income. Based on these findings and on proposals of other analysts, a stragegy for revitalization is proposed which would imply a gradual income redistribution to allow increased consumption of mass produced goods by the low income groups. Direct consumption subsidies would be avoided because of their inflationary and import-expanding tendencies; rather, incentives and support would be

  5. [The decline in population growth, income distribution, and economic recession].

    PubMed

    Banguero, H

    1983-05-01

    This work uses Keynesian principles and an analysis of the Colombian population in the 1970s to argue that the Colombian policy of slowing population growth, which was adopted with the aim of improving the general welfare of the population, has had shortterm negative effects on effective demand and thus on the level of employment and welfare. These negative effects were caused by the inflexibility of income distribution, which prevented expansion of the internal market, complicated by the stagnant condition of the external sector and the budget deficit. The results of the Colombian case study demonstrate how the deceleration of population growth beginning in the 1960s had a significant impact on the levels of consumption and savings and on the patterns of consumption, leading to low levels of investment and little dynamism. Although the current Colombian economic recession is aggravated by contextual factors such as the world economic recession, the high cost of capital, the industrial recession, and declining food production among others, at the core of the crisis are longer term structural determinants such as the decline in the rate of population growth and the highly unequal distribution of income and wealth, which have contributed to a shrinking of the internal market for some types of goods. Given the unlikelihood of renewed rapid population growth, the Keynesian model suggests that the only alternative for increasing aggregate demand is state intervention through public spending and investment and reorientation of the financial system to achieve a dynamic redistribution of income. Based on these findings and on proposals of other analysts, a stragegy for revitalization is proposed which would imply a gradual income redistribution to allow increased consumption of mass produced goods by the low income groups. Direct consumption subsidies would be avoided because of their inflationary and import-expanding tendencies; rather, incentives and support would be

  6. The learning curve for robotic distal pancreatectomy: an analysis of outcomes of the first 100 consecutive cases at a high-volume pancreatic centre

    PubMed Central

    Shakir, Murtaza; Boone, Brian A; Polanco, Patricio M; Zenati, Mazen S; Hogg, Melissa E; Tsung, Allan; Choudry, Haroon A; Moser, A James; Bartlett, David L; Zeh, Herbert J; Zureikat, Amer H

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP) is performed increasingly, but knowledge of the number of cases required to attain procedural proficiency is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify the learning curve associated with RDP at a high-volume pancreatic centre. Methods Metrics of perioperative safety and efficiency for all consecutive RDPs were evaluated. Outcomes were followed to 90 days. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis was used to identify inflexion points corresponding to the learning curve. Results Between 2008 and 2013, 100 patients underwent RDP. There was no 90-day mortality. In two patients (2.0%), surgery was converted to laparotomy. Thirty procedures were performed for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Precipitous operative time reductions from an initial operative time of 331 min were observed after the first 20 and 40 cases to 266 min and 210 min, respectively (P < 0.0001). The likelihood of readmission was significantly lower after the first 40 cases (P = 0.04), and non-significant reductions were observed in incidences of major (Clavien–Dindo Grade II or higher) morbidity and Grade B and C leaks, and length of stay. Conclusions In this experience, RDP outcomes were optimized after 40 cases. Familiarity with the platform and dedicated training are likely to contribute to significantly shorter learning curves in future adopters. PMID:25906690

  7. Refined hierarchical kinematics quasi-3D Ritz models for free vibration analysis of doubly curved FGM shells and sandwich shells with FGM core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzolari, Fiorenzo A.; Carrera, Erasmo

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the Ritz minimum energy method, based on the use of the Principle of Virtual Displacements (PVD), is combined with refined Equivalent Single Layer (ESL) and Zig Zag (ZZ) shell models hierarchically generated by exploiting the use of Carrera's Unified Formulation (CUF), in order to engender the Hierarchical Trigonometric Ritz Formulation (HTRF). The HTRF is then employed to carry out the free vibration analysis of doubly curved shallow and deep functionally graded material (FGM) shells. The PVD is further used in conjunction with the Gauss theorem to derive the governing differential equations and related natural boundary conditions. Donnell-Mushtari's shallow shell-type equations are given as a particular case. Doubly curved FGM shells and doubly curved sandwich shells made up of isotropic face sheets and FGM core are investigated. The proposed shell models are widely assessed by comparison with the literature results. Two benchmarks are provided and the effects of significant parameters such as stacking sequence, boundary conditions, length-to-thickness ratio, radius-to-length ratio and volume fraction index on the circular frequency parameters and modal displacements are discussed.

  8. Numerical analysis for MHD peristaltic transport of Carreau-Yasuda fluid in a curved channel with Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, F. M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2015-05-01

    Impact of applied magnetic field on the peristaltic transport of Carreau-Yasuda fluid in a curved conduit is analyzed in this article. Hall effects are also taken into consideration. Lubrication approach is utilized in problem formulation. Resulting nonlinear system is solved numerically. Results for axial velocity, pressure gradient, pressure rise per wavelength and stream function are obtained and studied graphically. Results revealed that for small values of curvature parameter the fluid velocity is not symmetric about the centerline. Also increase in the value of Hall parameter balances the magnetic influence of applied magnetic field by some extent. Further, the Carreau-Yasuda fluid possesses large size of trapped bolus when compared with the Newtonian fluid.

  9. Gender and Facebook motives as predictors of specific types of Facebook use: A latent growth curve analysis in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Despite increasing evidence that specific types of Facebook use (i.e., active private, active public, and passive Facebook use) are differently related to adolescents' well-being, little is known how these types function over the course of adolescence and whether gender and Facebook motives may predict the initial level and changes in these types over time. To address these gaps, Flemish adolescents (ages 12-19) were questioned at three different time points, with six months in between (NTime1 = 1866). Latent growth curve models revealed that active private Facebook use increased over the course of adolescence, whereas public Facebook use decreased. Passive Facebook use, however, remained stable. In addition, gender and Facebook motives were related to initial levels of specific types of Facebook use, and predictive of dynamic change in specific types of Facebook use over time. The discussion focuses on the understanding and implications of these findings. PMID:27585534

  10. Gender and Facebook motives as predictors of specific types of Facebook use: A latent growth curve analysis in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Despite increasing evidence that specific types of Facebook use (i.e., active private, active public, and passive Facebook use) are differently related to adolescents' well-being, little is known how these types function over the course of adolescence and whether gender and Facebook motives may predict the initial level and changes in these types over time. To address these gaps, Flemish adolescents (ages 12-19) were questioned at three different time points, with six months in between (NTime1 = 1866). Latent growth curve models revealed that active private Facebook use increased over the course of adolescence, whereas public Facebook use decreased. Passive Facebook use, however, remained stable. In addition, gender and Facebook motives were related to initial levels of specific types of Facebook use, and predictive of dynamic change in specific types of Facebook use over time. The discussion focuses on the understanding and implications of these findings.

  11. The effect of physical activity on depression in adolescence and emerging adulthood: a growth-curve analysis.

    PubMed

    McPhie, Meghan L; Rawana, Jennine S

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the influence of physical activity on the trajectory of depression from adolescence through emerging adulthood (EA). Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I to IV), latent growth curve modeling was performed to assess how physical activity and gender influenced depression across adolescence and EA. Higher levels of physical activity in mid-adolescence were associated with lower levels of depression during mid-adolescence and slower inclines and declines in depression over time. Boys had lower levels of depression in mid-adolescence and slower inclines and declines in depression over time compared to girls. Findings provide evidence that current theories on understanding depression and mental health prevention programs may be enhanced by the inclusion of physical activity.

  12. Mutations induced in Tradescantia by small doses of X-rays and neutrons - Analysis of dose-response curves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, A. H.; Underbrink, A. G.; Rossi, H. H.

    1972-01-01

    Dose-response curves for pink somatic mutations in Tradescantia stamen hairs were analyzed after neutron and X-ray irradiation with doses ranging from a fraction of a rad to the region of saturation. The dose-effect relation for neutrons indicates a linear dependence from 0.01 to 8 rads; between 0.25 and 5 rads, a linear dependence is indicated for X-rays also. As a consequence the relative biological effectiveness reaches a constant value (about 50) at low doses. The observations are in good agreement with the predictions of the theory of dual radiation action and support its interpretation of the effects of radiation on higher organisms. The doubling dose of X-rays was found to be nearly 1 rad.

  13. Parents' Victory in Reclaiming Recess for Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Eva; Bilello, Teresa Evanko

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of schools limiting the opportunities for children's physical, cognitive, social-emotional, and creative development that recess affords. Red Rover, hopscotch, jump rope, chase, telling secrets, hanging out, making friends, losing friends--these familiar pursuits of childhood recess are vividly memorable. While…

  14. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  15. The Impact of the Recession on College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg-Cross, Linda; Green, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This article had three goals: (a) to provide a brief economic review of the relationship between recessionary times, institutional reactions, and the life trajectory of recession-era college students; (b) to discuss the recession-related psychosocial stressors facing today's college students; and (c) to discuss how counseling centers can help…

  16. Withholding Recess from Elementary School Students: Policies Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recess is a key aspect of a healthy elementary school environment and helps to keep students physically active during the school day. Although national organizations recommend that students not be withheld from recess, this practice occurs in schools. This study examined whether district policies were associated with school practices…

  17. Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David Newman

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of recess can be reaped by all students regardless of socioeconomic status, race, or gender and at relatively little cost. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) variables related to the recess PA patterns of third and fourth grade children and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA…

  18. The Fourth R: Recess and Its Link to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite-Stupiansky, Sandra; Findlay, Marcia

    2001-01-01

    Review of research on recess shows how its presence or absence affects children's brain development, health and physical development, attention, memory, social and emotional adjustment, language development, and classroom behavior. Despite demonstrated benefits, recess is endangered by pressures on schools to increase achievement. (Contains 52…

  19. Quantitative analysis of essential oils in perfume using multivariate curve resolution combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Luiz Antonio Fonseca; Hantao, Leandro Wang; Pedroso, Marcio Pozzobon; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Augusto, Fabio

    2011-08-01

    The use of multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to build multivariate quantitative models using data obtained from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC×GC-FID) is presented and evaluated. The MCR algorithm presents some important features, such as second order advantage and the recovery of the instrumental response for each pure component after optimization by an alternating least squares (ALS) procedure. A model to quantify the essential oil of rosemary was built using a calibration set containing only known concentrations of the essential oil and cereal alcohol as solvent. A calibration curve correlating the concentration of the essential oil of rosemary and the instrumental response obtained from the MCR-ALS algorithm was obtained, and this calibration model was applied to predict the concentration of the oil in complex samples (mixtures of the essential oil, pineapple essence and commercial perfume). The values of the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and of the root mean square error of the percentage deviation (RMSPD) obtained were 0.4% (v/v) and 7.2%, respectively. Additionally, a second model was built and used to evaluate the accuracy of the method. A model to quantify the essential oil of lemon grass was built and its concentration was predicted in the validation set and real perfume samples. The RMSEP and RMSPD obtained were 0.5% (v/v) and 6.9%, respectively, and the concentration of the essential oil of lemon grass in perfume agreed to the value informed by the manufacturer. The result indicates that the MCR algorithm is adequate to resolve the target chromatogram from the complex sample and to build multivariate models of GC×GC-FID data.

  20. Composite curved frames for helicopter fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analysis and testing of composite curved frames. A major frame was selected from the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter and designed as a composite structure. The curved beam effects were expected to increase flange axial stresses and induce transverse bending. A NASTRAN finite element analysis was conducted and the results were used in the design of composite curved frame specimens. Three specimens were fabricated and five static tests were conducted. The NASTRAN analysis and test results are compared for axial, transverse, and Web strains. Results show the curved beam effects are closely predicted by a NASTRAN analysis and the effects increase with loading on the composite frames.

  1. "United Pedicle Flap" for management of multiple gingival recessions.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Aditi; Sivaraman, Karthik; Bhat, Subraya Giliyar

    2016-01-01

    Numerous surgical procedures have evolved and are being modified with time to treat gingival recession by manipulating gingival or mucosal tissues in various ways. However, the decision to choose the most appropriate technique for a given recession site still remains a challenging task for clinicians. Mucogingival deformities such as shallow vestibule, frenal pull, or inadequate attached gingiva complicate the decision and limit the treatment options to an invasive procedure involving soft tissue grafts. The situation is further comprised if there is a nonavailability of adequate donor tissue and patients' unwillingness for procedures involving a second surgical site. In such situations, the recession either remains untreated or has poor treatment outcomes. This case report presents a modified pedicle graft technique for treatment of multiple gingival recessions with shallow vestibule and inadequate attached gingiva. The technique is a promising therapeutic alternative to invasive surgical procedures such as soft tissue grafts for treatment of multiple gingival recessions. PMID:27563212

  2. Quantitative detection and differentiation of free-living amoeba species using SYBR green-based real-time PCR melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Behets, Jonas; Declerck, Priscilla; Delaedt, Yasmine; Verelst, Lieve; Ollevier, Frans

    2006-12-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction melting curve analysis (MCA) allows differentiation of several free-living amoebae species. Distinctive characteristics were found for Naegleria fowleri, N. lovaniensis, N. australiensis, N. gruberi, Hartmanella vermiformis, and Willaertia magna. Species specificity of the amplicons was confirmed using agarose gel electrophoresis and sequence-based approaches. Amplification efficiency ranged from 91% to 98%, indicating the quantitative potential of the assay. This MCA approach can be used for quantitative detection of free-living amoebae after cultivation but also as a culture-independent detection method.

  3. An exome sequencing strategy to diagnose lethal autosomal recessive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ellard, Sian; Kivuva, Emma; Turnpenny, Peter; Stals, Karen; Johnson, Matthew; Xie, Weijia; Caswell, Richard; Lango Allen, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Rare disorders resulting in prenatal or neonatal death are genetically heterogeneous. For some conditions, affected fetuses can be diagnosed by ultrasound scan, but this is not usually possible until mid-gestation. There is often limited fetal DNA available for investigation. We investigated a strategy for diagnosing autosomal recessive lethal disorders in non-consanguineous pedigrees with multiple affected fetuses. Exome sequencing was performed to identify genes where each parent is heterozygous for a rare non-synonymous-coding or splicing variant. Putative pathogenic variants were tested for cosegregation in affected fetuses and unaffected siblings. In eight couples of European ancestry, we found on average 1.75 genes (range 0-4) where both parents were heterozygous for rare potentially deleterious variants. A proof-of-principle study detected heterozygous DYNC2H1 variants in a couple whose five fetuses had short-rib polydactyly. Prospective analysis of two couples with multiple pregnancy terminations for fetal akinesia syndrome was performed and a diagnosis was obtained in both the families. The first couple were each heterozygous for a previously reported GLE1 variant, p.Arg569His or p.Val617Met; both were inherited by their two affected fetuses. The second couple were each heterozygous for a novel RYR1 variant, c.14130-2A>G or p.Ser3074Phe; both were inherited by their three affected fetuses but not by their unaffected child. Biallelic GLE1 and RYR1 disease-causing variants have been described in other cases with fetal akinesia syndrome. We conclude that exome sequencing of parental samples can be an effective tool for diagnosing lethal recessive disorders in outbred couples. This permits early prenatal diagnosis in future pregnancies.

  4. An exome sequencing strategy to diagnose lethal autosomal recessive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ellard, Sian; Kivuva, Emma; Turnpenny, Peter; Stals, Karen; Johnson, Matthew; Xie, Weijia; Caswell, Richard; Lango Allen, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Rare disorders resulting in prenatal or neonatal death are genetically heterogeneous. For some conditions, affected fetuses can be diagnosed by ultrasound scan, but this is not usually possible until mid-gestation. There is often limited fetal DNA available for investigation. We investigated a strategy for diagnosing autosomal recessive lethal disorders in non-consanguineous pedigrees with multiple affected fetuses. Exome sequencing was performed to identify genes where each parent is heterozygous for a rare non-synonymous-coding or splicing variant. Putative pathogenic variants were tested for cosegregation in affected fetuses and unaffected siblings. In eight couples of European ancestry, we found on average 1.75 genes (range 0–4) where both parents were heterozygous for rare potentially deleterious variants. A proof-of-principle study detected heterozygous DYNC2H1 variants in a couple whose five fetuses had short-rib polydactyly. Prospective analysis of two couples with multiple pregnancy terminations for fetal akinesia syndrome was performed and a diagnosis was obtained in both the families. The first couple were each heterozygous for a previously reported GLE1 variant, p.Arg569His or p.Val617Met; both were inherited by their two affected fetuses. The second couple were each heterozygous for a novel RYR1 variant, c.14130-2A>G or p.Ser3074Phe; both were inherited by their three affected fetuses but not by their unaffected child. Biallelic GLE1 and RYR1 disease-causing variants have been described in other cases with fetal akinesia syndrome. We conclude that exome sequencing of parental samples can be an effective tool for diagnosing lethal recessive disorders in outbred couples. This permits early prenatal diagnosis in future pregnancies. PMID:24961629

  5. Development of skin conductance orienting, habituation, and reorienting from ages 3 to 8 years: a longitudinal latent growth curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Dawson, Michael E; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about the development of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in childhood. This longitudinal study examines the effects of age on initial SCOR, habituation, and reorienting. Skin conductance responses to nonsignal auditory stimuli were recorded from 200 male and female children at five different time points (ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years). Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to determine the trajectory of each SCOR measure during this period. Results indicated that (a) initial SCOR is present at age 3, increases thereafter to peak at age 6, and then levels off, (b) habituation is absent at age 3, but becomes apparent at age 4 years and increases thereafter with increasing age, (c) SC reorienting is absent from ages 3 to 8, and (d) boys and girls do not exhibit different developmental trajectories. Results suggest that from age 3 to 8 years, the transition from the functionally immature to mature neural network underlying orienting and habituation is a continuous process and may be related to children's cognitive development during this period.

  6. Design, analysis, and fabrication of a pressure box test fixture for tension damage tolerance testing of curved fuselage panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.; Bodine, J. B.; Preuss, C. H.; Koch, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    A pressure box test fixture was designed and fabricated to evaluate the effects of internal pressure, biaxial tension loads, curvature, and damage on the fracture response of composite fuselage structure. Previous work in composite fuselage tension damage tolerance, performed during NASA contract NAS1-17740, evaluated the above effects on unstiffened panels only. This work extends the tension damage tolerance testing to curved stiffened fuselage crown structure that contains longitudinal stringers and circumferential frame elements. The pressure box fixture was designed to apply internal pressure up to 20 psi, and axial tension loads up to 5000 lb/in, either separately or simultaneously. A NASTRAN finite element model of the pressure box fixture and composite stiffened panel was used to help design the test fixture, and was compared to a finite element model of a full composite stiffened fuselage shell. This was done to ensure that the test panel was loaded in a similar way to a panel in the full fuselage shell, and that the fixture and its attachment plates did not adversely affect the panel.

  7. Analysis of first order reversal curves in the thermal hysteresis of spin-crossover nanoparticles within the mechanoelastic model

    SciTech Connect

    Stoleriu, Laurentiu E-mail: cristian.enachescu@uaic.ro; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian E-mail: cristian.enachescu@uaic.ro; Chakraborty, Pradip; Hauser, Andreas

    2015-05-07

    The recently obtained spin-crossover nanoparticles are possible candidates for applications in the recording media industry as materials for data storage, or as pressure and temperature sensors. For these applications, the intermolecular interactions and interactions between spin-crossover nanoparticles are extremely important, as they may be essential factors in triggering the transition between the two stable phases: the high-spin and low-spin ones. In order to find correlations between the distributions in size and interactions and the transition temperatures distribution, we apply the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method, using simulations based on a mechanoelastic model applied to 2D triangular lattices composed of molecules linked by springs and embedded in a surfactant. We consider two Gaussian distributions: one is the size of the nanoparticles and another is the elastic interactions between edge spin-crossover molecules and the surfactant molecules. In order to disentangle the kinetic and non-kinetic parts of the FORC distributions, we compare the results obtained for different temperature sweeping rates. We also show that the presence of few larger particles in a distribution centered around much smaller particles dramatically increases the hysteresis width.

  8. Robust Spatial Approximation of Laser Scanner Point Clouds by Means of Free-form Curve Approaches in Deformation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureick, Johannes; Alkhatib, Hamza; Neumann, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    In many geodetic engineering applications it is necessary to solve the problem of describing a measured data point cloud, measured, e. g. by laser scanner, by means of free-form curves or surfaces, e. g., with B-Splines as basis functions. The state of the art approaches to determine B-Splines yields results which are seriously manipulated by the occurrence of data gaps and outliers. Optimal and robust B-Spline fitting depend, however, on optimal selection of the knot vector. Hence we combine in our approach Monte-Carlo methods and the location and curvature of the measured data in order to determine the knot vector of the B-Spline in such a way that no oscillating effects at the edges of data gaps occur. We introduce an optimized approach based on computed weights by means of resampling techniques. In order to minimize the effect of outliers, we apply robust M-estimators for the estimation of control points. The above mentioned approach will be applied to a multi-sensor system based on kinematic terrestrial laserscanning in the field of rail track inspection.

  9. A master curve analysis of F82H using statistical and constraint loss size adjustments of small specimen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odette, G. R.; Yamamoto, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Sokolov, M.; Spätig, P.; Yang, W. J.; Rensman, J.-W.; Lucas, G. E.

    2004-08-01

    We assembled a fracture toughness database for the IEA heat of F82H based on a variety of specimen sizes with a nominal ASTM E1921 master curve (MC) reference temperature T0=-119±3 °C. However, the data are not well represented by a MC. T0 decreases systematically with a decreasing deformation limit Mlim starting at ≈200, which is much higher than the E1921 censoring limit of 30, indicating large constraint loss in small specimens. The small scale yielding T0 at high Mlim is ≈98±5 °C. While, the scatter was somewhat larger than predicted, after model-based adjustments for the effects of constraint loss, the data are in reasonably good agreement with a MC with T0=-98 °C. This supports to use of MC methods to characterize irradiation embrittlement, as long as both constraint loss and statistical size effects are properly accounted for. Finally, we note various issues, including sources of the possible excess scatter, which remain to be fully assessed.

  10. Growth Curve Models for the Analysis of Phenotype Arrays for a Systems Biology Overview of Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, I K; Holtz-Morris, A E; McCutchen-Maloney, S L

    2005-09-08

    The Phenotype MicroArray technology of Biolog, Inc. (Hayward, CA) measures the respiration of cells as a function of time in thousands of microwells simultaneously, and thus provides a high-throughput means of studying cellular phenotypes. The microwells contain compounds involved in a number of biochemical pathways, as well as chemicals that test the sensitivity of cells against antibiotics and stress. While the PM experimental workflow is completely automated, statistical methods to analyze and interpret the data are lagging behind. To take full advantage of the technology, it is essential to develop efficient analytical methods to quantify the information in the complex datasets resulting from PM experiments. We propose the use of statistical growth-curve models to rigorously quantify observed differences in PM experiments, in the context of the growth and metabolism of Yersinia pestis cells grown under different physiological conditions. The information from PM experiments complement genomic and proteomic results and can be used to identify gene function and in drug development. Successful coupling of phenomics results with genomics and proteomics will lead to an unprecedented ability to characterize bacterial function at a systems biology level.

  11. Factors influencing the recession rate of Niagara Falls since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2009-09-01

    The rate of recession of Niagara Falls (Horseshoe and American Falls) in northeastern North America has been documented since the 19th century; it shows a decreasing trend from ca. 1 m y - 1 a century ago to ca. 0.1 m y - 1 at present. Reduction of the flow volume in the Niagara River due to diversion into bypassing hydroelectric schemes has often been taken to be the factor responsible, but other factors such as changes in the waterfall shape could play a role and call for a quantitative study. Here, we examine the effect of physical factors on the historically varying recession rates of Niagara Falls, using an empirical equation which has previously been proposed based on a non-dimensional multiparametric model which incorporates flow volume, waterfall shape and bedrock strength. The changes in recession rates of Niagara Falls in the last century are successfully modeled by this empirical equation; these changes are caused by variations in flow volume and lip length. This result supports the validity of the empirical equation for waterfalls in rivers carrying little transported sediment. Our analysis also suggests that the decrease in the recession rate of Horseshoe Falls is related to both artificial reduction in river discharge and natural increase in waterfall lip length, whereas that of American Falls is solely due to the reduction in flow volume.

  12. Snap-through and pull-in analysis of an electro-dynamically actuated curved micro-beam using a nonlinear beam model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y. J.; Yang, J.; Kitipornchai, S.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a geometrically nonlinear micro-beam model for the electro-dynamic analysis of an initially curved micro-beam under an applied voltage, with an emphasis on its snap-through and pull-in behaviors. The governing equations of motion and the associated boundary conditions are derived in an arc coordinate system without involving any assumptions on the nonlinear deformation. Differential quadrature method (DQM) and Petzold-Gear Backward Differentiation Formulas (BDF) are employed to solve the governing equations in the space and time domains respectively to obtain the nonlinear fundamental frequency, snap-through voltage, pull-in voltage and the corresponding mode shapes of a micro-beam clamped at both ends. The present analysis is validated through a direct comparison with the published experimental and numerical results. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the influences of the initial gap, base length, arc rise, and initial curved configuration on the snap-through and pull-in behaviors of the micro-beam.

  13. A Six-Node Curved Triangular Element and a Four-Node Quadrilateral Element for Analysis of Laminated Composite Aerospace Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. Wayne; Breiner, David M.; Gupta, Kajal K. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical development and some computed results are presented for Mindlin plate and shell elements, suitable for analysis of laminated composite and sandwich structures. These elements use the conventional 3 (plate) or 5 (shell) nodal degrees of freedom, have no communicable mechanisms, have no spurious shear energy (no shear locking), have no spurious membrane energy (no membrane locking) and do not require arbitrary reduction of out-of-plane shear moduli or under-integration. Artificial out-of-plane rotational stiffnesses are added at the element level to avoid convergence problems or singularity due to flat spots in shells. This report discusses a 6-node curved triangular element and a 4-node quadrilateral element. Findings show that in regular rectangular meshes, the Martin-Breiner 6-node triangular curved shell (MB6) is approximately equivalent to the conventional 8-node quadrilateral with integration. The 4-node quadrilateral (MB4) has very good accuracy for a 4-node element, and may be preferred in vibration analysis because of narrower bandwidth. The mathematical developments used in these elements, those discussed in the seven appendices, have been applied to elements with 3, 4, 6, and 10 nodes and can be applied to other nodal configurations.

  14. Detection and discrimination of members of the family Luteoviridae by real-time PCR and SYBR® GreenER™ melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Chomic, Anastasija; Winder, Louise; Armstrong, Karen F; Pearson, Michael N; Hampton, John G

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the suitability of a two step real-time RT-PCR melting curve analysis as a tool for the detection and discrimination of nine species in the plant virus family Luteoviridae, being Soybean dwarf virus [SbDV], Bean leafroll virus [BLRV], Beet chlorosis virus [BChV], Beet mild yellowing virus [BMYV], Beet western yellows virus [BWYV], Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV [CYDV-RPV], Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus [CABYV], Potato leafroll virus [PLRV] and Turnip yellows virus [TuYV]. Melting temperature and shape of the melting peak were analysed for 68 bp and 148 bp coat protein gene amplicons using SYBR® GreenER™ fluorescent dye. Specific melting peaks with unique melting temperature were observed for the various species of the family Luteoviridae using the 68 bp amplicon, but not with the 148 bp amplicon. Due to the high variability of sequences for some members of this family, different melting temperatures were also observed between different isolates of the species CYDV-RPV and TuYV. Nevertheless, discrimination between species was achieved for SbDV, BLRV, BChV, BMYV, CABYV and either PLRV or BWYV. Melting curve analysis, in this study, is a faster and more discriminatory alternative to gel electrophoresis of end-point PCR products for the detection of Luteoviridae infection. PMID:20933015

  15. Urbanization and the global malaria recession

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The past century has seen a significant contraction in the global extent of malaria transmission, resulting in over 50 countries being declared malaria free, and many regions of currently endemic countries eliminating the disease. Moreover, substantial reductions in transmission have been seen since 1900 in those areas that remain endemic today. Recent work showed that this malaria recession was unlikely to have been driven by climatic factors, and that control measures likely played a significant role. It has long been considered, however, that economic development, and particularly urbanization, has also been a causal factor. The urbanization process results in profound socio-economic and landscape changes that reduce malaria transmission, but the magnitude and extent of these effects on global endemicity reductions are poorly understood. Methods Global data at subnational spatial resolution on changes in malaria transmission intensity and urbanization trends over the past century were combined to examine the relationships seen over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Results/Conclusions A consistent pattern of increased urbanization coincident with decreasing malaria transmission and elimination over the past century was found. Whilst it remains challenging to untangle whether this increased urbanization resulted in decreased transmission, or that malaria reductions promoted development, the results point to a close relationship between the two, irrespective of national wealth. The continuing rapid urbanization in malaria-endemic regions suggests that such malaria declines are likely to continue, particularly catalyzed by increasing levels of direct malaria control. PMID:23594701

  16. Generating Resources Supply Curves.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Power Resources Planning.

    1985-07-01

    This report documents Pacific Northwest supply curve information for both renewable and other generating resources. Resources are characterized as ''Renewable'' and ''Other'' as defined in section 3 or the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act. The following resources are described: renewable: (cogeneration; geothermal; hydroelectric (new); hydroelectric (efficiency improvement); solar; and wind); other (nonrenewable generation resources: coal; combustion turbines; and nuclear. Each resource has the following information documented in tabular format: (1) Technical Characteristics; (2) Costs (capital and O and M); (3) Energy Distribution by Month; and (4) Supply Forecast (energy). Combustion turbine (CT) energy supply is not forecasted because of CT's typical peaking application. Their supply is therefore unconstrained in order to facilitate analysis of their operation in the regional electrical supply system. The generic nuclear resource is considered unavailable to the region over the planning horizon.

  17. Recessions, Job Loss, and Mortality Among Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beckfield, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed how recessions and job loss jointly shape mortality risks among older US adults. Methods. We used data for 50 states from the Health and Retirement Study and selected individuals who were employed at ages 45 to 66 years during 1992 to 2011. We assessed whether job loss affects mortality risks, whether recessions moderate the effect of job loss on mortality, and whether individuals who do and do not experience job loss are differentially affected by recessions. Results. Compared with individuals not experiencing job loss, mortality risks among individuals losing their job in a recession were strongly elevated (hazard ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 2.3). Job loss during normal times or booms is not associated with mortality. For employed workers, we found a reduction in mortality risks if local labor market conditions were depressed, but this result was not consistent across different model specifications. Conclusions. Recessions increase mortality risks among older US adults who experience job loss. Health professionals and policymakers should target resources to this group during recessions. Future research should clarify which health conditions are affected by job loss during recessions and whether access to health care following job loss moderates this relation. PMID:25211731

  18. Latent Growth-Curve Analysis Reveals That Worsening Parkinson’s Disease Quality of Life Is Driven by Depression

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jacob D.; Marsiske, Michael; Okun, Michael S.; Bowers, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting in a wide variety of symptoms. The current study examined the influence of apathy, depression and motor symptoms on quality of life (QoL) in PD patients. Information was drawn from an 18-month period. Method Participants (N = 397) were assessed for apathy (Apathy Scale; Starkstein et al., 1992), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II; Beck, Steer, Ball & Ranieri, 1996), motor severity (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Part III; UPDRS; Fahn, Elton & Committee, 1987), and QoL (Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39; Jenkinson, Fitzpatrick, Peto, Greenhall, & Hyman,1997) at 3 time points: an initial clinical evaluation (baseline), a 6-month follow-up, and an 18-month follow-up. Latent growth-curve models were used to determine the influence of apathy, depression, and motor symptoms on QoL trajectories. Results Greater difficulties with QoL at baseline showed the strongest relationship to more severe depression symptoms, followed by more severe motor symptoms, younger age, and less education (all p values < .001). Worsening of QoL over the 18-month period was only predicted by a worsening of depression (p = .003). The relationship between QoL and depression symptoms remained significant in a subsample of nondepressed PD patients. Conclusion Overall, findings from the current study suggest that self-reported QoL among PD patients is primarily related to depression. Future efforts to improving clinical care of PD patients may benefit by focusing on improving psychosocial adjustment or treatments targeting depression. PMID:25365564

  19. Quantitative analysis of the hydration of lithium salts in water using multivariate curve resolution of near-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Barba, M Isabel; Larrechi, M Soledad; Coronas, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The hydration process of lithium iodide, lithium bromide, lithium chloride and lithium nitrate in water was analyzed quantitatively by applying multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to their near infrared spectra recorded between 850 nm and 1100 nm. The experiments were carried out using solutions with a salt mass fraction between 0% and 72% for lithium bromide, between 0% and 67% for lithium nitrate and between 0% and 62% for lithium chloride and lithium iodide at 323.15 K, 333.15 K, 343.15 K and 353.15 K, respectively. Three factors were determined for lithium bromide and lithium iodide and two factors for the lithium chloride and lithium nitrate by singular value decomposition (SVD) of their spectral data matrices. These factors are associated with various chemical environments in which there are aqueous clusters containing the ions of the salts and non-coordinated water molecules. Spectra and concentration profiles of non-coordinated water and cluster aqueous were retrieved by MCR-ALS. The amount of water involved in the process of hydration of the various salts was quantified. The results show that the water absorption capacity increases in the following order LiI < LiBr < LiNO3 < LiCl. The salt concentration at which there is no free water in the medium was calculated at each one of the temperatures considered. The values ranged between 62.6 and 65.1% for LiBr, 45.5-48.3% for LiCl, 60.4-61.2% for LiI and 60.3-63.7% for LiNO3. These values are an initial approach to determining the concentration as from which crystal formation is favored. PMID:27086095

  20. Genotyping of velvet antlers for identification of country of origin using mitochondrial DNA and fluorescence melting curve analysis with locked nucleic acid probes.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong Jin; Kim, Youngjoo; Hong, Ji Young; Kim, Gi Won; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2016-07-01

    Velvet antlers are used medicinally in Asia and possess various therapeutic effects. Prices are set according to the country of origin, which is unidentifiable to the naked eye, and therefore counterfeiting is prevalent. Additionally, antlers of the Canadian elk, which can generate chronic wasting disease, are prevalently smuggled and distributed in the market. Thus, a method for identifying the country of origin of velvet antlers was developed, using polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA, fluorescence melting curve analysis and analysis of locked nucleic acids (LNA). This combined method is capable of identifying five genotypes of velvet antlers in a single experiment using two probes. It also has advantages in multiplexing, simplicity and efficiency in genotyping, when compared to real-time PCR or microarrays. The developed method can be used to improve identification rates in the velvet antler market and, by extension, research based on polymorphisms in DNA sequences.